Science.gov

Sample records for energy system configuration

  1. Wheel configurations for combined energy storage and attitude control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglevie, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS) studies performed over a decade ago established the feasibility of simultaneously storing electrical energy in wheels and utilizing the resulting momentum for spacecraft attitude control. It was shown that such a system possessed many advantages over other contemporary energy storage and attitude control systems in many applications. More recent technology advances in composite rotors, magnetic bearings, and power control electronics have triggered new optimism regarding the feasibility and merits of such a system. This paper presents the results of a recent study whose focus was to define an advanced IPACS and to evaluate its merits for the Space Station application. Emphasis is given to the selection of the wheel configuration to perform the combined functions. A component design concept is developed to establish the system performance capability. A system-level trade study, including life-cycle costing, is performed to define the merits of the system relative to two other candidate systems. It is concluded that an advanced IPACS concept is not only feasible but offers substantial savings in mass and life-cycle cost.

  2. Computer configuration for Ontario Hydro's new Energy Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Barrie, D.; Hill, D.S.; Yuen, A.

    1989-08-01

    In 1985, Ontario Hydro decided to build a new System Control Centre and install a new Energy Management System. This decision was primarily due to obsolescence, space restrictions and other site considerations rather than dissatisfaction with the existing Energy Management System. Indeed, the existing Energy Management System had several features (eg, the suite of custom-developed application programs) which were considered so valuable to the System Operators that they should be retained in the new Energy Management System. Nevertheless, because new hardware was being installed, it provided an opportunity to review the standards of performance demanded of the Energy Management System and technological advances that could be utilized to best effect.

  3. Application configuration selection for energy-efficient execution on multicore systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shinan; Luo, Bing; Shi, Weisong; Tiwari, Devesh

    2015-09-21

    Balanced performance and energy consumption are incorporated in the design of modern computer systems. Several runtime factors, such as concurrency levels, thread mapping strategies, and dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) should be considered in order to achieve optimal energy efficiency fora workload. Selecting appropriate run-time factors, however, is one of the most challenging tasks because the run-time factors are architecture-specific and workload-specific. And while most existing works concentrate on either static analysis of the workload or run-time prediction results, we present a hybrid two-step method that utilizes concurrency levels and DVFS settings to achieve the energy efficiency configuration for a worldoad. The experimental results based on a Xeon E5620 server with NPB and PARSEC benchmark suites show that the model is able to predict the energy efficient configuration accurately. On average, an additional 10% EDP (Energy Delay Product) saving is obtained by using run-time DVFS for the entire system. An off-line optimal solution is used to compare with the proposed scheme. Finally, the experimental results show that the average extra EDP saved by the optimal solution is within 5% on selective parallel benchmarks.

  4. Application configuration selection for energy-efficient execution on multicore systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Shinan; Luo, Bing; Shi, Weisong; Tiwari, Devesh

    2015-09-21

    Balanced performance and energy consumption are incorporated in the design of modern computer systems. Several runtime factors, such as concurrency levels, thread mapping strategies, and dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) should be considered in order to achieve optimal energy efficiency fora workload. Selecting appropriate run-time factors, however, is one of the most challenging tasks because the run-time factors are architecture-specific and workload-specific. And while most existing works concentrate on either static analysis of the workload or run-time prediction results, we present a hybrid two-step method that utilizes concurrency levels and DVFS settings to achieve the energy efficiency configuration formore » a worldoad. The experimental results based on a Xeon E5620 server with NPB and PARSEC benchmark suites show that the model is able to predict the energy efficient configuration accurately. On average, an additional 10% EDP (Energy Delay Product) saving is obtained by using run-time DVFS for the entire system. An off-line optimal solution is used to compare with the proposed scheme. Finally, the experimental results show that the average extra EDP saved by the optimal solution is within 5% on selective parallel benchmarks.« less

  5. Analysis of electric energy consumption of automatic milking systems in different configurations and operative conditions.

    PubMed

    Calcante, Aldo; Tangorra, Francesco M; Oberti, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) have been a revolutionary innovation in dairy cow farming. Currently, more than 10,000 dairy cow farms worldwide use AMS to milk their cows. Electric consumption is one of the most relevant and uncontrollable operational cost of AMS, ranging between 35 and 40% of their total annual operational costs. The aim of the present study was to measure and analyze the electric energy consumption of 4 AMS with different configurations: single box, central unit featuring a central vacuum system for 1 cow unit and for 2 cow units. The electrical consumption (daily consumption, daily consumption per cow milked, consumption per milking, and consumption per 100L of milk) of each AMS (milking unit + air compressor) was measured using 2 energy analyzers. The measurement period lasted 24h with a sampling frequency of 0.2Hz. The daily total energy consumption (milking unit + air compressor) ranged between 45.4 and 81.3 kWh; the consumption per cow milked ranged between 0.59 and 0.99 kWh; the consumption per milking ranged between 0.21 and 0.33 kWh; and the consumption per 100L of milk ranged between 1.80 to 2.44 kWh according to the different configurations and operational contexts considered. Results showed that AMS electric consumption was mainly conditioned by farm management rather than machine characteristics/architectures.

  6. Chimney related energy losses in oil-fired heating systems: Configuration effects and venting alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; McDonald, R.; Krajewski, R.; Batey, J.

    1990-12-01

    Conventional venting systems for oil-fired residential heating equipment include the flue connector, a barometric damper, and the chimney. This venting arrangement is directly responsible for some of the annual energy losses associated with these heating installations. In the work described in this report a study of the relevant characteristics of burners and dampers was done to permit these energy losses to be estimated as a function of the installation details. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential energy savings which might be realized from alternative venting methods in a wide range of situations. The basic draft/flow characteristics of barometric dampers were measured using a flow tunnel arrangement under cold (no combustion) conditions. A range of damper diameters and draft settings were used. Off-cycle draft/flow relations for several burners and heating units with the burner ports sealed were also measured over a range of conditions. Recently, oil burners have become available which have significantly higher static pressure fans. The excess air level provided by these burners is much less sensitive to variations in draft and burners of this type might be operated without a barometric damper. Burner fan performance curves for both high and low static pressure units have been measured. Flows through the heating unit and barometric damper flows have been calculated during the on- and off-cycle for a range of configurations as a function of outdoor temperature. The annual energy losses due to the venting system were calculated using a bin method. The calculated flows were compared with available field data. To supplement the available data some additional field measurements were taken during this project and are described in this report. 19 refs., 42 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Analyzing the Effects of Climate and Thermal Configuration on Community Energy Storage Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.; Coleman, D.; Chen, D.

    2013-10-01

    Community energy storage (CES) has been proposed to mitigate the high variation in output from renewable sources and reduce peak load on the electrical grid. Thousands of these systems may be distributed around the grid to provide benefits to local distribution circuits and to the grid as a whole when aggregated. CES must be low cost to purchase and install and also largely maintenance free through more than 10 years of service life to be acceptable to most utilities.Achieving the required system life time is a major uncertainty for lithium-ion batteries. The lifetime and immediate system performance of batteries can change drastically with battery temperature, which is a strong function of system packaging, local climate, electrical duty cycle, and other factors. In other Li-ion applications, this problem is solved via air or liquid heating and cooling systems that may need occasional maintenance throughout their service life. CES requires a maintenance-free thermal management system providing protection from environmental conditions while rejecting heat from a moderate electrical duty cycle. Thus, the development of an effective, low-cost, zero-maintenance thermal management system poses a challenge critical to the success of CES. NREL and Southern California Edison have collaborated to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of various CES thermal configurations in multiple climates by building a model of CES based on collected test data, integrating it with an NREL-developed Li-ion degradation model, and applying CES electrical duty cycles and historic location-specific meteorological data to forecast battery thermal response and degradation through a 10-year service life.

  8. SASSI system software configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, E.O.

    1994-08-01

    The SASSI (System for Analysis for Soil-Structure Interaction) computer program was obtained by WHC from the University of California at Berkeley for seismic structural analysis of complex embedded building configurations. SASSI was developed in the 1980`s by a team of doctoral students under the direction of Prof. J. Lysmer. The program treats three-dimensional soil-structure interaction problems with the flexible volume substructuring method. In the 1970`s, the same organization developed the FLUSH program, which has achieved widespread international usage in the seismic analysis of structures. SASSI consists of nine modules, each of which are to be run as a separate execution. The SASSI source code, dated 1989 and identified as a Cray version, was put up on the RL Cray XM/232 Unicos system in 1991. That system was removed at the end of 1993, and SASSI is now installed on the LANL Cray YMP systems.

  9. CMS - HLT Configuration Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daponte, Vincenzo; Bocci, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS High Level Trigger (HLT) is a collection of software algorithms that run using an optimized version of the CMS offline reconstruction software. The HLT uses Python configuration files each containing hundreds of "modules", organized in "sequences" and "paths". Each configuration usually uses an average of 2200 different modules and more than 400 independent trigger paths. The complexity of the HLT configurations and their large number require the design of a suitable data management system. The work presented here describes the solution designed to manage the considerable number of configurations developed and to assist the editing of new configurations.

  10. Fuel cell system configurations

    DOEpatents

    Kothmann, Richard E.; Cyphers, Joseph A.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel cell stack configurations having elongated polygonal cross-sectional shapes and gaskets at the peripheral faces to which flow manifolds are sealingly affixed. Process channels convey a fuel and an oxidant through longer channels, and a cooling fluid is conveyed through relatively shorter cooling passages. The polygonal structure preferably includes at least two right angles, and the faces of the stack are arranged in opposite parallel pairs.

  11. Device configuration-management system

    SciTech Connect

    Nowell, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Fusion Chamber System, a major component of the Magnetic Fusion Test Facility, contains several hundred devices which report status to the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System for control and monitoring purposes. To manage the large number of diversity of devices represented, a device configuration management system was required and developed. Key components of this software tool include the MFTF Data Base; a configuration editor; and a tree structure defining the relationships between the subsystem devices. This paper will describe how the configuration system easily accomodates recognizing new devices, restructuring existing devices, and modifying device profile information.

  12. Configurational space discretization and free energy calculation in complex molecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Long, Shiyang; Tian, Pu

    2016-03-01

    We sought to design a free energy calculation scheme with the hope of saving cost for generating dynamical information that is inherent in trajectories. We demonstrated that snapshots in a converged trajectory set are associated with implicit conformers that have invariant statistical weight distribution (ISWD). Since infinite number of sets of implicit conformers with ISWD may be created through independent converged trajectory sets, we hypothesized that explicit conformers with ISWD may be constructed for complex molecular systems through systematic increase of conformer fineness, and tested the hypothesis in lipid molecule palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC). Furthermore, when explicit conformers with ISWD were utilized as basic states to define conformational entropy, change of which between two given macrostates was found to be equivalent to change of free energy except a mere difference of a negative temperature factor, and change of enthalpy essentially cancels corresponding change of average intra-conformer entropy. By implicitly taking advantage of entropy enthalpy compensation and forgoing all dynamical information, constructing explicit conformers with ISWD and counting thermally accessible number of which for interested end macrostates is likely to be an efficient and reliable alternative end point free energy calculation strategy.

  13. Configurational space discretization and free energy calculation in complex molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Long, Shiyang; Tian, Pu

    2016-01-01

    We sought to design a free energy calculation scheme with the hope of saving cost for generating dynamical information that is inherent in trajectories. We demonstrated that snapshots in a converged trajectory set are associated with implicit conformers that have invariant statistical weight distribution (ISWD). Since infinite number of sets of implicit conformers with ISWD may be created through independent converged trajectory sets, we hypothesized that explicit conformers with ISWD may be constructed for complex molecular systems through systematic increase of conformer fineness, and tested the hypothesis in lipid molecule palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC). Furthermore, when explicit conformers with ISWD were utilized as basic states to define conformational entropy, change of which between two given macrostates was found to be equivalent to change of free energy except a mere difference of a negative temperature factor, and change of enthalpy essentially cancels corresponding change of average intra-conformer entropy. By implicitly taking advantage of entropy enthalpy compensation and forgoing all dynamical information, constructing explicit conformers with ISWD and counting thermally accessible number of which for interested end macrostates is likely to be an efficient and reliable alternative end point free energy calculation strategy. PMID:26974524

  14. Configurational space discretization and free energy calculation in complex molecular systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Long, Shiyang; Tian, Pu

    2016-01-01

    We sought to design a free energy calculation scheme with the hope of saving cost for generating dynamical information that is inherent in trajectories. We demonstrated that snapshots in a converged trajectory set are associated with implicit conformers that have invariant statistical weight distribution (ISWD). Since infinite number of sets of implicit conformers with ISWD may be created through independent converged trajectory sets, we hypothesized that explicit conformers with ISWD may be constructed for complex molecular systems through systematic increase of conformer fineness, and tested the hypothesis in lipid molecule palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC). Furthermore, when explicit conformers with ISWD were utilized as basic states to define conformational entropy, change of which between two given macrostates was found to be equivalent to change of free energy except a mere difference of a negative temperature factor, and change of enthalpy essentially cancels corresponding change of average intra-conformer entropy. By implicitly taking advantage of entropy enthalpy compensation and forgoing all dynamical information, constructing explicit conformers with ISWD and counting thermally accessible number of which for interested end macrostates is likely to be an efficient and reliable alternative end point free energy calculation strategy. PMID:26974524

  15. Context based configuration management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawdiak, Yuri O. (Inventor); Gurram, Mohana M. (Inventor); Maluf, David A. (Inventor); Mederos, Luis A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A computer-based system for configuring and displaying information on changes in, and present status of, a collection of events associated with a project. Classes of icons for decision events, configurations and feedback mechanisms, and time lines (sequential and/or simultaneous) for related events are displayed. Metadata for each icon in each class is displayed by choosing and activating the corresponding icon. Access control (viewing, reading, writing, editing, deleting, etc.) is optionally imposed for metadata and other displayed information.

  16. Laser photography system: hardware configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piszczek, Marek; Rutyna, Krzysztof; Kowalski, Marcin; Zyczkowski, Marek

    2012-06-01

    Solution presented in this article is a system using image acquisition time gating method. The time-spatial framing method developed by authors was used to build Laser Photography System (LPS). An active vision system for open space monitoring and terrorist threats detection is being built as an effect of recent work lead in the Institute of Optoelectronics, MUT. The device is destined to prevent and recognize possible terrorist threats in important land and marine areas. The aim of this article is to discuss the properties and hardware configuration of the Laser Photography System.

  17. Computing Free Energy Differences of Configurational Basins.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Edoardo; Cardini, Gianni; Gellini, Cristina; Pietraperzia, Giangaetano; Chelli, Riccardo

    2015-08-11

    A simulation-based approach is proposed to estimate free energy differences between configurational states A and B, defined in terms of collective coordinates of the molecular system. The computational protocol is organized into three stages that can be carried on simultaneously. Two of them consist of independent simulations aimed at sampling, in turn, A and B states. In order to limit the evolution of the system around A and B, biased sampling simulations such as umbrella sampling can be employed. These simulations allow us to estimate local configuration integrals associated with A and B, which can be viewed as vibrational contributions to the free energy. Free energy evaluation is completed by the linking-path stage, in which the potential of mean force difference is estimated between two arbitrary points of the configurational surface, located the first around A and the second around B. The linking path in the space of the collective coordinates is arbitrary and can be computed with any method, starting from adaptive biasing potential/force approaches to nonequilibrium techniques. As an illustrative example, we present the calculation of free energy differences between conformational states of the alanine dipeptide in the space of backbone dihedral angles. The basic advantage of this method, that we term "path-linked domains" scheme, is to prevent accurate calculation of the whole free energy hypersurface in the space of the collective coordinates, thus limiting the statistical sampling to a minimum. Path-linked domains schemes can be applied to a variety of biochemical processes, such as protein-ligand complexation or folding-unfolding interconversion.

  18. Control mechanism for attenuation of thermal energy pulses using cold circulators in the cryogenic distribution system of fusion devices in tokamak configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, R.; Sarkar, B.; Vaghela, H.; Shah, N.

    2014-01-29

    Operation and control of superconducting (SC) magnets in the fusion devices having tokamak configuration opens up the domain of varying peak thermal energy environment as a function of time, commensurate with the plasma pulses. The varied thermal energy environment, thus propagated to upstream of the cooling system, is responsible for the system level instability of the overall cryogenic system. The cryogenic distribution system, the regime of first impact point, therefore, has to be tuned so as to stay at the nearly stable zone of operation. The configuration of the cryogenic distribution system, considered in the present study, involves a liquid helium (LHe) bath as a thermal buffer, LHe submerged heat exchangers and cold circulator apart from the valves for implementations of the precise controls. The cold circulator supplies the forced flow supercritical helium, used for the cooling of SC magnets. The transients of the thermal energy pulses can be attenuated in the cryogenic distribution system by various methodologies. One of the adopted methodologies in the present study is with the precise speed control of the cold circulators. The adopted methodology is applied to various configurations of arrangements of internal components in the distribution system for obtaining system responses with superior attenuation of energy pulses. The process simulation approach, assumptions, considered inputs and constraints, process modeling with different configuration as well as results to accomplish the control scheme for the attenuation of the thermal energy pulses are described.

  19. Control mechanism for attenuation of thermal energy pulses using cold circulators in the cryogenic distribution system of fusion devices in tokamak configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Sarkar, B.; Vaghela, H.; Shah, N.

    2014-01-01

    Operation and control of superconducting (SC) magnets in the fusion devices having tokamak configuration opens up the domain of varying peak thermal energy environment as a function of time, commensurate with the plasma pulses. The varied thermal energy environment, thus propagated to upstream of the cooling system, is responsible for the system level instability of the overall cryogenic system. The cryogenic distribution system, the regime of first impact point, therefore, has to be tuned so as to stay at the nearly stable zone of operation. The configuration of the cryogenic distribution system, considered in the present study, involves a liquid helium (LHe) bath as a thermal buffer, LHe submerged heat exchangers and cold circulator apart from the valves for implementations of the precise controls. The cold circulator supplies the forced flow supercritical helium, used for the cooling of SC magnets. The transients of the thermal energy pulses can be attenuated in the cryogenic distribution system by various methodologies. One of the adopted methodologies in the present study is with the precise speed control of the cold circulators. The adopted methodology is applied to various configurations of arrangements of internal components in the distribution system for obtaining system responses with superior attenuation of energy pulses. The process simulation approach, assumptions, considered inputs and constraints, process modeling with different configuration as well as results to accomplish the control scheme for the attenuation of the thermal energy pulses are described.

  20. Automated verification of system configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, W. H., Jr.; Baker, S. P.; Blalock, A. V.

    1991-05-01

    Errors in field wiring can result in significant correction costs (if the errors are discovered prior to use), in erroneous or unusable data (if the errors are not discovered in time), or in serious accidents (if the errors corrupt critical data). Detailed field wiring checkout rework are tedious and expensive, but they are essential steps in the quality assurance process for large, complex instrumentation and control systems. A recent Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) development, the CONFiguration IDEnification System (CONFIDES) automates verification of field wiring. In CONFIDES, an identifier module is installed on or integrated into each component (e.g., sensor, actuator, cable, distribution panel) to be verified. Interrogator modules, controlled by a personal computer (PC), are installed at the connections of the field wiring to the inputs of the data acquisition and control system (DACS). Interrogator modules poll the components connected to each channel of the DACS and can determine the path taken by each channel's signal to or from the end device for that channel. The system will provide not only the identification (ID) code for the cables and patch panels in the path to a particular sensor or actuator but for individual cable conductor IDs as well. One version of the system uses existing signal wires for communications between CONFIDES modules. Another, more powerful version requires a single dedicated conductor in each cable. Both version can operate with or without instrument power applied and neither interferes with the normal operation of the DACS. Identifier modules can provide a variety of information including status and calibration data.

  1. Tank waste remediation system configuration management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, J.M.

    1998-01-08

    The configuration management program for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Mission supports management of the project baseline by providing the mechanisms to identify, document, and control the functional and physical characteristics of the products. This document is one of the tools used to develop and control the mission and work. It is an integrated approach for control of technical, cost, schedule, and administrative information necessary to manage the configurations for the TWRS Project Mission. Configuration management focuses on five principal activities: configuration management system management, configuration identification, configuration status accounting, change control, and configuration management assessments. TWRS Project personnel must execute work in a controlled fashion. Work must be performed by verbatim use of authorized and released technical information and documentation. Application of configuration management will be consistently applied across all TWRS Project activities and assessed accordingly. The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) configuration management requirements are prescribed in HNF-MP-013, Configuration Management Plan (FDH 1997a). This TWRS Configuration Management Plan (CMP) implements those requirements and supersedes the Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Program Plan described in Vann, 1996. HNF-SD-WM-CM-014, Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Implementation Plan (Vann, 1997) will be revised to implement the requirements of this plan. This plan provides the responsibilities, actions and tools necessary to implement the requirements as defined in the above referenced documents.

  2. Flow past an accumulator unit of an underwater energy storage system: Three touching balloons in a floral configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasel-Be-Hagh, Ahmadreza; Carriveau, Rupp; Ting, David S.-K.

    2014-12-01

    An LES simulation of flow over an accumulator unit of an underwater compressed air energy storage facility was conducted. The accumulator unit consists of three touching underwater balloons arranged in a floral configuration. The structure of the flow was examined via three dimensional iso surfaces of the Q criterion. Vortical cores were observed on the leeward surface of the balloons. The swirling tube flows generated by these vortical cores were depicted through three dimensional path lines. The flow dynamics were visualized via time series snapshots of two dimensional vorticity contours perpendicular to the flow direction; revealing the turbulent swinging motions of the aforementioned shedding-swirling tube flows. The time history of the hydrodynamic loading was presented in terms of lift and drag coefficients. Drag coefficient of each individual balloon in the floral configuration was smaller than that of a single balloon. It was found that the total drag coefficient of the floral unit of three touching balloons, i.e. summation of the drag coefficients of the balloons, is not too much larger than that of a single balloon whereas it provides three times the storage capacity. In addition to its practical significance in designing appropriate foundation and supports, the instantaneous hydrodynamic loading was used to determine the frequency of the turbulent swirling-swinging motions of the shedding vortex tubes; the Strouhal number was found to be larger than that of a single sphere at the same Reynolds number.

  3. 47 CFR 22.623 - System configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System configuration. 22.623 Section 22.623... Paging and Radiotelephone Service Point-To-Multipoint Operation § 22.623 System configuration. This... in a system that controls at least four public mobile base transmitters that transmit on the...

  4. System for Configuring Modular Telemetry Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system for configuring telemetry transponder cards uses a database of error checking protocol data structures, each containing data to implement at least one CCSDS protocol algorithm. Using a user interface, a user selects at least one telemetry specific error checking protocol from the database. A compiler configures an FPGA with the data from the data structures to implement the error checking protocol.

  5. Low energy stage study. Volume 1: Executive summary. [propulsion system configurations for orbital launching of space shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Cost effective approaches for placing automated payloads into circular and elliptical orbits using energy requirements significantly lower than that provided by the smallest, currently planned shuttle upper stage, SSUS-D, were investigated. Launch costs were derived using both NASA existing/planned launch approaches as well as new propulsion concepts meeting low-energy regime requirements. Candidate new propulsion approaches considered were solid (tandem, cluster, and controlled), solid/liquid combinations and all-liquid stages. Results show that the most economical way to deliver the 129 low energy payloads is basically with a new modular, short liquid bipropellant stage system for the large majority of the payloads. For the remainder of the payloads, use the shuttle with integral OMS and the Scout form for a few specialized payloads until the Shuttle becomes operational.

  6. Low energy fission: dynamics and scission configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goutte, H.; Berger, J.-F.; Gogny, D.; Younes, W.

    2005-11-01

    In the first part of this paper we recall a recent study concerning low energy fission dynamics. Propagation is made by use of the Time Dependent Generator Coordinate Method, where the basis states are taken from self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations with the Gogny force. Theoretical fragment mass distributions are presented and compared with the evaluation made by Wahl. In the second part of this paper, new results concerning scission configurations are shown. Deviations of the fission fragment proton numbers from the Unchanged Charge Distribution prescription and fission fragment deformations are discussed.

  7. DAQMAN - A flexible configurable data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Sivertz, Michael; Larry Hoff, Seth Nemesure

    2012-08-01

    DAQMAN is a flexible configurable interface that allows the user to build and operate a VME-based data acquisition system on a Linux workstation. It consists of two parts: a Java-based Graphical User Interface to configure the system, and a C-based utility that reads out the data and creates the output ASCII data file, with two levels of diagnostic tools. The data acquisition system requires a CAEN CONET-VME Bridge to communicate between the hardware in the VME crate and the Linux workstation. Data acquisition modules, such as ADCs, TDC, Scalers, can be loaded into the system, or removed easily. The GUI allows users to activate modules, and channels within modules by clicking on icons. Running configurations are stored; data are collected and can be viewed either as raw numbers, or by charts and histograms that update as the data are accumulated. Data files are written to disk in ASCII format, with a date and time stamp.

  8. Integrating configuration workflows with project management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Dimitri; Weber, Pavel

    2014-06-01

    The complexity of the heterogeneous computing resources, services and recurring infrastructure changes at the GridKa WLCG Tier-1 computing center require a structured approach to configuration management and optimization of interplay between functional components of the whole system. A set of tools deployed at GridKa, including Puppet, Redmine, Foreman, SVN and Icinga, provides the administrative environment giving the possibility to define and develop configuration workflows, reduce the administrative effort and improve sustainable operation of the whole computing center. In this presentation we discuss the developed configuration scenarios implemented at GridKa, which we use for host installation, service deployment, change management procedures, service retirement etc. The integration of Puppet with a project management tool like Redmine provides us with the opportunity to track problem issues, organize tasks and automate these workflows. The interaction between Puppet and Redmine results in automatic updates of the issues related to the executed workflow performed by different system components. The extensive configuration workflows require collaboration and interaction between different departments like network, security, production etc. at GridKa. Redmine plugins developed at GridKa and integrated in its administrative environment provide an effective way of collaboration within the GridKa team. We present the structural overview of the software components, their connections, communication protocols and show a few working examples of the workflows and their automation.

  9. Multiple cell configuration electromagnetic vibration energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Anthony; Bressers, Scott; Priya, Shashank

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports the design of an electromagnetic vibration energy harvester that doubles the magnitude of output power generated by the prior four-bar magnet configuration. This enhancement was achieved with minor increase in volume by 23% and mass by 30%. The new 'double cell' design utilizes an additional pair of magnets to create a secondary air gap, or cell, for a second coil to vibrate within. To further reduce the dimensions of the device, two coils were attached to one common cantilever beam. These unique features lead to improvements of 66% in output power per unit volume (power density) and 27% increase in output power per unit volume and mass (specific power density), from 0.1 to 0.17 mW cm-3 and 0.41 to 0.51 mW cm-3 kg-1 respectively. Using the ANSYS multiphysics analysis, it was determined that for the double cell harvester, adding one additional pair of magnets created a small magnetic gradient between air gaps of 0.001 T which is insignificant in terms of electromagnetic damping. An analytical model was developed to optimize the magnitude of transformation factor and magnetic field gradient within the gap.

  10. Configuration management; Operating power station electrical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, R.R.; Sumiec, K.F. )

    1989-01-01

    Increasing regulatory and industry attention has been focused on properly controlling electrical design changes. These changes can be controlled by using configuration management techniques. Typically, there are ongoing modifications to various process systems or additions due to new requirements at every power plant. Proper control of these changes requires that an organized method be used to ensure that all important parameters of the electrical auxiliary systems are analyzed and that these parameters are evaluated accurately. This process, commonly referred to as configuration management, is becoming more important on both fossil and nuclear plants. Recent NRC- and utility-initiated inspections have identified problems due to incomplete analysis of changes to electrical auxiliary systems at nuclear stations.

  11. High-Energy Electron Confinement in a Magnetic Cusp Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaeyoung; Krall, Nicholas A.; Sieck, Paul E.; Offermann, Dustin T.; Skillicorn, Michael; Sanchez, Andrew; Davis, Kevin; Alderson, Eric; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    We report experimental results validating the concept that plasma confinement is enhanced in a magnetic cusp configuration when β (plasma pressure/magnetic field pressure) is of order unity. This enhancement is required for a fusion power reactor based on cusp confinement to be feasible. The magnetic cusp configuration possesses a critical advantage: the plasma is stable to large scale perturbations. However, early work indicated that plasma loss rates in a reactor based on a cusp configuration were too large for net power production. Grad and others theorized that at high β a sharp boundary would form between the plasma and the magnetic field, leading to substantially smaller loss rates. While not able to confirm the details of Grad's work, the current experiment does validate, for the first time, the conjecture that confinement is substantially improved at high β . This represents critical progress toward an understanding of the plasma dynamics in a high-β cusp system. We hope that these results will stimulate a renewed interest in the cusp configuration as a fusion confinement candidate. In addition, the enhanced high-energy electron confinement resolves a key impediment to progress of the Polywell fusion concept, which combines a high-β cusp configuration with electrostatic fusion for a compact, power-producing nuclear fusion reactor.

  12. DAQMAN - A flexible configurable data acquisition system

    2012-08-01

    DAQMAN is a flexible configurable interface that allows the user to build and operate a VME-based data acquisition system on a Linux workstation. It consists of two parts: a Java-based Graphical User Interface to configure the system, and a C-based utility that reads out the data and creates the output ASCII data file, with two levels of diagnostic tools. The data acquisition system requires a CAEN CONET-VME Bridge to communicate between the hardware in themore » VME crate and the Linux workstation. Data acquisition modules, such as ADCs, TDC, Scalers, can be loaded into the system, or removed easily. The GUI allows users to activate modules, and channels within modules by clicking on icons. Running configurations are stored; data are collected and can be viewed either as raw numbers, or by charts and histograms that update as the data are accumulated. Data files are written to disk in ASCII format, with a date and time stamp.« less

  13. Knowledge-based expert system configurator

    SciTech Connect

    Wakefield, K.A.; Gould, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    The term knowledge-based expert system'' usually brings to mind a rather extensive list of commercially available expert system shells with the associated complexity of implementing the given inferencing strategies to drive a rule base of knowledge for solving particular classes of problems. A significant amount of learning time is required to understand all of the intricacies of the systems in order to effectively utilize their salient features while working around the canned'' constraints. The amount of effort required to prototype the first attempt'' is therefore substantial and can quickly lead to the unfortunate effect of reticence toward applying expert systems. This paper describes an alternative approach to use of specialized shells in developing or prototyping first-attempting knowledge-based expert systems using Lotus 123, a commonly used spreadsheet software package. The advantages of using this approach are discussed. The working example presented makes use of the forward-chaining capabilities available to determine automatically the hardware jumper and switch configuration for a distributed process control system. Hardware configuration control documentation is generated for use by field engineers and maintenance technicians. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Spill response system configuration study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Desimone, R.V.; Agosta, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the development of a prototype decision support system for oil spill response configuration planning that will help U.S. Coast Guard planners to determine the appropriate response equipment and personnel for major spills. The report discusses the application of advanced artificial intelligence planning techniques, as well as other software tools for spill trajectory modeling, plan evaluation and map display. The implementation of the prototype system is discussed in the context of two specific major spill scenarios in the San Francisco Bay.

  15. The configuration management program for the Emergency Management Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Probasco, K M; Stephan, E G

    1991-08-01

    Emergency response software is used increasingly by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Emergency Management Project (EMP) personnel at Hanford Site. This software must be reliable, of high quality, and capable of performing critical functions to support assessment of actual or potential consequences of any hazardous accidents onsite or events having potential offsite impacts. To better control the software and ensure its suitability for use as a tool to protect employees, the public, and environment, a method for specifying and certifying its capabilities and documenting its development and implementation was needed. A team of EMP staff, composed of personnel from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Boeing Computer Services- Richland (BCSR) under the direction of PNL EMP, responded to this need by developing a software configuration management program (CMP). This report documents the development of the CMP, including the strategies upon which the CMP is based, and describes the program as it has been implemented for EMS System software. The program relies on the integration of its three primary elements: the configuration management staff, tools, and process. Configuration management staff run the program, using specially designed configuration management forms to guide, document, and track the life cycle of the software. The configuration management process itself is reflected in the instructive forms and summarized in flowcharts representing each phase of the process -- from requirements specification through implementation and maintenance. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Configuration and Data Management Process and the System Safety Professional

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, Charles Herbert; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the configuration management (CM) and the Data Management (DM) functions and provides a perspective of the importance of configuration and data management processes to the success of system safety activities. The article addresses the basic requirements of configuration and data management generally based on NASA configuration and data management policies and practices, although the concepts are likely to represent processes of any public or private organization's well-designed configuration and data management program.

  17. Housing Electrons: Relating Quantum Numbers, Energy Levels, and Electron Configurations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofalo, Anthony

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity that combines the concepts of quantum numbers and probability locations, energy levels, and electron configurations in a concrete, hands-on way. Uses model houses constructed out of foam board and colored beads to represent electrons. (JRH)

  18. Hybrid Wing Body Configuration System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.; McCullers, Arnie

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a hybrid wing body (HWB) sizing and analysis capability, apply that capability to estimate the fuel burn potential for an HWB concept, and identify associated technology requirements. An advanced tube with wings concept was also developed for comparison purposes. NASA s Flight Optimization System (FLOPS) conceptual aircraft sizing and synthesis software was modified to enable the sizing and analysis of HWB concepts. The noncircular pressurized centerbody of the HWB concept was modeled, and several options were created for defining the outboard wing sections. Weight and drag estimation routines were modified to accommodate the unique aspects of an HWB configuration. The resulting capability was then utilized to model a proprietary Boeing blended wing body (BWB) concept for comparison purposes. FLOPS predicted approximately a 15 percent greater drag, mainly caused by differences in compressibility drag estimation, and approximately a 5 percent greater takeoff gross weight, mainly caused by the additional fuel required, as compared with the Boeing data. Next, a 777-like reference vehicle was modeled in FLOPS and calibrated to published Boeing performance data; the same mission definition was used to size an HWB in FLOPS. Advanced airframe and propulsion technology assumptions were applied to the HWB to develop an estimate for potential fuel burn savings from such a concept. The same technology assumptions, where applicable, were then applied to an advanced tube-with-wings concept. The HWB concept had a 39 percent lower block fuel burn than the reference vehicle and a 12 percent lower block fuel burn than the advanced tube-with-wings configuration. However, this fuel burn advantage is partially derived from assuming the high-risk technology of embedded engines with boundary-layer-ingesting inlets. The HWB concept does have the potential for significantly reduced noise as a result of the shielding advantages that are inherent

  19. New energy partitioning scheme based on the self-consistent charge and configuration method for subsystems: Application to water dimer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korchowiec, Jacek; Uchimaru, Tadafumi

    2000-01-01

    The charge-transfer energy in water dimer is analyzed. The analysis is based on self-consistent charge and configuration method for subsystems (SCCCMS). The SCCCMS, as such, is not restricted to any computational schemes and can be applied at Hartree-Fock (HF), post-HF, and density functional levels of theory. In our approach, the interaction energy is decomposed into deformation (DEF), electrostatic (ES), polarization (P), charge transfer (CT), and exchange (EX) [exchange-correlation (XC)] contributions. The CT energy is derived from the energy surface spanned in the populational space. The intermediate results obtained during construction of this energy surface, such as chemical potentials, hardness and softness parameters, are of particular interest in the theory of chemical reactivity and, thus, these values are discussed as well. The influence of basis set and computational method is analyzed. The numerical values of the energy components obtained at the HF level of theory are compared with those of Kitaura-Morokuma (KM) and reduced variational space (RVS) analyses. It is shown that SCCCMS correctly describes the polarization process. The CT contribution is less dependent on the basis set than KM or RVS scheme and is free from the basis set superposition error (BSSE). It is demonstrated that the CT energy is of little importance for the water dimer. In addition, the amount of CT calculated in our scheme is almost identical to that obtained from the supermolecule calculations.

  20. Mathematical optimization of matter distribution for a planetary system configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Yegor; Bukhtoyarov, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Planetary formation is mostly a random process. When the humanity reaches the point when it can transform planetary systems for the purpose of interstellar life expansion, the optimal distribution of matter in a planetary system will determine its population and expansive potential. Maximization of the planetary system carrying capacity and its potential for the interstellar life expansion depends on planetary sizes, orbits, rotation, chemical composition and other vital parameters. The distribution of planetesimals to achieve maximal carrying capacity of the planets during their life cycle, and maximal potential to inhabit other planetary systems must be calculated comprehensively. Moving much material from one planetary system to another is uneconomic because of the high amounts of energy and time required. Terraforming of the particular planets before the whole planetary system is configured might drastically decrease the potential habitability the whole system. Thus a planetary system is the basic unit for calculations to sustain maximal overall population and expand further. The mathematical model of optimization of matter distribution for a planetary system configuration includes the input observed parameters: the map of material orbiting in the planetary system with specified orbits, masses, sizes, and the chemical compound for each, and the optimized output parameters. The optimized output parameters are sizes, masses, the number of planets, their chemical compound, and masses of the satellites required to make tidal forces. Also the magnetic fields and planetary rotations are crucial, but they will be considered in further versions of this model. The optimization criteria is the maximal carrying capacity plus maximal expansive potential of the planetary system. The maximal carrying capacity means the availability of essential life ingredients on the planetary surface, and the maximal expansive potential means availability of uranium and metals to build

  1. Casimir energies of self-similar plate configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shajesh, K. V.; Brevik, Iver; Cavero-Peláez, Inés; Parashar, Prachi

    2016-09-01

    We construct various self-similar configurations using parallel δ -function plates and show that it is possible to evaluate the Casimir interaction energy of these configurations using the idea of self-similarity alone. We restrict our analysis to interactions mediated by a scalar field, but the extension to the electromagnetic field is immediate. Our work unveils an easy and powerful method that can be easily employed to calculate the Casimir energies of a class of self-similar configurations. As a highlight, in an example, we determine the Casimir interaction energy of a stack of parallel plates constructed by positioning δ -function plates at the points constituting the Cantor set, a prototype of a fractal. This, to our knowledge, is the first time that the Casimir energy of a fractal configuration has been reported. Remarkably, the Casimir energy of some of the configurations we consider turn out to be positive, and a few even have zero Casimir energy. For the case of positive Casimir energy that is monotonically decreasing as the stacking parameter increases, the interpretation is that the pressure of vacuum tends to inflate the infinite stack of plates. We further support our results, derived using the idea of self-similarity alone, by rederiving them using the Green's function formalism. These expositions gives us insight into the connections between the regularization methods used in quantum field theories and regularized sums of divergent series in number theory.

  2. CRANS - CONFIGURABLE REAL-TIME ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, K.

    1994-01-01

    In a real-time environment, the results of changes or failures in a complex, interconnected system need evaluation quickly. Tabulations showing the effects of changes and/or failures of a given item in the system are generally only useful for a single input, and only with regard to that item. Subsequent changes become harder to evaluate as combinations of failures produce a cascade effect. When confronted by multiple indicated failures in the system, it becomes necessary to determine a single cause. In this case, failure tables are not very helpful. CRANS, the Configurable Real-time ANalysis System, can interpret a logic tree, constructed by the user, describing a complex system and determine the effects of changes and failures in it. Items in the tree are related to each other by Boolean operators. The user is then able to change the state of these items (ON/OFF FAILED/UNFAILED). The program then evaluates the logic tree based on these changes and determines any resultant changes to other items in the tree. CRANS can also search for a common cause for multiple item failures, and allow the user to explore the logic tree from within the program. A "help" mode and a reference check provide the user with a means of exploring an item's underlying logic from within the program. A commonality check determines single point failures for an item or group of items. Output is in the form of a user-defined matrix or matrices of colored boxes, each box representing an item or set of items from the logic tree. Input is via mouse selection of the matrix boxes, using the mouse buttons to toggle the state of the item. CRANS is written in C-language and requires the MIT X Window System, Version 11 Revision 4 or Revision 5. It requires 78K of RAM for execution and a three button mouse. It has been successfully implemented on Sun4 workstations running SunOS, HP9000 workstations running HP-UX, and DECstations running ULTRIX. No executable is provided on the distribution medium; however

  3. Solutions on high-resolution multiple configuration system sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hua; Ding, Quanxin; Guo, Chunjie; Zhou, Liwei

    2014-11-01

    For aim to achieve an improved resolution in modern image domain, a method of continuous zoom multiple configuration, with a core optics is attempt to establish model by novel principle on energy transfer and high accuracy localization, by which the system resolution can be improved with a level in nano meters. A comparative study on traditional vs modern methods can demonstrate that the dialectical relationship and their balance is important, among Merit function, Optimization algorithms and Model parameterization. The effect of system evaluated criterion that MTF, REA, RMS etc. can support our arguments qualitatively.

  4. A Modular Re-configurable Rover System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouloubasis, A.; McKee, G.; Active Robotics Lab

    In this paper we present the novel concepts incorporated in a planetary surface exploration rover design that is currently under development. The Multitasking Rover (MTR) aims to demonstrate functionality that will cover many of the current and future needs such as rough-terrain mobility, modularity and upgradeability [1]. The rover system has enhanced mobility characteristics. It operates in conjunction with Science Packs (SPs) and Tool Packs (TPs) - modules attached to the main frame of the rover, which are either special tools or science instruments and alter the operation capabilities of the system. To date, each rover system design is very much task driven for example, the scenario of cooperative transportation of extended payloads [2], comprises two rovers each equipped with a manipulator dedicated to the task [3]. The MTR approach focuses mostly on modularity and upgradeability presenting at the same time a fair amount of internal re-configurability for the sake of rough terrain stability. The rover itself does not carry any scientific instruments or tools. To carry out the scenario mentioned above, the MTR would have to locate and pick-up a TP with the associated manipulator. After the completion of the task the TP could be put away to a storage location enabling the rover to utilize a different Pack. The rover will not only offer mobility to these modules, but also use them as tools, transforming its role and functionality. The advantage of this approach is that instead of sending a large number of rovers to perform a variety of tasks, a smaller number of MTRs could be deployed with a large number of SPs/TPs, offering multiples of the functionality at a reduced payload. Two SPs or TPs (or a combination of) can be carried and deployed. One of the key elements in the design of the four wheeled rover, lies within its suspension system. It comprises a linear actuator located within each leg and also an active differential linking the two shoulders. This novel

  5. Configuration and technology implications of potential nuclear hydrogen system applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M.; Forsberg, C.; Yildiz, B.; ORNL

    2005-11-05

    Nuclear technologies have important distinctions and potential advantages for large-scale generation of hydrogen for U.S. energy services. Nuclear hydrogen requires no imported fossil fuels, results in lower greenhouse-gas emissions and other pollutants, lends itself to large-scale production, and is sustainable. The technical uncertainties in nuclear hydrogen processes and the reactor technologies needed to enable these processes, as well waste, proliferation, and economic issues must be successfully addressed before nuclear energy can be a major contributor to the nation's energy future. In order to address technical issues in the time frame needed to provide optimized hydrogen production choices, the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) must examine a wide range of new technologies, make the best use of research funding, and make early decisions on which technology options to pursue. For these reasons, it is important that system integration studies be performed to help guide the decisions made in the NHI. In framing the scope of system integration analyses, there is a hierarchy of questions that should be addressed: What hydrogen markets will exist and what are their characteristics? Which markets are most consistent with nuclear hydrogen? What nuclear power and production process configurations are optimal? What requirements are placed on the nuclear hydrogen system? The intent of the NHI system studies is to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This work couples with system studies sponsored by DOE-EE and other agencies that provide a basis for evaluating and selecting future hydrogen production technologies. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options within a given

  6. Effect of electrode configurations on piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Miso; Dugundji, John; Wardle, Brian L.

    2015-04-01

    Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting is an attractive technology for self-powered wireless sensor networks because of the potential to deliver power to the sensor nodes from mechanical vibration sources in the surrounding medium. Systematic device designs are required in order to increase performance along with materials development of high piezoelectric coefficients and design of circuits with high power transfer efficiency. In this work, we present refined structural and electrical modeling of interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) for piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting, followed by parametric case studies on MEMS devices. Differences in geometric parameters including the size of the electrode and the number of IDE fingers for given device dimensions lead to substantial changes in harvesting performance such as capacitance, system coupling, voltage and power. When compared with parallel plate electrodes, use of IDEs results in much higher voltage generation by a factor of ten times while similar power levels are observed for both {3-1} and {3-3} configurations at optimal electrical loading conditions.

  7. Software control and system configuration management - A process that works

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, K. L.; Flores, C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive software control and system configuration management process for flight-crucial digital control systems of advanced aircraft has been developed and refined to insure efficient flight system development and safe flight operations. Because of the highly complex interactions among the hardware, software, and system elements of state-of-the-art digital flight control system designs, a systems-wide approach to configuration control and management has been used. Specific procedures are implemented to govern discrepancy reporting and reconciliation, software and hardware change control, systems verification and validation testing, and formal documentation requirements. An active and knowledgeable configuration control board reviews and approves all flight system configuration modifications and revalidation tests. This flexible process has proved effective during the development and flight testing of several research aircraft and remotely piloted research vehicles with digital flight control systems that ranged from relatively simple to highly complex, integrated mechanizations.

  8. Stable Configurations of the υ Andromedae Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deitrick, Russell; Barnes, Rory; McArthur, Barbara; Quinn, Thomas R.; Luger, Rodrigo; Antonsen, Adrienne; Benedict, G. Fritz

    2015-05-01

    The υ Andromedae system is the first exoplanetary system to have the relative inclinations of two planets' orbital planes directly measured (McArthur et al. 2010), and therefore offers our first window into the 3-dimensional configurations of planetary systems. We present a full 3-dimensional, dynamically stable configuration for the 3 planets of the system, following up on McArthur et al (2010), which revealed that the orbits of the outer 2 planets are inclined by 30 deg. We used N-body simulations to search for stable 3-planet configurations that are consistent with the combined radial velocity and astrometric solution. The inner-most planet, b, could have only been detected by HST astrometry if it was at extremely low inclination. Because of this, its true mass and orbital plane are unconstrained by the observations, but our stability analysis limits their ranges significantly.The system appears to be close to the stability boundary, as we find that only 10 trials out of 1000 are robustly stable on 100 Myr timescales, or ~8 billion orbits of planet b. We find planet b's orbit must lie close to the fundamental plane of planets c and d, but can be either prograde or retrograde. These solutions predict b's mass is in the range 2 - 9 MJup and has an inclination angle from the sky plane of less than 45 deg. Crossfield et al. (2010) detected the planet via brightness variations in the combined light curve, and argued that such a configuration would require b's radius to be ~1.8 RJup, relatively large for a planet of its age. However, the eccentricity of b in several of our stable solutions reaches > 0.1, inducing upwards of 1019 watts in the interior of the planet via tidal dissipation. Ibgui et al. (2009) find that this energy source could inflate the radius to the amount required for Crossfield et al., and thus we have solutions that are consistent with all observational constraints.The Gaia telescope (Casertano et al. 2008) will refine the orbits of planets c and

  9. Methodology on high ratio multiple configuration systems in image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hua; Ding, Quanxin; Zhou, Liwei

    2014-12-01

    The method of a multiple configuration on high ratio systems in image sensor is an important subject. In such an experimental configuration, for aim to break through to large ratio multiple configuration systems bottlenecks, achieve the field of continuous transformation, effect system close to the theoretical limit and configuration dexterity, such as the purpose, method in the design of the integrated sensor system process, the core technology of such a system are thoroughly analyzed and the factors important to the compromise. Theory is studied based on the theory of Gaussian optical system error distribution and comprehensive balancing algorithm; Global optimization method, developed at a system design thought and the optimization model. Results solved the MTF matching problem, research and evaluations shows that the zoom ratio of more than one hundred results in system MTF and so on as qualitative criterion to achieve requirements.

  10. Analytic energy gradients for constrained DFT-configuration interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kaduk, Benjamin; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2014-05-14

    The constrained density functional theory-configuration interaction (CDFT-CI) method has previously been used to calculate ground-state energies and barrier heights, and to describe electronic excited states, in particular conical intersections. However, the method has been limited to evaluating the electronic energy at just a single nuclear configuration, with the gradient of the energy being available only via finite difference. In this paper, we present analytic gradients of the CDFT-CI energy with respect to nuclear coordinates, which gives the potential for accurate geometry optimization and molecular dynamics on both the ground and excited electronic states, a realm which is currently quite challenging for electronic structure theory. We report the performance of CDFT-CI geometry optimization for representative reaction transition states as well as molecules in an excited state. The overall accuracy of CDFT-CI for computing barrier heights is essentially unchanged whether the energies are evaluated at geometries obtained from quadratic configuration-interaction singles and doubles (QCISD) or CDFT-CI, indicating that CDFT-CI produces very good reaction transition states. These results open up tantalizing possibilities for future work on excited states.

  11. Tank waste remediation system configuration management implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, J.M.

    1998-03-31

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Configuration Management Implementation Plan describes the actions that will be taken by Project Hanford Management Contract Team to implement the TWRS Configuration Management program defined in HNF 1900, TWRS Configuration Management Plan. Over the next 25 years, the TWRS Project will transition from a safe storage mission to an aggressive retrieval, storage, and disposal mission in which substantial Engineering, Construction, and Operations activities must be performed. This mission, as defined, will require a consolidated configuration management approach to engineering, design, construction, as-building, and operating in accordance with the technical baselines that emerge from the life cycles. This Configuration Management Implementation Plan addresses the actions that will be taken to strengthen the TWRS Configuration Management program.

  12. Free-energy analysis of the preferred configuration of transmembrane protein in model membrane: Roles of lipid and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purqon, Acep; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    Two contrast configurations are examined for a transmembrane protein in a model membrane system. In the first one, the protein stays in the direction normal to the membrane surface, and in the second, it is buried in the membrane core. We investigate the relative stabilities of the two configurations with the free-energy analysis using the energy-representation method. The free-energy change of the protein binding is found to be more favorable for the vertical configuration. The free-energy decomposition into the contributions from lipid and water shows that the water effect overturns the lipid one to stabilize the vertical configuration.

  13. Energy efficient engine. Core engine bearings, drives and configuration: Detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broman, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The detailed design of the forward and aft sumps, the accessory drive system, the lubrication system, and the piping/manifold configuration to be employed in the core engine test of the Energy Efficient Engine is addressed. The design goals for the above components were established based on the requirements of the test cell engine.

  14. Spaceborne Doppler Precipitation Radar: System Configurations and Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanelli, Simone; Im, Eastwood

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of the global distribution of the vertical velocity of precipitation is important in in the study of energy transportation in the atmosphere, the climate and weather. Such knowledge can only be directly acquired with the use of spaceborne Doppler precipitation radars. Although the high relative speed of the radar with respect to the rainfall particles introduces significant broadening in the Doppler spectrum, recent studies have shown that the average vertical velocity can be measured to acceptable accuracy levels by appropriate selection of radar parameters. Furthermore, methods to correct for specific errors arising from NUBF effects and pointing uncertainties have recently been developed. In this paper we will present the results of the trade studies on the performances of a spaceborne Doppler radar with different system parameters configurations.

  15. Laser multipass system with interior cell configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Borysow, Jacek; Kostinski, Alexander; Fink, Manfred

    2011-10-20

    We ask whether it is possible to restore a multipass system alignment after a gas cell is inserted in the central region. Indeed, it is possible, and we report on a remarkably simple rearrangement of a laser multipass system, composed of two spherical mirrors and a gas cell with flat windows in the middle. For example, for a window of thickness d and refractive index of n, adjusting the mirror separation by approx. 2d(1-1n) is sufficient to preserve the laser beam alignment and tracing. This expression is in agreement with ray-tracing computations and our laboratory experiment. Insofar as our solution corrects for spherical aberrations, it may also find applications in microscopy.

  16. Stable Configurations of the Upsilon Andromedae Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deitrick, R.; Barnes, R.; McArthur, B.; Quinn, T.; Luger, R.; Antonsen, A.; Benedict, G. F.

    2014-03-01

    The υ Andromedae system is the first exoplanetary system to have the relative inclinations of two planets' orbital planes directly measured (McArthur et al. 2010), and therefore offers our first window into the 3-dimensional configurations of planetary systems. We present a full 3-dimensional, dynamically stable configuration for the 3 planets of the system. This work follows up on McArthur et al (2010), which revealed that the orbits of the outer 2 planets, c and d, are inclined by 30O, much larger than the relative inclinations of the planets in our Solar System. The inner planet's orbital plane was not detected. We used N-body simulations to search for stable 3-planet configurations that are consistent with the combined radial velocity and astrometric solution. Planet b could have only been detected by HST astrometry if it was at extremely low inclination. Because of this, its true mass and orbital plane are unconstrained by the observations, but our stability analysis limits their ranges significantly. The system appears to be close to the stability boundary, as we find that only 10 trials out of 1000 are robustly stable on 100 Myr timescales, or ~8 billion orbits of planet b. We find planet b's orbits must lie close to the fundamental plane of planets c and d, but can be either prograde or retrograde. These solutions predict b's mass is in the range 2 - 9 MJup and has an inclination angle from the sky plane of less than 45O. Crossfield et al. (2010) detected the planet via brightness variations in the combined light curve ("phase curve"), and argued that such a configuration would require b's radius to be ~1.8 RJup, relatively large for a planet of its age. However, the eccentricity of b in several of our stable solutions reaches > 0.1, inducing upwards of 1019 watts in the interior of the planet via tidal dissipation. Ibgui et al. (2009) find that this energy source could inflate the radius to the amount required for Crossfield et al., and thus we have

  17. Configuration Management File Manager Developed for Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    One of the objectives of the High Performance Computing and Communication Project's (HPCCP) Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is to provide a common and consistent way to manage applications, data, and engine simulations. The NPSS Configuration Management (CM) File Manager integrated with the Common Desktop Environment (CDE) window management system provides a common look and feel for the configuration management of data, applications, and engine simulations for U.S. engine companies. In addition, CM File Manager provides tools to manage a simulation. Features include managing input files, output files, textual notes, and any other material normally associated with simulation. The CM File Manager includes a generic configuration management Application Program Interface (API) that can be adapted for the configuration management repositories of any U.S. engine company.

  18. Space Station Freedom regenerative water recovery system configuration selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reysa, R.; Edwards, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) must recover water from various waste water sources to reduce 90 day water resupply demands for a four/eight person crew. The water recovery system options considered are summarized together with system configuration merits and demerits, resource advantages and disadvantages, and water quality considerations used to select the SSF water recovery system.

  19. Software configuration management plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-25

    The Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) describes the configuration management and control environment for HANDI 2000 for the PP and PS software as well as any custom developed software. This plan establishes requirements and processes for uniform documentation control, system change control, systematic evaluation and coordination of HANDI 2000. This SCMP becomes effective as this document is acceptance and will provide guidance through implementation efforts.

  20. Systems tool kit for configuring and integrating intelligent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmquist, Robert D.; Oppel, Fredrick J., III; Davies, Brady R.

    1995-09-01

    Intelligent systems are required to perform increasingly complicated tasks and interact with a variety of complex systems more often today than in the past. As systems become more complicated, the integration challenges become more demanding. Large, complicated intelligent systems are generally composed of smaller components of lesser complexity. These smaller components are integrated into the larger system to perform specific tasks. The key components of current manufacturing environments consist of such diverse elements as production machinery, communications hardware and software, sensors, computer, databases, file systems, operator interfaces, and production management software. In order to fully automate such manufacturing systems, these components must be able to work together in an integrated way to provide satisfactory product quality at a reasonable price. This paper discusses the development of an information architecture using an `agent-based' approach to put systems together fast, better, and cheaper that are connected to a network whether local or remote. This approach utilizes standardization of communication protocols and subsystem interfaces to allow maximum flexibility on the part of the computer modelers. Modeling resources are integrated together through the use of communication interfaces. Software drivers (translators) translate generic commands and information into the special instructions required by each software agent. Also significantly important is the ability to seamlessly merge the simulation environment with the real environment. This is accomplished by defining interfaces to allow the virtual models to communicate in the same manner as the hardware modules. Several intelligent systems consisting of robots, sensors, operator interfaces and input devices have been successfully configured and integrated via networks using this approach.

  1. Study of nuclear reactions with intense, high-purity, low-energy radioactive ion beams using a versatile multi-configuration dual superconducting-solenoid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. Y.; Becchetti, F. D.; O'Donnell, T. W.; Roberts, D. A.; Zimmerman, J. A.; Guimarães, V.; Kolata, J. J.; Peterson, D.; Santi, P.; DeYoung, P. A.; Peaslee, G. F.; Hinnefeld, J. D.

    1999-02-01

    A new device (TwinSol) installed at the Nuclear Structure Laboratory at the University of Notre Dame implements a pair of large-bore 6 T superconducting solenoids for producing relatively pure, high-intensity beams of exotic light nuclei at low-energies (10-80 MeV). Typical beams include 8Li and 6He (T 1/2<1 s). The device efficiently produces, collects and focuses beams onto (or implants into) suitable target foils and test materials. The system uses various combinations of the following detection schemes: XY position sensitive gas counters for time-of-flight and ion ray-tracing; multiple stacks of silicon surface barrier detector telescopes mounted at various angles on a rotating table; 2D position-sensitive silicon detectors (PSDs) for high precision angular measurements; multi-annular, multisectored "CD" detectors for large solid angle (nearly 2π in lab frame), high-collection efficiency (multi-hit) particle detection; and ion-implanted stacks of target foils for off-line detection. Also available are a set of HPGe detectors which will be implemented upon completion of a low-background gamma cave. TwinSol represents an advancement in the application of large-bore superconducting magnet technology, capable of running in persistent mode for weeks without liquid helium (LHe) refill or measurable degradation of magnetic field (<0.1%).

  2. Relating binary-star planetary systems to central configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-11-01

    Binary-star exoplanetary systems are now known to be common, for both wide and close binaries. However, their orbital evolution is generally unsolvable. Special cases of the N-body problem which are in fact completely solvable include dynamical architectures known as central configurations. Here, I utilize recent advances in our knowledge of central configurations to assess the plausibility of linking them to coplanar exoplanetary binary systems. By simply restricting constituent masses to be within stellar or substellar ranges characteristic of planetary systems, I find that (i) this constraint reduces by over 90 per cent the phase space in which central configurations may occur, (ii) both equal-mass and unequal-mass binary stars admit central configurations, (iii) these configurations effectively represent different geometrical extensions of the Sun-Jupiter-Trojan-like architecture, (iv) deviations from these geometries are no greater than 10°, and (v) the deviation increases as the substellar masses increase. This study may help restrict future stability analyses to architectures which resemble exoplanetary systems, and might hint at where observers may discover dust, asteroids and/or planets in binary-star systems.

  3. Configurable Middleware-Level Intrusion Detection for Embedded Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Naess, Eivind; Frincke, Deborah A.; McKinnon, A. D.; Bakken, David E.

    2005-06-20

    Embedded systems have become integral parts of a diverse range of systems from automobiles to critical infrastructure applications such as gas and electric power distribution. Unfortunately, research on computer security in general and intrusion detection in particular, has not kept pace. Furthermore, embedded systems, by their very nature, are application specific and therefore frameworks for developing application-specific intrusion detection systems for distributed embedded systems must be researched, designed, and implemented. In this paper, we present a configurable middleware-based intrusion detection framework. In particular, this paper presents a system model and a concrete implementation of a highly configurable intrusion detection framework that is integrated into MicroQoSCORBA, a highly configurable middleware framework developed for embedded systems. By exploiting the application-specific logic available to a middleware framework (e.g., object interfaces and method signatures), our integrated framework is able to autogenerate application-specific intrusion detection systems. Next, a set of configurable intrusion detection mechanisms suitable for embedded systems is presented. A performance evaluation of these mechanisms, run on two hardware platforms, is presented at the end of the paper.

  4. Configuration complexity assessment of convergent supply chain systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modrak, Vladimir; Marton, David

    2014-07-01

    System designers usually generate alternative configurations of supply chains (SCs) by varying especially fixed assets to satisfy a desired production scope and rate. Such alternatives often vary in associated costs and other facets including degrees of complexity. Hence, a measure of configuration complexity can be a tool for comparison and decision-making. This paper presents three approaches to assessment of configuration complexity and their applications to designing convergent SC systems. Presented approaches are conceptually distinct ways of measuring structural complexity parameters based on different preconditions and circumstances of assembly systems which are typical representatives of convergent SCs. There are applied two similar approaches based on different preconditions that are related to demand shares. Third approach does not consider any special condition relating to character of final product demand. Subsequently, we propose a framework for modeling of assembly SC models, which are dividing to classes.

  5. Design and configuration criteria for wetland systems treating greywater.

    PubMed

    Paulo, P L; Begosso, L; Pansonato, N; Shrestha, Roshan R; Boncz, M A

    2009-01-01

    Design and configuration for wetlands treating greywater are usually based on literature data obtained from domestic wastewater operating wetlands. It is very important to determine proper criteria for design and configuration to provide efficiency and minimum maintenance, avoiding bad odour and clogging amongst others, ensuring the acceptance of householders. The aim of this work was to design a wetland system treating greywater for a household and determine whether the chosen criteria were appropriate. Some of the criteria taken into consideration for design and configuration were: quantitative and qualitative characteristics, desired removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solids (TSS), substrate and ornamental aspect of the system. The system was composed of a grease trap (kitchen), sedimentation tank, a horizontal flow constructed wetland (HF-CW), intermittent feeding system, and a vertical flow constructed wetland (VF-CW). The results showed that the suggested design and configuration were in accordance with the expected efficiency. Being a compact system, it was susceptible to peak flows, temporarily deteriorating the performance of the HF-CW. The hybrid system, however, showed to cope well with influent fluctuations. The overall performance of the system shows that the removal of turbidity, TSS, COD and BOD were over 88%, reaching 95% removal for both BOD and turbidity. PMID:19844046

  6. Design and configuration criteria for wetland systems treating greywater.

    PubMed

    Paulo, P L; Begosso, L; Pansonato, N; Shrestha, Roshan R; Boncz, M A

    2009-01-01

    Design and configuration for wetlands treating greywater are usually based on literature data obtained from domestic wastewater operating wetlands. It is very important to determine proper criteria for design and configuration to provide efficiency and minimum maintenance, avoiding bad odour and clogging amongst others, ensuring the acceptance of householders. The aim of this work was to design a wetland system treating greywater for a household and determine whether the chosen criteria were appropriate. Some of the criteria taken into consideration for design and configuration were: quantitative and qualitative characteristics, desired removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solids (TSS), substrate and ornamental aspect of the system. The system was composed of a grease trap (kitchen), sedimentation tank, a horizontal flow constructed wetland (HF-CW), intermittent feeding system, and a vertical flow constructed wetland (VF-CW). The results showed that the suggested design and configuration were in accordance with the expected efficiency. Being a compact system, it was susceptible to peak flows, temporarily deteriorating the performance of the HF-CW. The hybrid system, however, showed to cope well with influent fluctuations. The overall performance of the system shows that the removal of turbidity, TSS, COD and BOD were over 88%, reaching 95% removal for both BOD and turbidity.

  7. Novel multireceiver communication systems configurations based on optimal estimation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Rajendra

    1992-01-01

    A novel multireceiver configuration for carrier arraying and/or signal arraying is presented. The proposed configuration is obtained by formulating the carrier and/or signal arraying problem as an optimal estimation problem, and it consists of two stages. The first stage optimally estimates various phase processes received at different receivers with coupled phase-locked loops wherein the individual loops acquire and track their respective receivers' phase processes but are aided by each other in an optimal manner via LF error signals. The proposed configuration results in the minimization of the the effective radio loss at the combiner output, and thus maximization of energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio is achieved. A novel adaptive algorithm for the estimator of the signal model parameters when these are not known a priori is also presented.

  8. A highly versatile and easily configurable system for plant electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Gunsé, Benet; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Rankl, Simone; Schröeder, Peter; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Barceló, Juan

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a highly versatile and easily configurable system for measuring plant electrophysiological parameters and ionic flow rates, connected to a computer-controlled highly accurate positioning device. The modular software used allows easy customizable configurations for the measurement of electrophysiological parameters. Both the operational tests and the experiments already performed have been fully successful and rendered a low noise and highly stable signal. Assembly, programming and configuration examples are discussed. The system is a powerful technique that not only gives precise measuring of plant electrophysiological status, but also allows easy development of ad hoc configurations that are not constrained to plant studies. •We developed a highly modular system for electrophysiology measurements that can be used either in organs or cells and performs either steady or dynamic intra- and extracellular measurements that takes advantage of the easiness of visual object-oriented programming.•High precision accuracy in data acquisition under electrical noisy environments that allows it to run even in a laboratory close to electrical equipment that produce electrical noise.•The system makes an improvement of the currently used systems for monitoring and controlling high precision measurements and micromanipulation systems providing an open and customizable environment for multiple experimental needs.

  9. A highly versatile and easily configurable system for plant electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Gunsé, Benet; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Rankl, Simone; Schröeder, Peter; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Barceló, Juan

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a highly versatile and easily configurable system for measuring plant electrophysiological parameters and ionic flow rates, connected to a computer-controlled highly accurate positioning device. The modular software used allows easy customizable configurations for the measurement of electrophysiological parameters. Both the operational tests and the experiments already performed have been fully successful and rendered a low noise and highly stable signal. Assembly, programming and configuration examples are discussed. The system is a powerful technique that not only gives precise measuring of plant electrophysiological status, but also allows easy development of ad hoc configurations that are not constrained to plant studies. •We developed a highly modular system for electrophysiology measurements that can be used either in organs or cells and performs either steady or dynamic intra- and extracellular measurements that takes advantage of the easiness of visual object-oriented programming.•High precision accuracy in data acquisition under electrical noisy environments that allows it to run even in a laboratory close to electrical equipment that produce electrical noise.•The system makes an improvement of the currently used systems for monitoring and controlling high precision measurements and micromanipulation systems providing an open and customizable environment for multiple experimental needs. PMID:27298766

  10. Fitting coupled potential energy surfaces for large systems: Method and construction of a 3-state representation for phenol photodissociation in the full 33 internal degrees of freedom using multireference configuration interaction determined data

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaolei Yarkony, David R.

    2014-01-14

    A recently reported algorithm for representing adiabatic states coupled by conical intersections using a quasi-diabatic state Hamiltonian in four and five atom systems is extended to treat nonadiabatic processes in considerably larger molecules. The method treats all internal degrees of freedom and uses electronic structure data from ab initio multireference configuration interaction wave functions with nuclear configuration selection based on quasi-classical surface hopping trajectories. The method is shown here to be able to treat ∼30 internal degrees of freedom including dissociative and large amplitude internal motion. Two procedures are introduced which are essential to the algorithm, a null space projector which removes basis functions from the fitting process until they are needed and a partial diagonalization technique which allows for automated, but accurate, treatment of the vicinity of extended seams of conical intersections of two or more states. These procedures are described in detail. The method is illustrated using the photodissociaton of phenol, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH(X{sup ~1}A{sup ′}) + hv → C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH(A{sup ~1}A{sup ′}, B{sup ~1}A{sup ′′}) → C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O(X{sup ~2}B{sub 1}, A{sup ~2}B{sub 2}) + H as a test case. Ab initio electronic structure data for the 1,2,3{sup 1}A states of phenol, which are coupled by conical intersections, are obtained from multireference first order configuration interaction wave functions. The design of bases to simultaneously treat large amplitude motion and dissociation is described, as is the ability of the fitting procedure to smooth the irregularities in the electronic energies attributable to the orbital changes that are inherent to nonadiabatic processes.

  11. Data base management system configuration specification. [computer storage devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neiers, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The functional requirements and the configuration of the data base management system are described. Techniques and technology which will enable more efficient and timely transfer of useful data from the sensor to the user, extraction of information by the user, and exchange of information among the users are demonstrated.

  12. Rotor systems research aircraft airplane configuration flight-test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.; Erickson, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) has undergone ground and flight tests, primarily as a compound aircraft. The purpose was to train pilots and to check out and develop the design flight envelope. The preparation and flight test of the RSRA in the airplane, or fixed-wind, configuration are reviewed and the test results are discussed.

  13. Configuration assistant for versatile vision-based inspection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huesser, Olivier; Huegli, Heinz

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays, vision-based inspection systems are present in many stages of the industrial manufacturing process. Their versatility, which permits us to accommodate a broad range of inspection requirements, is, however, limited by the time consuming system setup performed at each production change. This work aims at providing a configuration assistant that helps to speed up this system setup, considering the peculiarities of industrial vision systems. The pursued principle, which is to maximize the discriminating power of the features involved in the inspection decision, leads to an optimization problem based on a high-dimensional objective function. Several objective functions based on various metrics are proposed, their optimization being performed with the help of various search heuristics such as genetic methods and simulated annealing methods. The experimental results obtained with an industrial inspection system are presented. They show the effectiveness of the presented approach, and validate the configuration assistant as well.

  14. Inductrack III configuration--a maglev system for high loads

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Richard F

    2015-03-24

    Inductrack III configurations are suited for use in transporting heavy freight loads. Inductrack III addresses a problem associated with the cantilevered track of the Inductrack II configuration. The use of a cantilevered track could present mechanical design problems in attempting to achieve a strong enough track system such that it would be capable of supporting very heavy loads. In Inductrack III, the levitating portion of the track can be supported uniformly from below, as the levitating Halbach array used on the moving vehicle is a single-sided one, thus does not require the cantilevered track as employed in Inductrack II.

  15. Inductrack III configuration--a maglev system for high loads

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Richard F

    2013-11-12

    Inductrack III configurations are suited for use in transporting heavy freight loads. Inductrack III addresses a problem associated with the cantilevered track of the Inductrack II configuration. The use of a cantilevered track could present mechanical design problems in attempting to achieve a strong enough track system such that it would be capable of supporting very heavy loads. In Inductrack III, the levitating portion of the track can be supported uniformly from below, as the levitating Halbach array used on the moving vehicle is a single-sided one, thus does not require the cantilevered track as employed in Inductrack II.

  16. Estimating the weight of generally configured dual wing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, D. L.; Somnay, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Formulas available for the weight estimation of monoplane wings cannot be said to be appropriate for the estimation of generally configured dual wing systems. In the present paper a method is described which simultaneously generates a structural weight estimate and a fully stressed, quasi-optimal structure for a model of a dual wing system. The method is fast and inexpensive. It is ideally suited to preliminary design. To illustrate the method, a dual wing system and a conventional wing system are sized. Numerical computation is shown to be suitably fast for both cases and, for both cases, convergence to a final configuration is shown to be quite rapid. To illustrate the validity of the method, a conventional wing is sized and its weight obtained by the present method is compared to its weight determined by a reputable weight estimation formula. The results are shown to be very close.

  17. Comparison of laser gyro IMU configurations for reentry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majure, Robert G.; Robinson, Thomas A.

    An evaluation is made of future system accuracy requirements, physical criteria, and environmental constraints for ring laser gyro systems that are to be used in reentry vehicles. Attention is given to the configurational issues of inertial measurement unit (IMU) orientation in the vehicle, size and weight reduction, ring laser gyro selection, and tradeoffs of potential integration options for the IMU and the processor. A minimization of external interfaces is accomplished by IMU/data processor integration.

  18. System Configured For Applying Multiple Modifying Agents To A Substrate.

    DOEpatents

    Propp, W. Alan; Argyle, Mark D.; Janikowski, Stuart K.; Fox, Robert V.; Toth, William J.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Allen, Charles A.; Miller, David L.

    2005-11-08

    The present invention is related to the modifying of substrates with multiple modifying agents in a single continuous system. At least two processing chambers are configured for modifying the substrate in a continuous feed system. The processing chambers can be substantially isolated from one another by interstitial seals. Additionally, the two processing chambers can be substantially isolated from the surrounding atmosphere by end seals. Optionally, expansion chambers can be used to separate the seals from the processing chambers.

  19. System configured for applying multiple modifying agents to a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Propp, W. Alan; Argyle, Mark D.; Janikowski, Stuart K.; Fox, Robert V.; Toth, William J.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Allen, Charles A.; Miller, David L.

    2003-11-25

    The present invention is related to the modifying of substrates with multiple modifying agents in a single continuous system. At least two processing chambers are configured for modifying the substrate in a continuous feed system. The processing chambers can be substantially isolated from one another by interstitial seals. Additionally, the two processing chambers can be substantially isolated from the surrounding atmosphere by end seals. Optionally, expansion chambers can be used to separate the seals from the processing chambers.

  20. High speed research system study. Advanced flight deck configuration effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swink, Jay R.; Goins, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    In mid-1991 NASA contracted with industry to study the high-speed civil transport (HSCT) flight deck challenges and assess the benefits, prior to initiating their High Speed Research Program (HSRP) Phase 2 efforts, then scheduled for FY-93. The results of this nine-month effort are presented, and a number of the most significant findings for the specified advanced concepts are highlighted: (1) a no nose-droop configuration; (2) a far forward cockpit location; and (3) advanced crew monitoring and control of complex systems. The results indicate that the no nose-droop configuration is critically dependent upon the design and development of a safe, reliable, and certifiable Synthetic Vision System (SVS). The droop-nose configuration would cause significant weight, performance, and cost penalties. The far forward cockpit location, with the conventional side-by-side seating provides little economic advantage; however, a configuration with a tandem seating arrangement provides a substantial increase in either additional payload (i.e., passengers) or potential downsizing of the vehicle with resulting increases in performance efficiencies and associated reductions in emissions. Without a droop nose, forward external visibility is negated and takeoff/landing guidance and control must rely on the use of the SVS. The technologies enabling such capabilities, which de facto provides for Category 3 all-weather operations on every flight independent of weather, represent a dramatic benefits multiplier in a 2005 global ATM network: both in terms of enhanced economic viability and environmental acceptability.

  1. Dynamical configurations of celestial systems comprised of multiple irregular bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Yun; Baoyin, Hexi; Li, Junfeng

    2016-09-01

    This manuscript considers the main features of the nonlinear dynamics of multiple irregular celestial body systems. The gravitational potential, static electric potential, and magnetic potential are considered. Based on the three established potentials, we show that three conservative values exist for this system, including a Jacobi integral. The equilibrium conditions for the system are derived and their stability analyzed. The equilibrium conditions of a celestial system comprised of n irregular bodies are reduced to 12n - 9 equations. The dynamical results are applied to simulate the motion of multiple-asteroid systems. The simulation is useful for the study of the stability of multiple irregular celestial body systems and for the design of spacecraft orbits to triple-asteroid systems discovered in the solar system. The dynamical configurations of the five triple-asteroid systems 45 Eugenia, 87 Sylvia, 93 Minerva, 216 Kleopatra, and 136617 1994CC, and the six-body system 134340 Pluto are calculated and analyzed.

  2. A Configurable, Object-Oriented, Transportation System Software Framework

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY,SUZANNE M.; MYRE,JOHN W.; PRICE,MARK H.; RUSSELL,ERIC D.; SCOTT,DAN W.

    2000-08-01

    The Transportation Surety Center, 6300, has been conducting continuing research into and development of information systems for the Configurable Transportation Security and Information Management System (CTSS) project, an Object-Oriented Framework approach that uses Component-Based Software Development to facilitate rapid deployment of new systems while improving software cost containment, development reliability, compatibility, and extensibility. The direction has been to develop a Fleet Management System (FMS) framework using object-oriented technology. The goal for the current development is to provide a software and hardware environment that will demonstrate and support object-oriented development commonly in the FMS Central Command Center and Vehicle domains.

  3. Unsupervised machine learning on atomistic configurations: examples on amorphous defects and energy landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubuk, Ekin; Schoenholz, Samuel; Liu, Andrea; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2015-03-01

    Due to the recent availability of very large datasets, machine learning (ML) methods are gaining popularity as approximation and optimization tools in solid state physics. We have recently shown that supervised ML can also be used to identify and analyze soft particles, particles susceptible to rearrangement, in amorphous solids. Our method can be used to understand what makes certain configurations of particles more prone to rearrangement, and design stronger materials. We use unsupervised ML and nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods, where we do not need a ``training set'' to train the algorithm, to explore better representations of atomic configurations. These representations are shown to provide important physical insights into the structure of soft spots and stable regions in several computational and experimental glassy systems, as well as the energy landscapes of quantum mechanical systems based on Density Functional Theory calculations. By discovering an improved representation and visualization of relevant energy landscapes, discovery and optimization efforts can be simplified.

  4. Using full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo in a seniority zero space to investigate the correlation energy equivalence of pair coupled cluster doubles and doubly occupied configuration interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, James J.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2016-03-01

    Over the past few years, pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD) has shown promise for the description of strong correlation. This promise is related to its apparent ability to match results from doubly occupied configuration interaction (DOCI), even though the latter method has exponential computational cost. Here, by modifying the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo algorithm to sample only the seniority zero sector of Hilbert space, we show that the DOCI and pCCD energies are in agreement for a variety of 2D Hubbard models, including for systems well out of reach for conventional configuration interaction algorithms. Our calculations are aided by the sign problem being much reduced in the seniority zero space compared with the full space. We present evidence for this and then discuss the sign problem in terms of the wave function of the system which appears to have a simplified sign structure.

  5. Rotor systems research aircraft airplane configuration flight-test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.; Erickson, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) has been undergoing ground and flight tests by Ames Research Center since late 1979, primarily as a compound aircraft. The purpose was to train pilots and to check out and develop the design flight envelope established by the Sikorsky Aircraft Company. This paper reviews the preparation and flight test of the RSRA in the airplane, or fixed-wing, configuration and discusses the results of that test.

  6. Configurable technology development for reusable control and monitor ground systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhrlaub, David R.

    1994-01-01

    The control monitor unit (CMU) uses configurable software technology for real-time mission command and control, telemetry processing, simulation, data acquisition, data archiving, and ground operations automation. The base technology is currently planned for the following control and monitor systems: portable Space Station checkout systems; ecological life support systems; Space Station logistics carrier system; and the ground system of the Delta Clipper (SX-2) in the Single-Stage Rocket Technology program. The CMU makes extensive use of commercial technology to increase capability and reduce development and life-cycle costs. The concepts and technology are being developed by McDonnell Douglas Space and Defense Systems for the Real-Time Systems Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center under the Payload Ground Operations Contract. A second function of the Real-Time Systems Laboratory is development and utilization of advanced software development practices.

  7. Structural Configuration Systems Analysis for Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Welstead, Jason R.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Structural configuration analysis of an advanced aircraft fuselage concept is investigated. This concept is characterized by a double-bubble section fuselage with rear mounted engines. Based on lessons learned from structural systems analysis of unconventional aircraft, high-fidelity finite-element models (FEM) are developed for evaluating structural performance of three double-bubble section configurations. Structural sizing and stress analysis are applied for design improvement and weight reduction. Among the three double-bubble configurations, the double-D cross-section fuselage design was found to have a relatively lower structural weight. The structural FEM weights of these three double-bubble fuselage section concepts are also compared with several cylindrical fuselage models. Since these fuselage concepts are different in size, shape and material, the fuselage structural FEM weights are normalized by the corresponding passenger floor area for a relative comparison. This structural systems analysis indicates that an advanced composite double-D section fuselage may have a relative structural weight ratio advantage over a conventional aluminum fuselage. Ten commercial and conceptual aircraft fuselage structural weight estimates, which are empirically derived from the corresponding maximum takeoff gross weight, are also presented and compared with the FEM- based estimates for possible correlation. A conceptual full vehicle FEM model with a double-D fuselage is also developed for preliminary structural analysis and weight estimation.

  8. Jet engine nozzle exit configurations and associated systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Nozzle exit configurations and associated systems and methods are disclosed. An aircraft system in accordance with one embodiment includes a jet engine exhaust nozzle having an internal flow surface and an exit aperture, with the exit aperture having a perimeter that includes multiple projections extending in an aft direction. Aft portions of individual neighboring projections are spaced apart from each other by a gap, and a geometric feature of the multiple can change in a monotonic manner along at least a portion of the perimeter.

  9. Jet Engine Nozzle Exit Configurations and Associated Systems and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Nozzle exit configurations and associated systems and methods are disclosed. An aircraft system in accordance with one embodiment includes a jet engine exhaust nozzle having an internal flow surface and an exit aperture, with the exit aperture having a perimeter that includes multiple projections extending in an aft direction. Aft portions of individual neighboring projections are spaced apart from each other by a gap, and a geometric feature of the multiple can change in a monotonic manner along at least a portion of the perimeter.

  10. Analysis of Radiant Cooling System Configurations Integrated with Cooling Tower for Different Indian Climatic Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bhandari, Mahabir S; Jain, Robin; Srivastava, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    Radiant cooling system has proven to be a low energy consumption system for building cooling needs. This study describes the use of cooling tower in radiant cooling system to improve the overall system efficiency. A comprehensive simulation feasibility study of the application of cooling tower in radiant cooling system was performed for the fifteen cities in different climatic zones of India. It was found that in summer, the wet bulb temperature (WBT) of the different climatic zones except warm-humid is suitable for the integration of cooling tower with radiant cooling system. In these climates, cooling tower can provide on average 24 C to 27 C water In order to achieve the energy saving potential, three different configurations of radiant cooling system have been compared in terms of energy consumption. The different configurations of the radiant cooling system integrated with cooling tower are: (1) provide chilled water to the floor, wall and ceiling mounted tubular installation. (2) provide chilled water to the wall and ceiling mounted tabular installation. In this arrangement a separate chiller has also been used to provide chilled water at 16 C to the floor mounted tubular installation. (3) provide chilled water to the wall mounted tabular installation and a separate chiller is used to provide chilled water at 16 C to the floor and ceiling mounted tabular installation. A dedicated outdoor air system is also coupled for dehumidification and ventilation in all three configurations. A conventional all-air system was simulated as a baseline to compare these configurations for assessing the energy saving potential.

  11. Configuration assistant for versatile vision-based inspection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huesser, Olivier; Hugli, Heinz

    2000-03-01

    Nowadays, vision-based inspection systems are present in many stages of the industrial manufacturing process. Their versatility, which permits to accommodate a broad range of inspection requirements, is however limited by the time consuming system setup performed at each production change. This work aims at providing a configuration assistant that helps to speed up this system setup, considering the peculiarities of industrial vision systems. The pursued principle, which is to maximize the discriminating power of the features involved in the inspection decision, leads to an optimization problem based on a high dimensional objective function. Several objective functions based on various metrics are proposed, their optimization being performed with the help of various search heuristics such as genetic methods and simulated annealing methods. The experimental results obtained with an industrial inspection system are presented, considering the particular case of the visual inspection of markings found on top of molded integrated circuits. These results show the effectiveness of the presented objective functions and search methods, and validate the configuration assistant as well.

  12. Laser crosslink configurations for RF satellite communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebacher, K. S.; Lambert, S. G.; Pautler, J. A.; Carter, J. P.

    Predictions of future satellite communications traffic indicate that an increased capacity for satellite communications systems is required. Crosslinks between satellites provide improvements in communications throughput for these systems. Crosslinks also increase system flexibility and remove the dependence of world-wide information flow on relay ground stations located outside the continental United States. Laser crosslinks provide the additional advantage of eliminating susceptibility to space-based or ground-based jammers. Laser terminals are also smaller and require smaller antennas than an RF terminal. This paper describes the advantages of adding laser crosslinks to RF satellite communications systems. Characteristics of the required RF/optical interfaces on-board the satellites are addessed. Terminal configurations that provide reliable, accurate laser communications at high data rates are described.

  13. Spacecraft configuration study for second generation mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louie, M.; Vonstentzsch, W.; Zanella, F.; Hayes, R.; Mcgovern, F.; Tyner, R.

    1985-01-01

    A high power, high performance communicatons satellite bus being developed is designed to satisfy a broad range of multimission payload requirements in a cost effective manner and is compatible with both STS and expendable launchers. Results are presented of tradeoff studies conducted to optimize the second generation mobile satellite system for its mass, power, and physical size. Investigations of the 20-meter antenna configuration, transponder linearization techniques, needed spacecraft modifications, and spacecraft power, dissipation, mass, and physical size indicate that the advanced spacecraft bus is capable of supporting the required payload for the satellite.

  14. A suggested 12-m telescope optical system configuration for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ding-qiang; Liang, Ming; Yuan, Xiangyan; Bai, Hua; Cui, Xiangqun

    2016-08-01

    This is an optical/infrared telescope. It is a general purpose telescope. A segmented primary mirror is adopted with diameter 12 m and f-ratio 1.6. This telescope has prime focus, Cassegrain, Nasmyth and coudé systems. The prime focus system has a 1.5° field-of-view corrector with excellent image quality. It will be used for multi-object fibre spectroscopic observation and CCD photography. In this 12-m telescope, all systems except the prime focus system share the same secondary mirror; the Nasmyth and coudé systems are formed by adding relay mirrors; and the method of moving a secondary mirror is used to enhance image quality. All these features originate from the innovative optical system of the Chinese 2.16-m telescope. At the Cassegrain focus, a dark object spectrograph, for example, can be installed without any corrector; and in case a field of view is needed, a corrector may be added. Both the Nasmyth and coudé systems have exceptionally excellent image quality and the exchange between them occurs very conveniently. Many instruments in visible and infrared wavebands, some with an adaptive optics system, will be installed at the Nasmyth platform. Coudé system will be used for interferometry and for those instruments which require high stability. This configuration has a nearly full range of systems but it is not complex, and it can even be adopted by 20-40-m class telescopes.

  15. Optical fiber configurations for transmission of laser energy over great distances

    SciTech Connect

    Rinzler, Charles C; Zediker, Mark S

    2014-11-04

    There are provided optical fiber configurations that provide for the delivery of laser energy, and in particular, the transmission and delivery of high power laser energy over great distances. These configurations further are hardened to protect the optical fibers from the stresses and conditions of an intended application. The configurations provide means for determining the additional fiber length (AFL) need to obtain the benefits of such additional fiber, while avoiding bending losses.

  16. Optical fiber configurations for transmission of laser energy over great distances

    DOEpatents

    Rinzler, Charles C; Zediker, Mark S

    2013-10-29

    There are provided optical fiber configurations that provide for the delivery of laser energy, and in particular, the transmission and delivery of high power laser energy over great distances. These configurations further are hardened to protect the optical fibers from the stresses and conditions of an intended application. The configurations provide means for determining the additional fiber length (AFL) need to obtain the benefits of such additional fiber, while avoiding bending losses.

  17. Integrated geometry and grid generation system for complex configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akdag, Vedat; Wulf, Armin

    1992-01-01

    A grid generation system was developed that enables grid generation for complex configurations. The system called ICEM/CFD is described and its role in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications is presented. The capabilities of the system include full computer aided design (CAD), grid generation on the actual CAD geometry definition using robust surface projection algorithms, interfacing easily with known CAD packages through common file formats for geometry transfer, grid quality evaluation of the volume grid, coupling boundary condition set-up for block faces with grid topology generation, multi-block grid generation with or without point continuity and block to block interface requirement, and generating grid files directly compatible with known flow solvers. The interactive and integrated approach to the problem of computational grid generation not only substantially reduces manpower time but also increases the flexibility of later grid modifications and enhancements which is required in an environment where CFD is integrated into a product design cycle.

  18. A new flight control and management system architecture and configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fan-e.; Chen, Zongji

    2006-11-01

    The advanced fighter should possess the performance such as super-sound cruising, stealth, agility, STOVL(Short Take-Off Vertical Landing),powerful communication and information processing. For this purpose, it is not enough only to improve the aerodynamic and propulsion system. More importantly, it is necessary to enhance the control system. A complete flight control system provides not only autopilot, auto-throttle and control augmentation, but also the given mission management. F-22 and JSF possess considerably outstanding flight control system on the basis of pave pillar and pave pace avionics architecture. But their control architecture is not enough integrated. The main purpose of this paper is to build a novel fighter control system architecture. The control system constructed on this architecture should be enough integrated, inexpensive, fault-tolerant, high safe, reliable and effective. And it will take charge of both the flight control and mission management. Starting from this purpose, this paper finishes the work as follows: First, based on the human nervous control, a three-leveled hierarchical control architecture is proposed. At the top of the architecture, decision level is in charge of decision-making works. In the middle, organization & coordination level will schedule resources, monitor the states of the fighter and switch the control modes etc. And the bottom is execution level which holds the concrete drive and measurement; then, according to their function and resources all the tasks involving flight control and mission management are sorted to individual level; at last, in order to validate the three-leveled architecture, a physical configuration is also showed. The configuration is distributed and applies some new advancement in information technology industry such line replaced module and cluster technology.

  19. A Stable Configuration for the Upsilon Andromedae Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deitrick, Russell; Barnes, R.; McArthur, B.; Quinn, T.; Benedict, G.; Antonsen, A.; Luger, R.

    2013-10-01

    Here we present a fully 3-dimensional, dynamically stable configuration for the 3 planets of the Upsilon Andromedae system. This work is a direct follow-up to McArthur et al (2010), which gave a 3-dimensional picture of the orbits of planets c and d but left the orbital plane of planet b unknown. Previous dynamical studies of the system found a stable configuration for planets c and d but failed to identify a stable solution for 3 planets. We searched for 3-planet configurations that are both consistent with the combined radial velocity and astrometric solution, and dynamically stable using N-body simulations. As planet b is not detected astrometrically, its inclination and longitude of ascending node are unconstrained by observations, but our stability analysis limits their ranges significantly. The system appears to be close to the stability boundary, as we find that only 10 trials out of 1000 are robustly stable. We find planet b's orbits must lie close to the fundamental plane of planets c and d, but can be either prograde or retrograde. These solutions predict b's mass is in the range 1.8 - 9 M_Jup. These results require planet b's orbit to lie very near the sky plane and hence when combined with the results of Crossfield et al (2010), predict that Ups And b is indeed an inflated hot Jupiter with a radius of > 1.5 R_Jup. This large radius would make the planet one of the largest known exoplanets and would require a large, continual heating source. In our solutions we find that the planet spends a significant amount of time with an eccentricity greater than 0.1, suggesting that tidal heating could be substantial. Using an equilibrium tidal model, we find that if Upsilon Andromedae b has a radius of 1.8 R_Jup and a tidal Q of 10^6, tides generate an average of ~2.5 x 10^19 W of power over the planet's eccentricity cycle. Our work presents the complete orbital architecture of this system, provides new constraints on planet b's interior, and lays a foundation

  20. Ground Systems Development Environment (GSDE) software configuration management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, Victor E.; Long, D.; Hartenstein, Ray; Perez-Davila, Alfredo

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a review of the software configuration management (CM) plans developed for the Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) and the Space Station Control Center. The scope of the CM assessed in this report is the Systems Integration and Testing Phase of the Ground Systems development life cycle. This is the period following coding and unit test and preceding delivery to operational use. This report is one of a series from a study of the interfaces among the Ground Systems Development Environment (GSDE), the development systems for the SSTF and the SSCC, and the target systems for SSCC and SSTF. This is the last report in the series. The focus of this report is on the CM plans developed by the contractors for the Mission Systems Contract (MSC) and the Training Systems Contract (TSC). CM requirements are summarized and described in terms of operational software development. The software workflows proposed in the TSC and MSC plans are reviewed in this context, and evaluated against the CM requirements defined in earlier study reports. Recommendations are made to improve the effectiveness of CM while minimizing its impact on the developers.

  1. Correlation as a determinant of configurational entropy in supramolecular and protein systems.

    PubMed

    Fenley, Andrew T; Killian, Benjamin J; Hnizdo, Vladimir; Fedorowicz, Adam; Sharp, Dan S; Gilson, Michael K

    2014-06-19

    For biomolecules in solution, changes in configurational entropy are thought to contribute substantially to the free energies of processes like binding and conformational change. In principle, the configurational entropy can be strongly affected by pairwise and higher-order correlations among conformational degrees of freedom. However, the literature offers mixed perspectives regarding the contributions that changes in correlations make to changes in configurational entropy for such processes. Here we take advantage of powerful techniques for simulation and entropy analysis to carry out rigorous in silico studies of correlation in binding and conformational changes. In particular, we apply information-theoretic expansions of the configurational entropy to well-sampled molecular dynamics simulations of a model host-guest system and the protein bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. The results bear on the interpretation of NMR data, as they indicate that changes in correlation are important determinants of entropy changes for biologically relevant processes and that changes in correlation may either balance or reinforce changes in first-order entropy. The results also highlight the importance of main-chain torsions as contributors to changes in protein configurational entropy. As simulation techniques grow in power, the mathematical techniques used here will offer new opportunities to answer challenging questions about complex molecular systems.

  2. Correlation as a Determinant of Configurational Entropy in Supramolecular and Protein Systems

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    For biomolecules in solution, changes in configurational entropy are thought to contribute substantially to the free energies of processes like binding and conformational change. In principle, the configurational entropy can be strongly affected by pairwise and higher-order correlations among conformational degrees of freedom. However, the literature offers mixed perspectives regarding the contributions that changes in correlations make to changes in configurational entropy for such processes. Here we take advantage of powerful techniques for simulation and entropy analysis to carry out rigorous in silico studies of correlation in binding and conformational changes. In particular, we apply information-theoretic expansions of the configurational entropy to well-sampled molecular dynamics simulations of a model host–guest system and the protein bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. The results bear on the interpretation of NMR data, as they indicate that changes in correlation are important determinants of entropy changes for biologically relevant processes and that changes in correlation may either balance or reinforce changes in first-order entropy. The results also highlight the importance of main-chain torsions as contributors to changes in protein configurational entropy. As simulation techniques grow in power, the mathematical techniques used here will offer new opportunities to answer challenging questions about complex molecular systems. PMID:24702693

  3. Test bed experiments for various telerobotic system characteristics and configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffie, Neil A.; Wiker, Steven F.; Zik, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Dexterous manipulation and grasping in telerobotic systems depends on the integration of high-performance sensors, displays, actuators and controls into systems in which careful consideration has been given to human perception and tolerance. Research underway at the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) has the objective of enhancing the performance of these systems and their components, and quantifying the effects of the many electrical, mechanical, control, and human factors that affect their performance. This will lead to a fundamental understanding of performance issues which will in turn allow designers to evaluate sensor, actuator, display, and control technologies with respect to generic measures of dexterous performance. As part of this effort, an experimental test bed was developed which has telerobotic components with exceptionally high fidelity in master/slave operation. A Telerobotic Performance Analysis System has also been developed which allows performance to be determined for various system configurations and electro-mechanical characteristics. Both this performance analysis system and test bed experiments are described.

  4. Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods

    DOEpatents

    Tugurlan, Maria; Tuffner, Francis K; Chassin, David P.

    2016-09-13

    Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage device includes a reservoir configured to hold a thermal energy storage medium, a temperature control system configured to adjust a temperature of the thermal energy storage medium, and a state observation system configured to provide information regarding an energy state of the thermal energy storage device at a plurality of different moments in time.

  5. An expert system for configuring a network for a Milstar terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, Melissa J.; Wilson, Elizabeth J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a rule-based expert system which assists the user in configuring a network for Air Force terminals using the Milstar satellite system. The network configuration expert system approach uses CLIPS. The complexity of network configuration is discussed, and the methods used to model it are described.

  6. Wheatstone bridge configuration for evaluation of plasmonic energy transfer

    PubMed Central

    Gosciniak, J.; Mooney, M.; Gubbins, M.; Corbett, B.

    2016-01-01

    We propose an internal (on-chip) Wheatstone bridge configuration to evaluate the efficiency of near-field transducers (NFT) as used in heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR). The electric field enhancement between the transducer and the image plane is monitored by measuring the resistance of metal electrodes composing the image plane. The absorption of the enhanced electric field causes an increase in the metal temperature, and thereby, in its resistance whose variation is monitored with an internal Wheatstone bridge which is accurately balanced in the absence of the electric field. PMID:27075120

  7. Gas emissions as influenced by home composting system configuration.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bijaya K; Trémier, Anne; Barrington, Suzelle; Martinez, José; Daumoin, Mylène

    2013-02-15

    Home composting systems (HC) are known to facilitate municipal solid waste management, but little is known about their environmental impact including their greenhouse gas emissions (GGE). The present research focused on selecting HC configuration producing the least CH(4) and N(2)O. Thus, 4 HC types were used to compost food and yard waste for 150 days and monitored for CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O as of day 15: the wood and plastic bins (WB and PB), the mixed and unmixed ground pile (GPM and GP). Using the same waste recipe, all HC were filled at once (batch fed) to maximize gaseous emissions. Weekly as of day 15, CO(2), N(2)O and CH(4) emissions were measured during 2-h sessions using a closed chamber inserted into the compost surface. Monitored compost characteristics indicated little differences over time except for moisture content. From day 15 to 150, CH(4) emissions were not measurable. Generation of N(2)O occurred between day 20 and 120 with PB producing the least because of top and bottom slots providing continuous convective aeration, as compared to the WB with slats over its full height and the naturally aerated mixed and unmixed ground piles. Total N(2)O emissions of 56 kg CO(2)-eq (tonne wet waste treated)(-1) for PB, 75 for GP, 97 for WB and 99 for GPM represented average value for centralized composting facilities. Present and past scientific works suggest the need for more research to establish the combined effect of management and HC configuration on gaseous emissions, with close CH(4) measurements from day 0 to 15.

  8. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based on International Space Station Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  9. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based On International Space Station Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples,Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  10. Software configuration management plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    BENNION, S.I.

    1999-02-10

    The Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) describes the configuration management and control environment for HANDI 2000 for the PP and PS software, as well as any custom developed software. This plan establishes requirements and processes for uniform documentation and coordination of HANDI 2000. This SCMP becomes effective as of this document's acceptance and will provide guidance through implementation efforts.

  11. Automated Aerodynamic Optimization System for SST Wing-Body Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Daisuke; Yang, Guowei; Obayashi, Shigeru

    In this paper, wing-body configurations for a next generation Supersonic Transport are designed by means of Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms. SST wing-body configurations are designed to reduce the aerodynamic drag and the sonic boom for supersonic flight. To lower the sonic boom intensity, the present objective function is to satisfy the equivalent area distribution for low sonic boom proposed by Darden. Wing and fuselage is defined by 131 design variables and optimized at the same time. Structured multiblock grids around SST wing-body configuration are generated automatically and an Euler solver is used to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of SST wing-body configuration. Compromised solutions are found as Pareto solutions. Although they have a variety of fuselage configurations, all of them have a similar wing planform due to the imposed constraints. The present results imply that a lifting surface should be distributed innovatively to match Darden’s distribution for low boom.

  12. Configurable multiplier modules for an adaptive computing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfänder, O. A.; Pfleiderer, H.-J.; Lachowicz, S. W.

    2006-09-01

    The importance of reconfigurable hardware is increasing steadily. For example, the primary approach of using adaptive systems based on programmable gate arrays and configurable routing resources has gone mainstream and high-performance programmable logic devices are rivaling traditional application-specific hardwired integrated circuits. Also, the idea of moving from the 2-D domain into a 3-D design which stacks several active layers above each other is gaining momentum in research and industry, to cope with the demand for smaller devices with a higher scale of integration. However, optimized arithmetic blocks in course-grain reconfigurable arrays as well as field-programmable architectures still play an important role. In countless digital systems and signal processing applications, the multiplication is one of the critical challenges, where in many cases a trade-off between area usage and data throughput has to be made. But the a priori choice of word-length and number representation can also be replaced by a dynamic choice at run-time, in order to improve flexibility, area efficiency and the level of parallelism in computation. In this contribution, we look at an adaptive computing system called 3-D-SoftChip to point out what parameters are crucial to implement flexible multiplier blocks into optimized elements for accelerated processing. The 3-D-SoftChip architecture uses a novel approach to 3-dimensional integration based on flip-chip bonding with indium bumps. The modular construction, the introduction of interfaces to realize the exchange of intermediate data, and the reconfigurable sign handling approach will be explained, as well as a beneficial way to handle and distribute the numerous required control signals.

  13. Experimental Data for Two Different Alternator Configurations in a Solar Brayton Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Shaltens, Richard K.; Espinosa, William D.

    1997-01-01

    A solar dynamic (SD) space power system has been under test at the NASA Lewis Research Center since 1994. The SD Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) system includes a solar concentrator, heat receiver with thermal energy storage, Brayton power conversion unit, and radiator installed in a thermal-vacuum chamber with a solar simulator. The Brayton unit has been operated with two different turboalternator compressor (TAC) assemblies, one which included a Rice Lundell alternator and another which incorporated a permanent magnet (PM) alternator. The Rice alternator was part of the mini-Brayton rotating unit, designed and built during the 1970's and refurbished for the GTD. The PM TAC was a development unit from the Joint US/Russian SD Flight Project. This paper highlights the operational differences (and similarities) between the Rice and PM TAC configurations including a comparative evaluation of startup characteristics and operating performance. The two alternator configurations were tested under similar thermal conditions, as an interchangeable component within the SD system. The electrical characteristics of the two units, however, dictated the use of significantly different power conditioning and control strategies. The electrical control architectures are described and compared. Test data are presented on TAC startup and system operating performance for both configurations.

  14. The influence of mass configurations on velocity amplified vibrational energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, D.; Frizzell, R.; Kelly, G.; Nolan, K.; Punch, J.

    2016-05-01

    Vibrational energy harvesters scavenge ambient vibrational energy, offering an alternative to batteries for the autonomous operation of low power electronics. Velocity amplified electromagnetic generators (VAEGs) utilize the velocity amplification effect to increase power output and operational bandwidth, compared to linear resonators. A detailed experimental analysis of the influence of mass ratio and number of degrees-of-freedom (dofs) on the dynamic behaviour and power output of a macro-scale VAEG is presented. Various mass configurations are tested under drop-test and sinusoidal forced excitation, and the system performances are compared. For the drop-test, increasing mass ratio and number of dofs increases velocity amplification. Under forced excitation, the impacts between the masses are more complex, inducing greater energy losses. This results in the 2-dof systems achieving the highest velocities and, hence, highest output voltages. With fixed transducer size, higher mass ratios achieve higher voltage output due to the superior velocity amplification. Changing the magnet size to a fixed percentage of the final mass showed the increase in velocity of the systems with higher mass ratios is not significant enough to overcome the reduction in transducer size. Consequently, the 3:1 mass ratio systems achieved the highest output voltage. These findings are significant for the design of future reduced-scale VAEGs.

  15. A comparison of two methods for selecting vibrational configuration interaction spaces on a heptatomic system: ethylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Bégué, Didier; Gohaud, Neil; Pouchan, Claude; Cassam-Chenaï, Patrick; Liévin, Jacques

    2007-10-28

    Two recently developed methods for solving the molecular vibrational Schrodinger equation, namely, the parallel vibrational multiple window configuration interaction and the vibrational mean field configuration interaction, are presented and compared on the same potential energy surface of ethylene oxide, c-C(2)H(4)O. It is demonstrated on this heptatomic system with strong resonances that both approaches converge towards the same fundamental frequencies. This confirms their ability to tackle the vibrational problem of large molecules for which full configuration interaction calculations are not tractable. PMID:17979327

  16. System Configuration Management Implementation Procedure for the Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    SciTech Connect

    GARRISON, R.C.

    2000-11-28

    This document provides configuration management for the Distributed Control System (DCS), the Gaseous Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS-100) System, the Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), the Canister Receiving Crane (CRC) CRN-001 PLC, and both North and South vestibule door interlock system PLCs at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This procedure identifies and defines software configuration items in the CSB control and monitoring systems, and defines configuration control throughout the system life cycle. Components of this control include: configuration status accounting; physical protection and control; and verification of the completeness and correctness of these items.

  17. Space fusion energy conversion using a field reversed configuration reactor: A new technical approach for space propulsion and power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Miley, George H.; Santarius, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The fusion energy conversion design approach, the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) - when burning deuterium and helium-3, offers a new method and concept for space transportation with high energy demanding programs, like the Manned Mars Mission and planetary science outpost missions require. FRC's will increase safety, reduce costs, and enable new missions by providing a high specific power propulsion system from a high performance fusion engine system that can be optimally designed. By using spacecraft powered by FRC's the space program can fulfill High Energy Space Missions (HESM) in a manner not otherwise possible. FRC's can potentially enable the attainment of high payload mass fractions while doing so within shorter flight times.

  18. Development of Data Validation Methods for System Configurations of Train Protection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazoe, Toshiyuki

    This paper proposes new methods of data validation that targets configuration data prepared for train protection systems as represented by the automatic train control (ATC) systems that are applied to the Shinkansen and other heavy-duty trains. This configuration data is assigned to a generic application program in order to realise specific applications according to track layouts and different local conditions. The potential of introducing errors to the configuration data can lead to undesirable events; the safe separation of trains and safe speed are not ensured by such errors. Therefore, it is a safety-critical issue to eliminate errors from the configuration data. Because of this, the author developed the data validation methods not depending on human works, utilising Extensible Markup Language (XML) technologies. This paper illustrates that XML is useful to represent the configuration data to which flexible expressions are required, and that XML Schema is valuable when performing syntax validation. Subsequently, the semantic validation methods are proposed by means of Extensible StyleSheet Language Transformations (XSLT) to provide a way to realise the semantic validation without custom application programming. Additionally, reliable processes to ensure the checking of validation results are proposed, and the effectiveness of the proposed methods are demonstrated by applying to actual configurations.

  19. Tillage energy versus hardpan configuration and tillage depth

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, T.H.; Wolf, D.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizing a computer-based data acquisition system, the influence o depth of the A/sub 2/ and B soil horizons on implement draft of a subsoiler and subsoiler-bedder was measured for different subsoiling depths. Implement ftsgy was primarily a function of subsoiling depth for the soil moisture content existing at the time of this study. Forward speed, slip and actual power delivered to the implement are reported. 18 refs.

  20. Improving adaptive optical systems by the use of multiple laser beacon configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Rue, Imelda Atencio

    The field of adaptive optics (AO) and laser-beacon AO has been successfully implemented in the last part of the 20th century. Adaptive optics greatly improves the resolution capabilities of ground-based telescopes by correcting for atmospheric turbulence. The initial implementation of laser-beacon AO was done on relatively small telescopes, on the order of 1.5 m. However, with larger aperture telescopes being built, such as the 8-m class Gemini telescopes, there is much room for improvement. Errors resulting from laser-beacon AO, such as focus anisoplanatism, become worse with an increase in aperture diameter. Tilt anisoplanatism is also a problem, regardless of the size of telescope, and also needs to be reduced to enhance the resolution of the objects being observed. This dissertation investigates alternate laser-beacon AO configurations, to reduce the effects of focus and tilt anisoplanatism for larger aperture telescopes. The configurations investigated include single and multiple laser beacons at single altitudes and single and multiple laser beacons at multiple altitudes. These second configurations are referred to as hybrid beacon systems and consist of Rayleigh beacons at altitudes of 10 to 20˜km and sodium beacons at about 90˜km, the location of the sodium layer. Hybrid systems are shown to reduce both focus and tilt anisoplanatism as opposed to the first configurations which only aid in reducing focus anisoplanatism. An addition to the hybrid systems with multiple beacons, the use of multiple deformable mirrors (DM's) is investigated. These additional DM's are placed conjugate to atmospheric altitudes with predominant turbulence, beyond the traditional conjugate location of the primary mirror. They correct for turbulence at these atmospheric layers and are referred to as multi-conjugate adaptive optical (MCAO) systems. The purpose of MCAO configurations is to increase the corrected field of view. For the types of systems investigated in this

  1. System Configuration Management Implementation Procedure for the Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    SciTech Connect

    GARRISON, R.C.

    2000-09-22

    This document implements the procedure for providing configuration control for the monitoring and control systems associated with the operation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). It identifies and defines the configuration items in the monitoring and control systems, provides configuration control of these items throughout the system life cycle, provides configuration status accounting, physical protection and control, and verifies the completeness and correctness of the items. It is written to comply with HNF-SD-SNF-CM-001, Spent Nuclear Fuel Configuration Management Plan (Forehand 1998), HNF-PRO-309, Computer Software Quality Assurance Requirements, HNF-PRO-2778, IRM Application Software System Life Cycle Standards, and applicable sections of administrative procedure AP-CM-6-037-00, SNF Project Process Automation Software and Equipment Configuration Management.

  2. Space segment configuration of the Canadian mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertenyi, Elemer

    1990-01-01

    The performance requirements, the main parameters, and the configuration of the MSAT spacecraft are reviewed. The major features of the communications subsystem are discussed in some detail. Key technology items include the L-band Radio Frequency (RF) power amplifier which must operate with a high DC to RF power efficiency and generate low intermodulation when loaded with multi-carrier signals; and the large diameter deployable L-band antenna. The development status and expected performance of these spacecraft components is examined.

  3. Dynamic airspace configuration algorithms for next generation air transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jian

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is under great pressure to safely and efficiently handle the record-high air traffic volume nowadays, and will face even greater challenge to keep pace with the steady increase of future air travel demand, since the air travel demand is projected to increase to two to three times the current level by 2025. The inefficiency of traffic flow management initiatives causes severe airspace congestion and frequent flight delays, which cost billions of economic losses every year. To address the increasingly severe airspace congestion and delays, the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is proposed to transform the current static and rigid radar based system to a dynamic and flexible satellite based system. New operational concepts such as Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) have been under development to allow more flexibility required to mitigate the demand-capacity imbalances in order to increase the throughput of the entire NAS. In this dissertation, we address the DAC problem in the en route and terminal airspace under the framework of NextGen. We develop a series of algorithms to facilitate the implementation of innovative concepts relevant with DAC in both the en route and terminal airspace. We also develop a performance evaluation framework for comprehensive benefit analyses on different aspects of future sector design algorithms. First, we complete a graph based sectorization algorithm for DAC in the en route airspace, which models the underlying air route network with a weighted graph, converts the sectorization problem into the graph partition problem, partitions the weighted graph with an iterative spectral bipartition method, and constructs the sectors from the partitioned graph. The algorithm uses a graph model to accurately capture the complex traffic patterns of the real flights, and generates sectors with high efficiency while evenly distributing the workload among the generated sectors. We further improve

  4. Space station integrated propulsion and fluid system study: Fluid systems configuration databook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, L.; Bicknell, B.; Bergman, D.; Wilson, S.

    1987-01-01

    This databook contains fluid system requirements and system descriptions for Space Station program elements including the United States and International modules, integrated fluid systems, attached payloads, fluid servicers and vehicle accommodation facilities. Separate sections are devoted to each of the program elements and include a discussion of the overall system requirements, specific fluid systems requirements and systems descriptions. The systems descriptions contain configurations, fluid inventory data and component lists. In addition, a list of information sources is referenced at the end of each section.

  5. 75 FR 69469 - Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration Organization, Including On...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 34174). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the certification for... Employment and Training Administration Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration..., applicable to workers of Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration...

  6. 77 FR 50727 - Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear... draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1206, ``Configuration Management Plan for Digital Computer Software Used... Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants'' is temporarily identified...

  7. Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System configuration and tradeoff study. Volume 2: Delta 2914 launched TDRSS, Configuration 2. Part 2: Final Report, 22 August 1972 - 1 April 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Configuration data and design information for a Delta 2914 launched configuration with greatly enhanced telecommunication service over the Part I Delta 2914 configuration is contained. The overall system definition, operations and control, and telecommunication service system, including link budgets are discussed. A brief description of the user transceiver and ground station is presented. A final section includes a summary description of the TDR spacecraft and all the subsystems. The data presented are largely in tabular form.

  8. Structural design of the toroidal configuration of the HTS SMES cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, H. K.; Koh, D. Y.; Ko, J. S.; Kim, H. B.; Hong, Y. J.; Kim, S. H.; Seong, K. C.

    2011-11-01

    The superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system is working on around 30 K, because the magnet is made of high temperature superconductor. To maintain the cryogenic temperature, the superconducting coil is cooled by cryogen, helium gas or liquid neon. But there are some weak points in the cryogen cooling system. For example periodic charge of the cryogen and size is big and so on. So, we have designed the conduction cooling system for toroidal configuration HTS SMES. The toroidal type HTS SMES has some merits, so it is very small magnetic field leakage, and magnetic field applied perpendicular to the tape surface can be reduced. Our system has 28 numbers of HTS double pancake coils and they are arrayed toroidal configuration. The toroidal inner radius is 162 mm, and outer radius is 599 mm, and height is about 162 mm. In this study, we have designed the cooling structure and analyzed temperature distribution of cooling path, thermal stress and deformation of the cooling structure.

  9. Wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  10. Virtual Network Configuration Management System for Data Center Operations and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okita, Hideki; Yoshizawa, Masahiro; Uehara, Keitaro; Mizuno, Kazuhiko; Tarui, Toshiaki; Naono, Ken

    Virtualization technologies are widely deployed in data centers to improve system utilization. However, they increase the workload for operators, who have to manage the structure of virtual networks in data centers. A virtual-network management system which automates the integration of the configurations of the virtual networks is provided. The proposed system collects the configurations from server virtualization platforms and VLAN-supported switches, and integrates these configurations according to a newly developed XML-based management information model for virtual-network configurations. Preliminary evaluations show that the proposed system helps operators by reducing the time to acquire the configurations from devices and correct the inconsistency of operators' configuration management database by about 40 percent. Further, they also show that the proposed system has excellent scalability; the system takes less than 20 minutes to acquire the virtual-network configurations from a large scale network that includes 300 virtual machines. These results imply that the proposed system is effective for improving the configuration management process for virtual networks in data centers.

  11. Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Den Durpel, Luc Van

    2004-06-17

    DANESS is an integrated process model for nuclear energy systems allowing the simulation of multiple reactors and fuel cycles in a continuously changing nuclear reactor park configuration. The model is energy demand driven and simulates all nuclear fuel cycle facilites, up to 10 reactors and fuels. Reactor and fuel cycle facility history are traced and the cost of generating energy is calculated per reactor and for total nuclear energy system. The DANESS model aims at performing dynamic systems analysis of nuclear energy development used for integrated analysis of development paths for nuclear energy, parameter scoping for new nuclear energy systems, economic analysis of nuclear energy, government role analysis, and education.

  12. Hybrid Energy System Modeling in Modelica

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Binder; Christiaan J. J. Paredis; Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a Hybrid Energy System (HES) configuration is modeled in Modelica. Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) have as their defining characteristic the use of one or more energy inputs, combined with the potential for multiple energy outputs. Compared to traditional energy systems, HES provide additional operational flexibility so that high variability in both energy production and consumption levels can be absorbed more effectively. This is particularly important when including renewable energy sources, whose output levels are inherently variable, determined by nature. The specific HES configuration modeled in this paper include two energy inputs: a nuclear plant, and a series of wind turbines. In addition, the system produces two energy outputs: electricity and synthetic fuel. The models are verified through simulations of the individual components, and the system as a whole. The simulations are performed for a range of component sizes, operating conditions, and control schemes.

  13. Environmental evaluation of the electric and cogenerative configurations for the energy recovery of the Turin municipal solid waste incineration plant.

    PubMed

    Panepinto, Deborah; Genon, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    Given the desirability of reducing fossil fuel consumption, together with the increasing production of combustible solid wastes, there is clearly a need for waste treatment systems that achieve both volume reduction and energy recovery. Direct incineration method is one such system. The aim of this work was to analyze the municipal solid waste incineration plant currently under construction in the province of Turin (Piedmont, North Italy), especially the potential for energy recovery, and the consequent environmental effects. We analyzed two kinds of energy recovery: electric energy (electrical configuration) only, and both electric and thermal energy (cogenerative configuration), in this case with a different connection hypothesis to the district heating network. After we had evaluated the potential of the incinerator and considered local demographic, energy and urban planning effects, we assumed different possible connections to the district heating network. We computed the local and global environmental balances based on the characteristics of the flue gas emitted from the stack, taking into consideration the emissions avoided by the substituted sources. The global-scale results provided relevant information on the carbon dioxide emissions parameter. The results on the local scale were used as reference values for the implementation of a Gaussian model (Aermod) that allows evaluation of the actual concentration of the pollutants released into the atmosphere. The main results obtained highlight the high energy efficiency of the combined production of heat and electricity, and the opportunity to minimize the environmental impact by including cogeneration in a district heating scheme.

  14. Identifying the Minimum-Energy Atomic Configuration on a Lattice: Lamarckian Twist on Darwinian Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    d'Avezac, M.; Zunger, A.

    2008-01-01

    We examine how the two different mechanisms proposed historically for biological evolution compare for the determination of crystal structures from random initial lattice configurations. The Darwinian theory of evolution contends that the genetic makeup inherited at birth is the one passed on during mating to new offspring, in which case evolution is a product of environmental pressure and chance. In addition to this mechanism, Lamarck surmised that individuals can also pass on traits acquired during their lifetime. Here we show that the minimum-energy configurations of a binary A{sub 1-x}B{sub x} alloy in the full 0 {le} x {le} 1 concentration range can be found much faster if the conventional Darwinian genetic progression--mating configurations and letting the lowest-energy (fittest) offspring survive--is allowed to experience Lamarckian-style fitness improvements during its lifetime. Such improvements consist of A {leftrightarrow} B transmutations of some atomic sites (not just atomic relaxations) guided by 'virtual-atom' energy gradients. This hybrid evolution is shown to provide an efficient solution to a generalized Ising Hamiltonian, illustrated here by finding the ground states of face-centered-cubic Au{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x} using a cluster-expansion functional fitted to first-principles total energies. The statistical rate of success of the search strategies and their practical applicability are rigorously documented in terms of average number of evaluations required to find the solution out of 400 independent evolutionary runs with different random seeds. We show that all exact ground states of a 12-atom supercell (2{sup 12} configurations) can be found within 330 total-energy evaluations, whereas a 36-atom supercell (2{sup 36} configurations) requires on average 39,000 evaluations. Thus, this problem cannot be currently addressed with confidence using costly energy functionals [e.g., density-functional theory (DFT) based] unless it is limited to {le} 20

  15. Comparative analysis of different configurations of PLC-based safety systems from reliability point of view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapia, Moiez A.

    1993-01-01

    The study of a comparative analysis of distinct multiplex and fault-tolerant configurations for a PLC-based safety system from a reliability point of view is presented. It considers simplex, duplex and fault-tolerant triple redundancy configurations. The standby unit in case of a duplex configuration has a failure rate which is k times the failure rate of the standby unit, the value of k varying from 0 to 1. For distinct values of MTTR and MTTF of the main unit, MTBF and availability for these configurations are calculated. The effect of duplexing only the PLC module or only the sensors and the actuators module, on the MTBF of the configuration, is also presented. The results are summarized and merits and demerits of various configurations under distinct environments are discussed.

  16. 78 FR 47014 - Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... 22, 2012 (77 FR 50727) for a 60-day public comment period. The public comment period closed on... COMMISSION Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear... 1 of RG 1.169, ``Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety...

  17. Systems design analysis applied to launch vehicle configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R.; Verderaime, V.

    1993-01-01

    As emphasis shifts from optimum-performance aerospace systems to least lift-cycle costs, systems designs must seek, adapt, and innovate cost improvement techniques in design through operations. The systems design process of concept, definition, and design was assessed for the types and flow of total quality management techniques that may be applicable in a launch vehicle systems design analysis. Techniques discussed are task ordering, quality leverage, concurrent engineering, Pareto's principle, robustness, quality function deployment, criteria, and others. These cost oriented techniques are as applicable to aerospace systems design analysis as to any large commercial system.

  18. An Initial Study of the Sensitivity of Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) Spacing Sensitivity to Weather and Configuration Input Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddick, Stephen E.; Hinton, David A.

    2000-01-01

    A study has been performed on a computer code modeling an aircraft wake vortex spacing system during final approach. This code represents an initial engineering model of a system to calculate reduced approach separation criteria needed to increase airport productivity. This report evaluates model sensitivity toward various weather conditions (crosswind, crosswind variance, turbulent kinetic energy, and thermal gradient), code configurations (approach corridor option, and wake demise definition), and post-processing techniques (rounding of provided spacing values, and controller time variance).

  19. Component Configuration Control System: an application of logic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Town, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    A computer application system is described which provides nuclear reactor power plant operators with an improved decision support system. This system combines traditional computer applications such as graphics display with artificial intelligence methodologies such as reasoning and diagnosis so as to improve plant operability. This paper discusses the issues, and a solution, involved with the system integration of applications developed using traditional and artificial intelligence languages.

  20. Loading configurations and driving mechanisms for joints based on the Griffith energy-balance concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelder, Terry; Fischer, Mark P.

    1996-05-01

    Using the Griffith energy-balance concept to model joint propagation in the brittle crust, two laboratory loading configurations serve as appropriate analogs for in situ conditions: the dead-weight load and the fixed-grips load. The distinction between these loading configurations is based largely on whether or not a loaded boundary moves as a joint grows. During displacement of a loaded boundary, the energy necessary for joint propagation comes from work by the dead weight (i.e., a remote stress). When the loaded boundary remains stationary, as if held by rigid grips, the energy for joint propagation develops upon release of elastic strain energy within the rock mass. These two generic loading configurations serve as models for four common natural loading configurations: a joint-normal load; a thermoelastic load; a fluid load; and an axial load. Each loading configuration triggers a different joint-driving mechanism, each of which is the release of energy through elastic strain and/or work. The four mechanisms for energy release are joint-normal stretching, elastic contraction, poroelastic contraction under either a constant fluid drive or fluid decompression, and axial shortening, respectively. Geological circumstances favoring each of the joint-driving mechanisms are as follows. The release of work under joint-normal stretching occurs whenever layer-parallel extension keeps pace with slow or subcritical joint propagation. Under fixed grips, a substantial crack-normal tensile stress can accumulate by thermoelastic contraction until joint propagation is driven by the release of elastic strain energy. Within the Earth the rate of joint propagation dictates which of these two driving mechanisms operates, with faster propagation driven by release of strain energy. Like a dead-weight load acting to separate the joint walls, pore fluid exerts a traction on the interior of some joints. Joint propagation under fluid loading may be driven by a release of elastic strain

  1. Hysteresis and multiple stable configurations in a magnetic fluid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    2008-05-01

    A magnetic liquid in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell is subjected to a vertical magnetic field. The width of the magnetic fluid finger is measured as a function of applied field and compared to a theoretical model. The theoretical model uses an energy minimization procedure and predicts a double energy minimum, hysteresis, and discontinuous transitions between a circle and a finger. The experimental data set agrees very well with the theory for a well-defined magnetic fluid finger. Near the transitions, the experiments show hysteresis and support for a double energy minimum; however, the agreement is not quite so good. The discrepancy between theory and experiment near the transition region is likely due to the simplified finger model used in the theory.

  2. Hysteresis and multiple stable configurations in a magnetic fluid system.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D P

    2008-05-21

    A magnetic liquid in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell is subjected to a vertical magnetic field. The width of the magnetic fluid finger is measured as a function of applied field and compared to a theoretical model. The theoretical model uses an energy minimization procedure and predicts a double energy minimum, hysteresis, and discontinuous transitions between a circle and a finger. The experimental data set agrees very well with the theory for a well-defined magnetic fluid finger. Near the transitions, the experiments show hysteresis and support for a double energy minimum; however, the agreement is not quite so good. The discrepancy between theory and experiment near the transition region is likely due to the simplified finger model used in the theory.

  3. Configuration evaluation and criteria plan. Volume 1: System trades study and design methodology plan (preliminary). Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, E. K.

    1986-01-01

    The System Trades Study and Design Methodology Plan is used to conduct trade studies to define the combination of Space Shuttle Main Engine features that will optimize candidate engine configurations. This is accomplished by using vehicle sensitivities and engine parametric data to establish engine chamber pressure and area ratio design points for candidate engine configurations. Engineering analyses are to be conducted to refine and optimize the candidate configurations at their design points. The optimized engine data and characteristics are then evaluated and compared against other candidates being considered. The Evaluation Criteria Plan is then used to compare and rank the optimized engine configurations on the basis of cost.

  4. Configuration of electro-optic fire source detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, Ram Z.; Steiner, Zeev; Hofman, Nir

    2007-04-01

    The recent fighting activities in various parts of the world have highlighted the need for accurate fire source detection on one hand and fast "sensor to shooter cycle" capabilities on the other. Both needs can be met by the SPOTLITE system which dramatically enhances the capability to rapidly engage hostile fire source with a minimum of casualties to friendly force and to innocent bystanders. Modular system design enable to meet each customer specific requirements and enable excellent future growth and upgrade potential. The design and built of a fire source detection system is governed by sets of requirements issued by the operators. This can be translated into the following design criteria: I) Long range, fast and accurate fire source detection capability. II) Different threat detection and classification capability. III) Threat investigation capability. IV) Fire source data distribution capability (Location, direction, video image, voice). V) Men portability. ) In order to meet these design criteria, an optimized concept was presented and exercised for the SPOTLITE system. Three major modular components were defined: I) Electro Optical Unit -Including FLIR camera, CCD camera, Laser Range Finder and Marker II) Electronic Unit -including system computer and electronic. III) Controller Station Unit - Including the HMI of the system. This article discusses the system's components definition and optimization processes, and also show how SPOTLITE designers successfully managed to introduce excellent solutions for other system parameters.

  5. AdS/CFT energy loss in time-dependent string configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficnar, Andrej

    2012-08-01

    We analyze spacetime momentum currents on a classical string world sheet, study their generic connection via AdS/CFT correspondence to the instantaneous energy loss of the dual field theory degrees of freedom and suggest a general formula for computing energy loss in a time-dependent string configuration. Applying this formula to the case of falling strings, generally dual to light quarks, reveals that the energy loss does not display a well-pronounced Bragg peak at late times, as previously believed. Finally, we comment on the possible implications of this result to the jet quenching phenomena in heavy ion collisions.

  6. Efficient Computation of Small-Molecule Configurational Binding Entropy and Free Energy Changes by Ensemble Enumeration.

    PubMed

    Silver, Nathaniel W; King, Bracken M; Nalam, Madhavi N L; Cao, Hong; Ali, Akbar; Kiran Kumar Reddy, G S; Rana, Tariq M; Schiffer, Celia A; Tidor, Bruce

    2013-11-12

    Here we present a novel, end-point method using the dead-end-elimination and A* algorithms to efficiently and accurately calculate the change in free energy, enthalpy, and configurational entropy of binding for ligand-receptor association reactions. We apply the new approach to the binding of a series of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) protease inhibitors to examine the effect ensemble reranking has on relative accuracy as well as to evaluate the role of the absolute and relative ligand configurational entropy losses upon binding in affinity differences for structurally related inhibitors. Our results suggest that most thermodynamic parameters can be estimated using only a small fraction of the full configurational space, and we see significant improvement in relative accuracy when using an ensemble versus single-conformer approach to ligand ranking. We also find that using approximate metrics based on the single-conformation enthalpy differences between the global minimum energy configuration in the bound as well as unbound states also correlates well with experiment. Using a novel, additive entropy expansion based on conditional mutual information, we also analyze the source of ligand configurational entropy loss upon binding in terms of both uncoupled per degree of freedom losses as well as changes in coupling between inhibitor degrees of freedom. We estimate entropic free energy losses of approximately +24 kcal/mol, 12 kcal/mol of which stems from loss of translational and rotational entropy. Coupling effects contribute only a small fraction to the overall entropy change (1-2 kcal/mol) but suggest differences in how inhibitor dihedral angles couple to each other in the bound versus unbound states. The importance of accounting for flexibility in drug optimization and design is also discussed.

  7. Efficient Computation of Small-Molecule Configurational Binding Entropy and Free Energy Changes by Ensemble Enumeration.

    PubMed

    Silver, Nathaniel W; King, Bracken M; Nalam, Madhavi N L; Cao, Hong; Ali, Akbar; Kiran Kumar Reddy, G S; Rana, Tariq M; Schiffer, Celia A; Tidor, Bruce

    2013-11-12

    Here we present a novel, end-point method using the dead-end-elimination and A* algorithms to efficiently and accurately calculate the change in free energy, enthalpy, and configurational entropy of binding for ligand-receptor association reactions. We apply the new approach to the binding of a series of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) protease inhibitors to examine the effect ensemble reranking has on relative accuracy as well as to evaluate the role of the absolute and relative ligand configurational entropy losses upon binding in affinity differences for structurally related inhibitors. Our results suggest that most thermodynamic parameters can be estimated using only a small fraction of the full configurational space, and we see significant improvement in relative accuracy when using an ensemble versus single-conformer approach to ligand ranking. We also find that using approximate metrics based on the single-conformation enthalpy differences between the global minimum energy configuration in the bound as well as unbound states also correlates well with experiment. Using a novel, additive entropy expansion based on conditional mutual information, we also analyze the source of ligand configurational entropy loss upon binding in terms of both uncoupled per degree of freedom losses as well as changes in coupling between inhibitor degrees of freedom. We estimate entropic free energy losses of approximately +24 kcal/mol, 12 kcal/mol of which stems from loss of translational and rotational entropy. Coupling effects contribute only a small fraction to the overall entropy change (1-2 kcal/mol) but suggest differences in how inhibitor dihedral angles couple to each other in the bound versus unbound states. The importance of accounting for flexibility in drug optimization and design is also discussed. PMID:24250277

  8. Efficient Computation of Small-Molecule Configurational Binding Entropy and Free Energy Changes by Ensemble Enumeration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a novel, end-point method using the dead-end-elimination and A* algorithms to efficiently and accurately calculate the change in free energy, enthalpy, and configurational entropy of binding for ligand–receptor association reactions. We apply the new approach to the binding of a series of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) protease inhibitors to examine the effect ensemble reranking has on relative accuracy as well as to evaluate the role of the absolute and relative ligand configurational entropy losses upon binding in affinity differences for structurally related inhibitors. Our results suggest that most thermodynamic parameters can be estimated using only a small fraction of the full configurational space, and we see significant improvement in relative accuracy when using an ensemble versus single-conformer approach to ligand ranking. We also find that using approximate metrics based on the single-conformation enthalpy differences between the global minimum energy configuration in the bound as well as unbound states also correlates well with experiment. Using a novel, additive entropy expansion based on conditional mutual information, we also analyze the source of ligand configurational entropy loss upon binding in terms of both uncoupled per degree of freedom losses as well as changes in coupling between inhibitor degrees of freedom. We estimate entropic free energy losses of approximately +24 kcal/mol, 12 kcal/mol of which stems from loss of translational and rotational entropy. Coupling effects contribute only a small fraction to the overall entropy change (1–2 kcal/mol) but suggest differences in how inhibitor dihedral angles couple to each other in the bound versus unbound states. The importance of accounting for flexibility in drug optimization and design is also discussed. PMID:24250277

  9. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix D: EOS configuration design data. Part 2: Data management system configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) data management system (DMS) is discussed. The DMS is composed of several subsystems or system elements which have basic purposes and are connected together so that the DMS can support the EOS program by providing the following: (1) payload data acquisition and recording, (2) data processing and product generation, (3) spacecraft and processing management and control, and (4) data user services. The configuration and purposes of the primary or high-data rate system and the secondary or local user system are explained. Diagrams of the systems are provided to support the systems analysis.

  10. Tank waste remediation system immobilized high-level waste storage project configuration management implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Burgard, K.G.

    1998-09-24

    This Configuration Management Implementation Plan was developed to assist in the management of systems, structures, and components, to facilitate the effective control and statusing of changes to systems, structures, and components; and to ensure technical consistency between design, performance, and operational requirements. Its purpose is to describe the approach Project W-464 will take in implementing a configuration management control, to determine the rigor of control, and to identify the mechanisms for imposing that control.This Configuration Management Implementation Plan was developed to assist in the management of systems, structures, and components, to facilitate the effective control and statusing of changes to systems, structures, and components; and to ensure technical consistency between design, performance, and operational requirements. Its purpose is to describe the approach Project W-464 will take in implementing a configuration management control, to determine the rigor of control, and to identify the mechanisms for imposing that control.

  11. Dynamically re-configurable CMOS imagers for an active vision system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Guang (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A vision system is disclosed. The system includes a pixel array, at least one multi-resolution window operation circuit, and a pixel averaging circuit. The pixel array has an array of pixels configured to receive light signals from an image having at least one tracking target. The multi-resolution window operation circuits are configured to process the image. Each of the multi-resolution window operation circuits processes each tracking target within a particular multi-resolution window. The pixel averaging circuit is configured to sample and average pixels within the particular multi-resolution window.

  12. Optimal Configuration of Human Motion Tracking Systems: A Systems Engineering Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Human motion tracking systems represent a crucial technology in the area of modeling and simulation. These systems, which allow engineers to capture human motion for study or replication in virtual environments, have broad applications in several research disciplines including human engineering, robotics, and psychology. These systems are based on several sensing paradigms, including electro-magnetic, infrared, and visual recognition. Each of these paradigms requires specialized environments and hardware configurations to optimize performance of the human motion tracking system. Ideally, these systems are used in a laboratory or other facility that was designed to accommodate the particular sensing technology. For example, electromagnetic systems are highly vulnerable to interference from metallic objects, and should be used in a specialized lab free of metal components.

  13. A Test-Bed Configuration: Toward an Autonomous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, F.; Castillo, M.; Uranga, E.; Ponz, J. D.; TBT Consortium

    2015-09-01

    In the context of the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program of ESA, it is foreseen to deploy several large robotic telescopes in remote locations to provide surveillance and tracking services for man-made as well as natural near-Earth objects (NEOs). The present project, termed Telescope Test Bed (TBT) is being developed under ESA's General Studies and Technology Programme, and shall implement a test-bed for the validation of an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario, consisting of two telescopes located in Spain and Australia, to collect representative test data for precursor NEO services. In order to fulfill all the security requirements for the TBT project, the use of a autonomous emergency system (AES) is foreseen to monitor the control system. The AES will monitor remotely the health of the observing system and the internal and external environment. It will incorporate both autonomous and interactive actuators to force the protection of the system (i.e., emergency dome close out).

  14. Configuration Analysis Tool (CAT). System Description and users guide (revision 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W.; Taylor, W.; Mcgarry, F. E.; Merwarth, P.

    1982-01-01

    A system description of, and user's guide for, the Configuration Analysis Tool (CAT) are presented. As a configuration management tool, CAT enhances the control of large software systems by providing a repository for information describing the current status of a project. CAT provides an editing capability to update the information and a reporting capability to present the information. CAT is an interactive program available in versions for the PDP-11/70 and VAX-11/780 computers.

  15. Variable configuration fiber optic laser doppler vibrometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posada-Roman, Julio E.; Jackson, David A.; Garcia-Souto, Jose A.

    2016-06-01

    A multichannel heterodyne fiber optic vibrometer is demonstrated which can be operated at ranges in excess of 50 m. The system is designed to measure periodic signals, impacts, rotation, 3D strain, and vibration mapping. The displacement resolution of each channel exceeds 1 nm. The outputs from all channels are simultaneous, and the number of channels can be increased by using optical switches.

  16. Auto-Routable, Configurable, Daisy Chainable Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method and apparatus for an acquisition system includes a plurality of sensor input signal lines. At least one of the plurality of sensor input signal lines operatively connects to at least one of a plurality of amplifier circuits. At least one of the plurality of amplifier circuits operatively connects to at least one of a plurality of filter circuits.

  17. NEXT Ion Propulsion System Configurations and Performance for Saturn System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Scott W.; Riehl, John P.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    The successes of the Cassini/Huygens mission have heightened interest to return to the Saturn system with focused robotic missions. The desire for a sustained presence at Titan, through a dedicated orbiter and in-situ vehicle, either a lander or aerobot, has resulted in definition of a Titan Explorer flagship mission as a high priority in the Solar System Exploration Roadmap. The discovery of active water vapor plumes erupting from the tiger stripes on the moon Enceladus has drawn the attention of the space science community. The NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system is well suited to future missions to the Saturn system. NEXT is used within the inner solar system, in combination with a Venus or Earth gravity assist, to establish a fast transfer to the Saturn system. The NEXT system elements are accommodated in a separable Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) module, or are integrated into the main spacecraft bus, depending on the mission architecture and performance requirements. This paper defines a range of NEXT system configurations, from two to four thrusters, and the Saturn system performance capability provided. Delivered mass is assessed parametrically over total trip time to Saturn. Launch vehicle options, gravity assist options, and input power level are addressed to determine performance sensitivities. A simple two-thruster NEXT system, launched on an Atlas 551, can deliver a spacecraft mass of over 2400 kg on a transfer to Saturn. Similarly, a four-thruster system, launched on a Delta 4050 Heavy, delivers more than 4000 kg spacecraft mass. A SEP module conceptual design, for a two thruster string, 17 kW solar array, configuration is characterized.

  18. Configurable impedance matching to maximise power extraction for enabling self-powered system based-on photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Airul Azha Abd; Jamil, Wan Adil Wan; Umar, Akrajas Ali

    2016-07-01

    Multivariate energy harvesting system, solar and thermal energies, with configurable impedance matching features is presented. The system consists of a tuneable mechanism for peak performance tracking. The inputs are voltages ranging from 20 mV to 3.1 V. The matching load is individually tuned for photovoltaic and thermoelectric power efficiency not less than 80% and 50% of the open circuit voltage respectively. Of experimentation and analysis has been done, the time it takes to fully charge up to 3.4 V is 23 minutes with the rate of charging is 1.8 mV/sec. Empirical data is presented. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. A systems configuration toolkit for modular integration of mechatronic resources

    SciTech Connect

    Oppel, F.J. III; Palmquist, R.

    1995-07-01

    The use of the NII (National Information Infrastructure) is growing rapidly in the number of users and in the areas in which it is being applied. Sandia is using, the NII to leverage the use of geographically distributed mechatronic (electromechanical) assets. This paper discusses the availability of networks, new challenges for robotics technology, and how the use of networks is helping to meet these challenges. A brief overview of the NII is provided, followed by a listing of ``needs`` within the intelligent systems community. An approach is then given for meeting, these needs and, finally, implementation, examples, and future research directions are discussed.

  20. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, A.; Yusof, K. W.; Sapari, N.; Singh, B. S.; Hashim, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  1. Computer software configuration description, 241-AY and 241-AZ tank farm MICON automation system

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, W.D.

    1998-01-08

    This document describes the configuration process, choices and conventions used during the configuration activities, and issues involved in making changes to the configuration. Includes the master listings of the Tag definitions, which should be revised to authorize any changes. Revision 2 incorporates minor changes to ensure the document setpoints accurately reflect limits (including exhaust stack flow of 800 scfm) established in OSD-T-151-00019. The MICON DCS software controls and monitors the instrumentation and equipment associated with plant systems and processes.

  2. Comparison of thruster configurations in attitude control systems. M.S. Thesis. Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, J. S., III; Drinkard, D. M., Jr.; White, L. R.; Chakravarthi, K. R.

    1973-01-01

    Several aspects concerning reaction control jet systems as used to govern the attitude of a spacecraft were considered. A thruster configuration currently in use was compared to several new configurations developed in this study. The method of determining the error signals which control the firing of the thrusters was also investigated. The current error determination procedure is explained and a new method is presented. Both of these procedures are applied to each of the thruster configurations which are developed and comparisons of the two methods are made.

  3. Non-tracking solar energy collector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy collector system characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel vacuum-jacketed receivers or absorbers is described. Numerous individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration are supported for independent reorientation. Asymmetric vee-trough concentrators are defined.

  4. An Approach to Force-Sensorless Bilateral Control in Master-Slave System with Different Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Toru; Shimono, Tomoyuki

    In this paper, force-sensorless bilateral control methods for a master-slave system with different configurations are proposed. Two types of bilateral control architectures are presented. One is based on joint space control, and the other is based on work space control. This paper discusses the difference between these control methods from the viewpoint of motion behavior in the singular configuration. Finally, actual experimental results that confirm the validity of the proposed methods are shown.

  5. High-energy terahertz wave parametric oscillator with a surface-emitted ring-cavity configuration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Yuye; Xu, Degang; Xu, Wentao; Duan, Pan; Yan, Chao; Tang, Longhuang; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-05-15

    A surface-emitted ring-cavity terahertz (THz) wave parametric oscillator has been demonstrated for high-energy THz output and fast frequency tuning in a wide frequency range. Through the special optical design with a galvano-optical scanner and four-mirror ring-cavity structure, the maximum THz wave output energy of 12.9 μJ/pulse is achieved at 1.359 THz under the pump energy of 172.8 mJ. The fast THz frequency tuning in the range of 0.7-2.8 THz can be accessed with the step response of 600 μs. Moreover, the maximum THz wave output energy from this configuration is 3.29 times as large as that obtained from the conventional surface-emitted THz wave parametric oscillator with the same experimental conditions.

  6. Ergodicity, configurational entropy and free energy in pigment solutions and plant photosystems: influence of excited state lifetime.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Robert C; Zucchelli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We examine ergodicity and configurational entropy for a dilute pigment solution and for a suspension of plant photosystem particles in which both ground and excited state pigments are present. It is concluded that the pigment solution, due to the extreme brevity of the excited state lifetime, is non-ergodic and the configurational entropy approaches zero. Conversely, due to the rapid energy transfer among pigments, each photosystem is ergodic and the configurational entropy is positive. This decreases the free energy of the single photosystem pigment array by a small amount. On the other hand, the suspension of photosystems is non-ergodic and the configurational entropy approaches zero. The overall configurational entropy which, in principle, includes contributions from both the single excited photosystems and the suspension which contains excited photosystems, also approaches zero. Thus the configurational entropy upon photon absorption by either a pigment solution or a suspension of photosystem particles is approximately zero.

  7. Observed asymptotic differences in energies of stable and minimal point configurations on S2 and the role of defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calef, M.; Griffiths, W.; Schulz, A.; Fichtl, C.; Hardin, D.

    2013-10-01

    Configurations of N points on the two-sphere that are stable with respect to the Riesz s-energy have a structure that is largely hexagonal. These stable configurations differ from the configurations with the lowest reported N-point s-energy in the location and structure of defects within this hexagonal structure. These differences in energy between the stable and minimal configuration suggest that energy scale at which defects play a role. This work uses numerical experiments to report this difference as a function of N, allowing us to infer the energy scale at which defects play a role. This work is presented in the context of established estimates for the minimal N-point energy, and in particular we identify terms in these estimates that likely reflect defect structure.

  8. Watershed configuration and geographic information system parameterization for spur model hydrologic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Sasowsky, K.C. ); Gardner, T.W. )

    1991-02-01

    A grid cell geographic information system (GIS) is used to parameterize SPUR, a quasi-physically based surface runoff model in which a watershed is configured as a set of stream segments and contributing areas. GIS analysis techniques produce various watershed configurations by progressive simplification of a stream network delineated from digital elevation models (DEM). The authors used three watershed configurations: {ge}2nd, {ge}4th, and {ge}13th Shreve order networks, where the watershed contains 28, 15, and 1 channel segments with 66, 37, and 3 contributing areas, respectively. Watershed configuration controls simulated daily and monthly sums of runoff volumes. For the climatic and topographic setting in southeastern Arizona the {ge}4th order configuration of the stream network and contributing areas produces results that are typically as good as the {ge} 2nd order network. However both are consistently better than the {ge}13th order configuration. Due to the degree of parameterization in SPUR, model simulations cannot be significantly improved by increasing watershed configuration beyond the {ge}4th order network. However, a range of Soil Conservation Service curve numbers derived from rainfall/runoff data can affect model simulations. Higher curve numbers yield better results for the {ge}2nd order network while lower curve numbers yield better results for the {ge}4th order network.

  9. NPIP: A skew line needle configuration optimization system for HDR brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Siauw, Timmy; Cunha, Adam; Berenson, Dmitry; Atamtuerk, Alper; Hsu, I-Chow; Goldberg, Ken; Pouliot, Jean

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: In this study, the authors introduce skew line needle configurations for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy and needle planning by integer program (NPIP), a computational method for generating these configurations. NPIP generates needle configurations that are specific to the anatomy of the patient, avoid critical structures near the penile bulb and other healthy structures, and avoid needle collisions inside the body. Methods: NPIP consisted of three major components: a method for generating a set of candidate needles, a needle selection component that chose a candidate needle subset to be inserted, and a dose planner for verifying that the final needle configuration could meet dose objectives. NPIP was used to compute needle configurations for prostate cancer data sets from patients previously treated at our clinic. NPIP took two user-parameters: a number of candidate needles, and needle coverage radius, {delta}. The candidate needle set consisted of 5000 needles, and a range of {delta} values was used to compute different needle configurations for each patient. Dose plans were computed for each needle configuration. The number of needles generated and dosimetry were analyzed and compared to the physician implant. Results: NPIP computed at least one needle configuration for every patient that met dose objectives, avoided healthy structures and needle collisions, and used as many or fewer needles than standard practice. These needle configurations corresponded to a narrow range of {delta} values, which could be used as default values if this system is used in practice. The average end-to-end runtime for this implementation of NPIP was 286 s, but there was a wide variation from case to case. Conclusions: The authors have shown that NPIP can automatically generate skew line needle configurations with the aforementioned properties, and that given the correct input parameters, NPIP can generate needle configurations which meet dose objectives and use as many

  10. Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, retrieval control system software configuration management plan

    SciTech Connect

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-02-23

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides the instructions for change control of the W-211 Project, Retrieval Control System (RCS) software after initial approval/release but prior to the transfer of custody to the waste tank operations contractor. This plan applies to the W-211 system software developed by the project, consisting of the computer human-machine interface (HMI) and programmable logic controller (PLC) software source and executable code, for production use by the waste tank operations contractor. The plan encompasses that portion of the W-211 RCS software represented on project-specific AUTOCAD drawings that are released as part of the C1 definitive design package (these drawings are identified on the drawing list associated with each C-1 package), and the associated software code. Implementation of the plan is required for formal acceptance testing and production release. The software configuration management plan does not apply to reports and data generated by the software except where specifically identified. Control of information produced by the software once it has been transferred for operation is the responsibility of the receiving organization.

  11. Access to specialist care: Optimizing the geographic configuration of trauma systems

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Jan O.; Morrison, Jonathan J.; Wang, Handing; He, Shan; Lawrenson, Robin; Hutchison, James D.; Campbell, Marion K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The optimal geographic configuration of health care systems is key to maximizing accessibility while promoting the efficient use of resources. This article reports the use of a novel approach to inform the optimal configuration of a national trauma system. METHODS This is a prospective cohort study of all trauma patients, 15 years and older, attended to by the Scottish Ambulance Service, between July 1, 2013, and June 30, 2014. Patients underwent notional triage to one of three levels of care (major trauma center [MTC], trauma unit, or local emergency hospital). We used geographic information systems software to calculate access times, by road and air, from all incident locations to all candidate hospitals. We then modeled the performance of all mathematically possible network configurations and used multiobjective optimization to determine geospatially optimized configurations. RESULTS A total of 80,391 casualties were included. A network with only high- or moderate-volume MTCs (admitting at least 650 or 400 severely injured patients per year, respectively) would be optimally configured with a single MTC. A network accepting lower-volume MTCs (at least 240 severely injured patients per year) would be optimally configured with two MTCs. Both configurations would necessitate an increase in the number of helicopter retrievals. CONCLUSION This study has shown that a novel combination of notional triage, network analysis, and mathematical optimization can be used to inform the planning of a national clinical network. Scotland’s trauma system could be optimized with one or two MTCs. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Care management study, level IV. PMID:26335775

  12. Report of the final configuration of the Johnson Noise Thermometry System

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Ezell, N. Dianne Bull; Roberts, Michael

    2014-02-01

    This document is a report on the final box and software configuration of the Johnson Noise Thermometry System being developed at ORNL. Much of this has been reported previously so that this report will be a systems-level summary of those reports, In addition we will describe some of the issues encountered during development.

  13. Dynamics and configuration control of the Maneuvering-Net Space Robot System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Panfeng; Zhang, Fan; Ma, Jun; Meng, Zhongjie; Liu, Zhengxiong

    2015-02-01

    In order to eliminate the limitation of the Space Tether-Net System in the field of maneuver and control, we propose the Maneuvering-Net Space Robot System (MNSRS) in this paper, which can capture and remove the space debris dexterously. We focus on the approaching phase towards the space debris, which is a challenging problem for the MNSRS, especially the coupled dynamics modeling and configuration control problems. Firstly the system and mission overview of the MNSRS is described in detail. After that, a coupled dynamics modeling, which divides the MNSRS into finite mass points connected with massless springs, is established to describe dynamic characteristics of the MNSRS in approaching phase. Then the configuration variation of the MNSRS in approaching phase is analyzed. Finally the configuration control of the MNSRS in approaching phase is investigated.

  14. A novel multireceiver communications system configuration based on optimal estimation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R.

    1990-01-01

    A multireceiver configuration for the purpose of carrier arraying and/or signal arraying is presented. Such a problem arises for example, in the NASA Deep Space Network where the same data-modulated signal from a spacecraft is received by a number of geographically separated antennas and the data detection must be efficiently performed on the basis of the various received signals. The proposed configuration is arrived at by formulating the carrier and/or signal arraying problem as an optimal estimation problem. Two specific solutions are proposed. The first solution is to simultaneously and optimally estimate the various phase processes received at different receivers with coupled phase locked loops (PLLs) wherein the individual PLLs acquire and track their respective receivers' phase processes, but are aided by each other in an optimal manner. However, when the phase processes are relatively weakly correlated, and for the case of relatively high values of symbol energy-to-noise spectral density ratio, a novel configuration for combining the data modulated, loop-output signals is proposed. The scheme can be extended to the case of low symbol energy-to-noise case by performing the combining/detection process over a multisymbol period. Such a configuration results in the minimization of the effective radio loss at the combiner output, and thus a maximization of energy per bit to noise-power spectral density ration is achieved.

  15. Design of a flight director/configuration management system for piloted STOL approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoh, R. H.; Klein, R. H.; Johnson, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    The design and characteristics of a flight director for V/STOL aircraft are discussed. A configuration management system for piloted STOL approaches is described. The individual components of the overall system designed to reduce pilot workload to an acceptable level during curved, decelerating, and descending STOL approaches are defined. The application of the system to augmentor wing aircraft is analyzed. System performance checks and piloted evaluations were conducted on a flight simulator and the results are summarized.

  16. Jet engine nozzle exit configurations, including projections oriented relative to pylons, and associated systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Nozzle exit configurations and associated systems and methods are disclosed. An aircraft system in accordance with one embodiment includes a jet engine exhaust nozzle having an internal flow surface and an exit aperture, with the exit aperture having a perimeter that includes multiple projections extending in an aft direction. Aft portions of individual neighboring projections are spaced apart from each other by a gap, and a geometric feature of the multiple can change in a monotonic manner along at least a portion of the perimeter. Projections near a support pylon and/or associated heat shield can have particular configurations, including greater flow immersion than other projections.

  17. DTE Energy Technologies With Detroit Edison Co. and Kinectrics Inc.: Distributed Resources Aggregation Modeling and Field Configuration Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    Summarizes the work of DTE Energy Technologies, Detroit Edison, and Kinectrics, under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D, to develop distributed resources aggregation modeling and field configuration testing.

  18. Configuration maintaining control of three-body ring tethered system based on thrust compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Panfeng; Liu, Binbin; Zhang, Fan

    2016-06-01

    Space multi-tethered systems have shown broad prospects in remote observation missions. This paper mainly focuses on the dynamics and configuration maintaining control of space spinning three-body ring tethered system for such mission. Firstly, we establish the spinning dynamic model of the three-body ring tethered system considering the elasticity of the tether using Newton-Euler method, and then validate the suitability of this model by numerical simulation. Subsequently, LP (Likins-Pringle) initial equilibrium conditions for the tethered system are derived based on rigid body's equilibrium theory. Simulation results show that tether slack, snapping and interaction between the tethers exist in the three-body ring system, and its' configuration can not be maintained without control. Finally, a control strategy based on thrust compensation, namely thrust to simulate tether compression under LP initial equilibrium conditions is designed to solve the configuration maintaining control problem. Control effects are verified by numerical simulation compared with uncontrolled situation. Simulation results show that the configuration of the three-body ring tethered system could maintain under this active control strategy.

  19. Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking

    ScienceCinema

    Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.

    2016-07-12

    INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  20. Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  1. Some system considerations in configuring a digital flight control - navigation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boone, J. H.; Flynn, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    A trade study was conducted with the objective of providing a technical guideline for selection of the most appropriate computer technology for the automatic flight control system of a civil subsonic jet transport. The trade study considers aspects of using either an analog, incremental type special purpose computer or a general purpose computer to perform critical autopilot computation functions. It also considers aspects of integration of noncritical autopilot and autothrottle modes into the computer performing the critical autoland functions, as compared to the federation of the noncritical modes into either a separate computer or with a R-Nav computer. The study is accomplished by establishing the relative advantages and/or risks associated with each of the computer configurations.

  2. Energy performance of stripper configurations for CO{sub 2} capture by aqueous amines

    SciTech Connect

    Oyenekan, B.A.; Rochelle, G.T.

    2006-04-12

    Aqueous absorption/stripping is the state-of-the-art technology for the capture of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants. This technology is energy-intensive and has been applied to CO{sub 2} removal from natural gas, ammonia, and hydrogen gas streams. Energy requirements can be reduced by the use of a more-reactive solvent, operating the cross exchanger at a lower temperature, optimizing the stripper operation, and using innovative stripper configurations (vacuum and multipressure). This work calculates stripper performance with an algorithm in Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM) that incorporates thermodynamic studies, reaction rate measurements, physical properties, and contactor-specific information for three stripper configuration-a simple stripper operating at 160 kPa, a multipressure stripper operating at three pressures (330/230/160 kPa), and a vacuum stripper (30 kPa) for two solvents: 7m (30 wt %) monoethanolamine (MEA) and 5m K{sup +}/2.5m piperazine. The temperature approach is varied from 5 to 10{sup o}C. With some approximations, we predict the influence of using solvents with varying heats of desorption {Delta}H{sub des}) on the reboiler duty and the equivalent work for stripping (reboiler duty as equivalent Carnot work plus compression work). With a rich solution giving PCO{sub 2}{asterisk} = 2.5 kPa at 40{sup o}C, the vacuum stripper is favored for solvents with Delta H{sub des} {<=} 21 kcal/(gmol of CO{sub 2}) while the multipressure configuration is attractive for solvents with {Delta}(H{sub des} {>=} 21 kcal/(gmol of CO{sub 2}).

  3. Effect of Radial Density Configuration on Wave Field and Energy Flow in Axially Uniform Helicon Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Lei; Li, Qingchong; Zhang, Huijie; Li, Yinghong; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Bailing; Zhuang, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    The effect of the radial density configuration in terms of width, edge gradient and volume gradient on the wave field and energy flow in an axially uniform helicon plasma is studied in detail. A three-parameter function is employed to describe the density, covering uniform, parabolic, linear and Gaussian profiles. It finds that the fraction of power deposition near the plasma edge increases with density width and edge gradient, and decays in exponential and “bump-on-tail” profiles, respectively, away from the surface. The existence of a positive second-order derivative in the volume density configuration promotes the power deposition near the plasma core, which to our best knowledge has not been pointed out before. The transverse structures of wave field and current density remain almost the same during the variation of density width and gradient, confirming the robustness of the m=1 mode observed previously. However, the structure of the electric wave field changes significantly from a uniform density configuration, for which the coupling between the Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) mode and the helicon mode is very strong, to non-uniform ones. The energy flow in the cross section of helicon plasma is presented for the first time, and behaves sensitive to the density width and edge gradient but insensitive to the volume gradient. Interestingly, the radial distribution of power deposition resembles the radial profile of the axial component of current density, suggesting the control of the power deposition profile in the experiment by particularly designing the antenna geometry to excite a required axial current distribution. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11405271)

  4. Inviscid and viscous flow modelling of complex aircraft configurations using the CFD simulation system sauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peace, Andrew J.; May, Nicholas E.; Pocock, Mark F.; Shaw, Jonathon A.

    1994-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the flow modelling capabilities of an advanced CFD simulation system known by the acronym SAUNA. This system is aimed primarily at complex aircraft configurations and possesses a unique grid generation strategy in its use of block-structured, unstructured or hybrid grids, depending on the geometric complexity of the addressed configuration. The main focus of the paper is in demonstrating the recently developed multi-grid, block-structured grid, viscous flow capability of SAUNA, through its evaluation on a number of configurations. Inviscid predictions are also presented, both as a means of interpreting the viscous results and with a view to showing more completely the capabilities of SAUNA. It is shown that accuracy and flexibility are combined in an efficient manner, thus demonstrating the value of SAUNA in aerodynamic design.

  5. Verification of the CFD simulation system SAUNA for complex aircraft configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Jonathon A.; Peace, Andrew J.; May, Nicholas E.; Pocock, Mark F.

    1994-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the verification for complex aircraft configurations of an advanced CFD simulation system known by the acronym SAUNA. A brief description of the complete system is given, including its unique use of differing grid generation strategies (structured, unstructured or both) depending on the geometric complexity of the addressed configuration. The majority of the paper focuses on the application of SAUNA to a variety of configurations from the military aircraft, civil aircraft and missile areas. Mesh generation issues are discussed for each geometry and experimental data are used to assess the accuracy of the inviscid (Euler) model used. It is shown that flexibility and accuracy are combined in an efficient manner, thus demonstrating the value of SAUNA in aerodynamic design.

  6. Evaluation of optimal configuration of hybrid Life Support System for Space.

    PubMed

    Bartsev, S I; Mezhevikin, V V; Okhonin, V A

    2000-01-01

    Any comprehensive evaluation of Life Support Systems (LSS) for space applications has to be conducted taking into account not only mass of LSS components but also all relevant equipment and storage: spare parts, additional mass of space ship walls, power supply and heat rejection systems. In this paper different combinations of hybrid LSS (HLSS) components were evaluated. Three variants of power supply were under consideration--solar arrays, direct solar light transmission to plants, and nuclear power. The software based on simplex approach was used for optimizing LSS configuration with respect to its mass. It was shown that there are several LSS configuration, which are optimal for different time intervals. Optimal configurations of physical-chemical (P/C), biological and hybrid LSS for three types of power supply are presented. PMID:11543170

  7. Universal solar energy desalination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, V. S.

    Design considerations to allow site-dependent flexibility in the choice of solar/wind powered desalinization plant configurations are discussed. A prototype design was developed for construction of 6300 cu m per day brackish water treatment in Brownsville, TX. The water is treated to reduce the amount of suspended solids and prevent scaling. A reverse osmosis unit processes the treated liquid to recover water at a ratio of 90%. The power system comprises a parabolic trough solar thermal system with an organic Rankine cycle generator, rock-oil thermal storage, and 200 kW wind turbines. Analysis of the complementarity of the solar and wind subsystems indicates that at any site one system will supplement the other. Energy storage, e.g., battery banks, would increase system costs to unacceptable levels. Climatic conditions will significantly influence the sizing of each segment of the total power system.

  8. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

  9. One vs two primary LOX feedline configuration study for the National Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, K.; Davis, D.; Bates, R.; Tarwater, R.

    1992-01-01

    Six single LOX feedline designs were evaluated for use on the National Launch Vehicle. A single feedline design, designated the 'Spider', was chosen and compared to the baseline system. The baseline configuration employs two 20-inch I.D. lines, each supplying LOX to three 650,000 lbf thrust Space Transportation Main Engines. Five single feedline diameters were examined for the spider configuration; 22, 24, 26, 28, and 30-inch I.D. System dry weights and LOX residuals were estimated. These parameters, along with calculated staged mass for the different single line and baseline configurations, were used to calculate the payload mass to orbit. For the cases where LOX is drained to minimum NPSP conditions, none of the single lines performed as well as the dual line system, although the 22-inch diameter single line compared well. However, for the cases where LOX is drained to operating levels (LOX level at the booster and spider manifolds for the dual and single line configurations, respectively), the 22 - 26-inch I.D. single line systems show a greater payload capability.

  10. A Single Tower Configuration of the Modular Gamma Box Counter System - 13392

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, K.; Nakazawa, D.; Francalangia, J.; Gonzalez, H.

    2013-07-01

    Canberra's Standard Gamma Box Counter System is designed to perform accurate quantitative assays of gamma emitting nuclides for a wide range of large containers including B-25 crates and ISO shipping containers. Using a modular building-block approach, the system offers tremendous flexibility for a variety of measurement situations with wide ranges of sample activities and throughput requirements, as well as the opportunity to modify the configuration for other applications at a later date. The typical configuration consists of two opposing towers each equipped with two high purity germanium detectors, and an automated container trolley. This paper presents a modified configuration, consisting of a single tower placed inside a measurement trailer with three detector assemblies, allowing for additional vertical segmentation as well as a viewing a container outside the trailer through the trailer wall. An automatic liquid nitrogen fill system is supplied for each of the detectors. The use of a forklift to move the container for horizontal segmentation is accommodated by creating an additional operational and calibration set-up in the NDA 2000 software to allow for the operator to rotate the container and assay the opposite side, achieving the same sensitivity as a comparable two-tower system. This Segmented Gamma Box Counter System retains the core technologies and design features of the standard configuration. The detector assemblies are shielded to minimize interference from environmental and plant background, and are collimated to provide segmentation of the container. The assembly positions can also be modified in height and distance from the container. The ISOCS calibration software provides for a flexible approach to providing the calibrations for a variety of measurement geometries. The NDA 2000 software provides seamless operation with the current configuration, handling the data acquisition and analysis. In this paper, an overview of this system is discussed

  11. Multi-reactor power system configurations for multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A modular, multi-reactor power system and vehicle configuration for piloted nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) missions to Mars is presented. Such a design could provide enhanced system and mission reliability, allowing a comfortable safety margin for early manned flights, and would allow a range of piloted and cargo missions to be performed with a single power system design. Early use of common power modules for cargo missions would also provide progressive flight experience and validation of standardized systems for use in later piloted applications. System and mission analysis are presented to compare single and multi-reactor configurations for piloted Mars missions. A conceptual design for the Hydra modular multi-reactor NEP vehicle is presented.

  12. Hybrid community energy systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Karvelas, D. E.; Energy Systems

    2000-01-01

    The availability of efficient, economical, and reliable energy supplies can help attract industry and commercial businesses to a municipality or a region. Efficient use of energy can also improve the air quality and reduce pollution. Therefore, municipalities should explore and encourage the development and implementation of efficient energy systems. Integrated hybrid energy systems can be designed to meet the total energy requirements of large and small communities. These systems can yield significant energy and cost savings when compared with independent systems serving individual units or when compared with the conventional practice of buying power from a utility and producing thermal energy on-site. To maximize energy and cost savings, the design engineer should look beyond the conventional when designing such systems.

  13. Analysis and Evaluation of Error-Proof Systems for Configuration Data Management in Railway Signalling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazoe, Toshiyuki; Ishikawa, Hideto; Takei, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Kenji

    Recent types of train protection systems such as ATC require the large amounts of low-level configuration data compared to conventional types of them. Hence management of the configuration data is becoming more important than before. Because of this, the authors developed an error-proof system focusing on human operations in the configuration data management. This error-proof system has already been introduced to the Tokaido Shinkansen ATC data management system. However, as effectiveness of the system has not been presented objectively, its full perspective is not clear. To clarify the effectiveness, this paper analyses error-proofing cases introduced to the system, using the concept of QFD and the error-proofing principles. From this analysis, the following methods of evaluation for error-proof systems are proposed: metrics to review the rationality of required qualities are provided by arranging the required qualities according to hazard levels and work phases; metrics to evaluate error-proof systems are provided to improve their reliability effectively by mapping the error-proofing principles onto the error-proofing cases which are applied according to the required qualities and the corresponding hazard levels. In addition, these objectively-analysed error-proofing cases are available to be used as error-proofing-cases database or guidelines for safer HMI design especially for data management.

  14. Commissioning of the LHC Low Level RF System Remote Configuration Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, Daniel; Fox, John; Mastorides, Themis; Rivetta, Claudio; Baudrenghien, Philippe; Butterworth, Andrew; Molendijk, John; /CERN

    2010-08-26

    The LHC Low Level RF system (LLRF) is a complex multi-loop system used to regulate the superconductive cavity gap voltage as well as to reduce the impedance presented by RF stations to the beam. The RF system can have a profound impact on the stability of the beam; a mis-configured RF system has the potential of causing longitudinal instabilities, beam diffusion and beam loss. To configure the RF station for operation, a set of parameters in the LLRF multi-loop system have to be defined. Initial system commissioning as well as ongoing operation requires a consistent method of computer based remote measurement and model-based design of each RF station feedback system. This paper describes the suite of Matlab tools used for configuring the LHC RF system during the start up in Nov2009-Feb2010. We present a brief overview of the tool, examples of commissioning results, and basics of the model-based design algorithms. This work complements our previous presentation, where the algorithms and methodology followed in the tools were described.

  15. Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies

    2004-06-17

    DANESS is an integrated process model for nuclear energy systems allowing the simulation of multiple reactors and fuel cycles in a continuously changing nuclear reactor park configuration. The model is energy demand driven and simulates all nuclear fuel cycle facilites, up to 10 reactors and fuels. Reactor and fuel cycle facility history are traced and the cost of generating energy is calculated per reactor and for total nuclear energy system. The DANESS model aims atmore » performing dynamic systems analysis of nuclear energy development used for integrated analysis of development paths for nuclear energy, parameter scoping for new nuclear energy systems, economic analysis of nuclear energy, government role analysis, and education.« less

  16. Total Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hick, Basil L.

    A total energy system is a means for providing all of the varied energy requirements for a total plant from a single fuel source. This report evaluates some of the factors which are related to the development and use of total energy systems. The factors include--(1) initial and ultimate size of plant, (2) type and source of fuel, (3)…

  17. High-order moments of spin-orbit energy in a multielectron configuration.

    PubMed

    Na, Xieyu; Poirier, M

    2016-07-01

    In order to analyze the energy-level distribution in complex ions such as those found in warm dense plasmas, this paper provides values for high-order moments of the spin-orbit energy in a multielectron configuration. Using second-quantization results and standard angular algebra or fully analytical expressions, explicit values are given for moments up to 10th order for the spin-orbit energy. Two analytical methods are proposed, using the uncoupled or coupled orbital and spin angular momenta. The case of multiple open subshells is considered with the help of cumulants. The proposed expressions for spin-orbit energy moments are compared to numerical computations from Cowan's code and agree with them. The convergence of the Gram-Charlier expansion involving these spin-orbit moments is analyzed. While a spectrum with infinitely thin components cannot be adequately represented by such an expansion, a suitable convolution procedure ensures the convergence of the Gram-Charlier series provided high-order terms are accounted for. A corrected analytical formula for the third-order moment involving both spin-orbit and electron-electron interactions turns out to be in fair agreement with Cowan's numerical computations.

  18. High-order moments of spin-orbit energy in a multielectron configuration.

    PubMed

    Na, Xieyu; Poirier, M

    2016-07-01

    In order to analyze the energy-level distribution in complex ions such as those found in warm dense plasmas, this paper provides values for high-order moments of the spin-orbit energy in a multielectron configuration. Using second-quantization results and standard angular algebra or fully analytical expressions, explicit values are given for moments up to 10th order for the spin-orbit energy. Two analytical methods are proposed, using the uncoupled or coupled orbital and spin angular momenta. The case of multiple open subshells is considered with the help of cumulants. The proposed expressions for spin-orbit energy moments are compared to numerical computations from Cowan's code and agree with them. The convergence of the Gram-Charlier expansion involving these spin-orbit moments is analyzed. While a spectrum with infinitely thin components cannot be adequately represented by such an expansion, a suitable convolution procedure ensures the convergence of the Gram-Charlier series provided high-order terms are accounted for. A corrected analytical formula for the third-order moment involving both spin-orbit and electron-electron interactions turns out to be in fair agreement with Cowan's numerical computations. PMID:27575229

  19. Recovery of freshwater from wastewater: upgrading process configurations to maximize energy recovery and minimize residuals.

    PubMed

    Scherson, Yaniv D; Criddle, Craig S

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of conventional and novel wastewater treatment configurations reveals large differences in energy consumed or produced and solids generated per cubic meter of domestic wastewater treated. Complete aerobic BOD removal consumes 0.45 kWh and produces 153 g of solids, whereas complete anaerobic treatment produces 0.25 kWh and 80 g of solids. Emerging technologies, that include short-circuit nitrogen removal (SHARON, CANON with Anammox, CANDO) and mainstream anaerobic digestion, can potentially remove both BOD and nitrogen with an energy surplus of 0.17 kWh and production of 95 g of solids. Heat from biogas combustion can completely dry the solids, and these solids can be converted to syngas without imported energy. Syngas combustion can produce ∼ 0.1 kWh with an inorganic residue of just 10 g. If salt is removed, freshwater can be recovered with net production of electrical energy from methane (0.03-0.13 kWh) and syngas (∼ 0.1 kWh) and an inorganic residue of ∼ 0.1-0.3 kg as brine. Current seawater desalination requires 3-4 kWh (thermodynamic limit of 1 kWh) and results in an inorganic residue of ∼ 35 kg as brine.

  20. High-order moments of spin-orbit energy in a multielectron configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Xieyu; Poirier, M.

    2016-07-01

    In order to analyze the energy-level distribution in complex ions such as those found in warm dense plasmas, this paper provides values for high-order moments of the spin-orbit energy in a multielectron configuration. Using second-quantization results and standard angular algebra or fully analytical expressions, explicit values are given for moments up to 10th order for the spin-orbit energy. Two analytical methods are proposed, using the uncoupled or coupled orbital and spin angular momenta. The case of multiple open subshells is considered with the help of cumulants. The proposed expressions for spin-orbit energy moments are compared to numerical computations from Cowan's code and agree with them. The convergence of the Gram-Charlier expansion involving these spin-orbit moments is analyzed. While a spectrum with infinitely thin components cannot be adequately represented by such an expansion, a suitable convolution procedure ensures the convergence of the Gram-Charlier series provided high-order terms are accounted for. A corrected analytical formula for the third-order moment involving both spin-orbit and electron-electron interactions turns out to be in fair agreement with Cowan's numerical computations.

  1. Modeling and comparison of cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvester with segmented and continuous electrode configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongyan; Tang, Lihua; Shan, Xiaobiao; Xie, Tao; Yang, Yaowen

    2013-04-01

    Continuous electrode configuration (CEC) has been widely used in piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs). A PEH with CEC works around the first resonance efficiently but it suffers from low efficiency due to cancellation effect around higher modes. The use of segmented electrode configuration (SEC) can avoid the cancellation effect around higher modes. To achieve this, the output from each electrode pair on the opposite sides of the strain node needs to be rectified separately. In such a case, the theoretical formulation for power estimation becomes challenging because of some nonlinear electrical components included. In this paper, a method based on combining the equivalent circuit model (ECM) and the circuit simulation is proposed to estimate the power outputs of the cantilevered PEH with the SEC. First, the parameters in the ECM considering multiple modes of the PEH with the SEC are identified from the finite element analysis. The ECM is then established and simulated in the SPICE software. The optimal power outputs from the PEH with the SEC are compared with those from the PEH with the CEC. The results illustrate the advantage of the SEC to enhance the power outputs of a PEH at higher resonance frequencies.

  2. Centralized configuration system for a large scale farm of network booted computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballestrero, S.; Brasolin, F.; Dârlea, G.-L.; Dumitru, I.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Twomey, M. S.; Vâlsan, M. L.; Zaytsev, A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition online farm is composed of nearly 3,000 computing nodes, with various configurations, functions and requirements. Maintaining such a cluster is a big challenge from the computer administration point of view, thus various tools have been adopted by the System Administration team to help manage the farm efficiently. In particular, a custom central configuration system, ConfDBv2, was developed for the overall farm management. The majority of the systems are network booted, and are running an operating system image provided by a Local File Server (LFS) via the local area network (LAN). This method guarantees the uniformity of the system and allows, in case of issues, very fast recovery of the local disks which could be used as scratch area. It also provides greater flexibility as the nodes can be reconfigured and restarted with a different operating system in a very timely manner. A user-friendly web interface offers a quick overview of the current farm configuration and status, allowing changes to be applied on selected subsets or on the whole farm in an efficient and consistent manner. Also, various actions that would otherwise be time consuming and error prone can be quickly and safely executed. We describe the design, functionality and performance of this system and its web-based interface, including its integration with other CERN and ATLAS databases and with the monitoring infrastructure.

  3. Photovoltaic power converter system with a controller configured to actively compensate load harmonics

    DOEpatents

    de Rooij, Michael Andrew; Steigerwald, Robert Louis; Delgado, Eladio Clemente

    2008-12-16

    Photovoltaic power converter system including a controller configured to reduce load harmonics is provided. The system comprises a photovoltaic array and an inverter electrically coupled to the array to generate an output current for energizing a load connected to the inverter and to a mains grid supply voltage. The system further comprises a controller including a first circuit coupled to receive a load current to measure a harmonic current in the load current. The controller includes a second circuit to generate a fundamental reference drawn by the load. The controller further includes a third circuit for combining the measured harmonic current and the fundamental reference to generate a command output signal for generating the output current for energizing the load connected to the inverter. The photovoltaic system may be configured to compensate harmonic currents that may be drawn by the load.

  4. A knowledge-based system for optimization of fuel reload configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Galperin, A.; Kimhi, S.; Segev, M. )

    1989-05-01

    The authors discuss a knowledge-based production system developed for generating optimal fuel reload configurations. The system was based on a heuristic search method and implemented in Common Lisp programming language. The knowledge base embodied the reactor physics, reactor operations, and a general approach to fuel management strategy. The data base included a description of the physical system involved, i.e., the core geometry and fuel storage. The fifth cycle of the Three Mile Island Unit 1 pressurized water reactor was chosen as a test case. Application of the system to the test case revealed a self-learning process by which a relatively large number of near-optimal configurations were discovered. Several selected solutions were subjected to detailed analysis and demonstrated excellent performance. To summarize, applicability of the proposed heuristic search method in the domain of nuclear fuel management was proved unequivocally.

  5. Sensor configuration and test for fault diagnoses of subway braking system based on signed digraph method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Jianyong; Chen, Zhongkai

    2014-05-01

    Fault diagnosis of various systems on rolling stock has drawn the attention of many researchers. However, obtaining an optimized sensor set of these systems, which is a prerequisite for fault diagnosis, remains a major challenge. Available literature suggests that the configuration of sensors in these systems is presently dependent on the knowledge and engineering experiences of designers, which may lead to insufficient or redundant development of various sensors. In this paper, the optimization of sensor sets is addressed by using the signed digraph (SDG) method. The method is modified for use in braking systems by the introduction of an effect-function method to replace the traditional quantitative methods. Two criteria are adopted to evaluate the capability of the sensor sets, namely, observability and resolution. The sensors configuration method of braking system is proposed. It consists of generating bipartite graphs from SDG models and then solving the set cover problem using a greedy algorithm. To demonstrate the improvement, the sensor configuration of the HP2008 braking system is investigated and fault diagnosis on a test bench is performed. The test results show that SDG algorithm can improve single-fault resolution from 6 faults to 10 faults, and with additional four brake cylinder pressure (BCP) sensors it can cover up to 67 double faults which were not considered by traditional fault diagnosis system. SDG methods are suitable for reducing redundant sensors and that the sensor sets thereby obtained are capable of detecting typical faults, such as the failure of a release valve. This study investigates the formal extension of the SDG method to the sensor configuration of braking system, as well as the adaptation supported by the effect-function method.

  6. Stationary perturbation configurations in a composite system of stellar and coplanarly magnetized gaseous singular isothermal discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Yu-Qing; Zou, Yue

    2004-06-01

    We construct aligned and unaligned stationary perturbation configurations in a composite system of stellar and coplanarly magnetized gaseous singular isothermal discs (SIDs) coupled by gravity. This study extends recent analyses on (magnetized) SIDs by Shu et al., Lou and Lou & Shen. By this model, we intend to provide a conceptual framework to gain insights for multiwavelength large-scale structural observations of disc galaxies. Both SIDs are approximated to be razor thin and are in a self-consistent axisymmetric background equilibrium with power-law surface mass densities and flat rotation curves. The gaseous SID is embedded with a coplanar azimuthal magnetic field Bθ(r) of a radial scaling r-1/2 that is not force-free. In comparison with the SID problems studied earlier, there are three possible classes of stationary solutions allowed by more dynamic freedoms. To identify physical solutions, we explore parameter space involving three dimensionless parameters: ratio λ of Alfvén speed to sound speed in the magnetized gaseous SID; ratio β of the square of the stellar velocity dispersion to the gas sound speed; and ratio δ of the surface mass densities of the two SIDs. For both aligned and unaligned spiral cases with azimuthal periodicities |m| >= 2, one of the three solution branches is always physical, while the other two branches might become invalid when β exceeds certain critical values. For the onset criteria from an axisymmetric equilibrium to aligned secular bar-like instabilities, the corresponding ratio, which varies with λ, β and δ, may be considerably lower than the oft-quoted value of , where is the total kinetic energy, is the total gravitational potential energy and is the total magnetic energy. For unaligned spiral cases, we examine marginal instabilities for axisymmetric (|m| = 0) and non-axisymmetric (|m| > 0) disturbances. The resulting marginal stability curves differ from the previous ones. The case of a composite partial magnetized

  7. Influence of Diffused Solar Radiation on the Solar Concentrating System of a Plant Shoot Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shin'ya

    Investigation of a plant shoot configuration is used to obtain valuable information concerning the received light system. Additionally, analysis results concerning a plant shoot configuration interaction with direct solar radiation were taken from a past study. However, in order to consider a plant shoot as a received sunlight system, it is necessary to understand the received light characteristics of both direct solar radiation and diffused solar radiation. Under a clear sky, the ratio of direct solar radiation to diffused solar radiation is large. However, under a clouded sky, the amount of diffused solar radiation becomes larger. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate the received light characteristics of a plant shoot configuration under the influence of diffused solar radiation. As a result, we clarify the relationship between the amount of diffused solar radiation and the amount of received light as a function of the characteristics of the plant shoot configuration. In order to obtain diffused solar radiation, it is necessary to correspond to the radiation of the multi-directions. In the analysis, the characteristic of the difference in arrangement of the top leaf and the other leaf was obtained. Therefore, in analysis, leaves other than the top were distributed in the wide range.

  8. Sensor Configuration Selection for Discrete-Event Systems under Unreliable Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen-Chiao Lin; Tae-Sic Yoo; Humberto E. Garcia

    2010-08-01

    Algorithms for counting the occurrences of special events in the framework of partially-observed discrete event dynamical systems (DEDS) were developed in previous work. Their performances typically become better as the sensors providing the observations become more costly or increase in number. This paper addresses the problem of finding a sensor configuration that achieves an optimal balance between cost and the performance of the special event counting algorithm, while satisfying given observability requirements and constraints. Since this problem is generally computational hard in the framework considered, a sensor optimization algorithm is developed using two greedy heuristics, one myopic and the other based on projected performances of candidate sensors. The two heuristics are sequentially executed in order to find best sensor configurations. The developed algorithm is then applied to a sensor optimization problem for a multiunit- operation system. Results show that improved sensor configurations can be found that may significantly reduce the sensor configuration cost but still yield acceptable performance for counting the occurrences of special events.

  9. Energy Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Cogeneration system is one in which the energy ordinarily wasted in an industrial process is recovered and reused to create a second form of energy. Such an energy recovery system is in use at Crane Company's plant in Ferguson, KY, which manufactures ceramic bathroom fixtures. Crane's system captures hot stack gases from the company's four ceramic kilns and uses them to produce electrical power for plant operations.

  10. Software Configuration Management Plan for the K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Project A.9

    SciTech Connect

    GREEN, J.W.

    2000-05-01

    This document provides a configuration control plan for the software associated with the operation and control of the Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS). It establishes requirements for ensuring configuration item identification, configuration control, configuration status accounting, defect reporting and resolution of computer software. It is written to comply with HNF-SD-SNF-CM-001, Spent Nuclear Fuel Configuration Management Plan (Forehand 1998) and HNF-PRO-309 Computer Software Quality Assurance Requirements, and applicable sections of administrative procedure CM-6-037-00, SNF Project Process Automation Software and Equipment.

  11. Reynolds stress flow shear and turbulent energy transfer in reversed field pinch configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, Nicola; Spolaore, Monica; Serianni, Gianluigi; Regnoli, Giorgio; Spada, Emanuele; Antoni, Vanni; Bergsåker, Henric; Drake, James R.

    2003-10-01

    The role of Reynolds Stress tensor on flow generation in turbulent fluids and plasmas is still an open question and the comprehension of its behavior may assist the understanding of improved confinement scenario. It is generally believed that shear flow generation may occur by an interaction of the turbulent Reynolds stress with the shear flow. It is also generally believed that this mechanism may influence the generation of zonal flow shears. The evaluation of the complete Reynolds Stress tensor requires contemporary measurements of its electrostatic and magnetic part: this requirement is more restrictive for Reversed Field Pinch configuration where magnetic fluctuations are larger than in tokamak . A new diagnostic system which combines electrostatic and magnetic probes has been installed in the edge region of Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch. With this new probe the Reynolds stress tensor has been deduced and its radial profile has been reconstructed on a shot to shot basis exploring differen plasma conditions. These profiles have been compared with the naturally occurring velocity flow profile, in particular during Pulsed Poloidal Current Drive experiment, where a strong variation of ExB flow radial profile has been registered. The study of the temporal evolution of Reynolds stress reveals the appearance of strong localized bursts: these are considered in relation with global MHD relaxation phenomena, which naturally occur in the core of an RFP plasma sustaining its configuration.

  12. An open and configurable embedded system for EMG pattern recognition implementation for artificial arms.

    PubMed

    Jun Liu; Fan Zhang; Huang, He Helen

    2014-01-01

    Pattern recognition (PR) based on electromyographic (EMG) signals has been developed for multifunctional artificial arms for decades. However, assessment of EMG PR control for daily prosthesis use is still limited. One of the major barriers is the lack of a portable and configurable embedded system to implement the EMG PR control. This paper aimed to design an open and configurable embedded system for EMG PR implementation so that researchers can easily modify and optimize the control algorithms upon our designed platform and test the EMG PR control outside of the lab environments. The open platform was built on an open source embedded Linux Operating System running a high-performance Gumstix board. Both the hardware and software system framework were openly designed. The system was highly flexible in terms of number of inputs/outputs and calibration interfaces used. Such flexibility enabled easy integration of our embedded system with different types of commercialized or prototypic artificial arms. Thus far, our system was portable for take-home use. Additionally, compared with previously reported embedded systems for EMG PR implementation, our system demonstrated improved processing efficiency and high system precision. Our long-term goals are (1) to develop a wearable and practical EMG PR-based control for multifunctional artificial arms, and (2) to quantify the benefits of EMG PR-based control over conventional myoelectric prosthesis control in a home setting.

  13. Configuration Analysis of the ERS Points in Large-Volume Metrology System

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhangjun; Yu, Cijun; Li, Jiangxiong; Ke, Yinglin

    2015-01-01

    In aircraft assembly, multiple laser trackers are used simultaneously to measure large-scale aircraft components. To combine the independent measurements, the transformation matrices between the laser trackers’ coordinate systems and the assembly coordinate system are calculated, by measuring the enhanced referring system (ERS) points. This article aims to understand the influence of the configuration of the ERS points that affect the transformation matrix errors, and then optimize the deployment of the ERS points to reduce the transformation matrix errors. To optimize the deployment of the ERS points, an explicit model is derived to estimate the transformation matrix errors. The estimation model is verified by the experiment implemented in the factory floor. Based on the proposed model, a group of sensitivity coefficients are derived to evaluate the quality of the configuration of the ERS points, and then several typical configurations of the ERS points are analyzed in detail with the sensitivity coefficients. Finally general guidance is established to instruct the deployment of the ERS points in the aspects of the layout, the volume size and the number of the ERS points, as well as the position and orientation of the assembly coordinate system. PMID:26402685

  14. Configuration Analysis of the ERS Points in Large-Volume Metrology System.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhangjun; Yu, Cijun; Li, Jiangxiong; Ke, Yinglin

    2015-01-01

    In aircraft assembly, multiple laser trackers are used simultaneously to measure large-scale aircraft components. To combine the independent measurements, the transformation matrices between the laser trackers' coordinate systems and the assembly coordinate system are calculated, by measuring the enhanced referring system (ERS) points. This article aims to understand the influence of the configuration of the ERS points that affect the transformation matrix errors, and then optimize the deployment of the ERS points to reduce the transformation matrix errors. To optimize the deployment of the ERS points, an explicit model is derived to estimate the transformation matrix errors. The estimation model is verified by the experiment implemented in the factory floor. Based on the proposed model, a group of sensitivity coefficients are derived to evaluate the quality of the configuration of the ERS points, and then several typical configurations of the ERS points are analyzed in detail with the sensitivity coefficients. Finally general guidance is established to instruct the deployment of the ERS points in the aspects of the layout, the volume size and the number of the ERS points, as well as the position and orientation of the assembly coordinate system. PMID:26402685

  15. Using XML Configuration-Driven Development to Create a Customizable Ground Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Brent; DeMore, Martha

    2009-01-01

    The Mission data Processing and Control Subsystem (MPCS) is being developed as a multi-mission Ground Data System with the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) as the first fully supported mission. MPCS is a fully featured, Java-based Ground Data System (GDS) for telecommand and telemetry processing based on Configuration-Driven Development (CDD). The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is the ideal language for CDD because it is easily readable and editable by all levels of users and is also backed by a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard and numerous powerful processing tools that make it uniquely flexible. The CDD approach adopted by MPCS minimizes changes to compiled code by using XML to create a series of configuration files that provide both coarse and fine grained control over all aspects of GDS operation.

  16. System configured for applying a modifying agent to a non-equidimensional substrate

    DOEpatents

    Janikowski; Stuart K. , Argyle; Mark D. , Fox; Robert V. , Propp; W. Alan , Toth; William J. , Ginosar; Daniel M. , Allen; Charles A. , Miller; David L.

    2007-07-10

    The present invention is related to systems and methods for modifying various non-equidimensional substrates with modifying agents. The system comprises a processing chamber configured for passing the non-equidimensional substrate therethrough, wherein the processing chamber is further configured to accept a treatment mixture into the chamber during movement of the non-equidimensional substrate through the processing chamber. The treatment mixture can comprise of the modifying agent in a carrier medium, wherein the carrier medium is selected from the group consisting of a supercritical fluid, a near-critical fluid, a superheated fluid, a superheated liquid, and a liquefied gas. Thus, the modifying agent can be applied to the non-equidimensional substrate upon contact between the treatment mixture and the non-equidimensional substrate.

  17. System configured for applying a modifying agent to a non-equidimensional substrate

    DOEpatents

    Janikowski, Stuart K.; Toth, William J.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Allen, Charles A.; Argyle, Mark D.; Fox, Robert V.; Propp, W. Alan; Miller, David L.

    2003-09-23

    The present invention is related to systems and methods for modifying various non-equidimensional substrates with modifying agents. The system comprises a processing chamber configured for passing the non-equidimensional substrate therethrough, wherein the processing chamber is further configured to accept a treatment mixture into the chamber during movement of the non-equidimensional substrate through the processing chamber. The treatment mixture can comprise of the modifying agent in a carrier medium, wherein the carrier medium is selected from the group consisting of a supercritical fluid, a near-critical fluid, a superheated fluid, a superheated liquid, and a liquefied gas. Thus, the modifying agent can be applied to the non-equidimensional substrate upon contact between the treatment mixture and the non-equidimensional substrate.

  18. Methods and Systems for Configuring Sensor Acquisition Based on Pressure Steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeDonato, Mathew (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Technologies are provided for underwater measurements. A system includes an underwater vessels including: a plurality of sensors disposed thereon for measuring underwater properties; and a programmable controller configured to selectively activate the plurality of sensors based at least in part on underwater pressure. A user may program at what pressure ranges certain sensors are activated to measure selected properties, and may also program the ascent/descent rate of the underwater vessel, which is correlated with the underwater pressure.

  19. Spatial Configuration of Atoms with High-Energy Atomic Displacement Cascade in α-Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Lu; Wu, Xuebang; Liu, Wei; Fang, Q. F.; Liu, C. S.; Huang, Qun-Ying; Wu, Y. C.

    2012-11-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the primary damage formation in α-Fe through collision cascades with a cascade energy of up to 100 keV. The pair analysis technique was introduced to characterize the spatial local structure distributions of atoms. The damaged microstructural unit characteristics of the body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure, as well as the number of point defects, followed a similar trend. Furthermore, the damaged atoms exist mostly in the microstructural characteristics of icosahedral and short-range ordering in amorphous states during and at the end of cascades. Most local spatial structures of the damaged atoms can be divided into two groups based on their corresponding non-characteristic index-pair change trends with time. The curves of the first group coincided with the vacancy (V) that exhibited one peak, whereas the curves of the second group exhibiting two peaks corresponded to the self-interstitial atoms (SIA). The maximum distance at which defects could interact with each other in space was the fifth nearest-neighbor distance of the atoms of perfect lattices in the bcc lattice. The number of local structural units of the damaged atoms that were connected with a single point defect (either V or SIA) continued to increase with increasing cascade energy by the end of the simulation. By contrast, the number of units that were connected with both V and SIA decreased. These results may help us understand the spatial configuration of atoms in the course of collision cascades.

  20. Energy management of electric and hybrid vehicles dependent on powertrain configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Bogdan Ovidiu

    2012-06-01

    Electric and hybrid vehicles are going to become the most reliable source of transport for future years. The CO2 and NOx targets in Euro 6 normative puts the producers of vehicles in a dilemma, whether to adapt the internal combustion engines further, or to develop hybrid or electric power trains that are going to reach the pollution limit of the future norms or to go below that. Before acting a well-developed strategy in determining the optimum power flow has to be developed by producers; CRUISE software is a tool with the unique and special characteristics to determine the optimum in this highly important area. Whether electric vehicle, electric vehicle with range extender or a hybrid with CVT or planetary gearbox, the complexity of the mathematical modules remains the same, giving the developer the possibility to create complex functions and distinctive characteristics for each component of the vehicle. With such a powerful tool it becomes extremely easy to evaluate the energy flow in all directions, from electric machine to the battery, from electric machine to the power generator, and from the electric machine to the internal combustion engine. Applying to the (Electric Vehicle, Electric Vehicle with Range Extender, Hybrid vehicle with CVT, Hybrid vehicle with planetary gear set) the ECE-15 in a virtual environment (urban driving cycle) the simulation results show a different usage, rate of storage and efficiency concerning the energy, this being dependent of the power train configuration in most part.

  1. Effects of stream turbine array configuration on tidal current energy extraction near an island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yaling; Lin, Binliang; Lin, Jie; Wang, Shujie

    2015-04-01

    Enhanced tidal currents around islands appear to present the potential for power extraction. In this research, a three-dimensional numerical model is applied to investigate the naturally occurring tidal dynamics and the extractable energy from turbines close to Zhaitang Island, located off the east coast of China. In the model, the effect of tidal turbine is represented by a horizontal thrust and added to the momentum equations. To determine a better configuration of turbine array, a detailed work has been undertaken to investigate the combined influences of the topographic features and array arrangement on the performance of power generation. First, three single row arrays are examined with lateral spacing being 2, 3 and 4 times rotor diameters. Then, corresponding to each lateral spacing, three multi-row arrays in a staggered manner with longitudinal spacing being 5, 10 and 15 times rotor diameters are developed. It has been found that single row arrays with higher local blockage outperform arrays with lower blockage. While for multi-row arrays, the performance of inside turbine is significantly experienced the wake influence of upstream turbines, which can be weakened with an increment of turbine spacing. And a remarkable improvement of turbine performance is observed as the longitudinal spacing increases to 10 times rotor diameters. However, the change pattern of power extraction is mainly dependent on that of naturally kinetic energy when the turbine density is further decreasing in the given region.

  2. Energy Harvesting Systems and Methods of Assembling Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepeda-Rizo, Juan (Inventor); Ganapathi, Gani B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of assembling an energy harvesting system is provided. The method includes coupling at least one energy storage device in flow communication with at least one apparatus that is configured to generate thermal energy and to transfer the thermal energy into at least one fluid stream. The energy storage device is configured to store the fluid stream. Moreover, the method includes coupling at least one fluid transfer device downstream from the energy storage device. The fluid transfer device receives the fluid stream from the energy storage device. A bladeless turbine is coupled in flow communication with the fluid transfer device, wherein the bladeless turbine receives the fluid stream to generate power.

  3. PREDICTING THE CONFIGURATION OF A PLANETARY SYSTEM: KOI-152 OBSERVED BY KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Su; Ji Jianghui; Zhou Jilin E-mail: jijh@pmo.ac.cn

    2012-07-10

    The recent Kepler discovery of KOI-152 reveals a system of three hot super-Earth candidates that are in or near a 4:2:1 mean motion resonance. It is unlikely that they formed in situ; the planets probably underwent orbital migration during the formation and evolution process. The small semimajor axes of the three planets suggest that migration stopped at the inner edge of the primordial gas disk. In this paper, we focus on the influence of migration halting mechanisms, including migration 'dead zones', and inner truncation by the stellar magnetic field. We show that the stellar accretion rate, stellar magnetic field, and the speed of migration in the protoplanetary disk are the main factors affecting the final configuration of KOI-152. Our simulations suggest that three planets may be around a star with low star accretion rate or with high magnetic field. On the other hand, slow type I migration, which decreases to one-tenth of the linear analysis results, favors forming the configuration of KOI-152. Under such a formation scenario, the planets in the system are not massive enough to open gaps in the gas disk. The upper limits of the planetary masses are estimated to be about 15, 19, and 24 M{sub Circled-Plus }, respectively. Our results are also indicative of the near Laplacian configurations that are quite common in planetary systems.

  4. Support System Effects on the DLR-F6 Transport Configuration in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, Melissa B.; Hunter, Craig A.; Gatlin, Gregory M.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the DLR-F6 generic transport configuration was conducted in the NASA NTF for use in the Drag Prediction Workshop. As data from this experimental investigation was collected, a large difference in drag values was seen between the NTF test and an ONERA test that was conducted several years ago. After much investigation, it was determined that this difference was likely due to a sting effect correction applied to the ONERA data which NTF does not use. This insight led to the present work. In this study, a computational assessment has been undertaken to investigate model support system interference effects on the DLR-F6 transport configuration. The configurations computed during this investigation were the isolated wing-body, the wing-body with the full support system (blade and sting), the wing-body with just the blade, and the wing-body with just the sting. The results from this investigation show the same trends that ONERA saw when they conducted a similar experimental investigation in the S2MA tunnel. Computational results suggest that the blade contributed an interference type of effect, the sting contributed a general blockage effect, and the full support system combined these effects.

  5. Solar energy grid integration systems - Energy storage (SEGIS-ES)

    SciTech Connect

    Ton, Dan; Peek, Georgianne H.; Hanley, Charles; Boyes, John

    2008-05-01

    In late 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a series of studies to address issues related to potential high penetration of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation systems on our nation’s electric grid. This Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) initiative resulted in the publication of 14 reports and an Executive Summary that defined needs in areas related to utility planning tools and business models, new grid architectures and PV systems configurations, and models to assess market penetration and the effects of high-penetration PV systems. As a result of this effort, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program was initiated in early 2008. SEGIS is an industry-led effort to develop new PV inverters, controllers, and energy management systems that will greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems.

  6. Design of a concise Féry-prism hyperspectral imaging system based on multi-configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wei; Nie, Yun-feng; Zhou, Jin-song

    2013-08-01

    In order to meet the needs of space borne and airborne hyperspectral imaging system for light weight, simplification and high spatial resolution, a novel design of Féry-prism hyperspectral imaging system based on Zemax multi-configuration method is presented. The novel structure is well arranged by analyzing optical monochromatic aberrations theoretically, and the optical structure of this design is concise. The fundamental of this design is Offner relay configuration, whereas the secondary mirror is replaced by Féry-prism with curved surfaces and a reflective front face. By reflection, the light beam passes through the Féry-prism twice, which promotes spectral resolution and enhances image quality at the same time. The result shows that the system can achieve light weight and simplification, compared to other hyperspectral imaging systems. Composed of merely two spherical mirrors and one achromatized Féry-prism to perform both dispersion and imaging functions, this structure is concise and compact. The average spectral resolution is 6.2nm; The MTFs for 0.45~1.00um spectral range are greater than 0.75, RMSs are less than 2.4um; The maximal smile is less than 10% pixel, while the keystones is less than 2.8% pixel; image quality approximates the diffraction limit. The design result shows that hyperspectral imaging system with one modified Féry-prism substituting the secondary mirror of Offner relay configuration is feasible from the perspective of both theory and practice, and possesses the merits of simple structure, convenient optical alignment, and good image quality, high resolution in space and spectra, adjustable dispersive nonlinearity. The system satisfies the requirements of airborne or space borne hyperspectral imaging system.

  7. A PC program to optimize system configuration for desired reliability at minimum cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hills, Steven W.; Siahpush, Ali S.

    1994-01-01

    High reliability is desired in all engineered systems. One way to improve system reliability is to use redundant components. When redundant components are used, the problem becomes one of allocating them to achieve the best reliability without exceeding other design constraints such as cost, weight, or volume. Systems with few components can be optimized by simply examining every possible combination but the number of combinations for most systems is prohibitive. A computerized iteration of the process is possible but anything short of a super computer requires too much time to be practical. Many researchers have derived mathematical formulations for calculating the optimum configuration directly. However, most of the derivations are based on continuous functions whereas the real system is composed of discrete entities. Therefore, these techniques are approximations of the true optimum solution. This paper describes a computer program that will determine the optimum configuration of a system of multiple redundancy of both standard and optional components. The algorithm is a pair-wise comparative progression technique which can derive the true optimum by calculating only a small fraction of the total number of combinations. A designer can quickly analyze a system with this program on a personal computer.

  8. Smart energy management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Aniruddha; Singh, Jugdutt

    2010-04-01

    Peak and average energy usage in domestic and industrial environments is growing rapidly and absence of detailed energy consumption metrics is making systematic reduction of energy usage very difficult. Smart energy management system aims at providing a cost-effective solution for managing soaring energy consumption and its impact on green house gas emissions and climate change. The solution is based on seamless integration of existing wired and wireless communication technologies combined with smart context-aware software which offers a complete solution for automation of energy measurement and device control. The persuasive software presents users with easy-to-assimilate visual cues identifying problem areas and time periods and encourages a behavioural change to conserve energy. The system allows analysis of real-time/statistical consumption data with the ability to drill down into detailed analysis of power consumption, CO2 emissions and cost. The system generates intelligent projections and suggests potential methods (e.g. reducing standby, tuning heating/cooling temperature, etc.) of reducing energy consumption. The user interface is accessible using web enabled devices such as PDAs, PCs, etc. or using SMS, email, and instant messaging. Successful real-world trial of the system has demonstrated the potential to save 20 to 30% energy consumption on an average. Low cost of deployment and the ability to easily manage consumption from various web enabled devices offers gives this system a high penetration and impact capability offering a sustainable solution to act on climate change today.

  9. Energy management system for a rotary machine and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, Michael John; Sinha, Gautam; Sheldon, Karl Edward

    2004-11-09

    In energy management system is provided for a power generating device having a working fluid intake in which the energy management system comprises an electrical dissipation device coupled to the power generating device and a dissipation device cooling system configured to direct a portion of a working fluid to the electrical dissipation device so as to provide thermal control to the electrical dissipation device.

  10. Performance of a Kilowatt-Class Stirling Power Conversion System in a Thermodynamically Coupled Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.; Briggs, Maxwell H.; Hervol, David S.

    2011-01-01

    A pair of 1-kWe free-piston Stirling power convertors has been modified into a thermodynamically coupled configuration, and performance map testing has been completed. This is the same configuration planned for the full-scale 12-kWe power conversion unit (PCU) that will be used in the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). The 1-kWe convertors were operated over a range of conditions to evaluate the effects of thermodynamic coupling on convertor performance and to identify any possible control challenges. The thermodynamically coupled convertor showed no measureable difference in performance from the baseline data collected when the engines were separate, and no major control issues were encountered during operation. The results of this test are guiding controller development and instrumentation selection for the TDU.

  11. Performance of a Kilowatt-Class Stirling Power Conversion System in a Thermodynamically-Coupled Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, S. M.; Briggs, M. H.; Hervol, D. S.

    A pair of 1kWe free-piston Stirling power convertors has been modified into a thermodynamically coupled configuration, and performance map testing has been completed. This is the same configuration planned for the full-scale 12 kWe power conversion unit (PCU) that will be used in the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). The 1-kWe convertors were operated over a range of conditions to evaluate the effects of thermodynamic coupling on convertor performance and to identify any possible control challenges. The thermodynamically coupled convertor showed no measurable difference in performance from the baseline data collected when the engines were separate and no major control issues were encountered during operation. The results of this test are guiding controller development and instrumentation selection for the TDU.

  12. Energy harvesting devices, systems, and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.

    2016-10-18

    Energy harvesting devices include a substrate and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to collect energy in the visible and infrared light spectra and to reradiate energy having a wavelength in the range of about 0.8 .mu.m to about 0.9 .mu.m. The resonance elements are arranged in groups of two or more resonance elements. Systems for harvesting electromagnetic radiation include a substrate, a plurality of resonance elements including a conductive material carried by the substrate, and a photovoltaic material coupled to the substrate and to at least one resonance element. The resonance elements are arranged in groups, such as in a dipole, a tripole, or a bowtie configuration. Methods for forming an energy harvesting device include forming groups of two or more discrete resonance elements in a substrate and coupling a photovoltaic material to the groups of discrete resonance elements.

  13. A configurable electronics system for the ESS-Bilbao beam position monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muguira, L.; Belver, D.; Etxebarria, V.; Varnasseri, S.; Arredondo, I.; del Campo, M.; Echevarria, P.; Garmendia, N.; Feuchtwanger, J.; Jugo, J.; Portilla, J.

    2013-09-01

    A versatile and configurable system has been developed in order to monitorize the beam position and to meet all the requirements of the future ESS-Bilbao Linac. At the same time the design has been conceived to be open and configurable so that it could eventually be used in different kinds of accelerators, independent of the charged particle, with minimal change. The design of the Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) system includes a test bench both for button-type pick-ups (PU) and striplines (SL), the electronic units and the control system. The electronic units consist of two main parts. The first part is an Analog Front-End (AFE) unit where the RF signals are filtered, conditioned and converted to base-band. The second part is a Digital Front-End (DFE) unit which is based on an FPGA board where the base-band signals are sampled in order to calculate the beam position, the amplitude and the phase. To manage the system a Multipurpose Controller (MC) developed at ESSB has been used. It includes the FPGA management, the EPICS integration and Archiver Instances. A description of the system and a comparison between the performance of both PU and SL BPM designs measured with this electronics system are fully described and discussed.

  14. Semi-autonomous wheelchair developed using a unique camera system configuration biologically inspired by equine vision.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jordan S; Tran, Yvonne; Su, Steven W; Nguyen, Hung T

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design and development of a semi-autonomous wheelchair system using cameras in a system configuration modeled on the vision system of a horse. This new camera configuration utilizes stereoscopic vision for 3-Dimensional (3D) depth perception and mapping ahead of the wheelchair, combined with a spherical camera system for 360-degrees of monocular vision. This unique combination allows for static components of an unknown environment to be mapped and any surrounding dynamic obstacles to be detected, during real-time autonomous navigation, minimizing blind-spots and preventing accidental collisions with people or obstacles. This novel vision system combined with shared control strategies provides intelligent assistive guidance during wheelchair navigation and can accompany any hands-free wheelchair control technology. Leading up to experimental trials with patients at the Royal Rehabilitation Centre (RRC) in Ryde, results have displayed the effectiveness of this system to assist the user in navigating safely within the RRC whilst avoiding potential collisions. PMID:22255649

  15. Semi-autonomous wheelchair developed using a unique camera system configuration biologically inspired by equine vision.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jordan S; Tran, Yvonne; Su, Steven W; Nguyen, Hung T

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design and development of a semi-autonomous wheelchair system using cameras in a system configuration modeled on the vision system of a horse. This new camera configuration utilizes stereoscopic vision for 3-Dimensional (3D) depth perception and mapping ahead of the wheelchair, combined with a spherical camera system for 360-degrees of monocular vision. This unique combination allows for static components of an unknown environment to be mapped and any surrounding dynamic obstacles to be detected, during real-time autonomous navigation, minimizing blind-spots and preventing accidental collisions with people or obstacles. This novel vision system combined with shared control strategies provides intelligent assistive guidance during wheelchair navigation and can accompany any hands-free wheelchair control technology. Leading up to experimental trials with patients at the Royal Rehabilitation Centre (RRC) in Ryde, results have displayed the effectiveness of this system to assist the user in navigating safely within the RRC whilst avoiding potential collisions.

  16. Report on the lunar ranging at McDonald Observatory. [spark gap configuration and photomultiplier system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverberg, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    Range measurements to an accuracy of 5 cm were achieved following improvements in the laser oscillator configuration and the photomultiplier system. Modifications to the laser include a redesigned pockel cell mount to eliminate stressing of the cell crystal; an improved electrically triggered spark gap for sharpening the electrical pulse; the use of a brewster plate in the cavity to eliminate pre-pulsing; improved alignment for the oscillator system; and increased cavity lifetime through thin film polarizer technology. Laser calibration data are presented along with the lunar laser operations log for June to October 1977.

  17. EMIR: a configurable hierarchical system for event monitoring and incident response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deich, William T. S.

    2014-07-01

    The Event Monitor and Incident Response system (emir) is a flexible, general-purpose system for monitoring and responding to all aspects of instrument, telescope, and general facility operations, and has been in use at the Automated Planet Finder telescope for two years. Responses to problems can include both passive actions (e.g. generating alerts) and active actions (e.g. modifying system settings). Emir includes a monitor-and-response daemon, plus graphical user interfaces and text-based clients that automatically configure themselves from data supplied at runtime by the daemon. The daemon is driven by a configuration file that describes each condition to be monitored, the actions to take when the condition is triggered, and how the conditions are aggregated into hierarchical groups of conditions. Emir has been implemented for the Keck Task Library (KTL) keyword-based systems used at Keck and Lick Observatories, but can be readily adapted to many event-driven architectures. This paper discusses the design and implementation of Emir , and the challenges in balancing the competing demands for simplicity, flexibility, power, and extensibility. Emir 's design lends itself well to multiple purposes, and in addition to its core monitor and response functions, it provides an effective framework for computing running statistics, aggregate values, and summary state values from the primitive state data generated by other subsystems, and even for creating quick-and-dirty control loops for simple systems.

  18. Energy Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Celia E.

    This paper examines the need for accurate, reliable data on energy, flowing upward to the national government from various energy-intensive information systems. Part I explores the need for a national policy coordinating this flow within both the United States and, for comparative purposes, Great Britain. Part II presents in outline form the…

  19. Resonant capture of multiple planet systems under dissipation and stable orbital configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voyatzis, G.

    2016-09-01

    Migration of planetary systems caused by the action of dissipative forces may lead the planets to be trapped in a resonance. In this work we study the conditions and the dynamics of such resonant trapping. Particularly, we are interested in finding out whether resonant capture ends up in a long-term stable planetary configuration. For two planet systems we associate the evolution of migration with the existence of families of periodic orbits in the phase space of the three-body problem. The family of circular periodic orbits exhibits a gap at the 2:1 resonance and an instability and bifurcation at the 3:1 resonance. These properties explain the high probability of 2:1 and 3:1 resonant capture at low eccentricities. Furthermore, we study the resonant capture of three-planet systems. We show that such a resonant capture is possible and can occur under particular conditions. Then, from the migration path of the system, stable three-planet configurations, either symmetric or asymmetric, can be determined.

  20. A model-based approach to reactive self-configuring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.C.; Nayak, P.P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes Livingstone, an implemented kernel for a model-based reactive self-configuring autonomous system. It presents a formal characterization of Livingstone`s representation formalism, and reports on our experience with the implementation in a variety of domains. Livingstone provides a reactive system that performs significant deduction in the sense/response loop by drawing on our past experience at building fast propositional conflict-based algorithms for model-based diagnosis, and by framing a model-based configuration manager as a propositional feedback controller that generates focused, optimal responses. Livingstone`s representation formalism achieves broad coverage of hybrid hardware/software systems by coupling the transition system models underlying concurrent reactive languages with the qualitative representations developed in model-based reasoning. Livingstone automates a wide variety of tasks using a single model and a single core algorithm, thus making significant progress towards achieving a central goal of model-based reasoning. Livingstone, together with the HSTS planning and scheduling engine and the RAPS executive, has been selected as part of the core autonomy architecture for NASA`s first New Millennium spacecraft.

  1. Configuration management and software measurement in the Ground Systems Development Environment (GSDE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, Victor E.; Long, D.; Hartenstein, Ray; Perez-Davila, Alfredo

    1992-01-01

    A set of functional requirements for software configuration management (CM) and metrics reporting for Space Station Freedom ground systems software are described. This report is one of a series from a study of the interfaces among the Ground Systems Development Environment (GSDE), the development systems for the Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) and the Space Station Control Center (SSCC), and the target systems for SSCC and SSTF. The focus is on the CM of the software following delivery to NASA and on the software metrics that relate to the quality and maintainability of the delivered software. The CM and metrics requirements address specific problems that occur in large-scale software development. Mechanisms to assist in the continuing improvement of mission operations software development are described.

  2. Energy efficiency of a dynamic glazing system

    SciTech Connect

    Lollini, R.; Danza, L.; Meroni, I.

    2010-04-15

    The reduction of air-conditioning energy consumptions is one of the main indicators to act on when improving the energy efficiency in buildings. In the case of advanced technological buildings, a meaningful contribution to the thermal loads and the energy consumptions reduction could depend on the correct configuration and management of the envelope systems. In recent years, the architectural trend toward highly transparent all-glass buildings presents a unique challenge and opportunity to advance the market for emerging, smart, dynamic window and dimmable daylighting control technologies (). A prototype dynamic glazing system was developed and tested at ITC-CNR; it is aimed at actively responding to the external environmental loads. Both an experimental campaign and analyses by theoretical models were carried out, aimed at evaluating the possible configurations depending on different weather conditions in several possible places. Therefore, the analytical models of the building-plant system were defined by using a dynamic energy simulation software (EnergyPlus). The variables that determine the system performance, also influenced by the boundary conditions, were analysed, such as U- and g-value; they concern both the morphology of the envelope system, such as dimensions, shading and glazing type, gap airflow thickness, in-gap airflow rate, and management, in terms of control algorithm parameters tuning fan and shading systems, as a function of the weather conditions. The configuration able to provide the best performances was finally identified by also assessing such performances, integrating the dynamic system in several building types and under different weather conditions. The dynamic envelope system prototype has become a commercial product with some applications in facade systems, curtain walls and windows. The paper describes the methodological approach to prototype development and the main results obtained, including simulations of possible applications on

  3. Solar Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  4. Living Systems Energy Module

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  5. Design and Evaluation of System Configurations for an EUV Mask Inspection Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, A; Taylor, J S; Hudyma, R; Spiller, E

    2002-08-20

    This document is the third sub-report of the EUV AIM design study being conducted at LLNL on behalf of International Sematech (ISMT). The purpose of this study as identified in section 1.2 of the statement of work is to research the basic user requirements of an actinic defect characterization tool, potential design configurations and top-level specifications. The objectives of this design study specifically identified in section 1.3 of the statement of work were to: (1) Determine the user requirements of an actinic defect characterization tool; (2) Determine if an EUV AIM tool is an appropriate platform for actinic defect characterization; (3) Determine possible design configurations and top-level performance specifications; (4) Identify potential technical issues and risks of different technical approaches; (5) Provide estimates of cost relating to different technical approaches; and (6) Provide simulated performance for key subsystems and the entire system. The sub-sections of the study to be addressed were accordingly defined in the statement of work as being: (1) Formulation of top-level specifications; (2) Identification of system configurations suitable for meeting the top-level specifications; (3) Preliminary design of imaging systems; (4) Preliminary design of illumination systems; (5) Prediction and comparison of performance through aerial image calculation; (6) Identification of sub-system requirements; (7) Identification of potential vendors; (8) Estimation of system cost; (9) Identification of technical issues; and (10) Definition of technology transfer or development required. Points 1 and 2 have already been addressed in previous reports to ISMT. This document addresses points 3 to 7, and 9 to 10 of the above list--formulation of a preliminary design of the imaging and illumination systems and the evaluation and comparison of potential designs through aerial image analysis. As such this report should be read in conjunction with and in the context of

  6. CFD Analysis of Flexible Thermal Protection System Shear Configuration Testing in the LCAT Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferlemann, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents results of computational analysis performed after flexible thermal protection system shear configuration testing in the LCAT facility. The primary objectives were to predict the shear force on the sample and the sensitivity of all surface properties to the shape of the sample. Bumps of 0.05, 0.10,and 0.15 inches were created to approximate the shape of some fabric samples during testing. A large amount of information was extracted from the CFD solutions for comparison between runs and also current or future flight simulations.

  7. Admittance model for the shuttle remote manipulator system in four configurations. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, Loukas; Tolson, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    A possible scenario for robot task performance in space is to mount two small, dexterous arms to the end of the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS). As these small robots perform tasks, the flexibility of the SRMS may cause unsuccessful task executions. In order to simulate the dynamic coupling between the SRMS and the arms, admittance models of the SRMS in four brakes locked configurations were developed. The admittance model permits calculation of the SRMS end-effector response due to end-effector disturbing forces. The model will then be used in conjunction with a Stewart Platform, a vehicle emulation system. An application of the admittance model was shown by simulating the disturbing forces using two SRMS payloads, the Dextrous Orbital Servicing System (DOSS) manipulator and DOSS carrying a 1000 lb. cylinder. Mode by mode comparisons were conducted to determine the minimum number of modes required in the admittance model while retaining dynamic fidelity. It was determined that for all four SRMS configurations studied, between 4 and 6 modes of the SRMS structure (depending on the excitation loads) were sufficient to retain tolerance of 0.01 inches and 0.01 deg. These tolerances correspond to the DOSS manipulator carrying no object. When the DOSS carries the 1000 lb. cylinder, between 15 and 20 modes were sufficient, approximately three or four times as many modes as for the unloaded case.

  8. Flight Test of an Adaptive Configuration Optimization System for Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B.; Georgie, Jennifer; Barnicki, Joseph S.

    1999-01-01

    A NASA Dryden Flight Research Center program explores the practical application of real-time adaptive configuration optimization for enhanced transport performance on an L-1011 aircraft. This approach is based on calculation of incremental drag from forced-response, symmetric, outboard aileron maneuvers. In real-time operation, the symmetric outboard aileron deflection is directly optimized, and the horizontal stabilator and angle of attack are indirectly optimized. A flight experiment has been conducted from an onboard research engineering test station, and flight research results are presented herein. The optimization system has demonstrated the capability of determining the minimum drag configuration of the aircraft in real time. The drag-minimization algorithm is capable of identifying drag to approximately a one-drag-count level. Optimizing the symmetric outboard aileron position realizes a drag reduction of 2-3 drag counts (approximately 1 percent). Algorithm analysis of maneuvers indicate that two-sided raised-cosine maneuvers improve definition of the symmetric outboard aileron drag effect, thereby improving analysis results and consistency. Ramp maneuvers provide a more even distribution of data collection as a function of excitation deflection than raised-cosine maneuvers provide. A commercial operational system would require airdata calculations and normal output of current inertial navigation systems; engine pressure ratio measurements would be optional.

  9. Classified Computer Configuration Control System (C{sup 4}S), Revision 3, Database Administrator`s Guide

    SciTech Connect

    O`Callaghan, P.B.; Nelson, R.A.; Grambihler, A.J.

    1994-04-01

    This document provides a guide for database administration and specific information for the Classified Computer Configuration Control System (C{sup 4}S). As a guide, this document discusses required database administration functions for the set up of database tables and for users of the system. It is assumed that general and user information has been obtained from the Classified Computer Configuration Control System (C{sup 4}S), Revision 3, User`s Information (WHC 1994).

  10. The MIRTE Experimental Program: An Opportunity to Test Structural Materials in Various Configurations in Thermal Energy Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Leclaire, Nicolas; Le Dauphin, Francois-Xavier; Duhamel, Isabelle; Briggs, Blair; Piot, Jerome; Rennesson, Malvina; Laville, Arnaud

    2014-11-04

    The MIRTE (Materials in Interacting and Reflecting configurations, all Thicknesses) program was established to answer the needs of criticality safety practitioners in terms of experimental validation of structural materials and to possibly contribute to nuclear data improvement, which ultimately supports reactor safety analysis as well. MIRTE took the shape of a collaboration between the AREVA and ANDRA French industrialists and a noncommercial international funding partner such as the U.S. Department of Energy. The aim of this paper is to present the configurations of the MIRTE 1 and MIRTE 2 programs and to highlight the results of the titanium experiments recently published in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments.

  11. Scaled Second Order Perturbation Corrections to Configuration Interaction Singles: Efficient and Reliable Excitation Energy Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, Young Min; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2007-02-01

    Two modifications of the perturbative doubles correction to configuration interaction with single substitutions (CIS(D)) are suggested, which are excited state analogs of ground state scaled second order Moeller-Plesset (MP2) methods. The first approach employs two parameters to scale the two spin components of the direct term of CIS(D), starting from the two-parameter spin-component scaled (SCS) MP2 ground state, and is termed SCS-CIS(D). An efficient resolution-of-the-identity (RI) implementation of this approach is described. The second approach employs a single parameter to scale only the opposite-spin direct term of CIS(D), starting from the one-parameter scaled opposite spin (SOS) MP2 ground state, and is called SOS-CIS(D). By utilizing auxiliary basis expansions and a Laplace transform, a fourth order algorithm for SOS-CIS(D) is described and implemented. The parameters describing SCS-CIS(D) and SOS-CIS(D) are optimized based on a training set including valence excitations of various organic molecules and Rydberg transitions of water and ammonia, and they significantly improve upon CIS(D) itself. The accuracy of the two methods is found to be comparable. This arises from a strong correlation between the same-spin and opposite-spin portions of the excitation energy terms. The methods are successfully applied to the zincbacteriochlorin-bacteriochlorin charge transfer transition, for which time-dependent density functional theory, with presently available exchange-correlation functionals, is known to fail. The methods are also successfully applied to describe various electronic transitions outside of the training set. The efficiency of SOS-CIS(D) and the auxiliary basis implementation of CIS(D) and SCS-CIS(D) are confirmed with a series of timing tests.

  12. Multi-scale multireference configuration interaction calculations for large systems using localized orbitals: partition in zones.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cristian; Calzado, Carmen J; Ben Amor, Nadia; Sanchez Marin, Jose; Maynau, Daniel

    2012-09-14

    A new multireference configuration interaction method using localised orbitals is proposed, in which a molecular system is divided into regions of unequal importance. The advantage of dealing with local orbitals, i.e., the possibility to neglect long range interaction is enhanced. Indeed, while in the zone of the molecule where the important phenomena occur, the interaction cut off may be as small as necessary to get relevant results, in the most part of the system it can be taken rather large, so that results of good quality may be obtained at a lower cost. The method is tested on several systems. In one of them, the definition of the various regions is not based on topological considerations, but on the nature, σ or π, of the localised orbitals, which puts in evidence the generality of the approach.

  13. Energy landscapes and functions of supramolecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantakitti, Faifan; Boekhoven, Job; Wang, Xin; Kazantsev, Roman V.; Yu, Tao; Li, Jiahe; Zhuang, Ellen; Zandi, Roya; Ortony, Julia H.; Newcomb, Christina J.; Palmer, Liam C.; Shekhawat, Gajendra S.; de La Cruz, Monica Olvera; Schatz, George C.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2016-04-01

    By means of two supramolecular systems--peptide amphiphiles engaged in hydrogen-bonded β-sheets, and chromophore amphiphiles driven to assemble by π-orbital overlaps--we show that the minima in the energy landscapes of supramolecular systems are defined by electrostatic repulsion and the ability of the dominant attractive forces to trap molecules in thermodynamically unfavourable configurations. These competing interactions can be selectively switched on and off, with the order of doing so determining the position of the final product in the energy landscape. Within the same energy landscape, the peptide-amphiphile system forms a thermodynamically favoured product characterized by long bundled fibres that promote biological cell adhesion and survival, and a metastable product characterized by short monodisperse fibres that interfere with adhesion and can lead to cell death. Our findings suggest that, in supramolecular systems, functions and energy landscapes are linked, superseding the more traditional connection between molecular design and function.

  14. Energy landscapes and function of supramolecular systems

    PubMed Central

    Tantakitti, Faifan; Boekhoven, Job; Wang, Xin; Kazantsev, Roman; Yu, Tao; Li, Jiahe; Zhuang, Ellen; Zandi, Roya; Ortony, Julia H.; Newcomb, Christina J.; Palmer, Liam C.; Shekhawat, Gajendra S.; de la Cruz, Monica Olvera; Schatz, George C.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2015-01-01

    By means of two supramolecular systems - peptide amphiphiles engaged in hydrogen-bonded β-sheets, and chromophore amphiphiles driven to assemble by π-orbital overlaps - we show that the minima in the energy landscapes of supramolecular systems are defined by electrostatic repulsion and the ability of the dominant attractive forces to trap molecules in thermodynamically unfavourable configurations. These competing interactions can be selectively switched on and off, with the order of doing so determining the position of the final product in the energy landscape. Within the same energy landscape, the peptide-amphiphile system forms a thermodynamically favoured product characterized by long bundled fibres that promote biological cell adhesion and survival, and a metastable product characterized by short monodisperse fibres that interfere with adhesion and can lead to cell death. Our findings suggest that, in supramolecular systems, function and energy landscape are linked, superseding the more traditional connection between molecular design and function. PMID:26779883

  15. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T.

    1998-08-01

    In this progress report (covering the period May 1997--May 1998), the authors summarize results from ongoing technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Generally, the goal of their research is to illuminate possible pathways leading from present hydrogen markets and technologies toward wide scale use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, highlighting important technologies for RD and D. Over the past year they worked on three projects. From May 1997--November 1997, the authors completed an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles, as compared to methanol and gasoline. Two other studies were begun in November 1997 and are scheduled for completion in September 1998. The authors are carrying out an assessment of potential supplies and demands for hydrogen energy in the New York City/New Jersey area. The goal of this study is to provide useful data and suggest possible implementation strategies for the New York City/ New Jersey area, as the Hydrogen Program plans demonstrations of hydrogen vehicles and refueling infrastructure. The authors are assessing the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy systems. The goals of this work are (a) to understand the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy system design; (b) to understand the conditions under which CO{sub 2} sequestration might become economically viable; and (c) to understand design issues for future low-CO{sub 2} emitting hydrogen energy systems based on fossil fuels.

  16. Hylleraas-configuration-interaction nonrelativistic energies for the {sup 1}S ground states of the beryllium isoelectronic sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, James S.; Hagstrom, Stanley A.

    2014-06-14

    In a previous work, Sims and Hagstrom [“Hylleraas-configuration-interaction study of the 1 {sup 1}S ground state of neutral beryllium,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 032518 (2011)] reported Hylleraas-configuration-interaction (Hy-CI) method variational calculations for the {sup 1}S ground state of neutral beryllium with an estimated accuracy of a tenth of a microhartree. In this work, the calculations have been extended to higher accuracy and, by simple scaling of the orbital exponents, to the entire Be 2 {sup 1}S isoelectronic sequence. The best nonrelativistic energies for Be, B{sup +}, and C{sup ++} obtained are −14.6673 5649 269, −24.3488 8446 36, and −36.5348 5236 25 hartree, respectively. Except for Be, all computed nonrelativistic energies are superior to the known reference energies for these states.

  17. Ocean energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Progress is reported on the development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems that will provide synthetic fuels (e.g., methanol), energy-intensive products such as ammonia (for fertilizers and chemicals), and aluminum. The work also includes assessment and design concepts for hybrid plants, such as geothermal-OTEC (GEOTEC) plants. Another effort that began in the spring of 1982 is a technical advisory role to DOE with respect to their management of the conceptual and preliminary design activity of industry teams that are designing a shelf-mounted offshore OTEC pilot plant that could deliver power to Oahu, Hawaii. In addition, a program is underway to evaluate and test the Pneumatic Wave-Energy Conversion System (PWECS), an ocean-energy device consisting of a turbine that is air-driven as a result of wave action in a chamber. The work on the various tasks as of 31 March 1983 is reported.

  18. Ocean energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-04-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory is engaged in developing ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems that are to provide synthetic fuels or an energy intensive product such as ammonia or aluminum. The work also includes assessment and design concepts for hybrid plants, such as geothermal-OTEC plants. The laboratory also has a technical advisory role with respect to DOE/DOET's management of the preliminary design activity of an industry team headed by Ocean Thermal Corporation that is designing an OTEC pilot plant that could be built in shallow water off the shore of Oahu, Hawaii. In addition, the Laboratory is now taking part in a program to evaluate and test the pneumatic wave energy conversion system, an ocean energy device consisting of a turbine that is air driven as a result of wave action in a chamber.

  19. Configuration space Faddeev formalism for system of non-identical particles: three-body model for Λ6He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filikhin, Igor; Suslov, Vladimir; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2014-03-01

    We study structure of energy spectrum of light hyprnucleus Λ6Heusing cluster α + Λ + n model. In particular, the spin doublet (1-,2-) of Λ6Heis of interest for the testing the spin dependence of hyperon-nucleon potentials. Experimental value for 1- ground state energy of Λ6Hehas been reported to be -0.17 MeV below the threshold Λ5He+ n. Our study is based on the configuration-space Faddeev equations for a system of three non-identical particles. The analytical continuation method in a coupling constant is applied for calculation of resonance parameters. The results of calculations for low-lying spectra of the system α + Λ + n are presented. Within our model, the α-n potential is constructed to reproduce the results of R-matrix analysis for α-n scattering data. This potential simulates the Pauli exception for αn in the s-state with repulsive core. We use phenomenological α- Λ potential and for the Λ-n interaction the s-wave potential simulating model NSC97f. We calculated energies of the low-lying 1-, 2-, 2+, 0- states. Obtained results are discussed and compared with other calculations. This work is supported by NSF CREST (HRD-0833184) and NASA (NNX09AV07A).

  20. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

  1. A self-configuring control system for storage and computing departments at INFN-CNAF Tierl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregori, Daniele; Dal Pra, Stefano; Ricci, Pier Paolo; Pezzi, Michele; Prosperini, Andrea; Sapunenko, Vladimir

    2015-05-01

    The storage and farming departments at the INFN-CNAF Tier1[1] manage approximately thousands of computing nodes and several hundreds of servers that provides access to the disk and tape storage. In particular, the storage server machines should provide the following services: an efficient access to about 15 petabytes of disk space with different cluster of GPFS file system, the data transfers between LHC Tiers sites (Tier0, Tier1 and Tier2) via GridFTP cluster and Xrootd protocol and finally the writing and reading data operations on magnetic tape backend. One of the most important and essential point in order to get a reliable service is a control system that can warn if problems arise and which is able to perform automatic recovery operations in case of service interruptions or major failures. Moreover, during daily operations the configurations can change, i.e. if the GPFS cluster nodes roles can be modified and therefore the obsolete nodes must be removed from the control system production, and the new servers should be added to the ones that are already present. The manual management of all these changes is an operation that can be somewhat difficult in case of several changes, it can also take a long time and is easily subject to human error or misconfiguration. For these reasons we have developed a control system with the feature of self-configure itself if any change occurs. Currently, this system has been in production for about a year at the INFN-CNAF Tier1 with good results and hardly any major drawback. There are three major key points in this system. The first is a software configurator service (e.g. Quattor or Puppet) for the servers machines that we want to monitor with the control system; this service must ensure the presence of appropriate sensors and custom scripts on the nodes to check and should be able to install and update software packages on them. The second key element is a database containing information, according to a suitable format, on

  2. Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) software system

    SciTech Connect

    Dirks, J.A.; Wrench, L.E.

    1993-08-01

    The Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) Model is under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. FEDS is a multi-level energy analysis software system designed to provide a comprehensive approach to fuel-neutral, technology-independent, integrated (energy) resource planning and acquisition. The FEDS system includes Level-1, a top-down, first-pass energy systems analysis and energy resource acquisition decision software model for buildings and facilities; and the Level-2 software model, which allows specific engineering inputs and provides detailed output. FEDS Level-1 is a user-friendly, DOS-based, menu-driven software program for assessing the energy efficiency resource at a large federal installation. It uses high-level installation information (number, age, size, and types of buildings and energy systems), an internal data base of typical energy-system configurations and performance data, and sophisticated energy simulation and optimization models to estimate the net present value of potential energy retrofits in federal installations. The FEDS Level-1 analysis will typically be followed by a FEDS Level-2 analysis, which allows FEDS Level-1 information to be augmented with detailed energy-system information, and returns detailed project-by-project technology selection and economic information. FEDS Level-1 was released in October 1992. FEDS Level-2 is planned for release in October 1993. The first release which includes both levels will cover only building systems. The next release in early 1994 will cover other energy systems, including central heating and cooling plants and thermal distribution loops.

  3. Constrained sessile drop as a new configuration to measure low surface tension in lung surfactant systems.

    PubMed

    Yu, Laura M Y; Lu, James J; Chan, Yawen W; Ng, Amy; Zhang, Ling; Hoorfar, Mina; Policova, Zdenka; Grundke, Karina; Neumann, A Wilhelm

    2004-08-01

    Existing methodology for surface tension measurements based on drop shapes suffers from the shortcoming that it is not capable to function at very low surface tension if the liquid dispersion is opaque, such as therapeutic lung surfactants at clinically relevant concentrations. The novel configuration proposed here removes the two big restrictions, i.e., the film leakage problem that is encountered with such methods as the pulsating bubble surfactometer as well as the pendant drop arrangement, and the problem of the opaqueness of the liquid, as in the original captive bubble arrangement. A sharp knife edge is the key design feature in the constrained sessile drop that avoids film leakage at low surface tension. The use of the constrained sessile drop configuration in conjunction with axisymmetric drop shape analysis to measure surface tension allows complete automation of the setup. Dynamic studies with lung surfactant can be performed readily by changing the volume of a sessile drop, and thus the surface area, by means of a motor-driven syringe. To illustrate the validity of using this configuration, experiments were performed using an exogenous lung surfactant preparation, bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES) at 5.0 mg/ml. A comparison of results obtained for BLES at low concentration between the constrained sessile drop and captive bubble arrangement shows excellent agreement between the two approaches. When the surface area of the BLES film (0.5 mg/ml) was compressed by about the same amount in both systems, the minimum surface tensions attained were identical within the 95% confidence limits.

  4. Main-sequence progenitor configurations of the NN Ser candidate circumbinary planetary system are dynamically unstable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustill, Alexander; Marshall, Jonathan; Villaver, Eva; Veras, Dimitri; Davis, Philip; Horner, Jonathan; Witenmyer, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Recent observations of the NN Serpentis post-common envelope binary system have revealed eclipse timing variations that have been attributed to the presence of two Jovian-mass exo-planets. Under the assumption that these planets are real and survived from the binary's Main-Sequence state, we reconstruct initial binaries that give rise to the present NN Ser configuration and test the dynamical stability of the original system. Under standard assumptions regarding binary evolution, we find that survival of the planets through the entire Main-Sequence life-time is very unlikely. Hence, we conclude that the planets are not survivors from before the Common Envelope phase, implying that either they formed recently out of material ejected from the primary, or that the observed signals are of non-planetary origin.

  5. Main-sequence progenitor configurations of the NN Ser candidate circumbinary planetary system are dynamically unstable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustill, Alexander J.; Marshall, Jonathan P.; Villaver, Eva; Veras, Dimitri; Davis, Philip J.; Horner, Jonathan; Wittenmyer, Robert A.

    2013-12-01

    Recent observations of the NN Serpentis post-common envelope binary system have revealed eclipse timing variations that have been attributed to the presence of two Jovian-mass exo-planets. Under the assumption that these planets are real and survived from the binary's main-sequence state, we reconstruct initial binaries that give rise to the present NN Ser configuration and test the dynamical stability of the original system. Under standard assumptions about binary evolution, we find that survival of the planets through the entire main-sequence lifetime is very unlikely. Hence, we conclude that the planets are not survivors from before the common envelope phase, implying that either they formed recently out of material ejected from the primary or that the observed signals are of non-planetary origin.

  6. Flight test of ARINC 741 configuration low gain SATCOM system on Boeing 747-400 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Timothy A.; Stapleton, Brian P.

    1990-01-01

    The Boeing company conducted a flight test of a SATCOM system similar to the ARINC 741 configuration on a production model 747-400. A flight plan was specifically designed to test the system over a wide variety of satellite elevations and aircraft attitudes as well as over land and sea. Interface bit errors, signal quality and aircraft position and navigational inputs were all recorded as a function of time. Special aircraft maneuvers were performed to demonstrate the potential for shadowing by aircraft structures. Both a compass rose test and the flight test indicated that shadowing from the tail is insignificant for the 747-400. However, satellite elevation angles below the aircraft horizon during banking maneuvers were shown to have a significant deleterious effect on SATCOM communications.

  7. A study of an orbital radar mapping mission to Venus. Volume 2: Configuration comparisons and systems evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Configuration comparisons and systems evaluation for the orbital radar mapping mission of the planet Venus are discussed. Designs are recommended which best satisfy the science objectives of the Venus radar mapping concept. Attention is given to the interaction and integration of those specific mission-systems recommendations with one another, and the final proposed designs are presented. The feasibility, cost, and scheduling of these configurations are evaluated against assumptions of reasonable state-of-the-art growth and space funding expectations.

  8. Rodent scope: a user-configurable digital wireless telemetry system for freely behaving animals.

    PubMed

    Ball, David; Kliese, Russell; Windels, Francois; Nolan, Christopher; Stratton, Peter; Sah, Pankaj; Wiles, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a wireless neural telemetry system that enables new experimental paradigms, such as neural recordings during rodent navigation in large outdoor environments. RoSco, short for Rodent Scope, is a small lightweight user-configurable module suitable for digital wireless recording from freely behaving small animals. Due to the digital transmission technology, RoSco has advantages over most other wireless modules of noise immunity and online user-configurable settings. RoSco digitally transmits entire neural waveforms for 14 of 16 channels at 20 kHz with 8-bit encoding which are streamed to the PC as standard USB audio packets. Up to 31 RoSco wireless modules can coexist in the same environment on non-overlapping independent channels. The design has spatial diversity reception via two antennas, which makes wireless communication resilient to fading and obstacles. In comparison with most existing wireless systems, this system has online user-selectable independent gain control of each channel in 8 factors from 500 to 32,000 times, two selectable ground references from a subset of channels, selectable channel grounding to disable noisy electrodes, and selectable bandwidth suitable for action potentials (300 Hz-3 kHz) and low frequency field potentials (4 Hz-3 kHz). Indoor and outdoor recordings taken from freely behaving rodents are shown to be comparable to a commercial wired system in sorting for neural populations. The module has low input referred noise, battery life of 1.5 hours and transmission losses of 0.1% up to a range of 10 m.

  9. Rodent Scope: A User-Configurable Digital Wireless Telemetry System for Freely Behaving Animals

    PubMed Central

    Ball, David; Kliese, Russell; Windels, Francois; Nolan, Christopher; Stratton, Peter; Sah, Pankaj; Wiles, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a wireless neural telemetry system that enables new experimental paradigms, such as neural recordings during rodent navigation in large outdoor environments. RoSco, short for Rodent Scope, is a small lightweight user-configurable module suitable for digital wireless recording from freely behaving small animals. Due to the digital transmission technology, RoSco has advantages over most other wireless modules of noise immunity and online user-configurable settings. RoSco digitally transmits entire neural waveforms for 14 of 16 channels at 20 kHz with 8-bit encoding which are streamed to the PC as standard USB audio packets. Up to 31 RoSco wireless modules can coexist in the same environment on non-overlapping independent channels. The design has spatial diversity reception via two antennas, which makes wireless communication resilient to fading and obstacles. In comparison with most existing wireless systems, this system has online user-selectable independent gain control of each channel in 8 factors from 500 to 32,000 times, two selectable ground references from a subset of channels, selectable channel grounding to disable noisy electrodes, and selectable bandwidth suitable for action potentials (300 Hz–3 kHz) and low frequency field potentials (4 Hz–3 kHz). Indoor and outdoor recordings taken from freely behaving rodents are shown to be comparable to a commercial wired system in sorting for neural populations. The module has low input referred noise, battery life of 1.5 hours and transmission losses of 0.1% up to a range of 10 m. PMID:24587144

  10. Supersymmetric configurations in the rotating D1-D5 system andpp-waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maoz, Liat

    Two families of supersymmetric configurations are considered. One is the 1/4 supersymmetric D1--D5 system with angular momentum, and the other is a family of pp-waves of type IIB string theory with some supersymmetry. In the first part of the thesis some configurations of the D1--D5 system are examined which give conical singularities in AdS 3 as their near horizon limit. It is shown that they can be made non-singular by adding angular momentum to the brane system. The smooth asymptotically flat solutions constructed this way are used to obtain global AdS 3 as the near horizon geometry. Using the relation of the D1--D5 system to the oscillating string, a large family of supergravity solutions is constructed which describe BPS excitations on AdS3 x S 3 with angular momentum on S3. These solutions take into account the full back reaction on the metric, and can be viewed as Kaluza-Klein monopole "supertubes", which are completely non-singular geometries. The different chiral primaries of the dual CFT are identified with these different supergravity solutions. This part is adapted from the papers [1], [2]. In its second part, a general class of supersymmetric pp-wave solutions of type IIB string theory is constructed, such that the superstring worldsheet action in light cone gauge is that of an interacting massive field theory. It is shown that when the light cone Lagrangian has (2.2) supersymmetry, one can find backgrounds that lead to arbitrary superpotentials on the worldsheet. Both flat and curved transverse spaces are considered. In particular, the background giving rise to the N = 2 sine Gordon theory on the worldsheet is analyzed. Massive mirror symmetry relates it to the deformed CP1 model (or sausage model) which seems to elude a purely supergravity target space interpretation. These are results which appeared in the paper [3].

  11. Rodent scope: a user-configurable digital wireless telemetry system for freely behaving animals.

    PubMed

    Ball, David; Kliese, Russell; Windels, Francois; Nolan, Christopher; Stratton, Peter; Sah, Pankaj; Wiles, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a wireless neural telemetry system that enables new experimental paradigms, such as neural recordings during rodent navigation in large outdoor environments. RoSco, short for Rodent Scope, is a small lightweight user-configurable module suitable for digital wireless recording from freely behaving small animals. Due to the digital transmission technology, RoSco has advantages over most other wireless modules of noise immunity and online user-configurable settings. RoSco digitally transmits entire neural waveforms for 14 of 16 channels at 20 kHz with 8-bit encoding which are streamed to the PC as standard USB audio packets. Up to 31 RoSco wireless modules can coexist in the same environment on non-overlapping independent channels. The design has spatial diversity reception via two antennas, which makes wireless communication resilient to fading and obstacles. In comparison with most existing wireless systems, this system has online user-selectable independent gain control of each channel in 8 factors from 500 to 32,000 times, two selectable ground references from a subset of channels, selectable channel grounding to disable noisy electrodes, and selectable bandwidth suitable for action potentials (300 Hz-3 kHz) and low frequency field potentials (4 Hz-3 kHz). Indoor and outdoor recordings taken from freely behaving rodents are shown to be comparable to a commercial wired system in sorting for neural populations. The module has low input referred noise, battery life of 1.5 hours and transmission losses of 0.1% up to a range of 10 m. PMID:24587144

  12. How to reach the orbital configuration of the inner three planets in HD 40307 planet system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, YuanYuan; Zhou, JiLin; Ma, YueHua

    2015-03-01

    The formation of the present configuration of three hot super-Earths in the planet system HD 40307 is a challenge to dynamical astronomers. With the two successive period ratios both near and slightly larger than 2, the system may have evolved from pairwise 2:1 mean motion resonances (MMRs). In this paper, we investigate the evolutions of the period ratios of the three planets after the primordial gas disk was depleted. Three routines are found to probably result in the current configuration under tidal dissipation with the center star, they are: (i) through apsidal alignment only; (ii) out of pairwise 2:1MMRs, then through apsidal alignment; (iii) out of the 4:2:1 Laplace Resonance (LR), then through apsidal alignment. All the three scenarios require the initial eccentricities of planets ˜ 0.15, which implies a planetary scattering history during and after the gas disk was depleted. All the three routines will go through the apsidal alignment phase, and enter a state with near-zero eccentricities finally. We also find some special characteristics for each routine. If the system went through pairwise 2:1 MMRs at the beginning, the MMR of the outer two planets would be broken first to reach the current state. As for routine (iii), the planets would be out of the LR at the place where some high-order resonances are located. At the high-order resonances 17:8 or 32:15 of the planets c and d, the system will possibly enter the current state as the final equilibrium.

  13. Electronic circular dichroism of highly conjugated π-systems: breakdown of the Tamm-Dancoff/configuration interaction singles approximation.

    PubMed

    Bannwarth, Christoph; Grimme, Stefan

    2015-04-16

    We show that the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) of delocalized π-systems represents a worst-case scenario for Tamm-Dancoff approximated (TDA) linear response methods. We mainly consider density functional theory (TDA-DFT) variants together with range-separated hybrids, but the conclusions also apply for other functionals as well as the configuration interaction singles (CIS) approaches. We study the effect of the TDA for the computation of ECD spectra in some prototypical extended π-systems. The C76 fullerene, a chiral carbon nanotube fragment, and [11]helicene serve as model systems for inherently chiral, π-chromophores. Solving the full linear response problem is inevitable in order to obtain accurate ECD spectra for these systems. For the C76 fullerene and the nanotube fragment, TDA and CIS approximated methods yield spectra in the origin-independent velocity gauge formalism of incorrect sign which would lead to the assignment of the opposite (wrong) absolute configuration. As a counterexample, we study the ECD of an α-helix polypeptide chain. Here, the lowest-energy transitions are dominated by localized excitations within the individual peptide units, and TDA methods perform satisfactorily. The results may have far-reaching implications for simple semiempirical methods which often employ TDA and CIS for huge molecules. Our recently presented simplified time-dependent DFT approach proves to be an excellent low-cost linear response method which together with range-separated density functionals like ωB97X-D3 produces ECD spectra in very good agreement with experiment. PMID:25798823

  14. Characterizing and configuring motorized wedge for a new generation telecobalt machine in a treatment planning system.

    PubMed

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A; Sharma, Smriti; Upreti, Rituraj; Tambe, Chandrashekhar M; Deshpande, Deepak D

    2007-01-01

    A new generation telecobalt unit, Theratron Equinox-80, (MDS Nordion, Canada) has been evaluated. It is equipped with a single 60-degree motorized wedge (MW), four universal wedges (UW) for 15°, 30°, 45° and 60°. MW was configured in Eclipse (Varian, Palo Alto, USA) 3D treatment planning system (TPS). The profiles and central axis depth doses (CADD) were measured with radiation field analyzer blue water phantom for MW. These profiles and CADD for MW were compared with UW in a homogeneous phantom generated in Eclipse for various field sizes. The absolute dose was measured for a field size of 10 × 10 cm2 only in a MEDTEC water phantom at 10 cm depth with a 0.13 cc thimble ion chamber (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Uppsala, Sweden) and a NE electrometer (Nuclear Enterprises, UK). Measured dose with ion chamber was compared with the TPS predicted dose. MW angle was verified on the Equinox for four angles (15°, 30°, 45° and 60°). The variation in measured and calculated dose at 10 cm depth was within 2%. The measured and the calculated wedge angles were in well agreement within 2°. The motorized wedges were successfully configured in Eclipse for four wedge angles. PMID:21217916

  15. Blended Wing Body (BWB) Boundary Layer Ingestion (BLI) Inlet Configuration and System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, Ronald T.; Friedman, Douglas M.; Serrano, Leonel

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the potential reduction in fuel burned for BLI (boundary layer ingestion) inlets on a BWB (blended wing body) airplane employing AFC (active flow control). The BWB is a revolutionary type airplane configuration with engines on the aft upper surface where thick boundary layer offers the greatest opportunity for ram drag reduction. AFC is an emerging technology for boundary layer control. Several BLI inlet configurations were analyzed in the NASA-developed RANS Overflow CFD code. The study determined that, while large reductions in ram drag result from BLI, lower inlet pressure recovery produces engine performance penalties that largely offset this ram drag reduction. AFC could, however, enable a short BLI inlet that allows surface mounting of the engine which, when coupled with a short diffuser, would significantly reduce drag and weight for a potential 10% reduction in fuel burned. Continuing studies are therefore recommended to achieve this reduction in fuel burned considering the use of more modest amounts of BLI coupled with both AFC and PFC (Passive Flow Control) to produce a fail-operational system.

  16. Adaptation of the human visual system to the statistics of letters and line configurations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Claire H C; Pallier, Christophe; Wu, Denise H; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Jobert, Antoinette; Kuo, W-J; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2015-10-15

    By adulthood, literate humans have been exposed to millions of visual scenes and pages of text. Does the human visual system become attuned to the statistics of its inputs? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether the brain responses to line configurations are proportional to their natural-scene frequency. To further distinguish prior cortical competence from adaptation induced by learning to read, we manipulated whether the selected configurations formed letters and whether they were presented on the horizontal meridian, the familiar location where words usually appear, or on the vertical meridian. While no natural-scene frequency effect was observed, we observed letter-status and letter frequency effects on bilateral occipital activation, mainly for horizontal stimuli. The findings suggest a reorganization of the visual pathway resulting from reading acquisition under genetic and connectional constraints. Even early retinotopic areas showed a stronger response to letters than to rotated versions of the same shapes, suggesting an early visual tuning to large visual features such as letters. PMID:26190404

  17. Impact of tree planting configuration on canopy interception and soil hydrological properties: Implications for flood mitigation in silvopastoral systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunka, Peter; Patil, Sopan

    2015-04-01

    Compaction of upper soil layers by intensive sheep grazing has been connected with increased local flood risk in silvopastoral systems. A 12 week field study was conducted at the Henfaes Research Station near Bangor, Wales to compare two silvopastoral configurations, trees planted in fenced off clumps and trees planted evenly spaced, in terms of canopy throughfall, soil water infiltration and soil bulk density. The study's aim was to characterize the potential of these tree planting configurations to reduce local flood risk. The study site (Henfaes) was established in 1992 on 14 ha of agricultural land and is part of the Silvopastoral National Network Experiment sites that have been set up across the UK to examine the potential of silvopasture and agroforestry on UK farms. Automated throughfall gauges were installed in each silvopastoral treatment along with a similarly designed control gauge located in the grazed control pasture. Soil water infiltration and bulk density were measured 20 times in a stratified random design for each treatment and the control. Soil infiltration capacity in the clumped configuration was significantly higher than in the even spaced configuration and control pasture. The clumped configuration had mean infiltration capacity 504% greater than the control pasture and 454% greater than the even spaced configuration. Canopy interception was higher in the clumped trees than in the evenly spaced trees. Average canopy interception was 34% in the clumped treatment and 28% in the evenly spaced treatment. Soil bulk density was lower in the clumped configuration than in the control pasture and evenly spaced configuration. Results suggest that in silvopastoral systems the clumped tree configuration is more likely to reduce local flood risk than the evenly spaced tree configuration due to enhanced infiltration and increased canopy interception.

  18. Active fault systems and tectono-topographic configuration of the central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szynkaruk, Ewa; Graduño-Monroy, Víctor Hugo; Bocco, Gerardo

    2004-07-01

    The central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) reflects the interplay between three regional fault systems: the NNW-SSE to NW-SE striking Taxco-Querétaro fault system, the NE-SW striking system, and the E-W striking Morelia-Acambay fault system. The latter is the youngest and consists of fault scarps up to 500 m high, whose formation caused structural and morphological reorganization of the region. In this paper, we investigate possible activity of the three systems within the central TMVB, and assess the role that they play in controlling the tectono-topographic configuration of the area. Our study is based on DEM-derived morphometric maps, longitudinal river profiles, geomorphologic mapping, and structural field data concerning recent faulting. We find that all three regional fault systems are active within the central TMVB, possibly with different displacement rates and/or type of motion; and that NNW-SSE and NE-SW striking faults control the major tectono-topographic elements that build up the region, which are being re-shaped by E-W striking faults. We also find that tectonic information can be deciphered from the topography of the youthful volcanic arc in question, regardless its complexity.

  19. Synthesizing Configurable Biochemical Implementation of Linear Systems from Their Transfer Function Specifications

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Tai-Yin; Chiang, Hui-Ju K.; Huang, Ruei-Yang; Jiang, Jie-Hong R.; Fages, François

    2015-01-01

    The ability to engineer synthetic systems in the biochemical context is constantly being improved and has a profound societal impact. Linear system design is one of the most pervasive methods applied in control tasks, and its biochemical realization has been proposed by Oishi and Klavins and advanced further in recent years. However, several technical issues remain unsolved. Specifically, the design process is not fully automated from specification at the transfer function level, systems once designed often lack dynamic adaptivity to environmental changes, matching rate constants of reactions is not always possible, and implementation may be approximative and greatly deviate from the specifications. Building upon the work of Oishi and Klavins, this paper overcomes these issues by introducing a design flow that transforms a transfer-function specification of a linear system into a set of chemical reactions, whose input-output response precisely conforms to the specification. This system is implementable using the DNA strand displacement technique. The underlying configurability is embedded into primitive components and template modules, and thus the entire system is adaptive. Simulation of DNA strand displacement implementation confirmed the feasibility and superiority of the proposed synthesis flow. PMID:26352855

  20. Solar total energy project at Shenandoah, Georgia system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poche, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The solar total energy system (STES) was to provide 50% of the total electrical and thermal energy requirements of the 25,000 sq ft Bleyle of America knitwear plant located at the Shenandoah Site. The system will provide 400 kilowatts electrical and 3 megawatts of thermal energy. The STES has a classical, cascaded total energy system configuration. It utilizes one hundred twenty (120), parabolic dish collectors, high temperature (750 F) trickle oil thermal energy storage and a steam turbine generator. The electrical load shaving system was designed for interconnected operation with the Georgia Power system and for operation in a stand alone mode.

  1. Gimbal system configurations and line-of-sight control techniques for small UAV applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Rick; Mooty, Greg; Hilkert, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    The proliferation of small Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) in the past decade has been driven, in part, by the diverse applications that various industries have found for these platforms. Originally, these applications were predominately military in nature but now include law enforcement/security, environmental monitoring/remote sensing, agricultural surveying, movie making and others. Many of these require sensors/payloads such as cameras, laser pointers/ illuminators/rangefinders and other systems that must be pointed and/or stabilized and therefore require a precision miniature gimbal or other means to control their line-of-sight (LOS). Until now, these markets have been served by traditional/larger gimbals; however, the latest class of small UAVs demands much smaller gimbals while maintaining high-performance. The limited size and weight of these gimbaled devices result in design challenges unique to the small-gimbal design field. In the past five years, Ascendant Engineering Solutions has engaged in designing, analyzing and building several small-gimbal systems to meet these challenges and has undertaken a number of trade studies to investigate techniques to achieve optimal performance within the inherent limitations mentioned above. These have included investigating various gimbal configurations, feedback sensors such as gyros, IMUs and encoders, drive train configurations, control system techniques, packaging and interconnect, as well as technology such as fast-steering mirrors and image-stabilization algorithms. This paper summarizes the results of these trade studies, attempts to identify inherent trends and limitations in the various design approaches and techniques, and discusses some practical issues such as test and verification.

  2. Reducing audio stimulus presentation latencies across studies, laboratories, and hardware and operating system configurations.

    PubMed

    Babjack, Destiny L; Cernicky, Brandon; Sobotka, Andrew J; Basler, Lee; Struthers, Devon; Kisic, Richard; Barone, Kimberly; Zuccolotto, Anthony P

    2015-09-01

    Using differing computer platforms and audio output devices to deliver audio stimuli often introduces (1) substantial variability across labs and (2) variable time between the intended and actual sound delivery (the sound onset latency). Fast, accurate audio onset latencies are particularly important when audio stimuli need to be delivered precisely as part of studies that depend on accurate timing (e.g., electroencephalographic, event-related potential, or multimodal studies), or in multisite studies in which standardization and strict control over the computer platforms used is not feasible. This research describes the variability introduced by using differing configurations and introduces a novel approach to minimizing audio sound latency and variability. A stimulus presentation and latency assessment approach is presented using E-Prime and Chronos (a new multifunction, USB-based data presentation and collection device). The present approach reliably delivers audio stimuli with low latencies that vary by ≤1 ms, independent of hardware and Windows operating system (OS)/driver combinations. The Chronos audio subsystem adopts a buffering, aborting, querying, and remixing approach to the delivery of audio, to achieve a consistent 1-ms sound onset latency for single-sound delivery, and precise delivery of multiple sounds that achieves standard deviations of 1/10th of a millisecond without the use of advanced scripting. Chronos's sound onset latencies are small, reliable, and consistent across systems. Testing of standard audio delivery devices and configurations highlights the need for careful attention to consistency between labs, experiments, and multiple study sites in their hardware choices, OS selections, and adoption of audio delivery systems designed to sidestep the audio latency variability issue. PMID:26170050

  3. A comprehensive workflow for general-purpose neural modeling with highly configurable neuromorphic hardware systems.

    PubMed

    Brüderle, Daniel; Petrovici, Mihai A; Vogginger, Bernhard; Ehrlich, Matthias; Pfeil, Thomas; Millner, Sebastian; Grübl, Andreas; Wendt, Karsten; Müller, Eric; Schwartz, Marc-Olivier; de Oliveira, Dan Husmann; Jeltsch, Sebastian; Fieres, Johannes; Schilling, Moritz; Müller, Paul; Breitwieser, Oliver; Petkov, Venelin; Muller, Lyle; Davison, Andrew P; Krishnamurthy, Pradeep; Kremkow, Jens; Lundqvist, Mikael; Muller, Eilif; Partzsch, Johannes; Scholze, Stefan; Zühl, Lukas; Mayr, Christian; Destexhe, Alain; Diesmann, Markus; Potjans, Tobias C; Lansner, Anders; Schüffny, René; Schemmel, Johannes; Meier, Karlheinz

    2011-05-01

    In this article, we present a methodological framework that meets novel requirements emerging from upcoming types of accelerated and highly configurable neuromorphic hardware systems. We describe in detail a device with 45 million programmable and dynamic synapses that is currently under development, and we sketch the conceptual challenges that arise from taking this platform into operation. More specifically, we aim at the establishment of this neuromorphic system as a flexible and neuroscientifically valuable modeling tool that can be used by non-hardware experts. We consider various functional aspects to be crucial for this purpose, and we introduce a consistent workflow with detailed descriptions of all involved modules that implement the suggested steps: The integration of the hardware interface into the simulator-independent model description language PyNN; a fully automated translation between the PyNN domain and appropriate hardware configurations; an executable specification of the future neuromorphic system that can be seamlessly integrated into this biology-to-hardware mapping process as a test bench for all software layers and possible hardware design modifications; an evaluation scheme that deploys models from a dedicated benchmark library, compares the results generated by virtual or prototype hardware devices with reference software simulations and analyzes the differences. The integration of these components into one hardware-software workflow provides an ecosystem for ongoing preparative studies that support the hardware design process and represents the basis for the maturity of the model-to-hardware mapping software. The functionality and flexibility of the latter is proven with a variety of experimental results. PMID:21618053

  4. A comprehensive workflow for general-purpose neural modeling with highly configurable neuromorphic hardware systems.

    PubMed

    Brüderle, Daniel; Petrovici, Mihai A; Vogginger, Bernhard; Ehrlich, Matthias; Pfeil, Thomas; Millner, Sebastian; Grübl, Andreas; Wendt, Karsten; Müller, Eric; Schwartz, Marc-Olivier; de Oliveira, Dan Husmann; Jeltsch, Sebastian; Fieres, Johannes; Schilling, Moritz; Müller, Paul; Breitwieser, Oliver; Petkov, Venelin; Muller, Lyle; Davison, Andrew P; Krishnamurthy, Pradeep; Kremkow, Jens; Lundqvist, Mikael; Muller, Eilif; Partzsch, Johannes; Scholze, Stefan; Zühl, Lukas; Mayr, Christian; Destexhe, Alain; Diesmann, Markus; Potjans, Tobias C; Lansner, Anders; Schüffny, René; Schemmel, Johannes; Meier, Karlheinz

    2011-05-01

    In this article, we present a methodological framework that meets novel requirements emerging from upcoming types of accelerated and highly configurable neuromorphic hardware systems. We describe in detail a device with 45 million programmable and dynamic synapses that is currently under development, and we sketch the conceptual challenges that arise from taking this platform into operation. More specifically, we aim at the establishment of this neuromorphic system as a flexible and neuroscientifically valuable modeling tool that can be used by non-hardware experts. We consider various functional aspects to be crucial for this purpose, and we introduce a consistent workflow with detailed descriptions of all involved modules that implement the suggested steps: The integration of the hardware interface into the simulator-independent model description language PyNN; a fully automated translation between the PyNN domain and appropriate hardware configurations; an executable specification of the future neuromorphic system that can be seamlessly integrated into this biology-to-hardware mapping process as a test bench for all software layers and possible hardware design modifications; an evaluation scheme that deploys models from a dedicated benchmark library, compares the results generated by virtual or prototype hardware devices with reference software simulations and analyzes the differences. The integration of these components into one hardware-software workflow provides an ecosystem for ongoing preparative studies that support the hardware design process and represents the basis for the maturity of the model-to-hardware mapping software. The functionality and flexibility of the latter is proven with a variety of experimental results.

  5. Energy systems transformation.

    PubMed

    Dangerman, A T C Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-02-12

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO(2) emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the "Success to the Successful" mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy--the largest business on Earth--expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders. PMID:23297208

  6. Energy systems transformation.

    PubMed

    Dangerman, A T C Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-02-12

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO(2) emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the "Success to the Successful" mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy--the largest business on Earth--expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders.

  7. Energy and combination systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hartsock, D.K.

    1995-08-01

    Energy and combination systems are outlined. The following topics are discussed: NO{sub x} control technologies; coal fired boilers; gas reburning (GR); NO{sub x} emissions using GR; integration of GR and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR); enhanced temperature windows; methanol injection; combi NO{sub x}; integrated GR technologies, reburning alternate fuels, reburning fuel types; and comparison of GR technologies.

  8. Wind Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  9. A case for spiking neural network simulation based on configurable multiple-FPGA systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shufan; Wu, Qiang; Li, Renfa

    2011-09-01

    Recent neuropsychological research has begun to reveal that neurons encode information in the timing of spikes. Spiking neural network simulations are a flexible and powerful method for investigating the behaviour of neuronal systems. Simulation of the spiking neural networks in software is unable to rapidly generate output spikes in large-scale of neural network. An alternative approach, hardware implementation of such system, provides the possibility to generate independent spikes precisely and simultaneously output spike waves in real time, under the premise that spiking neural network can take full advantage of hardware inherent parallelism. We introduce a configurable FPGA-oriented hardware platform for spiking neural network simulation in this work. We aim to use this platform to combine the speed of dedicated hardware with the programmability of software so that it might allow neuroscientists to put together sophisticated computation experiments of their own model. A feed-forward hierarchy network is developed as a case study to describe the operation of biological neural systems (such as orientation selectivity of visual cortex) and computational models of such systems. This model demonstrates how a feed-forward neural network constructs the circuitry required for orientation selectivity and provides platform for reaching a deeper understanding of the primate visual system. In the future, larger scale models based on this framework can be used to replicate the actual architecture in visual cortex, leading to more detailed predictions and insights into visual perception phenomenon.

  10. An energy-efficient SIMD DSP with multiple VLIW configurations and an advanced memory access unit for LTE-A modem LSIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomono, Mitsuru; Ito, Makiko; Nomura, Yoshitaka; Mouri, Makoto; Hirose, Yoshio

    2015-12-01

    Energy efficiency is the most important factor in the design of wireless modem LSIs for mobile handset systems. We have developed an energy-efficient SIMD DSP for LTE-A modem LSIs. Our DSP has mainly two hardware features in order to reduce energy consumption. The first one is multiple VLIW configurations to minimize accesses to instruction memories. The second one is an advanced memory access unit to realize complex memory accesses required for wireless baseband processing. With these features, performance of our DSP is about 1.7 times faster than a base DSP on average for standard LTE-A Libraries. Our DSP achieves about 20% improvement in energy efficiency compared to a base DSP for LTE-A modem LSIs.

  11. Fingernail Configuration

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jin Woo; Shin, Jun Ho; Kwon, Yu Jin; Hwang, Jae Ha; Lee, Sam Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background A number of conditions can alter a person's fingernail configuration. The ratio between fingernail width and length (W/L) is an important aesthetic criterion, and some underlying diseases can alter the size of the fingernail. Fingernail curvature can be altered by systemic disorders or disorders of the fingernail itself. Although the shape and curvature of the fingernail can provide diagnostic clues for various diseases, few studies have precisely characterized normal fingernail configuration. Methods We measured the W/L ratio of the fingernail, transverse fingernail curvature, hand length, hand breadth, and distal interphalangeal joint width in 300 volunteers with healthy fingernails. We also investigated whether age, sex, height, and handedness influenced the fingernail W/L ratio and transverse fingernail curvature. Results In women, fingernail W/L ratios were similar across all five fingers, and were lower than those in men. The highest value of transverse fingernail curvature was found in the thumb, followed by the index, middle, ring, and little fingers. Handedness and aging influenced transverse fingernail curvature, but not the fingernail W/L ratio. Fingernails were flatter on the dominant hand than on the non-dominant hand. The radius of transverse fingernail curvature increased with age, indicating that fingernails tended to flatten with age. Conclusions Our quantitative data on fingernail configuration can be used as a reference range for diagnosing various diseases and deformities of the fingernail, and for performing reconstructive or aesthetic fingernail surgery. PMID:26618124

  12. A Deterministic Projector Configuration Interaction Approach for the Ground State of Quantum Many-Body Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianyuan; Evangelista, Francesco A

    2016-09-13

    In this work we propose a novel approach to solve the Schrödinger equation which combines projection onto the ground state with a path-filtering truncation scheme. The resulting projector configuration interaction (PCI) approach realizes a deterministic version of the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (FCIQMC) method [Booth, G. H.; Thom, A. J. W.; Alavi, A. J. Chem. Phys. 2009, 131, 054106]. To improve upon the linearized imaginary-time propagator, we develop an optimal projector scheme based on an exponential Chebyshev expansion in the limit of an infinite imaginary time step. After writing the exact projector as a path integral in determinant space, we introduce a path filtering procedure that truncates the size of the determinantal basis and approximates the Hamiltonian. The path filtering procedure is controlled by one real threshold that determines the accuracy of the PCI energy and is not biased toward any determinant. Therefore, the PCI approach can equally well describe static and dynamic electron correlation effects. This point is illustrated in benchmark computations on N2 at both equilibrium and stretched geometries. In both cases, the PCI achieves chemical accuracy with wave functions that contain less than 0.5% determinants of full CI space. We also report computations on the ground state of C2 with up to quaduple-ζ basis sets and wave functions as large as 200 million determinants, which allow a direct comparison of the PCI, FCIQMC, and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) methods. The size of the PCI wave function grows modestly with the number of unoccupied orbitals, and its accuracy may be tuned to match that of FCIQMC and DMRG. PMID:27464301

  13. Crystal Growth Furnace System Configuration and Planned Experiments on the Second United States Microgravity Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivas, R.; Hambright, G.; Ainsworth, M.; Fiske, M.; Schaefer, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) is currently undergoing modifications and refurbishment and is currently undergoing modifications and refurbishment and is manifested to refly on the Second United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2) mission scheduled for launch in September 1995. The CGF was developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) programs at NASA Headquarters. The refurbishment and reflight program is being managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. Funding and program support for the CGF project is provided to MSFC by the office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications at NASA Headquarters. This paper presents an overview of the CGF system configuration for the USML-2 mission, and provides a brief description of the planned on-orbit experiment operation.

  14. Optical configuration optimization and calibration for the POINT system on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Z. Y.; Liu, H. Q.; Li, W. M.; Lian, H.; Wang, S. X.; Yao, Y.; Lan, T.; Zeng, L.; Jie, Y. X.

    2016-11-01

    Calibration of the polarimeter system is one of the key elements to determine the overall measurement accuracy. The anisotropic reflection and transmission properties of the mesh beam splitters can easily distort the polarization state of the circularly polarized beams. Using a rotating crystal quartz λ/2-waveplate to replace the plasma can effectively allow us to obtain the ratio of the measured Faraday rotation angle to the known rotation angle of the waveplate. This ratio is used to estimate the calibration factor for each chord to be accurately determined and help to minimize distortions introduced by the wire-mesh beam splitters. With the novel configuration optimization, the distortion of polarization state is effectively eliminated.

  15. Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  16. Multistep energy and electron transfer in a "V-configured" supramolecular BODIPY-azaBODIPY-fullerene triad: mimicry of photosynthetic antenna reaction-center events.

    PubMed

    Bandi, Venugopal; D'Souza, Fiona P; Gobeze, Habtom B; D'Souza, Francis

    2015-02-01

    A new photosynthetic antenna-reaction-center model compound composed of covalently linked BF2 -chelated dipyrromethene (BODIPY), BF2 -chelated azadipyrromethene (azaBODIPY), and fullerene (C60 ), in a "V-configuration", has been newly synthesized and characterized by using a multistep synthetic procedure. Optical absorbance and steady-state fluorescence, computational, and electrochemical studies were systematically performed in nonpolar, toluene, and polar, benzonitrile, solvents to establish the molecular integrity of the triad and to construct an energy-level diagram revealing different photochemical events. The geometry obtained by B3LYP/6-31G* calculations revealed the anticipated V-configuration of the BODIPY-azaBODIPY-C60 triad. The location of the frontier orbitals in the triad tracked the site of electron transfer determined from electrochemical studies. The different photochemical events originated from (1) BODIPY* were realized from the energy-level diagram. Accordingly, (1) BODIPY* resulted in competitive ultrafast energy transfer to produce BODIPY-(1) azaBODIPY*-C60 and electron transfer to produce BODIPY(.) (+) -azaBODIPY-C60 (.) (-) as major photochemical events. The charge-separated state persisted for few nanoseconds prior populating (3) C60 *, which in turn revealed an unusual triplet-triplet energy transfer to produce (3) azaBODIPY* prior returning to the ground state. These findings delineate the importance of multimodular systems in energy harvesting, and more importantly, their utility in building multifunction performing optoelectronic devices. PMID:25522294

  17. Energy storage connection system

    DOEpatents

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  18. Energy systems transformation

    PubMed Central

    Dangerman, A. T. C. Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO2 emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the “Success to the Successful” mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy—the largest business on Earth—expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders. PMID:23297208

  19. On possible circumbinary configurations of the planetary systems of α Centauri and EZ Aquarii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E. A.; Shevchenko, I. I.

    2016-04-01

    Possible configurations of the planetary systems of the binary stars α Cen A-BandEZAqr A-C are analyzed. The P-type orbits—circumbinary ones, i.e., the orbits around both stars of the binary, are studied. The choice of these systems is dictated by the fact that α Cen is closest to us in the Galaxy, while EZ Aqr is the closest system whose circumbinary planets, as it turns out, may reside in the "habitability zone." The analysis has been performed within the framework of the planar restricted three-body problem. The stability diagrams of circumbinary motion have been constructed: on representative sets of initial data (in the pericentric distance-eccentricity plane), we have computed the Lyapunov spectra of planetary motion and identified the domains of regular and chaotic motion through their statistical analysis. Based on present views of the dynamics and architecture of circumbinary planetary systems, we have determined the most probable planetary orbits to be at the centers of the main resonance cells, at the boundary of the dynamical chaos domain around the parent binary star, which allows the semimajor axes of the orbits to be predicted. In the case of EZ Aqr, the orbit of the circumbinary planet is near the habitability zone and, given that the boundary of this zone is uncertain, may belong to it.

  20. A Model-based Approach to Reactive Self-Configuring Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian C.; Nayak, P. Pandurang

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes Livingstone, an implemented kernel for a self-reconfiguring autonomous system, that is reactive and uses component-based declarative models. The paper presents a formal characterization of the representation formalism used in Livingstone, and reports on our experience with the implementation in a variety of domains. Livingstone's representation formalism achieves broad coverage of hybrid software/hardware systems by coupling the concurrent transition system models underlying concurrent reactive languages with the discrete qualitative representations developed in model-based reasoning. We achieve a reactive system that performs significant deductions in the sense/response loop by drawing on our past experience at building fast prepositional conflict-based algorithms for model-based diagnosis, and by framing a model-based configuration manager as a prepositional, conflict-based feedback controller that generates focused, optimal responses. Livingstone automates all these tasks using a single model and a single core deductive engine, thus making significant progress towards achieving a central goal of model-based reasoning. Livingstone, together with the HSTS planning and scheduling engine and the RAPS executive, has been selected as the core autonomy architecture for Deep Space One, the first spacecraft for NASA's New Millennium program.

  1. Wind energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, R. D.; McNerney, Gerald M.

    1993-03-01

    Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the impacts on the utility network including frequency stability, voltage stability, and power quality are discussed. The assessment of wind power station economics and the key economic factors that determine the economic viability of a wind power plant are presented.

  2. Systems configured to distribute a telephone call, communication systems, communication methods and methods of routing a telephone call to a service representative

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Scott H.; Johnson, Joel A.; Neiswanger, Jeffery R.; Twitchell, Kevin E.

    2004-03-09

    The present invention includes systems configured to distribute a telephone call, communication systems, communication methods and methods of routing a telephone call to a customer service representative. In one embodiment of the invention, a system configured to distribute a telephone call within a network includes a distributor adapted to connect with a telephone system, the distributor being configured to connect a telephone call using the telephone system and output the telephone call and associated data of the telephone call; and a plurality of customer service representative terminals connected with the distributor and a selected customer service representative terminal being configured to receive the telephone call and the associated data, the distributor and the selected customer service representative terminal being configured to synchronize, application of the telephone call and associated data from the distributor to the selected customer service representative terminal.

  3. Computer software configuration description, 241-AY and 241 AZ tank farm MICON automation system

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, W.D.

    1998-06-11

    This document describes the configuration process, choices and conventions used during the Micon DCS configuration activities, and issues involved in making changes to the configuration. Includes the master listings of the Tag definitions, which should be revised to authorize any changes. Revision 3 provides additional information on the software used to provide communications with the W-320 project and incorporates minor changes to ensure the document alarm setpoint priorities correctly match operational expectations.

  4. Coronene molecules in helium clusters: Quantum and classical studies of energies and configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez-Cantano, Rocío; Pérez de Tudela, Ricardo; Bartolomei, Massimiliano; Hernández, Marta I.; Campos-Martínez, José; González-Lezana, Tomás Villarreal, Pablo; Hernández-Rojas, Javier; Bretón, José

    2015-12-14

    Coronene-doped helium clusters have been studied by means of classical and quantum mechanical (QM) methods using a recently developed He–C{sub 24}H{sub 12} global potential based on the use of optimized atom-bond improved Lennard-Jones functions. Equilibrium energies and geometries at global and local minima for systems with up to 69 He atoms were calculated by means of an evolutive algorithm and a basin-hopping approach and compared with results from path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) calculations at 2 K. A detailed analysis performed for the smallest sizes shows that the precise localization of the He atoms forming the first solvation layer over the molecular substrate is affected by differences between relative potential minima. The comparison of the PIMC results with the predictions from the classical approaches and with diffusion Monte Carlo results allows to examine the importance of both the QM and thermal effects.

  5. Flow and heat transfer in 180-degree turn square ducts: Effects of turning configuration and system rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Chyu, Ming-King

    1993-07-01

    Forced flow through channels connected by sharp bends is frequently encountered in various rocket and gas turbine engines. For example, the transfer ducts, the coolant channels surround the combustion chamber, the internal cooling passage in a blade or vane, the flow path in the fuel element of a nuclear rocket engine, the flow around a pressure relieve valve piston, and the recirculated base flow of multiple engine clustered nozzles. Transport phenomena involved in such a flow passage are complex and considered to be very different from those of conventional turning flow with relatively mild radii of curvature. While previous research pertaining to this subject has been focused primarily on the experimental heat transfer, very little analytical work is directed to understanding the flowfield and energy transport in the passage. Therefore, the primary goal of this paper is to benchmark the predicted wall heat fluxes using a state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics (CFD) formulation against those of measurement for a rectangular turn duct. Other secondary goals include studying the effects of turning configurations, e.g., the semi-circular turn, and the rounded-corner turn, and the effect of system rotation. The computed heat fluxes for the rectangular turn duct compared favorably with those of the experimental data. The results show that the flow pattern, pressure drop, and heat transfer characteristics are different among the three turning configurations, and are substantially different with system rotation. Also demonstrated in this work is that the present computational approach is quite effective and efficient and will be suitable for flow and thermal modeling in rocket and turbine engine applications.

  6. Regimes of pulsed formation of a compact plasma configuration with a high energy input

    SciTech Connect

    Romadanov, I. V.; Ryzhkov, S. V.

    2015-10-15

    Results of experiments on the formation of a compact toroidal magnetic configuration at the Compact Toroid Challenge setup are presented. The experiments were primarily aimed at studying particular formation stages. Two series of experiments, with and without an auxiliary capacitor bank, were conducted. The magnetic field was measured, its time evolution and spatial distribution over the chamber volume were determined, and its influence on the formation regimes was investigated.

  7. Regimes of pulsed formation of a compact plasma configuration with a high energy input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romadanov, I. V.; Ryzhkov, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    Results of experiments on the formation of a compact toroidal magnetic configuration at the Compact Toroid Challenge setup are presented. The experiments were primarily aimed at studying particular formation stages. Two series of experiments, with and without an auxiliary capacitor bank, were conducted. The magnetic field was measured, its time evolution and spatial distribution over the chamber volume were determined, and its influence on the formation regimes was investigated.

  8. Comparative analysis of various CO2 configurations in supermarket refrigeration systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Vishaldeep; Fricke, Brian; Bansal, Pradeep

    2014-07-09

    Our paper presents an analysis of various CO2 transcritical and cascade/secondary loop refrigeration systems that are becoming popular in supermarket applications with the objective of optimizing the operating parameters of these systems. In addition, the performance of selected CO2-based refrigeration systems is compared to the baseline R404A multiplex direct expansion system using bin analyses in the eight climate zones of the United States. Moreover, for the refrigeration systems investigated, it was found that the Transcritical Booster System with Bypass Compressor (TBS-BC) had the lowest energy consumption for ambient temperatures (Tamb) less than 8 °C, and for higher ambient temperatures the R404A direct expansion system was found to have the lowest energy consumption. Finally, the TBS-BC performs equivalent to or better than the R404A direct expansion system in the northern two-thirds of the US. For the southern portion of the US, the R404A multiplex DX system performs better than CO2 systems.

  9. Comparative analysis of various CO2 configurations in supermarket refrigeration systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sharma, Vishaldeep; Fricke, Brian; Bansal, Pradeep

    2014-07-09

    Our paper presents an analysis of various CO2 transcritical and cascade/secondary loop refrigeration systems that are becoming popular in supermarket applications with the objective of optimizing the operating parameters of these systems. In addition, the performance of selected CO2-based refrigeration systems is compared to the baseline R404A multiplex direct expansion system using bin analyses in the eight climate zones of the United States. Moreover, for the refrigeration systems investigated, it was found that the Transcritical Booster System with Bypass Compressor (TBS-BC) had the lowest energy consumption for ambient temperatures (Tamb) less than 8 °C, and for higher ambient temperatures themore » R404A direct expansion system was found to have the lowest energy consumption. Finally, the TBS-BC performs equivalent to or better than the R404A direct expansion system in the northern two-thirds of the US. For the southern portion of the US, the R404A multiplex DX system performs better than CO2 systems.« less

  10. Contribution of wind energy to the energy balance of a combined solar and wind energy system. Part 2: Computer-assisted investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wensierski, P. W.

    1985-05-01

    A mathematical simulation model of the combined solar and wind energy system was used to determine the weak points of a wind-solar energy domestic system and to analyze the thermodynamic behavior of its different components and regulation functions. The simulation results are compared with the measured data to collect data for the optimization of the system for economical use and for determining the optimal complementarity of both energy sources. Different system configurations are studied for a better supply utilization according to regional climatology. Recommendations to improve the system performance are given taking into account an unchanged and a modified system configuration and the selection of the wind energy system.

  11. Neutral beam system for the C-2-Upgrade Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Sergey; Smirnov, Artem; Clary, Ryan; Dunaevsky, Alexandr; Isakov, Ivan; Magee, Richard; Matvienko, Vasily; van Drie, Alan; Deichuli, Petr; Ivanov, Alexandr; Pirogov, Konstantin; Sorokin, Aleksey; Stupishin, Nickolay; Vakhrushev, Roman; TAE Team; Budker Team

    2015-11-01

    In the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment, tangential neutral beam injection (NBI), coupled with electrically-biased plasma guns at the plasma ends and advanced surface conditioning, led to dramatic reductions in turbulence-driven losses. Under such conditions, highly reproducible, macroscopically stable, hot FRCs with a significant fast-ion population, total plasma temperature of ~ 1 keV and record lifetimes were achieved. To further improve the FRC sustainment and provide a better coupling with beams, the C-2 device has been upgraded with a new NBI system, which can deliver up to a total of 10 MW of hydrogen beam power (15 keV, 8 ms pulse), by far the largest ever used in compact toroid plasma experiments. The NBI system consists of six positive-ion based injectors featuring flexible, modular design. This presentation will provide an overview of the C-2U NBI system, including: 1) NBI test facility, beam characterization, and acceptance tests, 2) integration with the machine and operating experience, 3) improvements in plasma performance with increased beam power.

  12. A virtual control panel configuration tool for the X-window system

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.O.; Dalesio, L.R.; Kerstiens, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Computer Graphics Workstations are becoming increasingly popular for use as virtual process control and read back panels. The workstations's CRT, keyboard, and pointing device are used in concert to produce a display that is in essence a control panel, even if actual switches and gauges are not present. The code behind these displays is most often specific to one display and not reusable for any other display. Recently, programs have been written allowing many of these virtual control panel displays to be configured without writing additional code. This approach allows the initial programming effort to be reapplied to many different display instances with minimal effort. These programs often incorporate many of the features of a graphics editor, allowing a pictorial model of the process under control to be incorporated into the control panel. We have just finished writing a second generation software system of this type for use with the X-window system and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). This paper describes the primary features of our software, the framework of our design, and our observations after initial installation.

  13. Wind energy conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  14. Energy Systems Integration Facility Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, Dan; Chistensen, Dana; Hannegan, Bryan; Garret, Bobi; Kroposki, Ben; Symko-Davies, Martha; Post, David; Hammond, Steve; Kutscher, Chuck; Wipke, Keith

    2014-02-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is the right tool, at the right time... a first-of-its-kind facility that addresses the challenges of large-scale integration of clean energy technologies into the energy systems that power the nation.

  15. Energy Systems Integration Facility Overview

    ScienceCinema

    Arvizu, Dan; Chistensen, Dana; Hannegan, Bryan; Garret, Bobi; Kroposki, Ben; Symko-Davies, Martha; Post, David; Hammond, Steve; Kutscher, Chuck; Wipke, Keith

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is the right tool, at the right time... a first-of-its-kind facility that addresses the challenges of large-scale integration of clean energy technologies into the energy systems that power the nation.

  16. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E.

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  17. Energy Systems Divisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applewhite, John

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the JSC Energy Systems Divisions work in propulsion. Specific work in LO2/CH4 propulsion, cryogenic propulsion, low thrust propulsion for Free Flyer, robotic and Extra Vehicular Activities, and work on the Morpheus terrestrial free flyer test bed is reviewed. The back-up slides contain a chart with comparisons of LO2/LCH4 with other propellants, and reviewing the advantages especially for spacecraft propulsion.

  18. Flywheel energy storage for electromechanical actuation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hockney, Richard L.; Goldie, James H.; Kirtley, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe a flywheel energy storage system designed specifically to provide load-leveling for a thrust vector control (TVC) system using electromechanical actuators (EMAs). One of the major advantages of an EMA system over a hydraulic system is the significant reduction in total energy consumed during the launch profile. Realization of this energy reduction will, however, require localized energy storage capable of delivering the peak power required by the EMAs. A combined flywheel-motor/generator unit which interfaces directly to the 20-kHz power bus represents an ideal candidate for this load leveling. The overall objective is the definition of a flywheel energy storage system for this application. The authors discuss progress on four technical objectives: (1) definition of the specifications for the flywheel-motor/generator system, including system-level trade-off analysis; (2) design of the flywheel rotor; (3) design of the motor/generator; and (4) determination of the configuration for the power management system.

  19. Implication of uterine configuration on dosimetry to point A using the Amersham afterloading system.

    PubMed

    Vedula, R

    1993-03-15

    Ninety-four biopsy-proven cases of cervix carcinoma who underwent brachytherapy with the flexible Amersham afterloading system are examined in this study. The uterine configuration showed a wide range with respect to the length, angle of version (indicated by angle alpha) and the degree of right or left shift of the midline at the internal os (indicated by angle beta). The manufacturers of the afterloading system have given certain precalculated dose rates to A which they derived from computer calculations for the various configurations of the system, for a particular loading strength of the Caesium 137 source trains, and for a particular range of angle alpha and beta. The study involves mathematical calculations of point A dose rates using post application radiographs, and a mean value of point A dose rate is derived to compare with other variables. A distortion of the uterus in the form of flexion (as opposed to version), resulting in bending of the uterine tandem is noted in 3 cases. There are 22% of cases with gross degree of retroversion (angle alpha more than 180 degrees) for which the precalculated tables are lacking. The angle beta, however, is in the normal range for all the cases but one. Nineteen cases (20.2%) showed point A dose rates which are beyond the specified dose rates of the manufacturers. Analysis of these 19 cases showed 6 cases with angle alpha more than 180 degrees, eight cases with more than a 10 degrees shift of the uterus to right or left of midline (angle beta) and the rest five cases have fairly normal values of these angles. Analysis of these five cases showed that three of them showed more than 8 CGy/hr difference in dose rates to individual points A right and left. An undue curvature of the uterine tandem to one side in the distal half, with a straight proximal half (near the anterior flange) is noted in these three cases. The angle alpha and beta are normal here since the nearest 2 cm of uterine tandem to the anterior flange is

  20. Energy-Systems Economic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, J.; Slonski, M. L.; Borden, C. S.

    1982-01-01

    Energy Systems Economic Analysis (ESEA) program is flexible analytical tool for rank ordering of alternative energy systems. Basic ESEA approach derives an estimate of those costs incurred as result of purchasing, installing and operating an energy system. These costs, suitably aggregated into yearly costs over lifetime of system, are divided by expected yearly energy output to determine busbar energy costs. ESEA, developed in 1979, is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  1. Alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies in multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory.

    PubMed

    Stoyanova, Alexandrina; Teale, Andrew M; Toulouse, Julien; Helgaker, Trygve; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2013-10-01

    The alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies proposed by Toulouse et al. [Theor. Chem. Acc. 114, 305 (2005)] is explored in the context of multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory. The new decomposition of the short-range exchange-correlation energy relies on the auxiliary long-range interacting wavefunction rather than the Kohn-Sham (KS) determinant. The advantage, relative to the traditional KS decomposition, is that the wavefunction part of the energy is now computed with the regular (fully interacting) Hamiltonian. One potential drawback is that, because of double counting, the wavefunction used to compute the energy cannot be obtained by minimizing the energy expression with respect to the wavefunction parameters. The problem is overcome by using short-range optimized effective potentials (OEPs). The resulting combination of OEP techniques with wavefunction theory has been investigated in this work, at the Hartree-Fock (HF) and multi-configuration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) levels. In the HF case, an analytical expression for the energy gradient has been derived and implemented. Calculations have been performed within the short-range local density approximation on H2, N2, Li2, and H2O. Significant improvements in binding energies are obtained with the new decomposition of the short-range energy. The importance of optimizing the short-range OEP at the MCSCF level when static correlation becomes significant has also been demonstrated for H2, using a finite-difference gradient. The implementation of the analytical gradient for MCSCF wavefunctions is currently in progress. PMID:24116558

  2. PyNCS: a microkernel for high-level definition and configuration of neuromorphic electronic systems

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Fabio; Neftci, Emre O.; Sheik, Sadique; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Neuromorphic hardware offers an electronic substrate for the realization of asynchronous event-based sensory-motor systems and large-scale spiking neural network architectures. In order to characterize these systems, configure them, and carry out modeling experiments, it is often necessary to interface them to workstations. The software used for this purpose typically consists of a large monolithic block of code which is highly specific to the hardware setup used. While this approach can lead to highly integrated hardware/software systems, it hampers the development of modular and reconfigurable infrastructures thus preventing a rapid evolution of such systems. To alleviate this problem, we propose PyNCS, an open-source front-end for the definition of neural network models that is interfaced to the hardware through a set of Python Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). The design of PyNCS promotes modularity, portability and expandability and separates implementation from hardware description. The high-level front-end that comes with PyNCS includes tools to define neural network models as well as to create, monitor and analyze spiking data. Here we report the design philosophy behind the PyNCS framework and describe its implementation. We demonstrate its functionality with two representative case studies, one using an event-based neuromorphic vision sensor, and one using a set of multi-neuron devices for carrying out a cognitive decision-making task involving state-dependent computation. PyNCS, already applicable to a wide range of existing spike-based neuromorphic setups, will accelerate the development of hybrid software/hardware neuromorphic systems, thanks to its code flexibility. The code is open-source and available online at https://github.com/inincs/pyNCS. PMID:25232314

  3. PyNCS: a microkernel for high-level definition and configuration of neuromorphic electronic systems.

    PubMed

    Stefanini, Fabio; Neftci, Emre O; Sheik, Sadique; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Neuromorphic hardware offers an electronic substrate for the realization of asynchronous event-based sensory-motor systems and large-scale spiking neural network architectures. In order to characterize these systems, configure them, and carry out modeling experiments, it is often necessary to interface them to workstations. The software used for this purpose typically consists of a large monolithic block of code which is highly specific to the hardware setup used. While this approach can lead to highly integrated hardware/software systems, it hampers the development of modular and reconfigurable infrastructures thus preventing a rapid evolution of such systems. To alleviate this problem, we propose PyNCS, an open-source front-end for the definition of neural network models that is interfaced to the hardware through a set of Python Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). The design of PyNCS promotes modularity, portability and expandability and separates implementation from hardware description. The high-level front-end that comes with PyNCS includes tools to define neural network models as well as to create, monitor and analyze spiking data. Here we report the design philosophy behind the PyNCS framework and describe its implementation. We demonstrate its functionality with two representative case studies, one using an event-based neuromorphic vision sensor, and one using a set of multi-neuron devices for carrying out a cognitive decision-making task involving state-dependent computation. PyNCS, already applicable to a wide range of existing spike-based neuromorphic setups, will accelerate the development of hybrid software/hardware neuromorphic systems, thanks to its code flexibility. The code is open-source and available online at https://github.com/inincs/pyNCS.

  4. PyNCS: a microkernel for high-level definition and configuration of neuromorphic electronic systems.

    PubMed

    Stefanini, Fabio; Neftci, Emre O; Sheik, Sadique; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Neuromorphic hardware offers an electronic substrate for the realization of asynchronous event-based sensory-motor systems and large-scale spiking neural network architectures. In order to characterize these systems, configure them, and carry out modeling experiments, it is often necessary to interface them to workstations. The software used for this purpose typically consists of a large monolithic block of code which is highly specific to the hardware setup used. While this approach can lead to highly integrated hardware/software systems, it hampers the development of modular and reconfigurable infrastructures thus preventing a rapid evolution of such systems. To alleviate this problem, we propose PyNCS, an open-source front-end for the definition of neural network models that is interfaced to the hardware through a set of Python Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). The design of PyNCS promotes modularity, portability and expandability and separates implementation from hardware description. The high-level front-end that comes with PyNCS includes tools to define neural network models as well as to create, monitor and analyze spiking data. Here we report the design philosophy behind the PyNCS framework and describe its implementation. We demonstrate its functionality with two representative case studies, one using an event-based neuromorphic vision sensor, and one using a set of multi-neuron devices for carrying out a cognitive decision-making task involving state-dependent computation. PyNCS, already applicable to a wide range of existing spike-based neuromorphic setups, will accelerate the development of hybrid software/hardware neuromorphic systems, thanks to its code flexibility. The code is open-source and available online at https://github.com/inincs/pyNCS. PMID:25232314

  5. An Auto-Configuration System for the GMSEC Architecture and API

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moholt, Joseph; Mayorga, Arturo

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on an automated configuration concept for The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) architecture and Application Program Interface (API) is shown. The topics include: 1) The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC); 2) Automated Configuration Concept; 3) Implementation Approach; and 4) Key Components and Benefits.

  6. Proposal of adaptive wireless cell configuration for RoF-DAS over WDM-PON system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakuni, Tatsuhiko; Miyamoto, Kenji; Higashino, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Katsutoshi; Komaki, Shozo; Tashiro, Takayoshi; Fukada, Youichi; Kani, Jun-ichi; Yoshimoto, Naoto; Iwatsuki, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Radio on fiber (RoF) - distributed antenna system (DAS) over wavelength division multiplexing - passive optical network (WDM-PON) with multiple - input multiple - output (MIMO) has been proposed as a next generation radio access network (RAN). This system employs optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) over one WDM channel to multiplex and transmit various types of wireless interfaces such as 3.9G, Wireless LAN and WiMAX. A combination of star and bus topologies has employed to cover a wider service area. The optical transmission loss is caused notably at remote base stations (RBSs) quipped on a WDM bus link. The loss is relatively small, but at the RBS far from the center station (CS), the RBS suffers the large accumulated loss, so the reduction of cell size provides the increasing of the number of RBSs, causes the degradation of the SNR of RoF link. This paper addresses this trade-off problem, and considers the application to the actual service area by the channel capacity investigation of RoF-DAS over WDM-PON with computer simulation. Then, this paper focuses on the flexibility of RoF-DAS over WDM-PON, considers the adaptive wireless cell configuration according to population fluctuations of day and night, or densely populated areas and sparsely populated areas, respectively.

  7. Thomson scattering system on the TEXTOR tokamak using a multi-pass laser beam configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantor, M Yu; Donné, A J H; Jaspers, R; van der Meiden, H J; TEXTOR Team

    2009-05-01

    The main challenge for the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic on the TEXTOR tokamak is the detailed study of fast plasma events at a high spatial resolution and a high repetition rate of the measurements. The diagnostic uses intra-cavity probing of the plasma with a repetitively pulsed ruby laser and a fast CMOS camera as detectors. Since 2004, the TS system on TEXTOR has been gradually and systematically enhanced for the measurements of fast plasma events. For that it has recently been upgraded to obtain a multi-pass configuration. Two spherical mirrors have been installed that force the laser beam to probe the plasma a specified number of times before it is directed back into the laser medium. The diagnostics with the upgraded probing system have achieved the measurement accuracy of 3% for the electron temperature and 1.5% for the electron density at <1 cm spatial resolution and 3 × 1019 m-3 plasma density and can measure at 5 kHz during an interval up to 8 ms. This makes it possible to detect, amongst others, fine structures of magnetic islands and variations of the edge pedestal in the ELMy limiter H-mode.

  8. Tomographic imaging system for measuring impurity line emission in a field-reversed configuration.

    PubMed

    Roche, T; Bolte, N; Garate, E; Heidbrink, W W; McWilliams, R; Wessel, F

    2012-10-01

    A 16 chord optical tomography system has been developed and implemented in the flux coil generated-field reversed configuration (FRC). The chords are arranged in two fans of eight, which cover ~35% of the vessel area at the midplane. Each illuminate separate photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) which are fitted with narrow band-pass filters. In this case, filters are centered at 434.8 nm to measure emission from singly ionized argon. PMT crosstalk is negligible. Background noise due to electron radiation and H(γ) line radiation is <10% of argon emission. The spatial resolution of the reconstruction is 1.5 cm. Argon is introduced using a puff valve and tube designed to impart the gas into the system as the FRC is forming. Reconstruction of experimental data results in time-dependent, 2D emissivity profiles of the impurity ions. Analysis of these data show radial, cross-field diffusion to be in the range of 10-10(3) m(2)∕s during FRC equilibrium.

  9. Tomographic imaging system for measuring impurity line emission in a field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, T.; Heidbrink, W. W.; McWilliams, R.; Bolte, N.; Garate, E.; Wessel, F.

    2012-10-15

    A 16 chord optical tomography system has been developed and implemented in the flux coil generated-field reversed configuration (FRC). The chords are arranged in two fans of eight, which cover {approx}35% of the vessel area at the midplane. Each illuminate separate photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) which are fitted with narrow band-pass filters. In this case, filters are centered at 434.8 nm to measure emission from singly ionized argon. PMT crosstalk is negligible. Background noise due to electron radiation and H{sub {gamma}} line radiation is <10% of argon emission. The spatial resolution of the reconstruction is 1.5 cm. Argon is introduced using a puff valve and tube designed to impart the gas into the system as the FRC is forming. Reconstruction of experimental data results in time-dependent, 2D emissivity profiles of the impurity ions. Analysis of these data show radial, cross-field diffusion to be in the range of 10-10{sup 3} m{sup 2}/s during FRC equilibrium.

  10. Control Synthesis for a Class of Hybrid Systems Subject to Configuration-Based Safety Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, Michael; Lin, Feng; Meyer, George

    1997-01-01

    We examine a class of hybrid systems which we call Composite Hybrid Machines (CHM's) that consists of the concurrent (and partially synchronized) operation of Elementary Hybrid Machines (EHM's). Legal behavior, specified by a set of illegal configurations that the CHM may not enter, is to be achieved by the concurrent operation of the CHM with a suitably designed legal controller. In the present paper we focus on the problem of synthesizing a legal controller, whenever such a controller exists. More specifically, we address the problem of synthesizing the minimally restrictive legal controller. A controller is minimally restrictive if, when composed to operate concurrently with another legal controller, it will never interfere with the operation of the other controller and, therefore, can be composed to operate concurrently with any other controller that may be designed to achieve liveness specifications or optimality requirements without the need to reinvestigate or reverify legality of the composite controller. We confine our attention to a special class of CHM's where system dynamics is rate-limited and legal guards are conjunctions or disjunctions of atomic formulas in the dynamic variables (of the type x less than or equal to x(sub 0), or x greater than or equal to x(sub 0)). We present an algorithm for synthesis of the minimally restrictive legal controller. We demonstrate our approach by synthesizing a minimally restrictive controller for a steam boiler (the verification of which recently received a great deal of attention).

  11. The Influence of Rotor Configurations on the Energy Production in an Array of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzel, Matthias; Araya, Daniel; Dabiri, John

    2012-11-01

    We analyze the flow field within an array of 18 vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) at full-scale and under natural wind conditions. The emphasis is on the energy flux into the turbine array and the energy extraction by the turbines. The wind velocities throughout the turbine array are measured using a portable meteorological tower with seven, vertically-staggered, three-component ultrasonic anemometers. These measurements yield a detailed insight into the turbine wakes and the recovery of the flow. A high planform kinetic energy flux is detected, which enables the flow velocities to return to 95% of the upwind value within six rotor diameters downwind from a turbine row. This is significantly faster than the recovery behind a typical horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). The Presentation will compare the results for different rotor configurations. Conclusions will be drawn about the influence of these configurations on the power production of the individual turbines as well as the turbine array as a whole. The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation Energy for Sustainability program (Grant No. CBET-0725164) and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  12. Modeling and characterization of electret based vibration energy harvesters in slot-effect configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, M.; Altena, G.; Elfrink, R.; Goedbloed, M.; de Nooijer, C.; van Schaijk, R.

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to elaborate a model and the optimization guidelines for electret based harvesters with a specific electret/electrodes configuration, namely the slot-effect configuration. Slot-effect configured harvesters have been investigated experimentally by several research groups. A model describing their dynamic behavior has also been recently proposed in the literature. However, the simplifications used in the existing model can lead to inaccuracies and a refined analysis is elaborated in the present article. The model is compared with experimental measurements on MEMS fabricated devices with a corrugated electret. The electrodes dimensioning in the MEMS device are chosen so that the harvester behaves in a quasi-linear manner over its full range of displacement. This quasi-linearity simplifies greatly the device optimization. Indeed, the behavior of the developed electrostatic harvester is shown to be very comparable to that of piezoelectric harvesters, which are very well understood and documented. The influence of several design parameters on output power performance is investigated. As long as pull-in and breakdown voltage effects can be avoided, the electret surface potential should be maximized and the air gap minimized. We also investigate theoretically the influence of three types of electret on the generated power: planar, corrugated with partial charge coverage, and corrugated with full charge coverage. With the dimensions corresponding to our MEMS devices, the output power characteristics for the three types of electret are similar. However, it is shown that this is not always true. In some conditions, corrugated electrets with full charge coverage are detrimental for the generated power.

  13. Energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, L.M.

    1985-09-16

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

  14. Energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1987-01-01

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.

  15. Energy Production Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in energy production systems is one of 15 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  16. About the Influence of the Magnetic Field Configuration on the Levitation Characteristics of the System Superconductor - Array of Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolaev, Yu. S.; Rudnev, I. A.

    2014-07-01

    Interaction of a superconductor with an array of magnets having different orientations of the magnetization vector is theoretically investigated. Based on a critical state model, the interaction force arising in the system superconductor - array of magnets is calculated by the method of finite elements. Optimal configurations of the magnetic system are established in which maximum values of both attractive and repulsive forces are created.

  17. Is That a Y or a...? Representation of Hand Configuration Data in Different Notation Systems for Child Acquisition of ASL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochgesang, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    In my dissertation, I examine four notation systems used to represent hand configurations in child acquisition of signed languages. Linguists have long recognized the descriptive limitations of Stokoe notation, currently the most commonly used system for phonetic or phonological transcription, but continue using it because of its widespread…

  18. System configuration management plan for the TWRS controlled baseline database system [TCBD

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, S.G.

    1998-09-23

    LHMC, TWRS Business Management Organization (BMO) is designated as system owner, operator, and maintenance authority. The TWAS BMO identified the need for the TCBD. The TWRS BMO users have established all requirements for the database and are responsible for maintaining database integrity and control (after the interface data has been received). Initial interface data control and integrity is maintained through functional and administrative processes and is the responsibility of the database owners who are providing the data. The specific groups within the TWRS BMO affected by this plan are the Financial Management and TWRS Management Support Project, Master Planning, and the Financial Control Integration and Reporting. The interfaces between these organizations are through normal line management chain of command. The Master Planning Group is assigned the responsibility to continue development and maintenance of the TCBD. This group maintains information that includes identification of requirements and changes to those requirements in a TCBD project file. They are responsible for the issuance, maintenance, and change authority of this SCW. LHMC, TWRS TCBD Users are designated as providing the project`s requirement changes for implementation and also testing of the TCBD during development. The Master Planning Group coordinates and monitors the user`s requests for system requirements (new/existing) as well as beta and acceptance testing. Users are those individuals and organizations needing data or information from the TCBD and having both a need-to-know and the proper training and authority to access the database. Each user or user organization is required to comply with the established requirements and procedures governing the TCBD. Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. (LMSI) is designated the TCBD developer, maintainer, and custodian until acceptance and process testing of the system has been completed via the TWRS BMO. Once this occurs, the TCBD will be completed and

  19. Ab initio characterization of electron transfer coupling in photoinduced systems: generalized Mulliken-Hush with configuration-interaction singles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Cheng; Hsu, Chao-Ping

    2005-12-29

    To calculate electronic couplings for photoinduced electron transfer (ET) reactions, we propose and test the use of ab initio quantum chemistry calculation for excited states with the generalized Mulliken-Hush (GMH) method. Configuration-interaction singles (CIS) is proposed to model the locally excited (LE) and charge-transfer (CT) states. When the CT state couples with other high lying LE states, affecting coupling values, the image charge approximation (ICA), as a simple solvent model, can lower the energy of the CT state and decouple the undesired high-lying local excitations. We found that coupling strength is weakly dependent on many details of the solvent model, indicating the validity of the Condon approximation. Therefore, a trustworthy value can be obtained via this CIS-GMH scheme, with ICA used as a tool to improve and monitor the quality of the results. Systems we tested included a series of rigid, sigma-linked donor-bridge-acceptor compounds where "through-bond" coupling has been previously investigated, and a pair of molecules where "through-space" coupling was experimentally demonstrated. The calculated results agree well with experimentally inferred values in the coupling magnitudes (for both systems studied) and in the exponential distance dependence (for the through-bond series). Our results indicate that this new scheme can properly account for ET coupling arising from both through-bond and through-space mechanisms.

  20. An Operational Configuration of the ARPS Data Analysis System to Initialize WRF in the NM'S Environmental Modeling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan; Blottman, Pete; Hoeth, Brian; Oram, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is the next generation community mesoscale model designed to enhance collaboration between the research and operational sectors. The NM'S as a whole has begun a transition toward WRF as the mesoscale model of choice to use as a tool in making local forecasts. Currently, both the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) are running the Advanced Regional Prediction System (AIRPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) every 15 minutes over the Florida peninsula to produce high-resolution diagnostics supporting their daily operations. In addition, the NWS MLB and SMG have used ADAS to provide initial conditions for short-range forecasts from the ARPS numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. Both NM'S MLB and SMG have derived great benefit from the maturity of ADAS, and would like to use ADAS for providing initial conditions to WRF. In order to assist in this WRF transition effort, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to configure and implement an operational version of WRF that uses output from ADAS for the model initial conditions. Both agencies asked the AMU to develop a framework that allows the ADAS initial conditions to be incorporated into the WRF Environmental Modeling System (EMS) software. Developed by the NM'S Science Operations Officer (S00) Science and Training Resource Center (STRC), the EMS is a complete, full physics, NWP package that incorporates dynamical cores from both the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Advanced Research WRF (ARW) and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction's Non-Hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM) into a single end-to-end forecasting system. The EMS performs nearly all pre- and postprocessing and can be run automatically to obtain external grid data for WRF boundary conditions, run the model, and convert the data into a format that can be readily viewed within the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

  1. Energy-band diagram configuration of Al2O3/oxygen-terminated p-diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maréchal, A.; Aoukar, M.; Vallée, C.; Rivière, C.; Eon, D.; Pernot, J.; Gheeraert, E.

    2015-10-01

    Diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors were prepared using atomic layer deposition at 250 °C of Al2O3 on oxygen-terminated boron doped (001) diamond. Their electrical properties were investigated in terms of capacitance and current versus voltage measurements. Performing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy based on the measured core level energies and valence band maxima, the interfacial energy band diagram configuration of the Al2O3/O-diamond is established. The band diagram alignment is concluded to be of type I with valence band offset Δ E v of 1.34 ± 0.2 eV and conduction band offset Δ E c of 0.56 ± 0.2 eV considering an Al2O3 energy band gap of 7.4 eV. The agreement with electrical measurement and the ability to perform a MOS transistor are discussed.

  2. Development of a Dynamically Configurable, Object-Oriented Framework for Distributed, Multi-modal Computational Aerospace Systems Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afjeh, Abdollah A.; Reed, John A.

    2003-01-01

    The following reports are presented on this project:A first year progress report on: Development of a Dynamically Configurable,Object-Oriented Framework for Distributed, Multi-modal Computational Aerospace Systems Simulation; A second year progress report on: Development of a Dynamically Configurable, Object-Oriented Framework for Distributed, Multi-modal Computational Aerospace Systems Simulation; An Extensible, Interchangeable and Sharable Database Model for Improving Multidisciplinary Aircraft Design; Interactive, Secure Web-enabled Aircraft Engine Simulation Using XML Databinding Integration; and Improving the Aircraft Design Process Using Web-based Modeling and Simulation.

  3. Configurations of power relations in the Brazilian emergency care system: analyzing a context of visible practices.

    PubMed

    Velloso, Isabela; Ceci, Christine; Alves, Marilia

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we make explicit the changing configurations of power relations that currently characterize the Brazilian Emergency Care System (SAMU) team in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The SAMU is a recent innovation in Brazilian healthcare service delivery. A qualitative case study methodology was used to explore SAMU's current organizational arrangements, specifically the power relations that have developed and that demonstrate internal team struggles over space and defense of particular occupational interests. The argument advanced in this paper is that these professionals are developing their work in conditions of exposure, that is, they are always being observed by someone, and that such observational exposure provides the conditions whereby everyday emergency care practices are enacted such that practice is shaped by, as well as shapes, particular, yet recognizable power relationships. Data were collected through the observation of the SAMU's work processes and through semi-structured interviews. Research materials were analyzed using discourse analysis. In the emergency care process of work, visibility is actually embedded in the disciplinary context and can thus be analyzed as a technique applied to produce disciplined individuals through the simple mechanisms elaborated by Foucault such as hierarchical surveillance, normalizing judgment, and the examination.

  4. Noise property of a four-level system in vee + ladder configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Ying; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yang, Rong-Can

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of a theoretical study of the output amplitude noises of a four-level atomic system in vee + ladder configuration. The difference and connection of electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting effects are investigated theoretically. The output amplitude noise of the probe field of two effects were compared, the quantum properties of the input field of the thin medium and the thick medium under Autler-Townes splitting or electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) condition are maintained, the higher fidelity is obtained in the storage of the thick medium under the condition of EIT in non-classical states. The noise characteristics of the squeezed vacuum field after four-level coherent medium are studied; the noise of the output field is lowest when the detection light is far away from detuning. The double split of EIT window was made by the dynamic Stark splitting on the ground state of control field, the quantum properties of the input field in the strong-control field and strong-coupling field were maintained. The output noise spectrum is divided with the increase in the field strength, the maximum output squeezing is far away from the resonance.

  5. Configurations of power relations in the Brazilian emergency care system: analyzing a context of visible practices.

    PubMed

    Velloso, Isabela; Ceci, Christine; Alves, Marilia

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we make explicit the changing configurations of power relations that currently characterize the Brazilian Emergency Care System (SAMU) team in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The SAMU is a recent innovation in Brazilian healthcare service delivery. A qualitative case study methodology was used to explore SAMU's current organizational arrangements, specifically the power relations that have developed and that demonstrate internal team struggles over space and defense of particular occupational interests. The argument advanced in this paper is that these professionals are developing their work in conditions of exposure, that is, they are always being observed by someone, and that such observational exposure provides the conditions whereby everyday emergency care practices are enacted such that practice is shaped by, as well as shapes, particular, yet recognizable power relationships. Data were collected through the observation of the SAMU's work processes and through semi-structured interviews. Research materials were analyzed using discourse analysis. In the emergency care process of work, visibility is actually embedded in the disciplinary context and can thus be analyzed as a technique applied to produce disciplined individuals through the simple mechanisms elaborated by Foucault such as hierarchical surveillance, normalizing judgment, and the examination. PMID:22591246

  6. Size-extensivity-corrected multireference configuration interaction schemes to accurately predict bond dissociation energies of oxygenated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Oyeyemi, Victor B.; Krisiloff, David B.; Keith, John A.; Libisch, Florian; Pavone, Michele; Carter, Emily A.

    2014-01-28

    Oxygenated hydrocarbons play important roles in combustion science as renewable fuels and additives, but many details about their combustion chemistry remain poorly understood. Although many methods exist for computing accurate electronic energies of molecules at equilibrium geometries, a consistent description of entire combustion reaction potential energy surfaces (PESs) requires multireference correlated wavefunction theories. Here we use bond dissociation energies (BDEs) as a foundational metric to benchmark methods based on multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) for several classes of oxygenated compounds (alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and methyl esters). We compare results from multireference singles and doubles configuration interaction to those utilizing a posteriori and a priori size-extensivity corrections, benchmarked against experiment and coupled cluster theory. We demonstrate that size-extensivity corrections are necessary for chemically accurate BDE predictions even in relatively small molecules and furnish examples of unphysical BDE predictions resulting from using too-small orbital active spaces. We also outline the specific challenges in using MRCI methods for carbonyl-containing compounds. The resulting complete basis set extrapolated, size-extensivity-corrected MRCI scheme produces BDEs generally accurate to within 1 kcal/mol, laying the foundation for this scheme's use on larger molecules and for more complex regions of combustion PESs.

  7. Size-extensivity-corrected multireference configuration interaction schemes to accurately predict bond dissociation energies of oxygenated hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyeyemi, Victor B.; Krisiloff, David B.; Keith, John A.; Libisch, Florian; Pavone, Michele; Carter, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxygenated hydrocarbons play important roles in combustion science as renewable fuels and additives, but many details about their combustion chemistry remain poorly understood. Although many methods exist for computing accurate electronic energies of molecules at equilibrium geometries, a consistent description of entire combustion reaction potential energy surfaces (PESs) requires multireference correlated wavefunction theories. Here we use bond dissociation energies (BDEs) as a foundational metric to benchmark methods based on multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) for several classes of oxygenated compounds (alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and methyl esters). We compare results from multireference singles and doubles configuration interaction to those utilizing a posteriori and a priori size-extensivity corrections, benchmarked against experiment and coupled cluster theory. We demonstrate that size-extensivity corrections are necessary for chemically accurate BDE predictions even in relatively small molecules and furnish examples of unphysical BDE predictions resulting from using too-small orbital active spaces. We also outline the specific challenges in using MRCI methods for carbonyl-containing compounds. The resulting complete basis set extrapolated, size-extensivity-corrected MRCI scheme produces BDEs generally accurate to within 1 kcal/mol, laying the foundation for this scheme's use on larger molecules and for more complex regions of combustion PESs.

  8. Environmental swap energy and role of configurational entropy in transfer of small molecules from water into alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smejtek, Pavel; Word, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effect of segmented solvent molecules on the free energy of transfer of small molecules from water into alkanes (hexane, heptane, octane, decane, dodecane, tetradecane, and hexadecane). For these alkanes we measured partition coefficients of benzene, 3-methylindole (3MI), 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (TeCP), and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TriBP) at 3, 11, 20, 3, and 47 °C. For 3MI, TeCP, and TriBP the dependence of free energy of transfer on length of alkane chains was found to be very different from that for benzene. In contrast to benzene, the energy of transfer for 3MI, TeCP, and TriBP was independent of the number of carbons in alkanes. To interpret data, we used the classic Flory-Huggins (FH) theory of concentrated polymer solutions for the alkane phase. For benzene, the measured dependence of energy of transfer on the number of carbons in alkanes agreed well with predictions based on FH model in which the size of alkane segments was obtained from the ratio of molar volumes of alkanes and the solute. We show that for benzene, the energy of transfer can be divided into two components, one called environmental swap energy (ESE), and one representing the contribution of configurational entropy of alkane chains. For 3MI, TeCP, and TriBP the contribution of configurational entropy was not measurable even though the magnitude of the effect predicted from the FH model for short chain alkanes was as much as 20 times greater than experimental uncertainties. From the temperature dependence of ESE we obtained enthalpy and entropy of transfer for benzene, 3MI, TeCP, and TriBP. Experimental results are discussed in terms of a thermodynamic cycle considering creation of cavity, insertion of solute, and activation of solute-medium attractive interactions. Our results suggest that correcting experimental free energy of transfer by Flory-Huggins configurational entropy term is not generally appropriate and cannot be applied indiscriminately.

  9. Assessing District Energy Systems Performance Integrated with Multiple Thermal Energy Storages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz

    The goal of this study is to examine various energy resources in district energy (DE) systems and then DE system performance development by means of multiple thermal energy storages (TES) application. This study sheds light on areas not yet investigated precisely in detail. Throughout the research, major components of the heat plant, energy suppliers of the DE systems, and TES characteristics are separately examined; integration of various configurations of the multiple TESs in the DE system is then analysed. In the first part of the study, various sources of energy are compared, in a consistent manner, financially and environmentally. The TES performance is then assessed from various aspects. Then, TES(s) and DE systems with several sources of energy are integrated, and are investigated as a heat process centre. The most efficient configurations of the multiple TESs integrated with the DE system are investigated. Some of the findings of this study are applied on an actual DE system. The outcomes of this study provide insight for researchers and engineers who work in this field, as well as policy makers and project managers who are decision-makers. The accomplishments of the study are original developments TESs and DE systems. As an original development the Enviro-Economic Function, to balance the economic and environmental aspects of energy resources technologies in DE systems, is developed; various configurations of multiple TESs, including series, parallel, and general grid, are developed. The developed related functions are discharge temperature and energy of the TES, and energy and exergy efficiencies of the TES. The TES charging and discharging behavior of TES instantaneously is also investigated to obtain the charging temperature, the maximum charging temperature, the charging energy flow, maximum heat flow capacity, the discharging temperature, the minimum charging temperature, the discharging energy flow, the maximum heat flow capacity, and performance

  10. Evaluation of piezoelectret foam in a multilayer stack configuration for low-level vibration energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Chase A.; Anton, Steven R.

    2015-04-01

    Electronic devices are high demand commodities in today's world, and such devices will continue increasing in popularity. Currently, batteries are implemented to provide power to these devices; however, the need for battery replacement, their cost, and the waste associated with battery disposal present a need for advances in self-powered technology. Energy harvesting technology has great potential to alleviate the drawbacks of batteries. In this work, a novel piezoelectret foam material is investigated for low-level energy harvesting. Specifically, piezoelectret foam assembled in a multilayer stack configuration is explored. Modeling and experimentation of the stack behavior when excited in compression at low frequencies are performed to investigate piezoelectret foam as a multilayer energy harvester. An examination of modeling piezoelectret foam as a stack with an equivalent circuit is made following recently published work and is used in this study. A 20-layer prototype device is fabricated and experimentally tested via harmonic base excitation. Electromechanical testing is performed by compressing the foam stack to obtain output electrical energy; consequently, allowing the frequency response between input mechanical energy and output electrical energy to be developed. Modeling results are compared to the experimental measurements to assess the fidelity of the model. Lastly, energy harvesting experimentation in which the device is subject to harmonic base excitation at the natural frequency is conducted to determine the ability of the piezoelectret foam stack to successfully charge a capacitor.

  11. Modeling-based optimization study for an EDXRD system in a portable configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterzol, Angela; Duvauchelle, Philippe; Kaftandjian, Valérie; Ponard, Pascal

    2011-10-01

    Energy-Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (EDXRD) is well suited for the detection of narcotics and a wide range of explosives. This technique, combined with the dual-energy tomosynthesis, has been used for verification of a novel portable imaging system, the aim of which is characterization of dangerous/illicit materials inside objects. We present the design methodology and optimization study using EDXRD modality. In order to evaluate the experimental conditions best suited for system purposes, kinematic theory of diffraction has been exploited to model the height and shape of diffraction patterns. From the simulation-based analysis a diffraction angle of 2.75°±0.10° and an X-ray tube voltage ≤160 kV have been selected.

  12. Autonomous self-configuration of artificial neural networks for data classification or system control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Wolfgang

    2009-05-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are powerful methods for the classification of multi-dimensional data as well as for the control of dynamic systems. In general terms, ANNs consist of neurons that are, e.g., arranged in layers and interconnected by real-valued or binary neural couplings or weights. ANNs try mimicking the processing taking place in biological brains. The classification and generalization capabilities of ANNs are given by the interconnection architecture and the coupling strengths. To perform a certain classification or control task with a particular ANN architecture (i.e., number of neurons, number of layers, etc.), the inter-neuron couplings and their accordant coupling strengths must be determined (1) either by a priori design (i.e., manually) or (2) using training algorithms such as error back-propagation. The more complex the classification or control task, the less obvious it is how to determine an a priori design of an ANN, and, as a consequence, the architecture choice becomes somewhat arbitrary. Furthermore, rather than being able to determine for a given architecture directly the corresponding coupling strengths necessary to perform the classification or control task, these have to be obtained/learned through training of the ANN on test data. We report on the use of a Stochastic Optimization Framework (SOF; Fink, SPIE 2008) for the autonomous self-configuration of Artificial Neural Networks (i.e., the determination of number of hidden layers, number of neurons per hidden layer, interconnections between neurons, and respective coupling strengths) for performing classification or control tasks. This may provide an approach towards cognizant and self-adapting computing architectures and systems.

  13. Classified computer configuration control system (C{sup 4}S), revision 3, user`s information

    SciTech Connect

    O`Callaghan, P.B.; Nelson, R.A.; Grambihler, A.J.

    1994-04-01

    The Classified Computer Configuration Control System (C{sup 4}S) allows security management to track pertinent information concerning classified computer systems in the scope of their control. Information is entered by the level security manager that is closest to the classified computer system. Managers that are further removed from systems can have consolidated information made available to them. C{sup 4}S can be used to generate reports that are as current as the last information that was entered into the database. C{sup 4}S offers data entry, data display, and data reporting. The user interface uses menus, entry forms, the mouse, and Hot Keys. C{sup 4}S provides help windows that are available at any time by pressing the F1 key. C{sup 4}S has help for each menu, data entry form, and general program information. You can browse a help window by pressing the arrows, page up, or page down keys. You control C{sup 4}S with program options selected from pull-down menus. You {open_quotes}select{close_quotes} by moving a highlight bar up and down or across the menu and pressing enter on one of the options. The highlight bar is moved using the arrow keys, mouse, or selection letters. Notice that a letter of each menu option is a different color from the other letters. This is the selection letter for that option. If you press the selection letter, the highlight bar will move to that option. You can also use a mouse to move the highlight bar to the option by moving the mouse pointer to the option and pressing the mouse button. Explanation of menu options or entry fields appear at the bottom of the screen. These explanations should help you use C{sup 4}S. If you need more help, it is available by pressing F1. C{sup 4}S will bring up a help window for the particular option you are working with. The authors of the program are P.B. O`Callaghan, A. J. Grambihler, and R.A. Nelson.

  14. A shadowgraph study of the National Launch System's 1 1/2 stage vehicle configuration and Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle configuration. [Using the Marshall Space Flight Center's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokora, Darlene C.; Springer, Anthony M.

    1994-01-01

    A shadowgraph study of the National Launch System's (NLS's) 1 1/2 stage and heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) configurations is presented. Shadowgraphs are shown for the range of Mach numbers from Mach 0.6 to 5.0 at various angles-of-attack and roll angles. Since the 1 1/2 stage configuration is generally symmetric, no shadowgraphs of any roll angle are shown for this configuration. The major flow field phenomena over the NLS 1 1/2 stage and HLLV configurations are shown in the shadowgraphs. These shadowgraphs are used in the aerothermodynamic analysis of the external flow conditions the launch vehicle would encounter during the ascent stage of flight. The shadowgraphs presented in this study were obtained from configurations tested in the Marshall Space Flight Center's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel during 1992.

  15. Design, performance, and analysis of an aquifer thermal-energy-storage experiment using the doublet-well configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Molz, F.J.; Melville, J.G.; Gueven, O.; Parr, A.D.

    1983-09-01

    In March 1980 Auburn University began series of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) experiments using the doublet well configuration. The test site was in Mobile, Alabama. The objectives of the three experimental cycles were to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the ATES concept, to identify and resolve operational problems, and to acquire a data base for developing and testing mathematical models. Pre-injection tests were performed and analyses of hydraulic, geochemical, and thermodynamic data were completed. Three injection-storage-recovery cycles had injection volumes of 25,402 m/sup 3/, 58,010 m/sup 3/, and 58,680 m/sup 3/ and average injection temperatures of 58.5/sup 0/C, 81.0/sup 0/C, and 79.0/sup 0/C, respectively. The first cycle injection began in February 1981 and the third cycle recovery was completed in November 1982. Attributable to the doublet well configuration no clogging of injection wells occurred. Energy recovery percentages based on recovery volumes equal to the injection volumes were 56, 45, and 42%. Thermal convection effects were observed. Aquifer nonhomogeneity, not detectable using standard aquifer testing procedures, was shown to reduce recovery efficiency.

  16. Measurement of the atmospheric muon neutrino energy spectrum with IceCube in the 79- and 86-String configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhe, T.; Scheriau, F.; Schmitz, M.

    2016-04-01

    IceCube is a neutrino telescope with an instrumented volume of one cubic kilometer. A total of 5160 Digital Optical Modules (DOMs) is deployed on 86 strings forming a three dimensional detector array. Although primarily designed for the detection of neutrinos from astrophysical sources, the detector can be used for spectral measurements of atmospheric neutrinos. These spectral measurements are hindered by a dominant background of atmospheric muons. State-of-the-art techniques from Machine Learning and Data Mining are required to select a high-purity sample of atmospheric neutrino candidates. The energy spectrum of muon neutrinos is obtained from energy-dependent input variables by utilizing regularized unfolding. The results obtained using IceCube in the 79- and 86-string configuration are presented in this paper.

  17. The Research Mission of Universities of Applied Sciences and the Future Configuration of Higher Education Systems in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepori, Benedetto; Kyvik, Svein

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of the development of research in universities of applied sciences (UAS) in eight European countries and its implications for the configuration of the higher education system. The enhancement of research has mostly been seen as a case of academic drift where UAS attempt to become more similar to…

  18. Spectroscopy of nitrophenolates in vacuo: effect of spacer, configuration, and microsolvation on the charge-transfer excitation energy.

    PubMed

    Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen; Brøndsted Nielsen, Mogens; Rubio, Angel

    2014-04-15

    In a charge-transfer (CT) transition, electron density moves from one end of the molecule (donor) to the other end (acceptor). This type of transition is of paramount importance in nature, for example, in photosynthesis, and it governs the excitation of several protein biochromophores and luminophores such as the oxyluciferin anion that accounts for light emission from fireflies. Both transition energy and oscillator strength are linked to the coupling between the donor and acceptor groups: The weaker the coupling, the smaller the excitation energy. But a weak coupling necessarily also causes a low oscillator strength possibly preventing direct excitation (basically zero probability in the noncoupling case). The coupling is determined by the actual spacer between the two groups, and whether the spacer acts as an insulator or a conductor. However, it can be difficult or even impossible to distinguish the effect of the spacer from that of local solvent molecules that often cause large solvent shifts due to different ground-state and excited-state stabilization. This calls for gas-phase spectroscopy experiments where absorption by the isolated molecule is identified to unequivocally establish the intrinsic molecular properties with no perturbations from a microenvironment. From such insight, the effect of a protein microenvironment on the CT excited state can be deduced. In this Account, we review our results over the last 5 years from mass spectroscopy experiments using specially designed apparatus on several charged donor-acceptor ions that are based on the nitrophenolate moiety and π-extended derivatives, which are textbook examples of donor-acceptor chromophores. The phenolate oxygen is the donor, and the nitro group is the acceptor. The choice of this system is also based on the fact that phenolate is a common structural motif of biochromophores and luminophores, for example, it is a constituent of the oxyluciferin anion. A presentation of the setups used for

  19. Spectroscopy of nitrophenolates in vacuo: effect of spacer, configuration, and microsolvation on the charge-transfer excitation energy.

    PubMed

    Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen; Brøndsted Nielsen, Mogens; Rubio, Angel

    2014-04-15

    In a charge-transfer (CT) transition, electron density moves from one end of the molecule (donor) to the other end (acceptor). This type of transition is of paramount importance in nature, for example, in photosynthesis, and it governs the excitation of several protein biochromophores and luminophores such as the oxyluciferin anion that accounts for light emission from fireflies. Both transition energy and oscillator strength are linked to the coupling between the donor and acceptor groups: The weaker the coupling, the smaller the excitation energy. But a weak coupling necessarily also causes a low oscillator strength possibly preventing direct excitation (basically zero probability in the noncoupling case). The coupling is determined by the actual spacer between the two groups, and whether the spacer acts as an insulator or a conductor. However, it can be difficult or even impossible to distinguish the effect of the spacer from that of local solvent molecules that often cause large solvent shifts due to different ground-state and excited-state stabilization. This calls for gas-phase spectroscopy experiments where absorption by the isolated molecule is identified to unequivocally establish the intrinsic molecular properties with no perturbations from a microenvironment. From such insight, the effect of a protein microenvironment on the CT excited state can be deduced. In this Account, we review our results over the last 5 years from mass spectroscopy experiments using specially designed apparatus on several charged donor-acceptor ions that are based on the nitrophenolate moiety and π-extended derivatives, which are textbook examples of donor-acceptor chromophores. The phenolate oxygen is the donor, and the nitro group is the acceptor. The choice of this system is also based on the fact that phenolate is a common structural motif of biochromophores and luminophores, for example, it is a constituent of the oxyluciferin anion. A presentation of the setups used for

  20. Aerothermal loads analysis for high speed flow over a quilted surface configuration. [metallic Thermal Protection System panels simulation for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, G. C.; Smith, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to hypersonic laminar flow over a quilted surface configuration that simulates an array of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System panels bowed in a spherical shape as a result of thermal gradients through the panel thickness. Pressure and heating loads to the surface are determined. The flow field over the configuration was mathematically modeled by means of time-dependent, three-dimensional conservation of mass, momentum, and energy equations. A boundary mapping technique was then used to obtain a rectangular, parallelepiped computational domain, and an explicit MacCormack (1972) explicit time-split predictor-corrector finite difference algorithm was used to obtain steady state solutions. Total integrated heating loads vary linearly with bowed height when this value does not exceed the local boundary layer thickness.

  1. Emergent Systems Energy Laws for Predicting Myosin Ensemble Processivity

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Paul; Moore, Jeffrey; Schunn, Christian; Cagan, Jonathan; LeDuc, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In complex systems with stochastic components, systems laws often emerge that describe higher level behavior regardless of lower level component configurations. In this paper, emergent laws for describing mechanochemical systems are investigated for processive myosin-actin motility systems. On the basis of prior experimental evidence that longer processive lifetimes are enabled by larger myosin ensembles, it is hypothesized that emergent scaling laws could coincide with myosin-actin contact probability or system energy consumption. Because processivity is difficult to predict analytically and measure experimentally, agent-based computational techniques are developed to simulate processive myosin ensembles and produce novel processive lifetime measurements. It is demonstrated that only systems energy relationships hold regardless of isoform configurations or ensemble size, and a unified expression for predicting processive lifetime is revealed. The finding of such laws provides insight for how patterns emerge in stochastic mechanochemical systems, while also informing understanding and engineering of complex biological systems. PMID:25885169

  2. Energy recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Albert S.; Verhoff, Francis H.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved wet air oxidation system and method for reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of waste water used from scrubbers of coal gasification plants, with this COD reduction being sufficient to effectively eliminate waste water as an environmental pollutant. The improvement of the present invention is provided by heating the air used in the oxidation process to a temperature substantially equal to the temperature in the oxidation reactor before compressing or pressurizing the air. The compression of the already hot air further heats the air which is then passed in heat exchange with gaseous products of the oxidation reaction for "superheating" the gaseous products prior to the use thereof in turbines as the driving fluid. The superheating of the gaseous products significantly minimizes condensation of gaseous products in the turbine so as to provide a substantially greater recovery of mechanical energy from the process than heretofore achieved.

  3. Wind energy conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Longrigg, P.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes a wind energy conversion system comprising: a propeller rotatable by force of wind; a generator of electricity mechanically coupled to the propeller for converting power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load; means coupled between the generator and the electric load for varying the electric power drawn by the electric load to alter the electric loading of the generator; means for electro-optically sensing the speed of the wind at a location upwind from the propeller; and means coupled between the sensing means and the power varying means for operating the power varying means to adjust the electric load of the generator in accordance with a sensed value of wind speed to thereby obtain a desired ratio of wind speed to the speed of a tip of a blade of the propeller.

  4. Technique for Configuring an Actively Cooled Thermal Shield in a Flight System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkfknecht, Peter; Mustafi, Shuvo

    2011-01-01

    Broad area cooling shields are a mass-efficient alternative to conductively cooled thermal radiation shielding. The shield would actively intercept a large portion of incident thermal radiation and transport the heat away using cryogenic helium gas. The design concept consists of a conductive and conformable surface that maximizes heat transfer and formability. Broad Area Cooled (BAC) shields could potentially provide considerable mass savings for spaceflight applications by eliminating the need for a rigid thermal radiation shield for cryogen tanks. The BAC consists of a network of capillary tubes that are thermally connected to a conductive shield material. Chilled helium gas is circulated through the network and transports unwanted heat away from the cryogen tanks. The cryogenic helium gas is pumped and chilled simultaneously using a specialized pulse-tube cryocooler, which further improves the mass efficiency of the system. By reducing the thermal environment temperature from 300 to 100 K, the radiative heat load on a cryogen tank could be reduced by an order of magnitude. For a cryogenic liquid propellant scenario of oxygen and hydrogen, the boiloff of hydrogen would be significantly reduced and completely eliminated for oxygen. A major challenge in implementing this technology on large tanks is that the BAC system must be easily scalable from lab demonstrations to full-scale missions. Also, the BAC shield must be conformable to complex shapes like spheres without losing the ability to maintain constant temperature throughout. The initial design maximizes thermal conductivity between the capillary tube and the conductive radiation shielding by using thin, corrugated aluminum foil with the tube running transverse to the folds. This configuration has the added benefit of enabling the foil to stretch and contract longitudinally. This allows the BAC to conform to the complex curvature of a cryogen tank, which is key to its success. To demonstrate a BAC shield

  5. A chimera grid scheme. [multiple overset body-conforming mesh system for finite difference adaptation to complex aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steger, J. L.; Dougherty, F. C.; Benek, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A mesh system composed of multiple overset body-conforming grids is described for adapting finite-difference procedures to complex aircraft configurations. In this so-called 'chimera mesh,' a major grid is generated about a main component of the configuration and overset minor grids are used to resolve all other features. Methods for connecting overset multiple grids and modifications of flow-simulation algorithms are discussed. Computational tests in two dimensions indicate that the use of multiple overset grids can simplify the task of grid generation without an adverse effect on flow-field algorithms and computer code complexity.

  6. Crystal Growth Furnace - An overview of the system configuration and planned experiments on the First United States Microgravity Laboratory mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivas, R.; Schaefer, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) system configuration for the First United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) mission is reviewed, and the planned on-orbit experiments are briefly described. The CGF is configured to accommodate four scientific experiments involving crystal growth which are based on the classical Bridgman method and CVT method, including vapor transport crystal growth of mercury cadmium telluride; crystal growth of mercury zinc telluride by directional solidification; seeded Bridgman growth of zinc-doped cadmium telluride; and Bridgman growth of selenium-doped gallium arsenide.

  7. Polynomial integrals of reversible mechanical systems with a two-dimensional torus as the configuration space

    SciTech Connect

    Denisova, N V; Kozlov, Valerii V

    2000-02-28

    The problem considered here is that of finding conditions ensuring that a reversible Hamiltonian system has integrals polynomial in momenta. The kinetic energy is a zero-curvature Riemannian metric and the potential a smooth function on a two-dimensional torus. It is known that the existence of integrals of degrees 1 and 2 is related to the existence of cyclic coordinates and the separation of variables. The following conjecture is also well known: if there exists an integral of degree n independent of the energy integral, then there exists an additional integral of degree 1 or 2. In the present paper this result is established for n = 3 (which generalizes a theorem of Byalyi), and for n = 4, 5, and 6 this is proved under some additional assumptions about the spectrum of the potential.

  8. Solar energy grid integration systems "SEGIS"

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-10-01

    The inevitable transformation of the electrical grid to a more distributed generation configuration requires solar system capabilities well beyond simple net-metered, grid-connected approaches. Time-of-use and peak-demand rate structures will require more sophisticated systems designs that integrate energy management and/or energy storage into the system architecture. Controlling power flow into and from the utility grid will be required to ensure grid reliability and power quality. Alternative protection strategies will also be required to accommodate large numbers of distributed energy sources. This document provides an overview of the R&D needs and describes some pathways to promising solutions. The solutions will, in many cases, require R&D of new components, innovative inverter/controllers, energy management systems, innovative energy storage and a suite of advanced control algorithms, technical methodologies, protocols and the associated communications. It is expected that these solutions will help to push the “advanced integrated system” and “smart grid” evolutionary processes forward in a faster but focused manner.

  9. Laser systems configured to output a spectrally-consolidated laser beam and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2012-01-10

    A laser apparatus includes a plurality of pumps each of which is configured to emit a corresponding pump laser beam having a unique peak wavelength. The laser apparatus includes a spectral beam combiner configured to combine the corresponding pump laser beams into a substantially spatially-coherent pump laser beam having a pump spectrum that includes the unique peak wavelengths, and first and second selectively reflective elements spaced from each other to define a lasing cavity including a lasing medium therein. The lasing medium generates a plurality of gain spectra responsive to absorbing the pump laser beam. Each gain spectrum corresponds to a respective one of the unique peak wavelengths of the substantially spatially-coherent pump laser beam and partially overlaps with all other ones of the gain spectra. The reflective elements are configured to promote emission of a laser beam from the lasing medium with a peak wavelength common to each gain spectrum.

  10. Modular transportable superconducting magnetic energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieurance, Dennis; Kimball, Foster; Rix, Craig

    1995-01-01

    Design and cost studies were performed for the magnet components of mid-size (1-5 MWh), cold supported SMES systems using alternative configurations. The configurations studied included solenoid magnets, which required onsite assembly of the magnet system, and toroid and racetrack configurations which consisted of factory assembled modules. For each configuration, design concepts and cost information were developed for the major features of the magnet system including the conductor, electrical insulation, and structure. These studies showed that for mid-size systems, the costs of solenoid and toroid magnet configurations are comparable and that the specific configuration to be used for a given application should be based upon customer requirements such as limiting stray fields or minimizing risks in development or construction.

  11. Modular transportable superconducting magnetic Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lieurance, D.; Kimball, F.; Rix, C.

    1994-12-31

    Design and cost studies were performed for the magnet components of mid-size (1-5 MWh), cold supported SMES systems using alternative configurations. The configurations studied included solenoid magnets, which required onsite assembly of the magnet system, and toroid and racetrack configurations which consisted of factory assembled modules. For each configuration, design concepts and cost information were developed for the major features of the magnet system including the conductor, electrical insulation, and structure. These studies showed that for mid-size systems, the costs of solenoid and toroid magnet configurations are comparable and that the specific configuration to be used for a given application should be based upon customer requirements such as limiting stray fields or minimizing risks in development or construction.

  12. Central American information system for energy planning

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, M.G.; Lyon, P.C.; Heskett, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    SICAPE (Sistema de Information Centroamericano para Planificacion Energetica) is an expandable information system designed for energy planning. Its objective is to satisfy ongoing information requirements by means of a menu driver operational environment. SICAPE is as easily used by the novice computer user as those with more experience. Moreover, the system is capable of evolving concurrently with future requirements of the individual country. The expansion is accomplished by menu restructuring as data and user requirements change. The new menu configurations require no programming effort. The use and modification of SICAPE are separate menu-driven processes that allow for rapid data query, minimal training, and effortless continued growth. SICAPE's data is organized by country or region. Information is available in the following areas: energy balance, macro economics, electricity generation capacity, and electricity and petroleum product pricing. (JF)

  13. Energy pooling upconversion in organic molecular systems.

    PubMed

    LaCount, Michael D; Weingarten, Daniel; Hu, Nan; Shaheen, Sean E; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Rumbles, Garry; Walba, David M; Lusk, Mark T

    2015-04-30

    A combination of molecular quantum electrodynamics, perturbation theory, and ab initio calculations was used to create a computational methodology capable of estimating the rate of three-body singlet upconversion in organic molecular assemblies. The approach was applied to quantify the conditions under which such relaxation rates, known as energy pooling, become meaningful for two test systems, stilbene-fluorescein and hexabenzocoronene-oligothiophene. Both exhibit low intramolecular conversion, but intermolecular configurations exist in which pooling efficiency is at least 90% when placed in competition with more conventional relaxation pathways. For stilbene-fluorescein, the results are consistent with data generated in an earlier experimental investigation. Exercising these model systems facilitated the development of a set of design rules for the optimization of energy pooling. PMID:25793313

  14. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU-A) configuration management plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanaugh, J.

    1994-01-01

    This plan describes methods and procedures Aerojet will follow in the implementation of configuration control for each established baseline. The plan is written in response to the GSFC EOS CM Plan 420-02-02, dated January 1990, and also meets he requirements specified in DOD-STD-480, DOD-D 1000B, MIL-STD-483A, and MIL-STD-490B. The plan establishes the configuration management process to be used for the deliverable hardware, software, and firmware of the EOS/AMSU-A during development, design, fabrication, test, and delivery. This revision includes minor updates to reflect Aerojet's CM policies.

  15. Polysoaps: Configurations and Elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halperin, A.

    1997-03-01

    Simple polymers are very long, flexible, linear molecules. Amphiphiles, soaps, are small molecules comprising of a part that prefers water over oil and a part that prefers oil over water. By combining the two we arrive at an interesting, little explored, class of materials: Polysoaps. These comprise of a water soluble backbone incorporating, at intervals, covalently bound amphiphilic monomers. In water, the polymerised amphiphiles aggregate into self assembled units known as micelles. This induces a dramatic modification of the spatial configurations of the polymers. What were featureless random coils now exhibit intramolecular, hierachial self organisation. Due to this self organisation it is necessary to modify the paradigms describing the large scale behaviour of these polymers: Their configurations, dimensions and elasticity. Understanding the behaviour of these polymers is of practical interest because of their wide range of industrial applications, ranging from cosmetics to paper coating. It is of fundamental interest because polysoaps are characterised by a rugged free energy landscape that is reminiscent of complex systems such as proteins and glasses. The talk concerns theoretical arguments regarding the following issues: (i) The design parameters that govern the spatial configurations of the polysoaps, (ii) The interaction between polysoaps and free amphiphiles, (iii) The effect of the intramolecular self organisation on the elasticity of the chains.

  16. Pressure-induced magnetic transitions with change of the orbital configuration in dimerised systems

    PubMed Central

    Korotin, Dmitry M.; Anisimov, Vladimir I.; Streltsov, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    We suggest a possible scenario for magnetic transition under pressure in dimerised systems where electrons are localised on molecular orbitals. The mechanism of transition is not related with competition between kinetic energy and on-site Coulomb repulsion as in Mott-Hubbard systems, or between crystal-field splitting and intra-atomic exchange as in classical atomic spin-state transitions. Instead, it is driven by the change of bonding-antibonding splitting on part of the molecular orbitals. In the magnetic systems with few half-filled molecular orbitals external pressure may result in increase of the bonding-antibonding splitting and localise all electrons on low-lying molecular orbitals suppressing net magnetic moment of the system. We give examples of the systems, where this or inverse transition may occur and by means of ab initio band structure calculations predict that it can be observed in α−MoCl4 at pressure P ~ 11 GPa. PMID:27189206

  17. Cost Effective Simulation of the Hybrid Solar/wind and Diesel Energy System in Rural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Ee. Y.; Barsoum, Nader

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes the optimization of a hybrid energy system model. Currently in Sarawak, people living in the rural areas still depend on diesel generators to generate electricity. This increases the demand for fossil fuel, creates noise pollution and toxic gas is emitted to the environment. Hence, hybrid energy systems were introduced to replace this conventional energy system as well as improving the living standard in the villages. In this paper, several hybrid energy system configurations were investigated in order to find out the most cost effective hybrid system through Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewability (Homer) software. Homer simulates, optimizes, and analyzes the sensitivity variables for each of the system configurations.

  18. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  19. An equivalent configuration approach for the moiré patterns appearing due to the reflecting surface in display system.

    PubMed

    Byun, Seok-Joo; Byun, Seok Yong; Lee, Jangkyo; Kim, Won Mok; Lee, Taek-Sung

    2014-10-01

    A new moiré pattern appearing in the off-state of a display system with a reflecting surface under illumination of an external ambient light source was analyzed. The origin of the new moiré pattern was attributed to the moiré pattern which is formed on the reflecting surface by external light and plays as a new light source with intensity profile. Configuring an optically equivalent system with no reflecting surface layer was proposed in order to overcome the limitation of new simulation program, which was previously proved to be very efficient in computation time but unable to handle a non-sequential system containing a reflecting surface. It was verified that the new simulation algorithm combined with an equivalent configuration could provide an accurate and computation time-efficient analyses even for a system containing non-sequential stacked layer such as a reflecting surface.

  20. System and method for storing energy

    DOEpatents

    Yarger, Eric Jay [Rigby, ID; Morrison, John [Butte, MT; Richardson, John Grant [Idaho Falls, ID; Spencer, David Frazer [Idaho Falls, ID; Christiansen, Dale W [Blackfoot, ID

    2010-03-30

    A self-recharging battery comprising a generator and an energy storage device contained within the battery case. The generator comprises a magnetic structure configured to generate a compressed magnetic field and a coil configured to focus the compressed magnetic field in electrical conductive elements of the coil.

  1. Design of robust line-of-sight pointing control system for the SCOLE configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, S. M.; Armstrong, E. S.

    1987-01-01

    Robust compensator design for attitude control of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) configuration is considered. A loop-shaping procedure similar to that used in the LQG/LTR method is used to iteratively design the compensator. A satisfactory compensator is obtained by including the rigid modes and three elastic modes in the design model.

  2. Development of electrokinetic remediation for caesium: A feasibility study of 2D electrode configuration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syah Putra, Rudy

    2016-02-01

    Agar matrix was artificially contaminated with caesium and subjected to rapid assessment of electrokinetic treatment on the basis of the 2D electrode configuration. The effect of caesium concentration on the process was investigated using different electrode configuration (i.e. rectangular, hexagonal and triangular). During treatment the in situ pH distribution, the current flow, and the potential distribution were monitored. At the end of the treatment, the caesium concentration distribution was measured. The results of these experiments showed that for caesium contamination, pH control is essential in order to create a suitable environment throughout the agar matrix to enable contaminant removal. It was found that the type of electrode configuration used to control the pH affected the rate of caesium accumulation. All of the electrode configurations tested was effective, but the highest caesium extraction was achieved when the hexagonal pattern was used to control the pH. After 72 h of treatment at 50 mA, the concentration of caesium decreased gradually from the second and first layer of agar matrix throughout the cell, suggesting that most of the caesium was concentrated on the cathode part.

  3. Energy-consistent pseudopotentials for group 11 and 12 atoms: adjustment to multi-configuration Dirac Hartree Fock data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figgen, Detlev; Rauhut, Guntram; Dolg, Michael; Stoll, Hermann

    2005-04-01

    Two-component relativistic pseudopotentials (i.e., scalar-relativistic and spin-orbit (SO) potentials) of the energy-consistent variety have been adjusted for the group 11 and 12 atoms Cu, Zn; Ag, Cd; Au, Hg, replacing the 1 s-2 p; 1 s-3 d; and 1 s-4 f cores, respectively. The adjustment has been done for the valence-energy spectrum of (near-)neutral atoms, to reference data from numerical all-electron four-component multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) calculations, including the two-electron Breit interaction. For use in molecular calculations, the potentials have been supplemented by energy-optimized (12 s12 p9 d3 f2 g)/[6 s6 p4 d3 f2 g] valence basis sets. First benchmark applications of the potentials and basis sets are presented for atomic excitation energies and SO splittings at a correlated level, and for ground and excited state spectroscopic properties of group 11 monohalides and group 12 dimers.

  4. Model to investigate energy and greenhouse gas emissions implications of refining petroleum: impacts of crude quality and refinery configuration.

    PubMed

    Abella, Jessica P; Bergerson, Joule A

    2012-12-18

    A petroleum refinery model, Petroleum Refinery Life-cycle Inventory Model (PRELIM), which quantifies energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with the detail and transparency sufficient to inform policy analysis is developed. PRELIM improves on prior models by representing a more comprehensive range of crude oil quality and refinery configuration, using publicly available information, and supported by refinery operating data and experts' input. The potential use of PRELIM is demonstrated through a scenario analysis to explore the implications of processing crudes of different qualities, with a focus on oil sands products, in different refinery configurations. The variability in GHG emissions estimates resulting from all cases considered in the model application shows differences of up to 14 g CO₂eq/MJ of crude, or up to 11 g CO₂eq/MJ of gasoline and 19 g CO₂eq/MJ of diesel (the margin of deviation in the emissions estimates is roughly 10%). This variability is comparable to the magnitude of upstream emissions and therefore has implications for both policy and mitigation of GHG emissions.

  5. System for controlling a hybrid energy system

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian D.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2013-01-29

    A method includes identifying a first operating sequence of a repeated operation of at least one non-traction load. The method also includes determining first and second parameters respectively indicative of a requested energy and output energy of the at least one non-traction load and comparing the determined first and second parameters at a plurality of time increments of the first operating sequence. The method also includes determining a third parameter of the hybrid energy system indicative of energy regenerated from the at least one non-traction load and monitoring the third parameter at the plurality of time increments of the first operating sequence. The method also includes determining at least one of an energy deficiency or an energy surplus associated with the non-traction load of the hybrid energy system and selectively adjusting energy stored within the storage device during at least a portion of a second operating sequence.

  6. Detailed requirements document for Stowage List and Hardware Tracking System (SLAHTS). [computer based information management system in support of space shuttle orbiter stowage configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keltner, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The stowage list and hardware tracking system, a computer based information management system, used in support of the space shuttle orbiter stowage configuration and the Johnson Space Center hardware tracking is described. The input, processing, and output requirements that serve as a baseline for system development are defined.

  7. Effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive sources on radiation intensity in beta-voltaic nuclear battery system: A preliminary result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basar, Khairul; Riupassa, Robi D.; Bachtiar, Reza; Badrianto, Muldani D.

    2014-09-01

    It is known that one main problem in the application of beta-voltaic nuclear battery system is its low efficiency. The efficiency of the beta-voltaic nuclear battery system mainly depends on three aspects: source of radioactive radiation, interface between materials in the system and process of converting electron-hole pair to electric current in the semiconductor material. In this work, we show the effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive sources on radiation intensity of beta-voltaic nuclear battery system.

  8. Energy - A systems problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourke, Roger D.

    1982-01-01

    Energy management in its most comprehensive sense encompasses economic, technical, environmental, and political problems. The present evaluation of prospects notes that opportunities for energy conservation are widespread, in such fields as building air conditioning, transportation, electrical appliances, and industrial processes. Further conservation is expected to be achieved through a combination of technology development and economics; the latter factor must not be unduly influenced by political measures that shield consumers from the true cost of energy.

  9. Lower-Energy Energy Storage System (LEESS) Component Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Shi, Y.; Saxon, A.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-10-01

    Alternate hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) energy storage systems (ESS) such as lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) and electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) modules have the potential for improved life, superior cold temperature performance, and lower long-term cost projections relative to traditional battery storage systems. If such lower-energy ESS (LEESS) devices can also be shown to maintain high HEV fuel savings, future HEVs designed with these devices could have an increased value proposition relative to conventional vehicles. NREL's vehicle test platform is helping validate the in-vehicle performance capability of alternative LEESS devices and identify unforeseen issues. NREL created the Ford Fusion Hybrid test platform for in-vehicle evaluation of such alternative LEESS devices, bench testing of the initial LIC pack, integration and testing of the LIC pack in the test vehicle, and bench testing and installation of an EDLC module pack. EDLC pack testing will continue in FY15. The in-vehicle LIC testing results suggest technical viability of LEESS devices to support HEV operation. Several LIC configurations tested demonstrated equivalent fuel economy and acceleration performance as the production nickel-metal-hydride ESS configuration across all tests conducted. The lowest energy LIC scenario demonstrated equivalent performance over several tests, although slightly higher fuel consumption on the US06 cycle and slightly slower acceleration performance. More extensive vehicle-level calibration may be able to reduce or eliminate these performance differences. The overall results indicate that as long as critical attributes such as engine start under worst case conditions can be retained, considerable ESS downsizing may minimally impact HEV fuel savings.

  10. Configuration management plan. System definition and project development. Repository Based Software Engineering (RBSE) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Charles

    1991-01-01

    This is the configuration management Plan for the AdaNet Repository Based Software Engineering (RBSE) contract. This document establishes the requirements and activities needed to ensure that the products developed for the AdaNet RBSE contract are accurately identified, that proposed changes to the product are systematically evaluated and controlled, that the status of all change activity is known at all times, and that the product achieves its functional performance requirements and is accurately documented.

  11. Configuration space method for calculating binding energies of exciton complexes in quasi-1D/2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarev, Igor

    A configuration space method, pioneered by Landau and Herring in studies of molecular binding and magnetism, is developed to obtain universal asymptotic relations for lowest energy exciton complexes (trion, biexciton) in confined semiconductor nanostructures such as nanowires and nanotubes, as well as coupled quantum wells. Trions are shown to be more stable (have greater binding energy) than biexcitons in strongly confined quasi-1D structures with small reduced electron-hole masses. Biexcitons are more stable in less confined quasi-1D structures with large reduced electron-hole masses. The theory predicts a crossover behavior, whereby trions become less stable than biexcitons as the transverse size of the quasi-1D nanostructure increases, which might be observed on semiconducting carbon nanotubes of increasing diameters. This method is also efficient in calculating binding energies for trion-type electron-hole complexes formed by indirect excitons in double coupled quantum wells, quasi-2D nanostructures that show new interesting electroabsorption/refraction phenomena. Supported by DOE-DE-SC0007117.

  12. Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System configuration and tradeoff study. Volume 3: Atlas Centaur launched TDRSS. Part 2: Final Report, 22 August 1972 - 1 April 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Configuration data and design information for the Atlas Centaur launched configuration are presented. Overall system definition, operations and control, and telecommunication service system, including link budgets, are discussed. A brief description of the user telecommunications equipment and ground station is presented. A summary description of the TDR spacecraft and all the subsystems is included. The data presented are largely in tabular form. A brief treatment of an optional configuration with enhanced telecommunications service is described.

  13. Terrestrial Energy Storage SPS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial energy storage systems for the SSP system were evaluated that could maintain the 1.2 GW power level during periods of brief outages from the solar powered satellite (SPS). Short-term outages of ten minutes and long-term outages up to four hours have been identified as "typical" cases where the ground-based energy storage system would be required to supply power to the grid. These brief interruptions in transmission could result from performing maintenance on the solar power satellite or from safety considerations necessitating the power beam be turned off. For example, one situation would be to allow for the safe passage of airplanes through the space occupied by the beam. Under these conditions, the energy storage system needs to be capable of storing 200 MW-hrs and 4.8 GW-hrs, respectively. The types of energy storage systems to be considered include compressed air energy storage, inertial energy storage, electrochemical energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and pumped hydro energy storage. For each of these technologies, the state-of-the-art in terms of energy and power densities were identified as well as the potential for scaling to the size systems required by the SSP system. Other issues addressed included the performance, life expectancy, cost, and necessary infrastructure and site locations for the various storage technologies.

  14. Module Configuration

    DOEpatents

    Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

  15. Expediting Experiments across Testbeds with AnyBed: A Testbed-Independent Topology Configuration System and Its Tool Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Mio; Hazeyama, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Miwa, Shinsuke; Kadobayashi, Youki

    Building an experimental network within a testbed has been a tiresome process for experimenters, due to the complexity of the physical resource assignment and the configuration overhead. Also, the process could not be expedited across testbeds, because the syntax of a configuration file varies depending on specific hardware and software. Re-configuration of an experimental topology for each testbed wastes time, an experimenter could not carry out his/her experiments during the limited lease time of a testbed at worst. In this paper, we propose the AnyBed: the experimental network-building system. The conceptual idea of AnyBed is “If experimental network topologies can be portable across any kinds of testbed, then, it would expedite building an experimental network on a testbed while manipulating experiments by each testbed support tool”. To achieve this concept, AnyBed divide an experimental network configuration into the logical and physical network topologies. Mapping these two topologies, AnyBed can build intended logical network topology on any PC clusters. We have evaluated the AnyBed implementation using two distinct clusters. The evaluation result shows a BGP topology with 150 nodes can be constructed on a large scale testbed in less than 113 seconds.

  16. Geometrical configurations of unphased diffraction-limited antennas in passive millimetre-wave imaging systems for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serenelli, Roberto

    2004-12-01

    This paper analyzes simple imaging configurations to scan a human body, suitable as passive or active millimetre-wave imaging systems for concealed weapon detection (CWD). The first cylindrical configuration allows a 360 degrees scan: N unphased diffraction-limited antennas each of size L are placed on a circular support surrounding the subject (allowing scanning in the horizontal plane with N non-overlapping independent beams), and this circle is mechanically displaced over the whole body height. An analytical formula gives the maximum obtainable spatial resolution for different dimensions of the circular scanning device and operating frequencies, and the number of receivers achieving this optimal resolution. Constraints to be taken into account are diffraction, the usable total length of the circle, and the full coverage by the N beams over the subject, which is modelled as a cylinder with variable radius, coaxial with the scanning circle. Numerical calculations of system resolution are shown for different operating microwave (MW) and millimetre-wave (MMW) frequencies; in order to study off-axis performances, situations where the subject is not coaxial with the scanning device are also considered. For the case of a parallelepiped to be imaged instead of a cylinder, a linear array configuration is analyzed similarly to the circular one. A theoretical study is carried out to design other curved arrays, filled with unphased diffraction-limited antennas, for the imaging of linear subjects with finer resolution. Finally, the application of such configurations is considered for the design of active imaging systems, and different system architectures are discussed.

  17. The Spatial Effects of Antenna Configuration in a Large Area Inductively Coupled Plasma System for Flat Panel Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seon-Geun, Oh; Young-Jun, Lee; Jae-Hong, Jeon; Jong-Hyeon, Seo; Hee-Hwan, Choe

    2014-08-01

    Spatial distributions of plasma parameters such as electron density, electron temperature and electric potential were investigated using a commercial simulation software (COMSOLTM) to predict the effects of antenna configuration in a large area inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system for flat panel displays. Nine planar antenna sets were evenly placed above a ceramic window. While the electron density was influenced by both the input current and gas pressure, the electron temperature and electric potential were dominantly affected by the gas pressure.

  18. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix D: EOS configuration design data. Part 1: Spacecraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The results of structural studies of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) which define the member sizes to meet the vehicle design requirements are presented. The most significant requirements in sizing the members are the stiffness required to meet the launch vehicle design frequencies both in the late al and in the longitudinal directions. The selected configurations, both baseline and preferred, for the Delta and Titan launch vehicles were evaluated for stiffness requirements. The structural idealization used to estimate the stiffness of each structural arrangement, was based on an evaluation of primary loads paths, effectivity of structural members, and estimated sizes for the preferred configurations. The study included an evaluation of the following structural materials: (1) aluminum alloys, (2) titanium alloys, (3) beryllium, (4) beryllium/aluminum alloy, and (5) composite materials.

  19. Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System configuration and tradeoff study. Volume 4: Space shuttle launched TDRSS. Part 2: Final Report, 22 August 1972 - 1 April 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Configuration data and design information for the space shuttle launched configuration is presented. The overall system definition, operations and control, and telecommunication service system including link budgets are discussed. A brief description of the user transceiver and ground station is presented. A final section includes a summary description of the TDR spacecraft and all the subsystems. The data presented are largely in tabular form.

  20. Stochastic Energy Deployment System

    2011-11-30

    SEDS is an economy-wide energy model of the U.S. The model captures dynamics between supply, demand, and pricing of the major energy types consumed and produced within the U.S. These dynamics are captured by including: the effects of macroeconomics; the resources and costs of primary energy types such as oil, natural gas, coal, and biomass; the conversion of primary fuels into energy products like petroleum products, electricity, biofuels, and hydrogen; and lastly the end- usemore » consumption attributable to residential and commercial buildings, light and heavy transportation, and industry. Projections from SEDS extend to the year 2050 by one-year time steps and are generally projected at the national level. SEDS differs from other economy-wide energy models in that it explicitly accounts for uncertainty in technology, markets, and policy. SEDS has been specifically developed to avoid the computational burden, and sometimes fruitless labor, that comes from modeling significantly low-level details. Instead, SEDS focuses on the major drivers within the energy economy and evaluates the impact of uncertainty around those drivers.« less

  1. Integrated configurable equipment selection and line balancing for mass production with serial-parallel machining systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaïa, Olga; Dolgui, Alexandre; Guschinsky, Nikolai; Levin, Genrikh

    2014-10-01

    Solving equipment selection and line balancing problems together allows better line configurations to be reached and avoids local optimal solutions. This article considers jointly these two decision problems for mass production lines with serial-parallel workplaces. This study was motivated by the design of production lines based on machines with rotary or mobile tables. Nevertheless, the results are more general and can be applied to assembly and production lines with similar structures. The designers' objectives and the constraints are studied in order to suggest a relevant mathematical model and an efficient optimization approach to solve it. A real case study is used to validate the model and the developed approach.

  2. Electromagnet configurations for extreme attitude testing in magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, C. P.

    1980-01-01

    The inclusion of adequate versatility into the electromagnet array configuration requires sizing the electromagnets to satisfy particular absolute force and moment requirements. Magnetic performance of a permanent magnet model core, air cored electromagnet may easily and reliably be computed by using the FORCE program which calculates model forces and moments via representations of the model as an assembly of dipoles and the electromagnets as an assembly of line currents. Some aspects of the performance of an ellipsoidal iron cored model may be inferred from the above under certain circumstances.

  3. Laser-driven high-energy-density deuterium and tritium ions for neutron production in a double-cone configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Li-Xiang; Yu, Tong-Pu Shao, Fu-Qiu; Yin, Yan; Ma, Yan-Yun; Zhu, Qing-Jun

    2015-12-15

    By using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate laser-driven ion acceleration and compression from a thin DT foil in a double-cone configuration. By using two counterpropagating laser pulses, it is shown that a double-cone structure can effectively guide, focus, and strengthen the incident laser pulses, resulting in the enhanced acceleration and compression of D{sup +} and T{sup +}. Due to the ion Coulomb repulsion and the effective screening from the external laser electric fields, the transverse diffusion of ions is significantly suppressed. Finally, the peak energy density of the compressed ions exceeds 2.73 × 10{sup 16 }J/m{sup 3}, which is about five orders of magnitude higher than the threshold for high energy density physics, 10{sup 11 }J/m{sup 3}. Under this condition, DT fusion reactions are initiated and the neutron production rate per volume is estimated to be as high as 7.473 × 10{sup 35}/m{sup 3} s according to Monte Carlo simulations. It is much higher than that of the traditional large neutron sources, which may facilitate many potential applications.

  4. Determining potential 30/20 GHz domestic satellite system concepts and establishment of a suitable experimental configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G. H.; Anzic, G.

    1979-01-01

    Issues and results in a NASA study of the potential concepts and markets for a multibeam 30/20 GHz domestic satellite system in the 1990s are presented. Issues considered include the reduction of signal attenuation due to rain, beam-beam interference isolation in the multibeam system, the method of access/modulation (FDMA, TDMA or hybrid) and the market for reduced reliability and wideband services. A hypothetical demonstration payload configuration which would attempt to resolve these issues is illustrated. The communications payload would employ a system of seven contiguous coverage spots in order to demonstrate a typical cell in a contiguous beam system having extensive frequency re-use, as in a direct-to-user system, and a single spot, typical of a trunking system, to determine signal isolation. The payload could be carried on several existing buses and is illustrated on an MMS bus.

  5. The instrumental principles of MST radars and incoherent scatter radars and the configuration of radar system hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettger, Juergen

    1989-01-01

    The principle of pulse modulation used in the case of coherent scatter radars (MST radars) is discussed. Coherent detection and the corresponding system configuration is delineated. Antenna requirements and design are outlined and the phase-coherent transmitter/receiver system is described. Transmit/receive duplexers, transmitters, receivers, and quadrature detectors are explained. The radar controller, integrator, decoder and correlator design as well as the data transfer and the control and monitoring by the host computer are delineated. Typical operation parameters of some well-known radars are summarized.

  6. Crystal growth furnace: An overview of the system configuration and planned experiments on the first United States Microgravity Laboratory mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, R.; Lee, K. N.; Schaefer, D. A.

    The Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF), currently in the Level IV integration cycle at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in preparation for its maiden flight on the First United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) mission to be launched in May 1992, has been developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under the Microgravity Science and Application Division (MSAD) programs at NASA Headquarters. The project is being managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, under contract NAS8-36637. This paper presents an overview of CGF system description and the system configuration for the USML-1 mission and also briefly describes the planned on-orbit experiments.

  7. High-accuracy Aspheric X-ray Mirror Metrology Using Software Configurable Optical Test System/deflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Run; Su, Peng; Burge, James H.; Huang, Lei; Idir, Mourad

    2015-08-05

    The Software Configurable Optical Test System (SCOTS) uses deflectometry to measure surface slopes of general optical shapes without the need for additional null optics. Careful alignment of test geometry and calibration of inherent system error improve the accuracy of SCOTS to a level where it competes with interferometry. We report a SCOTS surface measurement of an off-axis superpolished elliptical x-ray mirror that achieves <1 nm<1 nm root-mean-square accuracy for the surface measurement with low-order term included.

  8. Solar Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A waste water treatment plant in Wilton, Maine, where sludge is converted to methane gas, and Monsanto Company's Environmental Health Laboratory in St. Louis Missouri, where more than 200 solar collectors provide preheating of boiler feed water for laboratory use are representative of Grumman's Sunstream line of solar energy equipment. This equipment was developed with technology from NASA's Apollo lunar module program.

  9. A detailed analysis of the energy levels configuration existing in the band gap of supersaturated silicon with titanium for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, E.; Dueñas, S.; Castán, H.; García, H.; Bailón, L.; Montero, D.; García-Hernansanz, R.; García-Hemme, E.; Olea, J.; González-Díaz, G.

    2015-12-01

    The energy levels created in supersaturated n-type silicon substrates with titanium implantation in the attempt to create an intermediate band in their band-gap are studied in detail. Two titanium ion implantation doses (1013 cm-2 and 1014 cm-2) are studied in this work by conductance transient technique and admittance spectroscopy. Conductance transients have been measured at temperatures of around 100 K. The particular shape of these transients is due to the formation of energy barriers in the conduction band, as a consequence of the band-gap narrowing induced by the high titanium concentration. Moreover, stationary admittance spectroscopy results suggest the existence of different energy level configuration, depending on the local titanium concentration. A continuum energy level band is formed when titanium concentration is over the Mott limit. On the other hand, when titanium concentration is lower than the Mott limit, but much higher than the donor impurity density, a quasi-continuum energy level distribution appears. Finally, a single deep center appears for low titanium concentration. At the n-type substrate, the experimental results obtained by means of thermal admittance spectroscopy at high reverse bias reveal the presence of single levels located at around Ec-425 and Ec-275 meV for implantation doses of 1013 cm-2 and 1014 cm-2, respectively. At low reverse bias voltage, quasi-continuously distributed energy levels between the minimum of the conduction bands, Ec and Ec-450 meV, are obtained for both doses. Conductance transients detected at low temperatures reveal that the high impurity concentration induces a band gap narrowing which leads to the formation of a barrier in the conduction band. Besides, the relationship between the activation energy and the capture cross section values of all the energy levels fits very well to the Meyer-Neldel rule. As it is known, the Meyer-Neldel rule typically appears in processes involving multiple excitations, like

  10. A detailed analysis of the energy levels configuration existing in the band gap of supersaturated silicon with titanium for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, E.; Dueñas, S.; Castán, H.; García, H.; Bailón, L.; Montero, D.; García-Hernansanz, R.; García-Hemme, E.; González-Díaz, G.; Olea, J.

    2015-12-28

    The energy levels created in supersaturated n-type silicon substrates with titanium implantation in the attempt to create an intermediate band in their band-gap are studied in detail. Two titanium ion implantation doses (10{sup 13 }cm{sup -2} and 10{sup 14 }cm{sup -2}) are studied in this work by conductance transient technique and admittance spectroscopy. Conductance transients have been measured at temperatures of around 100 K. The particular shape of these transients is due to the formation of energy barriers in the conduction band, as a consequence of the band-gap narrowing induced by the high titanium concentration. Moreover, stationary admittance spectroscopy results suggest the existence of different energy level configuration, depending on the local titanium concentration. A continuum energy level band is formed when titanium concentration is over the Mott limit. On the other hand, when titanium concentration is lower than the Mott limit, but much higher than the donor impurity density, a quasi-continuum energy level distribution appears. Finally, a single deep center appears for low titanium concentration. At the n-type substrate, the experimental results obtained by means of thermal admittance spectroscopy at high reverse bias reveal the presence of single levels located at around E{sub c}-425 and E{sub c}-275 meV for implantation doses of 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} and 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2}, respectively. At low reverse bias voltage, quasi-continuously distributed energy levels between the minimum of the conduction bands, E{sub c} and E{sub c}-450 meV, are obtained for both doses. Conductance transients detected at low temperatures reveal that the high impurity concentration induces a band gap narrowing which leads to the formation of a barrier in the conduction band. Besides, the relationship between the activation energy and the capture cross section values of all the energy levels fits very well to the Meyer-Neldel rule. As it is known

  11. National Energy Modeling System (NEMS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of U.S. through 2030. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. NEMS was designed and implemented by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). NEMS can be used to analyze the effects of existing and proposed government laws and regulations related to energy production and use; the potential impact of new and advanced energy production, conversion, and consumption technologies; the impact and cost of greenhouse gas control; the impact of increased use of renewable energy sources; and the potential savings from increased efficiency of energy use; and the impact of regulations on the use of alternative or reformulated fuels. NEMS has also been used for a number of special analyses at the request of the Administration, U.S. Congress, other offices of DOE and other government agencies, who specify the scenarios and assumptions for the analysis. Modules allow analyses to be conducted in energy topic areas such as residential demand, industrial demand, electricity market, oil and gas supply, renewable fuels, etc.

  12. Design of energy generation system by using spinning bikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flórez, J.; Núñes, C.; Osma, G.; Ordóñez, G.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the design of a system that generates energy by using the work done by a crew on a spinning bike. The builded system is configured by two subsystems: connection and injection of real-time power to the grid connection and power isolation for specific loads. The first subsystem will have twelve (12) units and the second will have six (6) units.

  13. The aerospace energy systems laboratory: Hardware and software implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.; Oneil-Rood, Nora

    1989-01-01

    For many years NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility has employed automation in the servicing of flight critical aircraft batteries. Recently a major upgrade to Dryden's computerized Battery Systems Laboratory was initiated to incorporate distributed processing and a centralized database. The new facility, called the Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory (AESL), is being mechanized with iAPX86 and iAPX286 hardware running iRMX86. The hardware configuration and software structure for the AESL are described.

  14. Applications of plasma core reactors to terrestrial energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, T. S.; Biancardi, F. R.; Rodgers, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma core reactors offer several new options for future energy needs in addition to space power and propulsion applications. Power extraction from plasma core reactors with gaseous nuclear fuel allows operation at temperatures higher than conventional reactors. Highly efficient thermodynamic cycles and applications employing direct coupling of radiant energy are possible. Conceptual configurations of plasma core reactors for terrestrial applications are described. Closed-cycle gas turbines, MHD systems, photo- and thermo-chemical hydrogen production processes, and laser systems using plasma core reactors as prime energy sources are considered. Cycle efficiencies in the range of 50 to 65 percent are calculated for closed-cycle gas turbine and MHD electrical generators. Reactor advantages include continuous fuel reprocessing which limits inventory of radioactive by-products and thorium-U-233 breeder configurations with about 5-year doubling times.-

  15. Rotational Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinulovic, Dragan; Brooks, Michael; Haug, Martin; Petrovic, Tomislav

    This paper presents development of the rotational electromagnetic energy harvesting transducer. The transducer is driven mechanically by pushing a button; therefore, the mechanical energy will be converted into electrical energy. The energy harvesting (EH) transducer consists of multilayer planar coils embedded in a PCB, multipolar NdFeB hard magnets, and a mechanical system for movement conversion. The EH transducer generate an energy of about 4 mJ at a load of 10 Ω. The maximum open circuit output voltage is as high as 2 V and the maximum short circuit output current is 800 mA.

  16. A Large-scale Relativistic Configuration-interaction Approach: Application to the 4s2 - 4s4p Transition Energies and E1 Rates for Zn-like Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M H; Cheng, K T

    2009-08-28

    Relativistic configuration-interaction calculations of the 4s4p excitation energies and 4s{sup 2} - 4s4p E1 transitions for Zn-like ions from Z = 30 to 92 are shown. B-spline basis functions are used for these large-scale calculations. QED corrections to the excitation energies are also calculated. Results are in good agreement with other theories and with experiment, and demonstrate the utility of this method for high-precision atomic structure calculations not just for few-electron systems but also for large atomic systems such as Zn-like ions along the entire isoelectronic sequence.

  17. Unrepeatered 256 Gb/s PM-16QAM transmission over up to 304 km with simple system configurations.

    PubMed

    Downie, John D; Hurley, Jason; Roudas, Ioannis; Pikula, Dragan; Garza-Alanis, Jorge A

    2014-05-01

    We study unrepeatered transmission of 40x256 Gb/s systems with polarization-multiplexed 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (PM-16QAM) channels using simple coherent optical system configurations. Three systems are investigated with either a homogeneous fiber span, or simple two-segment hybrid fiber designs. Each system relies primarily on ultra-low loss, very large effective area fiber, while making use of only first-order backward pumped Raman amplification and no remote optically pumped amplifier (ROPA). For the longest span studied, we demonstrate unrepeatered 256 Gb/s transmission over 304 km with the additional aid of nonlinear compensation using digital backpropagation. We find an average performance improvement in terms of the Q-factor of 0.45 dB by using digital backpropagation compared to the case of using chromatic dispersion compensation alone for an unrepeatered span system. PMID:24921729

  18. Energy and the food system.

    PubMed

    Woods, Jeremy; Williams, Adrian; Hughes, John K; Black, Mairi; Murphy, Richard

    2010-09-27

    Modern agriculture is heavily dependent on fossil resources. Both direct energy use for crop management and indirect energy use for fertilizers, pesticides and machinery production have contributed to the major increases in food production seen since the 1960s. However, the relationship between energy inputs and yields is not linear. Low-energy inputs can lead to lower yields and perversely to higher energy demands per tonne of harvested product. At the other extreme, increasing energy inputs can lead to ever-smaller yield gains. Although fossil fuels remain the dominant source of energy for agriculture, the mix of fuels used differs owing to the different fertilization and cultivation requirements of individual crops. Nitrogen fertilizer production uses large amounts of natural gas and some coal, and can account for more than 50 per cent of total energy use in commercial agriculture. Oil accounts for between 30 and 75 per cent of energy inputs of UK agriculture, depending on the cropping system. While agriculture remains dependent on fossil sources of energy, food prices will couple to fossil energy prices and food production will remain a significant contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Technological developments, changes in crop management, and renewable energy will all play important roles in increasing the energy efficiency of agriculture and reducing its reliance of fossil resources.

  19. Energy and the food system

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Jeremy; Williams, Adrian; Hughes, John K.; Black, Mairi; Murphy, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Modern agriculture is heavily dependent on fossil resources. Both direct energy use for crop management and indirect energy use for fertilizers, pesticides and machinery production have contributed to the major increases in food production seen since the 1960s. However, the relationship between energy inputs and yields is not linear. Low-energy inputs can lead to lower yields and perversely to higher energy demands per tonne of harvested product. At the other extreme, increasing energy inputs can lead to ever-smaller yield gains. Although fossil fuels remain the dominant source of energy for agriculture, the mix of fuels used differs owing to the different fertilization and cultivation requirements of individual crops. Nitrogen fertilizer production uses large amounts of natural gas and some coal, and can account for more than 50 per cent of total energy use in commercial agriculture. Oil accounts for between 30 and 75 per cent of energy inputs of UK agriculture, depending on the cropping system. While agriculture remains dependent on fossil sources of energy, food prices will couple to fossil energy prices and food production will remain a significant contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Technological developments, changes in crop management, and renewable energy will all play important roles in increasing the energy efficiency of agriculture and reducing its reliance of fossil resources. PMID:20713398

  20. Energy and the food system.

    PubMed

    Woods, Jeremy; Williams, Adrian; Hughes, John K; Black, Mairi; Murphy, Richard

    2010-09-27

    Modern agriculture is heavily dependent on fossil resources. Both direct energy use for crop management and indirect energy use for fertilizers, pesticides and machinery production have contributed to the major increases in food production seen since the 1960s. However, the relationship between energy inputs and yields is not linear. Low-energy inputs can lead to lower yields and perversely to higher energy demands per tonne of harvested product. At the other extreme, increasing energy inputs can lead to ever-smaller yield gains. Although fossil fuels remain the dominant source of energy for agriculture, the mix of fuels used differs owing to the different fertilization and cultivation requirements of individual crops. Nitrogen fertilizer production uses large amounts of natural gas and some coal, and can account for more than 50 per cent of total energy use in commercial agriculture. Oil accounts for between 30 and 75 per cent of energy inputs of UK agriculture, depending on the cropping system. While agriculture remains dependent on fossil sources of energy, food prices will couple to fossil energy prices and food production will remain a significant contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Technological developments, changes in crop management, and renewable energy will all play important roles in increasing the energy efficiency of agriculture and reducing its reliance of fossil resources. PMID:20713398

  1. Steam System Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: fixing steam leaks. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  2. Photovoltaic energy systems: Program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    The DOE Photovoltaic Energy Systems Program is designed to expand as rapidly as possible the commercial use of photovoltaic systems through a program of research, process development in support of the manufacturing industry, tests and applications, and general support of market development. The objective of the Photovoltaic Energy Systems Program is to reduce system costs to a competitive level in both distributed and centralized grid-connected applications. The program is also examining the technical, institutional, legal, environmental and social issues involved in fostering widespread adoption of photovoltaic energy systems. Activities of the program are divided into the following subprograms: advanced research and development; technology development; systems engineering and standards; test and applications; commercialization; and planning, assessment, and integration. Summary sheets for each of the contractors in this program are presented. The summaries include project title, contractor, contract number, funding, principal investigator, and a brief description of the contract.

  3. Assessment of flywheel energy storage for spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G. E.; Studer, P. A.; Baer, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of inertial energy storage in a spacecraft power system is evaluated on the basis of a conceptual integrated design that encompasses a composite rotor, magnetic suspension, and a permanent magnet (PM) motor/generator for a 3-kW orbital average payload at a bus distribution voltage of 250 volts dc. The conceptual design, which evolved at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), is referred to as a Mechanical Capacitor. The baseline power system configuration selected is a series system employing peak-power-tracking for a Low Earth-Orbiting application. Power processing, required in the motor/generator, provides a potential alternative configurations that can only be achieved in systems with electrochemical energy storage by the addition of power processing components. One such alternative configuration provides for peak-power-tracking of the solar array and still maintains a regulated bus, without the expense of additional power processing components. Precise speed control of the two counterrotating wheels is required to reduce interaction with the attitude control system (ACS) or alternatively, used to perform attitude control functions. Critical technologies identified are those pertaining to the energy storage element and are prioritized as composite wheel development, magnetic suspension, motor/generator, containment, and momentum control. Comparison with a 3-kW, 250-Vdc power system using either NiCd or NiH2 for energy storage results in a system in which inertial energy storage offers potential advantages in lifetime, operating temperature, voltage regulation, energy density, charge control, and overall system weight reduction.

  4. STRUTEX: A prototype knowledge-based system for initially configuring a structure to support point loads in two dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robers, James L.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1989-01-01

    Only recently have engineers begun making use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools in the area of conceptual design. To continue filling this void in the design process, a prototype knowledge-based system, called STRUTEX has been developed to initially configure a structure to support point loads in two dimensions. This prototype was developed for testing the application of AI tools to conceptual design as opposed to being a testbed for new methods for improving structural analysis and optimization. This system combines numerical and symbolic processing by the computer with interactive problem solving aided by the vision of the user. How the system is constructed to interact with the user is described. Of special interest is the information flow between the knowledge base and the data base under control of the algorithmic main program. Examples of computed and refined structures are presented during the explanation of the system.

  5. STRUTEX: A prototype knowledge-based system for initially configuring a structure to support point loads in two dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.; Feyock, Stefan; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort is to investigate the benefits that might be derived from applying artificial intelligence tools in the area of conceptual design. Therefore, the emphasis is on the artificial intelligence aspects of conceptual design rather than structural and optimization aspects. A prototype knowledge-based system, called STRUTEX, was developed to initially configure a structure to support point loads in two dimensions. This system combines numerical and symbolic processing by the computer with interactive problem solving aided by the vision of the user by integrating a knowledge base interface and inference engine, a data base interface, and graphics while keeping the knowledge base and data base files separate. The system writes a file which can be input into a structural synthesis system, which combines structural analysis and optimization.

  6. Development and testing of a fully adaptable membrane bioreactor fouling model for a sidestream configuration system.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parneet

    2013-01-01

    A dead-end filtration model that includes the three main fouling mechanisms mentioned in Hermia (i.e., cake build-up, complete pore blocking, and pore constriction) and that was based on a constant trans-membrane pressure (TMP) operation was extensively modified so it could be used for a sidestream configuration membrane bioreactor (MBR) situation. Modifications and add-ons to this basic model included: alteration so that it could be used for varying flux and varying TMP operations; inclusion of a backwash mode; it described pore constriction (i.e., irreversible fouling) in relation to the concentration of soluble microbial products (SMP) in the liquor; and, it could be used in a cross flow scenario by the addition of scouring terms in the model formulation. The additional terms in this modified model were checked against an already published model to see if they made sense, physically speaking. Next this modified model was calibrated and validated in Matlab© using data collected by carrying out flux stepping tests on both a pilot sidestream MBR plant, and then a pilot membrane filtration unit. The model fit proved good, especially for the pilot filtration unit data. In conclusion, this model formulation is of the right level of complexity to be used for most practical MBR situations. PMID:24958618

  7. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M.

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  8. Determining potential 30/20 GHZ domestic satellite system concepts and establishment of a suitable experimental configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G. H.; Anzic, G.

    1979-01-01

    NASA is conducting a series of millimeter wave satellite communication systems and market studies to: (1) determine potential domestic 30/20 GHz satellite concepts and market potential, and (2) establish the requirements for a suitable technology verification payload which, although intended to be modest in capacity, would sufficiently demonstrate key technologies and experimentally address key operational issues. Preliminary results and critical issues of the current contracted effort are described. Also included is a description of a NASA-developed multibeam satellite payload configuration which may be representative of concepts utilized in a technology flight verification program.

  9. Grade Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Where to locate the 7th and 8th grade is a perennial question. While there are many variations, three approaches are most often used---include them in a 7-12 secondary campus, maintain a separate middle grades campus, or include them as part of a K-8 program. Research says that grade configuration is inconclusive at best and there is no research…

  10. Systems and Methods for Providing Energy to Support Missions in Near Earth Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system has a plurality of spacecraft in orbit around the earth for collecting energy from the Sun in space, using stimulated emission to configure that energy as well defined states of the optical field and delivering that energy efficiently throughout the region of space surrounding Earth.

  11. Integrated roof wind energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suma, A. B.; Ferraro, R. M.; Dano, B.; Moonen, S. P. G.

    2012-10-01

    Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  12. Nitrogen removal from high organic loading wastewater in modified Ludzack-Ettinger configuration MBBR system.

    PubMed

    Torkaman, Mojtaba; Borghei, Seyed Mehdi; Tahmasebian, Sepehr; Andalibi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    A moving bed biofilm reactor with pre-denitrification configuration was fed with a synthetic wastewater containing high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia. By changing different variables including ammonium and COD loading, nitrification rate in the aerobic reactor and denitrification rate in the anoxic reactor were monitored. Changing the influent loading was achieved via adjusting the inlet COD (956-2,096 mg/L), inlet ammonium (183-438 mg/L), and hydraulic retention time of the aerobic reactor (8, 12, and 18 hours). The overall organic loading rate was in the range of 3.60-17.37 gCOD/m2·day, of which 18.5-91% was removed in the anoxic reactor depending on the operational conditions. Considering the complementary role of the aerobic reactor, the overall COD removal was in the range 87.3-98.8%. In addition, nitrification rate increased with influent ammonium loading, the maximum rate reaching 3.05 gNH4/m2·day. One of the most important factors affecting nitrification rate was influent C:N entering the aerobic reactor, by increasing which nitrification rate decreased asymptotically. Nitrate removal efficiency in the anoxic reactor was also controlled by the inlet nitrate level entering the anoxic reactor. Furthermore, by increasing the nitrate loading rate from 0.91 to 3.49 gNO/m3·day, denitrification rate increased from 0.496 to 2.47 gNO/m3·day. PMID:26465296

  13. Software Configuration Management for Safety-Related Applications in Space Systems: Extending the Application of the USAF 8-Step Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. W.

    2010-09-01

    Configuration management ensures that the requirements and constraints, identified in previous stages of development, are preserved throughout the design, implementation and operation of complex systems. Space-related, software systems pose particular problems because, for instance, it can be hard to determine what code is actually running on a platform as successive updates are performed over many months of remote operation. It is, therefore, important we learn as much as possible from previous mishaps that have involved configuration management; given that software continues to play a critical role in the safety of many space missions. The following pages extend the US Air Force’s 8-Step Method to identify lessons learned from space related incidents. This approach builds on Boyd’s OODA(Observe, Orient, Decide and Act) Loop and provides a common framework for the analysis of these complex incidents. It is important to stress that the application of an existing general approach to problem solving, rather than the development of a specific approach for configuration management, is intended to reduce training costs and to increase the value added from existing investments in the use of the 8-Step Method. Many specialised software engineering techniques are not used because they cannot easily be applied within the financial limits and deadlines that constrain most space programmes. The closing sections of this paper identify areas for further work; in particular, we stress the importance of links with recent European Space Agency problem solving techniques that support the early-stage development of long duration space missions.

  14. Study on low-cost system configuration for earth-moon transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameshima, Shigetoshi; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro

    The paper examines a new transportation system between the earth and moon for 21st-century space exploration, including a 'fuel station'. Attention is given to the overall system design and to the best OTV for this transportation system. The novel technologies required to implement this system, as well as this transportation scheme's effectiveness are discussed. The gradual system enhancement, i.e., LEO Station for small-size missions, and LEO, LLO station for large-size missions, is found to be both feasible and the most cost-effective strategy. For OTV, the aero-assisted type is argued to be very promising for the realization of low-cost systems.

  15. Configurations and control of magnetic fields for manipulating magnetic particles in microfluidic applications: magnet systems and manipulation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cao, Quanliang; Han, Xiaotao; Li, Liang

    2014-08-01

    The use of a magnetic field for manipulating the motion of magnetic particles in microchannels has attracted increasing attention in microfluidic applications. Generation of a flexible and controllable magnetic field plays a crucial role in making better use of the particle manipulation technology. Recent advances in the development of magnet systems and magnetic field control methods have shown that it has great potential for effective and accurate manipulation of particles in microfluidic systems. Starting with the analysis of magnetic forces acting on the particles, this review gives the configurations and evaluations of three main types of magnet system proposed in microfluidic applications. The interaction mechanisms of magnetic particles with magnetic fields are also discussed.

  16. Configurable memory system and method for providing atomic counting operations in a memory device

    DOEpatents

    Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Ohmacht, Martin

    2010-09-14

    A memory system and method for providing atomic memory-based counter operations to operating systems and applications that make most efficient use of counter-backing memory and virtual and physical address space, while simplifying operating system memory management, and enabling the counter-backing memory to be used for purposes other than counter-backing storage when desired. The encoding and address decoding enabled by the invention provides all this functionality through a combination of software and hardware.

  17. Energy optimization system

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Zhi; de Bedout, Juan Manuel; Kern, John Michael; Biyik, Emrah; Chandra, Ramu Sharat

    2013-01-22

    A system for optimizing customer utility usage in a utility network of customer sites, each having one or more utility devices, where customer site is communicated between each of the customer sites and an optimization server having software for optimizing customer utility usage over one or more networks, including private and public networks. A customer site model for each of the customer sites is generated based upon the customer site information, and the customer utility usage is optimized based upon the customer site information and the customer site model. The optimization server can be hosted by an external source or within the customer site. In addition, the optimization processing can be partitioned between the customer site and an external source.

  18. Just How Flexible Is the German Selective Secondary School System? A Configurational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaesser, Judith

    2008-01-01

    School systems may be usefully characterized according to Turner's proposed ideal types of sponsored and contest mobility. Germany is a critical case with respect to this typology because its secondary school system is stratified and selective, and yet it offers the opportunity for upward and downward mobility. Drawing on an analysis of a German…

  19. Temperature fields of an absorptive medium in a radiating system of arbitrary configuration (the spatial problem)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surinov, Y. A.

    1975-01-01

    A generalized zonal method based on systems of linear algebraic equations is used to determine the temperature fields in an absorptive grey medium filling a closed radiation system that consists of three boundary zones, of which one is adiabatic and the other two are isothermal. The example calculation considers the case of a solenoidal radiation field of local radiative equilibrium.

  20. Dynamo generated magnetic configurations in accretion discs and the nature of quasi-periodic oscillations in accreting binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, D.; Sokoloff, D.; Suleimanov, V.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Magnetic fields are important for accretion disc structure. Magnetic fields in a disc system may be transported with the accreted matter. They can be associated with either the central body and/or jet, and be fossil or dynamo excited in situ. Aims: We consider dynamo excitation of magnetic fields in accretion discs of accreting binary systems in an attempt to clarify possible configurations of dynamo generated magnetic fields. We first model the entire disc with realistic radial extent and thickness using an alpha-quenching non-linearity. We then study the simultaneous effect of feedback from the Lorentz force from the dynamo-generated field. Methods: We perform numerical simulations in the framework of a relatively simple mean-field model which allows the generation of global magnetic configurations. Results: We explore a range of possibilities for the dynamo number, and find quadrupolar-type solutions with irregular temporal oscillations that might be compared to observed rapid luminosity fluctuations. The dipolar symmetry models with Rα< 0 have lobes of strong toroidal field adjacent to the rotation axis that could be relevant to jet launching phenomena. Conclusions: We have explored and extended the solutions known for thin accretion discs.

  1. RELY: A reliability modeling system for analysis of sodium-sulfur battery configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, C.J.; Huber, H.D.; Doggett, W.H.; Dirks, J.A.; Dovey, J.F.; Grinde, R.B.; Littlefield, J.S.; Cuta, F.M.

    1987-06-01

    In support of the Office of Energy Storage and Distribution of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has produced a microcomputer-based software package, called RELY, to assess the impact of sodium-sulfur cell reliability on constant current discharge battery performance. The Fortran-based software operates on IBM microcomputers and IBM-compatibles that have a minimum of 512K of internal memory. The software package has three models that provide the following: (1) a description of the failure distribution parameters used to model cell failure, (2) a Monte Carlo simulation of battery life, and (3) a detailed discharge model for a user-specified battery discharge cycle. 6 refs., 31 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Candidate configuration trade study, Stellar-inertial Measurement Systems (SIMS) for an Earth Observation Satellite (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogletree, G.; Coccoli, J.; Mckern, R.; Smith, M.; White, R.

    1972-01-01

    The results of analytical and simulation studies of the stellar-inertial measurement system (SIMS) for an earth observation satellite are presented. Subsystem design analyses and sensor design trades are reported. Three candidate systems are considered: (1) structure-mounted gyros with structure-mounted star mapper, (2) structure-mounted gyros with gimbaled star tracker, and (3) gimbaled gyros with structure-mounted star mapper. The purpose of the study is to facilitate the decisions pertaining to gimbaled versus structure-mounted gyros and star sensors, and combinations of systems suitable for the EOS satellite.

  3. Methodology to evaluate the performance of simulation models for alternative compiler and operating system configurations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simulation modelers increasingly require greater flexibility for model implementation on diverse operating systems, and they demand high computational speed for efficient iterative simulations. Additionally, model users may differ in preference for proprietary versus open-source software environment...

  4. Accuracy-Energy Configurable Sensor Processor and IoT Device for Long-Term Activity Monitoring in Rare-Event Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A specially designed sensor processor used as a main processor in IoT (internet-of-thing) device for the rare-event sensing applications is proposed. The IoT device including the proposed sensor processor performs the event-driven sensor data processing based on an accuracy-energy configurable event-quantization in architectural level. The received sensor signal is converted into a sequence of atomic events, which is extracted by the signal-to-atomic-event generator (AEG). Using an event signal processing unit (EPU) as an accelerator, the extracted atomic events are analyzed to build the final event. Instead of the sampled raw data transmission via internet, the proposed method delays the communication with a host system until a semantic pattern of the signal is identified as a final event. The proposed processor is implemented on a single chip, which is tightly coupled in bus connection level with a microcontroller using a 0.18 μm CMOS embedded-flash process. For experimental results, we evaluated the proposed sensor processor by using an IR- (infrared radio-) based signal reflection and sensor signal acquisition system. We successfully demonstrated that the expected power consumption is in the range of 20% to 50% compared to the result of the basement in case of allowing 10% accuracy error. PMID:25580458

  5. Accuracy-energy configurable sensor processor and IoT device for long-term activity monitoring in rare-event sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Park, Daejin; Cho, Jeonghun

    2014-01-01

    A specially designed sensor processor used as a main processor in IoT (internet-of-thing) device for the rare-event sensing applications is proposed. The IoT device including the proposed sensor processor performs the event-driven sensor data processing based on an accuracy-energy configurable event-quantization in architectural level. The received sensor signal is converted into a sequence of atomic events, which is extracted by the signal-to-atomic-event generator (AEG). Using an event signal processing unit (EPU) as an accelerator, the extracted atomic events are analyzed to build the final event. Instead of the sampled raw data transmission via internet, the proposed method delays the communication with a host system until a semantic pattern of the signal is identified as a final event. The proposed processor is implemented on a single chip, which is tightly coupled in bus connection level with a microcontroller using a 0.18 μm CMOS embedded-flash process. For experimental results, we evaluated the proposed sensor processor by using an IR- (infrared radio-) based signal reflection and sensor signal acquisition system. We successfully demonstrated that the expected power consumption is in the range of 20% to 50% compared to the result of the basement in case of allowing 10% accuracy error.

  6. Accuracy-energy configurable sensor processor and IoT device for long-term activity monitoring in rare-event sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Park, Daejin; Cho, Jeonghun

    2014-01-01

    A specially designed sensor processor used as a main processor in IoT (internet-of-thing) device for the rare-event sensing applications is proposed. The IoT device including the proposed sensor processor performs the event-driven sensor data processing based on an accuracy-energy configurable event-quantization in architectural level. The received sensor signal is converted into a sequence of atomic events, which is extracted by the signal-to-atomic-event generator (AEG). Using an event signal processing unit (EPU) as an accelerator, the extracted atomic events are analyzed to build the final event. Instead of the sampled raw data transmission via internet, the proposed method delays the communication with a host system until a semantic pattern of the signal is identified as a final event. The proposed processor is implemented on a single chip, which is tightly coupled in bus connection level with a microcontroller using a 0.18 μm CMOS embedded-flash process. For experimental results, we evaluated the proposed sensor processor by using an IR- (infrared radio-) based signal reflection and sensor signal acquisition system. We successfully demonstrated that the expected power consumption is in the range of 20% to 50% compared to the result of the basement in case of allowing 10% accuracy error. PMID:25580458

  7. Configurable adaptive optics for the correction of space-based optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, Brian Keith

    Space-based, high resolution, Earth remote sensing systems, that employ large, flexible, lightweight primary mirrors, will require active wavefront correction, in the form of active and adaptive optics, to correct for thermally and vibrationally induced deformations in the optics. These remote sensing systems typically have a large field-of-view. Unlike the adaptive optics on ground-based astronomical telescopes, which have a negligible field-of-view, the adaptive optics on these space-based remote sensing systems will be required to correct the wavefront over the entire field-of-view, which can be several degrees. The error functions for astronomical adaptive optics have been developed for the narrow field-of-view correction of atmospheric turbulence and do not address the needs of wide field space-based systems. To address these needs, a new wide field adaptive optics theory and a new error function are developed. This new error function, which is a new extension of conventional adaptive optics, leads to the development of three new types of imaging systems: wide field-of-view, selectable field-of-view, and steerable field-of-view. These new systems can have nearly diffraction-limited performance across the entire field-of-view or a narrow movable region of high-resolution imaging. The factors limiting system performance are determined and analyzed. The range of applicability of the wide field adaptive optics theory is shown. The range of applicability is used to avoid limitations in system performance and to estimate the optical systems parameters, which will meet the system's performance requirements. Experimental results demonstrate the wide field adaptive optics theory. Finally, it will be shown that a synthetic guide star stimulated from above the atmosphere can be used as a beacon for the wavefront sensors of space-based systems. These wavefront sensors must be optimized such that error in the reconstructed wavefront is minimized. The key equations that

  8. Adsorption of water monomer and clusters on platinum(111) terrace and related steps and kinks: I. Configurations, energies, and hydrogen bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Árnadóttir, Líney; Stuve, Eric M.; Jónsson, Hannes

    2010-10-01

    Adsorption and rotation of water monomer, dimer, and trimer on the (111) terrace, (221) and (322) stepped, and (763) and (854) kinked surfaces of platinum were studied by density functional theory calculations using the PW91 approximation to the energy functional. On the (111) terrace, water monomer and the donor molecule of the dimer and trimer adsorb at atop sites. The per-molecule adsorption energies of the monomer, dimer, and trimer are 0.30, 0.45, and 0.48 eV, respectively. Rotation of monomers, dimers, and trimers on the terrace is facile with energy barriers of 0.02 eV or less. Adsorption on steps and kinks is stronger than on the terrace, as evidenced by monomer adsorption energies of 0.46 to 0.55 eV. On the (221) stepped surface the zigzag extended configuration is most stable with a per-molecule adsorption energy of 0.57 eV. On the (322) stepped surface the dimer, two configurations of the trimer, and the zigzag configuration have similar adsorption energies of 0.55 ± 0.02 eV. Hydrogen bonding is strongest in the dimer and trimer adsorbed on the terrace, with respective energies of 0.30 and 0.27 eV, and accounts for their increased adsorption energies relative to the monomer. Hydrogen bonding is weak to moderate for adsorption at steps, with energies of 0.04 to 0.15 eV, as the much stronger water-metal interactions inhibit adsorption geometries favorable to hydrogen bonding. Correlations of hydrogen bond angles and energies with hydrogen bond lengths are presented. On the basis of these DFT/PW91 results, a model for water cluster formation on the Pt(111) surface can be formulated where kink sites nucleate chains along the top of step edges, consistent with the experimental findings of Morgenstern et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 77 (1996) 703.

  9. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helms, C. R.; Cho, K. J.; Ferraris, John; Balkus, Ken; Chabal, Yves; Gnade, Bruce; Rotea, Mario; Vasselli, John

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. Significant accomplishments are detailed in each section. Those particularly noteworthy include: • Transition metal silicate cathodes with 2x higher storage capacity than commercial cobalt oxide cathodes were demonstrated. • MnO₂ nanowires, which are a promising replacement for RuO₂, were synthesized • PAN-based carbon nanofibers were prepared and characterized with an energy density 30-times higher than current ultracapacitors on the market and comparable to lead-acid batteries • An optimization-based control strategy for real-time power management of battery storage in wind farms was developed and demonstrated. • PVDF films were developed with breakdown strengths of > 600MVm⁻¹, a maximum energy density of approximately 15 Jcm⁻³, and an average dielectric constant of 9.8 (±1.2). Capacitors made from these films can support a 10-year lifetime operating at an electric field of 200 MV m⁻¹. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  10. How to Create, Modify, and Interface Aspen In-House and User Databanks for System Configuration 2:

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, D W

    2000-10-27

    The goal of this document is to provide detailed instructions to create, modify, interface, and test Aspen User and In-House databanks with minimal frustration. The level of instructions are aimed at a novice Aspen Plus simulation user who is neither a programming nor computer-system expert. The instructions are tailored to Version 10.1 of Aspen Plus and the specific computing configuration summarized in the Title of this document and detailed in Section 2. Many details of setting up databanks depend on the computing environment specifics, such as the machines, operating systems, command languages, directory structures, inter-computer communications software, the version of the Aspen Engine and Graphical User Interface (GUI), and the directory structure of how these were installed.

  11. Identification of linearized equations of motion for the fixed wing configuration of the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balough, D. L.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish linear, decoupled models of rigid body motion for the fixed wing configuration of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA). Longitudinal and lateral control surface fixed linear models were created from aircraft time histories using current system identification techniques. Models were obtained from computer simulation at 160 KCAS and 200 KCAS, and from flight data at 160 KCAS. Comparisons were performed to examine modeling accuracy, variation of dynamics with airspeed and correlation of simulation and flight data results. The results showed that the longitudinal and lateral linear models accurately predicted RSRA dynamics. The flight data results showed that no significant handling qualities problems were present in the RSRA fixed wing aircraft at the flight speed tested.

  12. How to Create, Modify, and Interface Aspen In-House and User Databanks for System Configuration 1:

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, D W

    2000-10-27

    The goal of this document is to provide detailed instructions to create, modify, interface, and test Aspen User and In-House databanks with minimal frustration. The level of instructions are aimed at a novice Aspen Plus simulation user who is neither a programming nor computer-system expert. The instructions are tailored to Version 10.1 of Aspen Plus and the specific computing configuration summarized in the Title of this document and detailed in Section 2. Many details of setting up databanks depend on the computing environment specifics, such as the machines, operating systems, command languages, directory structures, inter-computer communications software, the version of the Aspen Engine and Graphical User Interface (GUI), and the directory structure of how these were installed.

  13. IUS/payload communication system simulator configuration definition study. [payload simulator for pcm telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udalov, S.; Springett, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements and specifications for a general purpose payload communications system simulator to be used to emulate those communications system portions of NASA and DOD payloads/spacecraft that will in the future be carried into earth orbit by the shuttle are discussed. For the purpose of on-orbit checkout, the shuttle is required to communicate with the payloads while they are physically located within the shuttle bay (attached) and within a range of 20 miles from the shuttle after they have been deployed (detached). Many of the payloads are also under development (and many have yet to be defined), actual payload communication hardware will not be available within the time frame during which the avionic hardware tests will be conducted. Thus, a flexible payload communication system simulator is required.

  14. Industrial energy systems and assessment opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barringer, Frank Leonard, III

    Industrial energy assessments are performed primarily to increase energy system efficiency and reduce energy costs in industrial facilities. The most common energy systems are lighting, compressed air, steam, process heating, HVAC, pumping, and fan systems, and these systems are described in this document. ASME has produced energy assessment standards for four energy systems, and these systems include compressed air, steam, process heating, and pumping systems. ASHRAE has produced an energy assessment standard for HVAC systems. Software tools for energy systems were developed for the DOE, and there are software tools for almost all of the most common energy systems. The software tools are AIRMaster+ and LogTool for compressed air systems, SSAT and 3E Plus for steam systems, PHAST and 3E Plus for process heating systems, eQUEST for HVAC systems, PSAT for pumping systems, and FSAT for fan systems. The recommended assessment procedures described in this thesis are used to set up an energy assessment for an industrial facility, collect energy system data, and analyze the energy system data. The assessment recommendations (ARs) are opportunities to increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems. A set of recommended assessment procedures and recommended assessment opportunities are presented for each of the most common energy systems. There are many assessment opportunities for industrial facilities, and this thesis describes forty-three ARs for the seven different energy systems. There are seven ARs for lighting systems, ten ARs for compressed air systems, eight ARs for boiler and steam systems, four ARs for process heating systems, six ARs for HVAC systems, and four ARs for both pumping and fan systems. Based on a history of past assessments, average potential energy savings and typical implementation costs are shared in this thesis for most ARs. Implementing these ARs will increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems in

  15. Performance Measurements of the Injection Laser System Configured for Picosecond Scale Advanced Radiographic Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Haefner, L C; Heebner, J E; Dawson, J W; Fochs, S N; Shverdin, M Y; Crane, J K; Kanz, K V; Halpin, J M; Phan, H H; Sigurdsson, R J; Brewer, S W; Britten, J A; Brunton, G K; Clark, W J; Messerly, M J; Nissen, J D; Shaw, B H; Hackel, R P; Hermann, M R; Tietbohl, G L; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-10-23

    We have characterized the Advanced Radiographic Capability injection laser system and demonstrated that it meets performance requirements for upcoming National Ignition Facility fusion experiments. Pulse compression was achieved with a scaled down replica of the meter-scale grating ARC compressor and sub-ps pulse duration was demonstrated at the Joule-level.

  16. Atmospheric scanning electron microscope system with an open sample chamber: configuration and applications.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Ogawa, Koji; Kitamura, Shinich; Konyuba, Yuji; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Ohbayashi, Norihiko; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Suga, Mitsuo; Sato, Chikara

    2014-12-01

    An atmospheric scanning electron microscope (ASEM) with an open sample chamber and optical microscope (OM) is described and recent developments are reported. In this ClairScope system, the base of the open sample dish is sealed to the top of the inverted SEM column, allowing the liquid-immersed sample to be observed by OM from above and by SEM from below. The optical axes of the two microscopes are aligned, ensuring that the same sample areas are imaged to realize quasi-simultaneous correlative microscopy in solution. For example, the cathodoluminescence of ZnO particles was directly demonstrated. The improved system has (i) a fully motorized sample stage, (ii) a column protection system in the case of accidental window breakage, and (iii) an OM/SEM operation system controlled by a graphical user interface. The open sample chamber allows the external administration of reagents during sample observation. We monitored the influence of added NaCl on the random motion of silica particles in liquid. Further, using fluorescence as a transfection marker, the effect of small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous Varp on Tyrp1 trafficking in melanocytes was examined. A temperature-regulated titanium ASEM dish allowed the dynamic observation of colloidal silver nanoparticles as they were heated to 240°C and sintered. PMID:25062041

  17. Optimal configuration and test parameters for the comprehensive test system for geomembrane liners

    SciTech Connect

    Stessel, R.I.

    1997-12-31

    Barriers to contaminant migration are a critical part of waste control engineering. Geomembranes (GMs) form one of the two key types of impermeable layer used in barrier systems. The other key barrier material is clay. Clays benefit from a very long history of geotechnical experience tying a range of laboratory tests, some very simple, to design interpretations in which the engineer may have confidence; GMs do not. The Comprehensive Test System (CTS) has been developed at the University of South Florida to permit testing of geomembrane liners in a manner that is both faster than current chemical-compatibility tests and more representative of exposure conditions. The test employs multi-axial deformation with cyclic loading, and can simultaneously expose the liner to potentially-hostile chemicals. These capabilities have been employed to develop a test protocol that generates a single-number parameter expressive of material strength. The test system has recently undergone upgrades and modifications to improve test reproducibility. In conjunction with the assessment of the changes and their effects, test parameters were evaluated. Data from an investigation will be presented to demonstrate the performance of the system. Key results from the range-finding effort, which was largely qualitative, will be discussed. Two are most important: First, the current commonly-employed strain rate is too fast. Second, it is possible to employ the CTS to produce significant differences without causing failure of the membrane, which is far different from current testing protocols, and should be of far greater interest to designers.

  18. Performance measurements of the injection laser system configured for picosecond scale advanced radiographic capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefner, C.; Heebner, J. E.; Dawson, J.; Fochs, S.; Shverdin, M.; Crane, J. K.; Kanz, K. V.; Halpin, J.; Phan, H.; Sigurdsson, R.; Brewer, W.; Britten, J.; Brunton, G.; Clark, B.; Messerly, M. J.; Nissen, J. D.; Shaw, B.; Hackel, R.; Hermann, M.; Tietbohl, G.; Siders, C. W.; Barty, C. P. J.

    2010-08-01

    We have characterized the Advanced Radiographic Capability injection laser system and demonstrated that it meets performance requirements for upcoming National Ignition Facility fusion experiments. Pulse compression was achieved with a scaled down replica of the meter-scale grating ARC compressor and sub-ps pulse duration was demonstrated at the Joule-level.

  19. Oral Drug Delivery Systems Comprising Altered Geometric Configurations for Controlled Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Kovanya; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E.; du Toit, Lisa C.; Ndesendo, Valence M. K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Cooppan, Shivaan; Bawa, Priya

    2012-01-01

    Recent pharmaceutical research has focused on controlled drug delivery having an advantage over conventional methods. Adequate controlled plasma drug levels, reduced side effects as well as improved patient compliance are some of the benefits that these systems may offer. Controlled delivery systems that can provide zero-order drug delivery have the potential for maximizing efficacy while minimizing dose frequency and toxicity. Thus, zero-order drug release is ideal in a large area of drug delivery which has therefore led to the development of various technologies with such drug release patterns. Systems such as multilayered tablets and other geometrically altered devices have been created to perform this function. One of the principles of multilayered tablets involves creating a constant surface area for release. Polymeric materials play an important role in the functioning of these systems. Technologies developed to date include among others: Geomatrix® multilayered tablets, which utilizes specific polymers that may act as barriers to control drug release; Procise®, which has a core with an aperture that can be modified to achieve various types of drug release; core-in-cup tablets, where the core matrix is coated on one surface while the circumference forms a cup around it; donut-shaped devices, which possess a centrally-placed aperture hole and Dome Matrix® as well as “release modules assemblage”, which can offer alternating drug release patterns. This review discusses the novel altered geometric system technologies that have been developed to provide controlled drug release, also focusing on polymers that have been employed in such developments. PMID:22312236

  20. Health risks of energy systems.

    PubMed

    Krewitt, W; Hurley, F; Trukenmüller, A; Friedrich, R

    1998-08-01

    Health risks from fossil, renewable and nuclear reference energy systems are estimated following a detailed impact pathway approach. Using a set of appropriate air quality models and exposure-effect functions derived from the recent epidemiological literature, a methodological framework for risk assessment has been established and consistently applied across the different energy systems, including the analysis of consequences from a major nuclear accident. A wide range of health impacts resulting from increased air pollution and ionizing radiation is quantified, and the transferability of results derived from specific power plants to a more general context is discussed. PMID:9775447

  1. Spin-flip configuration interaction singles with exact spin-projection: Theory and applications to strongly correlated systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi

    2015-10-14

    Spin-flip approaches capture static correlation with the same computational scaling as the ordinary single reference methods. Here, we extend spin-flip configuration interaction singles (SFCIS) by projecting out intrinsic spin-contamination to make it spin-complete, rather than by explicitly complementing it with spin-coupled configurations. We give a general formalism of spin-projection for SFCIS, applicable to any spin states. The proposed method is viewed as a natural unification of SFCIS and spin-projected CIS to achieve a better qualitative accuracy at a low computational cost. While our wave function ansatz is more compact than previously proposed spin-complete SF approaches, it successfully offers more general static correlation beyond biradicals without sacrificing good quantum numbers. It is also shown that our method is invariant with respect to open-shell orbital rotations, due to the uniqueness of spin-projection. We will report benchmark calculations to demonstrate its qualitative performance on strongly correlated systems, including conical intersections that appear both in ground-excited and excited-excited degeneracies.

  2. Self-configuring computerized robot control system with call-back feature

    SciTech Connect

    Buote, W.J.

    1987-08-25

    This patent describes a control system for operating a number of robot modules and comprising a language-generating and storing means. The language generating means consist of means to receive command-specific operating parameters, from a robot module, and means to transfer the operating parameters, the known robot module identification, and a selected name for the parameters into a dictionary storage means and sequence intelligence program means to activate such operating parameters by using the selected name as a command signal to transfer the parameters to the module. The improvement included the system which comprises a call-timer program means which responds to signals received from device intelligence contained in at least one module of the robotic device by commanding performance of a task, by the device, through the device intelligence and without use of the sequence intelligence program means.

  3. High-Lift Propeller System Configuration Selection for NASA's SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael D.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the primary function of propellers is typically to produce thrust, aircraft equipped with distributed electric propulsion (DEP) may utilize propellers whose main purpose is to act as a form of high-lift device. These \\high-lift propellers" can be placed upstream of wing such that, when the higher-velocity ow in the propellers' slipstreams interacts with the wing, the lift is increased. This technique is a main design feature of a new NASA advanced design project called Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR). The goal of the SCEPTOR project is design, build, and y a DEP aircraft to demonstrate that such an aircraft can be much more ecient than conventional designs. This paper provides details into the high-lift propeller system con guration selection for the SCEPTOR ight demonstrator. The methods used in the high-lift propeller system conceptual design and the tradeo s considered in selecting the number of propellers are discussed.

  4. SOFIA: Aircraft system, aft telescope cavity configuration, phase 2. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-02-01

    This volume summarizes the tasks performed by E-Systems during Phase 2 of a study evaluating the structural modifications required to install the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, SOFIA in the Boeing 747 airplane. An optimal structural modification concept for installation of the Infrared telescope is identified, and the concept is validated by analysis of the static and dynamic characteristics of the modified structure.

  5. Plasma effects in the formation, evolution and present configuration of the Saturnian ring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfven, H.; Mendis, D. A.

    The Voyager 1 and 2 observations of the fine structure of the Saturnian ring system demonstrate the importance of electric forces in controlling the dynamics of fine (charged) dust in the rings. A new theory ('gravito-electrodynamics') which combines the electric and the gravitational forces on these grains leads to natural explanations of a number of observed ring phenomena. If plasma processes play a significant role in the dynamics of the ring system at the present time, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that they also played an important and perhaps crucial role at cosmogonic times during the emplacement and subsequent condensation of the initial dusty plasma. It is suggested that the Saturnian ring system represents a 'time-capsule' containing vital clues about the physical processes operating during the early stages of its formation. It is shown that both its overall structure as well as its fine structure, as determined by Voyagers 1 and 2, indicate the crucial importance of plasma processes in its formation and subsequent evolution.

  6. 4 km Forecasting System to Support DISCOVER-AQ Campaigns: Model Configuration, Testing and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, P.; Pan, L.; Kim, H. C.; Chai, T.; Hu, Y.; Tong, D.; Ngan, F.; Wong, D.; Dornblaser, B.; Tanrikulu, S.; Pickering, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    This work presents the development and evaluation of a high-resolution air quality forecasting system to support two NASA Earth Venture campaigns (DISCOVER-AQ) in 2013. These campaigns aim to further understanding of column-integrated and vertically resolved observations in determining air pollution conditions near the surface (http://science.nasa.gov/missions/discover-aq/). The first one will be carried out in San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in winter and the second one in Houston (HOU) area in late summer. Accurate forecast of pollution plumes is critical for on-site deployment and co-ordination of the various observation platforms. We develop of a fine resolution forecasting system to provide dynamic prediction of the chemical fields over these regions. This system utilizes meteorology fields from the US National Centers for Environmental Prediction North American Model (NAM) that is equipped with an elaborative NAM Data Assimilation System (NDAS) for its Land Surface Model (LSM) and initialization processes. NAM output is used to drive the US EPA Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) with identical horizontal resolution. The SJV campaign is believed to be subjected to rather high particulate matter loading and possible frequent occurrence of multiple-day fog. NDAS provides advanced methodology to constrain atmospheric stability and soil moisture characteristics. These meteorological parameters are critical for the winter campaign. Special attention is paid to emission modeling for agricultural dust aerosols, which were found important for the SJV area. In contrast to the winter campaign where strong atmospheric stability will likely be a challenge, the HOU campaign in September of 2013 will be challenged with strong atmospheric convection and rather rapid growth of and a sustained deep Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) during mid-morning and afternoon, respectively. Convection often results in lightning. Wild-fires can contribute significantly to pollution

  7. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    DOEpatents

    Atcitty, Stanley; Clark, Nancy H.; Boyes, John D.; Ranade, Satishkumar J.

    2007-07-03

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  8. Configuring Balanced Scorecards for Measuring Health System Performance: Evidence from 5 Years' Evaluation in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Edward, Anbrasi; Kumar, Binay; Kakar, Faizullah; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Burnham, Gilbert; Peters, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2004, Afghanistan pioneered a balanced scorecard (BSC) performance system to manage the delivery of primary health care services. This study examines the trends of 29 key performance indicators over a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008. Methods and Findings Independent evaluations of performance in six domains were conducted annually through 5,500 patient observations and exit interviews and 1,500 provider interviews in >600 facilities selected by stratified random sampling in each province. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to assess trends in BSC parameters. There was a progressive improvement in the national median scores scaled from 0–100 between 2004 and 2008 in all six domains: patient and community satisfaction of services (65.3–84.5, p<0.0001); provider satisfaction (65.4–79.2, p<0.01); capacity for service provision (47.4–76.4, p<0.0001); quality of services (40.5–67.4, p<0.0001); and overall vision for pro-poor and pro-female health services (52.0–52.6). The financial domain also showed improvement until 2007 (84.4–95.7, p<0.01), after which user fees were eliminated. By 2008, all provinces achieved the upper benchmark of national median set in 2004. Conclusions The BSC has been successfully employed to assess and improve health service capacity and service delivery using performance benchmarking during the 5-year period. However, scorecard reconfigurations are needed to integrate effectiveness and efficiency measures and accommodate changes in health systems policy and strategy architecture to ensure its continued relevance and effectiveness as a comprehensive health system performance measure. The process of BSC design and implementation can serve as a valuable prototype for health policy planners managing performance in similar health care contexts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21814499

  9. Transient thermal analysis of three fast-charging latent heat storage configurations for a space-based power system

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, T.K.; Arimilli, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    A space-based thermal storage application must accept large quantities of heat in a short period of time at an elevated temperature. A model of a lithium hydride phase change energy storage system was used to estimate reasonable physical dimensions for this application which included the use of a liquid metal heat transfer fluid. A finite difference computer code was developed and used to evaluate three methods of enhancing heat transfer in the PCM energy storage system. None of these three methods, inserting thin fins, reticulated nickel, or liquid lithium, significantly improved the system performance. The use of a 95% void fraction reticulated nickel insert was found to increase the storage capacity (total energy stored) of the system slightly with only a small decrease in the system energy density (energy storage/system mass). The addition of 10% liquid lithium was found to cause minor increases in both storage density and storage capacity with the added benefit of reducing the hydrogen pressure of the lithium hydride. 9 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of stable and unstable resonator configurations for efficient second-harmonic laser systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams-Byrd, Julie A.; Barnes, Norman P.

    1992-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of a stable resonator, self-filtering unstable resonator, and an unstable resonator with a graded reflectivity mirror (GRM) as the output coupler is presented. The GRM resonator produced a slope efficiency of 1.4 percent, best beam quality (1.4 times diffraction limit), and highest conversion efficiency (50 percent). Other accomplishments include determination of the importance of measuring thermal focusing when designing unstable resonators, development of techniques in measuring thermal focusing and birefringence in laser materials, and development of a high brightness laser system for efficient second harmonic conversion.

  11. Configurations of high-frequency ultrasonics complex vibration systems for packaging in microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Jiromaru; Harada, Yoshiki; Ihara, Shigeru; Kasahara, Kohei; Shimizu, Masanori; Ueoka, Tetsugi

    2004-04-01

    Ultrasonic high-frequency complex vibrations are effective for various ultrasonic high-power applications. Three types of ultrasonic complex vibration system with a welding tip vibrating elliptical to circular locus for packaging in microelectronics were studied. The complex vibration sources are using (1) a longitudinal-torsional vibration converter with diagonal slits that is driven only by a longitudinal vibration source, (2) a complex transverse vibration rod with several stepped parts that is driven by two longitudinal vibration source crossed at a right angle and (3) a longitudinal vibration circular disk and three longitudinal transducers that are installed at the circumference of the disk.

  12. Learning guide for the terminal configured vehicle advanced guidance and control system mode select panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. A.; Callahan, R.

    1981-01-01

    This learning guide is designed to assist pilots in taking the PLATO presimulator training course on the advanced guidance and control system mode select panel. The learning guide is divided into five sections. The first section, the introduction, presents the course goals, prerequisites, definition of PLATO activities, and a suggested approach to completing the course. The remaining four sections present the purpose, learning activities and summary of each lesson of the AGCS PLATO course, which consists of (1) AGCS introduction; (2) lower order modes; (3) higher order modes; and (4) an arrival route exercise.

  13. Fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo potential energy curve of the fluorine molecule F{sub 2} using selected configuration interaction trial wavefunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Giner, Emmanuel; Scemama, Anthony; Caffarel, Michel

    2015-01-28

    The potential energy curve of the F{sub 2} molecule is calculated with Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (FN-DMC) using Configuration Interaction (CI)-type trial wavefunctions. To keep the number of determinants reasonable and thus make FN-DMC calculations feasible in practice, the CI expansion is restricted to those determinants that contribute the most to the total energy. The selection of the determinants is made using the CIPSI approach (Configuration Interaction using a Perturbative Selection made Iteratively). The trial wavefunction used in FN-DMC is directly issued from the deterministic CI program; no Jastrow factor is used and no preliminary multi-parameter stochastic optimization of the trial wavefunction is performed. The nodes of CIPSI wavefunctions are found to reduce significantly the fixed-node error and to be systematically improved upon increasing the number of selected determinants. To reduce the non-parallelism error of the potential energy curve, a scheme based on the use of a R-dependent number of determinants is introduced. Using Dunning’s cc-pVDZ basis set, the FN-DMC energy curve of F{sub 2} is found to be of a quality similar to that obtained with full configuration interaction/cc-pVQZ.

  14. Evaluation of a fault tolerant system for an integrated avionics sensor configuration with TSRV flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Godiwala, P. M.

    1985-01-01

    The performance analysis results of a fault inferring nonlinear detection system (FINDS) using sensor flight data for the NASA ATOPS B-737 aircraft in a Microwave Landing System (MLS) environment is presented. First, a statistical analysis of the flight recorded sensor data was made in order to determine the characteristics of sensor inaccuracies. Next, modifications were made to the detection and decision functions in the FINDS algorithm in order to improve false alarm and failure detection performance under real modelling errors present in the flight data. Finally, the failure detection and false alarm performance of the FINDS algorithm were analyzed by injecting bias failures into fourteen sensor outputs over six repetitive runs of the five minute flight data. In general, the detection speed, failure level estimation, and false alarm performance showed a marked improvement over the previously reported simulation runs. In agreement with earlier results, detection speed was faster for filter measurement sensors soon as MLS than for filter input sensors such as flight control accelerometers.

  15. Three-dimensional/two-dimensional multiplanar stereotactic planning system: hardware and software configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorano, Lucia J.; Dujovny, Manuel; Ausman, James I.

    1990-01-01

    "Real time" surgical treatment planning utilizing multimodality imaging (CT, MRI, DA) has been developed to provide the neurosurgeon with 2D multiplanar and 3D views of a patient's lesion for stereotactic planning. Both diagnostic and therapeutic stereotactic procedures have been implemented utilizing workstation (SUN 1/10) and specially developed software and hardware (developed in collaboration with TOMO Medical Imaging Technology, Southfield, MI). This provides complete 3D and 2D free-tilt views as part of the system instrumentation. The 2D Multiplanar includes reformatted sagittal, coronal, paraaxial and free tilt oblique vectors at any arbitrary plane of the patient's lesion. The 3D includes features for extracting a view of the target volume localized by a process including steps of automatic segmentation, thresholding, and/or boundary detection with 3D display of the volumes of interest. The system also includes the capability of interactive playback of reconstructed 3D movies, which can be viewed at any hospital network having compatible software on strategical locations or at remote sites through data transmission and record documentation by image printers. Both 2D and 3D menus include real time stereotactic coordinate measurements and trajectory definition capabilities as well as statistical functions for computing distances, angles, areas, and volumes. A combined interactive 3D-2D multiplanar menu allows simultaneous display of selected trajectory, final optimization, and multiformat 2D display of free-tilt reformatted images perpendicular to selected trajectory of the entire target volume.

  16. Vertically configured collimator for cryogenic vacuum testing of meter scale optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatke, Derek; Meyer, Steve; Siegel, Noah; Byrd, Don; Spuhler, Peter; Atcheson, Paul; Martella, Mark; Penniman, Edwin

    2007-09-01

    Ball Aerospace has constructed a new collimator for interferometric and image quality testing of meter scale optical systems under cryogenic, vacuum conditions. Termed the Vertical Collimator Assembly (VCA), it features 1.5 m diameter off-axis parabolic and calibration flat mirrors. In order to preserve as large a volume as possible for the unit under test, the main platform is suspended inside its vacuum chamber by a hexapod, with the parabolic mirror mounted overhead. A simultaneous interferometer facilitates collimator alignment and monitoring, as well as wavefront quality measurements for the test unit. Diffusely illuminated targets may be employed for through-focus image quality measurements with pinholes and bar targets. Mechanical alignment errors induced by thermal and structural perturbations are monitored with a three-beam distance measuring interferometer to enable mid-test compensation. Sources for both interferometer systems are maintained at atmospheric pressure while still directly mounted to the main platform, reducing vibration and stability problems associated with thermal vacuum testing. Because path lengths inside the ambient pressure vessels are extremely short, problems related to air turbulence and layering are also mitigated. In-chamber support equipment is insulated and temperature controlled, allowing testing while the chamber shrouds and test unit are brought to cryogenic temperatures.

  17. A regional GSI-based EnKF system for the Rapid Refresh configuration: Tests for Satellite Radiance Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kefeng; Xue, Ming

    2015-04-01

    A regional ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation (EnKF) system based on the NCEP operational Grid-point Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system has been established for the target Rapid Refresh (RAP) applications. The EnKF system borrows the data processing and observation operators from the GSI system, and pre-calculates observation priors using the GSI. The filter is based on the serial ensemble square-root Kalman filter (EnSRF) and updates both the state vector and observation priors and its distributed memory parallelization is carried out at the state vector level. In this study, the impact of satellite radiance including AMSU, AIRS, MHS and HIRS within the established EnKF-RAP framework was examined. Testing is performed at the ~40 km grid spacing, and its performance is compared to the GSI system which uses three dimensional variation method. The performance is evaluated in terms of short-range (up to 18 hours) forecast errors verified again soundings. The assimilation of AMSU-A data improved the forecast accuracy for all the verified variables especially for the wind components; the assimilation of AIRS data greatly improved the forecast accuracy of relative humidity; when all the radiance data were assimilated, the forecast is the best. The forecast started from EnKF analysis is consistently better than from GSI analysis though the relative improvement is smaller than GSI. In additional, the configurations like bias correction and thinning for radiance assimilation within ENKF-RAP will be presented and discussed.

  18. Hydraulic wind energy conversion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this reseach was to design, build and test a hydraulic wind energy system. This design used a three bladed turbine, which drove a hydraulic pump. The energy is transmitted from the pump through a long hose and into a hydraulic motor, where the energy is used. This wind system was built and tested during the winter of 1980-1981. The power train included a five meter, three bladed wind turbine, a 9.8:1 ratio gearbox, a 1.44 cubic inch displacement pump with a small supercharge gear pump attached. The hydraulic fluid was pumped through a 70 ft, 3/4 in. I-D-high pressure flexhose, then through a volume control valve and into a 1.44 cubic inch displacement motor. The fluid was returned through a 7 ft, 1 in. I-D-flexhose.

  19. Cardiac Care Assistance using Self Configured Sensor Network—a Remote Patient Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma Dhulipala, V. R.; Kanagachidambaresan, G. R.

    2014-04-01

    Pervasive health care systems are used to monitor patients remotely without disturbing the normal day-to-day activities in real-time. Wearable physiological sensors required to monitor various significant ecological parameters of the patients are connected to Body Central Unit (BCU). Body Sensor Network (BSN) updates data in real-time and are designed to transmit alerts against abnormalities which enables quick response by medical units in case of an emergency. BSN helps monitoring patient without any need for attention to the subject. BSN helps in reducing the stress and strain caused by hospital environment. In this paper, mathematical models for heartbeat signal, electro cardio graph (ECG) signal and pulse rate are introduced. These signals are compared and their RMS difference-fast Fourier transforms (PRD-FFT) are processed. In the context of cardiac arrest, alert messages of these parameters and first aid for post-surgical operations has been suggested.

  20. Configuration trade-offs for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility pointing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pue, A. J.; Strohbehn, K.; Hunt, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual pointing control system designs for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) are examined in terms of fine guidance pointing and large-angle slewing accuracies. In particular, basic trade-offs between body pointing only and body pointing plus image motion compensation (IMC) are considered using a steady-state linear covariance analysis to compute rms pointing errors. It is shown that body pointing can provide good performance during nominal fine pointing but limits the telescope capability to rapidly slew and acquire targets. Overall, body pointing plus IMC would offer superior performance but must be judged against the difficulties posed by the attitude sensor noise and the higher cost and complexity of IMC. It is recommended that improved sensor designs be pursued while slewing performance be enhanced by a combination of an appropriate command profile and control compensation.

  1. Tracking and data relay satellite system configuration and tradeoff study. Volume 5: TDRS spacecraft design, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A dual spin stabilized TDR spacecraft design is presented for low data rate (LDR) and medium data rate (MDR) user spacecraft telecommunication relay service. The relay satellite provides command and data return channels for unmanned users together with duplex voice and data communication channels for manned user spacecraft. TDRS/ground links are in the Ku band. Command links are provided at UHF for LDR users and S band for MDR users. Voice communication channels are provided at UHF/VHF for LDR users and at S band for MDR users. The spacecraft is designed for launch on the Delta 2914 with system deployment planned for 1978. This volume contains a description of the overall TDR spacecraft configuration, a detailed description of the spacecraft subsystems, a reliability analysis, and a product effectiveness plan.

  2. Subsonic Investigation of a Leading-Edge Boundary Layer Control Suction System on a High-Speed Civil Transport Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bryan A.; Applin, Zachary T.; Kemmerly, Guy T.; Coe, Paul L., Jr.; Owens, D. Bruce; Gile, Brenda E.; Parikh, Pradip G.; Smith, Don

    1999-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of a leading edge boundary layer control system was conducted on a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. Data were obtained over a Mach number range of 0.08 to 0.27, with corresponding chord Reynolds numbers of 1.79 x 10(exp 6) to 5.76 x 10(exp 6). Variations in the amount of suction, as well as the size and location of the suction area, were tested with outboard leading edge flaps deflected 0 and 30 deg and trailing-edge flaps deflected 0 and 20 deg. The longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic data are presented without analysis. A complete tabulated data listing is also presented herein.

  3. Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains aquifer system of Kansas, pre-1950

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stullken, Lloyd E.; Pabst, Marilyn E.

    1985-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is a part of a regional system that extends from South Dakota to Texas. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part. The aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Maps at a scale of 1:500,000 show the altitude and configuration of the water table in Kansas prior to 1950. The water-table maps depict the water-level surface that was present prior to major development of the High Plains aquifer. Ground water moves from higher altitudes in the western part of the High Plains to lower altitudes in the eastern part at an average slope of 10 feet per mile. The upgradient flexure of water-table contours along some of the valleys indicates that ground water is discharged to the streams in those areas. (USGS)

  4. Detached Eddy Simulation Results for a Space Launch System Configuration at Liftoff Conditions and Comparison with Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krist, Steven E.; Ghaffari, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations for a Space Launch System configuration at liftoff conditions for incidence angles from 0 to 90 degrees were conducted in order to generate integrated force and moment data and longitudinal lineloads. While the integrated force and moment coefficients can be obtained from wind tunnel testing, computational analyses are indispensable in obtaining the extensive amount of surface information required to generate proper lineloads. However, beyond an incidence angle of about 15 degrees, the effects of massive flow separation on the leeward pressure field is not well captured with state of the art Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes methods, necessitating the employment of a Detached Eddy Simulation method. Results from these simulations are compared to the liftoff force and moment database and surface pressure data derived from a test in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel.

  5. Application of Energy Storage in Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqunun, Khalid M.

    The purpose of this research is to determine the advantages of using energy storage systems. This study presents a model for energy storage in electric power systems. The model involves methods of reducing the operation cost of a power network and the calculation of capital cost of energy storage systems. Two test systems have been considered, the IEEE six-bus system and the IEEE 118-bus system, to analyze the impact of energy storage on power system economic operation. Properties of energy storage have been considered such as rated power investment cost and rated energy investment cost. Mixed integer programming has been used to formulate the model. A comparison between centralized energy storage system and distributed energy storage system have been proposed. The results show that distributed energy storage system has more impact on reducing total operation cost. Also, an analysis on optimal sizing of energy storage system with fixed investment cost is provided.

  6. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

  7. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2009-09-01

    The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental degradation attributed to the affects of energy production and use. Thus, nations strive to increase their energy generation, but are faced with the challenge of doing so with a minimal impact on the environment and in a manner that is self-reliant. Consequently, a revival of interest in nuclear energy has followed, with much focus placed on technologies for transmuting nuclear spent fuel. The performed research investigates nuclear energy systems that optimize the destruction of nuclear waste. In the context of this effort, nuclear energy system is defined as a configuration of nuclear reactors and corresponding fuel cycle components. The proposed system has unique characteristics that set it apart from other systems. Most notably the dedicated High-Energy External Source Transmuter (HEST), which is envisioned as an advanced incinerator used in combination with thermal reactors. The system is configured for examining environmentally benign fuel cycle options by focusing on minimization or elimination of high level waste inventories. Detailed high-fidelity exact-geometry models were developed for representative reactor configurations. They were used in preliminary calculations with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtented (MCNPX) and Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code systems. The reactor models have been benchmarked against existing experimental data and design data. Simulink{reg_sign}, an extension of MATLAB{reg_sign}, is envisioned as the interface environment for constructing the nuclear energy system model by linking the individual reactor and fuel component sub

  8. Power systems after the Northridge earthquake: Emergency operations and changes in seismic equipment specifications, practice, and system configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Schiff, A.J.; Tognazzini, R.; Ostrom, D.

    1995-12-31

    The Northridge earthquake caused extensive damage to high voltage substation equipment, and for the first time the failure of transmission towers. Power was lost to much of the earthquake impacted area, and 93% of the customers were restored within 24 hours. To restore service, damage monitoring, communication and protective equipment, such as current-voltage transformers, wave traps, and lightning arresters, were removed or bypassed and operation restored. To improve performance some porcelain members are being replaced with composite materials for bushings, current-voltage transformers and lightning arresters. Interim equipment seismic specifications for equipment have been instituted. Some substations are being re-configured and rigid bus and conductors are being replaced with flexible conductors. Non-load carrying conductors, such as those used on lightning arrester, are being reduced in size to reduce potential interaction problems. Better methods of documenting damage and repair costs are being considered.

  9. Synchronization configurations of two coupled double pendula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koluda, Piotr; Perlikowski, Przemyslaw; Czolczynski, Krzysztof; Kapitaniak, Tomasz

    2014-04-01

    We consider the synchronization of two self-excited double pendula hanging from a horizontal beam which can roll on the parallel surface. We show that such pendula can obtain four different robust synchronous configurations. Our approximate analytical analysis allows to derive the synchronization conditions and explains the observed types of synchronizations. We consider the energy balance in the system and show how the energy is transferred between the pendula via the oscillating beam allowing the pendula' synchronization.

  10. Aircraft system aft telescope cavity configuration study for Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The SOFIA Aircraft System (AS) Phase 1 Study was a broad-based study which addressed itself to satisfying technical and programmatic requirements by drawing from existing technology and applying cost-efficient commercial approaches to the aircraft modification. In this SOFIA AS Phase 2 Study, five critical areas of the aircraft were selected for more detailed investigation: forward pressure bulkhead, aft bulkhead, 'free' shell to bulkhead interface, shell cut-out to bulkhead interface, and flooring. The in-depth investigation of these areas upon a finite element model (FEM), with a fine grid model in areas of particular interest, is discussed. The FEM code used is called 'STRAP' and was developed by the engineering firm, Rasmussen and Associates. STRAP is NASTRAN compatible to within 1%. The loads applied to the model were approximated from known 747 envelope conditions. The areas of investigation, and a section through the fuselage is shown. The thrust of this investigation was to develop the design concepts conceived under phase 1 to the point where detailed design could be undertaken with a high level of confidence.

  11. Method for Loss Minimum Re-configuration Problem of Distribution System by Tabu Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishima, Yuji; Nara, Koichi; Satoh, Taiji; Ito, Takamitsu; Kaneda, Hirotoshi

    This paper proposes a loss minimum reconfiguration method by Tabu Search for open loop radial distribution system with distributed generators. The problem is to find the optimal normal open sectionalizing switch positions which minimize the total distribution line losses subjected to the line/transformer capacity constraints and voltage constraint. Generally, the problem is mathematically formulated as a complex combinatorial optimization problem or mixed integer programming problem, and is solved by using mathematical programming method, heuristic algorithm, intelligent method, etc. However, satisfactory algorithm for power companies has not yet been attained both in computational burden and solution accuracy. Thus, in this paper, the authors propose a method to solve the above problem by using Tabu Search (TS) method. Reverse power flow caused by distributed generators can be included in the solution algorithm. TS is one of meta-heuristic algorithms, and sometimes evaluated to be better compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA) or Simulated Annealing (SA) from viewpoints of both computational speed and solution accuracy. In order to evaluate the validity and efficiency of the algorithm, several numerical examples are shown in this paper.

  12. HIGH-MASS, FOUR-PLANET CONFIGURATIONS FOR HR 8799: CONSTRAINING THE ORBITAL INCLINATION AND AGE OF THE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Sudol, Jeffrey J.; Haghighipour, Nader E-mail: nader@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2012-08-10

    Debates regarding the age and inclination of the planetary system orbiting HR 8799, and the release of additional astrometric data following the discovery of the fourth planet, prompted us to examine the possibility of constraining these two quantities by studying the long-term stability of this system at different orbital inclinations and in its high-mass configuration (7-10-10-10 M{sub Jup}). We carried out {approx}1.5 million N-body integrations for different combinations of orbital elements of the four planets. The most dynamically stable combinations survived less than {approx}5 Myr at inclinations of 0 Degree-Sign and 13 Degree-Sign , and 41, 46, and 31 Myr at 18 Degree-Sign , 23 Degree-Sign , and 30 Degree-Sign , respectively. Given such short lifetimes and the location of the system on the age-luminosity diagram for low-mass objects, the most reasonable conclusion of our study is that the planetary masses are less than 7-10-10-10 M{sub Jup} and the system is quite young. Two trends to note from our work are as follows. (1) In the most stable systems, the higher the inclination, the more the coordinates for planets b and c diverge from the oldest archival astrometric data (released after we completed our N-body integrations), suggesting that either these planets are in eccentric orbits or have lower orbital inclinations than that of planet d. (2) The most stable systems place planet e closer to the central star than is observed, supporting the conclusion that the planets are more massive and the system is young. We present the details of our simulations and discuss the implications of the results.

  13. Energy Systems and Population Health

    SciTech Connect

    Ezzati, Majid; Bailis, Rob; Kammen, Daniel M.; Holloway, Tracey; Price, Lynn; Cifuentes, Luis A.; Barnes, Brendon; Chaurey, Akanksha; Dhanapala, Kiran N.

    2004-04-12

    It is well-documented that energy and energy systems have a central role in social and economic development and human welfare at all scales, from household and community to regional and national (41). Among its various welfare effects, energy is closely linked with people s health. Some of the effects of energy on health and welfare are direct. With abundant energy, more food or more frequent meals can be prepared; food can be refrigerated, increasing the types of food items that are consumed and reducing food contamination; water pumps can provide more water and eliminate the need for water storage leading to contamination or increased exposure to disease vectors such as mosquitoes or snails; water can be disinfected by boiling or using other technologies such as radiation. Other effects of energy on public health are mediated through more proximal determinants of health and disease. Abundant energy can lead to increased irrigation, agricultural productivity, and access to food and nutrition; access to energy can also increase small-scale income generation such as processing of agricultural commodities (e.g., producing refined oil from oil seeds, roasting coffee, drying and preserving fruits and meats) and production of crafts; ability to control lighting and heating allows education or economic activities to be shielded from daily or seasonal environmental constraints such as light, temperature, rainfall, or wind; time and other economic resources spent on collecting and/or transporting fuels can be used for other household needs if access to energy is facilitated; energy availability for transportation increases access to health and education facilities and allow increased economic activity by facilitating the transportation of goods and services to and from markets; energy for telecommunication technology (radio, television, telephone, or internet) provides increased access to information useful for health, education, or economic purposes; provision of energy

  14. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    s thermal dissatisfaction below a given threshold. The DECS energy usage was calculated using the simplified thermal model. OSFA control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected HIYW control with a thermostat at each workstation were implemented for 3 cities representing 3 different climatic regions and control scenarios. It is shown that optimization allows DECS to deliver a higher level of individual and population thermal comfort while achieving annual energy savings between 14 and 26% compared to OSFA. The optimization model also allowed us to study the influence of the partitions’ thermal resistance and the variability of internal loads at each office. These influences didn’t make significant changes in the optimized energy consumption relative to OSFA. The results show that it is possible to provide thermal comfort for each occupant while saving energy compared to OSFA Furthermore, to simplify the implementation of this approach, a fuzzy logic system has been developed to generalize the overall optimization strategy. Its performance was almost as good as the gradient system. The fuzzy system provided thermal comfort to each occupant and saved energy compared to OSFA. The energy savings of the fuzzy system were not as high as for the gradient-optimized system, but the fuzzy system avoided complete connectivity, and the optimization did not have to be repeated for each population. 3. We employed a detailed CFD model of adjacent occupied cubicles to extend the thermal-circuit model in three significant ways: (a) relax the “office wall” requirement by allowing energy to flow between zones via advection as well as conduction, (b) improve the comfort model to account both for radiation as well as convection heat transfer, and (c) support ventilation systems in which the temperature is stratified, such as in underfloor air distribution systems. Initially, three-dimensional CFD simulations of several cubicle configurations, with

  15. Configuration and Evaluation of a Dual-Doppler 3-D Wind Field System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Winifred C.

    2014-01-01

    Current LSP, GSDO, and SLS space vehicle operations are halted when wind speeds from specific directions exceed defined thresholds and when lightning is a threat. Strong winds and lightning are difficult parameters for the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to forecast, yet are important in the protection of customer vehicle operations and the personnel that conduct them. A display of the low-level horizontal wind field to reveal areas of high winds or convergence would be a valuable tool for forecasters in assessing the timing of high winds, or convection initiation and subsequent lightning occurrence. This is especially important for areas where no weather observation platforms exist. Developing a dual-Doppler radar capability would provide such a display to assist forecasters in predicting high winds and convection initiation. The wind fields can also be used to initialize a local mesoscale numerical weather prediction model to help improve the model forecast winds, convection initiation, and other phenomena. The 45 WS and NWS MLB tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a dual- Doppler wind field display using data from the 45th Space Wing radar, known as the Weather Surveillance Radar (WSR), NWS MLB Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (KMLB), and the Orlando International Airport Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (KMCO). They also stipulated that the software used should be freely available. The AMU evaluated two software packages and, with concurrence from NWS MLB and the 45 WS, chose the Warning Decision Support System-Integrated Information (WDSS-II). The AMU collected data from two significant weather cases: a tornadic event on 14 April 2013 and a severe wind and hail event on 12 February 2014. For the 14 April case, the data were from WSR and KMLB. For the 12 February case, the data were from KMCO and KMLB. The AMU installed WDSS-II on a Linux PC, then processed and quality controlled the radar data for display and analysis using WDSS-II tools

  16. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  17. X-ray and neutron diffraction studies and MD simulation of atomic configurations in polyamorphic Y2O3-Al2O3 systems.

    PubMed

    Wilding, M C; Wilson, M; McMillan, P F

    2005-02-15

    Supercooled liquids in the Y(2)O(3)-Al(2)O(3) system undergo a liquid-liquid phase transition between a high-temperature, high-density amorphous (HDA) polymorph form and one with lower density (LDA form) that is stable at lower temperature. The two amorphous polymorphs have the same chemical composition, but they differ in their density (ca. 4% difference) and in their heat content (enthalpy) and entropy determined by calorimetry. Here we present new results of structural studies using neutron and high-energy X-ray diffraction to study the structural differences between HDA and LDA polyamorphs. The combined datasets show no large differences in the average nearest-neighbour Al-O or Y-O bond lengths or coordination numbers between the low- and high-density liquids. However, the data indicate that substantial changes occur among the packing geometries and clustering of the Al-O and Y-O coordination polyhedra, i.e. within the second-nearest-neighbour shell defined by the metal-metal (i.e. Y-Y, Y-Al, Al-Al) interactions. Polarizable ion model molecular dynamics simulations of Y(2)O(3)-Al(2)O(3) liquids are used to help interpret the pair-correlation functions obtained from X-ray and neutron scattering data. Unexpectedly large density fluctuations are observed to occur during the simulation of nominally equilibrated systems. These are interpreted as being due to dynamic sampling of high- and low-density configurations within the single-phase liquid at temperatures above the critical point or phase transition line. Calculated partial radial distribution functions indicate that the primary differences between HDA and LDA configurations occur among the Y-Y correlations. PMID:15664901

  18. Landing gear energy absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Christopher P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.

  19. Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses the objectives of a hydrogen energy systems technology study directed toward determining future demand for hydrogen based on current trends and anticipated new uses and identifying the critical research and technology advancements required to meet this need with allowance for raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects. Attention is focused on historic production and use of hydrogen, scenarios used as a basis for projections, projections of energy sources and uses, supply options, and technology requirements and needs. The study found more than a billion dollar annual usage of hydrogen, dominated by chemical-industry needs, supplied mostly from natural gas and petroleum feedstocks. Evaluation of the progress in developing nuclear fusion and solar energy sources relative to hydrogen production will be necessary to direct the pace and character of research and technology work in the advanced water-splitting areas.

  20. Phase change energy storage for solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, F. P.; Taylor, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a transient computer simulation that was developed to study phase change energy storage techniques for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic (SD) power systems. Such SD systems may be used in future growth SSF configurations. Two solar dynamic options are considered in this paper: Brayton and Rankine. Model elements consist of a single node receiver and concentrator, and takes into account overall heat engine efficiency and power distribution characteristics. The simulation not only computes the energy stored in the receiver phase change material (PCM), but also the amount of the PCM required for various combinations of load demands and power system mission constraints. For a solar dynamic power system in low earth orbit, the amount of stored PCM energy is calculated by balancing the solar energy input and the energy consumed by the loads corrected by an overall system efficiency. The model assumes an average 75 kW SD power system load profile which is connected to user loads via dedicated power distribution channels. The model then calculates the stored energy in the receiver and subsequently estimates the quantity of PCM necessary to meet peaking and contingency requirements. The model can also be used to conduct trade studies on the performance of SD power systems using different storage materials.