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Sample records for energy starrvoluntary labeling

  1. 2003 status report savings estimates for the energy star(R)voluntary labeling program

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; McWhinney, Marla

    2004-11-09

    ENERGY STAR(R) is a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subset of ENERGY STAR program activities, focused primarily on labeled products. We present estimates of the energy, dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2002, what we expect in 2003, and provide savings forecasts for two market penetration scenarios for the period 2003 to 2020. The target market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumption of 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period.

  2. 2005 Status Report Savings Estimates for the ENERGY STAR(R)Voluntary Labeling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Sanchez, Marla

    2006-03-07

    ENERGY STAR(R) is a voluntary labeling program designed toidentify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices.Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and theU.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Star labels exist for more thanforty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating andcooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics,and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subsetof ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of the energy,dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2004, whatwe expect in 2005, and provide savings forecasts for two marketpenetration scenarios for the periods 2005 to 2010 and 2005 to 2020. Thetarget market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of futureENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goalsfor each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumptionof 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasersbuy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiencyproducts throughout the analysis period.

  3. 2006 Status Report Savings Estimates for the ENERGY STAR(R)Voluntary Labeling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Sanchez, Marla; Homan,Gregory K.

    2006-03-07

    ENERGY STAR(R) is a voluntary labeling program designed toidentify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices.Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and theU.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more thanthirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating andcooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics,and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subsetof ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of the energy,dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2005, whatwe expect in 2006, and provide savings forecasts for two marketpenetration scenarios for the periods 2006 to 2015 and 2006 to 2025. Thetarget market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of futureENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goalsfor each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumptionof 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasersbuy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiencyproducts throughout the analysis period.

  4. 78 FR 2200 - Energy Labeling Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... CFR Part 305 RIN 3084-AB15 Energy Labeling Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission (FTC or Commission..., clarifying testing requirements and enforcement provisions, improving online energy label disclosures, and.... Appliance Labeling Rule The Commission issued the Appliance Labeling Rule pursuant to the Energy Policy...

  5. 78 FR 8362 - Energy Labeling Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... CFR Part 305 RIN 3084-AB15] Energy Labeling Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission (FTC or Commission... conditioner meets applicable Department of Energy regional efficiency standards. DATES: The amendments.... Background The Commission's Energy Labeling Rule (``Rule'') (16 CFR Part 305), issued pursuant to the...

  6. 78 FR 18272 - Energy Labeling Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... CFR Part 305 Energy Labeling Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission (``FTC'' or ``Commission''). ACTION... in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section below. Write ``Energy Label Ranges, Matter No. R611004'' on... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) until April 1, 2013. In the NPRM, the Commission proposed to amend the...

  7. 78 FR 54566 - Energy Labeling Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 305 RIN 3084-AB03 Energy Labeling Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Trade Commission published a final rule on July 23, 2013 revising its...

  8. Probes labelled with energy transfer coupled dyes

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, R.A.; Glazer, A.; Ju, J.

    1997-11-18

    Compositions are provided comprising sets of fluorescent labels carrying pairs of donor and acceptor dye molecules, designed for efficient excitation of the donors at a single wavelength and emission from the acceptor in each of the pairs at different wavelengths. The different molecules having different donor-acceptor pairs can be modified to have substantially the same mobility under separation conditions, by varying the distance between the donor and acceptor in a given pair. Particularly, the fluorescent compositions find use as labels in sequencing nucleic acids. 7 figs.

  9. Probes labelled with energy transfer coupled dyes

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A.; Glazer, Alexander; Ju, Jingyue

    1997-01-01

    Compositions are provided comprising sets of fluorescent labels carrying pairs of donor and acceptor dye molecules, designed for efficient excitation of the donors at a single wavelength and emission from the acceptor in each of the pairs at different wavelengths. The different molecules having different donor-acceptor pairs can be modified to have substantially the same mobility under separation conditions, by varying the distance between the donor and acceptor in a given pair. Particularly, the fluorescent compositions find use as labels in sequencing nucleic acids.

  10. Calendar Year 2008 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, GregoryK; Sanchez, Marla; Brown, RichardE; Lai, Judy

    2010-08-24

    This paper presents current and projected savings for ENERGY STAR labeled products, and details the status of the model as implemented in the September 2009 spreadsheets. ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency labeling program operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products, and currently labels more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, heating, cooling and ventilation equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with stakeholders. This report presents savings estimates for ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of energy, dollar, and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2008, annual forecasts for 2009 and 2010, and cumulative savings estimates for the period 1993 through 2008 and cumulative forecasts for the period 2009 through 2015. Through 2008 the program saved 8.8 Quads of primary energy and avoided the equivalent of 158 metric tones carbon (MtC). The forecast for the period 2009-2015 is 18.1 Quads or primary energy saved and 316 MtC emissions avoided. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 104 MtC and 213 MtC (1993 to 2008) and between 206 MtC and 444 MtC (2009 to 2015). In this report we address the following questions for ENERGY STAR labeled products: (1) How are ENERGY STAR impacts quantified; (2) What are the ENERGY STAR achievements; and (3) What are the limitations to our method?

  11. Energy efficiency: Building labels lead to savings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Margaret

    2017-03-01

    Various programmes have been introduced to increase energy efficiency in buildings. A study of commercial buildings in Los Angeles, USA, now finds that voluntary certification programmes have been effective at lowering energy use, bringing savings of up to 30%.

  12. Calendar Year 2009 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, Gregory K; Sanchez, Marla C.; Brown, Richard E.

    2010-11-15

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency labeling program operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products, and currently labels more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, heating, cooling and ventilation equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with stakeholders. This report presents savings estimates from the use ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of energy, dollar, and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2009, annual forecasts for 2010 and 2011, and cumulative savings estimates for the period 1993 through 2009 and cumulative forecasts for the period 2010 through 2015. Through 2009 the program saved 9.5 Quads of primary energy and avoided the equivalent of 170 million metric tons carbon (MMTC). The forecast for the period 2009-2015 is 11.5 Quads or primary energy saved and 202 MMTC emissions avoided. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 110 MMTC and 231 MMTC (1993 to 2009) and between 130 MMTC and 285 MMTC (2010 to 2015).

  13. Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-06-15

    This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration with other strategies under

  14. Energy transfer between a biological labelling dye and gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racknor, Chris; Singh, Mahi R.; Zhang, Yinan; Birch, David J. S.; Chen, Yu

    2014-03-01

    We have demonstrated energy transfer between a biological labelling dye (Alexa Fluor 405) and gold nanorods experimentally and theoretically. The fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and density matrix method are used to study a hybrid system of dye and nanorods under one- and two-photon excitations. Energy transfer between dye and nanorods via the dipole-dipole interaction is found to cause a decrease in the fluorescence lifetime change. Enhanced energy transfer from dye to nanorods is measured in the presence of an increased density of nanorods. This study has potential applications in fluorescence lifetime-based intra-cellular sensing of bio-analytes as well as nuclear targeting cancer therapy.

  15. A perspective on food energy standards for nutrition labelling.

    PubMed

    Livesey, G

    2001-03-01

    Food energy values used for nutrition labelling and other purposes are traditionally based on the metabolisable energy (ME) standard, which has recent support from. By reference to current practices and published data, the present review critically examines the ME standard and support for it. Theoretical and experimental evidence on the validity of ME and alternatives are considered. ME and alternatives are applied to 1189 foods to assess outcomes. The potential impact of implementing a better standard in food labelling, documentation of energy requirements and food tables, and its impact on users including consumers, trade and professionals, are also examined. Since 1987 twenty-two expert reviews, reports and regulatory documents have fully or partly dropped the ME standard. The principal reason given is that ME only approximates energy supply by nutrients, particularly fermentable carbohydrates. ME has been replaced by net metabolisable energy (NME), which accounts for the efficiency of fuel utilisation in metabolism. Data collated from modern indirect calorimetry studies in human subjects show NME to be valid and applicable to each source of food energy, not just carbohydrates. NME is robust; two independent approaches give almost identical results (human calorimetry and calculation of free energy or net ATP yield) and these approaches are well supported by studies in animals. By contrast, the theoretical basis of ME is totally flawed. ME incompletely represents the energy balance equation, with substantial energy losses in a missing term. In using NME factors an account is made of frequent over-approximations by the ME system, up to 25 % of the NME for individual foods among 1189 foods in British tables, particularly low-energy-density traditional foods. A new simple general factor system is possible based on NME, yet the minimal experimental methodology is no more than that required for ME. By accounting for unavailable carbohydrate the new factor system

  16. Calendar Year 2007 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Homan, Gregory; Brown, Richard

    2008-10-31

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2007, the program saved 7.1 Quads of primary energy and avoided 128 MtC equivalent. The forecast shows that the program is expected to save 21.2 Quads of primary energy and avoid 375 MtC equivalent over the period 2008-2015. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 84 MtC and 172 MtC (1993 to 2007) and between 243 MtC and 519 MtC (2008 to 2015).

  17. Exercise, energy expenditure and energy balance, as measured with doubly labelled water.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2017-07-20

    The doubly labelled water method for the measurement of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) over 1-3 weeks under daily living conditions is the indicated method to study effects of exercise and extreme environments on energy balance. Subjects consume a measured amount of doubly labelled water (2H2 18O) to increase background enrichment of body water for 18O and 2H, and the subsequent difference in elimination rate between 18O and 2H, as measured in urine, saliva or blood samples, is a measure for carbon dioxide production and thus allows calculation of TDEE. The present review describes research showing that physical activity level (PAL), calculated as TDEE (assessed with doubly labelled water) divided by resting energy expenditure (REE, PAL = TDEE/REE), reaches a maximum value of 2·00-2·40 in subjects with a vigorously active lifestyle. Higher PAL values, while maintaining energy balance, are observed in professional athletes consuming additional energy dense foods to compete at top level. Exercise training can increase TDEE/REE in young adults to a value of 2·00-2·40, when energy intake is unrestricted. Furthermore, the review shows an exercise induced increase in activity energy expenditure can be compensated by a reduction in REE and by a reduction in non-exercise physical activity, especially at a negative energy balance. Additionally, in untrained subjects, an exercise-induced increase in activity energy expenditure is compensated by a training-induced increase in exercise efficiency.

  18. Nutrition labels decrease energy intake in adults consuming lunch in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Johnson, Karena; Recupero, Kelly; Suders, Heather

    2011-05-01

    Increased visibility of food labels is a potential method to reduce the rate of obesity. However, few empirical studies have investigated the impact of nutrition labeling on food selection or energy intake. This study tested the hypothesis that nutrition labeling in combination with nutrition label education would promote reductions in energy intake using a laboratory-based paradigm. Forty-seven male (n=24) and female (n=23) participants visited the Nutrition and Health Research Laboratory for a single lunch session during the months of May through August 2009. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two video groups (Nutrition Labeling Education or Organic Food Movement) and one of two labeling conditions (Nutrition Labels or No Labels). Participants watched a short educational video and then consumed a buffet lunch. Data were analyzed using a three-way analysis of covariance with sex, video condition, and labeling group as the between-subject factors and age and race as covariates. There were main effects of sex and nutrition label condition on lunch energy intake with females consuming less than males and people with nutrition labels consuming less energy than those without, regardless of sex or video condition. Examination of energy intake from low-energy-density and high-energy-density foods showed that the nutrition labeling group consumed less energy from both low-energy-density and high-energy-density food sources. These data support the use of nutrition labels as a way to reduce energy intake. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutrition labels decrease energy intake in adults consuming lunch in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Johnson, Karena; Recupero, Kelly; Suders, Heather

    2010-07-01

    Increased visibility of food labels is a potential method to reduce the rate of obesity. However, few empirical studies have investigated the impact of nutrition labeling on food selection or energy intake. This study tested the hypothesis that nutrition labeling in combination with nutrition label education would promote reductions in energy intake using a laboratory-based paradigm. Forty-seven male (n=24) and female (n=23) participants visited the Nutrition and Health Research Laboratory for a single lunch session during the months of May through August 2009. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two video groups (Nutrition Labeling Education or Organic Food Movement) and one of two labeling conditions (Nutrition Labels or No Labels). Participants watched a short educational video and then consumed a buffet lunch. Data were analyzed using a three-way analysis of covariance with sex, video condition, and labeling group as the between-subject factors and age and race as covariates. There were main effects of sex and nutrition label condition on lunch energy intake with females consuming less than males and people with nutrition labels consuming less energy than those without, regardless of sex or video condition. Examination of energy intake from low-energy-density and high-energy-density foods showed that the nutrition labeling group consumed less energy from both low-energy-density and high-energy-density food sources. These data support the use of nutrition labels as a way to reduce energy intake. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy and traffic light labelling have no impact on parent and child fast food selection.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Pennie; Wolfenden, Luke; Chapman, Kathy; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Wiggers, John

    2013-10-25

    Labelling of food from fast food restaurants at point-of-purchase has been suggested as one strategy to reduce population energy consumption and contribute to reductions in obesity prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of energy and single traffic light labelling systems on the energy content of child and adult intended food purchases. The study employed a randomised controlled trial design. English speaking parents of children aged between three and 12 years were recruited from an existing research cohort. Participants were mailed one of three hypothetical fast food menus. Menus differed in their labelling technique- either energy labels, single traffic light labels, or a no-label control. Participants then completed a telephone survey which assessed intended food purchases for both adult and child. The primary trial outcome was total energy of intended food purchase. A total of 329 participants completed the follow-up telephone interview. Eighty-two percent of the energy labelling group and 96% of the single traffic light labelling group reported noticing labelling information on their menu. There were no significant differences in total energy of intended purchases of parents, or intended purchases made by parents for children, between the menu labelling groups, or between menu labelling groups by socio-demographic subgroups. This study provided no evidence to suggest that energy labelling or single traffic light labelling alone were effective in reducing the energy of fast food items selected from hypothetical fast food menus for purchase. Additional complementary public health initiatives promoting the consumption of healthier foods identified by labelling, and which target other key drivers of menu item selection in this setting may be required. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The impact of nutritional labels and socioeconomic status on energy intake. An experimental field study.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Rachel A; Jebb, Susan A; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-10-01

    There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. "low-fat") compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n = 287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn. Participants were randomised to receive their selected flavour with one of three labels: a green low-fat label, a red high-fat label or no label. Participants watched two film clips while completing measures of demographic characteristics, emotional state and taste of the popcorn. Following the experiment, popcorn consumption was measured. There were no main effects of nutritional labelling on consumption. Contrary to predictions neither BMI nor weight concern moderated the effect of label on consumption. There was a three-way interaction between low-fat label, weight concern and socioeconomic status (SES) such that weight-concerned participants of higher SES who saw a low-fat label consumed more than weight unconcerned participants of similar SES (t = -2.7, P = .04). By contrast, weight-concerned participants of lower SES seeing either type of label, consumed less than those seeing no label (t = -2.04, P = .04). Nutritional labelling may have different effects in different socioeconomic groups. Further studies are required to understand fully the possible contribution of food labelling to health inequalities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy requirements of lactating women derived from doubly labeled water and milk energy output.

    PubMed

    Butte, N F; Wong, W W; Hopkinson, J M

    2001-01-01

    Instead of using an incremental approach to assess the energy requirements of lactation, a more comprehensive approach may be taken by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE), milk energy output and energy mobilization from tissue stores. The latter approach avoids assumptions regarding energetic efficiency and changes in physical activity and adiposity. The purpose of this study was threefold: to assess the energy requirements of lactation; to compare these estimates with energy requirements in the nonpregnant, nonlactating state and to test for energetic adaptations in basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity during the energy-demanding process of lactation. Milk production and composition, body weight and composition, TEE, BMR and physical activity levels were measured in 24 well-nourished women during exclusive breastfeeding at 3 mo postpartum and after the cessation of breastfeeding at 18 or 24 mo postpartum. TEE was measured by the doubly labeled water method, milk production by 3-d test-weighing, milk energy by bomb calorimetry on a 24-h milk sample, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and BMR by room respiration calorimetry. TEE, BMR and physical activity level (physical activity level = TEE/BMR) did not differ between the lactating and nonlactating state (TEE 10.0 +/- 1.5 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d). Mean milk energy output was equivalent to 2.02 +/- 0.33 MJ/d. Total energy requirements were greater during lactation than afterward (12.0 +/- 1.4 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d, P: = 0.002). Energy mobilization from tissue stores (-0.65 +/- 0.97 MJ/d) resulted in net energy requirements during lactation of 11.4 +/- 1.8 MJ/d. Because adaptations in basal metabolism and physical activity were not evident in these well-nourished women, energy requirements during lactation were met primarily from the diet and only partially by mobilization of tissue stores.

  3. Desired and Undesired Effects of Energy Labels--An Eye-Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Waechter, Signe; Sütterlin, Bernadette; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Saving energy is an important pillar for the mitigation of climate change. Electric devices (e.g., freezer and television) are an important player in the residential sector in the final demand for energy. Consumers' purchase decisions are therefore crucial to successfully reach the energy-efficiency goals. Putting energy labels on products is often considered an adequate way of empowering consumers to make informed purchase decisions. Consequently, this approach should contribute to reducing overall energy consumption. The effectiveness of its measurement depends on consumers' use and interpretation of the information provided. Despite advances in energy efficiency and a mandatory labeling policy, final energy consumption per capita is in many countries still increasing. This paper provides a systematic analysis of consumers' reactions to one of the most widely used eco-labels, the European Union (EU) energy label, by using eye-tracking methodology as an objective measurement. The study's results partially support the EU's mandatory policy, showing that the energy label triggers attention toward energy information in general. However, the energy label's effect on consumers' actual product choices seems to be rather low. The study's results show that the currently used presentation format on the label is insufficient. The findings suggest that it does not facilitate the integration of energy-related information. Furthermore, the current format can attract consumers to focus more on energy-efficiency information, leading them to disregard information about actual energy consumption. As a result, the final energy consumption may increase because excellent ratings on energy efficiency (e.g., A++) do not automatically imply little consumption. Finally, implications for policymakers and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  4. 78 FR 43974 - Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA).\\2\\ The Rule requires energy labeling for major home appliances and other... test procedures that measure how much energy appliances use, and to determine the representative... several energy, environmental and consumer organizations (including Alliance to Save Energy,...

  5. Influence of simplified nutrition labeling and taxation on laboratory energy intake in adults.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Johnson, Karena M; Archer, Kelli; Lacarte, Allison; Yi, Christina; Epstein, Leonard H

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of these studies was to test the hypotheses that simplified nutrition labeling and taxation alter food selection and intake. In Experiment 1, participants consumed lunch in the laboratory three times with no labels, standard nutrition labels, or traffic light diet labels at each visit. In Experiment 2, participants were given $6.00 with which to purchase lunch in the laboratory twice with standard pricing on one visit and a 25% tax on "red" foods on another visit. Participants received a brief education session on the labeling systems being used. Total energy intake and energy intake and number of foods purchased from each traffic light category were measured. Nutrition labeling decreased energy intake in lean females, but had no effect in men or in obese females. Traffic light labels increased consumption of "green" foods and decreased consumption of "red" foods. Taxation decreased the purchasing of "red" foods in obese, but not non-obese participants. There were no interactions between taxation and simplified nutrition labeling. Although generalization to real-world purchasing and consumption is limited by the laboratory study design, our findings suggests that taking multiple, simultaneous approaches to reduce energy intake may have the greatest impact on food purchases and/or nutrient consumption.

  6. 19 CFR 12.50 - Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to energy conservation or labeling standards. 12.50 Section 12.50 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... MERCHANDISE Consumer Products and Industrial Equipment Subject to Energy Conservation Or Labeling Standards § 12.50 Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling...

  7. Engaging inner city middle school students in development of an energy expenditure food label.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Carol J; Mcneal, Catherine J; Coppin, John David; Shimek, Christine; Field, Lindsey; Murano, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Using food labels can be an important component of maintaining healthy weight, but young adolescents are unlikely to have the requisite skills to make use of food labeling information. Our objectives were to determine knowledge about calories and comprehension and use of the Nutrition Facts Panel among a group of inner city African-American and Hispanic middle school students, and to engage the students in refining a Calorie Converter energy expenditure food label. We used quantitative and qualitative methods including questionnaires, focus groups, and hands-on graphic design activities. Correctly defining the word "calorie" was associated with correct answers to three of four questions requiring interpretation of the Nutrition Facts Panel [χ(2)(1, 138, p < .05) = 4.56, 4.14, and 5.61.] We incorporated students' design and content modifications for the Calorie Converter label, and the majority indicated that the energy expenditure label would influence their food selection practices.

  8. Cyanine dyes with high-absorbance cross section as donor chromophores in energy transfer labels

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Mathies, Richard A.; Hung, Su-Chun; Ju, Jingyue

    1998-01-01

    Cyanine dyes are used as the donor fluorophore in energy transfer labels in which light energy is absorbed by a donor fluorophore and transferred to an acceptor fluorophore which responds to the transfer by emitting fluorescent light for detection. The cyanine dyes impart an unusually high sensitivity to the labels thereby improving their usefulness in a wide variety of biochemical procedures, particularly nucleic acid sequencing, nucleic acid fragment sizing, and related procedures.

  9. Methods of sequencing and detection using energy transfer labels with cyanine dyes as donor chromophores

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Mathies, Richard A.; Hung, Su-Chun; Ju, Jingyue

    2000-01-01

    Cyanine dyes are used as the donor fluorophore in energy transfer labels in which light energy is absorbed by a donor fluorophore and transferred to an acceptor fluorophore which responds to the transfer by emitting fluorescent light for detection. The cyanine dyes impart an unusually high sensitivity to the labels thereby improving their usefulness in a wide variety of biochemical procedures, particularly nucleic acid sequencing, nucleic acid fragment sizing, and related procedures.

  10. Cyanine dyes with high-absorbance cross section as donor chromophores in energy transfer labels

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, A.N.; Mathies, R.A.; Hung, S.C.; Ju, J.

    1998-12-29

    Cyanine dyes are used as the donor fluorophore in energy transfer labels in which light energy is absorbed by a donor fluorophore and transferred to an acceptor fluorophore which responds to the transfer by emitting fluorescent light for detection. The cyanine dyes impart an unusually high sensitivity to the labels thereby improving their usefulness in a wide variety of biochemical procedures, particularly nucleic acid sequencing, nucleic acid fragment sizing, and related procedures. 22 figs.

  11. How well do Australian shoppers understand energy terms on food labels?

    PubMed

    Watson, Wendy L; Chapman, Kathy; King, Lesley; Kelly, Bridget; Hughes, Clare; Yu Louie, Jimmy Chun; Crawford, Jennifer; Gill, Timothy P

    2013-03-01

    To investigate nutrition literacy among adult grocery buyers regarding energy-related labelling terms on food packaging. Qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys to determine shoppers' understanding of energy terms ('energy', 'calories' and 'kilojoules') and how energy terms affect perceptions of healthiness and intentions to purchase breakfast cereals, muesli bars and frozen meals. Individual in-depth interviews and surveys in two metropolitan supermarkets, Sydney, Australia. Australian adults (interview n 40, survey n 405) aged 18-79 years. The relationship between energy and perceived healthiness of food varied by product type: higher energy breakfast cereals were perceived to be healthier, while lower energy frozen meals were seen as healthier choices. Likewise, intentions to purchase the higher energy product varied according to product type. The primary reason stated for purchasing higher energy products was for sustained energy. Participants from households of lower socio-economic status were significantly more likely to perceive higher energy products as healthier. From the qualitative interviews, participants expressed uncertainty about their understanding of kilojoules, while only 40 % of participants in intercept surveys correctly answered that kilojoules and calories measured the same thing. Australian consumers have a poor understanding of energy and kilojoules and tend to perceive higher energy products as healthier and providing sustained energy. This has implications regarding the usefulness of industry front-of-pack labelling initiatives and quick service restaurant menu labelling that provides information on energy content only. Comprehensive and widely communicated education campaigns will be essential to guide consumers towards healthier choices.

  12. Influence of Price and Labeling on Energy Drink Purchasing in an Experimental Convenience Store.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Ziegler, Amanda M; Epstein, Leonard H

    2016-01-01

    To examine the impact of energy drink (ED) pricing and labeling on the purchase of EDs. Participants visited a laboratory-based convenience store 3 times and purchased a beverage under different ED labeling (none, caffeine content, and warning labels) and pricing conditions. The 36 participants (aged 15-30 years) were classified as energy drink consumers (≥ 2 energy drinks/wk) and nonconsumers (< 1 energy drink/mo). Data were log transformed to generate elasticity coefficients. The authors analyzed changes in elasticity as a function of price and labeling using mixed-effects regression models. Increasing the price of EDs reduced ED purchases and increased purchasing of other caffeinated beverages among ED consumers. Energy drink labels affected ED sales in adolescents. These data suggest that ED pricing and labeling may influence the purchasing of ED, especially in adolescent consumers. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy Star{reg{underscore}sign} label for roof products

    SciTech Connect

    Schmeltz, R.S.; Bretz, S.E.

    1998-07-01

    Home and buildings owners can save up to 40% of cooling energy costs by installing reflective roofs, especially in hot and sunny climates. The increase in exterior albedo and subsequent decrease in heat flow across the building envelope reduces the energy requirements to maintain air-conditioned space. Indirectly, the increase in overall albedo of a community as these roofs are installed in a large fraction of the buildings results in lower ambient air temperature and less need for air conditioning. Another indirect effect is a decrease in smog formation due to lower ambient air temperatures and less air pollution from power plants because of minimized electrical demand and use. The US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Energy are currently developing the Energy Star Roof Products Program to create a vibrant market for energy-efficient, cost-effective roof materials through the widespread availability of products, clear recognition of the benefits by consumers, and active promotion of products by manufacturers. Several activities, including pilot procurements of room materials, and the development of outreach and training materials, will be performed to assist the transformation of the roofing market toward more energy-efficient products. Using the experiences gained in establishing the Energy Star Roof Products Program as an example, this paper will discuss the barriers to the development of energy-efficient roofing practices, program implementation, and program successes. This paper will further describe the specifics of the Energy Star Roof Products Program, its goals, benefits, activities, and timeframe.

  14. Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels in North America: Opportunities for Harmonization

    SciTech Connect

    Vanwiemcgrory, Laura; Wiel, Stephen; Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harrington, Lloyd

    2002-05-16

    To support the North American Energy Working Group's Expert Group on Energy Efficiency (NAEWG-EE), USDOE commissioned the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) to prepare a resource document comparing current standards, labels, and test procedure regulations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The resulting document reached the following conclusions: Out of 24 energy-using products for which at least one of the three countries has energy efficiency regulations, three products -- refrigerators/freezers, split system central air conditioners, and room air conditioners -- have similar or identical minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in the three countries. These same three products, as well as three-phase motors, have similar or identical test procedures throughout the region. There are 10 products with different MEPS and test procedures, but which have the short-term potential to develop common test procedures, MEPS, and/or labels. Three other noteworthy areas where possible energy efficiency initiatives have potential for harmonization are standby losses, uniform endorsement labels, and a new standard or label on windows. This paper explains these conclusions and presents the underlying comparative data.

  15. Interim findings of an evaluation of the U.S. EnergyGuide label

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, Christine; Payne, Christopher T.; Thorne, Jennifer

    2000-08-20

    The United States has labeled appliances with the EnergyGuide labels since 1980. Consensus is growing that this label is confusing to consumers and has little impact on purchase decisions. Many researchers have documented that alternative labeling approaches are effective in other countries. The authors comprehensively evaluated the U.S. appliance labeling program for white goods, heating and cooling equipment, and water heaters, with emphasis on products sold through retail outlets. To date, our research has included consumer focus groups and semi-structured interviews with various market actors to assess how best to communicate energy information. With consumers and retail sales staff, five graphical designs were tested a European-style, letter based graphic; an Australian-style star-based graphic; a speedometer-style graphic; a thermometer-style graphic; and the current U.S. style. With manufacturers and contractors, we did not directly test alternate designs. Instead, we asked their opinion of and experience with the current EnergyGuide labeling program.

  16. The effectiveness of US energy efficiency building labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio, Omar Isaac; Delmas, Magali A.

    2017-03-01

    Information programs are promising strategies to encourage investments in energy efficiency in commercial buildings. However, the realized effectiveness of these programs has not yet been estimated on a large scale. Here we take advantage of a large sample of monthly electricity consumption data for 178,777 commercial buildings in Los Angeles to analyse energy savings and emissions reductions from three major programs designed to encourage efficiency: the US Department of Energy's Better Buildings Challenge, the US Environmental Protection Agency's Energy Star program and the US Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. Using matching techniques, we find energy savings that range from 18% to 30%, depending on the program. These savings represent a reduction of 210 million kilowatt-hours or 145 kilotons of CO2 equivalent emissions per year. However, we also find that these programs do not substantially reduce emissions in small and medium sized buildings, which represent about two-thirds of commercial sector building emissions.

  17. Status of China's Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels for Appliances and International Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01

    China first adopted minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in 1989. Today, there are standards for a wide range of domestic, commercial and selected industrial equipment. In 1999, China launched a voluntary endorsement label, which has grown to cover over 40 products including water-saving products (See Figure 1). Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label (also referred to as the 'Energy Label'). Today, the Energy Label is applied to four products including: air conditioners; household refrigerators; clothes washers; and unitary air conditioners (See Figure 2). MEPS and the voluntary endorsement labeling specifications have been updated and revised in order to reflect technology improvements to those products in the market. These programs have had an important impact in reducing energy consumption of appliances in China. Indeed, China has built up a strong infrastructure to develop and implement product standards. Historically, however, the government's primary focus has been on the technical requirements for efficiency performance. Less attention has been paid to monitoring and enforcement with a minimal commitment of resources and little expansion of administrative capacity in this area. Thus, market compliance with both mandatory standards and labeling programs has been questionable and actual energy savings may have been undermined as a result. The establishment of a regularized monitoring system for tracking compliance with the mandatory standard and energy information label in China is a major area for program improvement. Over the years, the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) has partnered with several Chinese institutions to promote energy-efficient products in China. CLASP, together with its implementing partner Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), has assisted China in developing and updating the above-mentioned standards and labeling programs. Because of the increasing need for the

  18. Menu labels displaying the kilocalorie content or the exercise equivalent: effects on energy ordered and consumed in young adults.

    PubMed

    James, Ashlei; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Shah, Meena

    2015-01-01

    Determine the effect of menu labels displaying the energy content of food items or the exercise equivalent on energy ordered and consumed at lunch and energy intake for the remainder of the day in young adults. Subjects were randomized to a menu with no labels (no-labels), menu with kilocalorie labels displaying the energy content of the food items (kcal-labels), or menu with exercise labels displaying the minutes of brisk walking needed to burn the food energy (exercise-labels). The study was conducted in one dining area located in a metabolic kitchen at the Texas Christian University and another located in a residence occupied by graduate students. Of the 300 subjects, 55.7% were female, 77.3% were college students, 88% were white, and 88% were non-Hispanic. Mean body mass index and age were 24.2 ± 4.5 kg/m(2) and 21.9 ± 2.3 years, respectively. All menus contained the same food/beverage choices. Subjects ordered and consumed foods/beverages for lunch from the menu to which they were assigned. Subjects were blinded to study purpose. Energy ordered and consumed at lunch were assessed from the weight of the food ordered and consumed, respectively, and the energy content of the same foods available on the restaurant Web site. Postlunch energy intake was assessed by food recall. Analysis of covariance, adjusted for premeal hunger levels and gender, determined the effect of menu type on energy ordered and consumed and postlunch energy intake. Significant menu effect was observed for energy ordered (p = .008) and consumed (p = .04) at lunch. The exercise-labels group ordered significantly (p = .002) less energy (adjusted mean [confidence intervals]: 763 [703, 824] kcal) at lunch, compared to the no-labels group (902 [840, 963] kcal) but not compared to the kcal-labels group (827 [766, 888] kcal). The exercise-labels group also consumed significantly (p = .01) less energy (673 [620, 725] kcal) at lunch, compared to the no-labels group (770 (717, 823) kcal) but not

  19. The Doubly Labeled Water Method for Measuring Human Energy Expenditure: Adaptations for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, Leslie O.

    1991-01-01

    It is essential to determine human energy requirements in space, and the doubly labeled water method has been identified as the most appropriate means of indirect calorimetry to meet this need. The method employs naturally occurring, stable isotopes of hydrogen (H-2, deuterium) and oxygen (O-18) which, after dosing, mix with body water. The deuterium is lost from the body as water while the O-18 is eliminated as both water and CO2. The difference between the two isotope elimination rates is therefore a measure of CO2 production and hence energy expenditure. Spaceflight will present a unique challenge to the application of the doubly labeled water method. Specifically, interpretation of doubly labeled water results assumes that the natural abundance or 'background' levels of the isotopes remain constant during the measurement interval. To address this issue, an equilibration model will be developed in an ongoing ground-based study. As energy requirements of women matched to counterparts in the Astronauts Corps are being determined by doubly labeled water, the baseline isotope concentration will be changed by consumption of 'simulated Shuttle water' which is artificially enriched. One group of subjects will be equilibrated on simulated Shuttle water prior to energy determinations by doubly labeled water while the others will consume simulated Shuttle water after dosing. This process will allow us to derive a prediction equation to mathematically model the effect of changing background isotope concentrations.

  20. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year with significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation has made this the international guidance tool it was intended to be. The lead authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook: Marcy Beck, Elisa Derby, Diana Dhunke, Ted Gartner, and Julie Osborn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as Anthony Ma of Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards-setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the programs

  1. The effect of energy and traffic light labelling on parent and child fast food selection: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Pennie; Wolfenden, Luke; Chapman, Kathy; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Wiggers, John

    2014-02-01

    Labelling of food from fast food restaurants at point-of-purchase has been suggested as one strategy to reduce population energy consumption and contribute to reductions in obesity prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of energy and single traffic light labelling systems on the energy content of child and adult intended food purchases. The study employed a randomised controlled trial design. English speaking parents of children aged between three and 12 years were recruited from an existing research cohort. Participants were mailed one of three hypothetical fast food menus. Menus differed in their labelling technique – either energy labels, single traffic light labels, or a no-label control. Participants then completed a telephone survey which assessed intended food purchases for both adult and child. The primary trial outcome was total energy of intended food purchase. A total of 329 participants completed the follow-up telephone interview. Eighty-two percent of the energy labelling group and 96% of the single traffic light labelling group reported noticing labelling information on their menu. There were no significant differences in total energy of intended purchases of parents, or intended purchases made by parents for children, between the menu labelling groups, or between menu labelling groups by socio-demographic subgroups. This study provided no evidence to suggest that energy labelling or single traffic light labelling alone were effective in reducing the energy of fast food items selected from hypothetical fast food menus for purchase. Additional complementary public health initiatives promoting the consumption of healthier foods identified by labelling, and which target other key drivers of menu item selection in this setting may be required.

  2. Regional cooperation in energy efficiency standard-setting and labeling in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Wiel, Stephen; Van Wie McGrory, Laura

    2003-08-04

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) was established in 2001 by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The goals of NAEWG are to foster communication and cooperation on energy-related matters of common interest, and to enhance North American energy trade and interconnections consistent with the goal of sustainable development, for the benefit of all three countries. At its outset, NAEWG established teams to address different aspects of the energy sector. One, the Energy Efficiency Expert Group, undertook activity in three areas: (1) analyzing commonalities and differences in the test procedures of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, and identifying specific products for which the three countries might consider harmonization; (2) exploring possibilities for increased mutual recognition of laboratory test results; and (3) looking at possibilities for enhanced cooperation in the Energy Star voluntary endorsement labeling program. To support NAEWG's Expert Group on Energy Efficiency (NAEWG-EE), USDOE commissioned Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, representing the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), to prepare a resource document comparing current standards, labels, and test procedure regulations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The resulting document identified 46 energy-using products for which at least one of the three countries has energy efficiency regulations. Three products--refrigerators/freezers, room air conditioners, and integral horsepower three-phase electric motors--have identical minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and test procedures in the three countries. Ten other products have different MEPS and test procedures, but have the near-term potential for harmonization. NAEWG-EE is currently working to identify mechanisms for mutual recognition of test results. With consultative support from the United States and Canada through NAEWG-EE, Mexico is exploring possibilities for

  3. Sensitivity of methods for calculating energy expenditure by use of doubly labeled water

    SciTech Connect

    Seale, J.; Miles, C.; Bodwell, C.E.

    1989-02-01

    Attempts to estimate human energy expenditure by use of doubly labeled water have produced three methods currently used for calculating carbon dioxide production from isotope disappearance data: (1) the two-point method, (2) the regression method, and (3) the integration method. An ideal data set was used to determine the error produced in the calculated energy expenditure for each method when specific variables were perturbed. The analysis indicates that some of the calculation methods are more susceptible to perturbations in certain variables than others. Results from an experiment on one adult human subject are used to illustrate the potential for error in actual data. Samples of second void urine, 24-h urine, and breath collected every other day for 21 days are used to calculate the average daily energy expenditure by three calculation methods. The difference between calculated energy expenditure and metabolizable energy on a weight-maintenance diet is used to estimate the error associated with the doubly labeled water method.

  4. Savings estimates for the ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) voluntary labeling program: 2001 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Mahajan, Akshay; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2002-02-15

    ENERGY STAR(Registered Trademark) is a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subset of ENERGY STAR program activities, focused primarily on labeled products. We present estimates of the energy, dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2000, what we expect in 2001, and provide savings forecasts for two market penetration scenarios for the period 2001 to 2020. The target market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumption of 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period.

  5. 2002 status report: Savings estimates for the ENERGY STAR(R) voluntary labeling program

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; McWhinney, Marla; Koomey, Jonathan

    2003-03-03

    ENERGY STAR [registered trademark] is a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subset of ENERGY STAR program activities, focused primarily on labeled products. We present estimates of the energy, dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2001, what we expect in 2002, and provide savings forecasts for two market penetration scenarios for the period 2002 to 2020. The target market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumption of 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period.

  6. 2007 Status Report: Savings Estimates for the ENERGY STAR(R)VoluntaryLabeling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Marla; Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Homan,Gregory K.

    2007-03-23

    ENERGY STAR(R) is a voluntary labeling program designed toidentify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices.Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and theU.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more thanthirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating andcooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics,and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subsetof ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of the energy,dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2006, whatwe expect in 2007, and provide savings forecasts for two marketpenetration scenarios for the periods 2007 to 2015 and 2007 to 2025. Thetarget market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of futureENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goalsfor each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumptionof 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasersbuy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiencyproducts throughout the analysis period.

  7. Doubly labelled water assessment of energy expenditure: principle, practice, and promise.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2017-07-01

    The doubly labelled water method for the assessment of energy expenditure was first published in 1955, application in humans started in 1982, and it has become the gold standard for human energy requirement under daily living conditions. The method involves enriching the body water of a subject with heavy hydrogen ((2)H) and heavy oxygen ((18)O), and then determining the difference in washout kinetics between both isotopes, being a function of carbon dioxide production. In practice, subjects get a measured amount of doubly labelled water ((2)H 2(18) O) to increase background enrichment of body water for (18)O of 2000 ppm with at least 180 ppm and background enrichment of body water for (2)H of 150 ppm with 120 ppm. Subsequently, the difference between the apparent turnover rates of the hydrogen and oxygen of body water is assessed from blood-, saliva-, or urine samples, collected at the start and end of the observation interval of 1-3 weeks. Samples are analyzed for (18)O and (2)H with isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The doubly labelled water method is the indicated method to measure energy expenditure in any environment, especially with regard to activity energy expenditure, without interference with the behavior of the subjects. Applications include the assessment of energy requirement from total energy expenditure, validation of dietary assessment methods and validation of physical activity assessment methods with doubly labelled water measured energy expenditure as reference, and studies on body mass regulation with energy expenditure as a determinant of energy balance.

  8. Calendar Year 2007 Program Benefits for U.S. EPA Energy Star Labeled Products: Expanded Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Marla; Homan, Gregory; Lai, Judy; Brown, Richard

    2009-09-24

    This report provides a top-level summary of national savings achieved by the Energy Star voluntary product labeling program. To best quantify and analyze savings for all products, we developed a bottom-up product-based model. Each Energy Star product type is characterized by product-specific inputs that result in a product savings estimate. Our results show that through 2007, U.S. EPA Energy Star labeled products saved 5.5 Quads of primary energy and avoided 100 MtC of emissions. Although Energy Star-labeled products encompass over forty product types, only five of those product types accounted for 65percent of all Energy Star carbon reductions achieved to date, including (listed in order of savings magnitude)monitors, printers, residential light fixtures, televisions, and furnaces. The forecast shows that U.S. EPA?s program is expected to save 12.2 Quads of primary energy and avoid 215 MtC of emissions over the period of 2008?2015.

  9. Validation of doubly labeled water for measuring energy expenditure during parenteral nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeller, D.A.; Kushner, R.F.; Jones, P.J.

    1986-08-01

    The doubly labeled water method was compared with intake-balance for measuring energy expenditure in five patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Because parenteral solutions were isotopically different from local water, patients had to be placed on TPN at least 10 days before the metabolic period. Approximately 0.1 g 2H2O and 0.25 g H2(18)O per kg total body water were given orally. We collected saliva before, 3 h, and 4 h after the dose for measurement of total body water and urine before, 1 day, and 14 days after the dose for measurement of isotope eliminations. On day 14, total body weight was remeasured and change in body energy stores was calculated, assuming constant hydration. Intake was assessed from weights of TPN fluids plus dietary record for any oral intake. Energy expenditure from doubly labeled water (+/- SD) averaged 3 +/- 6% greater than intake-balance. Doubly labeled water method is a noninvasive, nonrestrictive method for measuring energy expenditure in patients receiving TPN.

  10. Total energy expenditure by the doubly-labeled water method in rural preschool children in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Triana, Manuel; Salazar, Gabriela; Díaz, Erik; Sánchez, Vivian; Basabe, Beatriz; González, Soraya; Díaz, Maria Elena

    2002-09-01

    An evaluation of the capacity of the Cuban Nutrition Program for covering the energy requirements of children was carried out in children 5.0 +/- 1.0 years of age in a rural mountain community in Cuba. Five males and six females (19 +/- 3.05 kg average weight) with a mean BMI 15.4 +/- 2.2 kg/m2) were included in the study. Six of the subjects were well-nourished, three were undernourished, and two were overweight. Total energy expenditure was determined by the doubly-labeled water technique. Resting metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry. Energy intake, measured by a three-day weighed dietary record, was 1,527 kcal/day (6.39 MJ). The total energy expenditure of the well-nourished children was 11.8% lower than present energy recommendations (1,773 kcal). This implies that well-nourished children who are moderately to heavily physically active require 82.6 kcal/kg per day. The physical activity level of normal Cuban children is nearly 1.8, which is much higher than that reported in studies of children from industrialized countries using the doubly-labeled water technique. The measured daily energy intake was 1.7 times the resting metabolic rate RMR and 1.04 times the total energy expenditure.

  11. First Clothes Dryers to Earn EPAs Energy Star Label Now Available Nationwide/Energy Star dryers offer Americans savings of up to $1.5 billion annually

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that Energy Star certified clothes dryers are now available nationwide through major retailers. At least 45 models of dryers earning the Energy Star label, including Whirlpoo

  12. International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2012-02-28

    Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process

  13. An independent assessment of the Australian food industry's Daily Intake Guide 'Energy Alone' label.

    PubMed

    Carter, Owen; Mills, Brennen; Phan, Tina

    2011-04-01

    A single thumbnail variant of the food industry's voluntary front-of-package Daily Intake Guide (DIG)--called the 'Energy Alone' thumbnail (DIG kJ)--has recently appeared on many energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages, especially soft drinks and confectionery. However, there is no published data to date that has assessed its merit. A quota sample of 58 Australian adults (50% female; 47% blue collar; mean age 35 years, range 18-59) was presented with photographs of three food packages alternatively labelled with DIG kJ, full DIG (five thumbnails) and Traffic Lights (TL) systems. Participants ranked each labelling system along seven-point scales for the following dimensions: 'interpretable, 'noticeable', 'useful' 'and' a deterrent to purchasing unhealthy snack foods: Participants were afterwards brought together in eight focus groups of 7-8 to discuss the merits of each system. Paired samples t-tests suggested the DIG kJ was rated significantly less "noticeable" ,'useful'or'a deterrent'than either the full DIG or TL systems. The TL system was also rated as significantly more'interpretable"and"a deterrent'than either variant of DIG. In the focus groups, participants described the DIG kJ as too small to be noticeable, too abstract to be meaningful, and of little practical use. Higher energy on food labels was also associated with positive health, rather than as a risk for overconsumption. The DIG kJ performed poorly against the TL and full DIG. Our results suggest it is an ineffective food labelling system, that is unlikely to affect consumer knowledge, awareness, attitudes, purchasing or consumption behaviours.

  14. Made with Renewable Energy: How and Why Companies are Labeling Consumer Products

    SciTech Connect

    Baker Brannan, D.; Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-03-01

    Green marketing--a marketing strategy highlighting the environmental attributes of a product, often through the use of labels or logos--dates back to the 1970s. It did not proliferate until the 1990s, however, when extensive market research identified a rapidly growing group of consumers with a heightened concern for the environment. This group expressed not only a preference for green products but also a willingness to pay a premium for such products. The response was a surge in green marketing that lasted through the early 1990s. This report discusses the experience of companies that communicate to consumers that their products are 'made with renewable energy.' For this report, representatives from 20 companies were interviewed and asked to discuss their experiences marketing products produced using renewable energy. The first half of this report provides an overview of the type of companies that have labeled products or advertised them as being made with renewable energy. It also highlights the avenues companies use to describe their use of renewable energy. The second half of the report focuses on the motivations for making on-product claims about the use of renewable energy and the challenges in doing so.

  15. Status of the Local Enforcement of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Program in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fino-Chen, Cecilia; Fridley, David; Ning, Cao

    2011-09-26

    As part of its commitment to promoting and improving the local enforcement of appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling, the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) launched the National and Local Enforcement of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling project on August 14, 2009. The project’s short-term goal is to expand the effort to improve enforcement of standards and labeling requirements to the entire country within three years, with a long-term goal of perfecting overall enforcement. For this project, Jiangsu, Shandong, Sichuan and Shanghai were selected as pilot locations. This report provides information on the local enforcement project’s recent background, activities and results as well as comparison to previous rounds of check-testing in 2006 and 2007. In addition, the report also offers evaluation on the achievement and weaknesses in the local enforcement scheme and recommendations. The results demonstrate both improvement and some backsliding. Enforcement schemes are in place in all target cities and applicable national standards and regulations were followed as the basis for local check testing. Check testing results show in general high labeling compliance across regions with 100% compliance for five products, including full compliance for all three products tested in Jiangsu province and two out of three products tested in Shandong province. Program results also identified key weaknesses in labeling compliance in Sichuan as well as in the efficiency standards compliance levels for small and medium three-phase asynchronous motors and self-ballasted fluorescent lamps. For example, compliance for the same product ranged from as low as 40% to 100% with mixed results for products that had been tested in previous rounds. For refrigerators, in particular, the efficiency standards compliance rate exhibited a wider range of 50% to 100%, and the average rate across all tested models also dropped from 96% in 2007 to 63%, possibly due to

  16. Comparison of energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water technique with energy intake, heart rate, and activity recording in man

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, S.; Westerterp, K.R.; Brueck, K.

    1989-06-01

    Average daily energy expenditure determined by the doubly labeled water technique (dlwEE) was compared in six subjects (aged 20-30 y) over 2 wk under usual living conditions; average food energy intake and energy expenditure estimated from individual diary records of physical activity. In addition, energy expenditure was estimated from 24-h heart rate recordings carried out on two randomly chosen days of the 2-wk period. The group means of the dlwEE were 1.94 +/- 0.24 (means +/- SD) times larger than resting metabolic rate (= 1.94 met) and nearly identical to the average daily energy intake (1.93 +/- 0.23 met). Energy expenditure estimated from the diaries of activity and from the 24-h heart rate recording varied between 1.67 and 2.24 met depending on the calculation procedure. The dlwEE (1.94 +/- 0.24 met) is much higher than that recently determined for sedentary people (1.25 met) and thus explains that young students may achieve body weight balance with a relatively high daily food energy intake.

  17. Energy expenditure in space flight (doubly labelled water method) (8-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Howard G.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the Energy Expenditure in Space Flight (ESS) experiment is to demonstrate and evaluate the doubly labeled water method of measuring the energy expended by crew members during approximately 7 days in microgravity. The doubly labeled water technique determines carbon dioxide production which is then used to calculate energy expenditure. The method relies on the equilibrium between oxygen in respiratory carbon dioxide and oxygen in body water. Because of this equilibrium, the kinetic of water turnover and respiration are interdependent. Under normal conditions, man contains small but significant amounts of deuterium and oxygen 18. Deuterium is eliminated from the body as water while oxygen 18 is eliminated as water and carbon dioxide. The difference in the turnover rates in the two isotopes is proportional to the carbon dioxide production. Deliberately enriching the total body water with both of these isotopes allows the isotope turnovers to be accurately measured in urine, plasma, or saliva samples. The samples are taken to the laboratory for analysis using an ion-ratio spectrometer.

  18. Comparison of energy estimates in chronic kidney disease using doubly-labelled water.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, S; Wong, J; Vilar, E; Farrington, K

    2016-02-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) is estimated in clinical practice as a combined measure of resting energy expenditure and physical activity level. Commonly available questionnaires to estimate physical activity level have not been validated in patients with kidney disease using the doubly-labelled water method. This prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted on 40 patients with chronic kidney disease stages 1-5 with the objective of validating two physical activity questionnaires: the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ) and the Stanford 7-day recall questionnaire. TEE was measured using doubly-labelled water technique. TEE was also estimated using predicted resting energy expenditure and estimated physical activity measures from the questionnaires. Measured TEE correlated better with TEE estimated from RPAQ compared to that from the Stanford questionnaire. In Bland-Altman analysis, TEE estimated from RPAQ had the least bias and narrower limits of agreement compared to the measured TEE. A metabolic equivalent of task value of 1.3 for the unaccounted time in RPAQ provided the best approximation of estimated TEE to the measured TEE. RPAQ is an acceptable questionnaire tool for assessing physical activity level in patients with chronic kidney disease. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. Energy expenditure in space flight (doubly labelled water method) (8-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Howard G.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the Energy Expenditure in Space Flight (ESS) experiment is to demonstrate and evaluate the doubly labeled water method of measuring the energy expended by crew members during approximately 7 days in microgravity. The doubly labeled water technique determines carbon dioxide production which is then used to calculate energy expenditure. The method relies on the equilibrium between oxygen in respiratory carbon dioxide and oxygen in body water. Because of this equilibrium, the kinetic of water turnover and respiration are interdependent. Under normal conditions, man contains small but significant amounts of deuterium and oxygen 18. Deuterium is eliminated from the body as water while oxygen 18 is eliminated as water and carbon dioxide. The difference in the turnover rates in the two isotopes is proportional to the carbon dioxide production. Deliberately enriching the total body water with both of these isotopes allows the isotope turnovers to be accurately measured in urine, plasma, or saliva samples. The samples are taken to the laboratory for analysis using an ion-ratio spectrometer.

  20. Determinants of the energy costs of light activities: inferences for interpreting doubly labeled water data.

    PubMed

    Schoeller, D A; Jefford, G

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the controversy regarding the means of adjusting the energy cost of physical activity measured by doubly labeled water for differences in body size. We performed a cross-sectional study of the energy costs of carefully reproduced light activities with careful control for fidgeting and other unnecessary movement. :The study was performed in 23 healthy, young to middle aged adults with body masses between 39 and 118 kg. Energy expenditure was measured by respiratory gas exchange while subjects performed controlled light activities representative of activities of daily life. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The energy costs of individual controlled light activities were proportional to body weight except for mock vacuum cleaning. When the energy costs of all five activities were taken together, allometric regression analysis indicated that the energy cost of these light activities was proportional to body weight (slope=0.88+/-0.07), but not to fat-free mass (1.24+/-0.10), fat mass (0.27+/-0.03) or resting metabolic rate (1.43+/-0.12). Normalization of energy expenditure of physical activity by division by body weight is an appropriate means for comparing the volume (intensity x time) of physical activity between individuals of different body size.

  1. An improved label propagation algorithm using average node energy in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hao; Zhao, Dandan; Li, Lin; Lu, Jianfeng; Han, Jianmin; Wu, Songyang

    2016-10-01

    Detecting overlapping community structure can give a significant insight into structural and functional properties in complex networks. In this Letter, we propose an improved label propagation algorithm (LPA) to uncover overlapping community structure. After mapping nodes into random variables, the algorithm calculates variance of each node and the proposed average node energy. The nodes whose variances are less than a tunable threshold are regarded as bridge nodes and meanwhile changing the given threshold can uncover some latent bridge node. Simulation results in real-world and artificial networks show that the improved algorithm is efficient in revealing overlapping community structures.

  2. Contributions of the doubly labeled water method to studies of energy balance in the Third World.

    PubMed

    Coward, W A

    1998-10-01

    Of >250 studies on energy metabolism using the doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, approximately 12 full papers describe work performed in the Third World. Unfortunately, the term "Third World" is imprecise and the focuses of individual studies were too varied to allow much comparison among the data. There is a need to develop a more uniform approach. Useful investigations will allow comparisons of energy metabolism to be made in a consistent way across a variety of socioeconomic groups within the same country, and between the Third World and the developed world, with a commitment to the long term. In this way, the DLW method, if combined with other measurements of activity, energy intake, and body composition, will provide useful information on energy requirements and the consequences of inadequate or excessive energy intakes for the individual. Such investigations should be done, with standard protocols where possible, not just for the DLW method but also for those methods with which DLW should be integrated. Only if these suggestions are followed will real "value for money" be obtained from DLW studies in the Third World or elsewhere. In the context of these criteria, studies in the Third World using the DLW method have been only partly successful.

  3. The Effect of Energy Labelling on Menus and a Social Marketing Campaign on Food-Purchasing Behaviours of University Students.

    PubMed

    Roy, Rajshri; Beattie-Bowers, Jack; Ang, Siew Min; Colagiuri, Stephen; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-08-05

    This study assessed the impact of kilojoule (kJ) labelling alone or accompanied by a social marketing campaign on food sales and selection of less energy-dense meals by young adults from a university food outlet. There were two kJ labelling intervention phases each of five weeks: (1) kJ labelling alone (2) kJ labels with marketing materials ("8700 kJ campaign"). Food sales of labelled items were tracked during each intervention and five weeks after. Food sales during interventions were also compared with historical sales of foods in the same 10-week period in the previous year. A sub sample of young adults (n = 713; aged 19-24) were surveyed during both the interventions to assess awareness, influence, sentiment and anticipated future impact of kJ labels and the social marketing campaign respectively. There were no differences in sales between the kJ labelling with social marketing and the 5-weeks of labelling before and after. The percentage sale of chicken Caesar burger (3580 kJ, P = 0.01), steak and chips (4000 kJ, P = 0.02) and the grill burger (5500 kJ, P = 0.00) were lower in the year with menu labelling and social marketing campaign. Only 30 % students were initially aware of the kJ labels on the menu but 75 % of students were accepting of kJ labelling, after they were made aware. Respondents viewing the marketing campaign elements and then using kJ values on the menu selected meals with a lower mean energy content; constituting a reduction of 978 kJ (p < 0.01) even though the majority claimed that the 8700 kJ campaign would not impact their food choices. Point-of-purchase energy labelling may be an effective method to encourage better food choices when eating out among young adults. However, further efforts to increase awareness and provide education about energy requirements to prevent weight gain will be needed.

  4. Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory; Webber, Carrie

    2008-06-03

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 Tg C and 107 Tg C (1993 to 2006) and between 132 Tg C and 278 Tg C (2007 to 2015).

  5. Development and implementation of energy efficiency standards and labeling programs in China: Progress and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Khanna, Nina Zheng; Fridley, David; Romankiewicz, John

    2013-01-31

    Over the last twenty years, with growing policy emphasis on improving energy efficiency and reducing environmental pollution and carbon emissions, China has implemented a series of new minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and mandatory and voluntary energy labels to improve appliance energy efficiency. As China begins planning for the next phase of standards and labeling (S&L) program development under the 12th Five Year Plan, an evaluation of recent program developments and future directions is needed to identify gaps that still exist when compared with international best practices. The review of China’s S&L program development and implementation in comparison with major findings from international experiences reveal that there are still areas of improvement, particularly when compared to success factors observed across leading international S&L program. China currently lacks a formalized regulatory process for standard-setting and do not have any legal or regulatory guidance on elements of S&L development such as stakeholder participation or the issue of legal precedence between conflicting national, industrial and local standards. Consequently, China’s laws regarding standard-setting and management of the mandatory energy label program could be updated, as they have not been amended or revised recently and no longer reflects the current situation. While China uses similar principles for choosing target products as the U.S., Australia, EU and Japan, including high energy-consumption, mature industry and testing procedure and stakeholder support, recent MEPS revisions have generally aimed at only eliminating the bottom 20% efficiency of the market. Setting a firm principle based on maximizing energy savings that are technically feasible and economically justified may help improve the stringency of China’s MEPS program and reduce the need for frequent revisions. China also lacks robust survey data and relies primarily on market research data in

  6. Energy-Efficiency Labels and Standards: A Guidebook forAppliances, Equipment, and Lighting - 2nd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Wiel, Stephen; McMahon, James E.

    2005-04-28

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and several other organizations identified on the cover of this guidebook recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This second edition of the guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year, four years after the preparation of the first edition, with a significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation helps maintain this book as the international guidance tool it has become. The lead authors would like to thank the members of the Communications Office of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development

  7. Energy expenditure estimated by accelerometry and doubly labeled water: do they agree?

    PubMed

    Leenders, Nicole Y; Sherman, William Michael; Nagaraja, Haikady N

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare energy expenditure derived from regression equations determined from accelerometry with energy expenditure obtained from the doubly labeled water method (DLW). Thirteen subjects participated in a 7-d protocol during which total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was measured with DLW. Simultaneously, during the 7 d, subjects wore a Tritrac-R3D and an Actigraph (ACT). Pearson and concordance correlations and one-sample t-tests were used to determine the agreement of six Tritrac and eight ACT regression equations that convert body acceleration to energy expenditure with the DLW measurements. Tritrac TDEE determined from the different Tritrac regression equations under- and overestimated TDEE determined with DLW that ranged from -10 to +101%. For ACT, the percent difference between DLW and ACT-TDEE determined with the regression equation developed by Hendelman and Swartz were not statistically significantly different from zero. The mean of the difference was -2 and -4%, but the range of the difference was large for both equations, -29 to +24%. TDEE determined with the six other ACT equations were significantly different compared with DLW. Of the 14 different regression equations from the literature, only two developed for ACT compared favorably with DLW; however, the difference in TDEE between these two methods was variable and rather large. These results reemphasize the difficulty in converting body movement into energy expenditure on an individual basis from accelerometry. These results imply that researchers may want to avoid using accelerometers to predict energy expenditure in free-living conditions, instead using these instruments only to measure patterns of physical activity.

  8. Energy Expenditure in Older Adults Who Are Frail: A Doubly Labeled Water Study.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Bastone, Alessandra; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Pfrimer, Karina; de Souza Moreira, Bruno; Diz, Juliano Bergamaschine Mata; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa

    2017-08-03

    Frailty is a common and important geriatric syndrome, distinct from any single chronic disease, and an independent predictor of mortality. It is characterized by age-associated decline in physiological reserve and function across multiple systems, culminating in a vicious cycle of altered energy expenditure. The total energy expenditure (TEE) of an individual includes the resting metabolic rate (RMR), the thermic effect of feeding, and the energy expenditure in physical activity (PAEE). The investigation of the energy expenditure of older adults who are frail is essential for better understanding the syndrome. Therefore, we compared the RMR, the PAEE, the physical activity level (PAL), and the TEE of older adults who were frail with those who were not frail. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 26 community-dwelling older adults (66-86 years of age). Older adults in the frail and nonfrail groups were matched for age and gender, and the matched pairs were randomly selected to continue the study. The RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry. The TEE was obtained by the multipoint, doubly labeled water method. After collecting a baseline urine sample, each participant received an oral dose of doubly labeled water composed of deuterium oxide and oxygen-18 (H2O). Subsequently, urine samples were collected on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 7th, 12th, 13th, and 14th days after the baseline collection and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The older adults who were frail presented significantly lower PAEE (1453.7 [1561.9] vs 3336.1 [1829.3] kj/d, P < .01), PAL (1.4 [0.3] vs 1.9 [0.6], P = .04), and TEE (7919.0 [2151.9] vs 10442.4 [2148.0] kj/d, P < .01) than the older adults who were nonfrail. There was no difference in their RMRs (5673.3 [1569.2] vs 6062.0 [1891.7] kj/d, P = .57). Frailty has been associated with a smaller lean body mass and with a disease-related hypermetabolic state, which might explain the lack of difference in the RMR. The PAL of the older adults who were frail

  9. Validation of doubly labeled water method for energy expenditure in postsurgical infants

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.J.H.; Winthrop, A.L.; Schoeller, D.A.; Swyer, P.R.; Filler, R.M.; Smith, J.M.; Heim, T.

    1986-03-05

    To validate the doubly labeled water method (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ /sup 18/O) in infants without concurrent water balance, carbon dioxide production rate (rCO/sub 2/) and energy expenditure (EE) were measured for 5 or 6 days by /sup 2/H/sub 2/ /sup 18/O and periodic open circuit respiratory gas exchange in 5 infants (mean age: 5.3 wk, range 1-14 wk). Following abdominal surgery (mean = 10.3 d, range 7-18 d), infants were maintained on constant oral or parenteral nutrition 4 d prior to and during the study. This avoided changes in baseline isotopic enrichment of body water diet induced changes in relative isotopic abundance of /sup 2/H and /sup 18/O could introduce significant errors in rCO/sub 2/. For /sup 2/H/sub 2/ /sub 1//sup 8/O, they assumed insensible water loss would be proportional to respiration volume and body surface area and hence rCO/sub 2/. This calculated insensible loss averaged 18% of water turnover. EE was calculated using measured respiratory quotients (m) and dietary intake (i) data. In 6 blinded studies with 5 infants, rCO/sub 2/ = 34.2 L/d (range 27.3-48.0), EE = 191 kcal/d (133-266) and EE/sub i/ = 197 kcal/d (138-281). Percent differences (+/- SD) from respiratory gas exchange were -1.1 +/- 5.8, -1.1 +/- 5.8, and 1.4 +/- 5.2, respectively. These findings demonstrate the validity of the doubly labeled water method for determining energy expenditure without concurrent water balance studies.

  10. Total energy expenditure as measured by doubly-labeled water in outpatients with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Kotler, L A; Devlin, M J; Matthews, D E; Walsh, B T

    2001-05-01

    This study measured total energy expenditure (TEE) in symptomatic outpatient women with bulimia nervosa and normal controls. The study aimed to test the conceptual model of bulimia nervosa as an illness characterized by a physiological state of starvation, despite normal weight. Total fat and fat-free mass were measured using hydrodensitometry and total energy expenditure was assessed via the doubly-labeled water method, in nine normal weight outpatient females with DSM-III-R bulimia nervosa and ten healthy female controls. Patients and controls were similar in age, body mass index, weight, lean body mass, and levels of exercise and general activity. Patients had an average baseline binge frequency of 14.7 episodes per week and purge frequency of 16.8 times per week, and had been ill for an average of 11.9 years. Group mean TEE did not differ between patients and controls (patients 2380 +/- 482 kcal/day, controls 2368 +/- 515 kcal day). Observed TEE in the bulimic subjects did not differ significantly from TEE predicted on the basis of data from the controls. This finding of normal TEE in symptomatic outpatients with bulimia nervosa is consistent with a previous study that found no difference in TEE in a sample of symptomatic inpatients with bulimia nervosa. These data suggest that the energy conserving metabolic adaptations characteristic of semi-starvation do not occur in patients with bulimia nervosa. Copyright 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Total energy expenditure in burned children using the doubly labeled water technique

    SciTech Connect

    Goran, M.I.; Peters, E.J.; Herndon, D.N.; Wolfe, R.R. )

    1990-10-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured in 15 burned children with the doubly labeled water technique. Application of the technique in burned children required evaluation of potential errors resulting from nutritional intake altering background enrichments during studies and from the high rate of water turnover relative to CO2 production. Five studies were discarded because of these potential problems. TEE was 1.33 +/- 0.27 times predicted basal energy expenditure (BEE), and in studies where resting energy expenditure (REE) was simultaneously measured, TEE was 1.18 +/- 0.17 times REE, which in turn was 1.16 +/- 0.10 times predicted BEE. TEE was significantly correlated with measured REE (r2 = 0.92) but not with predicted BEE. These studies substantiate the advantage of measuring REE to predict TEE in severely burned patients as opposed to relying on standardized equations. Therefore we recommend that optimal nutritional support will be achieved in convalescent burned children by multiplying REE by an activity factor of 1.2.

  12. Assessing Energy Requirements in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Comparison Against Doubly Labeled Water.

    PubMed

    Broskey, Nicholas T; Klempel, Monica C; Gilmore, L Anne; Sutton, Elizabeth F; Altazan, Abby D; Burton, Jeffrey H; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M

    2017-06-01

    Weight loss is prescribed to offset the deleterious consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but a successful intervention requires an accurate assessment of energy requirements. Describe energy requirements in women with PCOS and evaluate common prediction equations compared with doubly labeled water (DLW). Cross-sectional study. Academic research center. Twenty-eight weight-stable women with PCOS completed a 14-day DLW study along with measures of body composition and resting metabolic rate and assessment of physical activity by accelerometry. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) determined by DLW. TDEE was 2661 ± 373 kcal/d. TDEE estimated from four commonly used equations was within 4% to 6% of the TDEE measured by DLW. Hyperinsulinemia (fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) was associated with TDEE estimates from all prediction equations (both r = 0.45; P = 0.02) but was not a significant covariate in a model that predicts TDEE. Similarly, hyperandrogenemia (total testosterone, free androgen index, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) was not associated with TDEE. In weight-stable women with PCOS, the following equation derived from DLW can be used to determine energy requirements: TDEE (kcal/d) = 438 - [1.6 * Fat Mass (kg)] + [35.1 * Fat-Free Mass (kg)] + [16.2 * Age (y)]; R2 = 0.41; P = 0.005. Established equations using weight, height, and age performed well for predicting energy requirements in weight-stable women with PCOS, but more precise estimates require an accurate assessment of physical activity. Our equation derived from DLW data, which incorporates habitual physical activity, can also be used in women with PCOS; however, additional studies are needed for model validation.

  13. What types of nutrition menu labelling lead consumers to select less energy-dense fast food? An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Morley, Belinda; Scully, Maree; Martin, Jane; Niven, Philippa; Dixon, Helen; Wakefield, Melanie

    2013-08-01

    This study assessed whether the inclusion of kilojoule labelling alone or accompanied by further nutrition information on menus led adults to select less energy-dense fast food meals. A between-subjects experimental design was used with online menu boards systematically varied to test the following labelling conditions: none (control); kilojoule; kilojoule+percent daily intake; kilojoule+traffic light; and kilojoule+traffic light+percent daily intake. Respondents were 1294 adults aged 18-49 in Victoria, Australia who had purchased fast food in the last month and were randomly assigned to conditions. Respondents in the no labelling condition selected meals with the highest mean energy content and those viewing the kilojoule and kilojoule+traffic light information selected meals with a significantly lower mean energy content, that constituted a reduction of around 500kJ (120kcal). Respondents most commonly reported using the traffic light labels in making their selections. These findings provide support for the policy of disclosure of energy content on menus at restaurant chains. Given the magnitude of the reduction in energy density reported, and the prevalence of fast food consumption, this policy initiative has the potential to yield health benefits at the population level.

  14. Fluorescence energy transfer efficiency in labeled yeast cytochrome c: a rapid screen for ion biocompatibility in aqueous ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Sheila N; Zhao, Hua; Pandey, Siddharth; Heller, William T; Bright, Frank; Baker, Gary A

    2011-01-01

    A fluorescence energy transfer de-quenching assay was implemented to follow the equilibrium unfolding behaviour of site-specific tetramethylrhodamine-labelled yeast cytochrome c in aqueous ionic liquid solutions; additionally, this approach offers the prospect of naked eye screening for biocompatible ion combinations in hydrated ionic liquids.

  15. Energy Requirement Assessment in Japanese Table Tennis Players Using the Doubly Labeled Water Method.

    PubMed

    Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Hamaguchi, Genki; Toguchi, Makiko; Ichikawa, Mamiko; Yamada, Yosuke; Ebine, Naoyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2017-05-22

    Total daily energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity level (PAL) are important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The PAL of table tennis has been estimated to about 2.0: it is categorized as a moderate-activity sport (4.0 metabolic equivalents [METs]) in the Compendium of Physical Activities. However, modern table tennis makes high physiological demands. The aims of the present study were to examine (1) TEE and PAL of competitive table tennis players and (2) the physiological demands of various types of table tennis practice. In Experiment 1, we measured TEE and PAL in 10 Japanese college competitive table tennis players (aged 19.9 ± 1.1 years) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method during training and with an exercise training log and self-reported energy intake. TEE was 15.5 ± 1.9 MJ·day(-1) (3695 ± 449 kcal·day(-1)); PAL was 2.53 ± 0.25; and the average training duration was 181 ± 38 min·day(-1). In Experiment 2, we measured METs of five different practices in seven college competition players (20.6 ± 1.2 years). Three practices without footwork were 4.5-5.2 METs, and two practices with footwork were 9.5-11.5 METs. Table tennis practices averaged 7.1 ± 3.2 METS demonstrating similarities with other vigorous racket sports. In conclusion the current Compendium of Physical Activities underestimates the physiological demands of table tennis practice for competition; the estimated energy requirement should be based on DLW method data.

  16. Generation of an intramolecular three-color fluorescence resonance energy transfer probe by site-specific protein labeling.

    PubMed

    Voss, Stephanie; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Xi; Gerhard, Frank; Wu, Yao-Wen

    2014-02-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a valuable tool for studying protein structure, folding and interactions. The steep distance dependence of the FRET efficiency requires the donor and acceptor to be in close proximity (1-7.5 nm) to exhibit sufficient energy transfer. One possibility to overcome this limitation is the usage of a FRET cascade that utilizes more than one FRET pair. Essential for realizing this FRET cascade is the site-specific introduction of multiple fluorophores to a given protein, which remains a great challenge. In this study, orthogonal labeling techniques, including fluorescent protein tagging, oxime ligation and kinetically controlled cysteine conjugation, are employed to introduce three fluorophores at specific sites of Rab1b GTPase, yielding a triple-labeled FRET probe. The generated protein probe exhibits efficient energy transfer from the primary donor enhanced green fluorescent protein over the intermediate acceptor rhodamine to the final acceptor Dy630. The labeling strategy opens up a new avenue for multi-color labeling of proteins, facilitating long-distance FRET studies. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Special Considerations for Measuring Energy Expenditure with Doubly Labeled Water under Atypical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bhutani, Surabhi; Racine, Natalie; Shriver, Tim; Schoeller, Dale A

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity has dramatically increased interest in understanding the factors that influence human total energy expenditure (TEE). This in turn has increased interest in the doubly labeled water (DLW) method, a technique for measurement of total energy expenditure in free-living humans. The increasing use of this method is attributed to its portability, objectivity, minimal invasiveness, high accuracy and good precision. Although a relatively standard protocol for the method has emerged, the new generation of users often is unfamiliar with rationale behind aspects of the protocol as well as the approaches to avoid or correct for in situations that are not covered by the standard protocol procedure. The primary uncommon situations like introduction of isotopically different diet and fluids with or without geographical relocation, seasonal and temperature variations, activity level of participants etc. during or prior to the DLW measurements can lead to shift in baseline abundance of 2H and 18O or tracer elimination, resulting in moderate to large errors in the measured TEE. These unique situations call for special modifications to the conventional protocol to minimize errors. The objective of the present review was to assemble a list of frequently asked questions and the issues they represent, and then examine the available literature to describe and explain the modifications to the standard DLW protocol to maintain the method’s accuracy. This discussion of DLW protocol modification can be an excellent resource for investigators who intend to use this measurement technique for interesting and uncommon study designs. PMID:26962472

  18. The Analysis on Influence of Main Factors on Theoretical Value of Energy Saving Rate for Energy Efficiency Labeling of Civil Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Zhenling; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Fan; Li, Peng; Cao, Wei

    For typical residential buildings, no-large-scale and large-scale public buildings, according to China's Technical Guide for the Energy Efficiency Labeling of Civil Buildings, makes up missing data of the calculation benchmark and determines the boundary conditions for calculating the theoretical values of civil building energy efficiency. Based on equivalent full load hours method, develops a modular program and calculates building energy consumption for the demands of dynamic cooling and heating and lighting etc., finds out the corresponding relationship between star level's theoretical value of energy saving rate and specified-term limiting value in the Guide. With orthogonal experimental design and multiple linear regression, establishes the quantitative function of both the theoretical value of energy saving rate and main factors parameters, analyzes the impact of the control parameter on energy saving rate, and reveals the law of theoretical value of energy saving rate variation with the control parameter. For building energy efficiency labeling upgrade, presents technical measure need to be taken and analyses its feasibility. The results from the study can provide theoretical guidance for energy-saving design or retrofitting of civil buildings.

  19. A rapid analytical technique for the determination of energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method.

    PubMed

    Barrie, A; Coward, W A

    1985-09-01

    The doubly labelled water method involves the administration of water enriched in 2H and 18O followed by determination of the turnover rates of these isotopes. Since 18O is eliminated from the body as both CO2 and water, while 2H leaves only as water, the difference between the two turnover rates provides a measure of CO2 production and hence energy expenditure. Isotopic analysis by conventional stable isotope ratio analysis (SIRA) is labour intensive and time consuming, as it requires off-line conversion of water samples to gases (H2 and CO2) followed by sequential analysis for each of the two isotopes using the mass spectrometer. Lack of suitable automated instrumentation with the ability to process large numbers of samples has prevented routine application of the method. We describe here an automated technique in which body water samples (urine, saliva, breath water or milk) are analysed simultaneously for 2H and 18O. The single bench system comprises two mass spectrometer analysers, one for measuring 2H from H2 gas, the other for measuring 18O from the water vapour (masses 18, 20). Both analysers share a common heated inlet system into which microlitre quantities of the body fluids are injected from an autosampler (102 samples). The water vapour flows both directly to one analyser for 18O measurement and into a uranium reduction furnace for conversion to H2, prior to 2H measurement by the second analyser. Both analysers also share vacuum and electronic components, enabling savings in both space and cost. In this paper we present results illustrating performance characteristics and procedures for routine application to human subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards and Labeling Programs for Clothes Washers, Water Dispensers, Vending Machines and CFLs

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2010-06-01

    Since the late 1970s, energy labeling programs and mandatory energy performance standards have been used in many different countries to improve the efficiency levels of major residential and commercial equipment. As more countries and regions launch programs covering a greater range of products that are traded worldwide, greater attention has been given to harmonizing the specific efficiency criteria in these programs and the test methods for measurements. For example, an international compact fluorescent light (CFL) harmonization initiative was launched in 2006 to focus on collaboration between Australia, China, Europe and North America. Given the long history of standards and labeling programs, most major energy-consuming residential appliances and commercial equipment are already covered under minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and/or energy labels. For these products, such as clothes washers and CFLs, harmonization may still be possible when national MEPS or labeling thresholds are revised. Greater opportunity for harmonization exists in newer energy-consuming products that are not commonly regulated but are under consideration for new standards and labeling programs. This may include commercial products such as water dispensers and vending machines, which are only covered by MEPS or energy labels in a few countries or regions. As China continues to expand its appliance standards and labeling programs and revise existing standards and labels, it is important to learn from recent international experiences with efficiency criteria and test procedures for the same products. Specifically, various types of standards and labeling programs already exist in North America, Europe and throughout Asia for products in China's 2010 standards and labeling programs, namely clothes washers, water dispensers, vending machines and CFLs. This report thus examines similarities and critical differences in energy efficiency values, test procedure specifications and other

  1. Label-free proteomics uncovers energy metabolism and focal adhesion regulations responsive for endometrium receptivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Zhang, Aijun; Yu, Feng; Gao, Jing; Liu, Yue; Yu, Chengli; Zhou, Hu; Xu, Chen

    2015-04-03

    The menstrual cycle of the female uterus leads to periodic changes of the endometrium. These changes are important for developing the endometrial receptivity and for achieving competency of embryo implantation. However, the molecular events underlying the endometrial receptivity process remain poorly understood. Here we applied an LC-MS-based label-free quantitative proteomic approach to compare the endometrial tissues in the midsecretory (receptive) phase with the endometrial tissues in the proliferative phase from age-matched woman (n = 6/group). The proteomes of endometrial tissues were extracted using an SDS-based detergent, digested by the filter-aided sample preparation procedures, and subsequently analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS (Orbitrap XL) with a 4 h gradient. Reliable protein expression profiles were reproducibly obtained from the endometrial tissues in the receptive and proliferative phases. A total of 2138 protein groups were quantified under highly stringent criteria with a false discovery rate of <1% for peptide and protein groups. Among these proteins, 317 proteins had differences in expression that were statistically significant between the receptive and proliferative phases. Direct protein-protein interaction network analyses of these significantly changed proteins showed that the up-regulation of creatine kinase B-type (CKB) in the receptive phase may be related to endometrium receptivity. The interaction network also showed that proteins related to cell-cell adhesion were down-regulated. Moreover, the results from KEGG pathway analyses are consistent with the protein-protein interaction results. The proteins, including alpha-actinin (ACTN), extracellular matrix proteins, integrin alpha-V, and so on, that are involved in the focal adhesion pathway were down-regulated in the receptive phase compared with the proliferative phase, which may facilitate the implantation of the fertilized ovum. Selected proteins were validated by Western blot analysis and

  2. A new model for predicting energy requirements of children during catch-up growth developed using doubly labeled water.

    PubMed

    Fjeld, C R; Schoeller, D A; Brown, K H

    1989-05-01

    Energy partitioned to maintenance plus activity, tissue synthesis, and storage was measured in 41 children in early recovery [W/L (wt/length) less than 5th percentile] from severe protein-energy malnutrition and in late recovery (W/L = 25th percentile) to determine energy requirements during catch-up growth. Metabolizable energy intake was measured by bomb calorimetry and metabolic collections. Energy expended (means +/- SD) for maintenance and activity estimated by the doubly labeled water method was 97 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM (fat-free mass) in early recovery and 98 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM in late recovery (p greater than 0.5). Energy stored was 5-6 kcal/g of wt gain. Tissue synthesis increased energy expenditure by 1 +/- 0.7 kcal/g gain in both early and late recovery. From these data a mathematical model was developed to predict energy requirements for children during catch-up growth as a function of initial body composition and rate and composition of wt gain. The model for predicting metabolizable energy requirements is [(98 x FFM + A (11.1 B + 2.2 C)], kcal/kg.d, where FFM is fat-free mass expressed as a percentage of body wt, A is wt gain (g/kg.d), B and C are percentage of wt gain/100 as fat and FFM, respectively. The model was tested retrospectively in separate studies of malnourished children.

  3. Quantification of excess vacancy defects from high-energy ion implantation in Si by Au labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyanaraman, R.; Haynes, T. E.; Venezia, V. C.; Jacobson, D. C.; Gossmann, H.-J.; Rafferty, C. S.

    2000-06-01

    It has been shown recently that Au labeling [V. C. Venezia, D. J. Eaglesham, T. E. Haynes, A. Agarwal, D. C. Jacobson, H.-J. Gossmann, and F. H. Baumann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2980 (1998)] can be used to profile vacancy-type defects located near half the projected range (1/2 Rp) in MeV-implanted Si. In this letter, we have determined the ratio of vacancies annihilated to Au atoms trapped (calibration factor "k") for the Au-labeling technique. The calibration experiment consisted of three steps: (1) a 2 MeV Si+ implant into Si(100) followed by annealing at 815 °C to form stable excess vacancy defects; (2) controlled injection of interstitials in the 1/2 Rp region of the above implant via 600 keV Si+ ions followed by annealing to dissolve the {311} defects; and (3) Au labeling. The reduction in Au concentration in the near-surface region (0.1-1.6 μm) with increasing interstitial injection provides the most direct evidence so far that Au labeling detects the vacancy-type defects. By correlating this reduction in Au with the known number of interstitials injected, it was determined that k=1.2±0.2 vacancies per trapped Au atom.

  4. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  5. Quantum dot and Cy5.5 labeled nanoparticles to investigate lipoprotein biointeractions via Förster resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Skajaa, Torjus; Zhao, Yiming; van den Heuvel, Dave J; Gerritsen, Hans C; Cormode, David P; Koole, Rolf; van Schooneveld, Matti M; Post, Jan Andries; Fisher, Edward A; Fayad, Zahi A; de Mello Donega, Celso; Meijerink, Andries; Mulder, Willem J M

    2010-12-08

    The study of lipoproteins, natural nanoparticles comprised of lipids and apolipoproteins that transport fats throughout the body, is of key importance to better understand, treat, and prevent cardiovascular disease. In the current study, we have developed a lipoprotein-based nanoparticle that consists of a quantum dot (QD) core and Cy5.5 labeled lipidic coating. The methodology allows judicious tuning of the QD/Cy5.5 ratio, which enabled us to optimize Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the QD core and the Cy5.5-labeled coating. This phenomenon allowed us to study lipoprotein-lipoprotein interactions, lipid exchange dynamics, and the influence of apolipoproteins on these processes. Moreover, we were able to study HDL-cell interactions and exploit FRET to visualize HDL association with live macrophage cells.

  6. Does an energy efficiency label alter consumers' purchasing decisions? A latent class approach based on a stated choice experiment in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Shen, Junyi; Saijo, Tatsuyoshi

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we conducted a hypothetical choice experiment in Shanghai, China, to examine whether the China Energy Efficiency Label influences consumers' choices of air conditioners and refrigerators. A latent class approach was applied to observe both heterogeneities among the respondents and product brands. Our results suggested that consumers in Shanghai were well aware of the China Energy Efficiency Label and tended to pay more attention to products with such labels. In addition, air conditioners and refrigerators affixed with a hypothetical label that indicates saving in electricity bills compared with a standard model received significant preferences, which suggested that the more information manufacturers provide, the more their products would be preferred by consumers. Finally, weighted by class probability, the willingness to pay values for more energy efficient refrigerators were higher than those for more energy efficient air conditioners, implying that Shanghai consumers have greater incentive to pay more for appliances they use more frequently.

  7. Double-labeled donor probe can enhance the signal of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in detection of nucleic acid hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Yukio; Kondo, Satoshi; Sase, Ichiro; Suga, Takayuki; Mise, Kazuyuki; Furusawa, Iwao; Kawakami, Shigeki; Watanabe, Yuichiro

    2000-01-01

    A set of fluorescently-labeled DNA probes that hybridize with the target RNA and produce fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) signals can be utilized for the detection of specific RNA. We have developed probe sets to detect and discriminate single-strand RNA molecules of plant viral genome, and sought a method to improve the FRET signals to handle in vivo applications. Consequently, we found that a double-labeled donor probe labeled with Bodipy dye yielded a remarkable increase in fluorescence intensity compared to a single-labeled donor probe used in an ordinary FRET. This double-labeled donor system can be easily applied to improve various FRET probes since the dependence upon sequence and label position in enhancement is not as strict. Furthermore this method could be applied to other nucleic acid substances, such as oligo RNA and phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (S-oligos) to enhance FRET signal. Although the double-labeled donor probes labeled with a variety of fluorophores had unexpected properties (strange UV-visible absorption spectra, decrease of intensity and decay of donor fluorescence) compared with single-labeled ones, they had no relation to FRET enhancement. This signal amplification mechanism cannot be explained simply based on our current results and knowledge of FRET. Yet it is possible to utilize this double-labeled donor system in various applications of FRET as a simple signal-enhancement method. PMID:11121494

  8. Estimating free-living human energy expenditure: Practical aspects of the doubly labeled water method and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Kazuko, Ishikawa-Takata; Kim, Eunkyung; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Jinsook

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy and noninvasive nature of the doubly labeled water (DLW) method makes it ideal for the study of human energy metabolism in free-living conditions. However, the DLW method is not always practical in many developing and Asian countries because of the high costs of isotopes and equipment for isotope analysis as well as the expertise required for analysis. This review provides information about the theoretical background and practical aspects of the DLW method, including optimal dose, basic protocols of two- and multiple-point approaches, experimental procedures, and isotopic analysis. We also introduce applications of DLW data, such as determining the equations of estimated energy requirement and validation studies of energy intake. PMID:24944767

  9. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  10. Evidence of negative energy balance using doubly labelled water in elite Kenyan endurance runners prior to competition.

    PubMed

    Fudge, Barry W; Westerterp, Klaas R; Kiplamai, Festus K; Onywera, Vincent O; Boit, Michael K; Kayser, Bengt; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have found Kenyan endurance runners to be in negative energy balance during training and prior to competition. The aim of the present study was to assess energy balance in nine elite Kenyan endurance runners during heavy training. Energy intake and expenditure were determined over 7 d using weighed dietary intake and doubly labelled water, respectively. Athletes were on average in negative energy balance (mean energy intake 13 241 (SD 1330) kJ/d v. mean energy expenditure 14 611 (SD 1043) kJ/d; P=0.046), although there was no loss in body mass (mean 56.0 (SD 3.4) kg v. 55.7 (SD 3.6) kg; P=0.285). The calculation of underreporting was 13 % (range -24 to +9 %) and almost entirely accounted for by undereating (9 % (range -55 to +39 %)) as opposed to a lack of significant underrecording (i.e. total water intake was no different from water loss (mean 4.2 (SD 0.6) l/d v. 4.5 (SD 0.8) l/d; P=0.496)). Fluid intake was modest and consisted mainly of water (0.9 (SD 0.5) l/d) and milky tea (0.9 (SD 0.3) l/d). The diet was high in carbohydrate (67.3 (SD 7.8) %) and sufficient in protein (15.3 (SD 4.0) %) and fat (17.4 (SD 3.9) %). These results confirm previous observations that Kenyan runners are in negative energy balance during periods of intense training. A negative energy balance would result in a reduction in body mass, which, when combined with a high carbohydrate diet, would have the potential in the short term to enhance endurance running performance by reducing the energy cost of running.

  11. Behavioral Perspectives on Home Energy Audits: The Role of Auditors, Labels, Reports, and Audit Tools on Homeowner Decision Making

    SciTech Connect

    Ingle, Aaron; Moezzi, Mithra; Lutzhenhiser, Loren; Hathaway, Zac; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Clock, Joe Van; Peters, Jane; Smith, Rebecca; Heslam, David; Diamond, Richard C.

    2012-07-31

    Our study focused on the perspective of homeowner decision-­making in response to home energy audits, combined with attention to the quality of the recommendations that homeowners receive, as well as the perspectives of some key industry actors on auditing and home energy labels. Unlike a program evaluation, the research was not designed to answer detailed questions about program effectiveness in terms of costs, savings, or process, nor was it designed to provide direct answers to questions of how to get people to do more audits or more retrofits. Rather it “steps back” toward a better understanding of more basic questions about what audits provide and what homeowners seem to want, for the case of one particular program that we expect has parallels to many others.

  12. Dietary energy requirements of young adult men, determined by using the doubly labeled water method

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S.B.; Heyman, M.B.; Evans, W.J.; Fuss, P.; Tsay, R.; Young, V.R. )

    1991-09-01

    The autors examined the hypothesis that current recommendations on dietary energy requirements may underestimate the total energy needs of young adult men, by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting energy expenditure (REE) in 14 weight-maintaining healthy subjects leading unrestricted lives. TEE and body composition were measured by using 2H(2)18O, and REE was measured by using indirect calorimetry. All subjects had sedentary full-time occupations and participated in strenuous leisure activities for 34 {plus minus} 6 (SE) min/d. TEE and REE were 14.61 {plus minus} 0.76 and 7.39 {plus minus} 0.26 MJ/d, respectively, and 202 {plus minus} 2 and 122 {plus minus} 2 kJ.kg-1.d-1. There were significant relationships between TEE and both body fat-free mass (r = 0.732, P less than 0.005) and measured REE (r = 0.568, P less than 0.05). Measured TEE:REE values were significantly higher than the recommended energy requirement (1.98 {plus minus} 0.09, compared with 1.55 or 1.67, P less than 0.005). These results are consistent with the suggestion that the current recommended energy intake for young adult men may underestimate total energy needs.

  13. Validity of the Modified Baecke Questionnaire: comparison with energy expenditure according to the doubly labeled water method

    PubMed Central

    Hertogh, Emmy M; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Schouten, Evert G; Peeters, Petra HM; Schuit, Albertine J

    2008-01-01

    Background In epidemiological research, physical activity is usually assessed by questionnaires. Questionnaires are suitable for large study populations since they are relatively inexpensive and not very time consuming. However, questionnaire information is by definition subjective and prone to recall bias, especially among elderly subjects. The Modified Baecke Questionnaire, developed by Voorrips and coworkers, measures habitual physical activity in the elderly. The questionnaire includes questions on household activities, sports, and leisure time activities, over a time period of one year. The Modified Baecke Questionnaire results in a score to classify people as high, moderate, or low in daily physical activity, based on tertiles. Methods The validity of the Modified Baecke Questionnaire score was assessed among 21 elderly men and women using the doubly labeled water method as the reference criterion. This method is considered to be the gold standard for measuring energy expenditure in free-living individuals. Energy expenditure on physical activity is estimated by the ratio of total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water method and resting metabolic rate measured by indirect calorimetry. This ratio is called the physical activity ratio. Results The Spearman correlation coefficient between the questionnaire score and the physical activity ratio (PAR) was 0.54 (95% CI 0.22–0.66). Correct classification by the questionnaire occurred in 71% of participants who were in the lowest tertile of PAR, in 14% of participants in the middle tertile, and in 43% of participants in the highest tertile. Subjects were not wrongly classified in an opposite tertile. Conclusion The validity of the Modified Baecke Questionnaire is fair-to-moderate. This study shows that the questionnaire can correctly classify individuals as low or high active, but does a poor job for moderately active individuals. PMID:18505554

  14. Assessment of energy requirements in patients with short bowel syndrome by using the doubly labeled water method.

    PubMed

    Fassini, Priscila Giacomo; Pfrimer, Karina; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Suen, Vivian Miguel Marques; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio; Das, Sai Krupa

    2016-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a serious malabsorption disorder, and dietetic management of patients with SBS is extremely challenging. Once the degree of undernutrition has been assessed, successful dietary intervention is contingent on an accurate estimation and provision of energy needs. We quantified total energy expenditure (TEE) in patients with SBS by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to inform energy needs and nutritional therapy goals. In this observational study, TEE was measured in 22 participants, 11 with SBS and 11 sex-, age-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (non-SBS), for 14 d with the DLW method. Predicted energy requirements were determined by using the Escott-Stump equation and compared with TEE determined with DLW. Resting energy expenditure was measured by using indirect calorimetry, and an accelerometer was also used to determine physical activity level. Participants were aged (mean ± SD) 53 ± 8 y. Measured TEE was significantly higher than predicted TEE for the SBS group (1875 ± 276 compared with 1517 ± 175 kcal/d, P = 0.001) and also for the non-SBS group (2393 ± 445 compared with 1532 ± 178 kcal/d, P < 0.01). Measured TEE was significantly lower in the SBS group than in the non-SBS group (P < 0.01); however, predicted TEE did not differ significantly between the groups (P = 0.84). No significant differences were seen between measured and predicted resting energy expenditure either within or between groups. Measured TEE in patients with SBS was significantly higher than predicted by using standard equations but also lower than values for age-, BMI-, and sex-matched non-SBS controls. Currently used formulas in clinical practice appear to underestimate energy requirements of patients with SBS, and revision is needed to prevent underfeeding and improve long-term prognosis. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02113228. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Simultaneous measurement of free-living energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method and heart-rate monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Livingstone, M.B.; Prentice, A.M.; Coward, W.A.; Ceesay, S.M.; Strain, J.J.; McKenna, P.G.; Nevin, G.B.; Barker, M.E.; Hickey, R.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured simultaneously in 14 free-living adults over 15 d by the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and for 2-4 separate days by heart-rate (HR) monitoring. Individual curves for HR vs oxygen consumption (VO2) were obtained and an HR (FLEX HR: 97 +/- 8 beats/min, range 84-113 beats/min) that discriminated between rest and activity was identified. Calibration curves were used to assign an energy value to daytime HR above FLEX HR. Below FLEX HR energy expenditure was taken as resting metabolism. Sleeping energy expenditure was assumed to be equal to basal metabolic rate. Average HR TEE (12.99 +/- 3.83 MJ/d) and average DLW TEE (12.89 +/- 3.80 MJ/d) were similar. HR TEE discrepancies ranged from -22.2% to +52.1%, with nine values lying within +/- 10% of DLW TEE estimates. The FLEX HR method provides a close estimation of the TEE of population groups. However, an increased number of sampling days may improve the precision of individual estimates of TEE.

  16. Facile labelling of graphene oxide for superior capacitive energy storage and fluorescence applications.

    PubMed

    Eng, Alex Yong Sheng; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2016-04-14

    The majority of supercapacitor research studies on graphene materials today have been based upon developing electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) using reduced graphenes. In contrast, graphene oxide (GO) is often neglected as a supercapacitor candidate due to its low electrical conductivity and surface area. Nonetheless, we present herein a fast (1 h) labelling of GO with o-phenylenediamine (PD) to produce PD-GO, exploiting inherent oxygen groups in creating new functionalities that exhibit capacitive enhancement from pseudo-capacitance. A high specific capacitance of 191 F g(-1) was obtained (at 0.2 A g(-1)), comparable to recent binder-free graphene supercapacitors. The large surface-normalized capacitance of up to 628 μF cm(-2) is also many times greater than the intrinsic capacitance of single-layer graphene (21 μF cm(-2)) as a result of additional pseudo-capacitance. A high capacity retention of ∼85% with each 10-fold increase in current density further indicates excellent rate performance. Hence, this approach in enhancing GO pseudo-capacitance may be similarly feasible as graphene EDLCs. Additionally, PD-GO was also found to exhibit a bright green fluorescence with a 540 nm maximum. The strongest fluorescence intensities arose from the smallest PD-GO fragments, and we attribute the origin to localised sp(2) domains and newly formed phenazine edge groups. The dual enhancement of dissimilar properties such as capacitance and fluorescence emphasizes the continued significance of covalent functionalisation towards tuning of properties in graphene-type materials.

  17. Effects of energy-content labels and motivational posters on sales of sugar-sweetened beverages: stimulating sales of diet drinks among adults study.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Dara; Yeh, Ming-Chin

    2006-11-01

    This study examined the effects of an environmental intervention promoting more non-energy-containing beverage consumption compared to sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption through vending machines in an urban college setting. Eight soft drink vending machines were randomly selected and assigned to one of three conditions over a 9-week period: energy-content labels on non-energy-containing beverage selection panels (intervention I), labels plus motivational posters (intervention II), or control. The totals of all beverages sold and machine revenue were recorded at baseline (2 weeks), intervention (5 weeks), and postintervention (2 weeks) periods. Use of energy-content labels and motivational posters, compared with control group, resulted in a significantly lower growth rate of sugar-sweetened beverage sales (P<0.05). Total revenue for all beverages increased during the intervention period. It is estimated that the non-energy-containing beverages combined accounted for 70.52% of the increased revenue. Results of this study suggest that energy-content labels and motivational posters on beverage vending machines may be an effective way to influence beverage sales.

  18. Creating and Implementing a Regularized Monitoring and EnforcementSystem for China's Mandatory Standards and Energy Information Label forAppliances

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang

    2007-03-01

    China has developed a comprehensive program of energy efficiency standards and labels for household appliances. In 1989, China first launched its minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), which are now applied to an extensive list of products. In 1998, China launched a voluntary energy endorsement label, which has grown to cover both energy-saving and water-saving products. And, in 2005, China launched a mandatory energy information label that initially covered two products. CLASP has assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes. CLASP has also assisted China in the development of the mandatory energy information label. Increasingly, attention is being placed on maximum energy savings from China's standards and labeling (S&L) efforts in order to meet the recently announced goal of reducing China's energy intensity by 20 percent by 2010 with an interim objective of 4 percent in 2006. China's mandatory standards system is heavily focused on the technical requirements for efficiency performance, but historically, it has lacked administrative and personnel capacity to undertake monitoring and enforcement of these legally binding standards. Similarly, resources for monitoring and enforcement have been quite limited. As a consequence, compliance to both the mandatory standards and the mandatory energy information label is uneven with the potential and likely result of lost energy savings. Thus, a major area for improvement, which could significantly increase overall energy savings, is the creation and implementation of a regularized monitoring system for tracking the compliance to, and enforcement of, mandatory standards and the energy information label in China. CLASP has been working with the China National

  19. Changes in energy content of lunchtime purchases from fast food restaurants after introduction of calorie labelling: cross sectional customer surveys.

    PubMed

    Dumanovsky, Tamara; Huang, Christina Y; Nonas, Cathy A; Matte, Thomas D; Bassett, Mary T; Silver, Lynn D

    2011-07-26

    To assess the impact of fast food restaurants adding calorie labelling to menu items on the energy content of individual purchases. Cross sectional surveys in spring 2007 and spring 2009 (one year before and nine months after full implementation of regulation requiring chain restaurants' menus to contain details of the energy content of all menu items). Setting 168 randomly selected locations of the top 11 fast food chains in New York City during lunchtime hours. 7309 adult customers interviewed in 2007 and 8489 in 2009. Energy content of individual purchases, based on customers' register receipts and on calorie information provided for all items in menus. For the full sample, mean calories purchased did not change from before to after regulation (828 v 846 kcal, P = 0.22), though a modest decrease was shown in a regression model adjusted for restaurant chain, poverty level for the store location, sex of customers, type of purchase, and inflation adjusted cost (847 v 827 kcal, P = 0.01). Three major chains, which accounted for 42% of customers surveyed, showed significant reductions in mean energy per purchase (McDonald's 829 v 785 kcal, P = 0.02; Au Bon Pain 555 v 475 kcal, P<0.001; KFC 927 v 868 kcal, P<0.01), while mean energy content increased for one chain (Subway 749 v 882 kcal, P<0.001). In the 2009 survey, 15% (1288/8489) of customers reported using the calorie information, and these customers purchased 106 fewer kilocalories than customers who did not see or use the calorie information (757 v 863 kcal, P<0.001). Although no overall decline in calories purchased was observed for the full sample, several major chains saw significant reductions. After regulation, one in six lunchtime customers used the calorie information provided, and these customers made lower calorie choices.

  20. Energy expenditure of Chinese infants in Guangdong Province, south China, determined with use of the doubly labeled water method.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z; Yan, Q; Su, Y; Acheson, K J; Thélin, A; Piguet-Welsch, C; Ritz, P; Ho, Z C

    1998-06-01

    The doubly labeled water method was used to measure the energy expenditure of a group of 41, 4- or 6-mo-old infants with a cross-sectional design. The infants were divided into two groups according to whether they were breast-fed (11 at 4 mo, 9 at 6 mo) or formula fed (11 at 4 mo, 10 at 6 mo). Anthropometric measurements were recorded at birth and at the beginning and end of the 8-d study. Anthropometric data, which were supported by the food intake and energy expenditure results, indicated that the infants were within the norms for European and American infants of the same age. Mean energy intakes of 352 kJ (84 kcal) kg(-1) x d(-1) at 4 and 6 mo were lower than the FAO/WHO/UNU recommended value of 452 kJ (108 kcal) x kg(-1) x d(-1)) and Chinese recommendations of 502 kJ (120 kcal) kg(-1) x d(-1). However, some authors believe that values of 398 kJ (95 kcal) kg(-1) x d(-1) at 4 mo and 356 kJ (85 kcal) kg(-1) x d(-1) at 6 mo are more appropriate. At 6 mo the infants' length-for-age and weight-for-age were at the National Center for Health Statistics 55th and 47th percentiles, respectively, whereas 58% were below the 50th percentile for weight-for-length. We conclude that at 4 mo infants receive sufficient energy for their requirements. However, at 6 mo energy requirements might well be greater than the revised recommendations, when infants are being weaned to alternative foods and are more prone to the influence of diet on their growth and development.

  1. Household adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances: An analysis of attitudes, labelling and complementary green behaviours in selected OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Dieu-Hang, To; Grafton, R Quentin; Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto; Garcia-Valiñas, Maria

    2017-03-28

    Using a household-based data set of more than 12,000 households from 11 OECD countries, we analyse the factors underlying the decision by households to adopt energy-efficient and water-efficient equipment. We evaluate the roles of both attitudes and labelling schemes on the adoption of energy and water-efficient equipment, and also the interaction and complementarity between energy and water conservation behaviours. Our findings show: one, 'green' social norms and favourable attitudes towards the environment are associated with an increased likelihood of households' adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances; two, households' purchase decisions are positively affected by their awareness, understanding, and trust of labelling schemes; and three, there is evidence of complementarity between energy conservation and water conservation behaviours.

  2. Determination of energy expenditure during heavy exercise, normal daily activity, and sleep using the doubly-labelled-water (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ 18O) method

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, T.P.; Hoyt, R.W.; Settle, R.G.; O'Toole, M.; Hiller, W.D.

    1987-03-01

    Energy expenditure of four subjects was measured by the doubly-labelled-water (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ 18O) method to determine if energy expenditure could be determined over short periods. Three subjects were studied while they performed 8 h of heavy exercise in a laboratory environment. Urine and blood samples were taken before and after exercise. Estimated energy expended during 8 h of high-intensity exercise for three subjects was 757 +/- 118 kcal/h by the doubly-labelled-water method using urine and a two-point calculation, which compared favorably with 735 +/- 82 kcal/h obtained by respiratory gas exchange. For the fourth subject, daytime, nighttime, and daily energy expenditure was calculated by both the two-pair method and decay-curve analysis of urine and saliva samples collected in the morning and at night. Daytime and nighttime energy expenditures differed significantly (p less than 0.05).

  3. Vibrational energy relaxation of isotopically labeled amide I modes in cytochrome c: theoretical investigation of vibrational energy relaxation rates and pathways.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Hiroshi; Straub, John E

    2007-10-18

    With use of a time-dependent perturbation theory, vibrational energy relaxation (VER) of isotopically labeled amide I modes in cytochrome c solvated with water is investigated. Contributions to the VER are decomposed into two contributions from the protein and water. The VER pathways are visualized by using radial and angular excitation functions for resonant normal modes. Key differences of VER among different amide I modes are demonstrated, leading to a detailed picture of the spatial anisotropy of the VER. The results support the experimental observation that amide I modes in proteins relax with subpicosecond time scales, while the relaxation mechanism turns out to be sensitive to the environment of the amide I mode.

  4. Reported Energy Intake Accuracy Compared to Doubly Labeled Water and Usability of the Mobile Food Record among Community Dwelling Adults.

    PubMed

    Boushey, Carol J; Spoden, Melissa; Delp, Edward J; Zhu, Fengqing; Bosch, Marc; Ahmad, Ziad; Shvetsov, Yurii B; DeLany, James P; Kerr, Deborah A

    2017-03-22

    The mobile Food Record (mFR) is an image-based dietary assessment method for mobile devices. The study primary aim was to test the accuracy of the mFR by comparing reported energy intake (rEI) to total energy expenditure (TEE) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Usability of the mFR was assessed by questionnaires before and after the study. Participants were 45 community dwelling men and women, 21-65 years. They were provided pack-out meals and snacks and encouraged to supplement with usual foods and beverages not provided. After being dosed with DLW, participants were instructed to record all eating occasions over a 7.5 days period using the mFR. Three trained analysts estimated rEI from the images sent to a secure server. rEI and TEE correlated significantly (Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.58, p < 0.0001). The mean percentage of underreporting below the lower 95% confidence interval of the ratio of rEI to TEE was 12% for men (standard deviation (SD) ± 11%) and 10% for women (SD ± 10%). The results demonstrate the accuracy of the mFR is comparable to traditional dietary records and other image-based methods. No systematic biases could be found. The mFR was received well by the participants and usability was rated as easy.

  5. Reported Energy Intake Accuracy Compared to Doubly Labeled Water and Usability of the Mobile Food Record among Community Dwelling Adults

    PubMed Central

    Boushey, Carol J.; Spoden, Melissa; Delp, Edward J.; Zhu, Fengqing; Bosch, Marc; Ahmad, Ziad; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; DeLany, James P.; Kerr, Deborah A.

    2017-01-01

    The mobile Food Record (mFR) is an image-based dietary assessment method for mobile devices. The study primary aim was to test the accuracy of the mFR by comparing reported energy intake (rEI) to total energy expenditure (TEE) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Usability of the mFR was assessed by questionnaires before and after the study. Participants were 45 community dwelling men and women, 21–65 years. They were provided pack-out meals and snacks and encouraged to supplement with usual foods and beverages not provided. After being dosed with DLW, participants were instructed to record all eating occasions over a 7.5 days period using the mFR. Three trained analysts estimated rEI from the images sent to a secure server. rEI and TEE correlated significantly (Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.58, p < 0.0001). The mean percentage of underreporting below the lower 95% confidence interval of the ratio of rEI to TEE was 12% for men (standard deviation (SD) ± 11%) and 10% for women (SD ± 10%). The results demonstrate the accuracy of the mFR is comparable to traditional dietary records and other image-based methods. No systematic biases could be found. The mFR was received well by the participants and usability was rated as easy. PMID:28327502

  6. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer from pyrene to perylene labels for nucleic acid hybridization assays under homogeneous solution conditions

    PubMed Central

    Masuko, Masayuki; Ohuchi, Shohkichi; Sode, Koji; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Shimadzu, Akira

    2000-01-01

    We characterized the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from pyrene (donor) to perylene (acceptor) for nucleic acid assays under homogeneous solution conditions. We used the hybridization between a target 32mer and its complementary two sequential 16mer deoxyribonucleotides whose neighboring terminals were each respectively labeled with a pyrene and a perylene residue. A transfer efficiency of ~100% was attained upon the hybridization when observing perylene fluorescence at 459 nm with 347-nm excitation of a pyrene absorption peak. The Förster distance between two dye residues was 22.3 Å (the orientation factor of 2/3). We could change the distance between the residues by inserting various numbers of nucleotides into the center of the target, thus creating a gap between the dye residues on a hybrid. Assuming that the number of inserted nucleotides is proportional to the distance between the dye residues, the energy transfer efficiency versus number of inserted nucleotides strictly obeyed the Förster theory. The mean inter-nucleotide distance of the single-stranded portion was estimated to be 2.1 Å. Comparison between the fluorescent properties of a pyrene–perylene pair with those of a widely used fluorescein–rhodamine pair showed that the pyrene–perylene FRET is suitable for hybridization assays. PMID:10734211

  7. Navigating membrane protein structure, dynamics, and energy landscapes using spin labeling and EPR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Claxton, Derek P; Kazmier, Kelli; Mishra, Smriti; Mchaourab, Hassane S

    2017-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the functional mechanism of a protein entails the characterization of its energy landscape. Achieving this ambitious goal requires the integration of multiple approaches including determination of high resolution crystal structures, uncovering conformational sampling under distinct biochemical conditions, characterizing the kinetics and thermodynamics of transitions between functional intermediates using spectroscopic techniques, and interpreting and harmonizing the data into novel computational models. With increasing sophistication in solution-based and ensemble-oriented biophysical approaches such as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, atomic resolution structural information can be directly linked to conformational sampling in solution. Here, we detail how recent methodological and technological advances in EPR spectroscopy have contributed to the elucidation of membrane protein mechanisms. Furthermore, we aim to assist investigators interested in pursuing EPR studies by providing an introduction to the technique, a primer on experimental design, and a description of the practical considerations of the method towards generating high quality data. PMID:26477257

  8. Total Energy Expenditure in Obese Kuwaiti Primary School Children Assessed by the Doubly-Labeled Water Technique

    PubMed Central

    Davidsson, Lena; Al-Ghanim, Jameela; Al-Ati, Tareq; Al-Hamad, Nawal; Al-Mutairi, Anwar; Al-Olayan, Lulwa; Preston, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) in 35 obese 7–9 years old Kuwaiti children (18 girls and 17 boys). Total body water (TBW) and TEE were assessed by doubly-labeled water technique. TBW was derived from the intercept of the elimination rate of deuterium and TEE from the difference in elimination rates of 18O and deuterium. TBW was used to estimate fat-free mass (FFM), using hydration factors for different ages and gender. Fat mass (FM) was calculated as the difference between body weight and FFM. Body weight was not statistically different but TBW was significantly higher (p = 0.018) in boys (44.9% ± 3.3%) than girls (42.4% ± 3.0%), while girls had significantly higher estimated FM (45.2 ± 3.9 weight % versus 41.6% ± 4.3%; p = 0.014). TEE was significantly higher in boys (2395 ± 349 kcal/day) compared with girls (1978 ± 169 kcal/day); p = 0.001. Estimated physical activity level (PAL) was significantly higher in boys; 1.61 ± 0.167 versus 1.51 ± 0.870; p = 0.034. Our results provide the first dataset of TEE in 7–9 years old obese Kuwaiti children and highlight important gender differences to be considered during the development of school based interventions targeted to combat childhood obesity. PMID:27754397

  9. Predicting free-living energy expenditure using a miniaturized ear-worn sensor: an evaluation against doubly labeled water.

    PubMed

    Bouarfa, Loubna; Atallah, Louis; Kwasnicki, Richard Mark; Pettitt, Claire; Frost, Gary; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-02-01

    Accurate estimation of daily total energy expenditure (EE)is a prerequisite for assisted weight management and assessing certain health conditions. The use of wearable sensors for predicting free-living EE is challenged by consistent sensor placement, user compliance, and estimation methods used. This paper examines whether a single ear-worn accelerometer can be used for EE estimation under free-living conditions.An EE prediction model as first derived and validated in a controlled setting using healthy subjects involving different physical activities. Ten different activities were assessed showing a tenfold cross validation error of 0.24. Furthermore, the EE prediction model shows a mean absolute deviation(MAD) below 1.2 metabolic equivalent of tasks. The same model was applied to a free-living setting with a different population for further validation. The results were compared against those derived from doubly labeled water. In free-living settings, the predicted daily EE has a correlation of 0.74, p 0.008, and a MAD of 272 kcal day. These results demonstrate that laboratory-derived prediction models can be used to predict EE under free-living conditions [corrected].

  10. Effect of bolus fluid intake on energy expenditure values as determined by the doubly labeled water method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, D.; Stein, T. P.

    1992-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H(2)18O) method is a highly accurate method for measuring energy expenditure (EE). A possible source of error is bolus fluid intake before body water sampling. If there is bolus fluid intake immediately before body water sampling, the saliva may reflect the ingested water disproportionately, because the ingested water may not have had time to mix fully with the body water pool. To ascertain the magnitude of this problem, EE was measured over a 5-day period by the DLW method. Six subjects were dosed with 2H2(18)O. After the reference salivas for the two-point determination were obtained, subjects drank water (700-1,000 ml), and serial saliva samples were collected for the next 3 h. Expressing the postbolus saliva enrichments as a percentage of the prebolus value, we found 1) a minimum in the saliva isotopic enrichments were reached at approximately 30 min with the minimum for 2H (95.48 +/- 0.43%) being significantly lower than the minimum for 18O (97.55 +/- 0.44, P less than 0.05) and 2) EE values calculated using the postbolus isotopic enrichments are appreciably higher (19.9 +/- 7.5%) than the prebolus reference values. In conclusion, it is not advisable to collect saliva samples for DLW measurements within approximately 1 h of bolus fluid intake.

  11. Effect of bolus fluid intake on energy expenditure values as determined by the doubly labeled water method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, D.; Stein, T. P.

    1992-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H(2)18O) method is a highly accurate method for measuring energy expenditure (EE). A possible source of error is bolus fluid intake before body water sampling. If there is bolus fluid intake immediately before body water sampling, the saliva may reflect the ingested water disproportionately, because the ingested water may not have had time to mix fully with the body water pool. To ascertain the magnitude of this problem, EE was measured over a 5-day period by the DLW method. Six subjects were dosed with 2H2(18)O. After the reference salivas for the two-point determination were obtained, subjects drank water (700-1,000 ml), and serial saliva samples were collected for the next 3 h. Expressing the postbolus saliva enrichments as a percentage of the prebolus value, we found 1) a minimum in the saliva isotopic enrichments were reached at approximately 30 min with the minimum for 2H (95.48 +/- 0.43%) being significantly lower than the minimum for 18O (97.55 +/- 0.44, P less than 0.05) and 2) EE values calculated using the postbolus isotopic enrichments are appreciably higher (19.9 +/- 7.5%) than the prebolus reference values. In conclusion, it is not advisable to collect saliva samples for DLW measurements within approximately 1 h of bolus fluid intake.

  12. Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  13. Estimation of Free-Living Energy Expenditure by Heart Rate and Movement Sensing: A Doubly-Labelled Water Study

    PubMed Central

    Brage, Søren; Westgate, Kate; Franks, Paul W.; Stegle, Oliver; Wright, Antony; Ekelund, Ulf; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of energy expenditure (EE) is important for the study of energy balance and metabolic disorders. Combined heart rate (HR) and acceleration (ACC) sensing may increase precision of physical activity EE (PAEE) which is the most variable component of total EE (TEE). Objective To evaluate estimates of EE using ACC and HR data with or without individual calibration against doubly-labelled water (DLW) estimates of EE. Design 23 women and 23 men (22–55 yrs, 48–104 kg, 8–46%body fat) underwent 45-min resting EE (REE) measurement and completed a 20-min treadmill test, an 8-min step test, and a 3-min walk test for individual calibration. ACC and HR were monitored and TEE measured over 14 days using DLW. Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) was calculated from food-frequency questionnaire. PAEE (TEE ÷ REE ÷ DIT) and TEE were compared to estimates from ACC and HR using bias, root mean square error (RMSE), and correlation statistics. Results Mean(SD) measured PAEE and TEE were 66(25) kJ·day-1·kg-1, and 12(2.6) MJ·day-1, respectively. Estimated PAEE from ACC was 54(15) kJ·day-1·kg-1 (p<0.001), with RMSE 24 kJ·day-1·kg-1 and correlation r = 0.52. PAEE estimated from HR and ACC+HR with treadmill calibration were 67(42) and 69(25) kJ·day-1·kg-1 (bias non-significant), with RMSE 34 and 20 kJ·day-1·kg-1 and correlations r = 0.58 and r = 0.67, respectively. Similar results were obtained with step-calibrated and walk-calibrated models, whereas non-calibrated models were less precise (RMSE: 37 and 24 kJ·day-1·kg-1, r = 0.40 and r = 0.55). TEE models also had high validity, with biases <5%, and correlations r = 0.71 (ACC), r = 0.66–0.76 (HR), and r = 0.76–0.83 (ACC+HR). Conclusions Both accelerometry and heart rate may be used to estimate EE in adult European men and women, with improved precision if combined and if heart rate is individually calibrated. PMID:26349056

  14. Point of view: energy factors for food labelling and other purposes should be derived in a consistent fashion for all food components.

    PubMed

    Warwick, P M; Baines, J

    2000-12-01

    In Australia, the process by which food energy factors are derived for food labelling purposes is under review. One of the questions of international relevance is whether energy factors should be derived using a definition of metabolisable energy (ME) or a definition of net (metabolisable) energy (NME), or some mixture of the two. ME describes the food energy available for heat production and body gains. NME deducts obligatory thermogenesis from ME in an attempt to reflect the food energy that can be converted to ATP energy within the body. Some countries use NME to derive energy factors for novel food ingredients such as sugar alcohols and polydextrose, but continue to use ME for protein, fat, carbohydrate, and alcohol. The present paper puts a case for using a consistent system (ME at the present time) for all food components. Reasons for this include: consistent application to all food components allows valid comparisons between products; food energy values and estimates of energy expenditure (food energy requirements) should be directly comparable; NME does not account for all sources of thermogenesis; differences between ME and NME for sugar alcohols and polydextrose are small in the context of the whole diet; and the ME system does not preclude information about metabolic efficiency being provided as additional information. Any major change to the way in which energy values are expressed (e.g. global adoption of the NME system) merits wide discussion among the human nutrition community. One aim of this present paper is to stimulate this discussion.

  15. Validation of the doubly-labeled water (H/sup 3/H/sup 18/O) method for measuring water flux and energy metabolism in tenebrionid beetles

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    Doubly-labeled water (H/sup 3/H/sup 18/O) has been used to determine water flux and energy metabolism in a variety of vertebrates. This study examines the applicability of this technique to arthropods. The theory of the technique depends upon the assumption that doubly-labeled water introduced into the animal's body water equilibrates with water and carbon dioxide by the action of carbonic anhydrase. Tritium (/sup 3/H) is lost from the animal only with water while oxygen-18 is lost with both water and carbon dioxide. The difference bwtween the rates of loss of the two isotopes is proportional to CO/sub 2/ loss rate. Validation of the use of tritiated water for measuring water flux was accomplished by comparing gravimetric measurements of water gain with flux rates determined by loss of tritiated water. At room humidity, an overestimate for influx calculated from labeled water calculations was found, averaging 12 mg H/sub 2/O (g.d)/sup -1/. Comparison of CO/sub 2/ loss rate determined isotopically with rates of CO/sub 2/ loss determined by standard metabolic rates also yielded overestimates for the isotopic technique, overestimates ranging between 20 and 30%. The relevance of this for studies using labeled water for studying water fluxes and free metabolism of free-ranging arthropods is discussed.

  16. Two-point vs multipoint sample collection for the analysis of energy expenditure by use of the doubly labeled water method

    SciTech Connect

    Welle, S. )

    1990-12-01

    Energy expenditure over a 2-wk period was determined by the doubly labeled water (2H2(18)O) method in nine adults. When daily samples were analyzed, energy expenditure was 2859 +/- 453 kcal/d (means +/- SD); when only the first and last time points were considered, the mean calculated energy expenditure was not significantly different (2947 +/- 430 kcal/d). An analysis of theoretical cases in which isotope flux is not constant indicates that the multipoint method can cause errors in the calculation of average isotope fluxes, but these are generally small. Simulations of the effect of analytical error indicate that increasing the number of replicates on two points reduces the impact of technical errors more effectively than does performing single analyses on multiple samples. It appears that generally there is no advantage to collecting frequent samples when the 2H2(18)O method is used to estimate energy expenditure in adult humans.

  17. Measurement of /sup 2/H/sub 2/O by IR absorbance in doubly labeled H/sub 2/O studies of energy expenditure

    SciTech Connect

    Karasov, W.H.; Han, L.R.; Munger, J.C.

    1988-07-01

    The energy expenditure of animals in their natural surroundings can be determined by measuring the turnover in body water of isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen. We evaluated the use of infrared spectrophotometry for measuring /sup 2/H/sub 2/O in small (20-microliters) water samples also labeled with 18O. For /sup 2/H/sub 2/O over the enrichment range of 0.1-1 atom%, there was a linear relationship between infrared absorbance and /sup 2/H/sub 2/O enrichment. /sup 2/H/sub 2/O enrichments could be measured with a precision and accuracy of less than or equal to 1%, using this relationship. The presence of /sup 18/O in water samples in enrichments of up to 1 atom% had no significant effect on measurement of /sup 2/H/sub 2/O by infrared absorbance. We measured the simultaneous turnover rates of /sup 2/H/sub 2/O and /sup 3/H in mice and turtles also labeled with 18O. Our results validated the use of infrared absorbance in doubly labeled water measures of energy expenditure and indicated that the fractionation factors in vivo for /sup 2/H/sub 2/O and /sup 3/H do not differ.

  18. An independent audit of the Australian food industry's voluntary front-of-pack nutrition labelling scheme for energy-dense nutrition-poor foods.

    PubMed

    Carter, O B J; Mills, B W; Lloyd, E; Phan, T

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006, the Australian food industry has promoted its front-of-pack (FOP) food labelling system-the Daily Intake Guide (DIG)-as a success story of industry self-regulation. With over 4000 products already voluntary featuring the DIG, the industry argues that government regulation of FOP nutrition labelling is simply unnecessary. However, no independent audit of the industry's self-regulation has ever been undertaken and we present the first such Australian data. Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) snacks were audited at nine Australian supermarkets, including biscuits, candy, ice creams, chocolates, crisps, sports drinks, energy drinks, flavoured milks, sweetened juices and soft drinks. In these categories nutrition labels were recorded for 728 EDNP products in various packaging sizes. The DIG was displayed on 66% of audited EDNP products but most of these (75%) did not report saturated fat and sugar content. Only generic supermarket EDNP products were likely to display saturated fat and sugar content, compared with very few branded products (48% vs 4%, P<0.001). Branded products not displaying fat and sugar content contained on average 10-times more saturated fat than those displaying such (10% vs 1% DI, P<0.001) and nearly twice as much sugar (21 vs 13% DI, P<0.05). Most Australian manufacturers of EDNP products have adopted the DIG; consistent with industry claims of widespread adoption, but almost all still avoid displaying the high saturated fat and sugar content of their products by opting for the 'energy alone' option, violating the industry's own voluntarily guidelines and highlighting serious weaknesses with the industry's self-regulation.

  19. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    PubMed

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-15

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  20. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  1. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  2. Energy costs of surgery as measured by the doubly labeled water (/sup 2/H/sub 2//sup 18/O) method

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, W.M.; Nusbaum, M.; Stein, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    Energy expenditure before and after surgery was determined in seven patients by the doubly labeled water (/sup 2/H/sub 2//sup 18/O) method (DLW). The values were compared with values obtained by respiratory gas exchange by means of a metabolic measuring cart (MMC). Patients were maintained on total parenteral nutrition before and after trauma. The principal finding was an increase in the rate of CO/sub 2/ production of 11.9 +/- 5.0% after surgery. This corresponds to a 267 +/- increase in energy expenditure (p less than 0.05). No trauma-associated change in energy expenditure was found with the MMC. The correlation of preoperative values from MMC and DLW was not statistically significant (r = 0.25), nor was the correlation of MMC and the Harris-Benedict equation, but the correlation of DLW with Harris-Benedict equation was statistically significant (r = 0.73, p less than 0.05). We suggest that the discrepancy is because the DLW method measures the cumulative energy expenditure over a period, whereas the MMC gives a spot measurement.

  3. 75 FR 41696 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ...Section 321 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires the Commission to consider the effectiveness of current labeling requirements for lamps (commonly referred to as light bulbs) and alternative labeling approaches. After holding a public meeting, conducting consumer research, issuing proposed changes to existing labeling requirements, and reviewing public comments, the Commission announces final amendments to the lamp labeling requirements in the Appliance Labeling Rule. The Commission also seeks further comment on several issues for consideration in any subsequent rulemaking.

  4. Effect of fat-free potato chips with and without nutrition labels on fat and energy intakes.

    PubMed

    Miller, D L; Castellanos, V H; Shide, D J; Peters, J C; Rolls, B J

    1998-08-01

    This study investigated the effect on fat and energy intakes of fat-free potato chips made with olestra compared with regular potato chips. Ninety-five participants (unrestrained and restrained males and females) were tested in 2 conditions. In the information condition, participants were given nutrition information about the chips and were aware that the chips differed in fat and energy contents. In the no-information condition, participants were not aware of the differences. In both conditions, participants ate either regular or fat-free potato chips ad libitum for an afternoon snack in a crossover design in two 10-d periods. To assess 24-h intake, participants completed food diaries twice in each 10-d period. The results showed that all groups significantly reduced their fat and energy intakes in the snack when eating the fat-free chips compared with the regular chips (P< 0.0001). Also, potato chip intake did not differ across time for either type of chip. Over 24 h all participants had lower fat intakes (P< 0.05) when eating the fat-free potato chips compared with the regular chips, but 24-h energy intake was not significantly different between groups. When information was provided, restrained participants ate more of the fat-free chips than the regular chips; however, this increase did not negate the reductions in fat and energy associated with eating the fat-free chips. This study showed that substituting fat-free (olestra-containing) potato chips for regular-fat chips can help reduce fat and energy intakes in short-term (within meal) situations and reduce fat intake over 24 h.

  5. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser beams etch the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for entry of decay organisms. The long-term effects of laser labe...

  6. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Labeling of the produce has gained marked attention in recent years. Laser labeling technology involves the etching of required information on the surface using a low energy CO2 laser beam. The etching forms alphanumerical characters by pinhole dot matrix depressions. These openings can lead to wat...

  7. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Measurements of Ryanodine Receptor Type 1 Structure Using a Novel Site-Specific Labeling Method

    PubMed Central

    Fessenden, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Background While the static structure of the intracellular Ca2+ release channel, the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) has been determined using cryo electron microscopy, relatively little is known concerning changes in RyR1 structure that accompany channel gating. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) methods can resolve small changes in protein structure although FRET measurements of RyR1 are hampered by an inability to site-specifically label the protein with fluorescent probes. Methodology/Principal Findings A novel site-specific labeling method is presented that targets a FRET acceptor, Cy3NTA to 10-residue histidine (His) tags engineered into RyR1. Cy3NTA, comprised of the fluorescent dye Cy3, coupled to two Ni2+/nitrilotriacetic acid moieties, was synthesized and functionally tested for binding to His-tagged green fluorescent protein (GFP). GFP fluorescence emission and Cy3NTA absorbance spectra overlapped significantly, indicating that FRET could occur (Förster distance = 6.3 nm). Cy3NTA bound to His10-tagged GFP, quenching its fluorescence by 88%. GFP was then fused to the N-terminus of RyR1 and His10 tags were placed either at the N-terminus of the fused GFP or between GFP and RyR1. Cy3NTA reduced fluorescence of these fusion proteins by 75% and this quenching could be reversed by photobleaching Cy3, thus confirming GFP-RyR1 quenching via FRET. A His10 tag was then placed at amino acid position 1861 and FRET was measured from GFP located at either the N-terminus or at position 618 to Cy3NTA bound to this His tag. While minimal FRET was detected between GFP at position 1 and Cy3NTA at position 1861, 53% energy transfer was detected from GFP at position 618 to Cy3NTA at position 1861, thus indicating that these sites are in close proximity to each other. Conclusions/Significance These findings illustrate the potential of this site-specific labeling system for use in future FRET-based experiments to elucidate novel aspects of RyR1 structure. PMID

  8. Förster resonance energy transfer measurements of ryanodine receptor type 1 structure using a novel site-specific labeling method.

    PubMed

    Fessenden, James D

    2009-10-12

    While the static structure of the intracellular Ca(2+) release channel, the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) has been determined using cryo electron microscopy, relatively little is known concerning changes in RyR1 structure that accompany channel gating. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) methods can resolve small changes in protein structure although FRET measurements of RyR1 are hampered by an inability to site-specifically label the protein with fluorescent probes. A novel site-specific labeling method is presented that targets a FRET acceptor, Cy3NTA to 10-residue histidine (His) tags engineered into RyR1. Cy3NTA, comprised of the fluorescent dye Cy3, coupled to two Ni(2+)/nitrilotriacetic acid moieties, was synthesized and functionally tested for binding to His-tagged green fluorescent protein (GFP). GFP fluorescence emission and Cy3NTA absorbance spectra overlapped significantly, indicating that FRET could occur (Förster distance = 6.3 nm). Cy3NTA bound to His(10)-tagged GFP, quenching its fluorescence by 88%. GFP was then fused to the N-terminus of RyR1 and His(10) tags were placed either at the N-terminus of the fused GFP or between GFP and RyR1. Cy3NTA reduced fluorescence of these fusion proteins by 75% and this quenching could be reversed by photobleaching Cy3, thus confirming GFP-RyR1 quenching via FRET. A His(10) tag was then placed at amino acid position 1861 and FRET was measured from GFP located at either the N-terminus or at position 618 to Cy3NTA bound to this His tag. While minimal FRET was detected between GFP at position 1 and Cy3NTA at position 1861, 53% energy transfer was detected from GFP at position 618 to Cy3NTA at position 1861, thus indicating that these sites are in close proximity to each other. These findings illustrate the potential of this site-specific labeling system for use in future FRET-based experiments to elucidate novel aspects of RyR1 structure.

  9. 10 CFR 431.30 - Applicability of labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicability of labeling requirements. 431.30 Section 431.30 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Labeling § 431.30 Applicability of labeling requirements....

  10. 10 CFR 431.30 - Applicability of labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of labeling requirements. 431.30 Section 431.30 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Labeling § 431.30 Applicability of labeling requirements....

  11. 10 CFR 431.30 - Applicability of labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability of labeling requirements. 431.30 Section 431.30 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Labeling § 431.30 Applicability of labeling requirements....

  12. 16 CFR 305.6 - Duty to provide labels on Web sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENERGY AND WATER USE LABELING FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Testing § 305.6 Duty to provide labels on Web sites. For each covered product that a...

  13. Labeling conventions in isoelectronic sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Maniak, S.T.; Curtis, L.J. )

    1990-08-01

    The isoelectronic exposition of atomic structure properties involves labeling ambiguities when more than one level of the same total angular momentum and parity is present, and an energy ordered labeling of these levels can lead to apparent isoelectronic discontinuities. For example, in the recent oscillator strength calculations for S-like ions by Saloman and Kim (Phys. Rev. A 38, 577 (1988)), abrupt changes in the rates were sometimes observed between one isoelectronic element and the next. We suggest an alternative labeling scheme that removes these discontinuities and produces a smooth isoelectronic variation. This alternative labeling offers advantages for data exposition and for semiempirical interpolation and extrapolation.

  14. Food labels: a critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Temple, Norman J; Fraser, Joy

    2014-03-01

    Foods sold in packages have both front-of-package (FOP) labels and back-of-package (BOP) labels. The aim of this review is to determine the role they play in informing consumers as to the composition of foods in order to help select a healthy diet. Recent literature was evaluated and findings combined with assessments made by the authors of food labels used in the United States and Canada. Research shows that most consumers have difficulty understanding the information provided by both FOP and BOP food labels used in the United States and Canada. Research has evaluated the merits of alternative designs. FOP labels should be based on a clear and simple design. They should present information on key nutrients (total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium or salt) and also energy value. They should have color and words that indicate "high," "medium," and "low" levels. Labels can also state quantity per serving. The traffic light system is the best example of this design. An extra traffic light indicating the overall health value of the food should be added. A clearer BOP label also is needed. Implementation of a new food labeling system will probably be opposed by the food industry. More research is needed into which food label designs are most effective, especially for persuading consumers to select healthier food. Both FOP and BOP food labels used in the United States and Canada need to be redesigned using a traffic light system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Monitoring triplex DNA formation with fluorescence resonance energy transfer between a fluorophore-labeled probe and intercalating dyes.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Chiuan-Chian; Chen, Shiau-Wen; Luo, Ji-Dung; Chien, Yu-Tzu

    2011-09-01

    Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) are sequence-dependent DNA binders that may be useful for DNA targeting and detection. A sensitive and convenient method to monitor triplex formation by a TFO and its target DNA duplex is required for the application of TFO probes. Here we describe a novel design by which triplex formation can be monitored homogeneously without prelabeling the target duplex. The design uses a TFO probe tagged with a fluorophore that undergoes fluorescence resonance energy transfer with fluorescent dyes that intercalate into the target duplex. Through color compensation analysis, the specific emission of the TFO probe reveals the status of the triple helices. We used this method to show that triple helix formation with TFOs is magnesium dependent. We also demonstrated that the TFO probe can be used for detection of sequence variation in melting analysis and for DNA quantitation in real-time polymerase chain reaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fluorescent monomers as building blocks for dye labeled polymers: synthesis and application in energy conversion, biolabeling and sensors.

    PubMed

    Breul, Alexander M; Hager, Martin D; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2013-06-21

    This review focuses on side-chain functionalized polymers derived from direct (co)polymerization of fluorescent dyes. This overview about polymerizable dyes includes 1,8-naphthalimides, fluoresceins, rhodamines, coumarins, azo-dyes, oxadiazoles, diverse aromatic dyes as well as selected other dyes that cannot be classified within these groups. The discussed dyes have been functionalized with a polymerizable unit in order to apply straight-forward polymerization procedures. Therefore, the center of attention is set to the optical properties of the polymerizable dyes and the applicable polymerization techniques. Furthermore, the various applications (i.e., in biomedicine and pharmacy, as thermo-responsive materials and energy transfer materials, for dispersion of carbon nanotubes and others) of each polymer are discussed.

  17. Food labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed making changes to the food labels that may correct these problems. AMOUNTS PER SERVING The total calories and the calories from fat are listed. These numbers help consumers make decisions about fat intake. The list of nutrients includes ...

  18. Application of the two-sample doubly labelled water method alters behaviour and affects estimates of energy expenditure in black-legged kittiwakes.

    PubMed

    Schultner, Jannik; Welcker, Jorg; Speakman, John R; Nordøy, Erling S; Gabrielsen, Geir W

    2010-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of the doubly labelled water (DLW) method in energetic studies of free-ranging animals, effects of the method on study animals are rarely assessed. We studied behavioural effects of two alternative DLW protocols. During two consecutive breeding seasons, 42 parent black-legged kittiwakes received either the commonly used two-sample (TS) or the less invasive single-sample (SS) DLW treatment. A third group served as a non-treated control. We evaluated the effect of treatment with respect to the time birds took to return to their nest after treatment and recaptures, and the nest attendance during DLW measurement periods. We found that TS kittiwakes took on average 20 times longer to return to their nest than SS kittiwakes after initial treatment, and nest attendance was reduced by about 40% relative to control birds. In contrast, nest attendance did not differ between control and SS kittiwakes. Estimates of energy expenditure of SS kittiwakes exceeded those of TS kittiwakes by 15%. This difference was probably caused by TS birds remaining inactive for extended time periods while at sea. Our results demonstrate that the common assumption that the TS DLW method has little impact on the behaviour of study subjects is in some circumstances fallacious. Estimates of energy expenditure derived by the SS approach may thus more accurately reflect unbiased rates of energy expenditure. However, the choice of protocol may be a trade-off between their impact on behaviour, and hence accuracy, and their differences in precision. Adopting procedures that minimize the impact of TS protocols may be useful.

  19. Accuracy of dietary reference intake predictive equation for estimated energy requirements in female tennis athletes and non-athlete college students: comparison with the doubly labeled water method.

    PubMed

    Ndahimana, Didace; Lee, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ye-Jin; Son, Hee-Ryoung; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Park, Jonghoon; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of a dietary reference intake (DRI) predictive equation for estimated energy requirements (EER) in female college tennis athletes and non-athlete students using doubly labeled water (DLW) as a reference method. Fifteen female college students, including eight tennis athletes and seven non-athlete subjects (aged between 19 to 24 years), were involved in the study. Subjects' total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by the DLW method, and EER were calculated using the DRI predictive equation. The accuracy of this equation was assessed by comparing the EER calculated using the DRI predictive equation (EERDRI) and TEE measured by the DLW method (TEEDLW) based on calculation of percentage difference mean and percentage of accurate prediction. The agreement between the two methods was assessed by the Bland-Altman method. The percentage difference mean between the methods was -1.1% in athletes and 1.8% in non-athlete subjects, whereas the percentage of accurate prediction was 37.5% and 85.7%, respectively. In the case of athletic subjects, the DRI predictive equation showed a clear bias negatively proportional to the subjects' TEE. The results from this study suggest that the DRI predictive equation could be used to obtain EER in non-athlete female college students at a group level. However, this equation would be difficult to use in the case of athletes at the group and individual levels. The development of a new and more appropriate equation for the prediction of energy expenditure in athletes is proposed.

  20. Accuracy of dietary reference intake predictive equation for estimated energy requirements in female tennis athletes and non-athlete college students: comparison with the doubly labeled water method

    PubMed Central

    Ndahimana, Didace; Lee, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ye-Jin; Son, Hee-Ryoung; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Park, Jonghoon

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of a dietary reference intake (DRI) predictive equation for estimated energy requirements (EER) in female college tennis athletes and non-athlete students using doubly labeled water (DLW) as a reference method. MATERIALS/METHODS Fifteen female college students, including eight tennis athletes and seven non-athlete subjects (aged between 19 to 24 years), were involved in the study. Subjects' total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by the DLW method, and EER were calculated using the DRI predictive equation. The accuracy of this equation was assessed by comparing the EER calculated using the DRI predictive equation (EERDRI) and TEE measured by the DLW method (TEEDLW) based on calculation of percentage difference mean and percentage of accurate prediction. The agreement between the two methods was assessed by the Bland-Altman method. RESULTS The percentage difference mean between the methods was -1.1% in athletes and 1.8% in non-athlete subjects, whereas the percentage of accurate prediction was 37.5% and 85.7%, respectively. In the case of athletic subjects, the DRI predictive equation showed a clear bias negatively proportional to the subjects' TEE. CONCLUSIONS The results from this study suggest that the DRI predictive equation could be used to obtain EER in non-athlete female college students at a group level. However, this equation would be difficult to use in the case of athletes at the group and individual levels. The development of a new and more appropriate equation for the prediction of energy expenditure in athletes is proposed. PMID:28194265

  1. Isomerism of [64Cu-NOTA-Bn]-labeled radiotracers: separation of two complex isomers and determination of their interconversion energy barrier using ion pair chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Joern; Rajander, Johan; Ihalainen, Janne A; Ramesh, Dinesh; Eklund, Patrik; Fagerholm, Veronica; Nuutila, Pirjo; Solin, Olof

    2011-05-16

    The model complex [(64)Cu((S)-p-NH(2)-Bn-NOTA)](-) ([(64)Cu]1) was used to study the isomerism of [(64)Cu-NOTA-Bn]-labeled radiotracers. Two complex isomers [(64)Cu]1a and [(64)Cu]1b, which were formed at a ratio of 1:9 during the complexation of [(64)Cu]Cu(2+) with (S)-p-NH(2)-Bn-NOTA, were separated using ion pair chromatography. To study the interconversion, the nonradioactive complex isomers Cu1a and Cu1b were separated and thermally treated at 90 °C in both ammonium acetate solution and deionized water. A faster interconversion rate was observed for both isomers with lower concentrations of ammonium ions. At the end of reaction, the thermodynamic Cu1a to Cu1b equilibrium ratio was 6:94. The particular energy barriers of the interconversion for Cu1a and Cu1b were 130 kJ mol(-1) and 140 kJ mol(-1). Spectrophotometric measurements with Cu1a and Cu1b revealed two isomers adopting different geometrical configurations.

  2. Fluorescence-based sensing of glucose using engineered glucose/galactose-binding protein: A comparison of fluorescence resonance energy transfer and environmentally sensitive dye labelling strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Faaizah; Gnudi, Luigi; Pickup, John C.

    2008-01-04

    Fluorescence-based glucose sensors using glucose-binding protein (GBP) as the receptor have employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and environmentally sensitive dyes, but with widely varying sensitivity. We therefore compared signal changes in (a) a FRET system constructed by transglutaminase-mediated N-terminal attachment of Alexa Fluor 488/555 as donor and QSY 7 as acceptor at Cys 152 or 182 mutations with (b) GBP labelled with the environmentally sensitive dye badan at C152 or 182. Both FRET systems had a small maximal fluorescence change at saturating glucose (7% and 16%), badan attached at C152 was associated with a 300% maximal fluorescence increase with glucose, though with badan at C182 there was no change. We conclude that glucose sensing based on GBP and FRET does not produce a larger enough signal change for clinical use; both the nature of the environmentally sensitive dye and its site of conjugation seem important for maximum signal change; badan-GBP152C has a large glucose-induced fluorescence change, suitable for development as a glucose sensor.

  3. A Broad G Protein-Coupled Receptor Internalization Assay that Combines SNAP-Tag Labeling, Diffusion-Enhanced Resonance Energy Transfer, and a Highly Emissive Terbium Cryptate.

    PubMed

    Levoye, Angélique; Zwier, Jurriaan M; Jaracz-Ros, Agnieszka; Klipfel, Laurence; Cottet, Martin; Maurel, Damien; Bdioui, Sara; Balabanian, Karl; Prézeau, Laurent; Trinquet, Eric; Durroux, Thierry; Bachelerie, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Although G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization has long been considered as a major aspect of the desensitization process that tunes ligand responsiveness, internalization is also involved in receptor resensitization and signaling, as well as the ligand scavenging function of some atypical receptors. Internalization thus contributes to the diversity of GPCR-dependent signaling, and its dynamics and quantification in living cells has generated considerable interest. We developed a robust and sensitive assay to follow and quantify ligand-induced and constitutive-induced GPCR internalization but also receptor recycling in living cells. This assay is based on diffusion-enhanced resonance energy transfer (DERET) between cell surface GPCRs labeled with a luminescent terbium cryptate donor and a fluorescein acceptor present in the culture medium. GPCR internalization results in a quantifiable reduction of energy transfer. This method yields a high signal-to-noise ratio due to time-resolved measurements. For various GPCRs belonging to different classes, we demonstrated that constitutive and ligand-induced internalization could be monitored as a function of time and ligand concentration, thus allowing accurate quantitative determination of kinetics of receptor internalization but also half-maximal effective or inhibitory concentrations of compounds. In addition to its selectivity and sensitivity, we provided evidence that DERET-based internalization assay is particularly suitable for characterizing biased ligands. Furthermore, the determination of a Z'-factor value of 0.45 indicates the quality and suitability of DERET-based internalization assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) of compounds that may modulate GPCRs internalization.

  4. Excitation energy transfer between molecular thin layers of poly(phenylene vinylene) and dye labeled poly(allylamine) in layer-by-layer self-assembled films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Bernd; Kirstein, Stefan

    1999-09-01

    Steady state Förster energy transfer is investigated in multilayer structures of self-assembled films prepared via the layer-by-layer deposition of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. The samples consist of a single layer of the conjugated polymer poly(p- phenylene vinylene) (PPV) as a donor, several layers of poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS), and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) as a transparent spacer, and a single layer of dye labeled PAH as an acceptor. The dyes are rhodamine B and fluorescein, whereas the molar ratio with respect to the PAH monomers is less than 0.2% for both systems. The steady state fluorescence intensity of the PPV is measured for a series of samples with different spacer thicknesses. The spacer thicknesses are evaluated from x-ray reflectivity measurements. At large thickness of the spacer the donor intensity I versus distance d follows the 1/(1+(d0/d)4) law as theoretically predicted for the case of ideal two-dimensional layers. At short distances a different behavior is observed which is explained first, by the low lateral density of the acceptor molecules and second, by a distribution of the dyes normal to the layer plane. Good agreement between the experimental data and computer simulations is obtained under the assumption of a Gaussian distribution of both donor and acceptor molecules, in the direction normal to the film plane with a width of 25-30 Å. However, a mismatch is observed between the Förster radius derived from the spectroscopic properties and that obtained from the layer-to-layer energy transfer. This is discussed under the consideration of a nonperfect layer structure and the photophysics of the PPV.

  5. A Broad G Protein-Coupled Receptor Internalization Assay that Combines SNAP-Tag Labeling, Diffusion-Enhanced Resonance Energy Transfer, and a Highly Emissive Terbium Cryptate

    PubMed Central

    Levoye, Angélique; Zwier, Jurriaan M.; Jaracz-Ros, Agnieszka; Klipfel, Laurence; Cottet, Martin; Maurel, Damien; Bdioui, Sara; Balabanian, Karl; Prézeau, Laurent; Trinquet, Eric; Durroux, Thierry; Bachelerie, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Although G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization has long been considered as a major aspect of the desensitization process that tunes ligand responsiveness, internalization is also involved in receptor resensitization and signaling, as well as the ligand scavenging function of some atypical receptors. Internalization thus contributes to the diversity of GPCR-dependent signaling, and its dynamics and quantification in living cells has generated considerable interest. We developed a robust and sensitive assay to follow and quantify ligand-induced and constitutive-induced GPCR internalization but also receptor recycling in living cells. This assay is based on diffusion-enhanced resonance energy transfer (DERET) between cell surface GPCRs labeled with a luminescent terbium cryptate donor and a fluorescein acceptor present in the culture medium. GPCR internalization results in a quantifiable reduction of energy transfer. This method yields a high signal-to-noise ratio due to time-resolved measurements. For various GPCRs belonging to different classes, we demonstrated that constitutive and ligand-induced internalization could be monitored as a function of time and ligand concentration, thus allowing accurate quantitative determination of kinetics of receptor internalization but also half-maximal effective or inhibitory concentrations of compounds. In addition to its selectivity and sensitivity, we provided evidence that DERET-based internalization assay is particularly suitable for characterizing biased ligands. Furthermore, the determination of a Z′-factor value of 0.45 indicates the quality and suitability of DERET-based internalization assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) of compounds that may modulate GPCRs internalization. PMID:26617570

  6. Energy expenditure in adults living in developing compared with industrialized countries: a meta-analysis of doubly labeled water studies123

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Lara R; Harders, Regina; Merrill, Sarah; Ebersole, Kara; Shoham, David A; Rush, Elaine C; Assah, Felix K; Forrester, Terrence; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Luke, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is an assumption that people in developing countries have a higher total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity level (PAL) than do people in developed nations, but few objective data for this assertion exist. Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis of TEE and PAL by using data from countries that have a low or middle human development index (HDI) compared with those with a high HDI to better understand how energy-expenditure variables are associated with development status and population differences in body size. Design: We performed a literature search for studies in which energy expenditure was measured by using doubly labeled water. Mean data on age, weight, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), TEE, and PAL were extracted, and HDI status was assessed. Pooled estimates of the mean effect by sex were obtained, and the extent to which age, weight, HDI status, and year of publication explained heterogeneity was assessed. Results: A total of 98 studies (14 studies from low- or middle-HDI countries) that represented 183 cohorts and 4972 individuals were included. Mean (±SE) BMI was lower in countries with a low or middle HDI than in those with a high HDI for both men and women (22.7 ± 1.0 compared with 26.0 ± 0.7, respectively, in men and 24.3 ± 0.7 compared with 26.6 ± 0.4, respectively, in women). In meta-regression models, there was an inverse association of age (P < 0.001) and a positive association of weight (P < 0.001) with TEE for both sexes; there was an association of age only in men with PAL (P < 0.001). There was no association of HDI status with either TEE or PAL. Conclusion: TEE adjusted for weight and age or PAL did not differ significantly between developing and industrialized countries, which calls into question the role of energy expenditure in the cause of obesity at the population level. PMID:21159791

  7. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  8. Using doubly-labelled water to measure free-living energy expenditure: Some old things to remember and some new things to consider.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R; Hambly, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    The doubly-labelled water (DLW) method provides the ability to measure the energy expenditure of free-living animals based only on the injection of two isotopes in water (one of oxygen and one of hydrogen) and traditionally the collection of 2 blood samples. We review here the fundamental basis of how the method works, and highlight how the choice of the appropriate calculation equation can have a large impact on the resultant estimates, particularly in species where the difference between the isotope elimination constants is small. This knowledge is not new, but is worth reiterating given the potential for error by making the wrong choice. In particular, it is important to remember that for mammals weighing less than 5kg, and birds weighing less than 2kg, the single pool models perform best in validation studies, while in mammals above 15kg the two-pool models perform best. Above 2kg in birds and between 5 and 15kg in mammals, however, the model superiority is uncertain. Even where the choice based on body mass would appear clear, the decision may need to be tempered by species specific information regarding potential additional sources for hydrogen turnover, such as de novo lipogenesis or methanogenesis. Recent advances in the technique have included attempts to make the method less invasive by using innovative methods for dosing and sample collection. In addition, the advent of laser spectroscopy, as a replacement technology for mass spectrometry, may open up many new opportunities in the field. These potentially include direct sampling of breath in the field and tracking background isotope drift using (17)oxygen levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Validation of Cross-Sectional Time Series and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines Models for the Prediction of Energy Expenditure in Children and Adolescents Using Doubly Labeled Water12

    PubMed Central

    Butte, Nancy F.; Wong, William W.; Adolph, Anne L.; Puyau, Maurice R.; Vohra, Firoz A.; Zakeri, Issa F.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and inexpensive techniques are needed to measure energy expenditure (EE) in free-living populations. Our primary aim in this study was to validate cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on observable participant characteristics, heart rate (HR), and accelerometer counts (AC) for prediction of minute-by-minute EE, and hence 24-h total EE (TEE), against a 7-d doubly labeled water (DLW) method in children and adolescents. Our secondary aim was to demonstrate the utility of CSTS and MARS to predict awake EE, sleep EE, and activity EE (AEE) from 7-d HR and AC records, because these shorter periods are not verifiable by DLW, which provides an estimate of the individual's mean TEE over a 7-d interval. CSTS and MARS models were validated in 60 normal-weight and overweight participants (ages 5–18 y). The Actiheart monitor was used to simultaneously measure HR and AC. For prediction of TEE, mean absolute errors were 10.7 ± 307 kcal/d and 18.7 ± 252 kcal/d for CSTS and MARS models, respectively, relative to DLW. Corresponding root mean square error values were 305 and 251 kcal/d for CSTS and MARS models, respectively. Bland-Altman plots indicated that the predicted values were in good agreement with the DLW-derived TEE values. Validation of CSTS and MARS models based on participant characteristics, HR monitoring, and accelerometry for the prediction of minute-by-minute EE, and hence 24-h TEE, against the DLW method indicated no systematic bias and acceptable limits of agreement for pediatric groups and individuals under free-living conditions. PMID:20573939

  10. 10 CFR 20.1904 - Labeling containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling containers. 20.1904 Section 20.1904 Energy....1904 Labeling containers. (a) The licensee shall ensure that each container of licensed material bears... handling or using the containers, or working in the vicinity of the containers, to take precautions...

  11. 10 CFR 431.31 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling requirements. 431.31 Section 431.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... be marked clearly with the following information: (i) The motor's nominal full load efficiency (as of...

  12. 10 CFR 431.31 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling requirements. 431.31 Section 431.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... be marked clearly with the following information: (i) The motor's nominal full load efficiency (as of...

  13. 10 CFR 431.31 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling requirements. 431.31 Section 431.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... be marked clearly with the following information: (i) The motor's nominal full load efficiency (as of...

  14. 10 CFR 431.31 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling requirements. 431.31 Section 431.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... be marked clearly with the following information: (i) The motor's nominal full load efficiency (as of...

  15. 10 CFR 431.31 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling requirements. 431.31 Section 431.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... be marked clearly with the following information: (i) The motor's nominal full load efficiency (as of...

  16. Open-label pilot study comparing quantitative ultrasound and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to assess corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Grabe, Darren W; Chan, Marcia; Eisele, George

    2006-02-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) might be at high risk for bone disease. Decreased functional kidney mass contributes to renal osteodystrophy, which might be exacerbated by certain drug therapies. Long-term (> or = 6 months) corticosteroid treatment is commonly prescribed in patients with glomerular disease, possibly causing bone loss both indirectly and directly, putting the patient at increased risk for fracture. The dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the current "gold standard" for measuring osteoporosis-related fractures and works by passing ultrasound waves through bone to determine the structural anisotropy in the heel. This pilot study was designed to determine whether there is a correlation between DXA and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in detecting corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. This open-label pilot study was conducted at the Medical Center Nephrology Clinic, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York. Female patients aged > or = 18 years with a diagnosis of CKD and/or a history of kidney transplantation and who were receiving long-term corticosteroid treatment were enrolled. Each patient served as her own control and underwent DXA of the hip and spine (DXA-hip and DXA-spine, respectively) and QUS of the dominant and nondominant heels (QUS-dominant and QUS-nondominant, respectively), within 1 week so that conditions were similar in each patient. Eight patients were included in the study (mean [SD] age, 50.2 [11.2] years). A positive correlation was found between DXA-hip and QUS-nondominant (r2=0.76; P=0.009); however, no correlation was found with DXA-spine. Similarly, a positive correlation was found between DXA-hip and QUS-dominant (r2=0.75; P=0.009), but no correlation with DXA-spine was found (r2=0.22). In this small, selected population, QUS showed a fair correlation with DXA-hip but no correlation with DXA-spine. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness in other populations.

  17. Pesticide Label Review Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This training will help ensure that reviewers evaluate labels according to four core principles. It also will help pesticide registrants developing labels understand what EPA expects of pesticide labels, and what the Agency generally finds acceptable.

  18. Deep Label Distribution Learning With Label Ambiguity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bin-Bin; Xing, Chao; Xie, Chen-Wei; Wu, Jianxin; Geng, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) have achieved excellent recognition performance in various visual recognition tasks. A large labeled training set is one of the most important factors for its success. However, it is difficult to collect sufficient training images with precise labels in some domains such as apparent age estimation, head pose estimation, multi-label classification and semantic segmentation. Fortunately, there is ambiguous information among labels, which makes these tasks different from traditional classification. Based on this observation, we convert the label of each image into a discrete label distribution, and learn the label distribution by minimizing a Kullback-Leibler divergence between the predicted and ground-truth label distributions using deep ConvNets. The proposed DLDL (Deep Label Distribution Learning) method effectively utilizes the label ambiguity in both feature learning and classifier learning, which help prevent the network from over-fitting even when the training set is small. Experimental results show that the proposed approach produces significantly better results than state-of-the-art methods for age estimation and head pose estimation. At the same time, it also improves recognition performance for multi-label classification and semantic segmentation tasks.

  19. 40 CFR 600.301 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Labeling requirements. 600.301 Section 600.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.301...

  20. 40 CFR 600.301 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Labeling requirements. 600.301 Section 600.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.301...

  1. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and…

  2. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and…

  3. 16 CFR 305.13 - Labeling for ceiling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Required... information in order from top to bottom on the label: (i) The words “ENERGY INFORMATION” shall appear at the...

  4. 10 CFR 835.606 - Exceptions to labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exceptions to labeling requirements. 835.606 Section 835.606 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Posting and Labeling § 835.606... may be excepted from the color specifications of § 835.601(a). ...

  5. 10 CFR 835.606 - Exceptions to labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exceptions to labeling requirements. 835.606 Section 835.606 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Posting and Labeling § 835.606... may be excepted from the color specifications of § 835.601(a). ...

  6. 10 CFR 835.606 - Exceptions to labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exceptions to labeling requirements. 835.606 Section 835.606 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Posting and Labeling § 835.606... may be excepted from the color specifications of § 835.601(a). ...

  7. 10 CFR 835.606 - Exceptions to labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions to labeling requirements. 835.606 Section 835.606 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Posting and Labeling § 835.606... may be excepted from the color specifications of § 835.601(a). ...

  8. 10 CFR 835.606 - Exceptions to labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exceptions to labeling requirements. 835.606 Section 835.606 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Posting and Labeling § 835.606... may be excepted from the color specifications of § 835.601(a). ...

  9. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  10. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  11. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  12. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  13. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  14. Soil Fumigant Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2012 updated pesticide labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find labels for each different type of fumigant: chloropicrin, dazomet, dimethyl disulfide, metam sodium/potassium, and methyl bromide.

  15. Electronic Submission of Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  16. The Labelling of Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Describes the impact on chemistry laboratories and teachers in the United Kingdom of the Packaging and Labelling of Dangerous Substances Regulations 1978. These regulations require suppliers to label containers in particular ways. (HM)

  17. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nossum, R.T.

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 14

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about positive effects from proper labeling.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 19

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section covers supplemental distributor labeling.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.

  6. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 26

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about mandatory and advisory label statements.

  7. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.

  8. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 18

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section discusses the types of labels.

  9. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.

  10. Sample Pesticide Label for Label Review Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  11. Pesticide Product Label System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). New labels were added to PPLS on November 21, 2014. Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely handle and use registered pesticide products. An approved pesticide product label represents the full content of EPAs registration decision regarding that product. Pesticide labels contain detailed information on the use, storage, and handling of a product. This information will be found on EPA stamped-approved labels and, in some cases, in subsequent related correspondence, which is also included in PPLS. You may need to review several PDF files for a single product to determine the complete current terms of registration.

  12. Validation of cross-sectional time series and multivariate adaptive regression splines models for the prediction of energy expenditure in children and adolescents using doubly labeled water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and inexpensive techniques are needed to measure energy expenditure (EE) in free-living populations. Our primary aim in this study was to validate cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on observable participant cha...

  13. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... manufacturer. (iii) The manufacturer may include the ENERGY STAR logo on the bottom right corner of the label... may add the ENERGY STAR logo to labels on qualifying covered products; such manufacturers may add the ENERGY STAR logo to labels only on those covered products that are contemplated by the Memorandum...

  14. 16 CFR 305.11 - Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... manufacturer. (iii) The manufacturer may include the ENERGY STAR logo on the bottom right corner of the label... may add the ENERGY STAR logo to labels on qualifying covered products; such manufacturers may add the ENERGY STAR logo to labels only on those covered products that are contemplated by the Memorandum...

  15. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... manufacturer. (iii) The manufacturer or private labeler may include the ENERGY STAR logo on the bottom right... or the Environmental Protection Agency may add the ENERGY STAR logo to labels on certified covered products; such manufacturers may add the ENERGY STAR logo to labels only on those covered products that...

  16. 16 CFR 305.11 - Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... manufacturer. (iii) The manufacturer may include the ENERGY STAR logo on the bottom right corner of the label... may add the ENERGY STAR logo to labels on qualifying covered products; such manufacturers may add the ENERGY STAR logo to labels only on those covered products that are contemplated by the Memorandum...

  17. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... manufacturer. (iii) The manufacturer may include the ENERGY STAR logo on the bottom right corner of the label... may add the ENERGY STAR logo to labels on qualifying covered products; such manufacturers may add the ENERGY STAR logo to labels only on those covered products that are contemplated by the Memorandum...

  18. Food Label Accuracy of Common Snack Foods

    PubMed Central

    Jumpertz, Reiner; Venti, Colleen A; Le, Duc Son; Michaels, Jennifer; Parrington, Shannon; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition labels have raised awareness of the energetic value of foods, and represent for many a pivotal guideline to regulate food intake. However, recent data have created doubts on label accuracy. Therefore we tested label accuracy for energy and macronutrient content of prepackaged energy-dense snack food products. We measured “true” caloric content of 24 popular snack food products in the U.S. and determined macronutrient content in 10 selected items. Bomb calorimetry and food factors were used to estimate energy content. Macronutrient content was determined according to Official Methods of Analysis. Calorimetric measurements were performed in our metabolic laboratory between April 20th and May 18th and macronutrient content was measured between September 28th and October 7th of 2010. Serving size, by weight, exceeded label statements by 1.2% [median] (25th percentile −1.4, 75th percentile 4.3, p=0.10). When differences in serving size were accounted for, metabolizable calories were 6.8 kcal (0.5, 23.5, p=0.0003) or 4.3% (0.2, 13.7, p=0.001) higher than the label statement. In a small convenience sample of the tested snack foods, carbohydrate content exceeded label statements by 7.7% (0.8, 16.7, p=0.01); however fat and protein content were not significantly different from label statements (−12.8% [−38.6, 9.6], p=0.23; 6.1% [−6.1, 17.5], p=0.32). Carbohydrate content explained 40% and serving size an additional 55% of the excess calories. Among a convenience sample of energy-dense snack foods, caloric content is higher than stated on the nutrition labels, but overall well within FDA limits. This discrepancy may be explained by inaccurate carbohydrate content and serving size. PMID:23505182

  19. Food label accuracy of common snack foods.

    PubMed

    Jumpertz, Reiner; Venti, Colleen A; Le, Duc Son; Michaels, Jennifer; Parrington, Shannon; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition labels have raised awareness of the energetic value of foods, and represent for many a pivotal guideline to regulate food intake. However, recent data have created doubts on label accuracy. We tested label accuracy for energy and macronutrient content of prepackaged energy-dense snack food products. We measured "true" caloric content of 24 popular snack food products in the U.S. and determined macronutrient content in 10 selected items. Bomb calorimetry and food factors were used to estimate energy content. Macronutrient content was determined according to Official Methods of Analysis. Calorimetric measurements were performed in our metabolic laboratory between April 20th and May 18th and macronutrient content was measured between September 28th and October 7th of 2010. Serving size, by weight, exceeded label statements by 1.2% [median] (25th percentile -1.4, 75th percentile 4.3, P = 0.10). When differences in serving size were accounted for, metabolizable calories were 6.8 kcal (0.5, 23.5, P = 0.0003) or 4.3% (0.2, 13.7, P = 0.001) higher than the label statement. In a small convenience sample of the tested snack foods, carbohydrate content exceeded label statements by 7.7% (0.8, 16.7, P = 0.01); however fat and protein content were not significantly different from label statements (-12.8% [-38.6, 9.6], P = 0.23; 6.1% [-6.1, 17.5], P = 0.32). Carbohydrate content explained 40% and serving size an additional 55% of the excess calories. Among a convenience sample of energy-dense snack foods, caloric content is higher than stated on the nutrition labels, but overall well within FDA limits. This discrepancy may be explained by inaccurate carbohydrate content and serving size. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  20. Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ernest L.

    1977-01-01

    Schools must teach pupils about the wide nature of our energy dilemma and prepare them for a future in which not only will conservation of energy be essential, but also the conservation and preservation of our total natural resources. (JD)

  1. 10 CFR 35.69 - Labeling of vials and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of vials and syringes. 35.69 Section 35.69 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.69 Labeling of vials and syringes. Each syringe and vial that contains unsealed byproduct material must...

  2. 10 CFR 35.69 - Labeling of vials and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of vials and syringes. 35.69 Section 35.69 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.69 Labeling of vials and syringes. Each syringe and vial that contains unsealed byproduct material must...

  3. 10 CFR 35.69 - Labeling of vials and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of vials and syringes. 35.69 Section 35.69 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.69 Labeling of vials and syringes. Each syringe and vial that contains unsealed byproduct material must...

  4. 10 CFR 35.69 - Labeling of vials and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of vials and syringes. 35.69 Section 35.69 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.69 Labeling of vials and syringes. Each syringe and vial that contains unsealed byproduct material must...

  5. 10 CFR 35.69 - Labeling of vials and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of vials and syringes. 35.69 Section 35.69 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.69 Labeling of vials and syringes. Each syringe and vial that contains unsealed byproduct material must...

  6. 10 CFR 34.35 - Labeling, storage, and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling, storage, and transportation. 34.35 Section 34.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.35 Labeling, storage, and transportation....

  7. 16 CFR Appendix L to Part 305 - Sample Labels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. L Appendix L to...

  8. Accuracy of a combined heart rate and motion sensor for assessing energy expenditure in free-living adults during a double-blind crossover caffeine trial using doubly labeled water as the reference method.

    PubMed

    Silva, A M; Santos, D A; Matias, C N; Júdice, P B; Magalhães, J P; Ekelund, U; Sardinha, L B

    2015-01-01

    A combined heart rate (HR) and motion sensor (Actiheart) has been proposed as an accurate method for assessing total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). However, the extent to which factors such as caffeine may affect the accuracy by which the estimated HR-related PAEE contribution will affect TEE and PAEE estimates is unknown. Therefore, we examined the validity of Actiheart in estimating TEE and PAEE in free-living adults under a caffeine trial compared with doubly labeled water (DLW) as reference criterion. Using a double-blind crossover trial (Clinicaltrials.gov ID: #NCT01477294) with two conditions (4-day each with a 3-day-washout period), randomly ordered as caffeine (5 mg/kg per day) and placebo (malt-dextrine) intake, TEE was measured by DLW in 17 physically active men (20-38 years) who were non-caffeine users. In each condition, resting energy expenditure (REE) was assessed by indirect calorimetry and PAEE was calculated as (TEE-(REE+0.1 TEE)). Simultaneously, PAEE and TEE were estimated by Actiheart using an individual calibration (ACC+HRstep). Under caffeine, ACC+HRstep explained 76 and 64% of TEE and PAEE from DLW, respectively; corresponding results for the placebo condition were 82 and 66%. No mean bias was found between ACC+HRstep and DLW for TEE (caffeine:-468 kJ per day; placebo:-407 kJ per day), although PAEE was slightly underestimated (caffeine:-856 kJ per day; placebo:-1147 kJ per day). Similar limits of agreement were observed in both conditions ranging from -2066 to 3002 and from -3488 to 1776 kJ per day for TEE and PAEE, respectively. Regardless of caffeine intake, the combined HR and motion sensor is valid for estimating free-living energy expenditure in a group of healthy men but is less accurate for an individual assessment.

  9. Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Canada, Britain, and Spain. We found that the energy industry is not in crisis ; however, U.S. government policies, laws, dollars, and even public...CEIMAT (Centro de Investagaciones Energeticas , Medioambeintales y Tecnologicas) Research and development Page 3 of 28ENERGY 8/10/04http://www.ndu.edu...procurement or storage of standard, common use fuels. NATURAL GAS Natural gas, abundant globally and domestically, offers energy versatility among

  10. Labeling of Patient Specimens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    printers in each clinic to print labels .JDI Capt Cutter Research compatible printer, Cost, Time Frame Develop standard training for all clinics...Standardize label content, automate with inkless printers once process is proven c . Place visual reminders for providers and support staff 2. Event

  11. Labeling and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mike S.; Robertson, Craig T.; Gray-Ray, Phyllis; Ray, Melvin C.

    2003-01-01

    Index comprised of six contrasting descriptive adjectives was used to measure incarcerated youths' perceived negative labeling from the perspective of parents, teachers, and peers. Results provided partial support for hypothesis that juveniles who choose a greater number of negative labels will report more frequent delinquent involvement. Labeling…

  12. Labeling and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mike S.; Robertson, Craig T.; Gray-Ray, Phyllis; Ray, Melvin C.

    2003-01-01

    Index comprised of six contrasting descriptive adjectives was used to measure incarcerated youths' perceived negative labeling from the perspective of parents, teachers, and peers. Results provided partial support for hypothesis that juveniles who choose a greater number of negative labels will report more frequent delinquent involvement. Labeling…

  13. Government perspective: food labeling.

    PubMed

    Philipson, Tomas

    2005-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration acknowledges the severity of the obesity epidemic. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the importance of food labeling as a vehicle for dietary messages and, thus, enforces stringent guidelines to maintain the integrity of the food label. As food labels await another upgrade to make them more effective and easier to understand, the Food and Drug Administration considers what information will be most useful for consumers to make healthy choices. The causal relationship between food labels and subsequent diet choice is not well understood; more research in this area is needed. The Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration has recently appointed an Obesity Working Group to develop proposals on pertinent topics of obesity, including the role of food labeling as a dietary guide.

  14. Mining Multi-label Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoumakas, Grigorios; Katakis, Ioannis; Vlahavas, Ioannis

    A large body of research in supervised learning deals with the analysis of single-label data, where training examples are associated with a single label λ from a set of disjoint labels L. However, training examples in several application domains are often associated with a set of labels Y ⊆ L. Such data are called multi-label.

  15. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.

  16. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 25

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review: clarity, accuracy, consistency with EPA policy, and enforceability.

  17. Improving Signal to Noise in Labeled Biological Specimens using Energy-Filtered TEM of sections with a Drift Correction Strategy and a Direct Detection Device

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandra, Ranjan; Bouwer, James C.; Mackey, Mason R.; Bushong, Eric; Peltier, Steven T.; Xuong, Nguyen-Huu; Ellisman, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy techniques are regularly used to build elemental maps of spatially distributed nanoparticles in materials and biological specimens. When working with thick biological sections, EELS techniques involving core-loss electrons often require exposures exceeding several minutes to provide sufficient signal to noise. Image quality with these long exposures is often compromised by specimen drift, which results in blurring and reduced resolution. To mitigate drift artifacts, a series of short exposure images can be acquired, aligned, and merged to form a single image. For samples where the target elements have extremely low signal yields, the use of CCD based detectors for this purpose can be problematic. At short acquisition times, the images produced by CCDs can be noisy and may contain fixed pattern artifacts that impact subsequent correlative alignment. Here we report on the use of direct electron detection devices (DDD’s) to increase the signal to noise as compared to CCD’s. A 3x improvement in signal is reported with a DDD vs. a comparably formatted CCD, with equivalent dose on each detector. With the fast rolling-readout design of the DDD, the duty cycle provides a major benefit, as there is no dead time between successive frames. PMID:24641915

  18. The Assessment of Total Energy Expenditure During a 14-Day In-Season Period of Professional Rugby League Players Using the Doubly Labelled Water Method.

    PubMed

    Morehen, James Cameron; Bradley, Warren Jeremy; Clarke, Jon; Twist, Craig; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John Roger; Morton, James Peter; Close, Graeme Leonard

    2016-10-01

    Rugby League is a high-intensity collision sport competed over 80 min. Training loads are monitored to maximize recovery and assist in the design of nutritional strategies although no data are available on the total energy expenditure (TEE) of players. We therefore assessed resting metabolic rate (RMR) and TEE in six Super League players over 2 consecutive weeks in-season including one game per week. Fasted RMR was assessed followed by a baseline urine sample before oral administration of a bolus dose of hydrogen (deuterium (2)H) and oxygen ((18)O) stable isotopes in the form of water ((2)H2(18)O). Every 24 hr thereafter, players provided urine for analysis of TEE via DLW method. Individual training load was quantified using session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and data were analyzed using magnitude-based inferences. There were unclear differences in RMR between forwards and backs (7.7 ± 0.5 cf. 8.0 ± 0.3 MJ, respectively). Indirect calorimetry produced RMR values most likely lower than predictive equations (7.9 ± 0.4 cf. 9.2 ± 0.4 MJ, respectively). A most likely increase in TEE from Week 1 to 2 was observed (17.9 ± 2.1 cf. 24.2 ± 3.4 MJ) explained by a most likelyincrease in weekly sRPE (432 ± 19 cf. 555 ± 22 AU), respectively. The difference in TEE between forward and backs was unclear (21.6 ± 4.2 cf. 20.5 ± 4.9 MJ, respectively). We report greater TEE than previously reported in rugby that could be explained by the ability of DLW to account for all match and training-related activities that contributes to TEE.

  19. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  20. Off-Label Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drugs for off-label uses. Off-label marketing is very different from off-label use. Why ... Employment Become a Supplier Report Fraud or Abuse Global Health ACS CAN Sign Up for Email Policies ...

  1. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1983-07-15

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  2. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1985-11-12

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label. 5 figs.

  3. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H. Duane

    1985-01-01

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  4. Restaurant Menu Labeling Policy: Review of Evidence and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    VanEpps, Eric M.; Roberto, Christina A.; Park, Sara; Economos, Christina D.; Bleich, Sara N.

    2016-01-01

    In response to high rates of obesity in the USA, several American cities, counties, and states have passed laws requiring restaurant chains to post labels identifying the energy content of items on menus, and nationwide implementation of menu labeling is expected in late 2016. In this review, we identify and summarize the results of 16 studies that have assessed the impact of real-world numeric calorie posting. We also discuss several controversies surrounding the US Food and Drug Administration's implementation of federally mandated menu labeling. Overall, the evidence regarding menu labeling is mixed, showing that labels may reduce the energy content of food purchased in some contexts, but have little effect in other contexts. However, more data on a range of ong-term consumption habits and restaurant responses is needed to fully understand the impact menu labeling laws will have on the US population's diet. PMID:26877095

  5. Restaurant Menu Labeling Policy: Review of Evidence and Controversies.

    PubMed

    VanEpps, Eric M; Roberto, Christina A; Park, Sara; Economos, Christina D; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-03-01

    In response to high rates of obesity in the USA, several American cities, counties, and states have passed laws requiring restaurant chains to post labels identifying the energy content of items on menus, and nationwide implementation of menu labeling is expected in late 2016. In this review, we identify and summarize the results of 16 studies that have assessed the impact of real-world numeric calorie posting. We also discuss several controversies surrounding the US Food and Drug Administration's implementation of federally mandated menu labeling. Overall, the evidence regarding menu labeling is mixed, showing that labels may reduce the energy content of food purchased in some contexts, but have little effect in other contexts. However, more data on a range of ong-term consumption habits and restaurant responses is needed to fully understand the impact menu labeling laws will have on the US population's diet.

  6. Like your labels?

    PubMed

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off.

  7. Label Review Training - Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  8. Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino Acids (SILAC)-Based Proteomics of Primary Human Kidney Cells Reveals a Novel Link between Male Sex Hormones and Impaired Energy Metabolism in Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Clotet, Sergi; Soler, Maria Jose; Riera, Marta; Pascual, Julio; Fang, Fei; Zhou, Joyce; Batruch, Ihor; Vasiliou, Stella K; Dimitromanolakis, Apostolos; Barrios, Clara; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Scholey, James W; Konvalinka, Ana

    2017-03-01

    Male sex predisposes to many kidney diseases. Considering that androgens exert deleterious effects in a variety of cell types within the kidney, we hypothesized that dihydrotestosterone (DHT) would alter the biology of the renal tubular cell by inducing changes in the proteome. We employed stable isotope labeling with amino acids (SILAC) in an indirect spike-in fashion to accurately quantify the proteome in DHT- and 17β-estradiol (EST)-treated human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC). Of the 5043 quantified proteins, 76 were differentially regulated. Biological processes related to energy metabolism were significantly enriched among DHT-regulated proteins. SILAC ratios of 3 candidates representing glycolysis, N-acetylglucosamine metabolism and fatty acid β-oxidation, namely glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), glucosamine-6-phosphate-N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNPNAT1), and mitochondrial trifunctional protein subunit alpha (HADHA), were verified in vitro. In vivo, renal GPI and HADHA protein expression was significantly increased in males. Furthermore, male sex was associated with significantly higher GPI, GNPNAT1, and HADHA kidney protein expression in two different murine models of diabetes. Enrichment analysis revealed a link between our DHT-regulated proteins and oxidative stress within the diabetic kidney. This finding was validated in vivo, as we observed increased oxidative stress levels in control and diabetic male kidneys, compared with females. This in depth quantitative proteomics study of human primary PTEC response to sex hormone administration suggests that male sex hormone stimulation results in perturbed energy metabolism in kidney cells, and that this perturbation results in increased oxidative stress in the renal cortex. The proteome-level changes associated with androgens may play a crucial role in the development of structural and functional changes in the diseased kidney. With our findings, we propose a possible link between diabetic and

  9. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    This document describes a course designed to acquaint students with the many societal and technological problems facing the United States and the world due to the increasing demand for energy. The course begins with a writing assignment that involves readings on the environmental philosophy of Native Americans and the Chernobyl catastrophe.…

  10. Routing and Label Space Reduction in Label Switching Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Fernando; Caro, Luis Fernando; Stidsen, Thomas; Papadimitriou, Dimitri

    This chapter is devoted to the analysis and modeling of some problems related to the optimal usage of the label space in label switching networks. Label space problems concerning three different technologies and architectures - namely Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS), Ethernet VLAN-Label Switching (ELS) and All-Optical Label Switching (AOLS) - are discussed in this chapter. Each of these cases yields to different constraints of the general label space reduction problem. We propose a generic optimization model and, then, we describe some adaptations aiming at modeling each particular case. Simulation results are briefly discussed at the end of this chapter.

  11. 16 CFR Appendix L to Part 305 - Sample Labels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sample Labels L Appendix L to Part 305... UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. L Appendix L to.... At 76 FR 79058, Dec. 21, 2011, appendix L was amended by redesignating samples 10, 11, 12, and icon...

  12. 16 CFR Appendix L to Part 305 - Sample Labels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sample Labels L Appendix L to Part 305... UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. L Appendix L to... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting appendix L, see the List of CFR Sections Affected...

  13. 16 CFR Appendix L to Part 305 - Sample Labels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sample Labels L Appendix L to Part 305... UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. L Appendix L to.... For Federal Register citations affecting appendix L, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which...

  14. Nanostructured luminescently labeled nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Kricka, Larry J; Fortina, Paolo; Park, Jason Y

    2017-03-01

    Important and emerging trends at the interface of luminescence, nucleic acids and nanotechnology are: (i) the conventional luminescence labeling of nucleic acid nanostructures (e.g. DNA tetrahedron); (ii) the labeling of bulk nucleic acids (e.g. single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA) with nanostructured luminescent labels (e.g. copper nanoclusters); and (iii) the labeling of nucleic acid nanostructures (e.g. origami DNA) with nanostructured luminescent labels (e.g. silver nanoclusters). This review surveys recent advances in these three different approaches to the generation of nanostructured luminescently labeled nucleic acids, and includes both direct and indirect labeling methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A connected component labeling algorithm for wheat root thinned image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, ShaoMin; Zha, XuHeng; Du, HaiYang; Hao, QingBo; Chang, TengTeng

    Measuring wheat root length need manual measure by measuring rule, waste time and energy, low precision, aiming at this problem in this paper a connected component labeling algorithm for wheat root thinned image is presented. The algorithm realized on the basis of regional growth thought by dynamic queue list, only need one scan can finish label process. Aiming at label of wheat root thinned image, the algorithm compared with three algorithms, the experimental results show that the algorithm effect is good and suited to connecting component labeling for wheat root thinned image.

  16. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.120 Device labeling. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to control labeling activities. (a) Label integrity. Labels... accuracy including, where applicable, the correct expiration date, control number, storage instructions...

  17. WaterSense Labeled Homes Quick Reference Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green building has grown from a niche market to a savvy business strategy. WaterSense labeled homes capitalize on consumer demand by offering homeowners a whole-house solution to help them save water, energy, and money.

  18. The information presented on labels for bread produced in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Murniece, Irisa; Straumite, Evita

    2014-11-01

    Bakery products, particularly bread, make up a significant share of the food guide pyramid. To help consumers make more informed choices from the bread available in the market, it is essential to provide correct and appropriate information on food labels. The aim of this research was to analyse the information shown on labels for different types of bread produced in Latvia. Different types of bread were chosen from 28 bakeries located in regions throughout Latvia. For statistical analysis, the data were processed using the S-PLUS 6.1 Professional Edition. From the analysis of labels on bread in Latvian, we conclude there is an absence of information about energy; only 4.8% of labels presented energy calculated according to the Nutritional Labelling Regulation 90/496/ECC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Translocation of labelled sucrose: A student exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Reiss, C. )

    1990-05-01

    Photosynthetic carbohydrates from the leaves are exported through the phloem to growing tips, roots, flowers and fruits. If sucrose labelled with {sup 14}C is applied to the leaves of bean plants, the pathway for sugar movement may be readily observed by autoradiography. Students apply the labelled sucrose during class time and return the next day to press their plants. During the next class, the pressed and dried plants are placed against X-ray film and left in the dark for four weeks. the film is then developed, examined for presence of label and compared to the pressed plants. Source to sink movement is clearly illustrated and information about the mechanism of phloem transport and loading is gained through experimental treatments, which include blocking the phloem pathway and inhibiting energy production.

  20. A Deceiving Label?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    The author reports on the growing debate among educators on whether the umbrella Asian Pacific Islander label conceals disparities among Asian American students or provides political power in numbers. Nationally, experts say that support services aimed at not only Southeast Asians, but all Asian Pacific Islander students, remain scarce in higher…

  1. A Deceiving Label?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    The author reports on the growing debate among educators on whether the umbrella Asian Pacific Islander label conceals disparities among Asian American students or provides political power in numbers. Nationally, experts say that support services aimed at not only Southeast Asians, but all Asian Pacific Islander students, remain scarce in higher…

  2. From Labels to Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The author argues that to truly help young students who struggle with reading and writing--including those with identified disabilities or conditions that effect building literacy--teachers should avoid the approach of focusing on a student's deficits and creating labels for him or her (dyslexic, English language learner, and so on). A rush to…

  3. Photoaffinity-labeled Cytokinins

    PubMed Central

    Theiler, Jane B.; Leonard, Nelson J.; Schmitz, Ruth Y.; Skoog, Folke

    1976-01-01

    Two new azidopurine derivatives, 2-azido-N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine and 2-azido-N6-benzyladenine, have been synthesized as potential photoaffinity labels for probing cytokinin-binding sites. The preparation and the biological activity of these compounds are described. PMID:16659772

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page 7, Label Training, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  5. 40 CFR 600.307-08 - Fuel economy label format requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy label format requirements...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.307-08 Fuel economy label format...

  6. 40 CFR 600.307-95 - Fuel economy label format requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy label format requirements...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.307-95 Fuel economy label format...

  7. 40 CFR 600.307-86 - Fuel economy label format requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy label format requirements...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.307-86 Fuel economy label format...

  8. 40 CFR 600.312-86 - Labeling, reporting, and recordkeeping; Administrator reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.312-86 Labeling, reporting, and... data sufficient to calculate the label values, to the Administrator according to the...

  9. 40 CFR 600.312-86 - Labeling, reporting, and recordkeeping; Administrator reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.312-86 Labeling, reporting, and... data sufficient to calculate the label values, to the Administrator according to the...

  10. Influence of nutrition labelling on food portion size consumption.

    PubMed

    McCann, Mary T; Wallace, Julie M W; Robson, Paula J; Rennie, Kirsten L; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Welch, Robert W; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2013-06-01

    Nutrition labelling is an important strategic approach for encouraging consumers to make healthier food choices. The availability of highly palatable foods labelled as 'low fat or reduced calorie' may encourage the over-consumption of these products. This study aimed to determine whether the manipulation of nutrition labelling information can influence food portion size consumption. Normal and overweight men (n=24) and women (n=23) were served an identical lunch meal on three separate days, but the information they received prior to consuming the lunch meal was manipulated as follows: "baseline", "high fat/energy" and "low fat/energy". Food and energy intake was significantly increased in the low fat/energy condition compared with both baseline and the high fat/energy condition. An additional 3% (162 kJ) energy was consumed by subjects under the low fat/energy condition compared to baseline. No differences were observed between the baseline and high fat/energy condition. Subjects who consumed most in the low fat/energy condition were found to be mostly men, to have a higher BMI and to be overweight. Low fat/energy information can positively influence food and energy intake, suggesting that foods labelled as 'low fat' or 'low calorie' may be one factor promoting the consumption of large food portions.

  11. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    MedlinePlus

    ... Features Spokespeople News Archive eNewsletters Calendar Use the Nutrition Facts Label You can help your family eat ... to some of their favorite foods. Use the Nutrition Facts label found on food packages to make ...

  12. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  13. Labeling lake water with tritium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, B.J.

    1963-01-01

    A method of packaging tritiated water in a manner that facilitates safe handling in environmental labeling operations, and procedures followed in labeling a large body of water with a small volume of tritiated water are described. ?? 1963.

  14. Collective Multi-Label Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    there is one output random variable . We begin by de- scribing this traditional classifier, then we describe its common ex- tension to the multi- label ...dependencies among the output variables . In addition to having feature for each label -term pair, CML main- tains features accounting for label co...over all possible multi- labelings — that is, over all subsets of Y . This method is intuitively appealing: it is easy to explain, and it is informative

  15. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Labels are overlaid on a photo (0003837) of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). The MSG is being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are developing the MSG for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  16. Food Labels Tell the Story!

    MedlinePlus

    ... My World From the Label to the Table! Food Labels Tell the Story! What is in food? Food provides your body with all of the ... your food choices. Nutrition Facts—the Labels on Food Products Beginning in 1994, the US government began ...

  17. Learning with imperfectly labeled patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittineni, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of learning in pattern recognition using imperfectly labeled patterns is considered. The performance of the Bayes and nearest neighbor classifiers with imperfect labels is discussed using a probabilistic model for the mislabeling of the training patterns. Schemes for training the classifier using both parametric and non parametric techniques are presented. Methods for the correction of imperfect labels were developed. To gain an understanding of the learning process, expressions are derived for success probability as a function of training time for a one dimensional increment error correction classifier with imperfect labels. Feature selection with imperfectly labeled patterns is described.

  18. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    PubMed

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format.

  19. Map labeling and its generalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Doddi, S. |; Marathe, M.V.; Mirzaian, A.; Moret, B.M.E.; Zhu, B. |

    1997-01-01

    Map labeling is of fundamental importance in cartography and geographical information systems and is one of the areas targeted for research by the ACM Computational Geometry Impact Task Force. Previous work on map labeling has focused on the problem of placing maximal uniform, axis-aligned, disjoint rectangles on the plane so that each point feature to be labeled lies at the corner of one rectangle. Here, we consider a number of variants of the map labeling problem. We obtain three general types of results. First, we devise constant-factor polynomial-time-approximation algorithms for labeling point features by rectangular labels, where the feature may lie anywhere on the boundary of its label region and where labeling rectangles may be placed in any orientation. These results generalize to the case of elliptical labels. Secondly, we consider the problem of labeling a map consisting of disjoint rectilinear fine segments. We obtain constant-factor polynomial-time approximation algorithms for the general problem and an optimal algorithm for the special case where all segments are horizontal. Finally, we formulate a bicriteria version of the map-labeling problem and provide bicriteria polynomial- time approximation schemes for a number of such problems.

  20. Supplementing national menu labeling.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; White, Lexi C

    2012-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants' menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., "heart-healthy" graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence.

  1. 49 CFR 583.5 - Label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the fuel economy label required by 15 U.S.C. 2006, or a separate label. A separate label may... case of a label that is included as part of the Monroney price information label or fuel economy label... motor vehicle equipment and that, to the best of the requester's knowledge, the outside supplier is...

  2. Multi-label Moves for MRFs with Truncated Convex Priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veksler, Olga

    Optimization with graph cuts became very popular in recent years. As more applications rely on graph cuts, different energy functions are being employed. Recent evaluation of optimization algorithms showed that the widely used swap and expansion graph cut algorithms have an excellent performance for energies where the underlying MRF has Potts prior. Potts prior corresponds to assuming that the true labeling is piecewise constant. While surprisingly useful in practice, Potts prior is clearly not appropriate in many circumstances. However for more general priors, the swap and expansion algorithms do not perform as well. Both algorithms are based on moves that give each pixel a choice of only two labels. Therefore such moves can be referred to as binary moves. Recently, range moves that act on multiple labels simultaneously were introduced. As opposed to swap and expansion, each pixel has a choice of more than two labels in a range move. Therefore we call them multi-label moves. Range moves were shown to work better for problems with truncated convex priors, which imply a piecewise smooth labeling. Inspired by range moves, we develop several different variants of multi-label moves. We evaluate them on the problem of stereo correspondence and discuss their relative merits.

  3. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labels, security, and transportation precautions. 39.31 Section 39.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL... radiation symbol specified in § 20.1901(a), without the conventional color requirements, and the...

  4. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labels, security, and transportation precautions. 39.31 Section 39.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL... radiation symbol specified in § 20.1901(a), without the conventional color requirements, and the...

  5. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labels, security, and transportation precautions. 39.31 Section 39.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL... radiation symbol specified in § 20.1901(a), without the conventional color requirements, and the...

  6. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labels, security, and transportation precautions. 39.31 Section 39.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL... radiation symbol specified in § 20.1901(a), without the conventional color requirements, and the...

  7. 10 CFR 32.58 - Same: Labeling of devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Same: Labeling of devices. 32.58 Section 32.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS... by the regulations in effect on January 1, 1975. The receipt, possession, use, and transfer of...

  8. 10 CFR 34.35 - Labeling, storage, and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling, storage, and transportation. 34.35 Section 34.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY... bearing the standard trefoil radiation caution symbol conventional colors, i.e., magenta, purple or black...

  9. 10 CFR 34.35 - Labeling, storage, and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling, storage, and transportation. 34.35 Section 34.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY... bearing the standard trefoil radiation caution symbol conventional colors, i.e., magenta, purple or black...

  10. 10 CFR 34.35 - Labeling, storage, and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling, storage, and transportation. 34.35 Section 34.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY... bearing the standard trefoil radiation caution symbol conventional colors, i.e., magenta, purple or black...

  11. 10 CFR 32.54 - Same: Labeling of devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Same: Labeling of devices. 32.54 Section 32.54 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS... licensed under § 32.53 to manufacture, assemble, or initially transfer devices containing tritium or...

  12. Optimizing connected component labeling algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow; Shoshani, Arie

    2005-01-16

    This paper presents two new strategies that can be used to greatly improve the speed of connected component labeling algorithms. To assign a label to a new object, most connected component labeling algorithms use a scanning step that examines some of its neighbors. The first strategy exploits the dependencies among them to reduce the number of neighbors examined. When considering 8-connected components in a 2D image, this can reduce the number of neighbors examined from four to one in many cases. The second strategy uses an array to store the equivalence information among the labels. This replaces the pointer based rooted trees used to store the same equivalence information. It reduces the memory required and also produces consecutive final labels. Using an array instead of the pointer based rooted trees speeds up the connected component labeling algorithms by a factor of 5 {approx} 100 in our tests on random binary images.

  13. Optimizing connected component labeling algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow; Shoshani, Arie

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents two new strategies that can be used to greatly improve the speed of connected component labeling algorithms. To assign a label to a new object, most connected component labeling algorithms use a scanning step that examines some of its neighbors. The first strategy exploits the dependencies among them to reduce the number of neighbors examined. When considering 8-connected components in a 2D image, this can reduce the number of neighbors examined from four to one in many cases. The second strategy uses an array to store the equivalence information among the labels. This replaces the pointer based rooted trees used to store the same equivalence information. It reduces the memory required and also produces consecutive final labels. Using an array instead of the pointer based rooted trees speeds up the connected component labeling algorithms by a factor of 5 ~ 100 in our tests on random binary images.

  14. Principles of protein labeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Obermaier, Christian; Griebel, Anja; Westermeier, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Protein labeling methods prior to separation and analysis have become indispensable approaches for proteomic profiling. Basically, three different types of tags are employed: stable isotopes, mass tags, and fluorophores. While proteins labeled with stable isotopes and mass tags are measured and differentiated by mass spectrometry, fluorescent labels are detected with fluorescence imagers. The major purposes for protein labeling are monitoring of biological processes, reliable quantification of compounds and specific detection of protein modifications and isoforms in multiplexed samples, enhancement of detection sensitivity, and simplification of detection workflows. Proteins can be labeled during cell growth by incorporation of amino acids containing different isotopes, or in biological fluids, cells or tissue samples by attaching specific groups to the ε-amino group of lysine, the N-terminus, or the cysteine residues. The principles and the modifications of the different labeling approaches on the protein level are described; benefits and shortcomings of the methods are discussed.

  15. Label Structured Cell Proliferation Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-16

    variable as a mass-like quantity. The specific model for the dynamics of life and death processes of a population of cells labeled with CFSE is proposed in... variables = + where < 0 is label degradation velocity. Because we really don’t understand completely the degradation process (there appears to be...little agreement as to what variables on which this velocity might depend) and to allow for generality (other labels that might be used may well

  16. Label Ranking Algorithms: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vembu, Shankar; Gärtner, Thomas

    Label ranking is a complex prediction task where the goal is to map instances to a total order over a finite set of predefined labels. An interesting aspect of this problem is that it subsumes several supervised learning problems, such as multiclass prediction, multilabel classification, and hierarchical classification. Unsurprisingly, there exists a plethora of label ranking algorithms in the literature due, in part, to this versatile nature of the problem. In this paper, we survey these algorithms.

  17. GEO label: The General Framework for Labeling and Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bye, B. L.; McCallum, I.; Maso, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. As part of a strategy to increase the involvement of the science and technology community in GEOSS, both as users and developers of GEOSS itself, GEO decided to develop a GEO label concept related to the scientific relevance, quality, acceptance and societal needs for services and data sets of GEOSS. The development of a GEO label is included in the GEO work plan and several projects address the challenges of developing a GEO label concept. Within the different projects developing the GEO label, various perspectives and approaches are being applied. In order to arrive at a generally accepted GEO label concept, a common understanding and basic knowledge of labeling is necessary. Assessment of quality of internationally standardized Earth observation data products implies possible certification. A general understanding of the framework for international standards and certification will also contribute to a more coherent discussion and more efficient development of a GEO label. We will describe the general labeling and certification framework emphasizing the relation to the three elements of the GEO label: quality, user acceptance and relevance. Based on a survey of international labels done by the EGIDA project, we have analyzed the legal framework and organization of labels and certification. We will discuss the frameworks for certification, user ratings, registration and analysis of user requirements. Quality assessment is a particular focus of the analysis and is based on the work done by the GeoViQua project. A GEO label will function both as a data distribution strategy and as a general management system for data. Through a label users can compare different data sets and get access to more information about the relevant data, including quality. A label will provide traceability of data both in the interest of users as well as data

  18. Fluorine-18 labeling of small molecules: the use of 18F-labeled aryl fluorides derived from no-carrier-added [18F]fluoride as labeling precursors.

    PubMed

    Wuest, F

    2007-01-01

    The favourable long-half life, the ease of production and the low energy of the emitted positron make 18F an ideal radionuclide for PET imaging. Radiochemistry of 18F basically relies on two distinctive types of reactions: nucleophilic and electrophilic reactions. All syntheses of 18F-labeled radiotracers are based on either [18F]fluoride ion or [18F]fluorine gas as simple primary labeling precursors which are obtained directly from the cyclotron. They can be applied either directly to the radiosynthesis or they can be transformed into more complex labeling precursors enabling the multi-step build-up of organic tracer molecules. The topic of this review is a survey on the application of several 18F-labeled aryl fluorides as building blocks derived from no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) [18F] fluoride to build up small monomeric PET radiotracers at high specific radioactivity by multi-step synthesis procedures.

  19. Impact of explained v. unexplained front-of-package nutrition labels on parent and child food choices: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Graham, Dan J; Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Mueller, Megan P; Jaeb, Melanie; Harnack, Lisa

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated whether parent/child pairs would select more healthful foods when: (i) products were labelled with front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labels relative to packages without labels; (ii) products were labelled with colour-coded Multiple Traffic Light (MTL) FOP labels relative to monochromatic Facts up Front (FuF) FOP labels; and (iii) FOP labels were explained via in-aisle signage v. unexplained. Participants were randomly assigned to one of five conditions: (i) FuF labels with in-aisle signs explaining the labels; (ii) FuF labels, no signage; (iii) MTL labels with in-aisle signage; (iv) MTL labels, no signage; (v) control group, no labels/signage. Saturated fat, sodium, sugar and energy (calorie) content were compared across conditions. The study took place in a laboratory grocery aisle. Parent/child pairs (n 153) completed the study. Results did not support the hypothesis that MTL labels would lead to more healthful choices than FuF labels. The presence of FOP labels did little to improve the healthfulness of selected foods, with few exceptions (participants with v. without access to FOP labels selected lower-calorie cereals, participants with access to both FOP labels and in-aisle explanatory signage selected products with less saturated fat v. participants without explanatory signage). Neither MTL nor FuF FOP labels led to food choices with significantly lower saturated fat, sodium or sugar. In-aisle signs explaining the FOP labels were somewhat helpful to consumers in making more healthful dietary decisions. New FOP labelling programmes could benefit from campaigns to increase consumer awareness and understanding of the labels.

  20. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-03-30

    Novel methods for positron emission tomography or single photon emission spectroscopy using tracer compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)napthyl Y in .beta. configuration is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, The compounds bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  1. 18F: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, T. L.; Wester, H. J.

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a unique tool for the investigation, localization, and quantification of physiological activities in vivo by tracing the involved or accompanying biochemical processes. Because of its nuclear and chemical properties, fluorine-18, which is commonly produced by a cyclotron using the 18O(p,n)18F or the 20Ne(d,α)18F nuclear process, is a nearly ideal positron emitting radionuclide. Its half-life of 109.7 min permits tracer syntheses and imaging protocols extending over hours and allows distribution of 18F-radiopharmaceuticals to hospitals and facilities lacking a cyclotron. The low maximum positron energy of 635 keV results in low radiation doses, short ranges in tissue, and therefore in excellent imaging resolution. Introduction of 18F-fluorine, either via nucleophilic strategies using [18F]F- or electrophilic routes using molecular [18F]F2, permits the synthesis of a broad spectrum of compounds within a time compatible with the half-life. Although fluorine is only slightly larger than a hydrogen atom, changes in the physiological behavior of bioactive compounds as a result of alteration in metabolic stability, lipophilicity, affinity to the target, or other structures, etc., are often observed even after F-for-H or F-for-OH substitutions. In this chapter, an overview of the scope and limitations of the 18F-chemistry is given. Fluorination strategies, routes, and synthetic aspects are exemplified, as far as possible, by established and selected 18F-radiopharmaceuticals with clinical relevance or with potential for further clinical application.

  2. LP Relaxation of the Potts Labeling Problem Is as Hard as any Linear Program.

    PubMed

    Prusa, Daniel; Werner, Tomas

    2016-06-20

    In our recent work, we showed that solving the LP relaxation of the pairwise min-sum labeling problem (also known as MAP inference in graphical models or discrete energy minimization) is not much easier than solving any linear program. Precisely, the general linear program reduces in linear time (assuming the Turing model of computation) to the LP relaxation of the min-sum labeling problem. The reduction is possible, though in quadratic time, even to the min-sum labeling problem with planar structure. Here we prove similar results for the pairwise minsum labeling problem with attractive Potts interactions (also known as the uniform metric labeling problem).

  3. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  4. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  5. Take the EPA's Energy Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how the Environmental Protection Agency's Star labeling program offers benchmarks for K-12 schools to analyze the energy efficiency of their buildings, help set a strategy to control energy cost hikes, and generate good will among taxpayers. (EV)

  6. Take the EPA's Energy Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how the Environmental Protection Agency's Star labeling program offers benchmarks for K-12 schools to analyze the energy efficiency of their buildings, help set a strategy to control energy cost hikes, and generate good will among taxpayers. (EV)

  7. Health claims on food labels.

    PubMed

    Tollefson, L

    1994-03-01

    Food and drug law requires that the ingredients in most foods be disclosed on their labels, but until recently there was no requirement that nutrition information be provided. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (NLEA), passed on November 8, 1990, mandated the Food and Drug Administration to establish regulations requiring most foods to have a uniform nutrition label showing the amount of calories, calories from fat, total fat, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, total carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, sugars, fiber, protein, and sodium. The Act also establishes the circumstances under which content claims and disease claims may be made about nutrients in food. This paper briefly discusses recent changes in the food label brought about by the NLEA and focuses on health claims on food labels.

  8. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium content...

  9. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium content...

  10. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium content...

  11. 16 CFR 1633.12 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Standard shall bear a permanent, conspicuous, and legible label(s) containing the following... with black text. The label text shall comply with the following format requirements: (1) All... as needed for varying information. The label must be white with black text. The label shall contain...

  12. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of...

  13. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of...

  14. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of...

  15. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  16. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium content...

  17. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium content...

  18. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium content...

  19. Food and the consumer: could labelling be the answer?

    PubMed

    Kerr, Maeve A; McCann, Mary T; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2015-05-01

    Extensive research into the impact of nutrition labelling across Europe has shown that many consumers can effectively use a nutrition label to rank a food for healthiness. The present paper considers observational and laboratory evidence which has examined the impact of nutrition labelling (on food packaging and at point of purchase) on dietary behaviour. In addition, the potential counterproductive effects of foods bearing 'healthy' nutrition labels are examined. The observational evidence provides a useful insight into the key characteristics of nutrition label use. Those most likely to engage with nutrition labels are more likely to have a diet related disease and/or be on a weight loss diet and have a good overall diet quality. Experimental evidence, while limited, suggests that serving size information may be overlooked by consumers. In fact, there may be a tendency among consumers to overeat foods that are perceived to be healthier. The findings from the present paper suggest that if nutrition labelling is to be considered a strategy to facilitate consumers in managing their energy intake, it must coincide with salient, consistent and simple serving size information on the front of food packages and at the point of purchase. There is a clear need for more experimental research using robust methodologies, to examine the impact of nutrition information on dietary intake. In the meantime, there should be greater attention given to portion size within national dietary guidance.

  20. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-01-26

    Novel compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)naphthyl Y in .beta. configuration is Y.sub.1 or Y.sub.2, where Y.sub.1 is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, and Y.sub.2 is 2-methanesulfonyloxy ethoxy, 3-methanesulfonyloxy propoxy, 4-methanesulfonyloxy butoxy, 2-methanesulfonyloxy cyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-methanesulfonyloxy cyclobutoxy, 1'methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-fluoro, 3'-methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy, 3'-fluoro isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy, or 4'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  1. Synthesis Of Labeled Metabolites

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Atcher, Robert

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, for example, isotopically enriched mustard gas metabolites including: [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1-[[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethyl]sulfonyl]-2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)]; and, 2,2'-sulfinylbis([1,2-.sup.13 C.sub.2 ]ethanol of the general formula ##STR1## where Q.sup.1 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone (--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), at least one C* is .sup.13 C, X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and deuterium, and Z is selected from the group consisting of hydroxide (--OH), and --Q.sup.2 --R where Q.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone(--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), and R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 lower alkyl, and amino acid moieties, with the proviso that when Z is a hydroxide and Q.sup.1 is a sulfide, then at least one X is deuterium.

  2. 40 CFR 600.308-12 - Fuel economy label format requirements-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel economy label format requirements... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.308-12 Fuel economy label format requirements—plug-in hybrid...

  3. 40 CFR 600.308-12 - Fuel economy label format requirements-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel economy label format requirements... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.308-12 Fuel economy label format requirements—plug-in hybrid...

  4. 40 CFR 600.308-12 - Fuel economy label format requirements-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel economy label format requirements... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.308-12 Fuel economy label format requirements—plug-in hybrid...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Labels and Style Guidelines for 2013 and Later Model Years

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fuel Cell Vehicle Label ER06JY11.051 G. Natural Gas Vehicle Label ER06JY11.052 H. Plug-in Hybrid... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Labels and Style... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...

  6. Phosphorylated 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine for advanced DNA labeling.

    PubMed

    Seo, Siyoong; Onizuka, Kazumitsu; Nishioka, Chieko; Takahashi, Eiki; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Abe, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshihiro

    2015-04-21

    The representative DNA-labeling agent 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) was chemically modified to improve its function. Chemical monophosphorylation was expected to enhance the efficiency of the substrate in DNA polymerization by circumventing the enzymatic monophosphorylation step that consumes energy. In addition, to enhance cell permeability, the phosphates were protected with bis-pivaloyloxymethyl that is stable in buffer and plasma, and degradable inside various cell types. The phosphorylated EdU (PEdU) was less toxic than EdU, and had the same or a slightly higher DNA-labeling ability in vitro. PEdU was also successfully applied to DNA labeling in vivo. In conclusion, PEdU can be used as a less toxic DNA-labeling agent for studies that require long-term cell survival or very sensitive cell lines.

  7. Algorithms for Labeling Focus Regions.

    PubMed

    Fink, M; Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Schulz, A; Spoerhase, J; Wolff, A

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of labeling point sites in focus regions of maps or diagrams. This problem occurs, for example, when the user of a mapping service wants to see the names of restaurants or other POIs in a crowded downtown area but keep the overview over a larger area. Our approach is to place the labels at the boundary of the focus region and connect each site with its label by a linear connection, which is called a leader. In this way, we move labels from the focus region to the less valuable context region surrounding it. In order to make the leader layout well readable, we present algorithms that rule out crossings between leaders and optimize other characteristics such as total leader length and distance between labels. This yields a new variant of the boundary labeling problem, which has been studied in the literature. Other than in traditional boundary labeling, where leaders are usually schematized polylines, we focus on leaders that are either straight-line segments or Bezier curves. Further, we present algorithms that, given the sites, find a position of the focus region that optimizes the above characteristics. We also consider a variant of the problem where we have more sites than space for labels. In this situation, we assume that the sites are prioritized by the user. Alternatively, we take a new facility-location perspective which yields a clustering of the sites. We label one representative of each cluster. If the user wishes, we apply our approach to the sites within a cluster, giving details on demand.

  8. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 5

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  9. 76 FR 75809 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Protection Reference Center was launched as a Web page in February 1999. The Web page includes a PowerPoint presentation titled ``Labeling 101,'' which is used by the Agency as a teaching tool at workshops on meat and...

  10. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 2

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  11. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  12. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 8

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  13. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 6

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page 6, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment

  14. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 4

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  15. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 3

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  16. 21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling..., muscle weakness, and osteomalacia. (b) Professional labeling for an antacid-antiflatulent combination...

  17. 21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling..., muscle weakness, and osteomalacia. (b) Professional labeling for an antacid-antiflatulent combination...

  18. 21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling..., muscle weakness, and osteomalacia. (b) Professional labeling for an antacid-antiflatulent combination...

  19. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  20. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky...

  1. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky...

  2. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky...

  3. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label...

  4. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label...

  5. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label...

  6. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dimethyl Disulfide (DMDS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for label details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  7. 21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Location and size of symbol on label and labeling... AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.04 Location and size of symbol on label and labeling. The symbol shall be prominently located on the label or the labeling of the commercial...

  8. 78 FR 24211 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Container Labels and Carton Labeling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Container Labels and Carton Labeling Design To Minimize Medication Errors; Availability AGENCY: Food and... Labels and Carton Labeling Design to Minimize Medication Errors.'' The draft guidance focuses on safety aspects of the container label and carton labeling design for prescription drug and biological products...

  9. Approximation Algorithms for Free-Label Maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Berg, Mark; Gerrits, Dirk H. P.

    Inspired by air traffic control and other applications where moving objects have to be labeled, we consider the following (static) point labeling problem: given a set P of n points in the plane and labels that are unit squares, place a label with each point in P in such a way that the number of free labels (labels not intersecting any other label) is maximized. We develop efficient constant-factor approximation algorithms for this problem, as well as PTASs, for various label-placement models.

  10. New Labeling for Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These documents, a graphic of the bee advisory box and letters to pesticide registrants, describe steps by EPA to change pesticide labels to better protect pollinators by being clearer and more precise in their directions for pesticide application.

  11. Locating the Vehicle Emissions Label

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA vehicle emissions label is entitled Vehicle Emission Control Information and contains the name and trademark of the manufacturer and an unconditional statement of compliance with EPA emission regulations.

  12. How to Read Drug Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Healthy Aging > Drugs and alternative medicine Healthy Aging How to read drug labels Printer-friendly version ... html Connect with other organizations National Institute on Aging, NIH, HHS http://www.nia.nih.gov/ U.S. ...

  13. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service and the Agriculture Marketing Service have officially evaluated a meat product for ... refer to these factsheets from the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service: Organic Food Standards and Labels: The Facts ...

  14. "Off-Label" Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a single ailment. This is simply the nature of both drug devel- opment and clinical medicine. ... off-label use of cancer drugs. Given the nature of cancer and cancer drugs, this approach sounds ...

  15. Relaxation labeling using modular operators

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.S.; Frei, W.

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic relaxation labeling has been shown to be useful in image processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence. The approaches taken to date have been encumbered with computationally extensive summations which generally prevent real-time operation and/or easy hardware implementation. The authors present a new and unique approach to the relaxation labeling problem using modular, VLSI-oriented hierarchical complex operators. One of the fundamental concepts of this work is the representation of the probability distribution of the possible labels for a given object (pixel) as an ellipse, which may be summed with neighboring object's distribution ellipses, resulting in a new, relaxed label space. The mathematical development of the elliptical approach will be presented and compared to more classical approaches, and a hardware block diagram that shows the implementation of the relaxation scheme using vlsi chips will be presented. Finally, results will be shown which illustrate applications of the modular scheme, iteratively, to both edges and lines. 13 references.

  16. Label-Free Receptor Assays

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ye

    2010-01-01

    Label-free biosensors offer integrated, kinetic and multi-parametric measures of receptor biology and ligand pharmacology in whole cells. Being highly sensitive and pathway-unbiased, label-free receptor assays can be used to probe the systems cell biology including pleiotropic signaling of receptors, and to characterize the functional selectivity and phenotypic pharmacology of ligand molecules. These assays provide a new dimension for elucidating receptor biology and for facilitating drug discovery. PMID:21221420

  17. Label-Free Receptor Assays.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ye

    2011-01-01

    Label-free biosensors offer integrated, kinetic and multi-parametric measures of receptor biology and ligand pharmacology in whole cells. Being highly sensitive and pathway-unbiased, label-free receptor assays can be used to probe the systems cell biology including pleiotropic signaling of receptors, and to characterize the functional selectivity and phenotypic pharmacology of ligand molecules. These assays provide a new dimension for elucidating receptor biology and for facilitating drug discovery.

  18. Electrothermal branding for embryo labeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Beebe, D J; Williams, A R; Easley, K D

    1997-11-01

    A novel embryo labeling technique based on electrothermal branding is developed. Two types of micro branding irons are fabricated and tested. One utilizes 25 microns tungsten wire as the heating element. The other utilizes surface micromachining techniques to fabricate polysilicon branding irons. The thermal behavior of the branding irons and the heat distributions in the embryos are analytically modeled. Micron-scale labels on unfertilized bovine embryos are achieved.

  19. Availability of Spanish prescription labels.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Iman; Lo, Sarah; Ozuah, Philip O

    2006-02-01

    The research team conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey of all pharmacies in the Bronx, New York (99.4% participation rate) to determine availability of Spanish prescription labels. One hundred twenty five pharmacies (78%) were small independent pharmacies; 36 (22%) were large-chain pharmacies. Overall, 111 (69%) stated that they could provide prescription labels in Spanish. Overall, for all the pharmacy ZIP codes, the mean proportion of the population that was Spanish-speaking was 46.8% (range 11% to 71.6%). Seventy-eight (48%) pharmacies were located in areas where more than 50% of the population were Spanish-speaking, 48 (30%) were located in areas with 25.1-50% Spanish-speakers, and 35 (22%) were in areas with up to 25% Spanish-speakers. Small independent pharmacies were more likely than large chain pharmacies to provide prescription labels in Spanish (71% vs. 61%, p=0.25). All the pharmacists commented that a patient must specifically request a Spanish prescription label in order to receive one. Pharmacies located in areas with the highest proportion of Spanish speakers were more likely to provide prescription labels in Spanish (82% vs. 62% vs. 49%; p=.001). Of the 111 pharmacies that could provide Spanish labels, 95 (86%) used a computer program to perform the translation and 16(14%) used a lay employee. Of pharmacies using a computer program, only one had a Spanish-speaking pharmacist who could check and correct the computer translations.

  20. 16 CFR 305.10 - Ranges of comparability on the required labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING... operating costs or energy efficiency ratings. The range of estimated annual operating costs or energy...

  1. Evaluation of a MEMS based theft detection circuit for RFID labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranasinghe, Damith C.; Cole, Peter H.

    2005-06-01

    In the proliferation of RFID technology anti-theft labels are continuing to evolve. In the functional hierarchy of RFID labels the battery-powered labels are a set of higher class labels referred to as active labels. Often these labels are employed for the tagging of expensive goods, with aim of both tracking and preventing the theft of the item. The battery powering such active labels must have very low internal and external current drain in order to prolong the life of the battery while being in a state of functionality to signal a theft of the labelled item. However due to circuit complexity or the desired operating range the electronics may drain the battery more rapidly than desired and the label may not last the shelf life of the product. The theft detection mechanism presented in this paper conserves power and thus prolongs the battery life of an active anti-theft label. A solution available for the development of such a theft detection circuit uses electroacoustic energy conversion using a MEMS device on a label IC to provide a high sensitivity result. This paper presents the results of an analysis conducted to evaluate the performance and the capabilities of such a theft detection circuit.

  2. Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data asset contains measured summary fuel economy estimates and test data for light-duty vehicle manufacturers by model for certification as required under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA) and The Energy Independent Security Act of 2007 (EISA) to collect vehicle fuel economy estimates for the creation of Economy Labels and for the calculation of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE). Manufacturers submit data on an annual basis, or as needed to document vehicle model changes.The EPA performs targeted fuel economy confirmatory tests on approximately 15% of vehicles submitted for validation. Confirmatory data on vehicles is associated with its corresponding submission data to verify the accuracy of manufacturer submissions beyond standard business rules. Submitted data comes in XML format or as documents, with the majority of submissions being sent in XML, and includes descriptive information on the vehicle itself, fuel economy information, and the manufacturer's testing approach. This data may contain proprietary information (CBI) such as information on estimated sales or other data elements indicated by the submitter as confidential. CBI data is not publically available; however, within the EPA data can accessed under the restrictions of the Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) CBI policy [RCS Link]. Datasets are segmented by vehicle model/manufacturer and/or year with corresponding fuel economy, te

  3. 10 CFR 34.35 - Labeling, storage, and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.35 Labeling, storage, and transportation. (a... MATERIAL NOTIFY CIVIL AUTHORITIES (or “NAME OF COMPANY”) *____ or “DANGER” (b) The licensee may not...

  4. 10 CFR 835.605 - Labeling items and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling items and containers. 835.605 Section 835.605... items and containers. Except as provided at § 835.606, each item or container of radioactive material... information to permit individuals handling, using, or working in the vicinity of the items or containers...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. III Appendix III to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation Suppose that a manufacturer called...

  6. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  7. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  8. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  9. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  10. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  11. 7 CFR 70.45 - Misleading labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misleading labeling. 70.45 Section 70.45 Agriculture... Misleading labeling. The use of the terms “Government Graded” and “Federal-State Graded” or terms of similar import in the labeling or advertising of any product without stating in the labeling or advertisement the...

  12. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  13. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  14. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  15. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  16. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  17. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    MedlinePlus

    ... Games, and the Internet How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...

  18. 40 CFR 211.108 - Sample label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample label. 211.108 Section 211.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.108 Sample label. Examples of labels conforming to the requirements...

  19. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label. The...

  20. Nutrition Labeling Using a Computer Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    The 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act mandated nutritional labeling of most foods. As a result, a large portion of food analysis is performed for nutritional labeling purposes. A food labeling guide and links to the complete nutritional labeling regulations are available online at http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/˜dms/flg-toc.html. However, interpretation of these regulations and the appropriate usage of rounding rules, available nutrient content claims, reference amounts, and serving size can be difficult.

  1. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  2. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  3. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  4. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  5. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  6. 76 FR 19237 - Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... 11 and 101 Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines; Proposed Rule #0... Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: To implement the vending machine labeling provisions of the...

  7. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-05-22

    This invention involved a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide in activators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.

  8. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, Joanna S.; MacGregor, Robert R.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Langstrom, Bengt

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  9. Metrics for Labeled Markov Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desharnais, Josee; Jagadeesan, Radha; Gupta, Vineet; Panangaden, Prakash

    1999-01-01

    Partial Labeled Markov Chains are simultaneously generalizations of process algebra and of traditional Markov chains. They provide a foundation for interacting discrete probabilistic systems, the interaction being synchronization on labels as in process algebra. Existing notions of process equivalence are too sensitive to the exact probabilities of various transitions. This paper addresses contextual reasoning principles for reasoning about more robust notions of "approximate" equivalence between concurrent interacting probabilistic systems. The present results indicate that:We develop a family of metrics between partial labeled Markov chains to formalize the notion of distance between processes. We show that processes at distance zero are bisimilar. We describe a decision procedure to compute the distance between two processes. We show that reasoning about approximate equivalence can be done compositionally by showing that process combinators do not increase distance. We introduce an asymptotic metric to capture asymptotic properties of Markov chains; and show that parallel composition does not increase asymptotic distance.

  10. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-04-03

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  11. Learning With Auxiliary Less-Noisy Labels.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yunyan; Wu, Ou

    2016-04-06

    Obtaining a sufficient number of accurate labels to form a training set for learning a classifier can be difficult due to the limited access to reliable label resources. Instead, in real-world applications, less-accurate labels, such as labels from nonexpert labelers, are often used. However, learning with less-accurate labels can lead to serious performance deterioration because of the high noise rate. Although several learning methods (e.g., noise-tolerant classifiers) have been advanced to increase classification performance in the presence of label noise, only a few of them take the noise rate into account and utilize both noisy but easily accessible labels and less-noisy labels, a small amount of which can be obtained with an acceptable added time cost and expense. In this brief, we propose a learning method, in which not only noisy labels but also auxiliary less-noisy labels, which are available in a small portion of the training data, are taken into account. Based on a flipping probability noise model and a logistic regression classifier, this method estimates the noise rate parameters, infers ground-truth labels, and learns the classifier simultaneously in a maximum likelihood manner. The proposed method yields three learning algorithms, which correspond to three prior knowledge states regarding the less-noisy labels. The experiments show that the proposed method is tolerant to label noise, and outperforms classifiers that do not explicitly consider the auxiliary less-noisy labels.

  12. Quantum dot labeling strategies to characterize single-molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Shane R; Ali, M Yusuf; Warshaw, David M

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in single-molecule labeling and detection techniques allow high-resolution imaging of the motion of single molecules. Molecular motors are biological machines that convert chemical energy into mechanical work. Myosin Va (MyoVa) is a well-characterized processive molecular motor, essential for cargo transport in living organisms. Quantum dots (Qdots) are fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals that are extremely useful for single-molecule studies in biological sciences. High-resolution video microscopy and single-particle tracking of a Qdot-labeled MyoVa motor molecule allow the detection of individual steps in vitro and in live cells.

  13. 78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... product as ``organic'' or containing organic ingredients; (3) claims that are undefined in FSIS... labeling errors resulted from production mistakes, such as packaging the product in the wrong box. More... poultry products inspection regulations to expand the circumstances in which FSIS will generically...

  14. Food labeling: gluten-free labeling of foods. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-08-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule to define the term "gluten-free'' for voluntary use in the labeling of foods. The final rule defines the term "gluten-free'' to mean that the food bearing the claim does not contain an ingredient that is a gluten-containing grain (e.g., spelt wheat); an ingredient that is derived from a gluten-containing grain and that has not been processed to remove gluten (e.g., wheat flour); or an ingredient that is derived from a gluten-containing grain and that has been processed to remove gluten (e.g., wheat starch), if the use of that ingredient results in the presence of 20 parts per million (ppm) or more gluten in the food (i.e., 20 milligrams (mg) or more gluten per kilogram (kg) of food); or inherently does not contain gluten; and that any unavoidable presence of gluten in the food is below 20 ppm gluten (i.e., below 20 mg gluten per kg of food). A food that bears the claim "no gluten,'' "free of gluten,'' or "without gluten'' in its labeling and fails to meet the requirements for a "gluten-free'' claim will be deemed to be misbranded. In addition, a food whose labeling includes the term "wheat'' in the ingredient list or in a separate "Contains wheat'' statement as required by a section of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) and also bears the claim "gluten-free'' will be deemed to be misbranded unless its labeling also bears additional language clarifying that the wheat has been processed to allow the food to meet FDA requirements for a "gluten-free'' claim. Establishing a definition of the term "gluten-free'' and uniform conditions for its use in food labeling will help ensure that individuals with celiac disease are not misled and are provided with truthful and accurate information with respect to foods so labeled. We are issuing the final rule under the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (FALCPA).

  15. Isobaric protein-level labeling strategy for serum glycoprotein quantification analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nie, Song; Lo, Andy; Zhu, Jianhui; Wu, Jing; Ruffin, Mack T; Lubman, David M

    2013-06-04

    While peptide-level labeling using isobaric tag reagents has been widely applied for quantitative proteomics experiments, there are comparatively few reports of protein-level labeling. Intact protein labeling could be broadly applied to quantification experiments utilizing protein-level separations or enrichment schemes. Here, protein-level isobaric labeling was explored as an alternative strategy to peptide-level labeling for serum glycoprotein quantification. Labeling and digestion conditions were optimized by comparing different organic solvents and enzymes. Digestions with Asp-N and trypsin were found highly complementary; combining the results enabled quantification of 30% more proteins than either enzyme alone. Three commercial reagents were compared for protein-level labeling. Protein identification rates were highest with iTRAQ 4-plex when compared to TMT 6-plex and iTRAQ 8-plex using higher-energy collisional dissociation on an Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer. The compatibility of isobaric protein-level labeling with lectin-based glycoprotein enrichment was also investigated. More than 74% of lectin-bound labeled proteins were known glycoproteins, which was similar to results from unlabeled and peptide-level labeled serum samples. Finally, protein-level and peptide-level labeling strategies were compared for serum glycoprotein quantification. Isobaric protein-level labeling gave comparable identification levels and quantitative precision to peptide-level labeling.

  16. A New Component Labelling And Merging Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochovsky, Amelia F.

    1987-10-01

    Component labelling is an important part of region analysis in image processing. Component labelling consists of assigning labels to pixels in the image such that adjacent pixels are given the same labels. There are various approaches to component labelling. Some require random access to the processed image; some assume special structure of the image such as a quad tree. Algorithms based on sequential scan of the image are attractive to hardware implementation. One method of labelling is based on a fixed size local window which includes the previous line. Due to the fixed size window and the sequential fashion of the labelling process, different branches of the same object may be given different labels and later found to be connected to each other. These labels are con-sidered to be equivalent and must later be collected to correctly represent one single object. This approach can be found in [F,FE,R]. Assume an input binary image of size NxM. Using these labelling algorithms, the number of equivalent pair generated is bounded by O(N*M). The number of distinct labels is also bounded by O(N*M). There is no known algorithm that merge the equivalent label pairs in time linear to the number of pairs, that is in time bounded by O(N*M). We propose a new labelling algorithm which interleaves the labelling with the merging process. The labelling and the merging are combined in one algorithm. Merged label information is kept in an equivalent table which is used to guide the labelling. In general , the algorithm produces fewer equivalent label pairs. The combined labelling and merging algorithm is O(N*M), where NxM is the size of the image. Section II describes the algorithm. Section III gives some examples We discuss implementation issues in section IV and further discussion and conclusion are given in Section V.

  17. Compliance and Verification of Standards and Labeling Programs in China: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Saheb, Yamina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-08-01

    After implementing several energy efficiency standards and labels (30 products covered by MEPS, 50 products covered by voluntary labels and 19 products by mandatory labels), the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) is now implementing verification and compliance mechanism to ensure that the energy information of labeled products comply with the requirements of their labels. CNIS is doing so by organizing check testing on a random basis for room air-conditioners, refrigerators, motors, heaters, computer displays, ovens, and self -ballasted lamps. The purpose of the check testing is to understand the implementation of the Chinese labeling scheme and help local authorities establishing effective compliance mechanisms. In addition, to ensure robustness and consistency of testing results, CNIS has coordinated a round robin testing for room air conditioners. Eight laboratories (Chinese (6), Australian (1) and Japanese (1)) have been involved in the round robin testing and tests were performed on four sets of samples selected from manufacturer's production line. This paper describes the methodology used in undertaking both check and round robin testing, provides analysis of testing results and reports on the findings. The analysis of both check and round robin testing demonstrated the benefits of a regularized verification and monitoring system for both laboratories and products such as (i) identifying the possible deviations between laboratories to correct them, (ii) improving the quality of testing facilities, (iii) ensuring the accuracy and reliability of energy label information in order to strength the social credibility of the labeling program and the enforcement mechanism in place.

  18. Compliance and Verification of Standards and Labelling Programs in China: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Saheb, Yamina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Pierrot, André

    2010-06-11

    After implementing several energy efficiency standards and labels (30 products covered by MEPS, 50 products covered by voluntary labels and 19 products by mandatory labels), the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) is now implementing verification and compliance mechanism to ensure that the energy information of labeled products comply with the requirements of their labels. CNIS is doing so by organizing check testing on a random basis for room air-conditioners, refrigerators, motors, heaters, computer displays, ovens, and self -ballasted lamps. The purpose of the check testing is to understand the implementation of the Chinese labeling scheme and help local authorities establishing effective compliance mechanisms. In addition, to ensure robustness and consistency of testing results, CNIS has coordinated a round robin testing for room air conditioners. Eight laboratories (Chinese (6), Australian (1) and Japanese (1)) have been involved in the round robin testing and tests were performed on four sets of samples selected from manufacturer?s production line. This paper describes the methodology used in undertaking both check and round robin testing, provides analysis of testing results and reports on the findings. The analysis of both check and round robin testing demonstrated the benefits of a regularized verification and monitoring system for both laboratories and products such as (i) identifying the possible deviations between laboratories to correct them, (ii) improving the quality of testing facilities, (iii) ensuring the accuracy and reliability of energy label information in order to strength the social credibility of the labeling program and the enforcement mechanism in place.

  19. Menu labelling and food choice in obese adults: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Reale, Sophie; Flint, Stuart W

    2016-01-01

    To date research examining the benefits of menu labelling in the UK is sparse. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of menu labelling in a UK obese population. Using a repeated measures design, 61 patients at a tier 3 weight management service completed four questionnaires to assess their food choice (control) and behaviour change when presented with 3 menu labelling formats (calorie content; nutrient content; and energy expenditure). All three forms of labelling increased participants weight control concerns compared to the control condition. There was a significant difference in content of food ordered in the three menu labelling formats compared to the control condition. The calorie condition had the largest percentage decrease in calories selected followed by energy expenditure and nutrient content. However, no difference was observed between the three conditions in the desire for menu labelling in restaurants to be introduced in the UK. The findings suggest that menu labelling should be enforced in the UK as it is both beneficial to promoting healthy eating and in demand. This study is the first to examine menu labelling in a UK obese population using energy expenditure equivalents to provide nutritional information.

  20. China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Lin, Jiang; Jianhong, Cheng; Sakamoto, Tomoyuki

    2008-02-01

    In the last five years, China's refrigerator market has grown rapidly, and now urban markets are showing signs of saturation, with ownership rates in urban households reaching 92%. Rural markets continue to grow from a much lower base. As a result of this growth, the Chinese government in 2006 decided to revise the refrigerator standards and its associated efficiency grades for the mandatory energy information label. In the Chinese standards process, the efficiency grades for the information label are tied to the minimum standards. Work on the minimum standards revision began in 2006 and continued through the first half of 2007, when the draft standard was completed under the direction of the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS). Development of the information label grades required consideration of stakeholder input, continuity with the previous grade classification, ease of implementation, and potential impacts on the market. In this process, CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing technical input to the process, comment and advice on particular technical issues, and evaluation of the results. After three months of effort and three drafts of the final grade specifications, this work was completed. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. The new information label thresholds to be implemented in 2008 maintain the approach first adopted in 2005 of establishing efficiency levels relative to the minimum standard, but increased the related required efficiency levels by 20% over those established in 2003 and implemented in 2005. The focus of improvement was on the standard refrigerator/freezer (class 5), which constitutes the bulk of the Chinese market. Indeed, the new requirements to

  1. The presence and accuracy of nutritional labelling of pre-packaged foods in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Kong, Kaimeng; Liu, Fu; Tao, Yexuan

    2017-05-01

    The Chinese government officially enacted the Regulation on the Management of Food Nutrition Labelling in 2007 and the General Rules for Nutrition Labelling of Pre-packaged Foods in 2011. Our investigation examined the presence and accuracy of nutrition labelling of pre-packaged foods in Shanghai and provides baseline data for future studies. Nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods were recorded by photograph, transcription, or purchase in four supermarkets in Shanghai. We compared the observed labelling rate with results from a survey conducted in 2008. To assess labelling accuracy, we sent randomly selected foods to an analytical laboratory to test food energy and nutrient content. The overall labelling rate was 54.8%, representing a great improvement over the rate measured prior to implementation of the Regulation (35.4%). The labelling rate for energy content and core nutrients were all above 98%, whereas the rates for saturated fat, trans-fatty acids, and iron were 11.5%, 7.0%, and 10.7%, respectively. Pre-packaged foods manufactured by domestic Chinese companies were labelled less frequently (45.8%) than foods manufactured by companies from Taiwan/Hong Kong (67.0%) or overseas (65.7%). The accuracy of carbohydrate content on labels was as high as 100%, while the accuracy of protein and fat content were 94.4% and 96.0%, respectively. Pre-packaged food manufacturers and government agencies should collaborate to improve the management of nutrition labelling. Mandatory regulations may be the best way to ensure that nutrition labelling facilitates informed consumer decision-making.

  2. International Review of Frameworks for Standard Setting & Labeling Development

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Khanna, Nina Zheng; Fridley, David; Romankiewicz, John

    2012-09-01

    As appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs reach a broader geographic and product scope, a series of sophisticated and complex technical and economic analyses have been adopted by different countries in the world to support and enhance these growing S&L programs. The initial supporting techno-economic and impact analyses for S&L development make up a defined framework and process for setting and developing appropriate appliance efficiency standards and labeling programs. This report reviews in-depth the existing framework for standards setting and label development in the well-established programs of the U.S., Australia and the EU to identify and evaluate major trends in how and why key analyses are undertaken and to understand major similarities and differences between each of the frameworks.

  3. Fluorine-18 Radiochemistry, Labeling Strategies and Synthetic Routes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Fluorine-18 is the most frequently used radioisotope in positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals in both clinical and preclinical research. Its physical and nuclear characteristics (97% β+ decay, 109.7 min half-life, 635 keV positron energy), along with high specific activity and ease of large scale production, make it an attractive nuclide for radiochemical labeling and molecular imaging. Versatile chemistry including nucleophilic and electrophilic substitutions allows direct or indirect introduction of 18F into molecules of interest. The significant increase in 18F radiotracers for PET imaging accentuates the need for simple and efficient 18F-labeling procedures. In this review, we will describe the current radiosynthesis routes and strategies for 18F labeling of small molecules and biomolecules. PMID:25473848

  4. The Labelling Approach to Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Prudence M.; Kitsuse, John L.; Duster, Troy; Freidson, Eliot

    2003-01-01

    This reprint of one chapter from the 1975 text, "Issues in the Classification of Children" by Nicholas Hobbs and others, addresses the theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues involved in the "labeling" approach to the sociology of deviance. It examines the social process of classification, the use of classification in social agencies,…

  5. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  6. How to read food labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... 24 liters) cooked. If you eat 2 cups (0.48 liters) at a meal, you are eating 2 servings. That is 2 times the amount of the calories, fats, and other items listed on the label. Calorie information tells you the number of calories in ...

  7. Revisiting Labels: "Hearing" or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2010-01-01

    This position paper briefly presents evidence-based findings pertaining to the language of labels for people with hearing loss that relate to stigma, expectation levels, stereotypes, and self-fulfilling prophecies. These constructs are important for auditory-based practitioners, administrators, policymakers, students, families, and persons with…

  8. The Labelling Approach to Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Prudence M.; Kitsuse, John L.; Duster, Troy; Freidson, Eliot

    2003-01-01

    This reprint of one chapter from the 1975 text, "Issues in the Classification of Children" by Nicholas Hobbs and others, addresses the theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues involved in the "labeling" approach to the sociology of deviance. It examines the social process of classification, the use of classification in social agencies,…

  9. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  10. Revisiting Labels: "Hearing" or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2010-01-01

    This position paper briefly presents evidence-based findings pertaining to the language of labels for people with hearing loss that relate to stigma, expectation levels, stereotypes, and self-fulfilling prophecies. These constructs are important for auditory-based practitioners, administrators, policymakers, students, families, and persons with…

  11. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  12. Which nutrition information do shoppers want on food labels?

    PubMed

    Worsley, A

    1996-06-01

    Two surveys examined supermarket shoppers' views of food label nutrition information terms. Approximately four out of five of the respondents were women. The first study, conducted among 941 shoppers in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide showed that information about cholesterol, fats, additives and health claims was perceived to be most important among 15 items of food label information. Extensive differences between the perceptions of members of different demographic groups were observed. Principal components analysis of the ratings data derived three components which were named Positive Nutrition, Additives and Cholesterol, Calories and Claims. Women had significantly higher scores on all three components. The second study of 631 shoppers in Sydney examined their ratings of the usefulness of 25 food and nutrition terms. The results confirmed the findings from the first study; information about negative as well as positive food constituents was perceived to be most useful and important. The study showed: 1.Divergence between consumers' and experts' views of the usefulness of label information; consumers were less interested in energy content, dietary fibre and more interested in a variety of other constituents such as cholesterol and flavourings. 2.Differences in desired label information between groups of consumers according to their gender, educational background, and other demographic characteristics. 3.Principal components analysis of the ratings broadly confirmed the findings of the first study: attitudes toward food label information were distributed along five components named Positive Nutrients, Additives, Fats, Salt and Sugars, and, Unfamiliar Concepts. Several statistically significant but small demographic differences were found. The studies' findings suggest that there is a need for food product labels which more fully reflect consumers' perceptions of foods, especially information about "additives" and "negative nutrients. Negotiation is required between

  13. 16 CFR 305.11 - Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ..., clothes washers, and water heaters must contain the model's estimated annual energy consumption as...

  14. The labeling debate in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Gary E; Cardineau, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) food has become the predominant policy issue concerning biotechnology in the United States. The controversy over GM labeling is being debated at several different levels and branches of government. At the federal level, the Food and Drug Administration, which has primary jurisdiction over food safety and labeling, has steadfastly refused to require labeling of GM foods since 1992 based on its conclusion that GM foods as a category present no unique or higher risks than other foods. Proposed legislation has been repeatedly introduced in the US. Congress over the years to mandate GM labeling, but has made very little progress. With federal labeling requirements apparently stalled, the main activity has switched to the state level, where numerous individual states are considering mandatory GM labeling, either through legislation or proposition. The debate over GM labeling, at both the federal and state levels, has focused on five issues: (1) public opinion; (2) the legality of labeling requirements; (3) the risks and benefits of GM foods; (4) the costs and burdens of GM labeling; and (5) consumer choice. While the pro-labeling forces argue that all of these factors weigh in favor of mandatory GM labeling, a more careful evaluation of the evidence finds that all five factors weigh decisively against mandatory GM labeling requirements.

  15. Soil Fumigant Labels - Metam Sodium/Potassium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company; and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  16. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Display appropriate hazard warnings; (c) Use a chemical identity that permits cross-referencing between the list of hazardous chemicals, a chemical's label, and its MSDS; and (d) Include on labels for... information about the hazardous chemical....

  17. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Display appropriate hazard warnings; (c) Use a chemical identity that permits cross-referencing between the list of hazardous chemicals, a chemical's label, and its MSDS; and (d) Include on labels for... information about the hazardous chemical....

  18. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Display appropriate hazard warnings; (c) Use a chemical identity that permits cross-referencing between the list of hazardous chemicals, a chemical's label, and its MSDS; and (d) Include on labels for... information about the hazardous chemical....

  19. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Display appropriate hazard warnings; (c) Use a chemical identity that permits cross-referencing between the list of hazardous chemicals, a chemical's label, and its MSDS; and (d) Include on labels for... information about the hazardous chemical....

  20. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Display appropriate hazard warnings; (c) Use a chemical identity that permits cross-referencing between the list of hazardous chemicals, a chemical's label, and its MSDS; and (d) Include on labels for... information about the hazardous chemical....

  1. WaterSense Labeled New Homes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Homes built to meet EPA’s specification can earn the WaterSense label. EPA criteria include WaterSense labeled plumbing fixtures, efficient hot water delivery systems, water-smart landscape design, and other features.

  2. Logos and Graphics on Pesticide Product Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There are several logos that pesticide companies can add to their labels with EPA approval. The requirements and process vary, so review the guidance carefully before applying to add a logo to a product label.

  3. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma, and...

  4. Read the Label First! Protect Your Household

    MedlinePlus

    ... is labeled for your specific pest. EPA encourages consumers to consider using EPA-registered biopesticides and products with EPA’s Safer Choice label , which are generally less harmful. Simply reading ...

  5. 27 CFR 26.39 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.39 Labels. All labels affixed to bottles of liquors coming into the...

  6. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma,...

  7. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package in...

  8. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package in...

  9. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package in...

  10. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package in...

  11. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package in...

  12. Requirements for Access to Pesticide Labeling Information

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Employers of pesticide handlers must make sure that the handlers are given information from the pesticide labeling and have access to the labeling itself, before they do any handling task. Learn about the information employers must provide.

  13. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  14. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  15. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  16. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  17. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  18. 40 CFR 205.158 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... color that contrasts with the background of the label. (5) The label must contain the following... Califfo CAL Carabela CAR Cimatti CIM Columbia COL E-Z Rider EZR Flying Dutchman FLY Foxi FOI Gadabout...

  19. 40 CFR 205.158 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... color that contrasts with the background of the label. (5) The label must contain the following... Califfo CAL Carabela CAR Cimatti CIM Columbia COL E-Z Rider EZR Flying Dutchman FLY Foxi FOI Gadabout...

  20. 40 CFR 205.158 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... color that contrasts with the background of the label. (5) The label must contain the following... Califfo CAL Carabela CAR Cimatti CIM Columbia COL E-Z Rider EZR Flying Dutchman FLY Foxi FOI Gadabout...

  1. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma, and...

  2. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma, and...

  3. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma, and...

  4. Caffeine Content in Popular Energy Drinks and Energy Shots.

    PubMed

    Attipoe, Selasi; Leggit, Jeffrey; Deuster, Patricia A

    2016-09-01

    The use of energy beverages is high among the general population and military personnel. Previous studies have reported discrepancies between the actual amount of caffeine in products and the amount of caffeine on stated labels. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the content of caffeine listed on the labels of various energy drinks and energy shots. Top-selling energy drinks (n = 9) and energy shots (n = 5) were purchased from retail stores. Three of each of the 14 products were purchased and analyzed for caffeine content by an independent laboratory. Of the 14 products tested, 5 did not provide caffeine amounts on their facts panel-of those, 3 listed caffeine as an ingredient and 2 listed caffeine as part of a proprietary blend. The remaining 9 (of 14) products stated the amounts of caffeine on their labels, all of which were within 15% of the amount indicated on the label. In this study, although the energy beverages that indicated the amount of caffeine it contained had values within ±15% of the amount listed on the label, a potentially acceptable range, this finding is not acceptable with regard to current labeling regulations, which require added ingredients to total 100%. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4-x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section

  6. Fluorescently labelled glycans and their applications.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongbin; Yalagala, Ravi Shekar; Yan, Fengyang

    2015-11-01

    This review summarises the literature on the synthesis and applications of fluorescently labelled carbohydrates. Due to the sensitivity of fluorescent detection, this approach provides a useful tool to study processes involving glycans. A few general categories of labelling are presented, in situ labelling of carbohydrates with fluorophores, fluorescently labelled glycolipids, fluorogenic glycans, pre-formed fluorescent glycans for intracellular applications, glycan-decorated fluorescent polymers, fluorescent glyconanoparticles, and other functional fluorescent glycans.

  7. [Basal state of the nutritional information declared in labels of foods products marketed in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Metzler, A; Roselló-Araya, M; Núñez-Rivas, H P

    2011-03-01

    The nutritional labeling regulations for prepackaged foods based on the Codex Alimentarius legislation enacted in 2002 in Costa Rica. In the same year, a research was conducted in order to describe the baseline of nutritional labeling. The declared information on the labels of all prepackaged foods was collected, except for alcoholic beverages. Six variables were analyzed using SPSS. 2,910 labels of foods were reviewed and classified in 19 food categories. 58.4% (n = 1698) included nutritional information, proportion that varied by country of origin and food category. Of the labels that included nutritional information, 68.1% had nutritional panel, 1.2% nutrient claims and 27.4%, both. 95% of the nutritional components declared on the labels included energy and macronutrients data. At least 100 different nutritional and health claims were identified. Most frequently used claims were content (74.7%), followed by addition (16.9%). The components most frequently mentioned were vitamins and minerals, vitamins (alone), carbohydrates, total fat, cholesterol and energy. Food groups who reported these descriptors were: cereals and by products, baby foods, milks, beverages, foods for special dietary uses and substitutes. One to five descriptors were used in a label. In a decade the proportion of prepackaged foods with nutritional labeling tripled in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica. It is concluded that the tendency of nutrition information declaration is up, sustained and represents an accessible tool for health promotion, if the information provided is reliable and secure.

  8. Determining bacteriophage endopeptidase activity using either fluorophore-quencher labeled peptides combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Henrik; Fischetti, Vincent A.

    2017-01-01

    The necessity of identifying novel methods to combat infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria is increasing each year. Recent advancements in the development of peptidoglycan hydrolases (e.g. lysins) from bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) have revealed the efficiency of this class of enzymes in treating serious bacterial infections. Though promising results have been obtained regarding the lethal action of lysin on bacterial pathogens both in vitro and in vivo, an often-overlooked factor in these studies is precisely identifying their peptidoglycan cleavage site. This knowledge would be useful for following the activity of the enzyme during development, without the need for whole-organism lytic assays. However, more importantly, it would enable the selection of lysins with different cleavage activities that would act synergistically for enhanced efficacy. Here, we have developed two new methods to accurately identify the cleavage site of lysins using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) on peptidoglycan-like fluorophore-quencher modified synthetic peptides, as well as determining the enzymatic action and kinetics of the enzymes on modified peptides in a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. These methods should facilitate progress within the lysin field, accelerating the development of therapeutic lysins to combat antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. PMID:28296948

  9. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Mediated Photoluminescence Quenching in Stoichiometrically Assembled CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot-Peptide Labeled Black Hole Quencher Conjugates for Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Sensing.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Sreenadh Sasidharan; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Onoshima, Daisuke; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    The steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence quenching of streptavidin modified CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) instigated by biotin-peptide-BHQ-1 (biotin-pep-BHQ-1) molecule was investigated. Here, we have achieved an efficient photoluminescence (PL) quenching of QDs with the conjugation of dark quencher (black hole quencher-BHQ) molecules intermediated with the GPLGVRGK peptide. The luminescence of streptavidin-QDs585 was decreased upon titration with a nano molar concentration of the biotin-GPLGVRGK-BHQ-1 molecule. It has been suggested that the decrease of QDs PL occurred through a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism from the analysis of steady state photoluminescence intensity measurements as well as time resolved lifetime measurements of streptavidin-QDs and QDs-(pep-BHQ-1)n conjugates. The sequence of intermediate peptide GPLG↓VRGK can act as a target material for matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) produced by cancer cells at its Gly and Val region, shown by the down-headed arrow. Interestingly, here the reported self-assembled QDs-(pep-BHQ-1)n conjugates could detect the presence MMP-2 at a detection limit of 1 ng/mL with a clear luminescence recovery.

  10. Fabricating a novel label-free aptasensor for acetamiprid by fluorescence resonance energy transfer between NH2-NaYF4: Yb, Ho@SiO2 and Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiwei; Chen, Quansheng; Li, Huanhuan; Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen

    2016-06-15

    Rare earth-doped upconversion nanoparticles have promising potential in the field of pesticide detection because of their unique frequency upconverting capability and high detection sensitivity. This paper reports a novel aptamer-based nanosensor for acetamiprid detection using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between NH2-NaYF4: Yb, Ho@SiO2 (UCNPs) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Herein, GNPs as acceptors efficiently quench the fluorescence of UCNPs and acetamiprid specifically interacts with acetamiprid binding aptamer (ABA), causing the conformation changes of ABA from random coil to hairpin structure. Accordingly, ABA no longer stabilizes the GNPs in salt solution, leading to the varying aggregation extent of GNPs. Thus, the fluorescence of UCNPs are proportionally recovered. Under the optimized conditions, the enhancement efficiency was observed to increase linearly with the concentration of acetamiprid from 50 nM to 1000 nM, resulting in a relatively low limit of 3.2 nM. Additionally, the aptasensor demonstrated high selectivity to similar structure pesticides such as imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos, and further confirmed its application capacity in adulterated tea samples.

  11. Automated labeling in document images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongwoo; Le, Daniel X.; Thoma, George R.

    2000-12-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is developing an automated system to produce bibliographic records for its MEDLINER database. This system, named Medical Article Record System (MARS), employs document image analysis and understanding techniques and optical character recognition (OCR). This paper describes a key module in MARS called the Automated Labeling (AL) module, which labels all zones of interest (title, author, affiliation, and abstract) automatically. The AL algorithm is based on 120 rules that are derived from an analysis of journal page layouts and features extracted from OCR output. Experiments carried out on more than 11,000 articles in over 1,000 biomedical journals show the accuracy of this rule-based algorithm to exceed 96%.

  12. Adaptive optical label packet switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Shilin; Liu, Zhixin; Liang, Zheng; Zhao, Zhihui; Qu, Kefeng

    2007-11-01

    This paper introduces a kind of Adaptive Optical Label Packet Switching (AOLPS) technology. Based on Optical Packet Switching (OPS), AOLPS uses optical label to achieve self-routing, and the size of optical packet is self-adaptive. At the edge nodes, IP packets are fist classified into different first-in-fist-out memories (FIFOs) according to their priority levels and destinations, and then being encapsulated into optical packets. The traffic at each FIFO is real-time monitored, and the controller in edge node employs an optimal strategy to generate suitable sized packets for transmission. Large sized packets will be adopted when traffic is heavy, and small sized packets will be used when traffic is light. This self-adaptive switching granularity can greatly improve the network performance.

  13. Labeling nuclear DNA using DAPI.

    PubMed

    Chazotte, Brad

    2011-01-01

    A number of fluorescent stains are available that label DNA and allow easy visualization of the nucleus in interphase cells and chromosomes in mitotic cells, including Hoechst, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), ethidium bromide, propidium iodide, and acridine orange. Although not as bright as the vital Hoechst stains for DNA, DAPI has greater photostability. It is believed that DAPI associates with the minor groove of double-stranded DNA, with a preference for the adenine-thymine clusters. Cells must be permeabilized and/or fixed for DAPI to enter the cell and to bind DNA. Fluorescence increases approximately 20-fold when DAPI is bound to double-stranded DNA. This protocol describes the use of DAPI to label nuclear DNA of cells grown in culture.

  14. Pre-embedding labeling methods.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Constance

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal gold conjugates generally do not readily penetrate cells, even after permeabilization. Therefore, their use in pre-embedding immunostaining has been largely restricted to labeling cell-surface antigens for scanning or transmission electron microscopy or for tracing endocytic pathways in living cells. One nanometer gold conjugates that do penetrate cells and tissues much more readily have also been used successfully to immunolabel intracellular structures. For pre-embedding labeling, all of the immunostaining is done prior to embedding the tissue in resin or preparing the samples for scanning electron microscopy. This chapter provides methods for pre-embedding staining with unconjugated primary antibody or with primary antibody conjugated to colloidal gold. The use of colloidal gold for tracing endocytic pathways is also given.

  15. White Label Space GLXP Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, A.

    2012-09-01

    This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.

  16. CD-ROM Labeling Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-06

    was allowed to dry thoroughly before application to the disc, so that the solvent used would have dispersed. Use of this, or any adhesive is risky if...the chemical composition and solvents used are not known. Some acid based adhesives have been reported to have eaten through the disc’s protective...been specially manufactured with suitable adhesive ( beeswax ) for use with CD-ROM. Both foils can be printed with customer-labeled, generic

  17. Isotope Labeling in Insect Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Krishna; Dutta, Arpana; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen remarkable progress in applying nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to proteins that have traditionally been difficult to study due to issues with folding, posttranslational modification, and expression levels or combinations thereof. In particular, insect cells have proved useful in allowing large quantities of isotope-labeled, functional proteins to be obtained and purified to homogeneity, allowing study of their structures and dynamics by using NMR. Here, we provide protocols that have proven successful in such endeavors. PMID:22167667

  18. 40 CFR 204.55-4 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.55-4 Labeling. (a)(1) The manufacturer... label: (i) The label heading: Compressor Noise Emission Control Information; (ii) Full corporate name...

  19. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.120 Device labeling. Each...

  20. 21 CFR 895.25 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling. 895.25 Section 895.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... eliminated by labeling or a change in labeling, or change in advertising if the device is a restricted device...

  1. 21 CFR 895.25 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling. 895.25 Section 895.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... eliminated by labeling or a change in labeling, or change in advertising if the device is a restricted device...

  2. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must...

  3. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.35 Labeling. In... or end of the label, oustide of the main panel. (2) If washing the cells is required by the manufacturer, the container label shall include appropriate instructions; if the cells should not be...

  4. Obstacles to nutrition labeling in restaurants.

    PubMed

    Almanza, B A; Nelson, D; Chai, S

    1997-02-01

    This study determined the major obstacles that foodservices face regarding nutrition labeling. Survey questionnaire was conducted in May 1994. In addition to demographic questions, the directors were asked questions addressing willingness, current practices, and perceived obstacles related to nutrition labeling. Sixty-eight research and development directors of the largest foodservice corporations as shown in Restaurants & Institutions magazine's list of the top 400 largest foodservices (July 1993). P tests were used to determine significance within a group for the number of foodservices that were currently using nutrition labeling, perceived impact of nutrition labeling on sales, and perceived responsibility to add nutrition labels. Regression analysis was used to determine the importance of factors on willingness to label. Response rate was 45.3%. Most companies were neutral about their willingness to use nutrition labeling. Two thirds of the respondents were not currently using nutrition labels. Only one third thought that it was the foodservice's responsibility to provide such information. Several companies perceived that nutrition labeling would have a potentially negative effect on annual sales volume. Major obstacles were identified as menu or personnel related, rather than cost related. Menu-related obstacles included too many menu variations, limited space on the menu for labeling, and loss of flexibility in changing the menu. Personnel-related obstacles included difficulty in training employees to implement nutrition labeling, and not enough time for foodservice personnel to implement nutrition labeling. Numerous opportunities will be created for dietetics professionals in helping foodservices overcome these menu- or personnel-related obstacles.

  5. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Certification Provisions § 94.212 Labeling. (a) General... new marine engine modified from a base engine by post-manufacture marinizers in accordance with the... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading:...

  6. 21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling. (a) The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public): (1...

  7. 21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling. (a) The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public): (1...

  8. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... biodiesel, biomass-based diesel, biodiesel blends, and biomass-based diesel blends. The label is 3 inches (7... the black band. Directly underneath the black band, the label shall read “contains biomass-based... the side edges of the label. (5) For biomass-based diesel blends containing more than 5 percent and no...

  9. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... shall establish and maintain procedures to control labeling activities. (a) Label integrity....

  10. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 354.73 Retention labels. An inspector may use such labels, devices, and methods as may be approved...

  11. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 354.73 Retention labels. An inspector may use such labels, devices, and methods as may be approved...

  12. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must design...

  13. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must design...

  14. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must design...

  15. 40 CFR 156.10 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) All required label text must: (A) Be set in 6-point or larger type; (B) Appear on a clear contrasting background; and (C) Not be obscured or crowded. (3) Language to be used. All required label or labeling text... additional text in other languages as is considered necessary to protect the public. When additional text...

  16. Do nutrition labels improve dietary outcomes?

    PubMed

    Variyam, Jayachandran N

    2008-06-01

    The disclosure of nutritional characteristics of most packaged foods became mandatory in the United States with the implementation of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) in 1994. Under the NLEA regulations, a 'Nutrition Facts' panel displays information on nutrients such as calories, total and saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium in a standardized format. By providing nutrition information in a credible, distinctive, and easy-to-read format, the new label was expected to help consumers choose healthier, more nutritious diets. This paper examines whether the disclosure of nutrition information through the mandatory labels impacted consumer diets. Assessing the dietary effects of labeling is problematic due to the confounding of the label effect with unobserved label user characteristics. This self-selection problem is addressed by exploiting the fact that the NLEA exempts away-from-home foods from mandatory labeling. Difference-in-differences models that account for zero away-from-home intakes suggest that the labels increase fiber and iron intakes of label users compared with label nonusers. In comparison, a model that does not account for self-selection implies significant label effects for all but two of the 13 nutrients that are listed on the label.

  17. Labels and Children's Perceptions of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A.; Seavey, Carol

    1973-01-01

    The relation between type of label and perception of faces was assessed in second- and sixth-grade children. Labels associated with color increased color perception, whereas labels based on expressiveness increased differentiation of expression variations, but not color perception. (ST)

  18. 40 CFR 600.301 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.301 Labeling... each dealer shall maintain or cause to be maintained on each automobile: (1) A general fuel economy... vehicle for which a specific label is requested which has a combined FTP/HFET-based fuel economy value,...

  19. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  20. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  1. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  2. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  3. 9 CFR 116.3 - Label records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.3 Label records. (a) Each licensee and permittee shall maintain a list of all approved labels currently being used... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Label records. 116.3 Section 116.3...

  4. 9 CFR 116.3 - Label records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.3 Label records. (a) Each licensee and permittee shall maintain a list of all approved labels currently being used... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Label records. 116.3 Section 116.3...

  5. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  6. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  7. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  8. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  9. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.35 Labeling. In... or end of the label, oustide of the main panel. (2) If washing the cells is required by the manufacturer, the container label shall include appropriate instructions; if the cells should not be...

  10. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.35 Labeling. In... or end of the label, oustide of the main panel. (2) If washing the cells is required by the manufacturer, the container label shall include appropriate instructions; if the cells should not be...

  11. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  12. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  13. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  14. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  15. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  16. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  17. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  18. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  19. 40 CFR 211.105 - Label format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label format. 211.105 Section 211.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.105 Label format. (a) Unless specified otherwise in other...

  20. Learning Words from Labeling and Directive Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callanan, Maureen A.; Akhtar, Nameera; Sussman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Despite the common intuition that labeling may be the best way to teach a new word to a child, systematic testing is needed of the prediction that children learn words better from labeling utterances than from directive utterances. Two experiments compared toddlers' label learning in the context of hearing words used in directive versus labeling…

  1. 76 FR 20233 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission extends the effective date for its new light bulb labeling... Commission exempts from the new label requirements incandescent bulbs that will not be produced after January... proposing to extend the effective date of new labeling rules for light bulbs to January 1, 2012.\\1\\ The new...

  2. 16 CFR 1633.12 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Rules and Regulations § 1633.12 Labeling. (a) Each mattress set subject to the Standard shall bear a permanent, conspicuous, and legible label(s) containing the...

  3. 16 CFR 1633.12 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Rules and Regulations § 1633.12 Labeling. (a) Each mattress set subject to the Standard shall bear a permanent, conspicuous, and legible label(s) containing the...

  4. 16 CFR 1633.12 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Rules and Regulations § 1633.12 Labeling. (a) Each mattress set subject to the Standard shall bear a permanent, conspicuous, and legible label(s) containing the...

  5. Labeling Nodes Using Three Degrees of Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Sara; Goldenberg, Anna; Morris, Quaid

    2012-01-01

    The properties (or labels) of nodes in networks can often be predicted based on their proximity and their connections to other labeled nodes. So-called “label propagation algorithms” predict the labels of unlabeled nodes by propagating information about local label density iteratively through the network. These algorithms are fast, simple and scale to large networks but nonetheless regularly perform better than slower and much more complex algorithms on benchmark problems. We show here, however, that these algorithms have an intrinsic limitation that prevents them from adapting to some common patterns of network node labeling; we introduce a new algorithm, 3Prop, that retains all their advantages but is much more adaptive. As we show, 3Prop performs very well on node labeling problems ill-suited to label propagation, including predicting gene function in protein and genetic interaction networks and gender in friendship networks, and also performs slightly better on problems already well-suited to label propagation such as labeling blogs and patents based on their citation networks. 3Prop gains its adaptability by assigning separate weights to label information from different steps of the propagation. Surprisingly, we found that for many networks, the third iteration of label propagation receives a negative weight. Availability The code is available from the authors by request. PMID:23284828

  6. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall...

  7. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall...

  8. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall...

  9. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall...

  10. Nutrition Label Viewing during a Food-Selection Task: Front-of-Package Labels vs Nutrition Facts Labels.

    PubMed

    Graham, Dan J; Heidrick, Charles; Hodgin, Katie

    2015-10-01

    Earlier research has identified consumer characteristics associated with viewing Nutrition Facts labels; however, little is known about those who view front-of-package nutrition labels. Front-of-package nutrition labels might appeal to more consumers than do Nutrition Facts labels, but it might be necessary to provide consumers with information about how to locate and use these labels. This study quantifies Nutrition Facts and front-of-package nutrition label viewing among American adult consumers. Attention to nutrition information was measured during a food-selection task. One hundred and twenty-three parents (mean age=38 years, mean body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)]=28) and one of their children (aged 6 to 9 years) selected six foods from a university laboratory-turned-grocery aisle. Participants were randomized to conditions in which front-of-package nutrition labels were present or absent, and signage explaining front-of-package nutrition labels was present or absent. Adults' visual attention to Nutrition Facts labels and front-of-package nutrition labels was objectively measured via eye-tracking glasses. To examine whether there were significant differences in the percentages of participants who viewed Nutrition Facts labels vs front-of-package nutrition labels, McNemar's tests were conducted across all participants, as well as within various sociodemographic categories. To determine whether hypothesized factors, such as health literacy and education, had stronger relationships with front-of-package nutrition label vs Nutrition Facts label viewing, linear regression assessed the magnitude of relationships between theoretically and empirically derived factors and each type of label viewing. Overall, front-of-package nutrition labels were more likely to be viewed than Nutrition Facts labels; however, for all subgroups, higher rates of front-of-package nutrition label viewership occurred only when signage was present drawing attention to the presence and

  11. Gender, status, and psychiatric labels.

    PubMed

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K; Brown, Ryan P; Thomas, Lauren S

    2015-11-01

    We examine a key modified labeling theory proposition-that a psychiatric label increases vulnerability to competence-based criticism and rejection-within task- and collectively oriented dyads comprised of same-sex individuals with equivalent education. Drawing on empirical work that approximates these conditions, we expect the proposition to hold only among men. We also expect education, operationalized with college class standing, to moderate the effects of gender by reducing men's and increasing women's criticism and rejection. But, we also expect the effect of education to weaken when men work with a psychiatric patient. As predicted, men reject suggestions from teammates with a psychiatric history more frequently than they reject suggestions from other teammates, while women's resistance to influence is unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Men also rate psychiatric patient teammates as less powerful but no lower in status than other teammates, while women's teammate assessments are unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Also as predicted, education reduces men's resistance to influence when their teammate has no psychiatric history. Education also increases men's ratings of their teammate's power, as predicted, but has no effect on women's resistance to influence or teammate ratings. We discuss the implications of these findings for the modified labeling theory of mental illness and status characteristics theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutrition marketing on food labels.

    PubMed

    Colby, Sarah E; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Marketing strategy, nutrient label information, if the product was fruit/or milk based, and target age. Frequency distributions were computed. Forty-nine percent of all products contained nutrition marketing and of those, 48% had both nutrition marketing and were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar (11%, 17%, and 31% respectively). Seventy-one percent of products marketed to children had nutrition marketing. Of those, 59% were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar content, with more than half being high in sugar. The most commonly used nutrition marketing statements were "good source of calcium", "reduced/low/fat free", and "food company's health symbol". Nutrition marketing is commonly used on products high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar and is more often used on products marketed toward children than products marketed toward adults. Current food industry symbols may not be helping consumers select foods low in saturated fat, sodium or sugar. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. An amplified comparative fluorescence resonance energy transfer immunosensing of CA125 tumor marker and ovarian cancer cells using green and economic carbon dots for bio-applications in labeling, imaging and sensing.

    PubMed

    Hamd-Ghadareh, Somayeh; Salimi, Abdollah; Fathi, Fardin; Bahrami, Saman

    2017-10-15

    CA125, is a marker in the clinical diagnosis of several cancers and currently is the best serum-based tumor marker for ovarian cancer. Here, we developed an ultrasensitive antibody-ssDNA aptamer sandwich-type fluorescence immunosensor for CA125 detection. Based on a novel signal amplification strategy the carbon dots (CDs) functionalized with aptamer (CD-aptamer) used as detection probe and PAMAM-Dendrimers/AuNPs was used for covalent attachment of CA125-antibody and completing the sandwich assay method. By measuring of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) signals between CDs and AuNPs as nanoquenchers, the fluorescence signal quenched during sandwich complex formed between anti-CA125, CA125 and CDs-Aptamer and decreasing of fluorescence response signal is related to CA125 concentrations. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited an extremely low calculated detection limit of 0.5fg/mL with wide linear range 1.0fg/mL to 1.0ng/mL of CA 125. The application of the immunosensor for CA125 detection in serum samples and measuring of ovarian-cancer cells was also investigated. The immunosensor revealed good sensitivity and specificity with ovarian cell concentrations from 2.5×10(3) to 2×10(4)cells/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.9937 and detection limit of 400cells/mL (4 cell in 10μL), indicating potential application of immunosensor in clinical monitoring of tumor biomarkers. Furthermore, the cell viability was not changed upon treatment with CDs probe during 24h, showing the low cytotoxicity of the probe. More importantly, CDs-antibody hybrid was achieved in selective imaging of the cancer cells over the OVCAR-3 line cells, implying its potential applications in biosensing, as well as in cancer diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 40 CFR 85.530 - Vehicle/engine labels and packaging labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle/engine labels and packaging labels. 85.530 Section 85.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Conversions From Tampering Prohibition § 85.530 Vehicle/engine labels and packaging labels. (a) The following...

  15. 40 CFR 85.530 - Vehicle/engine labels and packaging labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicle/engine labels and packaging labels. 85.530 Section 85.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Conversions From Tampering Prohibition § 85.530 Vehicle/engine labels and packaging labels. (a) The following...

  16. New Methods for Labeling RGD Peptides with Bromine-76

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Lixin; Li, Weihua; Jia, Hong-Mei; Fang, De-Cai; Zhang, Shushu; Sun, Xilin; Zhu, Lei; Ma, Ying; Shen, Baozhong; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    confirmed by decreased tumor uptake after co-administration of unlabeled dimeric RGD peptides. The energy barrier of the transition state of bromination for the dimethoxybenzoyl group was about 9 kcal/mol lower than that for the tyrosine residue. In conclusion, the newly developed N-succinimidyl-2, 6-dimethoxybenzoate molecule can be used either for one step labeling through pre-conjugation or as the precursor for a Br-76 labeled prosthetic group for indirect labeling. Radiobromination on a dimethoxybenzoyl group has selectivity over radiobromination on tyrosine. The energy barrier difference of the transition states of bromination between the dimethoxybenzoyl group and the tyrosine residue may account for the reaction selectivity when both groups are present in the same molecule. PMID:21938262

  17. Stigma of a label: educational expectations for high school students labeled with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Shifrer, Dara

    2013-01-01

    Poorer outcomes for youth labeled with learning disabilities (LDs) are often attributed to the student's own deficiencies or cumulative disadvantage; but the more troubling possibility is that special education placement limits rather than expands these students' opportunities. Labeling theory partially attributes the poorer outcomes of labeled persons to stigma related to labels. This study uses data on approximately 11,740 adolescents and their schools from the Education Longitudinal Survey of 2002 to determine if stigma influences teachers' and parents' educational expectations for students labeled with LDs and labeled adolescents' expectations for themselves. Supporting the predictions of labeling theory, teachers and parents are more likely to perceive disabilities in, and hold lower educational expectations for labeled adolescents than for similarly achieving and behaving adolescents not labeled with disabilities. The negative effect of being labeled with LDs on adolescents' educational expectations is partially mechanized through parents' and particularly teachers' lower expectations.

  18. Abandoning a label doesn’t make it disappear: The perseverance of labeling effects

    PubMed Central

    Foroni, Francesco; Rothbart, Myron

    2012-01-01

    Labels exert strong influence on perception and judgment. The present experiment examines the possibility that such effects may persist even when labels are abandoned. Participants judged the similarity of pairs of silhouette drawings of female body types, ordered on a continuum from very thin to very heavy, under conditions where category labels were, and were not, superimposed on the ordered stimuli. Consistent with earlier research, labels had strong effects on perceived similarity, with silhouettes sharing the same label judged as more similar than those having different labels. Moreover, when the labels were removed and no longer present, the effect of the labels, although diminished, persisted. It did not make any difference whether the labels were simply abandoned or, in addition, had their validity challenged. The results are important for our understanding of categorization and labeling processes. The potential theoretical and practical implications of these results for social processes are discussed. PMID:23105148

  19. Digital Equivalent Data System for XRF Labeling of Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    A digital equivalent data system (DEDS) is a system for identifying objects by means of the x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra of labeling elements that are encased in or deposited on the objects. As such, a DEDS is a revolutionary new major subsystem of an XRF system. A DEDS embodies the means for converting the spectral data output of an XRF scanner to an ASCII alphanumeric or barcode label that can be used to identify (or verify the assumed or apparent identity of) an XRF-scanned object. A typical XRF spectrum of interest contains peaks at photon energies associated with specific elements on the Periodic Table (see figure). The height of each spectral peak above the local background spectral intensity is proportional to the relative abundance of the corresponding element. Alphanumeric values are assigned to the relative abundances of the elements. Hence, if an object contained labeling elements in suitably chosen proportions, an alphanumeric representation of the object could be extracted from its XRF spectrum. The mixture of labeling elements and for reading the XRF spectrum would be compatible with one of the labeling conventions now used for bar codes and binary matrix patterns (essentially, two-dimensional bar codes that resemble checkerboards). A further benefit of such compatibility is that it would enable the conversion of the XRF spectral output to a bar or matrix-coded label, if needed. In short, a process previously used only for material composition analysis has been reapplied to the world of identification. This new level of verification is now being used for "authentication."

  20. 46 CFR 160.133-17 - Marking and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Marking and labeling. (a) Each hook body of a release mechanism must be marked with a plate or label...) The plate or label must be in English, but may also be in other languages. (c) The plate or label must...