Science.gov

Sample records for energy vision drawn

  1. Cosmic Visions Dark Energy: Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Heitmann, Katrin; Hirata, Chris; Honscheid, Klaus; Roodman, Aaron; Seljak, Uroš; Slosar, Anže; Trodden, Mark

    2016-04-26

    A strong instrumentation and detector R&D program has enabled the current generation of cosmic frontier surveys. A small investment in R&D will continue to pay dividends and enable new probes to investigate the accelerated expansion of the universe. Instrumentation and detector R&D provide critical training opportunities for future generations of experimentalists, skills that are important across the entire Department of Energy High Energy Physics program.

  2. Cosmic Visions Dark Energy. Science

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Heitmann, Katrin; Hirata, Chris; Honscheid, Klaus; Roodman, Aaron; Seljak, Uroš; Slosar, Anže; Trodden, Mark

    2016-04-26

    Cosmic surveys provide crucial information about high energy physics including strong evidence for dark energy, dark matter, and inflation. Ongoing and upcoming surveys will start to identify the underlying physics of these new phenomena, including tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy, the viability of modified gravity, the existence of extra light species, the masses of the neutrinos, and the potential of the field that drove inflation. Even after the Stage IV experiments, DESI and LSST, complete their surveys, there will still be much information left in the sky. This additional information will enable us to understand the physics underlying the dark universe at an even deeper level and, in case Stage IV surveys find hints for physics beyond the current Standard Model of Cosmology, to revolutionize our current view of the universe. There are many ideas for how best to supplement and aid DESI and LSST in order to access some of this remaining information and how surveys beyond Stage IV can fully exploit this regime. These ideas flow to potential projects that could start construction in the 2020's.

  3. Conclusions drawn from actions implemented within the first stage of the Cracow program of energy conservation and clean fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Bieda, J.; Bardel, J.; Pierce, B.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1992 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), acting on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, executed the first stage of the Cracow Program of Energy Conservation and Clean Fossil Fuels, called also American-Polish Program of Actions for Elimination of Low Emission Sources in Cracow. The main contractor for BNL and PNL was the Cracow Development Office (BRK). The interest in improving the condition of Cracow air results from the fact that the standard for permissible air pollution was exceeded several times in Cracow and especially within the central part of the town. Therefore, air pollution appeared one of the most important problems that faced the municipal authorities. It followed from monitoring investigations that the high level of air pollutant concentration is caused by in-home coal-fired tile stoves operated in winter seasons and by coal- and coke-fired boiler houses simulated mainly in the central part of the town. The results obtained in first stage are presented. This paper is an attempt to formulate conclusions drawn from these works and recommendations with regard to the future policy of the town authorities; selected results are presented to clarify or illustrate the conclusions.

  4. Virtual Simulation of Vision 21 Energy Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Syamlal, Madhava; Felix, Paul E.; Osawe, Maxwell O.; Fiveland, Woodrow A.; Sloan, David G.; Zitney, Stephen E.; Joop, Frank; Cleetus, Joseph; Lapshin, Igor B.

    2001-11-06

    The Vision 21 Energy plants will be designed by combining several individual power, chemical, and fuel-conversion technologies. These independently developed technologies or technology modules can be interchanged and combined to form the complete Vision 21 plant that achieves the needed level of efficiency and environmental performance at affordable costs. The knowledge about each technology module must be captured in computer models so that the models can be linked together to simulate the entire Vision 21 power plant in a Virtual Simulation environment. Eventually the Virtual Simulation will find application in conceptual design, final design, plant operation and control, and operator training. In this project we take the first step towards developing such a Vision 21 Simulator. There are two main knowledge domains of a plant--the process domain (what is in the pipes), and the physical domain (the pipes and equipment that make up the plant). Over the past few decades, commercial software tools have been developed for each of these functions. However, there are three main problems that inhibit the design and operation of power plants: (1) Many of these tools, largely developed for chemicals and refining, have not been widely adopted in the power industry. (2) Tools are not integrated across functions. For example, the knowledge represented by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of equipment is not used in process-level simulations. (3) No tool exists for readily integrating the design and behavioral knowledge about components. These problems must be overcome to develop the Vision 21 Simulator. In this project our major objective is to achieve a seamless integration of equipment-level and process-level models and apply the integrated software to power plant simulations. Specifically we are developing user-friendly tools for linking process models (Aspen Plus) with detailed equipment models (FLUENT CFD and other proprietary models). Such integration will

  5. A Vision for Systems Engineering Applied to Wind Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, F.; Dykes, K.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation was given at the Third Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop on January 14, 2015. Topics covered include the importance of systems engineering, a vision for systems engineering as applied to wind energy, and application of systems engineering approaches to wind energy research and development.

  6. TARDEC’s Power and Energy Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-27

    Hybrid Electric (HE) fleet. High-power, high-energy density, Li-ion batteries are being designed for use in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) propulsion...short-circuit protection device used to protect equipment when military vehicles increasingly exceed the electrical power generation capability...genera- tion and usage, addresses both approaches. It is, therefore, a systems engineering approach to the efficient use of electrical power on vehicle

  7. Cosmic Visions Dark Energy:Science

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, S.; Slosar, A.; Heitmann, K.; Hirata, C.; Honscheid, K.; Roodman, A.; Seljak, U.; Trodden, M.

    2016-04-26

    Cosmic surveys provide crucial information about high energy physics including strong evidence for dark energy, dark matter, and inflation. Ongoing and upcoming surveys will start to identify the underlying physics of these new phenomena, including tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy, the viability of modified gravity, the existence of extra light species, the masses of the neutrinos, and the potential of the field that drove inflation. Even after the Stage IV experiments, DESI and LSST, complete their surveys, there will still be much information left in the sky. This additional information will enable us to understand the physics underlying the dark universe at an even deeper level and, in case Stage IV surveys find hints for physics beyond the current Standard Model of Cosmology, to revolutionize our current view of the universe. There are many ideas for how best to supplement and aid DESI and LSST in order to access some of this remaining information and how surveys beyond Stage IV can fully exploit this regime. These ideas flow to potential projects that could start construction in the 2020's.

  8. Context-specific energy strategies: coupling energy system visions with feasible implementation scenarios.

    PubMed

    Trutnevyte, Evelina; Stauffacher, Michael; Schlegel, Matthias; Scholz, Roland W

    2012-09-04

    Conventional energy strategy defines an energy system vision (the goal), energy scenarios with technical choices and an implementation mechanism (such as economic incentives). Due to the lead of a generic vision, when applied in a specific regional context, such a strategy can deviate from the optimal one with, for instance, the lowest environmental impacts. This paper proposes an approach for developing energy strategies by simultaneously, rather than sequentially, combining multiple energy system visions and technically feasible, cost-effective energy scenarios that meet environmental constraints at a given place. The approach is illustrated by developing a residential heat supply strategy for a Swiss region. In the analyzed case, urban municipalities should focus on reducing heat demand, and rural municipalities should focus on harvesting local energy sources, primarily wood. Solar thermal units are cost-competitive in all municipalities, and their deployment should be fostered by information campaigns. Heat pumps and building refurbishment are not competitive; thus, economic incentives are essential, especially for urban municipalities. In rural municipalities, wood is cost-competitive, and community-based initiatives are likely to be most successful. Thus, the paper shows that energy strategies should be spatially differentiated. The suggested approach can be transferred to other regions and spatial scales.

  9. Tribal Energy Program, Assisting Tribes to Realize Their Energy Visions (Brochure), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This 12-page brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Tribal Energy Program and describes the financial, technical, and educational assistance it provides to help tribes develop their renewable energy resources and reduce their energy consumption.

  10. Energy/environment/technology two visions, two directions

    SciTech Connect

    Fox-Penner, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper compares the energy policies proposed by the U.S. Congress and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Connections between energy, economy, environment, and technology are discussed in some detail. The National Energy Policy Plan of the DOE is summarized, and the impact of budget cuts proposed by Congress are projected. Aspects of the DOE plan which are emphasized include research and development, minimization of regulation, and eliminating redundant government and private industry efforts. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Wind Vision: Updating the DOE 20% Wind Energy by 2030 Report (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2014-04-01

    The 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report was developed as part of the Advanced Energy Initiative. Published in 2008, the report was largely based on information collected and analyzed in 2006. Much has changed since then, including shifts in technology, markets, and policy. The industry needs a new, clear, vision for wind power that is shared among stakeholders from the U.S. government, industry, academia, and NGO communities. At WINDPOWER 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy, in partnership with the American Wind Energy Association and the Wind Energy Foundation, launched a project to update the 20% report with new objectives. This conference poster outlines the elements of the new Wind Vision.

  12. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schwartz

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the work performed, accomplishments and conclusion obtained from the project entitled ''Novel Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation in Gasification Processes in Vision 21 Energy Plants'' under the United States Department of Energy Contract DE-FC26-01NT40973. ITN Energy Systems was the prime contractor. Team members included: the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; Nexant Consulting; Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair. The objective of the program was to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The separation technology module is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. The program developed and evaluated composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules were fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed Ion Conducting Ceramic Membrane (ICCM) approach, including system integration issues, were also assessed. This resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of integration schemes of ICCM hydrogen separation technology within Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Several results and conclusion were obtained during this program. In the area of materials synthesis, novel

  13. Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States (Highlights); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This is a four-part Wind Vision project, consisting of Wind Vision Highlights, Executive Summary, a Full Report, and Appendix. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Program, in close cooperation with the wind industry, led a comprehensive analysis to evaluate future pathways for the wind industry. The Wind Vision report updates and expands upon the DOE's 2008 report, 20% Wind Energy by 2030, and defines the societal, environmental, and economic benefits of wind power in a scenario with wind energy supplying 10% of national end-use electricity demand by 2020, 20% by 2030, and 35% by 2050.

  14. An experimental comparison of min-cut/max-flow algorithms for energy minimization in vision.

    PubMed

    Boykov, Yuri; Kolmogorov, Vladimir

    2004-09-01

    After [15], [31], [19], [8], [25], [5], minimum cut/maximum flow algorithms on graphs emerged as an increasingly useful tool for exact or approximate energy minimization in low-level vision. The combinatorial optimization literature provides many min-cut/max-flow algorithms with different polynomial time complexity. Their practical efficiency, however, has to date been studied mainly outside the scope of computer vision. The goal of this paper is to provide an experimental comparison of the efficiency of min-cut/max flow algorithms for applications in vision. We compare the running times of several standard algorithms, as well as a new algorithm that we have recently developed. The algorithms we study include both Goldberg-Tarjan style "push-relabel" methods and algorithms based on Ford-Fulkerson style "augmenting paths." We benchmark these algorithms on a number of typical graphs in the contexts of image restoration, stereo, and segmentation. In many cases, our new algorithm works several times faster than any of the other methods, making near real-time performance possible. An implementation of our max-flow/min-cut algorithm is available upon request for research purposes.

  15. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schwartz

    2003-07-01

    ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of

  16. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schwartz

    2003-10-01

    ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of

  17. Modulus and yield stress of drawn LDPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thavarungkul, Nandh

    Modulus and yield stress were investigated in drawn low density polyethylene (LDPE) film. Uniaxially drawn polymeric films usually show high values of modulus and yield stress, however, studies have normally only been conducted to identify the structural features that determine modulus. In this study small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), thermal shrinkage, birefringence, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) were used to examine, directly and indirectly, the structural features that determine both modulus and yield stress, which are often closely related in undrawn materials. Shish-kebab structures are proposed to account for the mechanical properties in drawn LDPE. The validity of this molecular/morphological model was tested using relationships between static mechanical data and structural and physical parameters. In addition, dynamic mechanical results are also in line with static data in supporting the model. In the machine direction (MD), "shish" and taut tie molecules (TTM) anchored in the crystalline phase account for E; whereas crystal lamellae with contributions from "shish" and TTM determine yield stress. In the transverse direction (TD), the crystalline phase plays an important roll in both modulus and yield stress. Modulus is determined by crystal lamellae functioning as platelet reinforcing elements in the amorphous matrix with an additional contributions from TTM and yield stress is determined by the crystal lamellae's resistance to deformation.

  18. The quality transformation: A catalyst for achieving energy`s strategic vision

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes the initial six corporate quality goals for DOE. It also includes accompanying performance measures which will help DOE determine progress towards meeting these goals. The six goals are: (1) There is effective use of performance measurement based on regular assessment of Energy operations using the Presidential Award for Quality, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, or equivalent criteria. (2) All managers champion continuous quality improvement training for all employees through planning, attendance, and active application. (3) The Department leadership has provided the environment in which employees are enabled to satisfy customer requirements and realize their full potential. (4) The Department management practices foster employee involvement, development and recognition. (5) The Department continuously improves customer service and satisfaction, and internal and external customers recognize Energy as an excellent service provider. (6) The Department has a system which aligns strategic and operational planning with strategic intent, ensures this planning drives resource allocation, provides for regular evaluation of results, and provides feedback.

  19. Energy Horizons: A Science and Technology Vision for Air Force Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Embedded Turbine Engine (L) Advanced and Nutating Cycles (L) Efficient Small-Scale Propulsion (L) Engine-Specific Improvements (L) Turbofan... Earth -orbiting satellites. In the midterm, the survivability and increased longevity of current-generation satellite systems demand further...power beaming from space to earth , in the long term, space-to-space energy beaming could enable “fractionated” satellites, which are not only

  20. Numerical model and analysis of an energy-based system using microwaves for vision correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertaub, Radha; Ryan, Thomas P.

    2009-02-01

    A treatment system was developed utilizing a microwave-based procedure capable of treating myopia and offering a less invasive alternative to laser vision correction without cutting the eye. Microwave thermal treatment elevates the temperature of the paracentral stroma of the cornea to create a predictable refractive change while preserving the epithelium and deeper structures of the eye. A pattern of shrinkage outside of the optical zone may be sufficient to flatten the central cornea. A numerical model was set up to investigate both the electromagnetic field and the resultant transient temperature distribution. A finite element model of the eye was created and the axisymmetric distribution of temperature calculated to characterize the combination of controlled power deposition combined with surface cooling to spare the epithelium, yet shrink the cornea, in a circularly symmetric fashion. The model variables included microwave power levels and pulse width, cooling timing, dielectric material and thickness, and electrode configuration and gap. Results showed that power is totally contained within the cornea and no significant temperature rise was found outside the anterior cornea, due to the near-field design of the applicator and limited thermal conduction with the short on-time. Target isothermal regions were plotted as a result of common energy parameters along with a variety of electrode shapes and sizes, which were compared. Dose plots showed the relationship between energy and target isothermic regions.

  1. Low Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... USAJobs Home > Statistics and Data > Low Vision Low Vision Low Vision Defined: Low Vision is defined as the best- ... 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Low Vision by Age, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 ...

  2. Analysis of Earing in Deep Drawn Cups

    SciTech Connect

    Aretz, Holger; Aegerter, Johannes; Engler, Olaf

    2010-06-15

    The cup-drawing of a strongly anisotropic sheet metal is simulated using a commercial finite element software along with a user material subroutine. In order to accurately describe the plastic anisotropy of the material the well-known recent yield function 'Yld2004-18p' is extended. Regarding the experimental characterization of the considered material the occurrence of dynamic strain aging lead to an oscillating signal of the width change of the tensile samples, which prevented a reliable determination of plastic strain ratios (r-values). Thus, an improved measurement concept was developed that leads to a very robust and reproducible determination of r-values. Furthermore, a novel plane-strain tensile test sample is presented which is used for the characterization of the plastic anisotropy in biaxial loading states. A quantitative comparison with measured earing profiles of deep drawn cups illustrates the predictive capabilities of the numerical simulation.

  3. 77 FR 64545 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... COMMISSION Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China Scheduling of the final phase of countervailing duty and... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of drawn stainless steel... merchandise as ``drawn stainless steel sinks with single or multiple drawn bowls, with or without drain...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal; Maxwell Osawe; Stephen Zitney; Lewis Collins; David Sloan; Woodrow Fiveland; Frank Joop; Philip Simon; K. Joseph Cleetus

    2005-04-01

    To accelerate the development of advanced power plants, DOE's Vision 21 program identified the need for an integrated suite of software tools that could be used to simulate and visualize new plant concepts. Existing process simulation software did not meet this objective of virtual-plant simulation. Sophisticated models of many individual equipment items are available; however, a seamless coupling capability that would integrate the advanced equipment (component) models to the process (system) simulation software remained to be developed. The inability to use models in an integrated manner causes knowledge loss (e.g., knowledge captured in detailed equipment models is usually not available in process simulation) and modeling inconsistencies (e.g., physical properties and reaction kinetics data in different models are not the same). A team consisting of Fluent Inc., ALSTOM Power Inc., Aspen Technology Inc., Intergraph Corporation, and West Virginia University, in collaboration with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), addressed this challenge in a project performed over the period from October 2000 through December 2004. In this project the integration of the cycle analysis software was based on widely used commercial software: Aspen Plus{reg_sign} for process simulation and FLUENT{reg_sign} for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of equipment items. The integration software was designed to also include custom (in-house, proprietary, legacy) equipment models that often encapsulate the experience from the many years of designing and operating the equipment. The team adopted CAPE-OPEN (CO) interfaces, the de facto international standard for communication among process models, for exchanging information between software. The software developed in this project is the first demonstration of the use of CO interfaces to link CFD and custom equipment models with process simulators. New interface requirements identified during this project were

  5. 78 FR 21417 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... COMMISSION Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... drawn stainless steel sinks from China, provided for in subheading 7324.10.00 of the Harmonized Tariff... notification of a preliminary determinations by Commerce that imports of drawn stainless steel sinks from...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2001-10-20

    DOE Vision 21 project requirements for the support of Global CAPE-OPEN Reaction Kinetics interfaces in Aspen Plus 12 was written (Task 2.4). The software design document was written and posted on the project web site. Intergraph started work on a proof of concept demo of the physical domain software (Task 2.6). The COM-side (Aspen Plus) and CORBA-side (Fluent) pieces of the Vision 21 controller code were written and independently verified. The two pieces of the code were then combined. Debugging of the combined code is underway (Task 2.7). Papers on fuel cell processes were read in preparation for developing an example based on a fuel cell process (Task 2.8). The INDVU code has been used to replace the boiler component in the Aspen Plus flowsheet of the RP&L power plant. The INDVU code receives information from Aspen Plus and iterates on the split backpass LTSH bypass and excess air quantities until the stipulated superheat outlet temperature is satisfied. The combined INDVU-Aspen Plus model has been run for several load conditions (Task 2.14). Work on identifying a second demonstration case involving an advanced power cycle has been started (Task 3.2). Plans for the second Advisory Board meeting in November were made (Task 5.0). Intergraph subcontract was signed and work on a physical domain software demo was started. A second teleconference with Norsk Hydro was conducted to discuss Global CAPE-OPEN standards and issues related to COM-CORBA Bridge (Task 7.0).

  7. VISION Model : description of model used to estimate the impact of highway vehicle technologies and fuels on energy use and carbon emissions to 2050.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.; Vyas, A.; Steiner, E.

    2004-02-19

    The VISION model has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to provide estimates of the potential energy use, oil use, and carbon emission impacts to 2050 of advanced light- and heavy-duty highway vehicle technologies and alternative fuels. DOE supports research of advanced transportation technologies (including fuels) and is frequently asked to provide estimates of the potential impacts of successful market penetration of these technologies, sometimes on a relatively quick-turnaround basis. VISION is a spreadsheet model in Microsoft Excel that can be used to respond rapidly to quick-turnaround requests, as well as for longer-term analyses. It uses vehicle survival and age-dependent usage characteristics to project total light and heavy vehicle stock, total vehicle miles of travel (VMT), and total energy use by technology and fuel type by year, given market penetration and vehicle energy efficiency assumptions developed exogenously. Total carbon emissions for on-highway vehicles by year are also estimated because life-cycle carbon coefficients for various fuels are included in VISION. VISION is not a substitute for the transportation component of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). NEMS incorporates a consumer choice model to project market penetration of advanced vehicles and alternative fuels. The projections are made within the context of the entire U.S. economy. However, the NEMS model is difficult to use on a quick-turnaround basis and only makes projections to 2025. VISION complements NEMS with its relative ''user-friendliness'' and by extending the time frame of potential analysis. VISION has been used for a wide variety of purposes. For illustration, we have listed some of its most recent and current uses in Table 1.1. Figures 1.1-1.3 illustrate the results of some of those runs. These graphs are not actual model output, but they are based on model results. The main body of this report

  8. 77 FR 23752 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... (April 2012), entitled Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from China: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-489 and...

  9. Mathematics Teachers' Reasoning about Fractions and Decimals Using Drawn Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soo Jin; Brown, Rachael Eriksen; Orrill, Chandra Hawley

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study considers middle grades mathematics teachers' reasoning about drawn representations of fractions and decimals. We analyzed teachers' strategies based on their response to multiple-choice tasks that required analysis of drawn representations. We found that teachers' flexibility with referent units played a significant role in…

  10. High energy physics advisory panel`s subpanel on vision for the future of high-energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report was requested by the Secretary of Energy to (1) define a long-term program for pursuing the most important high-energy physics goals since the termination of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project, (2) assess the current US high-energy physics program, and (3) make recommendations regarding the future of the field. Subjects on which recommendations were sought and which the report addresses were: high-energy physics funding priorities; facilitating international collaboration for future construction of large high-energy physics facilities; optimizing uses of the investment made in the SSC; how to encourage displaced scientists and engineers to remain in high-energy physics and to attract young scientists to enter the field in the future. The report includes a description of the state of high-energy physics research in the context of history, a summary of the SSC project, and documentation of the report`s own origins and development.

  11. VISION: Illuminating the Pathways to a Clean Energy Economy - JISEA 2016 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    This report demonstrates JISEA's successes over the past year and previews our coming work. The 2016 Annual Report highlights JISEA accomplishments in low-carbon electricity system research, international collaboration, clean energy manufacturing analysis, 21st century innovation strategy, and more. As we look to the coming year, JISEA will continue to navigate complex issues, present unique perspectives, and envision a clean energy economy.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell Osawe; Madhava Syamlal; Krishna Thotapalli; Stephen Zitney

    2003-07-30

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40954. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a software framework to enable virtual simulation of Vision 21 plants. During the last quarter much progress was made in software development. The CO wrapper for the integration of Alstom Power proprietary code INDVU was upgraded to CO V1.0.0 and was successfully integrated with an Aspen Plus flowsheet. The V21-Controller and the Fluent CO wrapper were upgraded to CO V.1.0.0, and the testing and debugging of the upgraded V21-Controller was completed. Two Aspen Plus analysis tools (sensitivity analysis and optimization) were successfully tested in an integrated simulation. Extensive testing of the integrated software was continued. A list of suggested enhancements was given to the software development team. Work on software documentation was started. Work on preparing the release version progressed: Several enhancements were made in the V21-Controller and the Fluent Configuration Wizard GUIs. Work to add persistence functionality to the V21-Controller was started. During the last quarter good progress was made in software demonstration. Demo Case 1 simulations were completed. This case, a conventional steam cycle with a CFD model representing the boiler module, was successfully demonstrated at 9 distinct load points from 33 MW to 19 MW. Much progress was made with Demo Case 2. Work on adding a CO wrapper to the HRSGSIM code was completed, and integrated simulations with the HRSGSIM code were conducted. The CFD heat exchanger model for Demo Case 2 was calibrated with HRSGSIM results. An Advisory Board meeting was held in Manchester, NH on May 6 during the Fluent Users Group Meeting. The preparation of the project final report was started.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    A software design review meeting was conducted (Task 2.0). A CFD Viewer was developed, to allow the process analyst to view CFD results from the process simulator (Task 2.14). Work on developing a CO wrapper for the INDVU code was continued (Task 2.15). The model-edit GUI was modified to allow the user to specify a solution strategy. Enhancements were made to the solution strategy implementation (Task 2.16). Testing of the integrated software was continued and several bug fixes and enhancements were made: ability to expose CFD parameters to the process analyst and support for velocity and pressure inlet boundary conditions (Task 2.21). Work on preparing the release version progressed: Version 0.3 of V21 Controller was released, a global configuration dialog was implemented, and a code review process was initiated (Task 2.24). The calibration of the tube bank CFD model for the RP&L case was completed. While integrating the tube bank CFD model into the flow sheet model, several development requirements were identified and communicated to the developers. The requirements of porting V21 Controller and Configuration Wizard to FLUENT 6.1, turning off the transfer of temperature dependent properties, exposing CFD parameters in Aspen Plus and supporting velocity boundary conditions have been implemented (Task 4.1). An initial grid for the HRSG component has been prepared (Task 4.2). A web-based advisory board meeting was conducted on December 18, 2003 (Task 5.0). Project personnel attended and gave presentations at the Aspen World Conference, October 28-30, 2002; AIChE Annual Meeting, November 8, 2002; and the Vision 21 Simulation meeting at Iowa State University, November 19-20, 2002 (Task 7.0).

  14. Energy Usage in an Embedded Space Vision Application on a Tiled Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogge, Peter M.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.; Estlin, Tara A.

    2011-01-01

    The need for greater autonomy in platforms such as planetary rovers is driving rapidly to codes that far overwhelm the capabilities of conventional space-qualified single core processors to run them in real-time. However, a new generation of potentially space-qualified 2D "tiled" multi-core microprocessor chips is emerging with significant performance potential. Leveraging such inherently parallel hardware for space platforms requires consideration of both time and power limitations - the latter of which is not normally done in conventional parallel computing. This paper takes one such application, Rockster, and analyzes it for energy usage when ported to a multi-core tiled chip such as may come from the Maestro program. The results demonstrate not only the criticality of memory and interconnect in the energy of real-time parallel codes, but also the effects of possible "energy-aware" changes in partitioning and algorithm design.

  15. Vision problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... shade or curtain hanging across part of your visual field. Optic neuritis : inflammation of the optic nerve ... Impaired vision; Blurred vision Images Crossed eyes Eye Visual acuity test Slit-lamp exam Visual field test ...

  16. 8. Photocopy of drawing (from California State Library) 'Drawn from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of drawing (from California State Library) 'Drawn from Nature by Hugo Hochholzer,' ca. 1860s 'VIEW OF BENICIA ARSENAL GROUNDS LOOKING S.E.' - Benicia Arsenal, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  17. 12. Photocopy of drawing, measured and drawn by Albert P. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of drawing, measured and drawn by Albert P. Erb. WEST ELEVATION - Dr. David Ross House, Annapolis Road (moved to Preservation Hill, Western Run Road, Cockeysville), Bladensburg, Prince George's County, MD

  18. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, drawn by Pierre du Simitiere ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, drawn by Pierre du Simitiere (papers in Philadelphia Library) DRAWING OF REDWOOD LIBRARY IN 1768. - Redwood Library, 50 Bellevue Avenue, Newport, Newport County, RI

  19. Vision-based building energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis using 3D thermography and building information modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Youngjib

    localization issues of 2D thermal image-based inspection, a new computer vision-based method is presented for automated 3D spatio-thermal modeling of building environments from images and localizing the thermal images into the 3D reconstructed scenes, which helps better characterize the as-is condition of existing buildings in 3D. By using these models, auditors can conduct virtual walk-through in buildings and explore the as-is condition of building geometry and the associated thermal conditions in 3D. Second, to address the challenges in qualitative and subjective interpretation of visual data, a new model-based method is presented to convert the 3D thermal profiles of building environments into their associated energy performance metrics. More specifically, the Energy Performance Augmented Reality (EPAR) models are formed which integrate the actual 3D spatio-thermal models ('as-is') with energy performance benchmarks ('as-designed') in 3D. In the EPAR models, the presence and location of potential energy problems in building environments are inferred based on performance deviations. The as-is thermal resistances of the building assemblies are also calculated at the level of mesh vertex in 3D. Then, based on the historical weather data reflecting energy load for space conditioning, the amount of heat transfer that can be saved by improving the as-is thermal resistances of the defective areas to the recommended level is calculated, and the equivalent energy cost for this saving is estimated. The outcome provides building practitioners with unique information that can facilitate energy efficient retrofit decision-makings. This is a major departure from offhand calculations that are based on historical cost data of industry best practices. Finally, to improve the reliability of BIM-based energy performance modeling and analysis for existing buildings, a new model-based automated method is presented to map actual thermal resistance measurements at the level of 3D vertexes to the

  20. A new vision for fusion energy research: Fusion rocket engines for planetary defense

    DOE PAGES

    Wurden, G. A.; Weber, T. E.; Turchi, P. J.; ...

    2015-11-16

    Here, we argue that it is essential for the fusion energy program to identify an imagination-capturing critical mission by developing a unique product which could command the marketplace. We lay out the logic that this product is a fusion rocket engine, to enable a rapid response capable of deflecting an incoming comet, to prevent its impact on the planet Earth, in defense of our population, infrastructure, and civilization. As a side benefit, deep space solar system exploration, with greater speed and orders-of-magnitude greater payload mass would also be possible.

  1. Low Vision Aids and Low Vision Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vision Resources Low Vision Rehabilitation and Low Vision Aids Written by: David Turbert Edited by: Robert H ... covers most services, but not devices.) Low vision aids There are many low vision aids and devices ...

  2. NASA's Vision for Potential Energy Reduction from Future Generations of Propulsion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Through a robust partnership with the aviation industry, over the past 50 years NASA programs have helped foster advances in propulsion technology that enabled substantial reductions in fuel consumption for commercial transports. Emerging global trends and continuing environmental concerns are creating challenges that will very likely transform the face of aviation over the next 20-40 years. In recognition of this development, NASA Aeronautics has established a set of Research Thrusts that will help define the future direction of the agency's research technology efforts. Two of these thrusts, Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles and Transition to Low-Carbon Propulsion, serve as cornerstones for the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) project. The AATT project is exploring and developing high-payoff technologies and concepts that are key to continued improvement in energy efficiency and environmental compatibility for future generations of fixed-wing, subsonic transports. The AATT project is primarily focused on the N+3 timeframe, or 3 generations from current technology levels. As should be expected, many of the propulsion system architectures technologies envisioned for N+3 vary significantly from todays engines. The use of batteries in a hybrid-electric configuration or deploying multiple fans distributed across the airframe to enable higher bypass ratios are just two examples of potential advances that could enable substantial energy reductions over current propulsion systems.

  3. Exploring the potential of energy and terrain awareness information in a synthetic vision display for UAV control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadema, Jochum; Theunissen, Erik; Lambregts, Tony

    2009-05-01

    This paper addresses the design and implementation of a conceptual Enhanced/Synthetic Vision Primary Flight Display format. The goal of this work is to explore the means to provide the operator of a UAV with an integrated view of the constraints for the velocity vector, resulting in an explicit depiction of the margins/boundaries of the multi-dimensional maneuver space. For non-time-critical situations, this is expected to provide support when the operator has the authority to manually set avoidance maneuvers, or approve, veto or modify velocity vector changes proposed by the automation. The integration of the upper bounds of the maneuver space, resulting from energy constraints, and the lower bounds, resulting from terrain will be illustrated. Additionally, the application of a maneuver cost function will be discussed, for identifying and prioritizing conflict avoidance options from an integrated multi-dimensional maneuver space, and communicating those to the operator. Although the integrated avoidance functions have been developed with the UAV application in mind, they have equal merit for manned aircraft. The need for specific GUI elements depends on the level of authority of the system and the role of the operator/pilot, which may differ between manned and unmanned applications.

  4. Vision for cross-layer optimization to address the dual challenges of energy and reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather M; Dehon, Andre; Carter, Nicholas P

    2009-01-01

    We are rapidly approaching an inflection point where the conventional target of producing perfect, identical transistors that operate without upset can no longer be maintained while continuing to reduce the energy per operation. With power requirements already limiting chip performance, continuing to demand perfect, upset-free transistors would mean the end of scaling benefits. The big challenges in device variability and reliability are driven by uncommon tails in distributions, infrequent upsets, one-size-fits-all technology requirements, and a lack of information about the context of each operation. Solutions co-designed across traditional layer boundaries in our system stack can change the game, allowing architecture and software (a) to compensate for uncommon variation, environments, and events, (b) to pass down invariants and requirements for the computation, and (c) to monitor the health of collections of deVices. Cross-layer codesign provides a path to continue extracting benefits from further scaled technologies despite the fact that they may be less predictable and more variable. While some limited multi-layer mitigation strategies do exist, to move forward redefining traditional layer abstractions and developing a framework that facilitates cross-layer collaboration is necessary.

  5. Pencil Drawn Strain Gauges and Chemiresistors on Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-Wei; Zhao, Zhibo; Kim, Jaemyung; Huang, Jiaxing

    2014-01-01

    Pencil traces drawn on print papers are shown to function as strain gauges and chemiresistors. Regular graphite/clay pencils can leave traces composed of percolated networks of fine graphite powders, which exhibit reversible resistance changes upon compressive or tensile deflections. Flexible toy pencils can leave traces that are essentially thin films of graphite/polymer composites, which show reversible changes in resistance upon exposure to volatile organic compounds due to absorption/desorption induced swelling/recovery of the polymer binders. Pencil-on-paper devices are low-cost, extremely simple and rapid to fabricate. They are light, flexible, portable, disposable, and do not generate potentially negative environmental impact during processing and device fabrication. One can envision many other types of pencil drawn paper electronic devices that can take on a great variety of form factors. Hand drawn devices could be useful in resource-limited or emergency situations. They could also lead to new applications integrating art and electronics.

  6. Low Vision FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... USAJobs Home > Low Vision > Low Vision FAQs Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Low Vision FAQs What is low vision? Low vision is ...

  7. 15. Photocopy of map, drawn by Henry Hagey, circa 1900 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of map, drawn by Henry Hagey, circa 1900 (from Willing Inhabitants, original in possession of author, Joyce Munro). FRANCONIA TOWNSHIP MAP. BRIDGE LOCATION IN BOTTOM CENTER - Allentown Road Bridge, Spanning Skippack Creek on Allentown Road, Franconia, Montgomery County, PA

  8. Control room layout, 1941, drawn by Waddell and Hardesty, New ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Control room layout, 1941, drawn by Waddell and Hardesty, New York, New York. Drawing in collection of Caretaker Site Office, Philadelphia Naval Business Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Lift Bridge, Mouth of Reserve Basin, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 53. Photocopy of the original conception of Tao House drawn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of the original conception of Tao House drawn by architect Frederick L. Confer and inscribed by Mrs. O'Neill to the builder, Lloyd C. Simpson. Dated 1937. - Eugene O'Neill House, Kuss Road, Danville, Contra Costa County, CA

  10. 38. Photograph of plans for alterations to IBM facilities, drawn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photograph of plans for alterations to IBM facilities, drawn by U.S. Navy Bureau of Yards and Docks, c. 1960. Drawing on file at Caretaker Site Office, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, New London. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  11. Pencil it in: pencil drawn electrochemical sensing platforms.

    PubMed

    Foster, Christopher W; Brownson, Dale A C; Ruas de Souza, Ana P; Bernalte, Elena; Iniesta, Jesus; Bertotti, Mauro; Banks, Craig E

    2016-06-20

    Inspired by recent reports concerning the utilisation of hand drawn pencil macroelectrodes (PDEs), we report the fabrication, characterisation (physicochemical and electrochemical) and implementation (electrochemical sensing) of various PDEs drawn upon a flexible polyester substrate. Electrochemical characterisation reveals that there are no quantifiable electrochemical responses upon utilising these PDEs with an electroactive analyte that requires an electrochemical oxidation step first, therefore the PDEs have been examined towards the electroactive redox probes hexaammineruthenium(iii) chloride, potassium ferricyanide and ammonium iron(ii) sulfate. For the first time, characterisation of the number of drawn pencil layers and the grade of pencil are examined; these parameters are commonly overlooked when utilising PDEs. It is demonstrated that a PDE drawn ten times with a 6B pencil presented the most advantageous electrochemical platform, in terms of electrochemical reversibility and peak height/analytical signal. In consideration of the aforementioned limitation, analytes requiring an electrochemical reduction as the first process were solely analysed. We demonstrate the beneficial electroanalytical capabilities of these PDEs towards p-benzoquinone and the simultaneous detection of heavy metals, namely lead(ii) and cadmium(ii), all of which are explored for the first time utilising PDEs. Initially, the detection limits of this system were higher than desired for electroanalytical platforms, however upon implementation of the PDEs in a back-to-back configuration (in which two PDEs are placed back-to-back sharing a single connection to the potentiostat), the detection limits for lead(ii) and cadmium(ii) correspond to 10 μg L(-1) and 98 μg L(-1) respectively within model aqueous (0.1 M HCl) solutions.

  12. Pencil Drawn Strain Gauges and Chemiresistors on Paper

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Wei; Zhao, Zhibo; Kim, Jaemyung; Huang, Jiaxing

    2014-01-01

    Pencil traces drawn on print papers are shown to function as strain gauges and chemiresistors. Regular graphite/clay pencils can leave traces composed of percolated networks of fine graphite powders, which exhibit reversible resistance changes upon compressive or tensile deflections. Flexible toy pencils can leave traces that are essentially thin films of graphite/polymer composites, which show reversible changes in resistance upon exposure to volatile organic compounds due to absorption/desorption induced swelling/recovery of the polymer binders. Pencil-on-paper devices are low-cost, extremely simple and rapid to fabricate. They are light, flexible, portable, disposable, and do not generate potentially negative environmental impact during processing and device fabrication. One can envision many other types of pencil drawn paper electronic devices that can take on a great variety of form factors. Hand drawn devices could be useful in resource-limited or emergency situations. They could also lead to new applications integrating art and electronics. PMID:24448478

  13. Human motion retrieval from hand-drawn sketch.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-Hung; Assa, Jackie; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2012-05-01

    The rapid growth of motion capture data increases the importance of motion retrieval. The majority of the existing motion retrieval approaches are based on a labor-intensive step in which the user browses and selects a desired query motion clip from the large motion clip database. In this work, a novel sketching interface for defining the query is presented. This simple approach allows users to define the required motion by sketching several motion strokes over a drawn character, which requires less effort and extends the users’ expressiveness. To support the real-time interface, a specialized encoding of the motions and the hand-drawn query is required. Here, we introduce a novel hierarchical encoding scheme based on a set of orthonormal spherical harmonic (SH) basis functions, which provides a compact representation, and avoids the CPU/processing intensive stage of temporal alignment used by previous solutions. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can well retrieve the motions, and is capable of retrieve logically and numerically similar motions, which is superior to previous approaches. The user study shows that the proposed system can be a useful tool to input motion query if the users are familiar with it. Finally, an application of generating a 3D animation from a hand-drawn comics strip is demonstrated.

  14. Computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gennery, D.; Cunningham, R.; Saund, E.; High, J.; Ruoff, C.

    1981-01-01

    The field of computer vision is surveyed and assessed, key research issues are identified, and possibilities for a future vision system are discussed. The problems of descriptions of two and three dimensional worlds are discussed. The representation of such features as texture, edges, curves, and corners are detailed. Recognition methods are described in which cross correlation coefficients are maximized or numerical values for a set of features are measured. Object tracking is discussed in terms of the robust matching algorithms that must be devised. Stereo vision, camera control and calibration, and the hardware and systems architecture are discussed.

  15. All Vision Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Statistics and Data > All Vision Impairment All Vision Impairment Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is defined as the ... Ethnicity 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Vision Impairment by Age and Race/Ethnicity Table for ...

  16. Improving Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Many people are familiar with the popular science fiction series Star Trek: The Next Generation, a show featuring a blind character named Geordi La Forge, whose visor-like glasses enable him to see. What many people do not know is that a product very similar to Geordi's glasses is available to assist people with vision conditions, and a NASA engineer's expertise contributed to its development. The JORDY(trademark) (Joint Optical Reflective Display) device, designed and manufactured by a privately-held medical device company known as Enhanced Vision, enables people with low vision to read, write, and watch television. Low vision, which includes macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, describes eyesight that is 20/70 or worse, and cannot be fully corrected with conventional glasses.

  17. Vision Underwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information regarding underwater vision. Includes a discussion of optically important interfaces, increased eye size of organisms at greater depths, visual peculiarities regarding the habitat of the coastal environment, and various pigment visual systems. (CS)

  18. [Central vision].

    PubMed

    Fahle, M

    2004-07-01

    The clinical assessment of vision by means of optotypes does by no means test just two-point resolution, since a correct naming of the letters or digits requires a preceding visual object recognition. Cortical lesions can massively deteriorate vision up to a "Seelenblindheit" in spite of intact optics and retina. There are different processing levels involved in the analysis which can be individually defective, leading to disorders from visual indiscrimination to agnosia or anomia.

  19. 77 FR 58355 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China... Department'') initiated antidumping and countervailing duty investigations of drawn stainless steel sinks... countervailing duty determination.\\2\\ \\1\\ See Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of...

  20. Structural Analysis of Hand Drawn Bumblebee Bombus terrestris Silk

    PubMed Central

    Woodhead, Andrea L.; Sutherland, Tara D.; Church, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Bombus terrestris, commonly known as the buff-tailed bumblebee, is native to Europe, parts of Africa and Asia. It is commercially bred for use as a pollinator of greenhouse crops. Larvae pupate within a silken cocoon that they construct from proteins produced in modified salivary glands. The amino acid composition and protein structure of hand drawn B. terrestris, silk fibres was investigated through the use of micro-Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained from single fibres drawn from the larvae salivary gland at a rate of 0.14 cm/s. Raman spectroscopy enabled the identification of poly(alanine), poly(alanine-glycine), phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, which is consistent with the results of amino acid analysis. The dominant protein conformation was found to be coiled coil (73%) while the β-sheet content of 10% is, as expected, lower than those reported for hornets and ants. Polarized Raman spectra revealed that the coiled coils were highly aligned along the fibre axis while the β-sheet and random coil components had their peptide carbonyl groups roughly perpendicular to the fibre axis. The protein orientation distribution is compared to those of other natural and recombinant silks. A structural model for the B. terrestris silk fibre is proposed based on these results. PMID:27447623

  1. Structural Analysis of Hand Drawn Bumblebee Bombus terrestris Silk.

    PubMed

    Woodhead, Andrea L; Sutherland, Tara D; Church, Jeffrey S

    2016-07-20

    Bombus terrestris, commonly known as the buff-tailed bumblebee, is native to Europe, parts of Africa and Asia. It is commercially bred for use as a pollinator of greenhouse crops. Larvae pupate within a silken cocoon that they construct from proteins produced in modified salivary glands. The amino acid composition and protein structure of hand drawn B. terrestris, silk fibres was investigated through the use of micro-Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained from single fibres drawn from the larvae salivary gland at a rate of 0.14 cm/s. Raman spectroscopy enabled the identification of poly(alanine), poly(alanine-glycine), phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, which is consistent with the results of amino acid analysis. The dominant protein conformation was found to be coiled coil (73%) while the β-sheet content of 10% is, as expected, lower than those reported for hornets and ants. Polarized Raman spectra revealed that the coiled coils were highly aligned along the fibre axis while the β-sheet and random coil components had their peptide carbonyl groups roughly perpendicular to the fibre axis. The protein orientation distribution is compared to those of other natural and recombinant silks. A structural model for the B. terrestris silk fibre is proposed based on these results.

  2. Springback in Deep Drawn High Purity Niobium for Superconductor Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapati Rao Myneni; Peter Kneisel

    2005-09-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made from deep drawn high-purity niobium have become a popular approach for the design of particle accelerators. A number of current accelerators use this technology and it is a leading candidate for future designs. The development of this technology has required significant advances in many scientific fields including metallurgy, high vacuum physics, surface science, and forming. Recently proposed modifications to the current process for fabrication of these cavities has resulted in increased concern about the distribution of deformation, residual stress patterns, and springback. This presentation will report on the findings of a recently initiated program to study plastic flow and springback in the fabrication of these cavities and the influence of metallurgical variables including grain size and impurity content.

  3. Bio-inspired vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  4. Presidential Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallin, Alice, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the theme of university presidents and their visions of the future. It presents the inaugural addresses and speeches of 16 Catholic college and university presidents focusing on their goals, ambitions, and reasons for choosing to become higher education leaders at this particular time in the history of education in…

  5. Visions 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Victor; Norman, Michele

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the views of 18 educational leaders regarding their vision on the future of education in an information age. Topics include people's diverse needs; relationships between morality, ethics, values, and technology; leadership; parental involvement; online courses from multiple higher education institutions; teachers' role; technology…

  6. Healthy Vision Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI for Kids > Healthy Vision Tips All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Healthy Vision Tips Healthy vision starts with you! Use these ...

  7. Blindness and vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye ( chemical burns or sports injuries) Diabetes Glaucoma Macular degeneration The type of partial vision loss may differ, ... tunnel vision and missing areas of vision With macular degeneration, the side vision is normal but the central ...

  8. Present Vision--Future Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitterman, L. Jeffrey

    This paper addresses issues of current and future technology use for and by individuals with visual impairments and blindness in Florida. Present technology applications used in vision programs in Florida are individually described, including video enlarging, speech output, large inkprint, braille print, paperless braille, and tactual output…

  9. Vision Algorithm for the Solar Aspect System of the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, Alexander Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    This work covers the design and test of a machine vision algorithm for generating high- accuracy pitch and yaw pointing solutions relative to the sun on a high altitude balloon. It describes how images were constructed by focusing an image of the sun onto a plate printed with a pattern of small cross-shaped fiducial markers. Images of this plate taken with an off-the-shelf camera were processed to determine relative position of the balloon payload to the sun. The algorithm is broken into four problems: circle detection, fiducial detection, fiducial identification, and image registration. Circle detection is handled by an "Average Intersection" method, fiducial detection by a matched filter approach, and identification with an ad-hoc method based on the spacing between fiducials. Performance is verified on real test data where possible, but otherwise uses artificially generated data. Pointing knowledge is ultimately verified to meet the 20 arcsecond requirement.

  10. Computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses material from areas such as artificial intelligence, psychology, computer graphics, and image processing. The intent is to assemble a selection of this material in a form that will serve both as a senior/graduate-level academic text and as a useful reference to those building vision systems. This book has a strong artificial intelligence flavour, emphasising the belief that both the intrinsic image information and the internal model of the world are important in successful vision systems. The book is organised into four parts, based on descriptions of objects at four different levels of abstraction. These are: generalised images-images and image-like entities; segmented images-images organised into subimages that are likely to correspond to interesting objects; geometric structures-quantitative models of image and world structures; relational structures-complex symbolic descriptions of image and world structures. The book contains author and subject indexes.

  11. Pleiades Visions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pleiades Visions (2012) is my new musical composition for organ that takes inspiration from traditional lore and music associated with the Pleiades (Seven Sisters) star cluster from Australian Aboriginal, Native American, and Native Hawaiian cultures. It is based on my doctoral dissertation research incorporating techniques from the fields of ethnomusicology and cultural astronomy; this research likely represents a new area of inquiry for both fields. This large-scale work employs the organ's vast sonic resources to evoke the majesty of the night sky and the expansive landscapes of the homelands of the above-mentioned peoples. Other important themes in Pleiades Visions are those of place, origins, cosmology, and the creation of the world.

  12. Cartesian visions.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    Few original portraits exist of René Descartes, yet his theories of vision were central to Enlightenment thought. French philosophers combined his emphasis on sight with the English approach of insisting that ideas are not innate, but must be built up from experience. In particular, Denis Diderot criticised Descartes's views by describing how Nicholas Saunderson--a blind physics professor at Cambridge--relied on touch. Diderot also made Saunderson the mouthpiece for some heretical arguments against the existence of God.

  13. Lambda Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, Michael

    2014-06-01

    There is an explosion in the quantity and quality of IMINT data being captured in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) today. While automated exploitation techniques involving computer vision are arriving, only a few architectures can manage both the storage and bandwidth of large volumes of IMINT data and also present results to analysts quickly. Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has been actively researching in the area of applying Big Data cloud computing techniques to computer vision applications. This paper presents the results of this work in adopting a Lambda Architecture to process and disseminate IMINT data using computer vision algorithms. The approach embodies an end-to-end solution by processing IMINT data from sensors to serving information products quickly to analysts, independent of the size of the data. The solution lies in dividing up the architecture into a speed layer for low-latent processing and a batch layer for higher quality answers at the expense of time, but in a robust and fault-tolerant way. This approach was evaluated using a large corpus of IMINT data collected by a C-130 Shadow Harvest sensor over Afghanistan from 2010 through 2012. The evaluation data corpus included full motion video from both narrow and wide area field-of-views. The evaluation was done on a scaled-out cloud infrastructure that is similar in composition to those found in the Intelligence Community. The paper shows experimental results to prove the scalability of the architecture and precision of its results using a computer vision algorithm designed to identify man-made objects in sparse data terrain.

  14. Machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, D.

    1989-06-01

    To keep up with the speeds of modern production lines, most machine vision applications require very powerful computers (often parallel-processing machines), which process millions of points of data in real time. The human brain performs approximately 100 billion logical floating-point operations each second. That is 400 times the speed of a Cray-1 supercomputer. The right software must be developed for parallel-processing computers. The NSF has awarded Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, N.Y.) a $2 million grant for parallel- and image-processing software research. Over the last 15 years, Rensselaer has been conducting image-processing research, including work with high-definition TV (HDTV) and image coding and understanding. A similar NSF grant has been awarded to Michigan State University (East Lansing, Mich.) Neural networks are supposed to emulate human learning patterns. These networks and their hardware implementations (neurocomputers) show a great deal of promise for machine vision systems because they allow the systems to understand the use sensory data input more effectively. Neurocomputers excel at pattern-recognition tasks when input data are fuzzy or the vision algorithm is not optimal and is difficult to ascertain.

  15. 2015 Enterprise Strategic Vision

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    This document aligns with the Department of Energy Strategic Plan for 2014-2018 and provides a framework for integrating our missions and direction for pursuing DOE’s strategic goals. The vision is a guide to advancing world-class science and engineering, supporting our people, modernizing our infrastructure, and developing a management culture that operates a safe and secure enterprise in an efficient manner.

  16. 77 FR 13631 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China; Institution and Scheduling of Preliminary Phase...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China; Institution and Scheduling of Preliminary Phase... the United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of drawn stainless...

  17. Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

  18. Evolution of colour vision in mammals.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Gerald H

    2009-10-12

    Colour vision allows animals to reliably distinguish differences in the distributions of spectral energies reaching the eye. Although not universal, a capacity for colour vision is sufficiently widespread across the animal kingdom to provide prima facie evidence of its importance as a tool for analysing and interpreting the visual environment. The basic biological mechanisms on which vertebrate colour vision ultimately rests, the cone opsin genes and the photopigments they specify, are highly conserved. Within that constraint, however, the utilization of these basic elements varies in striking ways in that they appear, disappear and emerge in altered form during the course of evolution. These changes, along with other alterations in the visual system, have led to profound variations in the nature and salience of colour vision among the vertebrates. This article concerns the evolution of colour vision among the mammals, viewing that process in the context of relevant biological mechanisms, of variations in mammalian colour vision, and of the utility of colour vision.

  19. 77 FR 60673 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping...'') preliminarily determines that drawn stainless steel sinks (``drawn sinks'') from the People's Republic of China... unfinished, regardless of type of finish, gauge, or grade of stainless steel. Mounting clips,...

  20. 77 FR 18211 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Initiation...'') petition concerning imports of drawn stainless steel sinks from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... Antidumping and Countervailing Duties Against Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the People's Republic of...

  1. 78 FR 13019 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Investigation, Final Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China... Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Investigation, 77 FR... Co., Ltd. in the Investigation of Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the People's Republic of...

  2. Mechanics and Morphology of Silk Drawn from Anesthetized Spiders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, B.; Vollrath, F.

    CO2 and N2 anesthetized Nephila spiders produced dragline silk with mechanical properties that differed from control silk as a function of time under anesthesia. Silk from CO2 spiders had a significantly lower breaking strain and breaking energy, significantly higher initial modulus, and marginally lower breaking stress. At the onset of anesthesia the silk diameter became highly variable. During deep anesthesia silk either became thinner or retained cross-section but fibrillated.

  3. Healthy Living, Healthy Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  4. Pregnancy and Your Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  5. Binocular Vision

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Randolph; Wilson, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    This essay reviews major developments –empirical and theoretical –in the field of binocular vision during the last 25 years. We limit our survey primarily to work on human stereopsis, binocular rivalry and binocular contrast summation, with discussion where relevant of single-unit neurophysiology and human brain imaging. We identify several key controversies that have stimulated important work on these problems. In the case of stereopsis those controversies include position versus phase encoding of disparity, dependence of disparity limits on spatial scale, role of occlusion in binocular depth and surface perception, and motion in 3D. In the case of binocular rivalry, controversies include eye versus stimulus rivalry, role of “top-down” influences on rivalry dynamics, and the interaction of binocular rivalry and stereopsis. Concerning binocular contrast summation, the essay focuses on two representative models that highlight the evolving complexity in this field of study. PMID:20951722

  6. Robot Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutro, L. L.; Lerman, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    The operation of a system is described that is built both to model the vision of primate animals, including man, and serve as a pre-prototype of possible object recognition system. It was employed in a series of experiments to determine the practicability of matching left and right images of a scene to determine the range and form of objects. The experiments started with computer generated random-dot stereograms as inputs and progressed through random square stereograms to a real scene. The major problems were the elimination of spurious matches, between the left and right views, and the interpretation of ambiguous regions, on the left side of an object that can be viewed only by the left camera, and on the right side of an object that can be viewed only by the right camera.

  7. Artificial vision.

    PubMed

    Humayun, M S; de Juan, E

    1998-01-01

    Outer retinal degenerations such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) lead to blindness because of photoreceptor degeneration. To test whether controlled electrical stimulation of the remaining retinal neurons could provide form vision, we electrically stimulated the inner retinal surface with micro-electrodes inserted through the sclera/eye wall of 14 of these patients (12 RP and 2 AMD). This procedure was performed in the operating room under local anaesthesia and all responses were recorded via a video camera mounted on the surgical microscope. Electrical stimulation of the inner retinal surface elicited visual perception of a spot of light (phosphene) in all subjects. This perception was retinotopically correct in 13 of 14 patients. In a resolution test in a subject with no light perception, the patient could resolve phosphenes at 1.75 degrees centre-to-centre distance (i.e. visual acuity compatible with mobility; Snellen visual acuity of 4/200).

  8. Vision Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  9. Develop a winch-drawn dozer blade equipment system. Volume I. Development of a winch-drawn dozer blade system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mathis, R.J.

    1982-07-01

    A new approach to reclaiming the spoil areas produced by area-type mining operations has been developed. This system uses a machine known as a winch-dozer consisting of a pair of large back-to-back, scraper-type blades which are drawn by a wire rope across spoil piles, moving back and forth between a tailblock anchor and a drawworks winch unit developed as an attachment to a large crawler tractor. The program described in this report has produced a feasibility prototype system that was evaluated in operating mines. Based on operating performance and economic assessments of the feasibility prototype, the required characteristics of a production winch-dozer system were defined. The production system is a more cost-effective and energy efficient reclamation system compared to conventional techniques. Volume I of this report describes only those areas of the contract dealing with the design, development and testing of the winch-dozer system. Volume II of the report describes only those areas of the contract dealing with the development of a spoil-plane for leveling surface mine spoils.

  10. Piezoresistivity of mechanically drawn single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin films-: mechanism and optimizing principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obitayo, Waris

    The individual carbon nanotube (CNT) based strain sensors have been found to have excellent piezoresistive properties with a reported gauge factor (GF) of up to 3000. This GF on the other hand, has been shown to be structurally dependent on the nanotubes. In contrast, to individual CNT based strain sensors, the ensemble CNT based strain sensors have very low GFs e.g. for a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin film strain sensor, GF is ~1. As a result, studies which are mostly numerical/analytical have revealed the dependence of piezoresistivity on key parameters like concentration, orientation, length and diameter, aspect ratio, energy barrier height and Poisson ratio of polymer matrix. The fundamental understanding of the piezoresistive mechanism in an ensemble CNT based strain sensor still remains unclear, largely due to discrepancies in the outcomes of these numerical studies. Besides, there have been little or no experimental confirmation of these studies. The goal of my PhD is to study the mechanism and the optimizing principle of a SWCNT thin film strain sensor and provide experimental validation of the numerical/analytical investigations. The dependence of the piezoresistivity on key parameters like orientation, network density, bundle diameter (effective tunneling area), and length is studied, and how one can effectively optimize the piezoresistive behavior of a SWCNT thin film strain sensors. To reach this goal, my first research accomplishment involves the study of orientation of SWCNTs and its effect on the piezoresistivity of mechanically drawn SWCNT thin film based piezoresistive sensors. Using polarized Raman spectroscopy analysis and coupled electrical-mechanical test, a quantitative relationship between the strain sensitivity and SWCNT alignment order parameter was established. As compared to randomly oriented SWCNT thin films, the one with draw ratio of 3.2 exhibited ~6x increase on the GF. My second accomplishment involves studying the

  11. Hand-Drawn Resistors and a Simple Tester Using a Light-Emitting Diode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamata, Masahiro; Abe, Mayumi

    2012-01-01

    A thick line drawn on a sheet of paper with a 6B pencil is electrically conductive and its resistance can be roughly estimated using a simple tester made of a light-emitting diode (LED) and a lithium coin-type cell. Using this hand-drawn resistor and the LED tester, we developed teaching materials that help students to understand how electrical…

  12. Social Gender in the Pictures Drawn by Students about Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temel, Cenk; Güllü, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to analyze the social gender perception in physical education classes in Turkey through the pictures drawn by students about the physical education class. The document analysis technique, which is a qualitative research method, was used in the study. In the light of this aim, the pictures drawn by a total of 394 students…

  13. Color vision test

    MedlinePlus

    ... from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Adams AJ, Verdon WA, Spivey BE. ...

  14. Chemicals Industry Vision

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  15. A Robot Vision System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    ix e ...... . . . . . . .. . - . 1 I. Introduction This project includes the design and implementation of a vision - based goal achievement system. The... vision system design base . Final Conclusions Stereo vision is useless beyond about 15 feet for the camera separation of .75 feet, a picture...model. Such monocular vision and modelling, duplicated for two cameras, would give a second source of model data for resolving ambiguities, and

  16. Membrane scaling and flux decline during fertiliser-drawn forward osmosis desalination of brackish groundwater.

    PubMed

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Lotfi, Fezeh; Hong, Seungkwan; Shaffer, Devin L; Elimelech, Menachem; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2014-06-15

    Fertiliser-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination has been recently studied as one feasible application of forward osmosis (FO) for irrigation. In this study, the potential of membrane scaling in the FDFO process has been investigated during the desalination of brackish groundwater (BGW). While most fertilisers containing monovalent ions did not result in any scaling when used as an FO draw solution (DS), diammonium phosphate (DAP or (NH4)2HPO4) resulted in significant scaling, which contributed to severe flux decline. Membrane autopsy using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the reverse diffusion of DAP from the DS to the feed solution was primarily responsible for scale formation during the FDFO process. Physical cleaning of the membrane with deionised water at varying crossflow velocities was employed to evaluate the reversibility of membrane scaling and the extent of flux recovery. For the membrane scaled using DAP as DS, 80-90% of the original flux was recovered when the crossflow velocity for physical cleaning was the same as the crossflow velocity during FDFO desalination. However, when a higher crossflow velocity or Reynolds number was used, the flux was recovered almost completely, irrespective of the DS concentration used. This study underscores the importance of selecting a suitable fertiliser for FDFO desalination of brackish groundwater to avoid membrane scaling and severe flux decline.

  17. Robot Vision Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  18. A Grand Vision for European Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    Today, and for the first time, astronomers share their global Science Vision for European Astronomy in the next two decades. This two-year long effort by the ASTRONET network of funding agencies, sponsored by the European Commission and coordinated by INSU-CNRS, underscores Europe's ascension to world leadership in astronomy and its will to maintain that position. It will be followed in just over a year by a prioritised roadmap for the observational facilities needed to implement the Vision. Implementation of these plans will ensure that Europe fully contributes to Mankind's ever deeper understanding of the wonders of our Universe. astronet logo "This is a great opportunity to help create a vibrant long-term future for astronomy and science" says Tim de Zeeuw (Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands) who led this community-wide effort. The ASTRONET Science Vision provides a comprehensive overview of the most important scientific questions that European astronomy should address in the next twenty years. The four key questions are the extremes of the Universe, from the nature of the dark matter and dark energy that comprise over 95% of the Universe to the physics of extreme objects such as black holes, neutron stars, and gamma-ray bursts; the formation of galaxies from the first seeds to our Milky Way; the formation of stars and planets and the origin of life; and the crucial question of how do we (and our Solar System) fit in the global picture. These themes reach well beyond the realm of traditional astronomy into the frontiers of physics and biology. The Vision identifies the major new facilities that will be needed to achieve these goals, but also stresses the need for parallel developments in theory and numerical simulations, high-performance computing resources, efficient astronomical data archiving and the European Virtual Observatory, as well as in laboratory astrophysics. "This report is a key input for the even more challenging task of developing a prioritised

  19. Computational approaches to vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Vision is examined in terms of a computational process, and the competence, structure, and control of computer vision systems are analyzed. Theoretical and experimental data on the formation of a computer vision system are discussed. Consideration is given to early vision, the recovery of intrinsic surface characteristics, higher levels of interpretation, and system integration and control. A computational visual processing model is proposed and its architecture and operation are described. Examples of state-of-the-art vision systems, which include some of the levels of representation and processing mechanisms, are presented.

  20. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  1. A child's vision.

    PubMed

    Nye, Christina

    2014-06-01

    Implementing standard vision screening techniques in the primary care practice is the most effective means to detect children with potential vision problems at an age when the vision loss may be treatable. A critical period of vision development occurs in the first few weeks of life; thus, it is imperative that serious problems are detected at this time. Although it is not possible to quantitate an infant's vision, evaluating ocular health appropriately can mean the difference between sight and blindness and, in the case of retinoblastoma, life or death.

  2. Vision and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Simon J; Raoof, Naz; McLean, Rebecca J; Gottlob, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis can affect vision in many ways, including optic neuritis, chronic optic neuropathy, retrochiasmal visual field defects, higher order cortical processing, double vision, nystagmus and also by related ocular conditions such as uveitis. There are also side effects from recently introduced multiple sclerosis treatments that can affect vision. This review will discuss all these aspects and how they come together to cause visual symptoms. It will then focus on practical aspects of how to recognise when there is a vision problem in a multiple sclerosis patient and on what treatments are available to improve vision.

  3. 78 FR 13017 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade..., International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue...

  4. Autophagy supports color vision

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenqing; Vinberg, Frans; Schottler, Frank; Doggett, Teresa A; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Ferguson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Cones comprise only a small portion of the photoreceptors in mammalian retinas. However, cones are vital for color vision and visual perception, and their loss severely diminishes the quality of life for patients with retinal degenerative diseases. Cones function in bright light and have higher demand for energy than rods; yet, the mechanisms that support the energy requirements of cones are poorly understood. One such pathway that potentially could sustain cones under basal and stress conditions is macroautophagy. We addressed the role of macroautophagy in cones by examining how the genetic block of this pathway affects the structural integrity, survival, and function of these neurons. We found that macroautophagy was not detectable in cones under normal conditions but was readily observed following 24 h of fasting. Consistent with this, starvation induced phosphorylation of AMPK specifically in cones indicating cellular starvation. Inhibiting macroautophagy in cones by deleting the essential macroautophagy gene Atg5 led to reduced cone function following starvation suggesting that cones are sensitive to systemic changes in nutrients and activate macroautophagy to maintain their function. ATG5-deficiency rendered cones susceptible to light-induced damage and caused accumulation of damaged mitochondria in the inner segments, shortening of the outer segments, and degeneration of all cone types, revealing the importance of mitophagy in supporting cone metabolic needs. Our results demonstrate that macroautophagy supports the function and long-term survival of cones providing for their unique metabolic requirements and resistance to stress. Targeting macroautophagy has the potential to preserve cone-mediated vision during retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:26292183

  5. Autophagy supports color vision.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenqing; Vinberg, Frans; Schottler, Frank; Doggett, Teresa A; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Ferguson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Cones comprise only a small portion of the photoreceptors in mammalian retinas. However, cones are vital for color vision and visual perception, and their loss severely diminishes the quality of life for patients with retinal degenerative diseases. Cones function in bright light and have higher demand for energy than rods; yet, the mechanisms that support the energy requirements of cones are poorly understood. One such pathway that potentially could sustain cones under basal and stress conditions is macroautophagy. We addressed the role of macroautophagy in cones by examining how the genetic block of this pathway affects the structural integrity, survival, and function of these neurons. We found that macroautophagy was not detectable in cones under normal conditions but was readily observed following 24 h of fasting. Consistent with this, starvation induced phosphorylation of AMPK specifically in cones indicating cellular starvation. Inhibiting macroautophagy in cones by deleting the essential macroautophagy gene Atg5 led to reduced cone function following starvation suggesting that cones are sensitive to systemic changes in nutrients and activate macroautophagy to maintain their function. ATG5-deficiency rendered cones susceptible to light-induced damage and caused accumulation of damaged mitochondria in the inner segments, shortening of the outer segments, and degeneration of all cone types, revealing the importance of mitophagy in supporting cone metabolic needs. Our results demonstrate that macroautophagy supports the function and long-term survival of cones providing for their unique metabolic requirements and resistance to stress. Targeting macroautophagy has the potential to preserve cone-mediated vision during retinal degenerative diseases.

  6. Colour vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, M P

    2010-05-01

    Colour vision deficiency is one of the commonest disorders of vision and can be divided into congenital and acquired forms. Congenital colour vision deficiency affects as many as 8% of males and 0.5% of females--the difference in prevalence reflects the fact that the commonest forms of congenital colour vision deficiency are inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Until relatively recently, our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of colour vision deficiency largely rested on behavioural data; however, modern molecular genetic techniques have helped to elucidate its mechanisms. The current management of congenital colour vision deficiency lies chiefly in appropriate counselling (including career counselling). Although visual aids may be of benefit to those with colour vision deficiency when performing certain tasks, the evidence suggests that they do not enable wearers to obtain normal colour discrimination. In the future, gene therapy remains a possibility, with animal models demonstrating amelioration following treatment.

  7. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  8. How to assess vision.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Janet

    2016-09-21

    Rationale and key points An objective assessment of the patient's vision is important to assess variation from 'normal' vision in acute and community settings, to establish a baseline before examination and treatment in the emergency department, and to assess any changes during ophthalmic outpatient appointments. » Vision is one of the essential senses that permits people to make sense of the world. » Visual assessment does not only involve measuring central visual acuity, it also involves assessing the consequences of reduced vision. » Assessment of vision in children is crucial to identify issues that might affect vision and visual development, and to optimise lifelong vision. » Untreatable loss of vision is not an inevitable consequence of ageing. » Timely and repeated assessment of vision over life can reduce the incidence of falls, prevent injury and optimise independence. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help update you practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article might change your practice when assessing people holistically. 2. How you could use this article to educate your colleagues in the assessment of vision.

  9. FPGA Vision Data Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Pham, Thang D.

    2013-01-01

    JPL has produced a series of FPGA (field programmable gate array) vision algorithms that were written with custom interfaces to get data in and out of each vision module. Each module has unique requirements on the data interface, and further vision modules are continually being developed, each with their own custom interfaces. Each memory module had also been designed for direct access to memory or to another memory module.

  10. Biomimetic machine vision system.

    PubMed

    Harman, William M; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Wilcox, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Real-time application of digital imaging for use in machine vision systems has proven to be prohibitive when used within control systems that employ low-power single processors without compromising the scope of vision or resolution of captured images. Development of a real-time machine analog vision system is the focus of research taking place at the University of Wyoming. This new vision system is based upon the biological vision system of the common house fly. Development of a single sensor is accomplished, representing a single facet of the fly's eye. This new sensor is then incorporated into an array of sensors capable of detecting objects and tracking motion in 2-D space. This system "preprocesses" incoming image data resulting in minimal data processing to determine the location of a target object. Due to the nature of the sensors in the array, hyperacuity is achieved thereby eliminating resolutions issues found in digital vision systems. In this paper, we will discuss the biological traits of the fly eye and the specific traits that led to the development of this machine vision system. We will also discuss the process of developing an analog based sensor that mimics the characteristics of interest in the biological vision system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of how an array of these sensors can be applied toward solving real-world machine vision issues.

  11. Vision Changes in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    This Human Research Program 'Research to Outreach' video featuring NASA Clinical Translational Scientist Jennifer Fogarty explains the risk of vision impairment both during and after spaceflight, i...

  12. Artificial human vision camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudou, J.-F.; Maggio, S.; Fagno, M.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we present a real-time vision system modeling the human vision system. Our purpose is to inspire from human vision bio-mechanics to improve robotic capabilities for tasks such as objects detection and tracking. This work describes first the bio-mechanical discrepancies between human vision and classic cameras and the retinal processing stage that takes place in the eye, before the optic nerve. The second part describes our implementation of these principles on a 3-camera optical, mechanical and software model of the human eyes and associated bio-inspired attention model.

  13. Federal regulation of vision enhancement devices for normal and abnormal vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drum, Bruce

    2006-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) evaluates the safety and effectiveness of medical devices and biological products as well as food and drugs. The FDA defines a device as a product that is intended, by physical means, to diagnose, treat, or prevent disease, or to affect the structure or function of the body. All vision enhancement devices fulfill this definition because they are intended to affect a function (vision) of the body. In practice, however, FDA historically has drawn a distinction between devices that are intended to enhance low vision as opposed to normal vision. Most low vision aids are therapeutic devices intended to compensate for visual impairment, and are actively regulated according to their level of risk to the patient. The risk level is usually low (e.g. Class I, exempt from 510(k) submission requirements for magnifiers that do not touch the eye), but can be as high as Class III (requiring a clinical trial and Premarket Approval (PMA) application) for certain implanted and prosthetic devices (e.g. intraocular telescopes and prosthetic retinal implants). In contrast, the FDA usually does not actively enforce its regulations for devices that are intended to enhance normal vision, are low risk, and do not have a medical intended use. However, if an implanted or prosthetic device were developed for enhancing normal vision, the FDA would likely decide to regulate it actively, because its intended use would entail a substantial medical risk to the user. Companies developing such devices should contact the FDA at an early stage to clarify their regulatory status.

  14. Evolution of colour vision in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Gerald H.

    2009-01-01

    Colour vision allows animals to reliably distinguish differences in the distributions of spectral energies reaching the eye. Although not universal, a capacity for colour vision is sufficiently widespread across the animal kingdom to provide prima facie evidence of its importance as a tool for analysing and interpreting the visual environment. The basic biological mechanisms on which vertebrate colour vision ultimately rests, the cone opsin genes and the photopigments they specify, are highly conserved. Within that constraint, however, the utilization of these basic elements varies in striking ways in that they appear, disappear and emerge in altered form during the course of evolution. These changes, along with other alterations in the visual system, have led to profound variations in the nature and salience of colour vision among the vertebrates. This article concerns the evolution of colour vision among the mammals, viewing that process in the context of relevant biological mechanisms, of variations in mammalian colour vision, and of the utility of colour vision. PMID:19720656

  15. Large Barkhausen effect and Matteucci effect in cold-drawn and torsion annealed amorphous magnetostrictive wires

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, H.; Mohri, K.; Yamasaki, J.; Ogasawara, I. )

    1988-07-01

    Amorphous magnetostrictive wires fabricated by super-rapid quenching in water exhibit a remarkably stable Barkhausen effect and Matteucci effect in the as-prepared state. The Matteucci effect in as-prepared wire is under 1 mV. When the wire is drawn or made shorter than 70 mm, the Barkhausen effect vanishes. In this work, the amorphous magnetostrictive wire was cold drawn and then annealed under torsional stress; the wires obtained had a large Matteucci effect, as well as a large Barkhausen effect even when as short as 25 mm. These wires were used as devices for pulse generation. Their magnetic properties are studied.

  16. Building Technologies Program Vision, Mission, and Goals

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    The Vision, Mission, and Goals of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) focus on short term energy efficiency outcomes such as improved economic environment, enhanced comfort, and affordability that collectively benefit our nation. Long-term goals focus on helping secure our nation's energy independence.

  17. Vision Aspects of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, Keith; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Vision, being one of our most important senses, is critically important in the unique working environment of space flight. Critical evaluation of the astronauts visual system begins with pre-selection examinations resulting in an average of 65% of all medical disqualification's caused by ocular findings. With an average age of 42, approximately 60% of the astronaut corps requires vision correction. Further demands of the unique training and working environment of microgravity, variable lighting from very poor to extreme brightness of sunlight and exposure to extremes of electromagnetic energy results in unique eyewear and contact lens applications. This presentation will describe some of those unique eyewear and contact lens applications used in space flight and training environments. Additionally, ocular findings from 26 shuttle and 5 MIR mission post-flight examinations will be presented.

  18. New Term, New Vision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2011-01-01

    During the affluent noughties it was sometimes said of government that it had "more visions than Mystic Meg and more pilots than British Airways". In 2011, the pilots, the pathfinders, the new initiatives are largely gone--implementation is the name of the game--but the visions remain. The latest one, as it affects adult learners, is in…

  19. INSIGHT: Vision & Leadership, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Tammy, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This publication focuses on promising new and emerging technologies and what they might mean to the future of K-12 schools. Half of the volume contains articles devoted in some way to "Vision," and articles in the other half are under the heading of "Leadership." Contents in the "Vision" section include: "The…

  20. A Poet's Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Suzanne; Newman, Dan

    1997-01-01

    Describes a series of activities to help middle school students develop an artist's vision and then convey that vision through poetry. Describes how lessons progress from looking at concrete objects to observations of settings and characters, gradually adding memory and imagination to direct observation, and finishing with revision. Notes that…

  1. Why Vision 2020?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, June

    2000-01-01

    Discusses changes in technology, information, and people and the impact on music programs. The Vision 2020 project focuses on the future of music education. Addresses the events that created Vision 2020. Includes "The Housewright Declaration," a summarization of agreements from the Housewright Symposium on the Future of Music Education. (CMK)

  2. Color vision deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannorren, D.

    1982-04-01

    Congenital and acquired color vision defects are described in the context of physiological data. Light sources, photometry, color systems and test methods are described. A list of medicines is also presented. The practical social consequences of color vision deficiencies are discussed.

  3. Synthesized night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haixian

    2000-06-01

    A Synthesized Night Vision Goggle that will be described int his paper is a new type of night vision goggle with multiple functions. It consists of three parts: main observing system, picture--superimposed system (or Cathode Ray Tube system) and Charge-Coupled Device system.

  4. 77 FR 22561 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Correction to Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Correction..., the Department of Commerce (``Department'') published the notice Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the... countervailing duty (``CVD'') petition concerning imports of drawn stainless steel sinks from the...

  5. 77 FR 18207 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Initiation...'') concerning imports of drawn stainless steel sinks from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') filed in... Countervailing Duties Against Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From The People's Republic of China,'' filed on March...

  6. 78 FR 72864 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Initiation... stainless steel sinks (``drawn sinks'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), received on October...\\ Success identified itself as an exporter of the subject merchandise. \\1\\ See Drawn Stainless Steel...

  7. Near Vision Test for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  8. The Impact of Anxious and Calm Emotional States on Color Usage in Pre-Drawn Mandalas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Andrea; van der Vennet, Renee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this single-subject experiment was to test whether a link exists between emotional state and color usage in a common art therapy technique. The researchers hypothesized that when coloring a pre-drawn mandala, participants would choose warm colors when they were anxious and cool colors when they were calm. The non-random sample…

  9. Axel Honneth's Idea of a Drawn-Out Process of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanhela, Teemu

    2014-01-01

    This article examines Axel Honneth's interpretation of Hegel's "ethical life" as a conception of a "drawn-out" process of education. Honneth's formulations of ethical life, namely "personal relationships", "market economy" and "the democratic will-formation", are an interesting…

  10. 75 FR 95 - Endorsement and Payment of Checks Drawn on the United States Treasury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... Endorsement and Payment of Checks Drawn on the United States Treasury AGENCY: Financial Management Service... Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service (FMS), is proposing to amend its regulation..., 2010. ADDRESSES: The Financial Management Service (FMS) participates in the U.S. government's...

  11. Light Vision Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  12. Color vision and dentistry.

    PubMed

    Wasson, W; Schuman, N

    1992-05-01

    Color vision is a critical component of restorative and esthetic dentistry, but dentists, as a group, do not have their color vision tested at any time during their careers. A study was undertaken to ascertain the color-vision status of practicing dental personnel at the University of Tennessee, College of Dentistry. One hundred fifty individuals, 75 men and 75 women, were screened. The results corroborated the existing medical data for the general population. It was found that 9.3% of the men and none of the women exhibited color-vision defect. Since most dentists are male, this study demonstrates an area of potential weakness for some practitioners. Once a color-vision problem is found, it is simple to remedy by employing a team approach to shade matching or mechanical means of matching shades (by the practitioner). No ethnic or racial distinctions were detected, although these have been reported in other studies.

  13. Panoramic stereo sphere vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Zong, Xiaoning; Yi, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional stereo vision systems have a small field of view (FOV) which limits their usefulness for certain applications. While panorama vision is able to "see" in all directions of the observation space, scene depth information is missed because of the mapping from 3D reference coordinates to 2D panoramic image. In this paper, we present an innovative vision system which builds by a special combined fish-eye lenses module, and is capable of producing 3D coordinate information from the whole global observation space and acquiring no blind area 360°×360° panoramic image simultaneously just using single vision equipment with one time static shooting. It is called Panoramic Stereo Sphere Vision (PSSV). We proposed the geometric model, mathematic model and parameters calibration method in this paper. Specifically, video surveillance, robotic autonomous navigation, virtual reality, driving assistance, multiple maneuvering target tracking, automatic mapping of environments and attitude estimation are some of the applications which will benefit from PSSV.

  14. (Computer) Vision without Sight

    PubMed Central

    Manduchi, Roberto; Coughlan, James

    2012-01-01

    Computer vision holds great promise for helping persons with blindness or visual impairments (VI) to interpret and explore the visual world. To this end, it is worthwhile to assess the situation critically by understanding the actual needs of the VI population and which of these needs might be addressed by computer vision. This article reviews the types of assistive technology application areas that have already been developed for VI, and the possible roles that computer vision can play in facilitating these applications. We discuss how appropriate user interfaces are designed to translate the output of computer vision algorithms into information that the user can quickly and safely act upon, and how system-level characteristics affect the overall usability of an assistive technology. Finally, we conclude by highlighting a few novel and intriguing areas of application of computer vision to assistive technology. PMID:22815563

  15. Literature and information in vision care and vision science.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2008-11-01

    The explosion of information in vision care and vision science makes keeping up with the literature and information in the field challenging. This report examines the nature of literature and information in vision care and vision science. A variety of topics are discussed, including the general nature of scientific and clinical journals, journals in vision science and vision care, resources available for searches for literature and information, and issues involved in the evaluation of journals and other information sources. Aspects of the application of citation analysis to vision care and vision science are reviewed, and a new citation analysis of a leading textbook in vision care (Borish's Clinical Refraction) is presented. This report is directed toward anyone who wants to be more informed about the literature of vision care and vision science, whether they are students, clinicians, educators, or librarians.

  16. The Earth Science Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rychekewkitsch, Michael; Andrucyk, Dennis; McConaughy, Gail; Meeson, Blanche; Hildebrand, Peter; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise's long range vision is to enable the development of a national proactive environmental predictive capability through targeted scientific research and technological innovation. Proactive environmental prediction means the prediction of environmental events and their secondary consequences. These consequences range from disasters and disease outbreak to improved food production and reduced transportation, energy and insurance costs. The economic advantage of this predictive capability will greatly outweigh the cost of development. Developing this predictive capability requires a greatly improved understanding of the earth system and the interaction of the various components of that system. It also requires a change in our approach to gathering data about the earth and a change in our current methodology in processing that data including its delivery to the customers. And, most importantly, it requires a renewed partnership between NASA and its sister agencies. We identify six application themes that summarize the potential of proactive environmental prediction. We also identify four technology themes that articulate our approach to implementing proactive environmental prediction.

  17. VISION 21 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    G.S. Samuelsen; A. Rao; F. Robson; B. Washom

    2003-08-11

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into power plant systems that meet performance and emission goals of the Vision 21 program. The study efforts have narrowed down the myriad of fuel processing, power generation, and emission control technologies to selected scenarios that identify those combinations having the potential to achieve the Vision 21 program goals of high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. The technology levels considered are based on projected technical and manufacturing advances being made in industry and on advances identified in current and future government supported research. Included in these advanced systems are solid oxide fuel cells and advanced cycle gas turbines. The results of this investigation will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  18. Information architecture. Volume 4: Vision

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Vision document marks the transition from definition to implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture Program. A description of the possibilities for the future, supported by actual experience with a process model and tool set, points toward implementation options. The directions for future information technology investments are discussed. Practical examples of how technology answers the business and information needs of the organization through coordinated and meshed data, applications, and technology architectures are related. This document is the fourth and final volume in the planned series for defining and exhibiting the DOE information architecture. The targeted scope of this document includes DOE Program Offices, field sites, contractor-operated facilities, and laboratories. This document paints a picture of how, over the next 7 years, technology may be implemented, dramatically improving the ways business is conducted at DOE. While technology is mentioned throughout this document, the vision is not about technology. The vision concerns the transition afforded by technology and the process steps to be completed to ensure alignment with business needs. This goal can be met if those directing the changing business and mission-support processes understand the capabilities afforded by architectural processes.

  19. Vision and Driving

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Driving is the primary means of personal travel in many countries and is relies heavily on vision for its successful execution. Research over the past few decades has addressed the role of vision in driver safety (motor vehicle collision involvement) and in driver performance (both on-road and using interactive simulators in the laboratory). Here we critically review what is currently known about the role of various aspects of visual function in driving. We also discuss translational research issues on vision screening for licensure and re-licensure and rehabilitation of visually impaired persons who want to drive. PMID:20580907

  20. Stereo vision and strabismus.

    PubMed

    Read, J C A

    2015-02-01

    Binocular stereopsis, or stereo vision, is the ability to derive information about how far away objects are, based solely on the relative positions of the object in the two eyes. It depends on both sensory and motor abilities. In this review, I briefly outline some of the neuronal mechanisms supporting stereo vision, and discuss how these are disrupted in strabismus. I explain, in some detail, current methods of assessing stereo vision and their pros and cons. Finally, I review the evidence supporting the clinical importance of such measurements.

  1. Stereo vision and strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Read, J C A

    2015-01-01

    Binocular stereopsis, or stereo vision, is the ability to derive information about how far away objects are, based solely on the relative positions of the object in the two eyes. It depends on both sensory and motor abilities. In this review, I briefly outline some of the neuronal mechanisms supporting stereo vision, and discuss how these are disrupted in strabismus. I explain, in some detail, current methods of assessing stereo vision and their pros and cons. Finally, I review the evidence supporting the clinical importance of such measurements. PMID:25475234

  2. Microstructure and properties of heavily drawn Cu-Ag-Fe composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. S.; Yao, D. W.; Meng, L.

    2013-03-01

    Heavily drawn Cu-6 wt% Ag-2 wt% Fe, Cu-6 wt% Ag-4 wt% Fe and Cu-6 wt% Ag-6 wt% Fe were prepared by melting, homogenizing and cold drawing processes. The homogenizing treatment promotes the precipitation of secondary particles in the matrix, which results in finer and more uniform composite filaments in the drawn microstructure. With the increase of Fe content, the tensile strength increases but the electrical conductivity decreases. The strengthening of the composites and the decrease of the conductivity could be divided into two stages, which is explained by the non-homogeneous deformation model. At η = 5.6, dynamic recovery is thought to occur due to the temperature rise associated with severe deformation, leading to the sudden increase of the conductivity. A dislocation mechanism or an interface obstacle mechanism could be considered to be responsible for the strengthening and conducting behaviors.

  3. Multigraphene growth on lead-pencil drawn sliver halide print paper irradiated by scanning femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Satoru; Shimizu, Yoshitada; Rachi, Takeshi; Kato, Chihiro; Tanaka, Satomi; Naganuma, Yasuhiro; Katakura, Toru; Satoh, Kazuo; Ushiyama, Mikio; Konuma, Seiji; Itou, Yuko; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tan, Goon; Matsuda, Akifumi; Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Drawings were made on various types of paper using lead pencils of grades from 4H through 10B. Raman spectroscopy verified both G and D peaks on all the drawings on PC print paper, PC photopaper, kent paper, and paper for silver halide print. After irradiation with a scanning femtosecond laser, silver halide paper drawn on with a 10B lead pencil maintained its surface flatness compared with the other types of paper. Raman spectroscopy on silver print paper showed a high-intensity G peak and a low-intensity D peak. After irradiating the scanning femtosecond laser on silver halide paper drawn on with a 10B lead pencil, Raman spectroscopy showed a high-intensity G peak and less intense of D peak together with a 2D peak around 2,700 cm-1 corresponding to the existence of multigraphene.

  4. Air-structured optical fiber drawn from a 3D-printed preform.

    PubMed

    Cook, Kevin; Canning, John; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Reid, Zane; Hossain, Md Arafat; Comatti, Jade-Edouard; Luo, Yanhua; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2015-09-01

    A structured optical fiber is drawn from a 3D-printed structured preform. Preforms containing a single ring of holes around the core are fabricated using filament made from a modified butadiene polymer. More broadly, 3D printers capable of processing soft glasses, silica, and other materials are likely to come on line in the not-so-distant future. 3D printing of optical preforms signals a new milestone in optical fiber manufacture.

  5. [Comparison study between biological vision and computer vision].

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Yuan, X G; Yang, C X; Liu, Z Q; Wang, R

    2001-08-01

    The development and bearing of biology vision in structure and mechanism were discussed, especially on the aspects including anatomical structure of biological vision, tentative classification of reception field, parallel processing of visual information, feedback and conformity effect of visual cortical, and so on. The new advance in the field was introduced through the study of the morphology of biological vision. Besides, comparison between biological vision and computer vision was made, and their similarities and differences were pointed out.

  6. Living with vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Telescopic glasses that may aid distance vision Maximize Lighting You should: Increase the overall lighting in your home. Use a table or floor ... has a gooseneck or flexible arm. Point the light directly on your reading material or task. Use ...

  7. Kids' Quest: Vision Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... most important job. Return to Steps World-Wide Web Search Kids Health: What is Vision Impairment What ... for the Blind (AFB) created the Braille Bug web site to teach sighted children about braille, and ...

  8. Vision and Motion Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

  9. Impairments to Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... scotoma" right where you're looking. Glaucoma and Retinitis Pigmentosa Ring or Donut Scotoma Left Field Homonymous Hemianopia Although very different diseases, both glaucoma and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) cause a loss of side vision, leading ...

  10. Introduction To Color Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorell, Lisa G.

    1983-08-01

    Several human cognitive studies have reported that color facilitates certain learning, memory and search tasks. Consideration of the color-opponent organization of human color vision and the spatial modulation transfer function for color suggests several simple sensory explanations.

  11. Home vision tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing. AMSLER GRID TEST This test helps detect macular degeneration . This is a disease that causes blurred vision, ... eye exam. People who are at risk of macular degeneration may be told by their ophthalmologist to perform ...

  12. Rhetorical Visions of Unmarried Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endres, Thomas G.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the symbolic reality of unmarried mothers using Bormann's fantasy theme analysis and Q-methodology. Identifies three rhetorical visions with a dramatistic humanistic analysis produced by and about unmarried mothers: the Down and Out Vision, the Making the Best Vision, and the Yummie Vision. (MS)

  13. Synthetic Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, L.J.; Kramer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    A synthetic vision system is an aircraft cockpit display technology that presents the visual environment external to the aircraft using computer-generated imagery in a manner analogous to how it would appear to the pilot if forward visibility were not restricted. The purpose of this chapter is to review the state of synthetic vision systems, and discuss selected human factors issues that should be considered when designing such displays.

  14. Biofeedback for Better Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Biofeedtrac, Inc.'s Accommotrac Vision Trainer, invented by Dr. Joseph Trachtman, is based on vision research performed by Ames Research Center and a special optometer developed for the Ames program by Stanford Research Institute. In the United States, about 150 million people are myopes (nearsighted), who tend to overfocus when they look at distant objects causing blurry distant vision, or hyperopes (farsighted), whose vision blurs when they look at close objects because they tend to underfocus. The Accommotrac system is an optical/electronic system used by a doctor as an aid in teaching a patient how to contract and relax the ciliary body, the focusing muscle. The key is biofeedback, wherein the patient learns to control a bodily process or function he is not normally aware of. Trachtman claims a 90 percent success rate for correcting, improving or stopping focusing problems. The Vision Trainer has also proved effective in treating other eye problems such as eye oscillation, cross eyes, and lazy eye and in professional sports to improve athletes' peripheral vision and reaction time.

  15. Agile automated vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fandrich, Juergen; Schmitt, Lorenz A.

    1994-11-01

    The microelectronic industry is a protagonist in driving automated vision to new paradigms. Today semiconductor manufacturers use vision systems quite frequently in their fabs in the front-end process. In fact, the process depends on reliable image processing systems. In the back-end process, where ICs are assembled and packaged, today vision systems are only partly used. But in the next years automated vision will become compulsory for the back-end process as well. Vision will be fully integrated into every IC package production machine to increase yields and reduce costs. Modem high-speed material processing requires dedicated and efficient concepts in image processing. But the integration of various equipment in a production plant leads to unifying handling of data flow and interfaces. Only agile vision systems can act with these contradictions: fast, reliable, adaptable, scalable and comprehensive. A powerful hardware platform is a unneglectable requirement for the use of advanced and reliable, but unfortunately computing intensive image processing algorithms. The massively parallel SIMD hardware product LANTERN/VME supplies a powerful platform for existing and new functionality. LANTERN/VME is used with a new optical sensor for IC package lead inspection. This is done in 3D, including horizontal and coplanarity inspection. The appropriate software is designed for lead inspection, alignment and control tasks in IC package production and handling equipment, like Trim&Form, Tape&Reel and Pick&Place machines.

  16. Wind Vision. A New Era for Wind Power in the United States (Executive Summary, Full Report, and Appendices); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-03-02

    The Wind Vision analysis demonstrates the economic value that wind power can bring to the nation, a value exceeding the costs of deployment. Wind’s environmental benefits can address key societal challenges such as climate change, air quality and public health, and water scarcity. Wind deployment can provide U.S. jobs, U.S. manufacturing, and lease and tax revenues in local communities to strengthen and support a transition of the nation’s electricity sector towards a low-carbon U.S. economy. The path needed to achieve 10% wind by 2020, 20% by 2030, and 35% by 2050 requires new tools, priorities, and emphases beyond those forged by the wind industry in growing to 4.5% of current U.S. electricity demand. Consideration of new strategies and updated priorities as identified in the Wind Vision could provide substantial positive outcomes for future generations.

  17. Photographic but not line-drawn faces show early perceptual neural sensitivity to eye gaze direction

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Alejandra; Parada, Francisco J.; Latinus, Marianne; Puce, Aina

    2015-01-01

    Our brains readily decode facial movements and changes in social attention, reflected in earlier and larger N170 event-related potentials (ERPs) to viewing gaze aversions vs. direct gaze in real faces (Puce et al., 2000). In contrast, gaze aversions in line-drawn faces do not produce these N170 differences (Rossi et al., 2014), suggesting that physical stimulus properties or experimental context may drive these effects. Here we investigated the role of stimulus-induced context on neurophysiological responses to dynamic gaze. Sixteen healthy adults viewed line-drawn and real faces, with dynamic eye aversion and direct gaze transitions, and control stimuli (scrambled arrays and checkerboards) while continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded. EEG data from 2 temporo-occipital clusters of 9 electrodes in each hemisphere where N170 activity is known to be maximal were selected for analysis. N170 peak amplitude and latency, and temporal dynamics from Event-Related Spectral Perturbations (ERSPs) were measured in 16 healthy subjects. Real faces generated larger N170s for averted vs. direct gaze motion, however, N170s to real and direct gaze were as large as those to respective controls. N170 amplitude did not differ across line-drawn gaze changes. Overall, bilateral mean gamma power changes for faces relative to control stimuli occurred between 150–350 ms, potentially reflecting signal detection of facial motion. Our data indicate that experimental context does not drive N170 differences to viewed gaze changes. Low-level stimulus properties, such as the high sclera/iris contrast change in real eyes likely drive the N170 changes to viewed aversive movements. PMID:25914636

  18. Photographic but not line-drawn faces show early perceptual neural sensitivity to eye gaze direction.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alejandra; Parada, Francisco J; Latinus, Marianne; Puce, Aina

    2015-01-01

    Our brains readily decode facial movements and changes in social attention, reflected in earlier and larger N170 event-related potentials (ERPs) to viewing gaze aversions vs. direct gaze in real faces (Puce et al., 2000). In contrast, gaze aversions in line-drawn faces do not produce these N170 differences (Rossi et al., 2014), suggesting that physical stimulus properties or experimental context may drive these effects. Here we investigated the role of stimulus-induced context on neurophysiological responses to dynamic gaze. Sixteen healthy adults viewed line-drawn and real faces, with dynamic eye aversion and direct gaze transitions, and control stimuli (scrambled arrays and checkerboards) while continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded. EEG data from 2 temporo-occipital clusters of 9 electrodes in each hemisphere where N170 activity is known to be maximal were selected for analysis. N170 peak amplitude and latency, and temporal dynamics from Event-Related Spectral Perturbations (ERSPs) were measured in 16 healthy subjects. Real faces generated larger N170s for averted vs. direct gaze motion, however, N170s to real and direct gaze were as large as those to respective controls. N170 amplitude did not differ across line-drawn gaze changes. Overall, bilateral mean gamma power changes for faces relative to control stimuli occurred between 150-350 ms, potentially reflecting signal detection of facial motion. Our data indicate that experimental context does not drive N170 differences to viewed gaze changes. Low-level stimulus properties, such as the high sclera/iris contrast change in real eyes likely drive the N170 changes to viewed aversive movements.

  19. Plasmon resonances on gold nanowires directly drawn in a step-index fiber.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, H K; Lee, H W; Uebel, P; Schmidt, M A; Joly, N; Scharrer, M; Russell, P St J

    2010-08-01

    We report the successful production of high-quality gold wires, with diameters down to 260nm, by direct fiber drawing from a gold-filled fused-silica cane. The stack-and-draw technique makes it straightforward to incorporate a conventional step-index core, adjacent to the gold wire, in the cane. In the drawn fiber, strong coupling of light from the glass core to SPP resonances on the gold wire is observed at specific well-defined wavelengths. Such embedded wires have many potential applications, for example, as nanoscale electrodes, in nonlinear optical plasmonics, and as near-field scanning optical microscope tips.

  20. Description and preliminary studies of a computer drawn instrument landing approach display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. J.; Lallman, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    A computer drawn instrument landing approach display, which shows a box located on the desired path, aligned with the path, and moving along the path at a selected distance ahead of the aircraft, was examined. Vertical and lateral displacements from the desired path and aircraft altitude information are used as inputs to the computer. A preliminary simulation study with pilot subjects has shown that the pilots find the display very easy to use, and they achieved better performance scores with the box display than with a cross pointer instrument landing display.

  1. Colour, vision and ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.

  2. Insect vision as model for machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, D.; Sobey, Peter J.

    1992-11-01

    The neural architecture, neurophysiology and behavioral abilities of insect vision are described, and compared with that of mammals. Insects have a hardwired neural architecture of highly differentiated neurons, quite different from the cerebral cortex, yet their behavioral abilities are in important respects similar to those of mammals. These observations challenge the view that the key to the power of biological neural computation is distributed processing by a plastic, highly interconnected, network of individually undifferentiated and unreliable neurons that has been a dominant picture of biological computation since Pitts and McCulloch's seminal work in the 1940's.

  3. Overview of sports vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.

    2003-03-01

    Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).

  4. Artificial vision workbench.

    PubMed

    Frenger, P

    1997-01-01

    Machine vision is an important component of medical systems engineering. Inexpensive miniature solid state cameras are now available. This paper describes how these devices can be used as artificial retinas, to take snapshots and moving pictures in monochrome or color. Used in pairs, they produce a stereoscopic field of vision and enable depth perception. Macular and peripheral vision can be simulated electronically. This paper also presents the author's design of an artificial orbit for this synthetic eye. The orbit supports the eye, protects it, and provides attachment points for the ocular motion control system. Convergence and image fusion can be produced, and saccades simulated, along with the other ocular motions. The use of lenses, filters, irises and focusing mechanisms are also discussed. Typical camera-computer interfaces are described, including the use of "frame grabbers" and analog-to-digital image conversion. Software programs for eye positioning, image manipulation, feature extraction and object recognition are discussed, including the application of artificial neural networks.

  5. Periodontium bestows vision!!

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Minkle; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Anand, Vishal; Jain, Nikil; Pandey, Suraj

    2016-01-01

    The role of periodontium in supporting the tooth structures is well-known. However, less is known about its contribution to the field of ophthalmology. Corneal diseases are among major causes of blindness affecting millions of people worldwide, for which synthetic keratoprosthesis was considered the last resort to restore vision. Yet, these synthetic keratoprosthesis suffered from serious limitations, especially the foreign body reactions invoked by them resulting in extrusion of the whole prosthesis from the eye. To overcome these shortcomings, an autologous osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis utilizing intraoral entities was introduced that could positively restore vision even in cases of severely damaged eyes. The successful functioning of this prosthesis, however, predominantly depended on the presence of a healthy periodontium for grafting. Therefore, the following short communication aims to acknowledge this lesser-known role of the periodontium and other oral structures in bestowing vision to the blind patients. PMID:27563213

  6. Effect of Si on the Aging Behavior of Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Yiyou; Wang, Xiaohui; Huang, Huiling; Zhou, Xuefeng; Jiang, Jianqing

    2017-02-01

    The effects of Si on the aging behavior in severe cold-drawn pearlitic steel were investigated. Under the same conditions, partitioning ratio, κ Mn, increased from 1.14 to 1.92 in 0.22 pct-Si steel as pearlitic transformation temperature rose from 793 K to 873 K (520 °C to 600 °C); however, κ Mn of 0.95 pct-Si steel only increased from 1.87 to 1.94. Cementite lamellae spheroidization in high Si content steel wire was remarkably delayed during aging at 698 K (425 °C) by the combined effect of diffusion retardation of Si and C atom and cementite phase stabilization by Mn alloying. In addition, age-hardening duration is prolonged, thereby extending age-hardening duration of the as-drawn 0.95 pct-Si-873 K (600 °C) steel wire by approximately 10 times that of 0.22 pct-Si-793 K (520 °C) steel wire.

  7. Spectra of spontaneous Raman scattering in taper-drawn micro/nano-fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yingxin; Cui, Liang; Li, Xiaoying; Guo, Cheng; Li, Yuhang; Xu, Zhongyang; Wang, Lijun; Fang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    We study the spontaneous Raman scattering (RS) in taper-drawn micro/nano-fibers (MNFs) by employing the photon counting technique. The spectra of RS in five MNFs, which are fabricated by using different heating flames (hydrogen flame or butane flame) and with different diameters, are measured within a frequency shift range of 1435 cm-1-3200 cm-1. From the measured spectra, we observe the RS peaks originated from silica and a unique RS peak with a frequency shift of ˜2905 cm-1 (˜87.2 THz). Unlike the former ones, the latter one is not observable in conventional optical fibers. Furthermore, the unique peak becomes obvious and starts to rapidly increase with the decrease of the diameter of MNFs when the diameter is smaller than 2 μm, and the intensity of the unique peak significantly depends on the heating flame used in the fabricating process. Our investigation is useful for the entanglement generation or optical sensing using taper-drawn MNFs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304222 and 11527808) and the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2014CB340103).

  8. Developmental disorders of vision.

    PubMed

    Galaburda, Albert M; Duchaine, Bradley C

    2003-08-01

    This review of developmental disorders of vision focuses on only a few of the many disorders that disrupt visual development. Given the enormity of the human visual system in the primate brain and complexity of visual development, however, there are likely hundreds or thousands of types of disorders affecting high-level vision. The rapid progress seen in developmental dyslexia and WMS demonstrates the possibilities and difficulties inherent in researching such disorders, and the authors hope that similar progress will be made for congenital prosopagnosia and other disorders in the near future.

  9. Night Vision Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    PixelVision, Inc. developed the Night Video NV652 Back-illuminated CCD Camera, based on the expertise of a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory employee and a former employee of Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. The camera operates without an image intensifier, using back-illuminated and thinned CCD technology to achieve extremely low light level imaging performance. The advantages of PixelVision's system over conventional cameras include greater resolution and better target identification under low light conditions, lower cost and a longer lifetime. It is used commercially for research and aviation.

  10. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  11. Is binocular vision worth considering in people with low vision?

    PubMed

    Uzdrowska, Marta; Crossland, Michael; Broniarczyk-Loba, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In someone with good vision, binocular vision provides benefits which could not be obtained by monocular viewing only. People with visual impairment often have abnormal binocularity. However, they often use both eyes simultaneously in their everyday activities. Much remains to be known about binocular vision in people with visual impairment. As the binocular status of people with low vision strongly influences their treatment and rehabilitation, it should be evaluated and considered before diagnosis and further recommendations.

  12. Grounding Our Vision: Brain Research and Strategic Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Mike

    2011-01-01

    While recognizing the value of "vision," it could be argued that vision alone--at least in schools--is not enough to rally the financial and emotional support required to translate an idea into reality. A compelling vision needs to reflect substantive, research-based knowledge if it is to spark the kind of strategic thinking and insight…

  13. Low Vision Training in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inde, Krister

    1978-01-01

    The article describes the team work approach used in Sweden to provide services to the four main categories of visual impairment: central scotoma, nystagmus, loss of peripheral vision while retaining central vision, and amblyopia. (Author/PHR)

  14. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  15. Contact Lenses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Glasses & Contacts Contact Lenses Sections Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Proper ... to Know About Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  16. A History of Vision Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelboom, Tina M.

    1985-01-01

    The vision screening program has a long and interesting history involving educators, pediatricians, optometrists, and ophthamologists. This historical review of vision screening in the schools includes a discussion of amblyopia and screening of preschool students. (Author/CB)

  17. Design of an innovative gamma ray spectroscopy image-based telescope by assigning reciprocal vision color to each gamma photon depending on the energy of gamma photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani Nejad, Akbar; Olia, M. A.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper an innovative method to devise a new astronomical observation instrument by simultaneous implementation of a gamma telescope and a gamma spectroscope is presented. Electromagnetic beams emitted from a star e.g. the sun is spread all electromagnetic spectrum from gamma rays to radio waves, but there is a fingerprint in such a wide spectrum that shows the exact fusion reaction which can be traced by associated gamma photons. This means if gamma photons, emitted from each part of sun, to be detected by this instrument, then spatial information is provided by telescope and information about the energy is recorded by spectrometer, by convolving two above mentioned data, there will be an illustration of a star like the sun that can show which area emits associated gamma photons that in turn illustrates the spatial distribution of elements that produce these gamma photons e.g. hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium, etc. we choose a reference color for each principle gamma photon, according to method similar to gamut color space of CIE [1], by specific linear transformation, or transformation matrix having photon-energy dependence coefficients, then there will be a colorful illustration of sun or any star (or even a GRB) that depicts distribution of elements, released energy, density of elements, etc. This information in turn will reveal the rate and topological variation of matter, energy, magnetic fields, etc. This information will also help to provide enough data to find spatial distribution function of energy, matter, variation and displacement of matters on stars and in turn, it will provide unique information about behaviors of stars. Finally, the method of vibrating holes to increase the spatial resolution of gamma detectors to hundreds times is presented. This method increases the spatial resolution of semiconductor-gamma telescopes to hundreds of times without decreasing the size of gamma sensor pixels and without any major effort to improve the

  18. Parallel architectures for vision

    SciTech Connect

    Maresca, M. ); Lavin, M.A. ); Li, H. )

    1988-08-01

    Vision computing involves the execution of a large number of operations on large sets of structured data. Sequential computers cannot achieve the speed required by most of the current applications and therefore parallel architectural solutions have to be explored. In this paper the authors examine the options that drive the design of a vision oriented computer, starting with the analysis of the basic vision computation and communication requirements. They briefly review the classical taxonomy for parallel computers, based on the multiplicity of the instruction and data stream, and apply a recently proposed criterion, the degree of autonomy of each processor, to further classify fine-grain SIMD massively parallel computers. They identify three types of processor autonomy, namely operation autonomy, addressing autonomy, and connection autonomy. For each type they give the basic definitions and show some examples. They focus on the concept of connection autonomy, which they believe is a key point in the development of massively parallel architectures for vision. They show two examples of parallel computers featuring different types of connection autonomy - the Connection Machine and the Polymorphic-Torus - and compare their cost and benefit.

  19. CONTRIBUTIONS OF VISION SCIENCES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SPACHE, GEORGE D.

    THE IMPLICATIONS OF RESEARCH IN THE VISION SCIENCES FOR READING INSTRUCTION ARE DISCUSSED ON THE BASIS OF (1) STUDIES ON THE PERCEPTUAL BEHAVIOR OF CHILDREN AND THE EFFECT OF LANGUAGE DIRECTIONALITY ON PERCEPTION, (2) STUDIES ON VISUAL CHARACTERISTICS, (3) STUDIES ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR COORDINATION AND READING ABILITY, (4) LONGITUDINAL…

  20. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  1. Two Visions of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Since the seventeenth century, there have been two narratives about modernity in general and America in particular. The author uses the term "narrative" to include (a) facts, (b) arguments, and most important, (c) a larger vision of how one sees the world and chooses to engage the world. The first and originalist narrative is the Lockean Liberty…

  2. Adaptive synthetic vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julier, Simon J.; Brown, Dennis; Livingston, Mark A.; Thomas, Justin

    2006-05-01

    Through their ability to safely collect video and imagery from remote and potentially dangerous locations, UAVs have already transformed the battlespace. The effectiveness of this information can be greatly enhanced through synthetic vision. Given knowledge of the extrinsic and intrinsic parameters of the camera, synthetic vision superimposes spatially-registered computer graphics over the video feed from the UAV. This technique can be used to show many types of data such as landmarks, air corridors, and the locations of friendly and enemy forces. However, the effectiveness of a synthetic vision system strongly depends on the accuracy of the registration - if the graphics are poorly aligned with the real world they can be confusing, annoying, and even misleading. In this paper, we describe an adaptive approach to synthetic vision that modifies the way in which information is displayed depending upon the registration error. We describe an integrated software architecture that has two main components. The first component automatically calculates registration error based on information about the uncertainty in the camera parameters. The second component uses this information to modify, aggregate, and label annotations to make their interpretation as clear as possible. We demonstrate the use of this approach on some sample datasets.

  3. Synthetic Vision Workshop 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The second NASA sponsored Workshop on Synthetic/Enhanced Vision (S/EV) Display Systems was conducted January 27-29, 1998 at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for interested parties to discuss topics in the Synthetic Vision (SV) element of the NASA Aviation Safety Program and to encourage those interested parties to participate in the development, prototyping, and implementation of S/EV systems that enhance aviation safety. The SV element addresses the potential safety benefits of synthetic/enhanced vision display systems for low-end general aviation aircraft, high-end general aviation aircraft (business jets), and commercial transports. Attendance at this workshop consisted of about 112 persons including representatives from industry, the FAA, and other government organizations (NOAA, NIMA, etc.). The workshop provided opportunities for interested individuals to give presentations on the state of the art in potentially applicable systems, as well as to discuss areas of research that might be considered for inclusion within the Synthetic Vision Element program to contribute to the reduction of the fatal aircraft accident rate. Panel discussions on topical areas such as databases, displays, certification issues, and sensors were conducted, with time allowed for audience participation.

  4. Computer Vision Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    Food quality is of paramount consideration for all consumers, and its importance is perhaps only second to food safety. By some definition, food safety is also incorporated into the broad categorization of food quality. Hence, the need for careful and accurate evaluation of food quality is at the forefront of research and development both in the academia and industry. Among the many available methods for food quality evaluation, computer vision has proven to be the most powerful, especially for nondestructively extracting and quantifying many features that have direct relevance to food quality assessment and control. Furthermore, computer vision systems serve to rapidly evaluate the most readily observable foods quality attributes - the external characteristics such as color, shape, size, surface texture etc. In addition, it is now possible, using advanced computer vision technologies, to “see” inside a food product and/or package to examine important quality attributes ordinarily unavailable to human evaluators. With rapid advances in electronic hardware and other associated imaging technologies, the cost-effectiveness and speed of computer vision systems have greatly improved and many practical systems are already in place in the food industry.

  5. Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.

    2007-01-01

    Vision tasks include: a) Complete the International Space Station; b) Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010; c) Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle (by 2014); d) Return to the moon (by 2020); e) Sustained and affordable human and robotic program; f) Develop innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures; and g) Promote international and commercial participation.

  6. Vision: Essential Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph; Torre, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Few concepts are more noted in the leadership effects research than vision. It is a cardinal element in the school improvement equation as well. Yet, it remains one of the least well-specified components of that algorithm. Based on a comprehensive review of the research on effective leadership and school improvement from 1995 to 2012, we bring…

  7. Low Vision Bicycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, M.

    1992-01-01

    This article considers bicycling as a means of transportation, not recreation, for individuals with low vision. Considered are evaluation of capabilities, watching for child cyclists, central and peripheral field loss, necessary equipment, potential problems, seasonal and weather considerations, night riding, route planning, basic visual skills…

  8. Chapter 3: Develop a Vision

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Loretta; Meade, Barbara; Norris, Keith; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Jones, Felica; Moini, Moraya; Jones, Andrea; Koegel, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Vision stage is the development of the agreed-upon framework for the study, including identifying the issue, the community, the stakeholders, and major aspects of the approach. Achieving the Vision requires planning through a Framing Committee, agreeing on a vision by sharing perspectives and identifying commonalities or “win-wins” that hold the partnership together for community benefit, and evaluating the emergence of the Vision and the partnership. Here, we review tools and strategies. PMID:20088078

  9. Measurement and Modeling of Dispersive Pulse Propagation in Drawn Wire Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Kohl, Thomas W.; Rogers, Wayne P.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical model of dispersive pulse propagation in semi-infinite cylinders due to transient axially symmetric end conditions has been experimentally investigated. Specifically, the dispersive propagation of the first axially symmetric longitudinal mode in thin wire waveguides, which have ends in butt contact with longitudinal piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers, is examined. The method allows for prediction of a propagated waveform given a measured source waveform, together with the material properties of the cylinder. Alternatively, the source waveform can be extracted from measurement of the propagated waveform. The material properties required for implementation of the pulse propagation model are determined using guided wave phase velocity measurements. Hard tempered aluminum 1100 and 304 stainless steel wires, with 127, 305, and 406 micron diam., were examined. In general, the drawn wires were found to behave as transversely isotropic media.

  10. Closed-population capture-recapture modeling of samples drawn one at a time.

    PubMed

    Barker, Richard J; Schofield, Matthew R; Wright, Janine A; Frantz, Alain C; Stevens, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by field sampling of DNA fragments, we describe a general model for capture-recapture modeling of samples drawn one at a time in continuous-time. Our model is based on Poisson sampling where the sampling time may be unobserved. We show that previously described models correspond to partial likelihoods from our Poisson model and their use may be justified through arguments concerning S- and Bayes-ancillarity of discarded information. We demonstrate a further link to continuous-time capture-recapture models and explain observations that have been made about this class of models in terms of partial ancillarity. We illustrate application of our models using data from the European badger (Meles meles) in which genotyping of DNA fragments was subject to error.

  11. What You Should Know (Low Vision)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Low Vision > What You Should Know Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... Diabetic retinopathy Glaucoma Macular degeneration What is low vision? When you have low vision, eyeglasses, contact lenses, ...

  12. Pencil-drawn paper supported electrodes as simple electrochemical detectors for paper-based fluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Dossi, Nicolò; Toniolo, Rosanna; Pizzariello, Andrea; Impellizzieri, Flavia; Piccin, Evandro; Bontempelli, Gino

    2013-07-01

    A simple procedure for preparing inexpensive paper-based three-electrode electrochemical cells is described here. They consist of small circular pads of hydrophilic paper defined by hydrophobic barriers printed on paper with wax-based ink. The back face of these pads is insulated by thermally laminating a polyethylene layer and working, reference and counter electrodes are drawn on paper by using commercial pencil leads. At last, a controlled volume of sample containing a supporting electrolyte was laid to soak in paper channels. Their performance was evaluated by assaying these devices as both simple cells suitable for recording voltammograms on static samples and low-cost detectors for flowing systems. Voltammetric tests, conducted by using potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) as model prototype, were also exploited for identifying the brand and softness of graphite sticks enabling paper to be marked with lines displaying the best conductivity. By taking advantage of the satisfactory information thus gained, pencil drawn electrodes were tested as amperometric detectors for the separation of ascorbic acid and sunset yellow, which were chosen as prototype electroactive analytes because they are frequently present concomitantly in several food matrices, such as soft drinks and fruit juices. This separation was performed by planar thin layer chromatography conducted on microfluidic paper-based devices prepared by patterning on filter paper two longitudinal hydrophobic barriers, once again printed with wax-based ink. Factors affecting both separation and electrochemical detection were examined and optimised, with best performance achieved by using a 20 mM acetate running buffer (pH 4.5) and by applying a detection potential of 0.9 V. Under these optimum conditions, the target analytes could be separated and detected within 6 min. The recorded peaks were well separated and characterized by good repeatability and fairly good sensitivity, thus proving that this approach is

  13. Vision in water.

    PubMed

    Atchison, David A; Valentine, Emma L; Gibson, Georgina; Thomas, Hannah R; Oh, Sera; Pyo, Young Ah; Lacherez, Philippe; Mathur, Ankit

    2013-09-06

    The purpose of this study is to determine visual performance in water, including the influence of pupil size. The water environment was simulated by placing goggles filled with saline in front of the eyes with apertures placed at the front of the goggles. Correction factors were determined for the different magnification under this condition in order to estimate vision in water. Experiments were conducted on letter visual acuity (seven participants), grating resolution (eight participants), and grating contrast sensitivity (one participant). For letter acuity, mean loss of vision in water, compared to corrected vision in air, varied between 1.1 log min of arc resolution (logMAR) for a 1 mm aperture to 2.2 logMAR for a 7 mm aperture. The vision in min of arc was described well by a linear relationship with pupil size. For grating acuity, mean loss varied between 1.1 logMAR for a 2 mm aperture to 1.2 logMAR for a 6 mm aperture. Contrast sensitivity for a 2 mm aperture deteriorated as spatial frequency increased with a 2 log unit loss by 3 c/°. Superimposed on this deterioration were depressions (notches) in sensitivity with the first three notches occurring at 0.45, 0.8, and 1.3 c/° with estimates for water of 0.39, 0.70, and 1.13 c/°. In conclusion, vision in water is poor. It becomes worse as pupil size increases, but the effects are much more marked for letter targets than for grating targets.

  14. Is School Vision Screening Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yawn, Barbara P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study followed children retrospectively from kindergarten through 12th grade to examine incidence of abnormal school vision screening tests and rates of follow-up by specialists. School vision screening provided first indication of abnormal visual acuity in 76% of the children. Results support the notion that school vision screening is…

  15. Registration of Vision 45 Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vision 45’ (Reg. No. CV-1110, PI 667642), is a hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar that was developed and tested as VA07HRW-45 and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2012. Vision 45 was derived from the cross ‘Provinciale’/‘Vision 10’ using a modifie...

  16. Properties of drawn W wire used as high performance fibre in tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesch, J.; Almanstötter, J.; Coenen, J. W.; Fuhr, M.; Gietl, H.; Han, Y.; Höschen, T.; Linsmeier, Ch; Travitzky, N.; Zhao, P.; Neu, R.

    2016-07-01

    High strength and creep resistance also at high temperature, combined with a high thermal conductivity and high melting point make tungsten (W) an ideal material for highly loaded areas in future fusion reactors. However, as a typical bcc metal tungsten features an intrinsic brittleness up to very high temperature and is prone to operational embrittlement. Tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composite (Wf/W) utilizes extrinsic toughening mechanisms similar to ceramic fibre-reinforced ceramics and therefore overcomes the brittleness problem. The properties of the composite are to a large extend determined by the properties of the drawn tungsten wire used as reinforcement fibres. W wire exhibits a superior strength and shows ductile behaviour with exceptional local plasticity. Beside the typical mechanisms observed for ceramic composites the ductile deformation of the fibres is therefore an additional very effective toughening mechanism. Tension tests were used to investigate this phenomenon in more detail. Results show that there is a region of enhanced localized plastic deformation. The specific energy consumption in this region was estimated and used to suggest optimisation options for Wf/W composites.

  17. Visions of Delight, Visions of Doubt: The Relationship Between Emotion and Cognition in Teachers' Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerness, Karen

    This paper examines the concept of teacher vision, showing how vision serves as a means for teachers to guide and measure their work. It discusses how teachers' passionate commitments do not divert them from their work but rather direct and shape their thinking and planning and their learning about their work. The paper also shows how vision, in…

  18. A comparative study of energy minimization methods for Markov random fields with smoothness-based priors.

    PubMed

    Szeliski, Richard; Zabih, Ramin; Scharstein, Daniel; Veksler, Olga; Kolmogorov, Vladimir; Agarwala, Aseem; Tappen, Marshall; Rother, Carsten

    2008-06-01

    Among the most exciting advances in early vision has been the development of efficient energy minimization algorithms for pixel-labeling tasks such as depth or texture computation. It has been known for decades that such problems can be elegantly expressed as Markov random fields, yet the resulting energy minimization problems have been widely viewed as intractable. Recently, algorithms such as graph cuts and loopy belief propagation (LBP) have proven to be very powerful: for example, such methods form the basis for almost all the top-performing stereo methods. However, the tradeoffs among different energy minimization algorithms are still not well understood. In this paper we describe a set of energy minimization benchmarks and use them to compare the solution quality and running time of several common energy minimization algorithms. We investigate three promising recent methods graph cuts, LBP, and tree-reweighted message passing in addition to the well-known older iterated conditional modes (ICM) algorithm. Our benchmark problems are drawn from published energy functions used for stereo, image stitching, interactive segmentation, and denoising. We also provide a general-purpose software interface that allows vision researchers to easily switch between optimization methods. Benchmarks, code, images, and results are available at http://vision.middlebury.edu/MRF/.

  19. Deformation and annealing behavior of heavily drawn oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waryoba, Daudi Rigenda

    Conductor wires used in pulsed high-field magnets require metallic materials with a beneficial combination of high mechanical strength to resist the Lorentz forces and high electrical conductivity to limit temperature excursions due to Joule heating. To achieve the required strength, most conductors are fabricated from microcomposite materials using the work hardening effect after heavy cold deformation such as wire drawing. Since the microstructure and texture of these microcomposites are complex, a detailed systematic study of these materials requires a separate study of the individual phases. This work presents a comprehensive study of the microstructure and microtexture evolution during deformation, and subsequent annealing of heavily deformed OFHC copper wires. Analytical tools used for investigation include optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), orientation-imaging microscopy (OIM) in SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile and microhardness testing. Some of the key features of the as-drawn wire are elongated grain size and shear bands. The intensity of the shear bands increased with strain. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and the microhardness of the heavily cold-drawn copper wires increased with strain, reached a saturation point and dropped at higher deformation strain. Deformation did not significantly alter the electrical conductivity of the wires. Deformed and recovered microstructures were characterized by a strong<111>+weak<100> duplex fiber texture. Nucleation of recrystallized grains occurred at shear bands and resulted in randomization of texture. On the other hand, recrystallization produced a strong<100>+weak<111>, which later changed to a <111> fiber texture during abnormal grain growth. A detailed analysis showed that recrystallization was a growth-controlled mechanism, and proceeds from the outer surface to the core. Interestingly, secondary recrystallization was

  20. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention.

  1. Advanced night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thacker, Clinton

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Night Vision Goggle (ANVG) program is developing integrated wide field of view (WFOV) helmet-mounted image intensifier night vision goggle systems. ANVG will provide a FOV of approximately 40° (vertical) × 100° (horizontal) and an integrated heads-up display for overlay of flight symbology and/or FLIR imagery. The added FLIR complements the I2 imagery in out of the window or ground applications. ANVG will significantly improve safety, situational awareness, and mission capabilities in differing environments. ANVG achieves the ultra wide FOV using four image intensifier tubes in a head-mounted configuration. Additional features include a miniature flat panel display and a lightweight uncooled FLIR. The integrated design will demonstrate the capability of helmet-mounted I2 and FLIR image fusion. Fusion will be accomplished optically and will offer significant opportunities for ground applications. This paper summarizes the basic technologies, lessons learned, and program status.

  2. Vision, Instruction and Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    in High-Level Vision: Reassessing the Inverse Optics Paradigm." Proceedings of the 1989 Image Understanding Workshop, 1989. [64] H. Eichenbaum and N...investigp’.on into reactive planning in complex domains." AAAI-87. [81] Martin A. Fischler, Ŕ" he Representation of Natural Scenes." In Allen R...113] Patrick J. Hayes, Naive Physics 1: Ontology for Liquids. Manuscript, University of Essex. 1978. [114] Martin Heidegger, Being and Time. Harper

  3. Bird Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Bird Vision system is a multicamera photogrammerty software application that runs on a Microsoft Windows XP platform and was developed at Kennedy Space Center by ASRC Aerospace. This software system collects data about the locations of birds within a volume centered on the Space Shuttle and transmits it in real time to the laptop computer of a test director in the Launch Control Center (LCC) Firing Room.

  4. Robotic Vision for Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Vision system for robotic welder looks at weld along axis of welding electrode. Gives robot view of most of weld area, including yet-unwelded joint, weld pool, and completed weld bead. Protected within welding-torch body, lens and fiber bundle give robot closeup view of weld in progress. Relayed to video camera on robot manipulator frame, weld image provides data for automatic control of robot motion and welding parameters.

  5. Vision without the Image

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Perona, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Novel image sensors transduce the stream of photons directly into asynchronous electrical pulses, rather than forming an image. Classical approaches to vision start from a good quality image and therefore it is tempting to consider image reconstruction as a first step to image analysis. We propose that, instead, one should focus on the task at hand (e.g., detection, tracking or control) and design algorithms that compute the relevant variables (class, position, velocity) directly from the stream of photons. We discuss three examples of such computer vision algorithms and test them on simulated data from photon-counting sensors. Such algorithms work just-in-time, i.e., they complete classification, search and tracking with high accuracy as soon as the information is sufficient, which is typically before there are enough photons to form a high-quality image. We argue that this is particularly useful when the photons are few or expensive, e.g., in astronomy, biological imaging, surveillance and night vision. PMID:27058543

  6. Is Tit-for-Tat the Answer? On the Conclusions Drawn from Axelrod's Tournaments

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Amnon; Seale, Darryl A.; Colman, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Axelrod’s celebrated Prisoner’s Dilemma computer tournaments, published in the early 1980s, were designed to find effective ways of acting in everyday interactions with the strategic properties of the iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma game. The winner of both tournaments was tit-for-tat, a program that cooperates on the first round and then, on every subsequent round, copies the co-player’s choice from the previous round. This has been interpreted as evidence that tit-for-tat is an effective general-purpose strategy. By re-analyzing data from the first tournament and some more recent data, we provide new results suggesting that the efficacy of tit-for-tat is contingent on the design of the tournament, the criterion used to determine success, and the particular values chosen for the Prisoner’s Dilemma payoff matrix. We argue that this places in doubt the generality of the results and the policy implications drawn from them. PMID:26225422

  7. Community people's preference of hand drawn face graph as a health informing device.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, M; Matsubara, S; Saito, H; Iwata, K

    1990-01-01

    Although the cartoon of a face is an effective device to visualize the image of numerical indices, its use is not popular among community health personnel. In the present study, we used the face graph as an aid for health informing and educating activities in the setting of a community health activity. For this purpose, we designed a special sheet to draw face by hand. By using this sheet, each person can draw his/her 'face' from one's laboratory data index under the guidance of additional lines. The acceptability of this hand drawn face was evaluated by 283 people aged 65 years and over at a health counseling session. For both men and women, a higher percentage preferred face (37% for men, 40% for women) over numeral (23% for men, 17% for women). The preference for the face graph was also observed at each of three age groups within each sex. The highest affinity to face (64%) was observed for the 14 women who reported as cataract patients.

  8. ERGONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A HORSE-DRAWN CARRIAGE USED FOR A JOY RIDE IN INDIA.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Prabir; Vinzuda, Vipul; Naik, Suhas; Karthikeyan, Vignesh; Kumar, Pawan

    2014-06-01

    Horse-drawn carriages popularly known as Tanga in India provide a popularjoy ride. Such vehicles were selected from two cites in Central India and the other from a city in Western India, based on complaints from the users that these vehicles were not comfortable to ride. Twelve male and twelve female participants were selected for the user study. Two of the members of the research team travelled on the vehicle on twelve trips over a 7 kilometer stretch (considered to be the maximum stretch for a Tanga ride). The study comprised three phases; direct observation and activity analysis, a questionnaire study and another questionnaire study of body part discomfort, with the aim to get an insight into the ergonomic design issues of the vehicle. There were gross mismatches in the design and human anthropometric dimensions together with other issues like safety and reliability involved. Based on the initial observations, four concept prototypes were developed which were later handed to the respective authorities for further implementation.

  9. Blended fertilizers as draw solutions for fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis desalination.

    PubMed

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Shon, Ho Kyong; Majeed, Tahir; El Saliby, Ibrahim; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Hong, Seungkwan; Lee, Sangyoup

    2012-04-17

    In fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination, the final nutrient concentration (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK)) in the product water is essential for direct fertigation and to avoid over fertilization. Our study with 11 selected fertilizers indicate that blending of two or more single fertilizers as draw solution (DS) can achieve significantly lower nutrient concentration in the FDFO product water rather than using single fertilizer alone. For example, blending KCl and NH(4)H(2)PO(4) as DS can result in 0.61/1.35/1.70 g/L of N/P/K, which is comparatively lower than using them individually as DS. The nutrient composition and concentration in the final FDFO product water can also be adjusted by selecting low nutrient fertilizers containing complementary nutrients and in different ratios to produce prescription mixtures. However, blending fertilizers generally resulted in slightly reduced bulk osmotic pressure and water flux in comparison to the sum of the osmotic pressures and water fluxes of the two individual DSs as used alone. The performance ratio or PR (ratio of actual water flux to theoretical water flux) of blended fertilizer DS was observed to be between the PR of the two fertilizer solutions tested individually. In some cases, such as urea, blending also resulted in significant reduction in N nutrient loss by reverse diffusion in presence of other fertilizer species.

  10. Accountability in Science During the Information Era: Lessons Drawn from the "Cold Fusion Furor"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2001-04-01

    As guest editor of a recent Ethics in Science publication(S. R. Chubb, Accountability in Research, v 8), #'s 1 and 2, 1 (2000). (http://www.gbhap us.com/journals/149/149-top.htm), I requested key players, from both sides of the Cold Fusion (CF) debate, to attempt to go beyond questions involving the merits of CF, by addressing a more basic issue: have CF claims been judged effectively. All participants agreed that this has not occurred. Three factors seem to have been responsible: 1. Errors in the initial neutron measurements, 2. Events immediately prior to and during a specific APS session, held 1 May 1989, and 3. Irresponsible use of FAX machines and the Internet. The resulting furor, fueled by these Information Era Technologies (IET's), has evolved into such a serious breakdown in communication that, even after 11 years, it is impossible to rule-out the possibility that a number of important new discoveries may have occurred. Regardless of the merits of the claims, two lessons can be drawn from the debate: 1. Individuals and groups must be held accountable for their actions and statements, 2. When IET users fail to respect each other, IET's can seriously impede communication.

  11. Mining Industry of the Future Vision: The Future Begins with Mining

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-09-01

    The Mining Industry of the Future was started in June 1998 when the Chairman of the National Mining Association and the Secretary of Energy entered into a Compact to pursue a collaborative technology research partnership. After the Compact signing, the mining industry developed its vision document, The Future Begins with Mining, A Vision of the Mining Industry of the Future, in September 1998. This vision document lists long-term goals for the mining industry. Stemming from this vision document, targeted technology roadmaps were developed that describe pathways of research to achieve the vision goals.

  12. A national vision of America's transition to a hydrogen economy. To 2030 and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-02-01

    This document outlines a vision for America’s energy future -- a more secure nation powered by clean, abundant hydrogen. This vision can be realized if the Nation works together to fully understand hydrogen’s potential, to develop and deploy hydrogen technologies, and to produce and deliver hydrogen energy in an affordable, safe, and convenient manner.

  13. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence and robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included pattern recognition, image processing for intelligent robotics, three-dimensional vision (depth and motion), vision modeling and shape estimation, spatial reasoning, the symbolic processing visual information, robotic sensors and applications, intelligent control architectures for robot systems, robot languages and programming, human-machine interfaces, robotics applications, and architectures of robotics.

  14. [Vision and car driving ability].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Helmut

    2011-05-01

    Visual functions relevant for car driving are: Visual acuity, contrast and twilight vision, visual field, ocular motility and alignment and colour vision. Generally accepted and standardized tests are available for visual acuity and visual field. Maximum permissible values have been defined arbitrarily and are hardly supported by studies. European standards have been published comprising also contrast and twilight vision. When examining driving ability progressive and treatable ocular disorders such as cataract and glaucoma have to be considered.

  15. Parallel Algorithms for Computer Vision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    demonstrated the Vision Machine system processing images and recognizing objects through the inte- gration of several visual cues. The first version of the...achievements. n 2.1 The Vision Machine The overall organization of tie Vision Machine systeliis ased. o parallel processing of tie images by independent...smoothed and made dense by exploiting known constraints within each process (for example., that disparity is smooth). This is the stage of approximation

  16. Vision in flying insects.

    PubMed

    Egelhaaf, Martin; Kern, Roland

    2002-12-01

    Vision guides flight behaviour in numerous insects. Despite their small brain, insects easily outperform current man-made autonomous vehicles in many respects. Examples are the virtuosic chasing manoeuvres male flies perform as part of their mating behaviour and the ability of bees to assess, on the basis of visual motion cues, the distance travelled in a novel environment. Analyses at both the behavioural and neuronal levels are beginning to unveil reasons for such extraordinary capabilities of insects. One recipe for their success is the adaptation of visual information processing to the specific requirements of the behavioural tasks and to the specific spatiotemporal properties of the natural input.

  17. The evolution of vision.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Walter J

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the evolution of vision is retraced from its putative origins in cyanobacteria to humans. Circadian oscillatory clocks, phototropism, and phototaxis require the capability to detect light. Photosensory proteins allow us to reconstruct molecular phylogenetic trees. The evolution of animal eyes leading from an ancestral prototype to highly complex image forming eyes can be deciphered on the basis of evolutionary developmental genetic experiments and comparative genomics. As all bilaterian animals share the same master control gene, Pax6, and the same retinal and pigment cell determination genes, we conclude that the different eye-types originated monophyletically and subsequently diversified by divergent, parallel, or convergent evolution.

  18. Birth and evolution of visionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Robert S.

    1992-09-01

    The success of the U.S. Army's Night Vision Program at Fort Belvoir, VA was significantly influenced by the evolution and timely culmination of Visionics technology which was initiated by Mr. John Johnson. In the late 1950's, Visionics technology started with concern for Near Infrared (NIR) and Image Intensifier (II) Night Vision developments. It resulted in the Johnson Criteria which coupled system physical characteristics to visual performance by using resolution of line pairs across the minimum dimension of a target. This led to development of image evaluation procedures and standardized laboratory testing. Later the Visionics team addressed the Far Infrared (FIR) system performance and developed a series of FLIR Performance Models. The Visionic's Static Performance Model computer code was accepted and proliferated widely by the mid-70's. Visionics moved from static viewing to address the problems of search effectiveness. Then came more work on target signatures and the consideration of the effects of fog, rain, snow, artillery barrages, and realistic battlefield conditions on system performance in order to assure the utility of fielded equipments for all theaters of interest. The general use of the various Visionics models and methodology throughout Government and Industry is recognition of the contributions made by Mr. John Johnson and his Visionics staff.

  19. The measurement of vision disability.

    PubMed

    Massof, Robert W

    2002-08-01

    The American Medical Association's (AMA) visual efficiency scale, a vision disability metric based on visual impairment measurements, was adopted in 1925. That scale was based on a 30-year history of theoretical models in vision economics, a misinterpretation of Snellen notation for visual acuity, and an erroneous application of Weber's psychophysical law. The AMA visual efficiency scale survived uncontested for 75 years. In 2001, the AMA adopted a new vision disability scale based on logarithmic transformations of visual acuity and visual field diameter. Like the earlier visual efficiency scale, the new scale is theoretical-it is not supported by any data that speak to the relationship between vision disability and visual impairments. Attempts to measure vision disability date to the early 1980s with the development of self-assessment visual function rating scale questionnaires. Nearly all of the questionnaires developed over the last 20 years use Likert scales, but use them incorrectly. The development of a vision disability metric based on Likert scaling parallels the historical development of other forms of measurement. A tutorial review of psychometrics-classical test theory, item response theory, and Rasch analysis-shows how vision disability measurement scales can be estimated from Likert-type visual function rating scales. We conclude that preliminary data relating measures of vision disability to measures of visual acuity and visual fields support the new AMA vision disability scale.

  20. Benchmarking neuromorphic vision: lessons learnt from computer vision.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheston; Lallee, Stephane; Orchard, Garrick

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic Vision sensors have improved greatly since the first silicon retina was presented almost three decades ago. They have recently matured to the point where they are commercially available and can be operated by laymen. However, despite improved availability of sensors, there remains a lack of good datasets, while algorithms for processing spike-based visual data are still in their infancy. On the other hand, frame-based computer vision algorithms are far more mature, thanks in part to widely accepted datasets which allow direct comparison between algorithms and encourage competition. We are presented with a unique opportunity to shape the development of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges by leveraging what has been learnt from the use of datasets in frame-based computer vision. Taking advantage of this opportunity, in this paper we review the role that benchmarks and challenges have played in the advancement of frame-based computer vision, and suggest guidelines for the creation of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges. We also discuss the unique challenges faced when benchmarking Neuromorphic Vision algorithms, particularly when attempting to provide direct comparison with frame-based computer vision.

  1. Python and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Doak, J. E.; Prasad, Lakshman

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of Python in a computer vision (CV) project. We begin by providing background information on the specific approach to CV employed by the project. This includes a brief discussion of Constrained Delaunay Triangulation (CDT), the Chordal Axis Transform (CAT), shape feature extraction and syntactic characterization, and normalization of strings representing objects. (The terms 'object' and 'blob' are used interchangeably, both referring to an entity extracted from an image.) The rest of the paper focuses on the use of Python in three critical areas: (1) interactions with a MySQL database, (2) rapid prototyping of algorithms, and (3) gluing together all components of the project including existing C and C++ modules. For (l), we provide a schema definition and discuss how the various tables interact to represent objects in the database as tree structures. (2) focuses on an algorithm to create a hierarchical representation of an object, given its string representation, and an algorithm to match unknown objects against objects in a database. And finally, (3) discusses the use of Boost Python to interact with the pre-existing C and C++ code that creates the CDTs and CATS, performs shape feature extraction and syntactic characterization, and normalizes object strings. The paper concludes with a vision of the future use of Python for the CV project.

  2. Coherent laser vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastion, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  3. Preschool vision screening.

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, S N; Tamhne, R C; Thompson, L; Francis, P M; Anderson, J; Colver, A F

    1991-01-01

    Although a good case for preschool screening for vision defects can be made there is very little evidence that existing programmes are effective in practice. A comparative trial of three different methods of preschool vision screening is described. Some 7000 children initially aged 5 months (younger cohorts) and 30 months (older cohorts) in three matched areas entered the trial during 1987. During 18 months of follow up new visual and ocular defects among these children were ascertained through ophthalmology outpatients and from optician records. Screening at 35 months by an orthoptist based in the community is superior to conventional health visitor surveillance at 30 months and to an agreed programme of primary care screening for squint at 30-36 months as judged by screening sensitivity (100% v 50% v 50%) and the incidence of treated target conditions (17 v 3 v 5 per 1000 person years). A notable feature in the area served by the orthoptist is that 13 children received treatment for straight eyed visual acuity loss from among 1000 children whereas there were no such cases among 2500 in the comparison areas. In the younger cohorts (that is, screening at age 5-9 months) all three programmes showed equally poor results, only one of the eight treated target conditions arising from all 3500 younger children being screen detected. PMID:2025002

  4. 2020 Vision Project Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, K.W.; Scott, K.P.

    2000-11-01

    Since the 2020 Vision project began in 1996, students from participating schools have completed and submitted a variety of scenarios describing potential world and regional conditions in the year 2020 and their possible effect on US national security. This report summarizes the students' views and describes trends observed over the course of the 2020 Vision project's five years. It also highlights the main organizational features of the project. An analysis of thematic trends among the scenarios showed interesting shifts in students' thinking, particularly in their views of computer technology, US relations with China, and globalization. In 1996, most students perceived computer technology as highly beneficial to society, but as the year 2000 approached, this technology was viewed with fear and suspicion, even personified as a malicious, uncontrollable being. Yet, after New Year's passed with little disruption, students generally again perceived computer technology as beneficial. Also in 1996, students tended to see US relations with China as potentially positive, with economic interaction proving favorable to both countries. By 2000, this view had transformed into a perception of China emerging as the US' main rival and ''enemy'' in the global geopolitical realm. Regarding globalization, students in the first two years of the project tended to perceive world events as dependent on US action. However, by the end of the project, they saw the US as having little control over world events and therefore, we Americans would need to cooperate and compromise with other nations in order to maintain our own well-being.

  5. Industrial robot's vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iureva, Radda A.; Raskin, Evgeni O.; Komarov, Igor I.; Maltseva, Nadezhda K.; Fedosovsky, Michael E.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the improved economic situation in the high technology sectors, work on the creation of industrial robots and special mobile robotic systems are resumed. Despite this, the robotic control systems mostly remained unchanged. Hence one can see all advantages and disadvantages of these systems. This is due to lack of funds, which could greatly facilitate the work of the operator, and in some cases, completely replace it. The paper is concerned with the complex machine vision of robotic system for monitoring of underground pipelines, which collects and analyzes up to 90% of the necessary information. Vision Systems are used to identify obstacles to the process of movement on a trajectory to determine their origin, dimensions and character. The object is illuminated in a structured light, TV camera records projected structure. Distortions of the structure uniquely determine the shape of the object in view of the camera. The reference illumination is synchronized with the camera. The main parameters of the system are the basic distance between the generator and the lights and the camera parallax angle (the angle between the optical axes of the projection unit and camera).

  6. Visions for the future of particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    The ambitions of accelerator based science, technology and applications far exceed the present accelerator possibilities. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results and visions for the future in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, shown during the final fourth annual meeting of the EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development. The conference concerns building of the research infrastructure, including advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such systems like: measurement - control networks of large geometrical extent, multichannel systems for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution. The main subject is however the vision for the future of particle accelerators and next generation light sources.

  7. Cosmic Visions Dark Energy:Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Slosar, Anze; Heitmann, Katrin; Hirata, Chris; Honscheid, Klaus; Roodman, Aaron; Seljak, Uros

    2016-05-02

    A strong instrumentation and detector R&D program has enabled the current generation of cosmic frontier surveys. A small investment in R&D will continue to pay dividends and enable new probes to investigate the accelerated expansion of the universe. Instrumentation and detector R&D provide critical training opportunities for future generations of experimentalists, skills that are important across the entire DOE HEP program.

  8. An overview of computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    An overview of computer vision is provided. Image understanding and scene analysis are emphasized, and pertinent aspects of pattern recognition are treated. The basic approach to computer vision systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the current existing systems and state-of-the-art issues and research requirements, who is doing it and who is funding it, and future trends and expectations are reviewed.

  9. Vision by Man and Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poggio, Tomaso

    1984-01-01

    Studies of stereo vision guide research on how animals see and how computers might accomplish this human activity. Discusses a sequence of algorithms to first extract information from visual images and then to calculate the depths of objects in the three-dimensional world, concentrating on stereopsis (stereo vision). (JN)

  10. Putting the Vision into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2010-01-01

    It's almost a year since the revolution--the "Learning Revolution," that is. This was the Government's long-term vision for the development of "informal adult learning", as laid out in the White Paper of March 2009. The vision was expansive, embracing informal learning in the workplace, promoting a "new" culture of…

  11. Vision in albinism.

    PubMed Central

    Summers, C G

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to study vision in albinism from 3 perspectives: first, to determine the characteristics of grating acuity development in children with albinism; second, to study the effect of illumination on grating acuity; and third, to define the effect of melanin pigment in the macula on visual acuity. METHODS: I. Binocular and monocular grating acuity was measured with the acuity card procedure in 40 children with albinism during the first 3 years of life. Recognition acuity was eventually measured in 27 of these patients. Ocular pigment was documented by a previously established method of grading iris transillumination and macular transparency. II. Grating acuity under standard and increased illumination levels was measured in 20 adults with albinism (group I) compared with that in 20 adults with nystagmus due to conditions other than albinism (group II) and 20 adults without ocular abnormalities (group III). Recognition acuity measured with the ETDRS charts was also recorded for each group. III. Best-corrected binocular acuity was measured in 29 patients with albinism who were identified with melanin pigment in their maculas by direct ophthalmoscopy. RESULTS: I. Both binocular and monocular grating acuity was reduced 2 to 3 octaves below the norm for ages 6 months to 3 years. Limited data available in the first 6 months of life did not show failure of vision to develop. Grating acuity measurements overestimated eventual recognition acuity. Mean recognition acuity was 20/111. A relationship between grating acuity development and presence or absence of ocular pigment was not found. II. Grating acuity was significantly better for groups I and II under the condition of increased illumination (P < .03). For patients with albinism, grating acuity under standard illumination was significantly better than recognition acuity (P < .001). For all groups, grating acuity under increased illumination was significantly better than recognition

  12. Vision Problems in the U.S.

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  13. 3D vision system assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  14. Corneoplastique™: Art of vision surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gulani, Arun C

    2014-01-01

    Corneoplastique incorporates the entire spectrum of Vision corrective surgery including Lasik, premium cataract surgery, corneal surgery, ocular surface surgery and the full range of anterior segment surgery itself in manipulating the optics of every eye towards unaided emmetropia to define each and every eye surgeon as a “Vision Corrective Surgeon”. This concept of approaching each case individually and designing vision therewith enables surgeons to correct not only virgin eyes but also approach complex cases and complications with the goal of 20/20 vision. Armed with this holistic approach, eye surgeons can use minimally invasive, aesthetically pleasing and visually focused surgery in single or staged process aiming for each patient's Best Vision Potential (BVP) raising eye surgery itself then to an Art! PMID:24492495

  15. Multiparameter vision testing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, S. R., Jr.; Homkes, R. J.; Poteate, W. B.; Sturgis, A. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Compact vision testing apparatus is described for testing a large number of physiological characteristics of the eyes and visual system of a human subject. The head of the subject is inserted into a viewing port at one end of a light-tight housing containing various optical assemblies. Visual acuity and other refractive characteristics and ocular muscle balance characteristics of the eyes of the subject are tested by means of a retractable phoroptor assembly carried near the viewing port and a film cassette unit carried in the rearward portion of the housing (the latter selectively providing a variety of different visual targets which are viewed through the optical system of the phoroptor assembly). The visual dark adaptation characteristics and absolute brightness threshold of the subject are tested by means of a projector assembly which selectively projects one or both of a variable intensity fixation target and a variable intensity adaptation test field onto a viewing screen located near the top of the housing.

  16. Vision for 2020.

    PubMed

    Giles, Laura; Brewer, E Thomas; Mosqueda, Laura; Huba, George J; Melchior, Lisa A

    2010-07-01

    This article reflects the collective thoughts of the 20 projects supported by the Archstone Foundation Elder Abuse and Neglect Initiative on offering a vision for improving the response system for elder abuse and, in turn, the lives of older adults between now and the year 2020. Five key areas were identified as critically important for advancing the field in the next ten years: (a) increased public awareness and shifting public attitudes, (b) improved identification and triage of cases, (c) increased integrated service models, (d) improved justice system response, and (e) leveraging and utilizing emerging and untapped resources. The lessons learned from the experiences of these 20 projects in California can serve as demonstration models for other communities to adopt, adapt, and improve response systems for elder abuse and neglect.

  17. Vision Sensors and Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Silicon charge-coupled-device (CCD) imagers have been and are a specialty market ruled by a few companies for decades. Based on CMOS technologies, active-pixel sensors (APS) began to appear in 1990 at the 1 μm technology node. These pixels allow random access, global shutters, and they are compatible with focal-plane imaging systems combining sensing and first-level image processing. The progress towards smaller features and towards ultra-low leakage currents has provided reduced dark currents and μm-size pixels. All chips offer Mega-pixel resolution, and many have very high sensitivities equivalent to ASA 12.800. As a result, HDTV video cameras will become a commodity. Because charge-integration sensors suffer from a limited dynamic range, significant processing effort is spent on multiple exposure and piece-wise analog-digital conversion to reach ranges >10,000:1. The fundamental alternative is log-converting pixels with an eye-like response. This offers a range of almost a million to 1, constant contrast sensitivity and constant colors, important features in professional, technical and medical applications. 3D retino-morphic stacking of sensing and processing on top of each other is being revisited with sub-100 nm CMOS circuits and with TSV technology. With sensor outputs directly on top of neurons, neural focal-plane processing will regain momentum, and new levels of intelligent vision will be achieved. The industry push towards thinned wafers and TSV enables backside-illuminated and other pixels with a 100% fill-factor. 3D vision, which relies on stereo or on time-of-flight, high-speed circuitry, will also benefit from scaled-down CMOS technologies both because of their size as well as their higher speed.

  18. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and…

  19. The World Water Vision: From Developing a Vision to Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, S.; Cosgrove, W.; Rijsberman, F.; Strzepek, K.; Strzepek, K.

    2001-05-01

    The World Water Vision exercise was initiated by the World Water Commission under the auspices of the World Water Council. The goal of the World Water Vision project was to develop a widely shared vision on the actions required to achieve a common set of water-related goals and the necessary commitment to carry out these actions. The Vision should be participatory in nature, including input from both developed and developing regions, with a special focus on the needs of the poor, women, youth, children and the environment. Three overall objectives were to: (i)raise awareness of water issues among both the general population and decision-makers so as to foster the necessary political will and leadership to tackle the problems seriously and systematically; (ii) develop a vision of water management for 2025 that is shared by water sector specialists as well as international, national and regional decision-makers in government, the private sector and civil society; and (iii) provide input to a Framework for Action to be elaborated by the Global Water Partnership, with steps to go from vision to action, including recommendations to funding agencies for investment priorities. This exercise was characterized by the principles of: (i) a participatory approach with extensive consultation; (ii) Innovative thinking; (iii) central analysis to assure integration and co-ordination; and (iv) emphasis on communication with groups outside the water sector. The primary activities included, developing global water scenarios that fed into regional consultations and sectoral consultations as water for food, water for people - water supply and sanitation, and water and environment. These consultations formulated the regional and sectoral visions that were synthesized to form the World Water Vision. The findings from this exercise were reported and debated at the Second World Water Forum and the Ministerial Conference held in The Hague, The Netherlands during April 2000. This paper

  20. Bayesian Vision for Shape Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalobeanu, André

    2004-11-01

    We present a new Bayesian vision technique that aims at recovering a shape from two or more noisy observations taken under similar lighting conditions. The shape is parametrized by a piecewise linear height field, textured by a piecewise linear irradiance field, and we assume Gaussian Markovian priors for both shape vertices and irradiance variables. The modeled observation process, equivalent to rendering, is modeled by a non-affine projection (e.g. perspective projection) followed by a convolution with a piecewise linear point spread function, and contamination by additive Gaussian noise. We assume that the observation parameters are calibrated beforehand. The major novelty of the proposed method consists of marginalizing out the irradiances considered as nuisance parameters, which is achieved by a hierarchy of approximations. This reduces the inference to minimizing an energy that only depends on the shape vertices, and therefore allows an efficient Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM) optimization scheme to be implemented. A Gaussian approximation of the posterior shape density is computed, thus providing estimates of both the geometry and its uncertainty. We illustrate the effectiveness of the new method by shape reconstruction results in a 2D case. A 3D version is currently under development and aims at recovering a surface from multiple images, reconstructing the topography by marginalizing out both albedo and shading.

  1. Bayesian Vision for Shape Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalobeanu, Andre

    2004-01-01

    We present a new Bayesian vision technique that aims at recovering a shape from two or more noisy observations taken under similar lighting conditions. The shape is parametrized by a piecewise linear height field, textured by a piecewise linear irradiance field, and we assume Gaussian Markovian priors for both shape vertices and irradiance variables. The observation process. also known as rendering, is modeled by a non-affine projection (e.g. perspective projection) followed by a convolution with a piecewise linear point spread function. and contamination by additive Gaussian noise. We assume that the observation parameters are calibrated beforehand. The major novelty of the proposed method consists of marginalizing out the irradiances considered as nuisance parameters, which is achieved by Laplace approximations. This reduces the inference to minimizing an energy that only depends on the shape vertices, and therefore allows an efficient Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM) optimization scheme to be implemented. A Gaussian approximation of the posterior shape density is computed, thus providing estimates both the geometry and its uncertainty. We illustrate the effectiveness of the new method by shape reconstruction results in a 2D case. A 3D version is currently under development and aims at recovering a surface from multiple images, reconstructing the topography by marginalizing out both albedo and shading.

  2. Machine vision for digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2010-01-01

    Machine vision is widely used in an industrial environment today. It can perform various tasks, such as inspecting and controlling production processes, that may require humanlike intelligence. The importance of imaging technology for biological research or medical diagnosis is greater than ever. For example, fluorescent reporter imaging enables scientists to study the dynamics of gene networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such high-throughput imaging is increasingly demanding the use of machine vision for real-time analysis and control. Digital microfluidics is a relatively new technology with expectations of becoming a true lab-on-a-chip platform. Utilizing digital microfluidics, only small amounts of biological samples are required and the experimental procedures can be automatically controlled. There is a strong need for the development of a digital microfluidics system integrated with machine vision for innovative biological research today. In this paper, we show how machine vision can be applied to digital microfluidics by demonstrating two applications: machine vision-based measurement of the kinetics of biomolecular interactions and machine vision-based droplet motion control. It is expected that digital microfluidics-based machine vision system will add intelligence and automation to high-throughput biological imaging in the future.

  3. Computer_Vision

    SciTech Connect

    Justin Doak, LANL

    2002-10-04

    The Computer_Vision software performs object recognition using a novel multi-scale characterization and matching algorithm. To understand the multi-scale characterization and matching software, it is first necessary to understand some details of the Computer Vision (CV) Project. This project has focused on providing algorithms and software that provide an end-to-end toolset for image processing applications. At a high-level, this end-to-end toolset focuses on 7 coy steps. The first steps are geometric transformations. 1) Image Segmentation. This step essentially classifies pixels in foe input image as either being of interest or not of interest. We have also used GENIE segmentation output for this Image Segmentation step. 2 Contour Extraction (patent submitted). This takes the output of Step I and extracts contours for the blobs consisting of pixels of interest. 3) Constrained Delaunay Triangulation. This is a well-known geometric transformation that creates triangles inside the contours. 4 Chordal Axis Transform (CAT) . This patented geometric transformation takes the triangulation output from Step 3 and creates a concise and accurate structural representation of a contour. From the CAT, we create a linguistic string, with associated metrical information, that provides a detailed structural representation of a contour. 5.) Normalization. This takes an attributed linguistic string output from Step 4 and balances it. This ensures that the linguistic representation accurately represents the major sections of the contour. Steps 6 and 7 are implemented by the multi-scale characterization and matching software. 6) Multi scale Characterization. This takes as input the attributed linguistic string output from Normalization. Rules from a context free grammar are applied in reverse to create a tree-like representation for each contour. For example, one of the grammar’s rules is L -> (LL ). When an (LL) is seen in a string, a parent node is created that points to the four

  4. Retraction of cold-drawn polyethylene - Influence of lamellar thickness and density.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falender, J. R.; Hansen, D.

    1972-01-01

    The role of crystal morphology in the retraction of oriented linear polyethylene was studied utilizing samples crystallized under conditions controlled to vary, separately, lamellar crystal thickness and density. Samples were oriented in a simple shear deformation to a strain of 4.0 prior to measuring retraction tendency in creep- and relaxation-type tests. Characterizations of specimens were made using wide- and small-angle x-ray techniques. The specific morphological variations were chosen to test the hypothesis that a long-range elastic restoring force can originate in conjunction with deformation of lamellar crystals and the consequent increase in lamellar crystal surface area and surface free energy. The results support this hypothesis.

  5. Role of vision in the optics learning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesa, Marta; Colombo, Elisa M.; de Cudmani, Leonor C.

    1995-10-01

    Most of the time, in the teaching of geometrical and physical optics, the visual system is not considered in the analysis of different phenomena. This situation is often reflected in the physic texts and is responsible of a limited comprehension of physic concepts involved. It is so natural for us to see that it is sometimes difficult for the physic teachers to give up intuitive conceptions about what and how we see. The authors propose that the common sense is not enough. It is necessary to start from a scientific point of view considering contributions from diverse fields of analysis, avoiding the temptation of reducing the behavior of the vision system to a photographic camera. To see is much more than just to record images. Vision seems effortless. Objects are recognized in the environment and actions are carried out accordingly. However, current thinking suggest that the task is performed by the cooperative action of many different modules, each with specific task. These modules may represent different parts of the brain, or different routines in a computer program. This article stands out significant contributions from different approaches: Theory of information processing, Artificial vision, Computational vision, Cognitive psychology theory of learning. These interdisciplinary contributions lead to the conclusion that the vision is an intended process. It is also able to make use of light propagation in the environment. This energy is processed constructing useful visual representations and symbols. The conclusion is that the vision is a cognitive process.

  6. Vision without knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Milner, A D

    1997-01-01

    A brain-damaged patient (D.F.) with visual form agnosia is described and discussed. D.F. has a profound inability to recognize objects, places and people, in large part because of her inability to make perceptual discriminations of size, shape or orientation, despite having good visual acuity. Yet she is able to perform skilled actions that depend on that very same size, shape and orientation information that is missing from her perceptual awareness. It is suggested that her intact vision can best be understood within the framework of a dual processing model, according to which there are two cortical processing streams operating on different coding principles, for perception and for action, respectively. These may be expected to have different degrees of dependence on top-down information. One possibility is that D.F.'s lack of explicit awareness of the visual cues that guide her behaviour may result from her having to rely on a processing system which is not knowledge-based in a broad sense. Conversely, it may be that the perceptual system can provide conscious awareness of its products in normal individuals by virtue of the fact that it does interact with a stored base of visual knowledge. PMID:9304691

  7. Vision as a Beachhead.

    PubMed

    Heeger, David J; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-09-29

    When neural circuits develop abnormally due to different genetic deficits and/or environmental insults, neural computations and the behaviors that rely on them are altered. Computational theories that relate neural circuits with specific quantifiable behavioral and physiological phenomena, therefore, serve as extremely useful tools for elucidating the neuropathological mechanisms that underlie different disorders. The visual system is particularly well suited for characterizing differences in neural computations; computational theories of vision are well established, and empirical protocols for measuring the parameters of those theories are well developed. In this article, we examine how psychophysical and neuroimaging measurements from human subjects are being used to test hypotheses about abnormal neural computations in autism, with an emphasis on hypotheses regarding potential excitation/inhibition imbalances. We discuss the complexity of relating specific computational abnormalities to particular underlying mechanisms given the diversity of neural circuits that can generate the same computation, and we discuss areas of research in which computational theories need to be further developed to provide useful frameworks for interpreting existing results. A final emphasis is placed on the need to extend existing ideas into developmental frameworks that take into account the dramatic developmental changes in neurophysiology (e.g., changes in excitation/inhibition balance) that take place during the first years of life, when autism initially emerges.

  8. Spatiochromatic model of vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhead, Ian R.

    1996-04-01

    A computer model of human spatiochromatic vision, based on the scheme proposed by De Valois and De Valois has been developed. The implementation of the model enables true color 2-D images to be processed. The input consists of cone signals at each pixel. Subsequent levels of the model are represented by arrays of activity corresponding to the equivalent neural activity. The implementation allows the behavior of different stages of the model -- retinal and cortical -- to be studied with different varieties of spatial and chromatic stimuli of any complexity. In addition the model is extensible to allow different types of neural mechanisms and cortical demultiplexing processes to be incorporated. As well as providing qualitative insight into the operation of the different stages of the model the implementation also permits quantitative predictions to be made. Both increment threshold and hue naming results are predicted by the model, but the accuracy of these predictions is contingent upon an appropriate choice of adaptation state at the retinal cone and ganglion cell level.

  9. A New View of Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Christopher

    1988-01-01

    Reviews research done on the nature of vision from a neurologic perspective. Proposes a multiplex filter model to explain patterns in the signals transmitted to the brain from the retina. Describes experiments done to test the model. (CW)

  10. Do You Have Cultural Vision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that child care teachers can help remedy cultural tunnel vision by promoting cultural diversity and understanding as they work with children and communicate with parents about what they are doing. (BB)

  11. 46 CFR 10.305 - Vision requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vision requirements. 10.305 Section 10.305 Shipping... CREDENTIAL Medical Certification § 10.305 Vision requirements. (a) Deck standard. (1) A mariner must have correctable vision to at least 20/40 in one eye and uncorrected vision of at least 20/200 in the same eye....

  12. [Acquired disorders of color vision].

    PubMed

    Lascu, Lidia; Balaş, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision.

  13. Geometric Modeling for Computer Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    Vision and Artificial Intellegence could lead to robots, androids and cyborgs which will be able to see, to think and to feel conscious 10.4...the construction of computer representations of physical objects, cameras, images and light for the sake of simulating their behavior. In Artificial ...specifically, I wish to exclude the connotation that the theory is a natural theory of vision. Perhaps there can be such a thing as an artificial theory

  14. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined artificial intelligence and image processing in relation to robotics. Topics considered at the conference included feature extraction and pattern recognition for computer vision, image processing for intelligent robotics, robot sensors, image understanding and artificial intelligence, optical processing techniques in robotic applications, robot languages and programming, processor architectures for computer vision, mobile robots, multisensor fusion, three-dimensional modeling and recognition, intelligent robots applications, and intelligent robot systems.

  15. Aircraft cockpit vision: Math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir, J.; Singh, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the field of vision of a pilot seated in an aircraft. Given the position and orientation of the aircraft, along with the geometrical configuration of its windows, and the location of an object, the model determines whether the object would be within the pilot's external vision envelope provided by the aircraft's windows. The computer program using this model was implemented and is described.

  16. Adaptive machine vision. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, W.W.; Brill, M.H.; Bergeron, D.W.

    1988-03-08

    The mission of the Strategic Defense Initiative is to develop defenses against threatening ballistic missiles. There are four distinct phases to the SDI defense; boost, post-boost, midcourse and terminal. In each of these phases, one or more machine-vision functions are required, such as pattern recognition, stereo image fusion, clutter rejection and discrimination. The SDI missions of coarse track, stereo track and discrimination are examined here from the point of view of a machine-vision system.

  17. [Vision measurement and psychophysical tests].

    PubMed

    Kronbauer, Airton Leite; Schor, Paulo; Carvalho, Luis Alberto Vieira de

    2008-01-01

    Vision measurement is the basis for the study and standardization of visual sciences. Measurement of visual acuity has great value for research and for clinical practice. This paper (1) reviews the fundamental concepts to understand visual sense and the measuring units; (2) presents the fundamental limits to visual performance and the principles of aberration measurement of the eye; and (3) discusses methods for measuring and classifying vision with new technologies.

  18. Characterization of blood drawn rapidly for use in blood volume expansion studies: An animal model for simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenault, V. Michelle; Lynch, Colleen D.; Morris, Mariana; Clodfelter, Jill; Hutchins, Phillip M.

    1990-01-01

    It was demonstrated that up to 8ml of blood can be drawn from donar rats without significantly increasing volume and stress sensitive hormones, and thus can be used for volume expansion studies. Infusion of whole blood allows more physiological changes that can be seen with volume expansion by saline or other ionic solutions. The infusion of whole blood to induce hypervolemia may provide an improved model to study the fluid balance and control mechanisms operative in weightlessness. Blood samples were drawn as quickly as possible from femoral artery catheters chronically implanted in Sprague Dawley rats and analyzed for hematocrit, plasma sodium, potassium, osmolality, corticosterone, epinepherine, norepinephrine, and vasopressin. The levels were found to be comparable to those of normal rats.

  19. Application of artificial intelligence to robotic vision

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, P.S.; Frick, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    A brief introduction to artificial intelligence (AI) and the general vision process is provided. Two samples of AI researchers' work toward general computer vision are given. The first is a model-based vision system while the second is based on results of studies on human vision. The current state of machine vision in industrial robotics is demonstrated using a well known vision algorithm developed at SRI International. A part of a prototype robotic assembly project with vision is sketched to show the application of some AI tools to practical work. 8 references.

  20. Computer vision syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Blehm, Clayton; Vishnu, Seema; Khattak, Ashbala; Mitra, Shrabanee; Yee, Richard W

    2005-01-01

    As computers become part of our everyday life, more and more people are experiencing a variety of ocular symptoms related to computer use. These include eyestrain, tired eyes, irritation, redness, blurred vision, and double vision, collectively referred to as computer vision syndrome. This article describes both the characteristics and treatment modalities that are available at this time. Computer vision syndrome symptoms may be the cause of ocular (ocular-surface abnormalities or accommodative spasms) and/or extraocular (ergonomic) etiologies. However, the major contributor to computer vision syndrome symptoms by far appears to be dry eye. The visual effects of various display characteristics such as lighting, glare, display quality, refresh rates, and radiation are also discussed. Treatment requires a multidirectional approach combining ocular therapy with adjustment of the workstation. Proper lighting, anti-glare filters, ergonomic positioning of computer monitor and regular work breaks may help improve visual comfort. Lubricating eye drops and special computer glasses help relieve ocular surface-related symptoms. More work needs to be done to specifically define the processes that cause computer vision syndrome and to develop and improve effective treatments that successfully address these causes.

  1. Theory underlying the peripheral vision horizon device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Money, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Peripheral Vision Horizon Device (PVHD) theory states that the likelihood of pilot disorientation in flight is reduced by providing an artificial horizon that provides orientation information to peripheral vision. In considering the validity of the theory, three areas are explored: the use of an artificial horizon device over some other flight instrument; the use of peripheral vision over foveal vision; and the evidence that peripheral vision is well suited to the processing of orientation information.

  2. Shaping the First-Year Experience: Assessment of the Vision Planning Seminar at Nagoya University of Commerce and Business in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Learning assessments of the First-Year Experience (FYE) at universities have drawn increasing attention. Despite its current popularity, few pieces of literature on the FYE learning assessment exist in Japan. To present a case of FYE in the context of Japan, this paper examines the FYE course called the Vision Planning Seminar (VPS) at the Nagoya…

  3. Vision Loss in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Allen L; Rojas-Roldan, Ledy; Coffin, Janis

    2016-08-01

    Vision loss affects 37 million Americans older than 50 years and one in four who are older than 80 years. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concludes that current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in adults older than 65 years. However, family physicians play a critical role in identifying persons who are at risk of vision loss, counseling patients, and referring patients for disease-specific treatment. The conditions that cause most cases of vision loss in older patients are age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, ocular complications of diabetes mellitus, and age-related cataracts. Vitamin supplements can delay the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor can preserve vision in the neovascular form of macular degeneration. Medicated eye drops reduce intraocular pressure and can delay the progression of vision loss in patients with glaucoma, but adherence to treatment is poor. Laser trabeculoplasty also lowers intraocular pressure and preserves vision in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, but long-term studies are needed to identify who is most likely to benefit from surgery. Tight glycemic control in adults with diabetes slows the progression of diabetic retinopathy, but must be balanced against the risks of hypoglycemia and death in older adults. Fenofibrate also slows progression of diabetic retinopathy. Panretinal photocoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for diabetic retinopathy, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors slow vision loss resulting from diabetic macular edema. Preoperative testing before cataract surgery does not improve outcomes and is not recommended.

  4. Reliable vision-guided grasping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicewarner, Keith E.; Kelley, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    Automated assembly of truss structures in space requires vision-guided servoing for grasping a strut when its position and orientation are uncertain. This paper presents a methodology for efficient and robust vision-guided robot grasping alignment. The vision-guided grasping problem is related to vision-guided 'docking' problems. It differs from other hand-in-eye visual servoing problems, such as tracking, in that the distance from the target is a relevant servo parameter. The methodology described in this paper is hierarchy of levels in which the vision/robot interface is decreasingly 'intelligent,' and increasingly fast. Speed is achieved primarily by information reduction. This reduction exploits the use of region-of-interest windows in the image plane and feature motion prediction. These reductions invariably require stringent assumptions about the image. Therefore, at a higher level, these assumptions are verified using slower, more reliable methods. This hierarchy provides for robust error recovery in that when a lower-level routine fails, the next-higher routine will be called and so on. A working system is described which visually aligns a robot to grasp a cylindrical strut. The system uses a single camera mounted on the end effector of a robot and requires only crude calibration parameters. The grasping procedure is fast and reliable, with a multi-level error recovery system.

  5. The Medawar Lecture 2001 Knowledge for vision: vision for knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    An evolutionary development of perception is suggested—from passive reception to active perception to explicit conception—earlier stages being largely retained and incorporated in later species. A key is innate and then individually learned knowledge, giving meaning to sensory signals. Inappropriate or misapplied knowledge produces rich cognitive phenomena of illusions, revealing normally hidden processes of vision, tentatively classified here in a ‘peeriodic table’. Phenomena of physiology are distinguished from phenomena of general rules and specific object knowledge. It is concluded that vision uses implicit knowledge, and provides knowledge for intelligent behaviour and for explicit conceptual understanding including science. PMID:16147519

  6. The unsolved mystery of vision.

    PubMed

    Masland, Richard H; Martin, Paul R

    2007-08-07

    Vision looms large in neuroscience--it is the subject of a gigantic literature and four Nobel prizes--but there is a growing realization that there are problems with the textbook explanation of how mammalian vision works. Here we will summarize the evidence behind this disquiet. In effect, we shall present a portrait of a field that is 'stuck'. Our initial focus, because it is our area of expertise, is on evidence that the early steps of mammalian vision are more diverse and more interesting than is usually imagined, so that our understanding of the later stages is in trouble right from the start. But we will also summarize problems, raised by others, with the later stages themselves.

  7. Binocular vision and refractive surgery.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Alison L

    2007-05-01

    Binocular status can have an effect on the outcome of refractive surgery. Some accommodative deviations and anisometropia can be managed effectively. Fully accommodative esotropia has been successfully treated in young patients but the outcome can be less predictable in older patients. High anisometropes are usually unaffected by the change in aniseikonia following refractive surgery but there are exceptions. Failure to recognise and appropriately classify a binocular vision anomaly pre-surgically can result in symptoms that are difficult to manage post-operatively. Refractive surgery producing a binocular vision anomaly where there was none pre-operatively is less common. I present a review of the literature discussing the relationship between binocular vision anomalies and refractive surgery, illustrating the findings with published reports of successful and unsuccessful binocular postoperative outcomes. I argue that predicting the binocular outcome should be considered pre-operatively for every refractive surgery patient.

  8. Motion vision for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrb, Matthieu

    The problem of using computer vision in mobile robots is dealt with. The datacube specialized cards and a parallel machine using a transputer network are studied. The tracking and localization of a three dimensional object in a sequence of images is examined, using first order prediction of the motion in the image plane and verification by a maximal clique search in the graph of mutually compatible matchings. A dynamic environment modeling module, using numerical fusion between trinocular stereovision and tracking of stereo matched primitives is presented. The integration of this perception system in the control architecture of a mobile robot is examined to achieve various functions, such as vision servo motion and environment modeling. The functional units implementing vision tasks and the data exchanged with other units are outlined. Experiments realized with the mobile robot Hilare 1.5 allowed the proposed algorithms and concepts to be validated.

  9. Using rats for vision research.

    PubMed

    Reinagel, P

    2015-06-18

    A wide variety of species are used for the study of visual neuroscience. This is beneficial because fundamental mechanisms and theoretical principles of vision are likely to be highly conserved, while different species exhibit different visual capacities and present different technical advantages for experiments. Eight years ago my laboratory adopted the hooded rat as our primary preparation for vision research. To some this may be surprising, as nocturnal rodents have often been presumed to have poor vision and weak visual behavior. This commentary will provide my personal perspective on how I came to work with rats; discuss an example research project for which rats have been advantageous; and comment on the opportunities and challenges of the preparation.

  10. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights) need to be developed. This enables, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in, for example, a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, nearground obstructions, and ground targets. Furthermore, curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations needs to be developed and applied. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs.

  11. Monitoring the Geneseo Nuclear Structure Lab with VISION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicklaw, R.; Padalino, S.; McLean, J.

    2002-10-01

    VISION (Virtual Instrument System Information) is a LabVIEW based program designed to monitor a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator in the Geneseo Nuclear Structure Laboratory (GNSL). The purpose of the system is to monitor and notify the user of potentially critical situations in the lab. Main parameters of interest are the water coolant temperatures in the diffusion pumps, pressures within the vacuum chambers, and Van de Graaff operational parameters. LabVIEW reads these values and then displays them on monitors located throughout the laboratory. The user can set alarm limits on the relevant parameters, and when exceeded notifies the user verbally and visually. Recent additions to the VISION program include the water level sensor, calibration of the pressure readings, a web server application, and data logging. The VISION system is Internet accessible ^1, data from the main screen is displayed over the web for remote monitoring of the accelerator. Another useful monitoring tool is the data logger, which writes acquired data to a formatted text document at specified intervals. A future goal for VISION is to not only monitor, but to control aspects of the GNSL with LabVIEW. ^1 Webpage accessible at: http://s69n144.sci.geneseo.edu/vision.htm * Research funded in part by the United States Department of Energy

  12. Computer vision in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Danuser, Gaudenz

    2011-11-23

    Computer vision refers to the theory and implementation of artificial systems that extract information from images to understand their content. Although computers are widely used by cell biologists for visualization and measurement, interpretation of image content, i.e., the selection of events worth observing and the definition of what they mean in terms of cellular mechanisms, is mostly left to human intuition. This Essay attempts to outline roles computer vision may play and should play in image-based studies of cellular life.

  13. Computer vision in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Gerald

    1990-11-01

    Computervision is used to overcome the mismatch between user models and implementation models of software systems for image analysis in nuclear medicine. Computer vision in nuclear medicine results in an active support of the user by the system. This is reached by modeling of imaging equipment and schedules scenes of interest and the process of visual image interpretation. Computer vision is demonstrated especially in the low level and medium level range. Special highlights are given for the estimation of image quality an uniform approach to enhancement and restoration of images and analysis of shape and dynamics of patterns. 1.

  14. Visions and Re-Visions of Charles Joseph Minard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friendly, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Describes the contributions of Charles Joseph Minard to statistical graphics, noting the time course of his work and providing background on his famous effort, the flow-map depiction of Napoleon's march on Moscow. Explores some modern re-visions of this famous graphic from an information visualization perspective. (SLD)

  15. Global Perspectives on Teaching Literature: Shared Visions and Distinctive Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Sandra Ward, Ed.; And Others

    This book is a collection of essays designed for high school and college teachers who want to introduce non-Western and other non-canonical texts into their traditional literature courses. The essays in the book explore the kinds of visions encountered when teachers cluster Western texts with those outside the dominant Western tradition. Papers in…

  16. Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Canada, Britain, and Spain. We found that the energy industry is not in crisis ; however, U.S. government policies, laws, dollars, and even public...CEIMAT (Centro de Investagaciones Energeticas , Medioambeintales y Tecnologicas) Research and development Page 3 of 28ENERGY 8/10/04http://www.ndu.edu...procurement or storage of standard, common use fuels. NATURAL GAS Natural gas, abundant globally and domestically, offers energy versatility among

  17. Quality Control by Artificial Vision

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Edmond Y.; Gleason, Shaun Scott; Niel, Kurt S.

    2010-01-01

    Computational technology has fundamentally changed many aspects of our lives. One clear evidence is the development of artificial-vision systems, which have effectively automated many manual tasks ranging from quality inspection to quantitative assessment. In many cases, these machine-vision systems are even preferred over manual ones due to their repeatability and high precision. Such advantages come from significant research efforts in advancing sensor technology, illumination, computational hardware, and image-processing algorithms. Similar to the Special Section on Quality Control by Artificial Vision published two years ago in Volume 17, Issue 3 of the Journal of Electronic Imaging, the present one invited papers relevant to fundamental technology improvements to foster quality control by artificial vision, and fine-tuned the technology for specific applications. We aim to balance both theoretical and applied work pertinent to this special section theme. Consequently, we have seven high-quality papers resulting from the stringent peer-reviewing process in place at the Journal of Electronic Imaging. Some of the papers contain extended treatment of the authors work presented at the SPIE Image Processing: Machine Vision Applications conference and the International Conference on Quality Control by Artificial Vision. On the broad application side, Liu et al. propose an unsupervised texture image segmentation scheme. Using a multilayer data condensation spectral clustering algorithm together with wavelet transform, they demonstrate the effectiveness of their approach on both texture and synthetic aperture radar images. A problem related to image segmentation is image extraction. For this, O'Leary et al. investigate the theory of polynomial moments and show how these moments can be compared to classical filters. They also show how to use the discrete polynomial-basis functions for the extraction of 3-D embossed digits, demonstrating superiority over Fourier

  18. Availability of vision and tactile gating: vision enhances tactile sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Colino, Francisco L; Lee, Ji-Hang; Binsted, Gordon

    2017-01-01

    A multitude of events bombard our sensory systems at every moment of our lives. Thus, it is important for the sensory and motor cortices to gate unimportant events. Tactile suppression is a well-known phenomenon defined as a reduced ability to detect tactile events on the skin before and during movement. Previous experiments (Buckingham et al. in Exp Brain Res 201(3):411-419, 2010; Colino et al. in Physiol Rep 2(3):e00267, 2014) found detection rates decrease just prior to and during finger abduction and decrease according to the proximity of the moving effector. However, what effect does vision have on tactile gating? There is ample evidence (see Serino and Haggard in Neurosci Biobehav Rev 34:224-236, 2010) observing increased tactile acuity when participants see their limbs. The present study examined how tactile detection changes in response to visual condition (vision/no vision). Ten human participants used their right hand to reach and grasp a cylinder. Tactors were attached to the index finger and the forearm of both the right and left arm and vibrated at various epochs relative to a "go" tone. Results replicate previous findings from our laboratory (Colino et al. in Physiol Rep 2(3):e00267, 2014). Also, tactile acuity decreased when participants did not have vision. These results indicate that the vision affects the somatosensation via inputs from parietal areas (Konen and Haggard in Cereb Cortex 24(2):501-507, 2014) but does so in a reach-to-grasp context.

  19. Visions of Vision: An Exploratory Study of the Role College and University Presidents Play in Developing Institutional Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWade, Jessica C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative research explores how college and university presidents engage in the process of developing formal institutional vision. The inquiry identifies roles presidents play in vision development, which is often undertaken as part of strategic-planning initiatives. Two constructs of leadership and institutional vision are used to examine…

  20. Hydropower Vision: Full Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-07-01

    Hydropower has provided clean, affordable, reliable, and renewable electricity in the United States for more than a century. Building on hydropower’s historical significance, and to inform the continued technical evolution, energy market value, and environmental performance of the industry, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has led a first-of-its-kind comprehensive analysis focused on a set of potential pathways for the environmentally sustainable expansion of hydropower (hydropower generation and pumped storage) in the United States.

  1. Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye"

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Feature: Vision Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye" Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... including an implanted set of lenses. "Keeping your eyes healthy means learning about them and the conditions ...

  2. A Clear Vision for Equity and Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Marge Christensen; Gould, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Describes undetected and uncorrected vision problems for children in poverty associated with juvenile delinquency and poor academic performance. Discusses success of a project offering vision screening and free glasses for at-risk students in Tucson, Arizona. (PKP)

  3. Warning Signs of Vision Problems in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Warning Signs of Vision Problems in Infants & Children Page Content ​Eye exams ... treated successfully. What are warning signs of a vision problem? Babies up to 1 year of age: ...

  4. Neural architectures for stereo vision

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Stereoscopic vision delivers a sense of depth based on binocular information but additionally acts as a mechanism for achieving correspondence between patterns arriving at the left and right eyes. We analyse quantitatively the cortical architecture for stereoscopic vision in two areas of macaque visual cortex. For primary visual cortex V1, the result is consistent with a module that is isotropic in cortical space with a diameter of at least 3 mm in surface extent. This implies that the module for stereo is larger than the repeat distance between ocular dominance columns in V1. By contrast, in the extrastriate cortical area V5/MT, which has a specialized architecture for stereo depth, the module for representation of stereo is about 1 mm in surface extent, so the representation of stereo in V5/MT is more compressed than V1 in terms of neural wiring of the neocortex. The surface extent estimated for stereo in V5/MT is consistent with measurements of its specialized domains for binocular disparity. Within V1, we suggest that long-range horizontal, anatomical connections form functional modules that serve both binocular and monocular pattern recognition: this common function may explain the distortion and disruption of monocular pattern vision observed in amblyopia. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269604

  5. Polarization Imaging and Insect Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Adam S.; Ohmann, Paul R.; Leininger, Nick E.; Kavanaugh, James A.

    2010-01-01

    For several years we have included discussions about insect vision in the optics units of our introductory physics courses. This topic is a natural extension of demonstrations involving Brewster's reflection and Rayleigh scattering of polarized light because many insects heavily rely on optical polarization for navigation and communication.…

  6. Vision Research for Flight Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    THOMAS M. LONGRIDGE Contract Monitor MILTON E. WOOD. Technical Director Operations Training Division RONALD W’. TERRY, Coloneli USAF Commander I! I V...13:30 Hardware Developments B. Erikson 13:30 - 14:00 Future Directions G. Buckland 14:00 - 17:00 Committee on Vision: 14:00-14:15 Introduction W

  7. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  8. Smart vision chips: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Christof

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents four working analog VLSI vision chips: (1) time-derivative retina, (2) zero-crossing chip, (3) resistive fuse, and (4) figure-ground chip; work in progress on computing motion and neuromorphic systems; and conceptual and practical lessons learned.

  9. Vision quality of elderly Oklahomans.

    PubMed

    Imes, C B; Peck, C

    1993-06-01

    The purposes of this study are to determine if age related visual changes are affecting the ability of older adults to perform everyday tasks, to identify histories of eye diseases/eye surgeries, and to document eye care practices. Our sample was obtained from the Third Age Life Center at Baptist Medical Center in Oklahoma City. The survey was mailed to 14,856 members; 848 (6%) surveys were returned. Over 84% of the respondents have never been diagnosed with dry eye syndrome, glaucoma, macular degeneration, or diabetic retinopathy. Sixty percent rated their health and vision quality as good. Females expressed more vision problems than males. Advanced age (75 years or older) did increase likelihood of experiencing eye diseases and vision difficulties. The majority of respondents in this study appear to be experiencing healthy vision with minimal age-related changes and have not been diagnosed with the eye diseases characteristic of this age group. Evidence of regular eye examinations was reported, with 33% of the respondents reporting having eye exams once a year and 33% twice a year.

  10. Unshackled by Visions and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brokenleg, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Uses a case study to demonstrate the effects of cultural conflict, alienation, anomie, and contemporary urban society on the lives of troubled Native American youth. Shows that by teaching traditional Native American values, such as visions of hope and independence, society can help these youth enjoy a promising future. (RJM)

  11. Neural architectures for stereo vision.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew J; Smith, Jackson E T; Krug, Kristine

    2016-06-19

    Stereoscopic vision delivers a sense of depth based on binocular information but additionally acts as a mechanism for achieving correspondence between patterns arriving at the left and right eyes. We analyse quantitatively the cortical architecture for stereoscopic vision in two areas of macaque visual cortex. For primary visual cortex V1, the result is consistent with a module that is isotropic in cortical space with a diameter of at least 3 mm in surface extent. This implies that the module for stereo is larger than the repeat distance between ocular dominance columns in V1. By contrast, in the extrastriate cortical area V5/MT, which has a specialized architecture for stereo depth, the module for representation of stereo is about 1 mm in surface extent, so the representation of stereo in V5/MT is more compressed than V1 in terms of neural wiring of the neocortex. The surface extent estimated for stereo in V5/MT is consistent with measurements of its specialized domains for binocular disparity. Within V1, we suggest that long-range horizontal, anatomical connections form functional modules that serve both binocular and monocular pattern recognition: this common function may explain the distortion and disruption of monocular pattern vision observed in amblyopia.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'.

  12. Vision Screening of the Aged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Howard H.

    1971-01-01

    A statewide project in South Dakota has screened the vision of 2,578 elderly persons in 90 nursing homes, finding 13 percent legally blind and referring 32 percent for services either from agencies for the blind or from physicians or optometrists. (KW)

  13. Real-time vision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  14. The Physics of Colour Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Martin

    1985-01-01

    An elementary physical model of cone receptor cells is explained and applied to complexities of human color vision. One-, two-, and three-receptor systems are considered, with the later shown to be the best model for the human eye. Color blindness is also discussed. (DH)

  15. Will Retinal Implants Restore Vision?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrenner, Eberhart

    2002-02-01

    A number of research groups are developing electrical implants that can be attached directly to the retina in an attempt to restore vision to patients suffering from retinal degeneration. However, despite promising results in animal experiments, there are still several major obstacles to overcome before retinal prostheses can be used clinically.

  16. Institutionalizing a Vision for Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miserandino, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    Institutionalizing a vision for diversity should include (1) commitment to serving students' perceived needs; (2) seeing through the lens of others' experiences; (3) moral leadership from teachers; (4) a sufficient pool of support and goodwill; and (5) focus on students first. (SK)

  17. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  18. Standards for vision science libraries

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    The minimum levels of staffing, services, budget, and technology that should be provided by a library specializing in vision science are presented. The scope and coverage of the collection is described as well. These standards may be used by institutions establishing libraries or by accrediting bodies reviewing existing libraries. PMID:10928708

  19. Tunnel Vision in Environmental Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alan

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problem-solving styles in environmental management and the specific deficiencies in these styles that might be grouped under the label "tunnel vision," a form of selective attention contributing to inadequate problem-formulation, partial solutions to complex problems, and generation of additional problems. Includes educational…

  20. NASA's Aeronautics Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, Darrel R.

    2004-01-01

    Six long-term technology focus areas are: 1. Environmentally Friendly, Clean Burning Engines. Focus: Develop innovative technologies to enable intelligent turbine engines that significantly reduce harmful emissions while maintaining high performance and increasing reliability. 2. New Aircraft Energy Sources and Management. Focus: Discover new energy sources and intelligent management techniques directed towards zero emissions and enable new vehicle concepts for public mobility and new science missions. 3. Quiet Aircraft for Community Friendly Service. Focus: Develop and integrate noise reduction technology to enable unrestricted air transportation service to all communities. 4. Aerodynamic Performance for Fuel Efficiency. Focus: Improve aerodynamic efficiency,structures and materials technologies, and design tools and methodologies to reduce fuel burn and minimize environmental impact and enable new vehicle concepts and capabilities for public mobility and new science missions. 5. Aircraft Weight Reduction and Community Access. Focus: Develop ultralight smart materials and structures, aerodynamic concepts, and lightweight subsystems to increase vehicle efficiency, leading to high altitude long endurance vehicles, planetary aircraft, advanced vertical and short takeoff and landing vehicles and beyond. 6. Smart Aircraft and Autonomous Control. Focus: Enable aircraft to fly with reduced or no human intervention, to optimize flight over multiple regimes, and to provide maintenance on demand towards the goal of a feeling, seeing, sensing, sentient air vehicle.

  1. The absolute threshold of cone vision

    PubMed Central

    Koeing, Darran; Hofer, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements of the absolute threshold of cone vision, which has been previously underestimated due to sub-optimal conditions or overly strict subjective response criteria. We avoided these limitations by using optimized stimuli and experimental conditions while having subjects respond within a rating scale framework. Small (1′ fwhm), brief (34 msec), monochromatic (550 nm) stimuli were foveally presented at multiple intensities in dark-adapted retina for 5 subjects. For comparison, 4 subjects underwent similar testing with rod-optimized stimuli. Cone absolute threshold, that is, the minimum light energy for which subjects were just able to detect a visual stimulus with any response criterion, was 203 ± 38 photons at the cornea, ∼0.47 log units lower than previously reported. Two-alternative forced-choice measurements in a subset of subjects yielded consistent results. Cone thresholds were less responsive to criterion changes than rod thresholds, suggesting a limit to the stimulus information recoverable from the cone mosaic in addition to the limit imposed by Poisson noise. Results were consistent with expectations for detection in the face of stimulus uncertainty. We discuss implications of these findings for modeling the first stages of human cone vision and interpreting psychophysical data acquired with adaptive optics at the spatial scale of the receptor mosaic. PMID:21270115

  2. Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy

    2015-03-12

    With more than 4.5% of the nation's electricity supplied by wind energy today, the Department of Energy has collaborated with industry, environmental organizations, academic institutions, and national laboratories to develop a renewed Wind Vision, documenting the contributions of wind to date and envisioning a future where wind continues to provide key contributions to the nation’s energy portfolio. Building on and updating the 2008 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, the new Wind Vision Report quantifies the economic, environmental, and social benefits of a robust wind energy future and the actions that wind stakeholders can take to make it a reality.

  3. The Impact of Vision in Spatial Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the performance in coding and representing of near-space in relation to vision status (blindness vs. normal vision) and sensory modality (touch vs. vision). Forty-eight children and teenagers participated. Sixteen of the participants were totally blind or had only light perception, 16 were blindfolded sighted…

  4. Leadership: Vision & Structure. Resource Paper No. 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Warren H.

    Research indicates that leaders tend to be remarkably well-balanced people who embody four areas of competency: vision, the ability to communicate that vision, positive self-regard, and the ability to build trust with associates. The process of creating a vision of the future requires an understanding of the opportunities and threats present in…

  5. Coaching Peripheral Vision Training for Soccer Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…

  6. The Efficacy of Optometric Vision Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Optometric Association, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This review aims to document the efficacy and validity of vision therapy for modifying and improving vision functioning. The paper describes the essential components of the visual system and disorders which can be physiologically and clinically identified. Vision therapy is defined as a clinical approach for correcting and ameliorating the effects…

  7. Topographic Mapping of Residual Vision by Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeben, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Many persons with low vision have diseases that damage the retina only in selected areas, which can lead to scotomas (blind spots) in perception. The most frequent of these diseases is age-related macular degeneration (AMD), in which foveal vision is often impaired by a central scotoma that impairs vision of fine detail and causes problems with…

  8. School Vision of Learning: Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Tiffany A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author develops her school vision of learning. She explains the theories she used to help develop the vision. The author then goes into detail on the methods she will use to make her vision for a school that prepares urban students for a successful life after high school. She takes into account all the stakeholders and how they…

  9. The Visions of World-Class Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slyusarenko, Olena

    2015-01-01

    The visions of the top 26 world-class universities of the first 30 in the Shanghai ranking list have been evaluated and compared with the missions of the world's top 20 universities. Applying the content analysis, a group of 48 keywords, which describe the essence of these visions, has been revealed. The average amount of keywords in one vision is…

  10. Transforming a School's Culture through Shared Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stuart C.; Stolp, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    Although, theoretically, an organizational vision can unite school-community members, it can also destroy organizational culture without the consensus of those members. This publication offers guidelines for creating a collaborative vision--one that gives all members the opportunity to help create the vision. Each school should choose a strategy…

  11. What Aspects of Vision Facilitate Haptic Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Susanna; Al-Attar, Zainab

    2005-01-01

    We investigate how vision affects haptic performance when task-relevant visual cues are reduced or excluded. The task was to remember the spatial location of six landmarks that were explored by touch in a tactile map. Here, we use specially designed spectacles that simulate residual peripheral vision, tunnel vision, diffuse light perception, and…

  12. Visions of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiao, Raymond Y.; Cohen, Marvin L.; Leggett, Anthony J.; Phillips, William D.; Harper, Charles L., Jr.

    2010-10-01

    List of contributors; Foreword Charles H. Townes; Editors' preface; Preface Freeman J. Dyson; Laureates' preface: reflections from four physics Nobelists Roy J. Glauber, John L. Hall, Theodore W. Hänsch and Wolfgang Ketterle; Acknowledgments; Part I. Illumination: The History and Future of Physical Science and Technology: 1. A short history of light in the Western world John L. Heilbron; 2. Tools and innovation Peter L. Galison; 3. The future of science Freeman J. Dyson; 4. The end of everything: will AI replace humans? Will everything die when the universe freezes over? Michio Kaku; Part II. Fundamental Physics and Quantum Mechanics: 5. Fundamental constants Frank Wilczek; 6. New insights on time symmetry in quantum mechanics Yakir Aharonov and Jeffrey Tollaksen; 7. The major unknowns in particle physics and cosmology David J. Gross; 8. The major unknown in quantum mechanics: Is it the whole truth? Anthony J. Leggett; 9. Precision cosmology and the landscape Raphael Bousso; 10. Hairy black holes, phase transitions, and AdS/CFT Steven S. Gubser; Part III. Astrophysics and Astronomy: 11. The microwave background: a cosmic time machine Adrian T. Lee; 12. Dark matter and dark energy Marc Kamionkowski; 13. New directions and intersections for observational cosmology: the case of dark energy Saul Perlmutter; 14. Inward bound: high-resolution astronomy and the quest for black holes and extrasolar planets Reinhard Genzel; 15. Searching for signatures of life beyond the solar system: astrophysical interferometry and the 150 km Exo-Earth Imager Antoine Labeyrie; 16. New directions for gravitational wave physics via 'Millikan oil drops' Raymond Y. Chiao; 17. An 'ultrasonic' image of the embryonic universe: CMB polarization tests of the inflationary paradigm Brian G. Keating; Part IV. New Approaches in Technology and Science: 18. Visualizing complexity: development of 4D microscopy and diffraction for imaging in space and time Ahmed H. Zewail; 19. Is life based on laws of

  13. Digital Images and Human Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Processing of digital images destined for visual consumption raises many interesting questions regarding human visual sensitivity. This talk will survey some of these questions, including some that have been answered and some that have not. There will be an emphasis upon visual masking, and a distinction will be drawn between masking due to contrast gain control processes, and due to processes such as hypothesis testing, pattern recognition, and visual search.

  14. EXPERIMENTS ON ’THE CORTICAL CORRELATE OF PATTERN VISION,’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY, VISION, CEREBRAL CORTEX, VISION, BRAIN , STIMULATION (PHYSIOLOGY), VISUAL PERCEPTION, ELECTRIC CURRENT, VOLTAGE, ILLUMINATION, CORNEA, RETINA, ELECTRODES, THRESHOLDS(PHYSIOLOGY).

  15. In-situ property measurements on laser-drawn strands of SL 5170 epoxy and SL 5149 acrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.; Chambers, R.S.

    1995-08-01

    Material behavior plays a significant role in the mechanics leading to internal stresses and, potentially, to distortion (curling) of parts as they are built by stereolithography processes that utilize photocuring resins. A study is underway to generate material properties that can be used to develop phenomenological material models of epoxy and acrylate resins. Strand tests are performed in situ in a 3D System`s SLA-250 machine; strands are drawn by either single or multiple exposures of the resin to a laser beam. Linear shrinkage, cross-sectional areas, cure shrinkage forces and stress-strain data are presented. Also, the curl in cantilever beam specimens, built with different draw patterns, are compared.

  16. In situ neutron diffraction of heavily drawn steel wires with ultra-high strength under tensile loading

    SciTech Connect

    Tomota, Y. . E-mail: tomota@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp; Suzuki, T.; Kanie, A.; Shiota, Y.; Uno, M.; Moriai, A.; Minakawa, N.; Morii, Y.

    2005-01-10

    To make clear the strengthening mechanism of heavily drawn steel wires exhibiting ultra-high strength, in situ neutron diffraction during tensile loading was performed. A ferrite steel (FK) subjected to a true strain of 6.6 and a pearlite steel (PS) subjected to 4.0 were extended on a tensile tester and (1 1 0) diffraction profiles were measured at various holding stresses. Tensile strengths of steel FK and PS are 1.7 and 3.7 GPa, respectively. The change in (1 1 0) spacing with tensile stress is reversible, i.e., elastic, close to the relevant tensile strength. A stress versus (1 1 0) lattice plane strain is linear for steel FK while evidently nonlinear at higher stresses for steel PS. In steel PS in which cementite peaks were hardly observed, the strengthening mechanism is postulated to be different from that for as-patented pearlite steels.

  17. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngjin; Chekli, Laura; Shim, Wang-Geun; Phuntsho, Sherub; Li, Sheng; Ghaffour, Noreddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further for their FO performance tests and evaluated in terms of water flux and reverse salt flux. Using selected fertilizers, bio-methane potential experiments were conducted to examine the effect of fertilizers on anaerobic activity due to reverse diffusion. Mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) showed the highest biogas production while other fertilizers exhibited an inhibition effect on anaerobic activity with solute accumulation. Salt accumulation in the bioreactor was also simulated using mass balance simulation models. Results showed that ammonium sulfate and MAP were the most appropriate for AnFDFOMBR since they demonstrated less salt accumulation, relatively higher water flux, and higher dilution capacity of draw solution. Given toxicity of sulfate to anaerobic microorganisms, MAP appears to be the most suitable draw solution for AnFDFOMBR.

  18. Moving Toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) to Achieve Inclusive and Sustainable Health Development: Three Essential Strategies Drawn From Asian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ye; Huang, Cheng; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-01-01

    Binagwaho and colleagues’ perspective piece provided a timely reflection on the experience of Rwanda in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and a proposal of 5 principles to carry forward in post-2015 health development. This commentary echoes their viewpoints and offers three lessons for health policy reforms consistent with these principles beyond 2015. Specifically, we argue that universal health coverage (UHC) is an integrated solution to advance the global health development agenda, and the three essential strategies drawn from Asian countries’ health reforms toward UHC are: (1) Public financing support and sequencing health insurance expansion by first extending health insurance to the extremely poor, vulnerable, and marginalized population are critical for achieving UHC; (2) Improved quality of delivered care ensures supply-side readiness and effective coverage; (3) Strategic purchasing and results-based financing creates incentives and accountability for positive changes. These strategies were discussed and illustrated with experience from China and other Asian economies. PMID:26673477

  19. Stereo vision based automated grasp planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsen, Karl; Huber, Loretta; Silva, Dennis; Grasz, Ema; Cadapan, Loreli

    1995-02-01

    The Department of Energy has a need for treating existing nuclear waste. Hazardous waste stored in old warehouses needs to be sorted and treated to meet environmental regulations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently experimenting with automated manipulations of unknown objects for sorting, treating, and detailed inspection. To accomplish these tasks, three existing technologies were expanded to meet the increasing requirements. First, a binocular vision range sensor was combined with a surface modeling system to make virtual images of unknown objects. Then, using the surface model information, stable grasp of the unknown shaped objects were planned algorithmically utilizing a limited set of robotic grippers. This paper is an expansion of previous work and will discuss the grasp planning algorithm.

  20. Improved night vision demonstrator program status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haran, Terence L.; James, J. Christopher; Roberts, David W.; Knotts, Michael E.; Wasilewski, Anthony A.; West, Leanne L.; Robinson, William G.; Bennett, Gisele

    2007-04-01

    Although existing night vision equipment provides a significant improvement in target detection in low light conditions, there are several limitations that limit their effectiveness. Focus is a significant problem for night vision equipment due to the low f-number optics required to obtain sufficient sensitivity as well as the dynamic nature of night vision applications, which requires frequent focus adjustments. The Georgia Tech Research Institute has developed a prototype next-generation night vision device called the Improved Night Vision Demonstrator (INVD) in order to address these shortfalls. This paper will describe the design of the INVD system as well as an analysis of its performance.

  1. Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumzhiu, Alex M.

    1998-10-01

    Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

  2. Understanding and preventing computer vision syndrome.

    PubMed

    Loh, Ky; Redd, Sc

    2008-01-01

    The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome.

  3. Digital item adaptation for color vision variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jaeil; Yang, Seungji; Kim, Cheonseog; Nam, Jaeho; Hong, Jin-Woo; Ro, Yong Man

    2003-06-01

    As color is more widely used to carry visual information in the multimedia content, ability to perceive color plays a crucial role in getting visual information. Regardless of color vision variations, one should have visual information equally. This paper proposes the adaptation technique for color vision variations in the MPEG-21 Digital Item Adaptation (DIA). DIA is performed respectively for severe color vision deficiency (dichromats) and for mild color vision deficiency (anomalous trichromats), according to the description of user characteristics about color vision variations. Adapted images are tested by simulation program for color vision variations so as to recognize the appearance of the adapted images in the color deficient vision. Experimental result shows that proposed adaptation technique works well in the MPEG-21 framework.

  4. VISION User Guide - VISION (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert F. Jeffers; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; Benjamin A. Baker; Joseph Grimm

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R&D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating “what if” scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level for U.S. nuclear power. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., “reactor types” not individual reactors and “separation types” not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation of disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. Note that recovered uranium is itself often partitioned: some RU flows with recycled transuranic elements, some flows with wastes, and the rest is designated RU. RU comes out of storage if needed to correct the U/TRU ratio in new recycled fuel. Neither RU nor DU are designated as wastes. VISION is comprised of several

  5. Computer vision in microstructural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Malur N.; Massarweh, W.; Hough, C. L.

    1992-01-01

    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to be performed by advanced-high school and beginning-college students. It is hoped that this experiment will create an interest in and further understanding of materials science. The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate that the microstructure of engineered materials is affected by the processing conditions in manufacture, and that it is possible to characterize the microstructure using image analysis with a computer. The principle of computer vision will first be introduced followed by the description of the system developed at Texas A&M University. This in turn will be followed by the description of the experiment to obtain differences in microstructure and the characterization of the microstructure using computer vision.

  6. The vision of David Marr.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Kent A

    2012-01-01

    Marr proposed a computational paradigm for studying the visual system, wherein aspects of vision would be amenable to study with what might be regarded a computational-reductionist approach. First, vision would be cleaved into separable 'computational theories', in which the visual system is characterized in terms of its computational goals and the strategies by which they are carried out. Each such computational theory could then be investigated in increasingly concrete terms, from symbols and measurements, to representations and algorithms, to processes and neural implementations. This paradigm rests on some general expectations of a symbolic information processing system, including his stated principles of explicit naming, modular design, least commitment, and graceful degradation. In retrospect, the computational framework also tacitly rests on additional assumptions about the nature of biological information processing: (1) separability of computational strategies, (2) separability of representations, (3) a pipeline nature of information processing, and that (4) the representations employ primitives of low dimensionality. These assumptions are discussed in this retrospective.

  7. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    This document describes a course designed to acquaint students with the many societal and technological problems facing the United States and the world due to the increasing demand for energy. The course begins with a writing assignment that involves readings on the environmental philosophy of Native Americans and the Chernobyl catastrophe.…

  8. Procedures for Testing Color Vision,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than...determine quantitatively whether the color-defective applicant was competent to make the color perception requirements of a particular job. The colors...reconnaissance des anomalies de la vision des couleurs. Archives des Maladies Professionnelles , de M6decine du Tray et de S~curit6 Sociale (Paris) 29:293-314

  9. Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision.

    PubMed

    Handler, Sheryl M; Fierson, Walter M; Section on Ophthalmology

    2011-03-01

    Learning disabilities constitute a diverse group of disorders in which children who generally possess at least average intelligence have problems processing information or generating output. Their etiologies are multifactorial and reflect genetic influences and dysfunction of brain systems. Reading disability, or dyslexia, is the most common learning disability. It is a receptive language-based learning disability that is characterized by difficulties with decoding, fluent word recognition, rapid automatic naming, and/or reading-comprehension skills. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonologic component of language that makes it difficult to use the alphabetic code to decode the written word. Early recognition and referral to qualified professionals for evidence-based evaluations and treatments are necessary to achieve the best possible outcome. Because dyslexia is a language-based disorder, treatment should be directed at this etiology. Remedial programs should include specific instruction in decoding, fluency training, vocabulary, and comprehension. Most programs include daily intensive individualized instruction that explicitly teaches phonemic awareness and the application of phonics. Vision problems can interfere with the process of reading, but children with dyslexia or related learning disabilities have the same visual function and ocular health as children without such conditions. Currently, there is inadequate scientific evidence to support the view that subtle eye or visual problems cause or increase the severity of learning disabilities. Because they are difficult for the public to understand and for educators to treat, learning disabilities have spawned a wide variety of scientifically unsupported vision-based diagnostic and treatment procedures. Scientific evidence does not support the claims that visual training, muscle exercises, ocular pursuit-and-tracking exercises, behavioral/perceptual vision therapy, "training" glasses

  10. Dynamical Systems and Motion Vision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA I WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square . Cambridge, MA 02139 C\\ II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME ANO0 ADDRESS...INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A.I.Memo No. 1037 April, 1988 Dynamical Systems and Motion Vision Joachim Heel Abstract: In this... Artificial Intelligence L3 Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for the Laboratory’s [1 Artificial Intelligence Research is

  11. Vision Screening by Color Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R.; Richardson, J. R.; Kerr, J.; Hay, S.; Mcbride, R.

    1985-01-01

    Screening test developed for detecting a range of vision defects in eye, including common precursors to amblyopia. Test noninvasive, safe, and administered easily in field by operator with no medical training. Only minimal momentary cooperation of subject required: Thus, test shows promise for use with very young children. Test produces color-slide images of retinas of eyes under specially-controlled lighting conditions. Trained observer screens five children per minute.

  12. Drosophila's view on insect vision.

    PubMed

    Borst, Alexander

    2009-01-13

    Within the last 400 million years, insects have radiated into at least a million species, accounting for more than half of all known living organisms: they are the most successful group in the animal kingdom, found in almost all environments of the planet, ranging in body size from a mere 0.1 mm up to half a meter. Their eyes, together with the respective parts of the nervous system dedicated to the processing of visual information, have long been the subject of intense investigation but, with the exception of some very basic reflexes, it is still not possible to link an insect's visual input to its behavioral output. Fortunately for the field, the fruit fly Drosophila is an insect, too. This genetic workhorse holds great promise for the insect vision field, offering the possibility of recording, suppressing or stimulating any single neuron in its nervous system. Here, I shall give a brief synopsis of what we currently know about insect vision, describe the genetic toolset available in Drosophila and give some recent examples of how the application of these tools have furthered our understanding of color and motion vision in Drosophila.

  13. Vision-based aircraft guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K.

    1993-01-01

    Early research on the development of machine vision algorithms to serve as pilot aids in aircraft flight operations is discussed. The research is useful for synthesizing new cockpit instrumentation that can enhance flight safety and efficiency. With the present work as the basis, future research will produce low-cost instrument by integrating a conventional TV camera together with off-the=shelf digitizing hardware for flight test verification. Initial focus of the research will be on developing pilot aids for clear-night operations. Latter part of the research will examine synthetic vision issues for poor visibility flight operations. Both research efforts will contribute towards the high-speed civil transport aircraft program. It is anticipated that the research reported here will also produce pilot aids for conducting helicopter flight operations during emergency search and rescue. The primary emphasis of the present research effort is on near-term, flight demonstrable technologies. This report discusses pilot aids for night landing and takeoff and synthetic vision as an aid to low visibility landing.

  14. Ames vision group research overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of the reseach group is to develop mathematical and computational models of early human vision. These models are valuable in the prediction of human performance, in the design of visual coding schemes and displays, and in robotic vision. To date researchers have models of retinal sampling, spatial processing in visual cortex, contrast sensitivity, and motion processing. Based on their models of early human vision, researchers developed several schemes for efficient coding and compression of monochrome and color images. These are pyramid schemes that decompose the image into features that vary in location, size, orientation, and phase. To determine the perceptual fidelity of these codes, researchers developed novel human testing methods that have received considerable attention in the research community. Researchers constructed models of human visual motion processing based on physiological and psychophysical data, and have tested these models through simulation and human experiments. They also explored the application of these biological algorithms to applications in automated guidance of rotorcraft and autonomous landing of spacecraft. Researchers developed networks for inhomogeneous image sampling, for pyramid coding of images, for automatic geometrical correction of disordered samples, and for removal of motion artifacts from unstable cameras.

  15. Colour vision requirements of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Margrain, T H; Birch, J; Owen, C G

    1996-04-01

    To perform their job safely firefighters must be able to identify colours on industrial gas cylinders, portable fire extinguishers, road traffic signals and several pieces of firefighting equipment. Although good colour vision is necessary we believe that the existing colour vision standard, which bars entry to the fire service to applicants who fail more than two plates of the Ishihara test, is unnecessarily stringent. We have identified and quantified the colour coded information encountered by firefighters. Colours were plotted on the CIE chromaticity diagram (1931) and isochromatic zones, which document the colour confusions of colour deficient observers, superimposed. This novel technique established possible colour confusions in different types of colour deficiency. Analysis of the results showed that red/green dichromats (protanopes and deuteranopes), severe deuteranomalous trichromats who fail the Farnsworth D15 test, and protanomalous trichromats are unsuitable for firefighting work. However, people with slight deuteranomalous trichromatism who pass the D15 test, are not disadvantaged and can be employed safely as firefighters. A new colour vision standard and a new testing procedure is recommended.

  16. Computer vision in roadway transportation systems: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loce, Robert P.; Bernal, Edgar A.; Wu, Wencheng; Bala, Raja

    2013-10-01

    There is a worldwide effort to apply 21st century intelligence to evolving our transportation networks. The goals of smart transportation networks are quite noble and manifold, including safety, efficiency, law enforcement, energy conservation, and emission reduction. Computer vision is playing a key role in this transportation evolution. Video imaging scientists are providing intelligent sensing and processing technologies for a wide variety of applications and services. There are many interesting technical challenges including imaging under a variety of environmental and illumination conditions, data overload, recognition and tracking of objects at high speed, distributed network sensing and processing, energy sources, as well as legal concerns. This paper presents a survey of computer vision techniques related to three key problems in the transportation domain: safety, efficiency, and security and law enforcement. A broad review of the literature is complemented by detailed treatment of a few selected algorithms and systems that the authors believe represent the state-of-the-art.

  17. Digital Enhancement of Night Vision and Thermal Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Figure 3: A Night Vision Device with the light amplifying microchannel plate [From Korry, 2003]. 4 A typical II system consists of three main...the device and is focused onto the photocathode by an optical lens system . Photons striking the photocathode surface release photo-electrons. The... generation of NVDs, the energy of the photo-electron is increased by acceleration with an externally applied electric field. Second- generation devices make

  18. SunShot Vision Study: February 2012 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the SunShot Vision Study is to provide an in-depth assessment of the potential for solar technologies to meet a significant share of electricity demand in the United States during the next several decades. Specifically, it explores a future in which the price of solar technologies declines by about 75% between 2010 and 2020 - in line with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's targets.

  19. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision

    PubMed Central

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness. PMID:25999883

  20. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness.

  1. Prestressing effect of cold-drawn short NiTi SMA fibres in steel reinforced mortar beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dong Joo; Hwang, Jin-Ha; Kim, Woo Jin

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the prestressing effect of cold-drawn short NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) fibres in steel reinforced mortar beams. The SMA fibres were mixed with 1.5% volume content in a mortar matrix with the compressive strength of 50 MPa. The SMA fibres had an average length of 34 mm, and they were manufactured with a dog-bone shape: the diameters of the end- and middle-parts were 1.024 and 1.0 mm, respectively. Twenty mortar beams with the dimensions of 40 mm × 40 mm × 160 mm (B × H × L) were prepared. Two types of tests were conducted. One was to investigate the prestressing effect of the SMA fibres, and the beams with the SMA fibres were heated at the bottom. The other was to assess the bending behaviour of the beams prestressed by the SMA fibres. The SMA fibres induced upward deflection and cracking at the top surface by heating at the bottom; thus, they achieved an obvious prestressing effect. The beams that were prestressed by the SMA fibres did not show a significant difference in bending behaviour from that of the SMA fibre reinforced beams that were not subjected to heating. Stress analysis of the beams indicated that the prestressing effect decreased in relation to the cooling temperature.

  2. Study of point defects in as-drawn and irradiated Ge-doped optical fibers using cathodoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reghioua, I.; Girard, S.; Alessi, A.; Di Francesca, D.; Marin, E.; Morana, A.; Fanetti, M.; Martin-Samos, L.; Richard, N.; Raine, M.; Valant, M.; Boukenter, A.; Ouerdane, Y.

    2017-02-01

    In the present paper, we report an experimental investigation of Ge-doped Optical Fibers (OFs) which were investigated by Cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. We followed the evolution, under 10 keV electron exposure, of the emissions present in three different samples: the first one was the as-drawn fiber (pristine), the second one was irradiated with a CW UV laser at 244 nm and the last one was irradiated at the dose of 9 MGy (SiO2) by γ-rays. Moreover, taking advantage of the employed experimental set-up, which allows to perform spatially-resolved (<1μm) CL measures, we were able to investigate the emission evolution in two differently doped zones of the fiber. Our data indicate that (i) the CL spectra of our three samples are dominated by the 400 nm emission band related to the Germanium Lone Pair Center (GLPC), (ii) the spatial distribution of this defect differs in the three fibers and (iii) the electron exposure decreases the GLPC concentration in all samples (pristine, UV and γ irradiated). A comparison between the CL and photoluminescence (PL) measurements shows comparable results.

  3. Correlation of filament distortion and RRR degradation in drawn and rolled PIT and RRP Nb3Sn wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.; Tarantini, C.; Starch, W.; Oates, W.; Lee, P. J.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2016-08-01

    PIT and RRP® Nb3Sn strands are being developed for high field accelerator magnet upgrades for the high luminosity LHC. Here we report a quantitative study of the shape and position of PIT filaments and RRP® sub-elements after rolling lengths of unreacted PIT and RRP® round wires to simulate cabling deformation. In the as-drawn condition, filament shape distortion occurs preferentially in the outer ring filaments. By contrast, rolling induces non-uniform shear bands that generate greater distortion of inner ring filaments. By making a full digitization of the shapes of all filaments, we find that a critical distortion occurs for thickness reductions between 10% and 20% when filament shapes in inner filament rings heavily degrade, especially in the vicinity of the strong 45° shear bands imposed by the rolling. It is well known that maintaining diffusion barrier integrity is vital to retaining adequate RRR in the stabilizing copper needed for magnet stability. Diffusion barrier breaks occur preferentially in these distorted inner filaments and drive local Sn leakage during reaction, increasing RRR degradation.

  4. Correlation of filament distortion and RRR degradation in drawn and rolled PIT and RRP Nb 3 Sn wires

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, M.; Tarantini, C.; Starch, W.; ...

    2016-07-11

    PIT and RRP® Nb3Sn strands are being developed for high field accelerator magnet upgrades for the high luminosity LHC. Here we report a quantitative study of the shape and position of PIT filaments and RRP® sub-elements after rolling lengths of unreacted PIT and RRP® round wires to simulate cabling deformation. In the as-drawn condition, filament shape distortion occurs preferentially in the outer ring filaments. By contrast, rolling induces non-uniform shear bands that generate greater distortion of inner ring filaments. By making a full digitization of the shapes of all filaments, we find that a critical distortion occurs for thickness reductionsmore » between 10% and 20% when filament shapes in inner filament rings heavily degrade, especially in the vicinity of the strong 45° shear bands imposed by the rolling. It is well known that maintaining diffusion barrier integrity is vital to retaining adequate RRR in the stabilizing copper needed for magnet stability. Diffusion barrier breaks occur preferentially in these distorted inner filaments and drive local Sn leakage during reaction, increasing RRR degradation.« less

  5. Correlation of filament distortion and RRR degradation in drawn and rolled PIT and RRP Nb 3 Sn wires

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.; Tarantini, C.; Starch, W.; Oates, W.; Lee, P. J.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2016-07-11

    PIT and RRP® Nb3Sn strands are being developed for high field accelerator magnet upgrades for the high luminosity LHC. Here we report a quantitative study of the shape and position of PIT filaments and RRP® sub-elements after rolling lengths of unreacted PIT and RRP® round wires to simulate cabling deformation. In the as-drawn condition, filament shape distortion occurs preferentially in the outer ring filaments. By contrast, rolling induces non-uniform shear bands that generate greater distortion of inner ring filaments. By making a full digitization of the shapes of all filaments, we find that a critical distortion occurs for thickness reductions between 10% and 20% when filament shapes in inner filament rings heavily degrade, especially in the vicinity of the strong 45° shear bands imposed by the rolling. It is well known that maintaining diffusion barrier integrity is vital to retaining adequate RRR in the stabilizing copper needed for magnet stability. Diffusion barrier breaks occur preferentially in these distorted inner filaments and drive local Sn leakage during reaction, increasing RRR degradation.

  6. Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision.

    PubMed

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators.

  7. Energy conservation principles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper and presentation discuss preliminary findings from energy audits conducted in cotton gins in six states including the allocation of motor horse power and kilowatt hours energy consumption per bale. General inferences will be drawn from information collected at gin plants of various bale...

  8. Spatial linear navigation: is vision necessary?

    PubMed

    Israël, I; Capelli, A; Priot, A-E; Giannopulu, I

    2013-10-25

    In order to analyze spatial linear navigation through a task of self-controlled reproduction, healthy participants were passively transported on a mobile robot at constant velocity, and then had to reproduce the imposed distance of 2-8m in two conditions: "with vision" and "without vision". Our hypothesis was that the reproduction of distances would be longer with than without visual information. Indeed, with visual information the reproduction of all distances was overshot. In the "without vision" condition the reproduced distances were quite close to the imposed ones, but only for the shortest distances (2 and 4m) as the longest ones were clearly undershot. With vision the reproduction error was less than 10% for all distances; however the error could be smaller without vision at short distances, and therefore vision was not necessary.

  9. Standards for vision science libraries: 2014 revision

    PubMed Central

    Motte, Kristin; Caldwell, C. Brooke; Lamson, Karen S.; Ferimer, Suzanne; Nims, J. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This Association of Vision Science Librarians revision of the “Standards for Vision Science Libraries” aspires to provide benchmarks to address the needs for the services and resources of modern vision science libraries (academic, medical or hospital, pharmaceutical, and so on), which share a core mission, are varied by type, and are located throughout the world. Methods: Through multiple meeting discussions, member surveys, and a collaborative revision process, the standards have been updated for the first time in over a decade. Results: While the range of types of libraries supporting vision science services, education, and research is wide, all libraries, regardless of type, share core attributes, which the standards address. Conclusions: The current standards can and should be used to help develop new vision science libraries or to expand the growth of existing libraries, as well as to support vision science librarians in their work to better provide services and resources to their respective users. PMID:25349547

  10. The role of binocular vision in walking.

    PubMed

    Hayhoe, Mary; Gillam, Barbara; Chajka, Kelly; Vecellio, Elia

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive investigation of binocular and stereoscopic vision, relatively little is known about its importance in natural visually guided behavior. In this paper, we explored the role of binocular vision when walking over and around obstacles. We monitored eye position during the task as an indicator of the difference between monocular and binocular performances. We found that binocular vision clearly facilitates walking performance. Walkers were slowed by about 10% in monocular vision and raised their foot higher when stepping over obstacles. Although the location and sequence of the fixations did not change in monocular vision, the timing of the fixations relative to the actions was different. Subjects spent proportionately more time fixating the obstacles and fixated longer while guiding foot placement near an obstacle. The data are consistent with greater uncertainty in monocular vision, leading to a greater reliance on feedback in the control of the movements.

  11. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Balcer, Laura J; Miller, David H; Reingold, Stephen C; Cohen, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes assessment in clinical practice and therapeutic trials in multiple sclerosis.

  12. Cooperative and asynchronous stereo vision for dynamic vision sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatkowska, E.; Belbachir, A. N.; Gelautz, M.

    2014-05-01

    Dynamic vision sensors (DVSs) encode visual input as a stream of events generated upon relative light intensity changes in the scene. These sensors have the advantage of allowing simultaneously high temporal resolution (better than 10 µs) and wide dynamic range (>120 dB) at sparse data representation, which is not possible with clocked vision sensors. In this paper, we focus on the task of stereo reconstruction. The spatiotemporal and asynchronous aspects of data provided by the sensor impose a different stereo reconstruction approach from the one applied for synchronous frame-based cameras. We propose to model the event-driven stereo matching by a cooperative network (Marr and Poggio 1976 Science 194 283-7). The history of the recent activity in the scene is stored in the network, which serves as spatiotemporal context used in disparity calculation for each incoming event. The network constantly evolves in time, as events are generated. In our work, not only the spatiotemporal aspect of the data is preserved but also the matching is performed asynchronously. The results of the experiments prove that the proposed approach is well adapted for DVS data and can be successfully used for disparity calculation.

  13. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Balcer, Laura J.; Miller, David H.; Reingold, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes assessment in clinical practice and therapeutic trials in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25433914

  14. Women and the vision thing.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Herminia; Obodaru, Otilia

    2009-01-01

    Are women rated lower than men in evaluations of their leadership capabilities because of lingering gender bias? No, according to an analysis of thousands of 360-degree assessments collected by Insead's executive education program. That analysis showed that women tend to outshine men in all areas but one: vision. Unfortunately, that exception is a big one. At the top tiers of management, the ability to see opportunities, craft strategy based on a broad view of the business, and inspire others is a must-have. To explore the nature of the deficit, and whether it is a perception or reality, Insead professor Ibarra and doctoral candidate Obodaru interviewed female executives and studied the evaluation data. They developed three possible explanations. First, women may do just as much as men to shape the future but go about it in a different way; a leader who is less directive, includes more people, and shares credit might not fit people's mental model of a visionary. Second, women may believe they have less license to go out on a limb. Those who have built careers on detail-focused, shoulder-to-the-wheel execution may hesitate to stray from facts into unprovable assertions about the future. Third, women may choose not to cultivate reputations as big visionaries. Having seen bluster passed off as vision, they may dismiss the importance of selling visions. The top two candidates for the Democratic nomination for U.S. president in 2008 offer an instructive parallel. The runner-up, Hillary Clinton, was viewed as a get-it-done type with an impressive, if uninspiring, grasp of policy detail. The winner, Barack Obama, was seen as a charismatic visionary offering a hopeful, if undetailed, future. The good news is that every dimension of leadership is learned, not inborn. As more women become skilled at, and known for, envisioning the future, nothing will hold them back.

  15. Quaternions in computer vision and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Pervin, E.; Webb, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Computer vision and robotics suffer from not having good tools for manipulating three-dimensional objects. Vectors, coordinate geometry, and trigonometry all have deficiencies. Quaternions can be used to solve many of these problems. Many properties of quaternions that are relevant to computer vision and robotics are developed. Examples are given showing how quaternions can be used to simplify derivations in computer vision and robotics.

  16. Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test by Christian B. Carstens, Charles C. Bonnett, and Elizabeth S. Redden ARL-TR-3839 August...Ground, MD 21005-5425 ARL-TR-3839 August 2006 Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test Christian B. Carstens, Charles C. Bonnett...NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 62716AH70 5e

  17. The Amazon Region; A Vision of Sovereignty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    or government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE AMAZON REGION; A VISION OF SOVEREIGNTY BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL EDUARDO JOSE BARBOSA...BARRACKS, PA 17013-5050 USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT The Amazon Region; A vision of Sovereignty by LTC Eduardo Jose Barbosa John Garofano...Distribution is unlimited. DTXG QUikLIxi’ JKsjr.^ 11 ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Eduardo Jose Barbosa TITLE: The Amazon Region; A vision of Sovereignty. FORMAT

  18. Night vision: changing the way we drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapper, Stuart H.; Kyle, Robert J. S.; Nicklin, Robert L.; Kormos, Alexander L.

    2001-03-01

    A revolutionary new Night Vision System has been designed to help drivers see well beyond their headlights. From luxury automobiles to heavy trucks, Night Vision is helping drivers see better, see further, and react sooner. This paper describes how Night Vision Systems are being used in transportation and their viability for the future. It describes recent improvements to the system currently in the second year of production. It also addresses consumer education and awareness, cost reduction, product reliability, market expansion and future improvements.

  19. Inertial Navigation System Aiding Using Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM AIDING USING VISION THESIS James O. Quarmyne, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENG-13-M-40 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...protection in the United States AFIT-ENG-13-M-40 INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM AIDING USING VISION THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of...AIDING USING VISION James O. Quarmyne, B.S.E.E. Second Lieutenant, USAF Approved: Meir Pachter, PhD (Chairman) Date John F. Raquet, PhD (Committee Member

  20. Low Vision Rehabilitation in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Özen Tunay, Zuhal; İdil, Aysun; Seza Petriçli, İkbal; Özdemir, Özdemir

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the diagnosis distribution, low vision rehabilitation methods and utilization of low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted persons over 65 years old. Materials and Methods: One hundred thirty-nine partially sighted geriatric patients aged 65 years or older were enrolled to the study between May 2012 and September 2013. Patients’ age, gender and the distribution of diagnosis were recorded. The visual acuity of the patients both for near and distance were examined with and without low vision devices and the methods of low vision rehabilitation were evaluated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 79.7 years and the median age was 80 years. Ninety-six (69.1%) of the patients were male and 43 (30.9%) were female. According to the distribution of diagnosis, the most frequent diagnosis was senile macular degeneration for both presenile and senile age groups. The mean best corrected visual acuity for distance was 0.92±0.37 logMAR and 4.75±3.47 M for near. The most frequently used low vision rehabilitation methods were telescopic glasses (59.0%) for distance and hyperocular glasses (66.9%) for near vision. A significant improvement in visual acuity both for distance and near vision were determined with low vision aids. Conclusion: The causes of low vision in presenile and senile patients in our study were similar to those of patients from developed countries. A significant improvement in visual acuity can be achieved both for distance and near vision with low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted geriatric patients. It is important to guide them to low vision rehabilitation. PMID:27800274

  1. Vision inspection system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Edward D. (Inventor); Williams, Rick A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An optical vision inspection system (4) and method for multiplexed illuminating, viewing, analyzing and recording a range of characteristically different kinds of defects, depressions, and ridges in a selected material surface (7) with first and second alternating optical subsystems (20, 21) illuminating and sensing successive frames of the same material surface patch. To detect the different kinds of surface features including abrupt as well as gradual surface variations, correspondingly different kinds of lighting are applied in time-multiplexed fashion to the common surface area patches under observation.

  2. Industrial Combustion Vision: A Vision by and for the Industrial Combustion Community

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-05-01

    The Industrial Combustion Vision is the result of a collaborative effort by manufacturers and users of burners, boilers, furnaces, and other process heating equipment. The vision sets bold targets for tomorrow's combustion systems.

  3. Corticosteroid treatment of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: analysis of an RCT and material drawn from the Swedish national database.

    PubMed

    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth; Nosrati-Zarenoe, Ramesh

    2015-11-01

    A randomized placebo-controlled study has demonstrated no effect of prednisolone in customary dosage on idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). The aim of the present paper is to analyse a larger patient group by meta-analysis of data from the RCT together with a corresponding material drawn from the Swedish national database for ISSNHL. Data from 192 patients, 18-80 years with ISSNHL, were available. All had an acute hearing loss of at least 30 dB measured as PTA in the three most affected contiguous frequencies. All patients had been enrolled within one week after onset and evaluated by audiograms after 3 months. 45/99 (RCT) and 54/99 (the database) had been treated with prednisolone in tapering doses from 60 mg daily and 42/93 with placebo (RCT) or 51/93 with no treatment (the database). Primary outcome was the mean hearing improvement on day 90 for the different groups. A mean difference of >10 dB improvement was required to demonstrate a treatment effect for prednisolone compared to placebo/no treatment. No significant difference was seen between the prednisolone group and placebo/no treatment (p = 0.06). Total recovery was 38% in prednisolone group, 40% in the placebo and 14% in the no treatment group. Vertigo at the onset of hearing loss and age at onset had an equal negative prognostic value in all groups and signs of inflammation had a positive effect. Prednisolone in customary dosage does not influence recovery after ISSNHL.

  4. Vernier acuity through night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Rabin, J

    1993-08-01

    Night vision goggles (NVG's) are being used increasingly in military and civilian environments. Despite the use of these devices, relatively few tests exist to assess visual performance through NVG's. Hyperacuity tasks may provide a sensitive index of performance through night vision devices. In this study, grating vernier acuity was measured through NVG's. As reported previously, a power law relation was observed between vernier acuity and stimulus contrast. Comparison of vernier acuity with and without NVG's indicated that performance is limited by the contrast transfer of the device. Vernier acuity measurements can be used to assess the quality of vision and quantity of contrast transferred through night vision devices.

  5. Altered vision destabilizes gait in older persons.

    PubMed

    Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix; Hesseberg, Karin; Sletvold, Olav

    2009-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of dim light and four experimentally induced changes in vision on gait speed and footfall and trunk parameters in older persons walking on level ground. Using a quasi-experimental design, gait characteristics were assessed in full light, dim light, and in dim light combined with manipulations resulting in reduced depth vision, double vision, blurred vision, and tunnel vision, respectively. A convenience sample of 24 home-dwelling older women and men (mean age 78.5 years, SD 3.4) with normal vision for their age and able to walk at least 10 m without assistance participated. Outcome measures were gait speed and spatial and temporal parameters of footfall and trunk acceleration, derived from an electronic gait mat and accelerometers. Dim light alone had no effect. Vision manipulations combined with dim light had effect on most footfall parameters but few trunk parameters. The largest effects were found regarding double and tunnel vision. Men increased and women decreased gait speed following manipulations (p=0.017), with gender differences also in stride velocity variability (p=0.017) and inter-stride medio-lateral trunk acceleration variability (p=0.014). Gender effects were related to differences in body height and physical functioning. Results indicate that visual problems lead to a more cautious and unstable gait pattern even under relatively simple conditions. This points to the importance of assessing vision in older persons and correcting visual impairments where possible.

  6. Simulating vision with and without macular disease.

    PubMed

    Marmor, David J; Marmor, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    Conventional photographs do not show how, at any moment of visual fixation, neural vision is clear only in the foveal center. We have developed new computer simulations to show both normal vision and vision with macular disease. These simulations show the nature of momentary vision for life tasks such as reading, facial recognition, and walking in the street. They also dramatically show the impact of macular disease (with scotomas and visual distortion), as there is no surrounding region of clarity. We hope these images will be instructive to both physicians and patients.

  7. Energy storage apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.; Evans, H. E. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A high efficiency, flywheel type energy storage device which comprises an electronically commutated d.c. motor/generator unit having a massive flywheel rotor magnetically suspended around a ring shaped stator is presented. During periods of low energy demand, the storage devices were operated as a motor, and the flywheel motor was brought up to operating speed. Energy was drawn from the device functioning as a generator as the flywheel rotor rotated during high energy demand periods.

  8. Night Mobility Instruction for Child with Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapp, Kenneth L.

    1985-01-01

    The challenges of after-dark travel for low vision children are examined in terms of physical effects of low light on normal and abnormal vision and consequences for low vision travel and orientation skills. Techniques for efficient vision use are suggested along with night travel aids and considerations in night driver vision. (CL)

  9. The Pedagogy of Teaching Educational Vision: A Vision Coach's Field Notes about Leaders as Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schein, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The emerging field of educational visioning is full of challenges and phenomena worthy of careful analysis and documentation. A relatively neglected phenomenon is the learning curve of the leaders (often lay leaders) involved in the visioning process. This article documents a range of experiences of the author serving as a vision coach to five…

  10. An Rx for 20/20 Vision: Vision Planning and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrisman, Gerald J.; Holliday, Clifford R.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the Dallas Independent School District's decision to adopt an integrated technology infrastructure and the importance of vision planning for long term goals. Outlines the vision planning process: first draft; environmental projection; restatement of vision in terms of market projections, anticipated customer needs, suspected competitor…

  11. Leadership with a Vision: How Principals Develop and Implement Their Visions for School Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renchler, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Developing and pursuing a "vision" for school success is a crucial part of effective educational leadership. This document explores theoretical models of vision for school success and leadership forces in education; discusses principals as visionary leaders; offers practical advice on developing, implementing, and maintaining a vision for one's…

  12. Vision as a user interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenderink, Jan

    2011-03-01

    The egg-rolling behavior of the graylag goose is an often quoted example of a fixed-action pattern. The bird will even attempt to roll a brick back to its nest! Despite excellent visual acuity it apparently takes a brick for an egg." Evolution optimizes utility, not veridicality. Yet textbooks take it for a fact that human vision evolved so as to approach veridical perception. How do humans manage to dodge the laws of evolution? I will show that they don't, but that human vision is an idiosyncratic user interface. By way of an example I consider the case of pictorial perception. Gleaning information from still images is an important human ability and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. I will discuss a number of instances of extreme non-veridicality and huge inter-observer variability. Despite their importance in applications (information dissemination, personnel selection,...) such huge effects have remained undocumented in the literature, although they can be traced to artistic conventions. The reason appears to be that conventional psychophysics-by design-fails to address the qualitative, that is the meaningful, aspects of visual awareness whereas this is the very target of the visual arts.

  13. Spatial Vision in Bombus terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Aravin; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Kelber, Almut

    2016-01-01

    Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg−1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana) and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens). We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.090 cycles deg−1 and 1.26 for 0.18 cycles deg−1. PMID:26912998

  14. Disparity channels in early vision.

    PubMed

    Roe, Anna W; Parker, Andrew J; Born, Richard T; DeAngelis, Gregory C

    2007-10-31

    The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in our knowledge of the neural basis of stereopsis. New cortical areas have been found to represent binocular disparities, new representations of disparity information (e.g., relative disparity signals) have been uncovered, the first topographic maps of disparity have been measured, and the first causal links between neural activity and depth perception have been established. Equally exciting is the finding that training and experience affects how signals are channeled through different brain areas, a flexibility that may be crucial for learning, plasticity, and recovery of function. The collective efforts of several laboratories have established stereo vision as one of the most productive model systems for elucidating the neural basis of perception. Much remains to be learned about how the disparity signals that are initially encoded in primary visual cortex are routed to and processed by extrastriate areas to mediate the diverse capacities of three-dimensional vision that enhance our daily experience of the world.

  15. Synthetic vision display evaluation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regal, David M.; Whittington, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to help us understand the display requirements for a synthetic vision system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different levels of perceptual cue complexity in displays used by pilots in a flare and landing task. Increased levels of texture mapping of terrain and runway produced mixed results, including harder but shorter landings and a lower flare initiation altitude. Under higher workload conditions, increased texture resulted in an improvement in performance. An increase in familiar size cues did not result in improved performance. Only a small difference was found between displays using two patterns of high resolution texture mapping. The effects of increased perceptual cue complexity on performance was not as strong as would be predicted from the pilot's subjective reports or from related literature. A description of the role of a synthetic vision system in the High Speed Civil Transport is provide along with a literature review covering applied research related to perceptual cue usage in aircraft displays.

  16. Early vision and focal attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  17. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J. Iwan

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  18. Utility of the Hand-Drawn Spiral as a Tool in Clinical-Epidemiological Research on Essential Tremor: Data From Four Essential Tremor Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background In descriptive epidemiological studies, investigators must screen large numbers of individuals. How one best screens populations for essential tremor (ET); however, remains an open question. The collection of a standardized writing sample (e.g., a hand-drawn spiral) is a method with many practical advantages, yet there are virtually no data on the validity of this particular method. Methods Four hand-drawn spirals (2 right, 2 left) were collected from 831 ET cases across four distinct study settings (population-based study, family study, environmental epidemiological study, brain repository) and, in two of these studies, from 697 controls. Spirals were rated (range 0 – 3) by a senior movement disorder neurologist. These 1,528 participants also underwent a detailed neurological examination, and total tremor scores (range 0 – 36) and ET diagnoses were assigned by the neurologist. Results The proportion of cases with hand-drawn spiral ratings ≥1.5 in either arm ranged from 78.8% – 97.0%; only 4.7% of controls had spirals with tremor of that severity. The hand-drawn spiral was highly correlated with the total tremor score (r = 0.65 – 0.73, p<0.001). Conclusions The hand-drawn spiral is a sensitive and specific method of screening for ET. Furthermore, it serves as a valid measure of overall tremor severity. PMID:25721047

  19. Summary of student scenarios: 2020 Vision project, fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, K.W.; Munoz, A.; Scott, K.P.; Rinne, R.

    1997-11-01

    The Strategic Issues Thinking: 2020 Vision project introduces students and teaches to national security issues through the techniques of scenario building, and engages them in an interactive process of creating scenarios relevant to the Department of Energy, Defense Programs (DOE/DP). Starting with the world as it is today, teams of students develop a series of scenarios on international developments over the next 25 years under various circumstances. This report identifies recurrent themes in the student`s scenarios, lists creative ways the students presented their scenarios, compares and contrasts the program`s FY97 results with FY96 results, identifies the benefits of the program, and offers a glimpse of Sandia`s future plans for the 2020 Vision project.

  20. Profile of a low vision clinic population.

    PubMed

    Mohidin, Norhani; Yusoff, Suzainah

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Causes of low vision and types of low vision devices (LVDs) prescribed in other low vision clinics have been studied extensively. Similar studies have not been conducted in Malaysia. This paper reports the results of a retrospective study of 573 patients seen at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia-Malaysian Association for the Blind (UKM-MAB) low vision clinic in Kuala Lumpur. METHODS: The record cards of 573 patients seen at the UKM-MAB clinic over 10 years were examined and the following information extracted: date of first consultation, age, sex, cause of visual impairment as diagnosed by an ophthalmologist and types of low vision devices (LVDs) prescribed. RESULTS: The majority of patients were from the younger age groups with 423 (73.8 per cent) less than 50 years of age. Three hundred and ninety-five (68.9 per cent) of the subjects were males and 178 (31.1 per cent) female. The main causes of low vision were congenital structural defects including nystagmus among patients in the zero to 29 years age group, retinitis pigmentosa among the 30 to 59 years age group and age-related macular degeneration (ARM) among those over 60 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Since the majority of the patients were from the younger age group the main causes of low vision were congenital and hereditary diseases. Three hundred and forty-one (59.5 per cent) patients seen at the low vision clinic accepted the use of LVDs.

  1. The Development of Peripheral Vision in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guez, Jean R.

    This study investigated the extent of infant peripheral vision, specifically the extent of infants' constricted field, or tunnel vision. Thirteen infants, 2 to 5 months old, were tested using a psychophysical procedure to obtain contrast sensitivity thresholds at four retinal loci (-40, -15, +15, +40 deg.). Infants were placed in an infant bed in…

  2. INSIGHT: Vision & Leadership Inaugural Issue, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Tammy, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This publication focuses on promising new and emerging technologies and what they might mean to the future of K-12 schools. Half of the volume contains articles devoted in some way to "Vision," and articles in the other half are under the heading of "Leadership." Contents in the "Vision" section include: "Customizable Content" (Walter Koetke);…

  3. Vision: A Conceptual Framework for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkinson, Jennifer Scaturo

    2013-01-01

    Vision is essential to the implementation of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model. Drawing from research in organizational leadership, this article provides a conceptual framework for how school counselors can incorporate vision as a strategy for implementing school counseling programs within the context of practice.…

  4. Efficacy of a Low Vision Patient Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemsen, Dennis W.; Bergstrom, A. Ren?e; Hathaway, Julie C.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of obstacles can prevent persons or individuals with low vision from deriving the greatest possible benefit from the rehabilitation process, including inadequate understanding of their visual impairment, lack of knowledge about available services, and misconceptions about low vision devices. This study explores the use of a…

  5. INCREASED VISUAL BEHAVIOR IN LOW VISION CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARRAGA, NATALIE

    TEN PAIRS OF BLIND CHILDREN AGED SIX TO 13 YEARS WHO HAD SOME VISION WERE MATCHED BY PRETEST SCORES ON A TEST OF VISUAL DISCRIMINATION. A CRITERION GROUP, DESIGNATED THE PRINT COMPARISON GROUP, HAD SLIGHLY HIGHER RECORDED DISTANCE ACUITIES AND USED VISION AS THE PRIMARY MEANS OF LEARNING. PAIRS OF EXPERIMENTAL SUBJECTS DAILY RECEIVED 45 MINUTES OF…

  6. Vision and Mental Function of the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lorraine Hiatt; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The relationship between vision and mental functioning was investigated in a study of 295 elderly residents from three levels of care. Visual acuity and mental status were assessed. Findings indicate that there was indeed a relationship between vision and mental status. (Author)

  7. Multilevel Relaxation in Low Level Computer Vision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Lab, Cambridge,MA, June,1981. HR80 Hanson,A. and Riseman,E.M., Processing Cones: A Computational Structure for Image Analysis, In: Structured Computer Vision...Klinger,A. (Editors), Structured Computer Vision: Machine Perception through Hierarchical Computation Structures, Academic Press, New York, 1980. TP75

  8. The Institutional Vision of Tribal Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This investigation provides a base-line measurement of the inspirational and pragmatic rhetoric in declarations of institutional vision at tribal community colleges. By comparing it to nontribal community colleges, this content analysis reveals the current state of utility of the mission and vision statements of tribal community colleges, their…

  9. Computer vision in the poultry industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Computer vision is becoming increasingly important in the poultry industry due to increasing use and speed of automation in processing operations. Growing awareness of food safety concerns has helped add food safety inspection to the list of tasks that automated computer vision can assist. Researc...

  10. Vision and the End of Racial Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Are we facing the end of racial preferences in America? Mr. Clegg thinks we probably are, and examines the role demographics, law, attraction, and vision may play in their demise. What makes preferences still attractive to so many people? Do most Americans share a vision that includes the continued use of racial preferences? Mr. Clegg offers a…

  11. Professional Vision in Action: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherin, Miriam Gamoran; Russ, Rosemary S.; Sherin, Bruce L.; Colestock, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The study of teachers' professional vision poses some unique challenges. The application of professional vision happens in a manner that is fleeting, and that is distributed through the moments of instruction. Because of the ongoing nature of instruction, it is not realistic to expect that one could "pause" instruction momentarily, ask a…

  12. Our Visions of Possibility for Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Tim; Reinier, Rise; Gallagher, Kevin; Morgan, Bruce; Lopez-Robertson, Julia; Santman, Donna; Wong-Kam, JoAnn; Hill, Sharon; Christensen, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Tim O'Keefe, Rise Reinier and Kevin Gallagher, Bruce Morgan, Julia Lopez-Robertson, Donna Santman, JoAnn Wong-Kam, Sharon Hill, and Linda Christensen provide short essays describing their personal visions of possibility about literacy and how they maintain that passion and vision. Across a range of contexts, they reflect on the ways in which their…

  13. Color Vision Deficits and Literacy Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Sandra Rollins

    1994-01-01

    Shows that color blindness, whether partial or total, inhibits literacy acquisition. Offers a case study of a third grader with impaired color vision. Presents a review of literature on the topic. Notes that people with color vision deficits are often unaware of the handicap. (RS)

  14. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  15. Automated Vision Test Development and Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    wide range of visual attributes including color vision, VA, heterophoria, and depth perception . In addition to establishing standards, they further...Armed Forces-NRC Vision Committee Secretariat; 1951. 3. Watson AB, Pelli DG. QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method. Percept Psychophys

  16. The "Vision Thing" and School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article explores the role of vision and vision-building in public schools as a tool for bringing about a redirection of educational institutions. A reanalysis of 32 interviews with teachers and principals in schools involved in Oregon's "2020 School Improvement and Professional Development" program revealed that most school goals…

  17. A Low Vision Reading Comprehension Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, G. R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Fifty adults (ages 28-86) with macular degeneration were given the Low Vision Reading Comprehension Assessment (LVRCA) to test its reliability and validity in evaluating the reading comprehension of those with vision impairments. The LVRCA was found to take only nine minutes to administer and was a valid and reliable tool. (CR)

  18. A vision for modernizing environmental risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2007, the US National Research Council (NRC) published a Vision and Strategy for [human health] Toxicity Testing in the 21st century. Central to the vision was increased reliance on high throughput in vitro testing and predictive approaches based on mechanistic understanding o...

  19. Implementing Vision Research in Special Needs Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsen, Gunvor Birkeland; Aanstad, Monica L.; Leirvik, Eva Iren B.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents experiences from vision research implemented in education and argues for the need for teachers with visual competence and insight into suitable methods for stimulation and learning. A new type of continuing professional development (CPD) focuses on the role of vision in children's learning and development, the consequences of…

  20. Assessing the binocular advantage in aided vision.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Lawrence K; McIntire, John P; Hopper, Darrel G

    2014-09-01

    Advances in microsensors, microprocessors, and microdisplays are creating new opportunities for improving vision in degraded environments through the use of head-mounted displays. Initially, the cutting-edge technology used in these new displays will be expensive. Inevitably, the cost of providing the additional sensor and processing required to support binocularity brings the value of binocularity into question. Several assessments comparing binocular, binocular, and monocular head-mounted displays for aided vision have concluded that the additional performance, if any, provided by binocular head-mounted displays does not justify the cost. The selection of a biocular [corrected] display for use in the F-35 is a current example of this recurring decision process. It is possible that the human binocularity advantage does not carry over to the aided vision application, but more likely the experimental approaches used in the past have been too coarse to measure its subtle but important benefits. Evaluating the value of binocularity in aided vision applications requires an understanding of the characteristics of both human vision and head-mounted displays. With this understanding, the value of binocularity in aided vision can be estimated and experimental evidence can be collected to confirm or reject the presumed binocular advantage, enabling improved decisions in aided vision system design. This paper describes four computational approaches-geometry of stereopsis, modulation transfer function area for stereopsis, probability summation, and binocular summation-that may be useful in quantifying the advantage of binocularity in aided vision.

  1. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…

  2. Sampling and noise in vision networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This research is part of the Human Interface Research Branch-Vision Group's program to develop computable models of biological solutions to general vision system problems. Two problem areas are addressed: effects of discrete sampling by receptors, and effects of visual system noise.

  3. 77 FR 75496 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations for 11 individuals. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will...

  4. Helping a Loved One (Who Has Vision Loss)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Low Vision > Helping a Loved One Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? What You Should Know Protecting Against Vision Loss Staying on TRACK Diabetic Eye Disease FAQ ...

  5. 78 FR 76704 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  6. 77 FR 543 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  7. 75 FR 27623 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ...; Exemption Applications; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... exemptions from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations for 21 individuals. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the...

  8. 76 FR 44653 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  9. 77 FR 539 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... for exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. If granted...) in interstate commerce without meeting the Federal vision requirement. DATES: Comments must...

  10. 77 FR 36336 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. If granted, the... interstate commerce without meeting the Federal vision requirement. DATES: Comments must be received on...

  11. 76 FR 66123 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  12. 76 FR 67248 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. If granted, the... interstate commerce without meeting the Federal vision standard. DATES: Comments must be received on...

  13. 76 FR 70213 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. If granted, the... interstate commerce without meeting the Federal vision requirement. DATES: Comments must be received on...

  14. 76 FR 9865 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  15. 76 FR 79760 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  16. 78 FR 65032 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  17. 78 FR 51268 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  18. 76 FR 9859 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  19. 76 FR 25766 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. If granted, the... interstate commerce without meeting the Federal vision standard. DATES: Comments must be received on...

  20. Vision status among foster children in NYC: a research note.

    PubMed

    Festinger, Trudy; Duckman, Robert H

    2004-01-01

    A summary of the results of research on the vision status of foster children. Results indicate that the vision screenings being provided at mandated annual physical examinations are not sufficiently identifying children's vision dysfunctions.

  1. Visual evoked potentials through night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Rabin, J

    1994-04-01

    Night vision goggles (NVG's) have widespread use in military and civilian environments. NVG's amplify ambient illumination making performance possible when there is insufficient illumination for normal vision. While visual performance through NVG's is commonly assessed by measuring threshold functions such as visual acuity, few attempts have been made to assess vision through NVG's at suprathreshold levels of stimulation. Such information would be useful to better understand vision through NVG's across a range of stimulus conditions. In this study visual evoked potentials (VEP's) were used to evaluate vision through NVG's across a range of stimulus contrasts. The amplitude and latency of the VEP varied linearly with log contrast. A comparison of VEP's recorded with and without NVG's was used to estimate contrast attenuation through the device. VEP's offer an objective, electrophysiological tool to assess visual performance through NVG's at both threshold and suprathreshold levels of visual stimulation.

  2. Polarization Imaging and Insect Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Adam S.; Ohmann, Paul R.; Leininger, Nick E.; Kavanaugh, James A.

    2010-01-01

    For several years we have included discussions about insect vision in the optics units of our introductory physics courses. This topic is a natural extension of demonstrations involving Brewster's reflection and Rayleigh scattering of polarized light because many insects heavily rely on optical polarization for navigation and communication. Students, especially those majoring in the life sciences, tend to find the conversation intriguing because of its interdisciplinary context. To make it even more appealing, we recently created a laboratory component that allows students to use digital cameras and polarizing filters to create polarization maps of environmental scenes and insect bodies. In this paper we describe how to do so with ImageJ, a widely used and freely available image processing program that is suitable for students with no programming experience.

  3. Development of Moire machine vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    1987-01-01

    Three dimensional perception is essential to the development of versatile robotics systems in order to handle complex manufacturing tasks in future factories and in providing high accuracy measurements needed in flexible manufacturing and quality control. A program is described which will develop the potential of Moire techniques to provide this capability in vision systems and automated measurements, and demonstrate artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to take advantage of the strengths of Moire sensing. Moire techniques provide a means of optically manipulating the complex visual data in a three dimensional scene into a form which can be easily and quickly analyzed by computers. This type of optical data manipulation provides high productivity through integrated automation, producing a high quality product while reducing computer and mechanical manipulation requirements and thereby the cost and time of production. This nondestructive evaluation is developed to be able to make full field range measurement and three dimensional scene analysis.

  4. A vision for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, John F.; Callaway, Robert K.; Diogu, Mark K.; Grush, Gene R.; Lancaster, E. M.; Morgan, William C.; Petri, David A.; Roberts, Barney B.; Pieniazek, Lester A.; Polette, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    A vision for planetary exploration is proposed which combines historical perspective and current NASA studies with the realities of changing political climates, economic environments, and technological directions. The concepts of Strategic Implementation Architectures (SIA), Open System Infrastructure Standards (OSIS), and Minimum Service Level Infrastructure (MSLI) are presented in order to propose a structure for the SEI which allows the realization of incremental mission objectives, establishes an investment strategy that efficiently uses public resources, and encourages partnerships with the government. The SIA is a hypothetical master plan which will allow the implementation of the complete spectrum of envisioned system capabilities for planetary exploration. OSIS consists of standards for interconnection, interoperability, and administration. MSLI can be defined as the minimum level of services provided by the system that are not justified by profit or parochial motives.

  5. Stereo vision techniques for telescience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, S.

    1990-02-01

    The Botanic Experiment is one of the pilot experiments in the Telescience Test Bed program at the ESTEC research and technology center of the European Space Agency. The aim of the Telescience Test Bed is to develop the techniques required by an experimenter using a ground based work station for remote control, monitoring, and modification of an experiment operating on a space platform. The purpose of the Botanic Experiment is to examine the growth of seedlings under various illumination conditions with a video camera from a number of viewpoints throughout the duration of the experiment. This paper describes the Botanic Experiment and the points addressed in developing a stereo vision software package to extract quantitative information about the seedlings from the recorded video images.

  6. New Media Vision for IYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, P. L.; Koppelman, M.

    2008-11-01

    The International Year of Astronomy New Media Committee seeks to provide and promote online astronomy experiences in the places that people work, play and learn; create content that will expose people to astronomy, provide them regular content, and create special opportunities for learning; distribute content for active (pull) and passive (push) channels and through guerilla marketing technique; use a diverse suite of technologies to reach people on multiple platforms and in diverse online settings. To make these goals a reality we have brought together a diverse group of astronomy new media practitioners to both mentor grass roots efforts and spearhead national initiatives. You are invited to partner you programs with the New Media Task Group. In this paper we lay out are goals and define our vision.

  7. Space Situational Awareness Architecture Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, D.

    2013-09-01

    Vast amounts of Space Situational data are collected each day. Net-Centric approaches are being developed to expose this data. The need to shift from our closed legacy systems to an open scalable architecture has begun through the JMS efforts. Cloud computing/Big Data concepts are also desired to store and process this data. Architecture insights will be provided to highlight how these apparently competing concepts can work together to provide a robust system of systems. Key items that will be covered include: 1) An overview of the "As-Is" system of JMS and Web Services 2) Definition of "Cloud Computing" and "Big Data" 3) Vision of To-Be SSA system of systems 4) Benefits of future approach 5) Path forward Governance and Oversight

  8. Handling qualities comparison of panoramic night vision goggles and 46-deg. night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion; Thorndycraft, David

    2003-09-01

    Night Vision Goggles allow the user to see in extremely low illumination levels but the visual information provided by Night Vision Goggles has a limited field-of-view that diminishes handling-qualities in the night flying environment. Panoramic Night Vision Goggles were designed to correct this problem by providing a 100° horizontal field-of-view which is larger than currently used Night Vision Goggles. However, in the first generation Panoramic Night Vision Goggle, the improved field of view came at the cost of diminished resolution, contrast and central overlap area when compared to conventional Night Vision Goggles. This paper describes an evaluation that was conducted in the variable stability NRC Bell-205 helicopter to examine the influence on system handling qualities of the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles and a 46° field-of-view UK Night Vision Goggle. Five pilots flew the ADS-33D hover, sidestep and pirouette manoeuvres in simulated night conditions with the UK Night Vision Goggle and the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle. Both subjective and objective measures of task performance were obtained. Handling-qualities ratings showed the pirouette was performed better with the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles. This was the only manoeuvre where there was a clear-cut handling qualities improvement when using the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles. Other manoeuvres such as the sidestep and hover did not show definitive handling qualities rating differences between the two Night Vision Goggle types. The flight test results were interpreted in terms of the design trade-offs of the two night vision systems, with regard to the different acuity, binocular overlaps and fields-of-view.

  9. Light, Imaging, Vision: An interdisciplinary undergraduate course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Philip

    2015-03-01

    The vertebrate eye is fantastically sensitive instrument, capable of registering the absorption of a single photon, and yet generating very low noise. Using eyes as a common thread helps motivate undergraduates to learn a lot of physics, both fundamental and applied to scientific imaging and neuroscience. I'll describe an undergraduate course, for students in several science and engineering majors, that takes students from the rudiments of probability theory to the quantum character of light, including modern experimental methods like fluorescence imaging and Förster resonance energy transfer. After a digression into color vision, we then see how the Feynman principle explains the apparently wavelike phenomena associated to light, including applications like diffraction, subdiffraction imaging, total internal reflection and TIRF microscopy. Then we see how scientists documented the single-quantum sensitivity of the eye seven decades earlier than ``ought'' to have been possible, and finally close with the remarkable signaling cascade that delivers such outstanding performance. Parts of this story are now embodied in a new textbook (WH Freeman and Co, 1/2015); additional course materials are available upon request. Work supported by NSF Grants EF-0928048 and DMR-0832802.

  10. Light, Imaging, Vision: An interdisciplinary undergraduate course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Philip

    The vertebrate eye is fantastically sensitive instrument, capable of registering the absorption of a single photon, and yet generating very low noise.Using eyes as a common thread helps motivate undergraduates to learn a lot of physics, both fundamental and applied to scientific imaging and neuroscience. I'll describe an undergraduate course, for students in several science and engineering majors, that takes students from the rudiments of probability theory to the quantum character of light, including modern experimental methods like fluorescence imaging and Förster resonance energy transfer. After a digression into color vision, we then see how the Feynman principle explains the apparently wavelike phenomena associated to light, including applications like diffraction, subdiffraction imaging, total internal reflection and TIRF microscopy. Then we see how scientists documented the single-quantum sensitivity of the eye seven decades earlier than `ought' to have been possible, and finally close with the remarkable signaling cascade that delivers such outstanding performance.Course materials are available upon request. Partially supported by the NSF under Grants EF-0928048 and DMR-0832802.

  11. Synthetic vision system flight test results and lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radke, Jeffrey

    1993-01-01

    Honeywell Systems and Research Center developed and demonstrated an active 35 GHz Radar Imaging system as part of the FAA/USAF/Industry sponsored Synthetic Vision System Technology Demonstration (SVSTD) Program. The objectives of this presentation are to provide a general overview of flight test results, a system level perspective that encompasses the efforts of the SVSTD and Augmented VIsual Display (AVID) programs, and more importantly, provide the AVID workshop participants with Honeywell's perspective on the lessons that were learned from the SVS flight tests. One objective of the SVSTD program was to explore several known system issues concerning radar imaging technology. The program ultimately resolved some of these issues, left others open, and in fact created several new concerns. In some instances, the interested community has drawn improper conclusions from the program by globally attributing implementation specific issues to radar imaging technology in general. The motivation for this presentation is therefore to provide AVID researchers with a better understanding of the issues that truly remain open, and to identify the perceived issues that are either resolved or were specific to Honeywell's implementation.

  12. Eye vision system using programmable micro-optics and micro-electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riza, Nabeel A.; Amin, M. Junaid; Riza, Mehdi N.

    2014-02-01

    Proposed is a novel eye vision system that combines the use of advanced micro-optic and microelectronic technologies that includes programmable micro-optic devices, pico-projectors, Radio Frequency (RF) and optical wireless communication and control links, energy harvesting and storage devices and remote wireless energy transfer capabilities. This portable light weight system can measure eye refractive powers, optimize light conditions for the eye under test, conduct color-blindness tests, and implement eye strain relief and eye muscle exercises via time sequenced imaging. Described is the basic design of the proposed system and its first stage system experimental results for vision spherical lens refractive error correction.

  13. Peripheral vision and child pedestrian accidents.

    PubMed

    David, S S; Chapman, A J; Foot, H C; Sheehy, N P

    1986-11-01

    In both adults and children, peripheral vision is poorer than foveal vision, but there is evidence that detection in peripheral vision is relatively poorer in children than it is in adults. That may contribute to the particularly high pedestrian accident rates of children. Two laboratory experiments investigated peripheral vision in men and women and in boys and girls aged 7, 9 and 11. Using an array of stationary lights, Expt 1 examined reactions to apparent movement (the phi phenomenon) in mid and extreme periphery; and, using film sequences of a moving car, Expt 2 included a comparison of foveal and peripheral fields. Overall there was little evidence to support the hypothesis that children have poorer peripheral vision than adults relative to their foveal vision. Nonetheless there were some experimental differences: in Expt 1, 7-year-olds made fewer detections, particularly in the extreme periphery; and, in both experiments, detections tended to be slower. The relatively complex car movements in Expt 2 were detected faster in foveal than peripheral vision. There were no sex differences. Children detected more movements on the left. In Expt 2 these detections were faster, and children made relatively more simulated road crossings when the car approached from the left (all adults 'crossed' in all trials).

  14. Applications of Augmented Vision Head-Mounted Systems in Vision Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Peli, Eli; Luo, Gang; Bowers, Alex; Rensing, Noa

    2007-01-01

    Vision loss typically affects either the wide peripheral vision (important for mobility), or central vision (important for seeing details). Traditional optical visual aids usually recover the lost visual function, but at a high cost for the remaining visual function. We have developed a novel concept of vision-multiplexing using augmented vision head-mounted display systems to address vision loss. Two applications are discussed in this paper. In the first, minified edge images from a head-mounted video camera are presented on a see-through display providing visual field expansion for people with peripheral vision loss, while still enabling the full resolution of the residual central vision to be maintained. The concept has been applied in daytime and nighttime devices. A series of studies suggested that the system could help with visual search, obstacle avoidance, and nighttime mobility. Subjects were positive in their ratings of device cosmetics and ergonomics. The second application is for people with central vision loss. Using an on-axis aligned camera and display system, central visibility is enhanced with 1:1 scale edge images, while still enabling the wide field of the unimpaired peripheral vision to be maintained. The registration error of the system was found to be low in laboratory testing. PMID:18172511

  15. National hydrogen energy roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-11-01

    This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development. Based on the results of the government-industry National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop, held in Washington, DC on April 2-3, 2002, it displays the development of a roadmap for America's clean energy future and outlines the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision goals defined in

  16. Connectionist model-based stereo vision for telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, William; Mathis, Donald

    1989-01-01

    Autonomous stereo vision for range measurement could greatly enhance the performance of telerobotic systems. Stereo vision could be a key component for autonomous object recognition and localization, thus enabling the system to perform low-level tasks, and allowing a human operator to perform a supervisory role. The central difficulty in stereo vision is the ambiguity in matching corresponding points in the left and right images. However, if one has a priori knowledge of the characteristics of the objects in the scene, as is often the case in telerobotics, a model-based approach can be taken. Researchers describe how matching ambiguities can be resolved by ensuring that the resulting three-dimensional points are consistent with surface models of the expected objects. A four-layer neural network hierarchy is used in which surface models of increasing complexity are represented in successive layers. These models are represented using a connectionist scheme called parameter networks, in which a parametrized object (for example, a planar patch p=f(h,m sub x, m sub y) is represented by a collection of processing units, each of which corresponds to a distinct combination of parameter values. The activity level of each unit in the parameter network can be thought of as representing the confidence with which the hypothesis represented by that unit is believed. Weights in the network are set so as to implement gradient descent in an energy function.

  17. Quebec model for low vision rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Robillard, Nicole; Overbury, Olga

    2006-06-01

    The increase in longevity (and secondary morbidity) in the Quebec population adds social and financial pressure to society, as it does elsewhere in Canada and in many western countries. This article gives a brief history of the evolution of vision rehabilitation services in Quebec and describes how services are provided for people with low vision throughout the province. Although numerous groups, associations, centres, and resources are available to assist people with vision impairments, such as the Canadian National Institute for the Blind-Québec, the majority of visual rehabilitation services are provided by government-sponsored rehabilitation centres, namely the Centres régionaux de réadaptation en déficience physique that are located strategically throughout the province. Low vision clinical evaluations in these centres are shared by 36 optometrists throughout the province. Between 5 and 7 ophthalmologists are involved in low vision care, half in university-affiliated hospitals, primarily in Montreal. There may be delays of up to 6 months to be seen in a funded low vision clinic. Statistics obtained from la Régie de l'assurance maladie du Québec show that there are approximately 8,000 requests for low vision aids every year, and that 80% of clients retain at least some level of visual function. Services are covered by Medicare and low vision aids are provided at no cost, although ophthalmologists cannot prescribe low vision aids through the Medicare-funded system. We must ensure that the capacity of our system continues to provide adequately for clientele in the future.

  18. Light and the evolution of vision

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D L

    2016-01-01

    It might seem a little ridiculous to cover the period over which vision evolved, perhaps 1.5 billion years, in only 3000 words. Yet, if we examine the photoreceptor molecules of the most basic eukaryote protists and even before that, in those of prokaryote bacteria and cyanobacteria, we see how similar they are to those of mammalian rod and cone photoreceptor opsins and the photoreceptive molecules of light sensitive ganglion cells. This shows us much with regard the development of vision once these proteins existed, but there is much more to discover about the evolution of even more primitive vision systems. PMID:26541087

  19. Civilian use of night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Guillermo; Temme, Leonard; Antonio, J Charles

    2003-01-01

    Civil aviation operators have expressed an increased interest in conducting night operations with night vision imaging systems. The development of special operational concepts, hardware requirements, training requirements, and regulatory change and oversight is necessary to control for the known performance constraints associated with these devices. In 2001, the Aerospace Medical Association initiated an internal request to review the human factors issues concerning the use of night vision goggles (NVGs) in civilian flight operations. This paper provides some basic information on night vision imaging systems to highlight the Association's position for supporting the appropriate use of NVGs in civilian aviation while concurrently expressing the need for a judicious and studied approach to their deployment.

  20. Telerehabilitation for people with low vision

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Ava K; Wykstra, Stephanie L; Yoshinaga, Patrick D; Li, Tianjing

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: Our goal is to systematically review the literature on telerehabilitation’s effectiveness for improving vision-related quality of life and/ or reading speed compared to face-to-face (e.g., in-office or inpatient) low vision rehabilitation services in patients with low vision or visual function loss due to any ocular condition. Secondary objectives are to evaluate compliance with scheduled rehabilitation sessions, VAE device abandonment rates, and/or patient satisfaction ratings in the same studies. PMID:25152693

  1. Machine vision for real time orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision for automation and robotic operation of Space Station era systems has the potential for increasing the efficiency of orbital servicing, repair, assembly and docking tasks. A machine vision research project is described in which a TV camera is used for inputing visual data to a computer so that image processing may be achieved for real time control of these orbital operations. A technique has resulted from this research which reduces computer memory requirements and greatly increases typical computational speed such that it has the potential for development into a real time orbital machine vision system. This technique is called AI BOSS (Analysis of Images by Box Scan and Syntax).

  2. Stereo vision with distance and gradient recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Suk-Bum; Yang, Tae-Kyu

    2007-12-01

    Robot vision technology is needed for the stable walking, object recognition and the movement to the target spot. By some sensors which use infrared rays and ultrasonic, robot can overcome the urgent state or dangerous time. But stereo vision of three dimensional space would make robot have powerful artificial intelligence. In this paper we consider about the stereo vision for stable and correct movement of a biped robot. When a robot confront with an inclination plane or steps, particular algorithms are needed to go on without failure. This study developed the recognition algorithm of distance and gradient of environment by stereo matching process.

  3. The Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    With last year's budget, NASA released a new Strategic Plan outlining a new approach to space exploration using a 'building block' strategy to explore scientifically valuable destinations across our solar system. At the same time that we released the Strategic Plan, our Nation and the NASA family also suffered the loss of the seven brave astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. The report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board emphasized the need for a clearer direction from which to drive NASA's human exploration agenda. On January 14, 2004, the President articulated a new vision for space exploration. You hold in your hands a new, bolder framework for exploring our solar system that builds upon the policy that was announced by the President after months of careful deliberations within the Administration. This plan does not undertake exploration merely for the sake of adventure, however exciting that may be, but seeks answers to profound scientific and philosophical questions, responds to recent discoveries, will put in place revolutionary technologies and capabilities for the future, and will genuinely inspire our Nation, the world, and the next generation. Our aim is to explore in a sustainable, affordable, and flexible manner. We believe the principles and roadmap set down in this document will stand the test of time. Its details will be subject to revision and expansion as new discoveries are made, new technologies are applied, and new challenges are met and overcome. This plan is guided by the Administration's new space exploration policy, 'A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration,' a copy of which is provided on the following pages. NASA is releasing this plan simultaneously with NASA's FY 2005 Budget Justification. This plan is fiscally responsible, consistent with the Administration s goal of cutting the budget deficit in half within the next five years. I cannot overstate how much NASA will change in the

  4. A VISION of Advanced Nuclear System Cost Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    J'Tia Taylor; David E. Shropshire; Jacob J. Jacobson

    2008-08-01

    VISION (VerifIable fuel cycle SImulatiON) is the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s and Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Program’s nuclear fuel cycle systems code designed to simulate the US commercial reactor fleet. The code is a dynamic stock and flow model that tracks the mass of materials at the isotopic level through the entire nuclear fuel cycle. As VISION is run, it calculates the decay of 70 isotopes including uranium, plutonium, minor actinides, and fission products. VISION.ECON is a sub-model of VISION that was developed to estimate fuel cycle and reactor costs. The sub-model uses the mass flows generated by VISION for each of the fuel cycle functions (referred to as modules) and calculates the annual cost based on cost distributions provided by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report1. Costs are aggregated for each fuel cycle module, and the modules are aggregated into front end, back end, recycling, reactor, and total fuel cycle costs. The software also has the capability to perform system sensitivity analysis. This capability may be used to analyze the impacts on costs due to system uncertainty effects. This paper will provide a preliminary evaluation of the cost uncertainty affects attributable to 1) key reactor and fuel cycle system parameters and 2) scheduling variations. The evaluation will focus on the uncertainty on the total cost of electricity and fuel cycle costs. First, a single light water reactor (LWR) using mixed oxide fuel is examined to ascertain the effects of simple parameter changes. Three system parameters; burnup, capacity factor and reactor power are varied from nominal cost values and the affect on the total cost of electricity is measured. These simple parameter changes are measured in more complex scenarios 2-tier systems including LWRs with mixed fuel and fast recycling reactors using transuranic fuel. Other system parameters are evaluated and results will be presented in the paper. Secondly, the uncertainty due to

  5. Neuronal morphology of biological vision: a basis for machine vision (Proceedings Only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Madan M.

    1992-03-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the study of the biological vision system and the emulation of some of its mathematical functions, in both the retinal and visual cortex, for the development of a robust computer vision system. This field of research is not only intriguing, but offers a great challenge to systems scientists in the development of functional algorithms. These functional algorithms can be generalized for further studies for fields such as signal processing, control systems and image processing. Our studies are heavily dependent on the use of neuronal layers and the generalized receptive fields. Building blocks of such neuronal layers and receptive fields may lead to the design of better sensors and better computer vision systems. It is hoped that these studies will lead to the development of better artificial vision systems with applications to vision prosthesis for visually impaired persons, robotic vision, medical imaging, medical sensors, industrial automation, remote sensing, space stations and ocean exploration.

  6. Machine vision based teleoperation aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, William A.; Gatrell, Lance B.; Spofford, John R.

    1991-01-01

    When teleoperating a robot using video from a remote camera, it is difficult for the operator to gauge depth and orientation from a single view. In addition, there are situations where a camera mounted for viewing by the teleoperator during a teleoperation task may not be able to see the tool tip, or the viewing angle may not be intuitive (requiring extensive training to reduce the risk of incorrect or dangerous moves by the teleoperator). A machine vision based teleoperator aid is presented which uses the operator's camera view to compute an object's pose (position and orientation), and then overlays onto the operator's screen information on the object's current and desired positions. The operator can choose to display orientation and translation information as graphics and/or text. This aid provides easily assimilated depth and relative orientation information to the teleoperator. The camera may be mounted at any known orientation relative to the tool tip. A preliminary experiment with human operators was conducted and showed that task accuracies were significantly greater with than without this aid.

  7. Space environment robot vision system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, H. John; Eichhorn, William L.

    1990-01-01

    A prototype twin-camera stereo vision system for autonomous robots has been developed at Goddard Space Flight Center. Standard charge coupled device (CCD) imagers are interfaced with commercial frame buffers and direct memory access to a computer. The overlapping portions of the images are analyzed using photogrammetric techniques to obtain information about the position and orientation of objects in the scene. The camera head consists of two 510 x 492 x 8-bit CCD cameras mounted on individually adjustable mounts. The 16 mm efl lenses are designed for minimum geometric distortion. The cameras can be rotated in the pitch, roll, and yaw (pan angle) directions with respect to their optical axes. Calibration routines have been developed which automatically determine the lens focal lengths and pan angle between the two cameras. The calibration utilizes observations of a calibration structure with known geometry. Test results show the precision attainable is plus or minus 0.8 mm in range at 2 m distance using a camera separation of 171 mm. To demonstrate a task needed on Space Station Freedom, a target structure with a movable I beam was built. The camera head can autonomously direct actuators to dock the I-beam to another one so that they could be bolted together.

  8. Machine vision and the OMV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcanulty, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) is intended to close with orbiting targets for relocation or servicing. It will be controlled via video signals and thruster activation based upon Earth or space station directives. A human operator is squarely in the middle of the control loop for close work. Without directly addressing future, more autonomous versions of a remote servicer, several techniques that will doubtless be important in a future increase of autonomy also have some direct application to the current situation, particularly in the area of image enhancement and predictive analysis. Several techniques are presentet, and some few have been implemented, which support a machine vision capability proposed to be adequate for detection, recognition, and tracking. Once feasibly implemented, they must then be further modified to operate together in real time. This may be achieved by two courses, the use of an array processor and some initial steps toward data reduction. The methodology or adapting to a vector architecture is discussed in preliminary form, and a highly tentative rationale for data reduction at the front end is also discussed. As a by-product, a working implementation of the most advanced graphic display technique, ray-casting, is described.

  9. Colour vision through intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Mäntyjärvi, M; Syrjäkoski, J; Tuppurainen, K; Honkonen, V

    1997-04-01

    Fifty patients aged from 30 to 69 years (mean 54.7 +/- 11.3 years, SD) with a UV-protected monofocal polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens (IOL) were examined with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue (FM 100) test and the Color Vision Meter 712 anomaloscope. The spectral transmission of the same kind of IOLs as was used surgically was measured with Lambda 2 UV/VIS Spectrometer. In the FM 100 test, there was no significant difference between the results of the IOL eyes and normal eyes. However, the IOL eyes showed better error scores than the normal eyes in the blue-purple box IV in the FM 100 test. In the anomaloscope testing, the Rayleigh (red-green) equation showed no differences between the IOL patients and controls. In the Moreland (blue) equation, however, the mid matching point was significantly shifted towards more green (meaning better blue colour sensitivity) in the IOL eyes than in the control eyes. This is due to the spectral transmission of the IOLs which showed 80-90% transmission already starting at the wavelength of about 420 nm. In comparison, the transmission of the normal human lens reaches those percentages near 500 nm or even further at advanced age.

  10. Peri-Saccadic Natural Vision

    PubMed Central

    Dorr, Michael; Bex, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental role of the visual system is to guide behavior in natural environments. To optimize information transmission, many animals have evolved a non-homogeneous retina and serially sample visual scenes by saccadic eye movements. Such eye movements, however, introduce high-speed retinal motion and decouple external and internal reference frames. Until now, these processes have only been studied with unnatural stimuli, eye movement behavior, and tasks. These experiments confound retinotopic and geotopic coordinate systems and may probe a non-representative functional range. Here we develop a real-time, gaze-contingent display with precise spatiotemporal control over high-definition natural movies. In an active condition, human observers freely watched nature documentaries and indicated the location of periodic narrow-band contrast increments relative to their gaze position. In a passive condition under central fixation, the same retinal input was replayed to each observer by updating the video’s screen position. Comparison of visual sensitivity between conditions revealed three mechanisms that the visual system has adapted to compensate for peri-saccadic vision changes. Under natural conditions we show that reduced visual sensitivity during eye movements can be explained simply by the high retinal speed during a saccade without recourse to an extra-retinal mechanism of active suppression; we give evidence for enhanced sensitivity immediately after an eye movement indicative of visual receptive fields remapping in anticipation of forthcoming spatial structure; and we demonstrate that perceptual decisions can be made in world rather than retinal coordinates. PMID:23325257

  11. CFIT Prevention Using Synthetic Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Parrish, Russell V.

    2003-01-01

    In commercial aviation, over 30-percent of all fatal accidents worldwide are categorized as Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) accidents where a fully functioning airplane is inadvertently flown into the ground, water, or an obstacle. An experiment was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center investigating the presentation of a synthetic terrain database scene to the pilot on a Primary Flight Display (PFD). The major hypothesis for the experiment is that a synthetic vision system (SVS) will improve the pilot s ability to detect and avoid a potential CFIT compared to conventional flight instrumentation. All display conditions, including the baseline, contained a Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) and Vertical Situation Display (VSD) enhanced Navigation Display (ND). Sixteen pilots each flew 22 approach - departure maneuvers in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to the terrain challenged Eagle County Regional Airport (EGE) in Colorado. For the final run, the flight guidance cues were altered such that the departure path went into the terrain. All pilots with a SVS enhanced PFD (12 of 16 pilots) noticed and avoided the potential CFIT situation. All of the pilots who flew the anomaly with the baseline display configuration (which included a TAWS and VSD enhanced ND) had a CFIT event.

  12. Buildings of the Future Scoping Study: A Framework for Vision Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Na; Goins, John D.

    2015-02-01

    The Buildings of the Future Scoping Study, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Office, seeks to develop a vision for what U.S. mainstream commercial and residential buildings could become in 100 years. This effort is not intended to predict the future or develop a specific building design solution. Rather, it will explore future building attributes and offer possible pathways of future development. Whether we achieve a more sustainable built environment depends not just on technologies themselves, but on how effectively we envision the future and integrate these technologies in a balanced way that generates economic, social, and environmental value. A clear, compelling vision of future buildings will attract the right strategies, inspire innovation, and motivate action. This project will create a cross-disciplinary forum of thought leaders to share their views. The collective views will be integrated into a future building vision and published in September 2015. This report presents a research framework for the vision development effort based on a literature survey and gap analysis. This document has four objectives. First, it defines the project scope. Next, it identifies gaps in the existing visions and goals for buildings and discusses the possible reasons why some visions did not work out as hoped. Third, it proposes a framework to address those gaps in the vision development. Finally, it presents a plan for a series of panel discussions and interviews to explore a vision that mitigates problems with past building paradigms while addressing key areas that will affect buildings going forward.

  13. Energy and Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harte, John; El-Gasseir, Mohamed

    1978-01-01

    The water consumption requirements for a variety of energy options are presented, and comparative judgments drawn. Attention is focused on problems resulting from synthetic, gaseous, and liquid fuel production. Scenarios describing possible future levels of coal and electricity use are analyzed. They point to the importance of water supply…

  14. Vision Changes, Intelligence, and Aging: Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Edward S.; Eklund, Susan J.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the effects of vision changes commonly associated with aging (e.g., cataract, presbyopia, pupil changes) and examines their relationship to intellectual performance. Discusses variables related to intellectual functioning including motivation, education, test anxiety, and fatigue. (LLL)

  15. Genetics Home Reference: color vision deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... vision problems, which can include increased sensitivity to light (photophobia), involuntary back-and-forth eye movements (nystagmus), ... are found in the retina , which is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye . ...

  16. One vision of academic nursing centers.

    PubMed

    Esperat, M Christina; Green, Alexia; Acton, Cindy

    2004-01-01

    Reconciling vision, mission, and financial realities into a successful socially responsive endeavor is a challenge for academic nursing centers. A financially viable faculty practice enterprise is a response to this challenge. Entrepreneurial management and strategy assist in establishing financial sustainability.

  17. Computer Vision Assisted Virtual Reality Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W.

    1999-01-01

    A computer vision assisted semi-automatic virtual reality (VR) calibration technology has been developed that can accurately match a virtual environment of graphically simulated three-dimensional (3-D) models to the video images of the real task environment.

  18. Vision in our three-dimensional world

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of our perceptual experience are dominated by the fact that our two eyes point forward. Whilst the location of our eyes leaves the environment behind our head inaccessible to vision, co-ordinated use of our two eyes gives us direct access to the three-dimensional structure of the scene in front of us, through the mechanism of stereoscopic vision. Scientific understanding of the different brain regions involved in stereoscopic vision and three-dimensional spatial cognition is changing rapidly, with consequent influences on fields as diverse as clinical practice in ophthalmology and the technology of virtual reality devices. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269595

  19. Earth science vision: Platform technology challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemmerman, L.; Delin, K.; Hadaegh, F.; Lou, M.; Bhasin, K.; Bristow, J.; Connerton, R.; Pasciuto, M.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced new platform technologies are critical to the realization of the Earth Science Vision in the 2020 timeframe. Examples of the platform technology challenges and current state-of-the-art capabilities are present.

  20. Make the Most of Your Vision

    MedlinePlus

    AMD Macular Degeneration Partnership + Font Size – Home About AMD Dry AMD Wet AMD Experience AMD Living with AMD Take Charge ... Of Your Vision Listen Millions of people have macular degeneration and millions of them continue to do everything ...

  1. 76 FR 55463 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision standard, FMCSA... adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first major research... with their vision deficiencies are good predictors of future performance, FMCSA concludes their...

  2. 75 FR 9478 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision standard... safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  3. 76 FR 28125 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision standard, FMCSA requires a person to present verifiable evidence that he/she has driven a commercial vehicle safely with the vision deficiency... adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first major...

  4. 77 FR 65933 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  5. 78 FR 24296 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  6. 77 FR 541 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision requirement, FMCSA... the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially important in... to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first...

  7. 78 FR 34141 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  8. 21 CFR 886.1170 - Color vision tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or color vision plates (multicolored plates which patients with color vision deficiency would... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Color vision tester. 886.1170 Section 886.1170...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1170 Color vision tester. (a)...

  9. 76 FR 29024 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision standard... safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision ] deficiency and will continue to operate...

  10. 78 FR 12811 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  11. 75 FR 4623 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision standard, FMCSA requires a person to present verifiable evidence that he/she has driven a commercial vehicle safely with the vision deficiency... adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first major...

  12. 77 FR 51846 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  13. 76 FR 20078 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision standard, FMCSA requires a... to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. ] The first major... applicants' ample driving histories with their vision deficiencies are good predictors of future...

  14. 76 FR 5425 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision standard... safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  15. 78 FR 9772 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  16. 77 FR 46795 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  17. 77 FR 38386 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... the applicants' vision as well as their driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To... evidence that he/she has driven a commercial vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years... as those required by the waiver program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision...

  18. 21 CFR 886.1170 - Color vision tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or color vision plates (multicolored plates which patients with color vision deficiency would... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Color vision tester. 886.1170 Section 886.1170...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1170 Color vision tester. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1170 - Color vision tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or color vision plates (multicolored plates which patients with color vision deficiency would... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Color vision tester. 886.1170 Section 886.1170...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1170 Color vision tester. (a)...

  20. 78 FR 63307 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  1. 77 FR 27850 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision requirement, FMCSA... the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially important in... to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first...

  2. 76 FR 20076 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision standard, FMCSA requires a... to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first major... applicants' ample driving histories with their vision deficiencies are good predictors of future...

  3. 21 CFR 886.1170 - Color vision tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or color vision plates (multicolored plates which patients with color vision deficiency would... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Color vision tester. 886.1170 Section 886.1170...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1170 Color vision tester. (a)...

  4. 77 FR 71671 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision requirement, FMCSA... the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially important in... to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first...

  5. 76 FR 1499 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision standard, FMCSA requires a... to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first major... applicants' ample driving histories with their vision deficiencies are good predictors of future...

  6. 77 FR 59245 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision requirement, FMCSA requires a person to present verifiable evidence that he/she has driven a commercial vehicle safely with the vision deficiency... adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first major...

  7. 75 FR 47886 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ...' vision, but also their driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an... driven a commercial vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving... those required by the waiver program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency...

  8. 77 FR 33558 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. ] To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  9. 21 CFR 886.1170 - Color vision tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or color vision plates (multicolored plates which patients with color vision deficiency would... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Color vision tester. 886.1170 Section 886.1170...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1170 Color vision tester. (a)...

  10. 77 FR 13691 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision requirement, FMCSA requires a... to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first major... applicants' ample driving histories with their vision deficiencies are good predictors of future...

  11. 77 FR 52391 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision requirement, FMCSA... the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially important in... to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first...

  12. 77 FR 71669 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision requirement, FMCSA requires a person to present verifiable evidence that he/she has driven a commercial vehicle safely with the vision deficiency... adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first major...

  13. 76 FR 79761 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision requirement, FMCSA... the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially important in... to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first...

  14. 77 FR 27845 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  15. New energy storage concept uses tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, A.; Kafesjian, R. R.

    1966-01-01

    Energy storage system uses movable permeable tapes with cathode and electrolyte material that is drawn across an anode to produce electric power. The system features long shelf life, high efficiency, and flexible operation.

  16. Vision 2030. A Vision for the U.S. Concrete Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2001-01-01

    On September 27, 2000, the concrete industry's Strategic Development Council hosted a Concrete Vision Workshop in Chicago, Illinois. Meeting participants included over 50 concrete, cement, and other allied industry chief executive officers, presidents, vice-presidents, laboratory and industry research managers, and government representatives. Participants discussed the state of the concrete industry 30 years ago, the state of the current industry, and their vision for the United States concrete industry in 2030. Moreover, they identified specific goals to achieve the industry's Vision 2030. This document, Vision 2030, is the product of that workshop and the comments received after a broad industry review.

  17. COHERENT LASER VISION SYSTEM (CLVS) OPTION PHASE

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Clark

    1999-11-18

    The purpose of this research project was to develop a prototype fiber-optic based Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) suitable for DOE's EM Robotic program. The system provides three-dimensional (3D) vision for monitoring situations in which it is necessary to update the dimensional spatial data on the order of once per second. The system has total immunity to ambient lighting conditions.

  18. Marking parts to aid robot vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, J. W.; Barker, L. K.

    1981-01-01

    The premarking of parts for subsequent identification by a robot vision system appears to be beneficial as an aid in the automation of certain tasks such as construction in space. A simple, color coded marking system is presented which allows a computer vision system to locate an object, calculate its orientation, and determine its identity. Such a system has the potential to operate accurately, and because the computer shape analysis problem has been simplified, it has the ability to operate in real time.

  19. New computer-controlled color vision test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladunga, Karoly; Wenzel, Klara; Abraham, Gyorgy

    1999-12-01

    A computer controlled color discrimination test is described which enables rapid testing using selected colors from the color space of normal CRT monitors. We have investigated whether difference sin color discrimination between groups of normal and color deficient observers could be detected using a computer-controlled test of color vision. The test accurately identified the differences between the normal and color deficient groups. New color discrimination test have been developed to more efficiently evaluate color vision.

  20. Colour vision deficiency and physics teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David

    2016-05-01

    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of ‘colourblindness’ most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision deficiency and looks at ways in which we can help the many students who have this problem.