Muñoz-Torrero, Juan Francisco Sánchez; Escudero, Domingo; Suárez, Carmen; Sanclemente, Carmen; Pascual, Ma Teresa; Zamorano, José; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Monreal, Manuel
Among patients receiving clopidogrel for coronary artery disease, concomitant therapy with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been associated with an increased risk for recurrent coronary events. Factores de Riesgo y ENfermedad Arterial (FRENA) is an ongoing, multicenter, observational registry of consecutive outpatients with coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral artery disease. We retrospectively examined the influence of concomitant use of PPIs on outcome in patients receiving clopidogrel. As of March 2009, 1222 patients were using clopidogrel: 595 had coronary artery disease, 329 cerebrovascular disease, and 298 had peripheral artery disease. Of these, 519 (42%) were concomitantly using PPIs. Over a mean follow-up of 15 months, 131 patients (11%) had 139 subsequent ischemic events: myocardial infarction 44, ischemic stroke 40, and critical limb ischemia 55. Seventeen of them (13%) died within 15 days of the subsequent event. PPI users had a higher incidence of myocardial infarction (rate ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-4.8), ischemic stroke (rate ratio, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.03-3.7), and a nonsignificantly higher rate of critical limb ischemia (rate ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.95-2.8) than nonusers. On multivariate analysis, concomitant use of clopidogrel and PPIs was independently associated with an increased risk for subsequent ischemic events both in the whole series of patients (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7) and in those with cerebrovascular disease or peripheral artery disease (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.01-2.4). In patients with established arterial disease, concomitant use of PPIs and clopidogrel was associated with a nearly doubling of the incidence of subsequent myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. This higher incidence persisted after multivariate adjustment.
Humphreys, R. P.; Hendrick, E. B.; Hoffman, H. J.
The stroke syndrome in adults encompasses a limited number of lesions occurring over an extended age-span. In children the syndrome includes a wide variety of lesions seen in only one and one-half decades. This general review examines common aspects of the syndrome as it is seen in children. Attention is paid to cerebrovascular occlusive disease, arteriovenous malformations, intracranial aneurysms, spontaneous intracerebral hematomas and cerebrovascular complications of cardiac surgery. Conclusions are based on the authors' experience in treating patients in the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto PMID:4565135
TITLE: Cerebrovascular injury in blast loading PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kenneth L. Monson, PhD...SUBTITLE Cerebrovascular injury in blast loading 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0295 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...and pH control. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Blast brain injury; cerebrovascular injury and dysfunction; shock tube 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17
Nishijima, T; Torres-Aleman, I; Soya, H
Aging impairs cerebrovascular plasticity and subsequently leads cerebral hypoperfusion, which synergistically accelerates aging-associated cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases associated with impaired neuronal plasticity. On the other hand, over two decades of researches have successfully demonstrated that exercise, or higher level of physical activity, is a powerful and nonpharmacological approach to improve brain function. Most of the studies have focused on the neuronal aspects and found that exercise triggers improvements in neuronal plasticity, such as neurogenesis; however, exercise can improve cerebrovascular plasticity as well. In this chapter, to understand these beneficial effects of exercise on the cerebral vasculature, we first discuss the issue of changes in cerebral blood flow and its regulation during acute bouts of exercise. Then, how regular exercise improves cerebrovascular plasticity will be discussed. In addition, to shed light on the importance of understanding interactions between the neuron and cerebral vasculature, we describe neuronal activity-driven uptake of circulating IGF-I into the brain. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ruisanchez, Éva; Leszl-Ishiguro, Miriam; Sándor, Péter; Pacher, Pál
The cerebral blood flow is tightly regulated by myogenic, endothelial, metabolic, and neural mechanisms under physiological conditions, and a large body of recent evidence indicates that inflammatory pathways have a major influence on the cerebral blood perfusion in certain central nervous system disorders, like hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and vascular dementia. All major cell types involved in cerebrovascular control pathways (i.e., smooth muscle, endothelium, neurons, astrocytes, pericytes, microglia, and leukocytes) are capable of synthesizing endocannabinoids and/or express some or several of their target proteins [i.e., the cannabinoid 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) receptors and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel]. Therefore, the endocannabinoid system may importantly modulate the regulation of cerebral circulation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions in a very complex manner. Experimental data accumulated since the late 1990s indicate that the direct effect of cannabinoids on cerebral vessels is vasodilation mediated, at least in part, by CB1 receptors. Cannabinoid-induced cerebrovascular relaxation involves both a direct inhibition of smooth muscle contractility and a release of vasodilator mediator(s) from the endothelium. However, under stress conditions (e.g., in conscious restrained animals or during hypoxia and hypercapnia), cannabinoid receptor activation was shown to induce a reduction of the cerebral blood flow, probably via inhibition of the electrical and/or metabolic activity of neurons. Finally, in certain cerebrovascular pathologies (e.g., subarachnoid hemorrhage, as well as traumatic and ischemic brain injury), activation of CB2 (and probably yet unidentified non-CB1/non-CB2) receptors appear to improve the blood perfusion of the brain via attenuating vascular inflammation. PMID:26825517
Benyó, Zoltán; Ruisanchez, Éva; Leszl-Ishiguro, Miriam; Sándor, Péter; Pacher, Pál
The cerebral blood flow is tightly regulated by myogenic, endothelial, metabolic, and neural mechanisms under physiological conditions, and a large body of recent evidence indicates that inflammatory pathways have a major influence on the cerebral blood perfusion in certain central nervous system disorders, like hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and vascular dementia. All major cell types involved in cerebrovascular control pathways (i.e., smooth muscle, endothelium, neurons, astrocytes, pericytes, microglia, and leukocytes) are capable of synthesizing endocannabinoids and/or express some or several of their target proteins [i.e., the cannabinoid 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) receptors and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel]. Therefore, the endocannabinoid system may importantly modulate the regulation of cerebral circulation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions in a very complex manner. Experimental data accumulated since the late 1990s indicate that the direct effect of cannabinoids on cerebral vessels is vasodilation mediated, at least in part, by CB1 receptors. Cannabinoid-induced cerebrovascular relaxation involves both a direct inhibition of smooth muscle contractility and a release of vasodilator mediator(s) from the endothelium. However, under stress conditions (e.g., in conscious restrained animals or during hypoxia and hypercapnia), cannabinoid receptor activation was shown to induce a reduction of the cerebral blood flow, probably via inhibition of the electrical and/or metabolic activity of neurons. Finally, in certain cerebrovascular pathologies (e.g., subarachnoid hemorrhage, as well as traumatic and ischemic brain injury), activation of CB2 (and probably yet unidentified non-CB1/non-CB2) receptors appear to improve the blood perfusion of the brain via attenuating vascular inflammation.
Powers, William J.; Zazulia, Allyson R.
SYNOPSIS Investigation of the interplay between the cerebral circulation and brain cellular function is fundamental to understanding both the pathophysiology and treatment of stroke. Currently, PET is the only technique that provides accurate, quantitative in vivo regional measurements of both cerebral circulation and cellular metabolism in human subjects. We review normal human cerebral blood flow and metabolism and human PET studies of ischemic stroke, carotid artery disease, vascular dementia, intracerebral hemorrhage and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and discuss how these studies have added to our understanding of the pathophysiology of human cerebrovascular disease. PMID:20543975
Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771
Chu, Heling; Huang, Chuyi; Ding, Hongyan; Dong, Jing; Gao, Zidan; Yang, Xiaobo; Tang, Yuping; Dong, Qiang
Cerebrovascular diseases are conditions caused by problems with brain vasculature, which have a high morbidity and mortality. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the most abundant water channel in the brain and crucial for the formation and resolution of brain edema. Considering brain edema is an important pathophysiological change after stoke, AQP4 is destined to have close relation with cerebrovascular diseases. However, this relation is not limited to brain edema due to other biological effects elicited by AQP4. Till now, multiple studies have investigated roles of AQP4 in cerebrovascular diseases. This review focuses on expression of AQP4 and the effects of AQP4 on brain edema and neural cells injuries in cerebrovascular diseases including cerebral ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In the current review, we pay more attention to the studies of recent years directly from cerebrovascular diseases animal models or patients, especially those using AQP4 gene knockout mice. This review also elucidates the potential of AQP4as an excellent therapeutic target. PMID:27529222
Fenton, Stephen J; Bollo, Robert J
Blunt cerebrovascular injury in children is an uncommon occurrence that if missed and left untreated can result in devastating long-term neurologic consequences. Diagnosis can be readily obtained by a computed tomographic angiogram of the head and neck. If confirmed, treatment with antithrombotic therapy dramatically reduces the risk of a cerebrovascular accident. The difficulty lies in determining which child should be screened for such an injury. Several institutions have come up with criteria for screening. In this article, we review the nuances of the cerebrovascular system and its resulting injury. We present recent literature on the subject in an attempt to add clarity to this challenging situation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cannabis is the most commonly abused illicit drug and is often considered innocuous. However, cases of acute onset neurologic dysfunction occurring in relation to cannabis use have been described and corresponding cerebral imaging studies have documented focal ischemic changes and vessel abnormalities. This article reviews all reported cases of presumed cannabis related cerebral ischemic events in the medical literature, as well as pertinent human and animal experimental studies on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects of cannabis. Cannabis use seems to have been causally related to several instances of cerebral ischemia and infarction. Proposed etiologic mechanisms have included cerebral vasospasm, cardioembolization, and systemic hypotension with impaired cerebral autoregulation, but most of the available data points to a vasospastic process. The exact relation of cannabis to cerebrovascular disease remains to be determined.
Mehanna, Raja; Jankovic, Joseph
Movement disorders can occur as primary (idiopathic) or genetic disease, as a manifestation of an underlying neurodegenerative disorder, or secondary to a wide range of neurological or systemic diseases. Cerebrovascular diseases represent up to 22% of secondary movement disorders, and involuntary movements develop after 1-4% of strokes. Post-stroke movement disorders can manifest in parkinsonism or a wide range of hyperkinetic movement disorders including chorea, ballism, athetosis, dystonia, tremor, myoclonus, stereotypies, and akathisia. Some of these disorders occur immediately after acute stroke, whereas others can develop later, and yet others represent delayed-onset progressive movement disorders. These movement disorders have been encountered in patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes, subarachnoid haemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformations, and dural arteriovenous fistula affecting the basal ganglia, their connections, or both.
Walcott, Brian P; Peterson, Randall T
Perturbations in cerebral blood flow and abnormalities in blood vessel structure are the hallmarks of cerebrovascular disease. While there are many genetic and environmental factors that affect these entities through a heterogeneous group of disease processes, the ultimate final pathologic insult in humans is defined as a stroke, or damage to brain parenchyma. In the case of ischemic stroke, blood fails to reach its target destination whereas in hemorrhagic stroke, extravasation of blood occurs outside of the blood vessel lumen, resulting in direct damage to brain parenchyma. As these acute events can be neurologically devastating, if not fatal, development of novel therapeutics are urgently needed. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an attractive model for the study of cerebrovascular disease because of its morphological and physiological similarity to human cerebral vasculature, its ability to be genetically manipulated, and its fecundity allowing for large-scale, phenotype-based screens.
The early change in cerebrovascular reactivity offers the use of REG for non-invasive bedside monitoring and stroke prevention promising (Bodo et al... cerebrovascular alteration. However, the anatomical background of REG is not clearly understood. Two experimental studies were undertaken on...Doppler ultrasound were significant (p = 0.0001). Full abstract see in publication. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cerebrovascular reactivity, CBF, REG, LDF, carotid
Hammer, Erica S.; Cipolla, Marilyn J.
Preeclampsia is a hypertensive, multi-system disorder of pregnancy that affects several organ systems, including the maternal brain. Cerebrovascular dysfunction during preeclampsia can lead to cerebral edema, seizures, stroke and potentially maternal mortality. This review will discuss the effects of preeclampsia on the cerebrovasculature that may adversely affect the maternal brain, including cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation and blood-brain barrier disruption, and the resultant clinical outcomes including posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and maternal stroke. Potential long-term cognitive outcomes of preeclampsia and the role of the cerebrovasculature are also reviewed. PMID:26126779
Todo, Tsuyoshi; Alexander, Michael; Stokol, Colin; Lyden, Patrick; Braunstein, Glenn; Gewertz, Bruce
Cervical pain caused by the elongation of the styloid process (Eagle syndrome) is well known to otolaryngologists but is rarely considered by vascular surgeons. We report two patients with cerebrovascular symptoms of Eagle syndrome treated in our medical center in the past year. Case 1: an 80-year-old man with acromegaly presented with dizziness and syncope with neck rotation. The patient was noted to have bilateral elongated styloid processes impinging on the internal carotid arteries. After staged resections of the styloid processes through cervical approaches, the symptoms resolved completely. Case 2: a 57-year-old man presented with acute-onset left-sided neck pain radiating to his head immediately after a vigorous neck massage. Hospital course was complicated by a 15-minute transient ischemic attack resulting in aphasia. Angiography revealed bilateral dissections of his internal carotid arteries, with a dissecting aneurysm on the right. Both injuries were immediately adjacent to the bilateral elongated styloid processes. Despite immediate anticoagulation therapy, he experienced aphasia and right hemiparesis associated with an occlusion of his left carotid artery. He underwent emergent catheter thrombectomy and carotid stent placement, with near-complete resolution of his symptoms. Elongated styloid processes characteristic of Eagle syndrome can result in both temporary impingement and permanent injury to the extracranial carotid arteries. Although rare, Eagle syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with cerebrovascular symptoms, especially those induced by positional change.
Miller, Stephanie; Mitra, Kunal
Alterations to cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been implicated in diverse neurological conditions. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-measured regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation ([Formula: see text]) provides an estimate of oxygenation of interrogated cerebral volume useful in identifying variations in oxygen supply to cerebral tissue and in monitoring cerebrovascular function. [Formula: see text]-inhalation-based hypercapnic breathing challenges were used to simulate CBF dysregulation, utilizing NIRS to monitor the CBF autoregulatory response. A breathing circuit was designed to administer [Formula: see text]-compressed air mixtures and assess CBF regulatory responses to hypercapnia in 26 healthy young adults. One to three hypercapnic challenges of 5 or 10 min duration were delivered to each subject while continuously monitoring [Formula: see text], partial pressure of end tidal [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), and vital signs. Change in [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) during [Formula: see text] inhalation positively correlated to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). Grouping subjects into three exercise factor levels (h/week), (1) 0, (2) [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and (3) [Formula: see text] showed significantly greater [Formula: see text] responses to [Formula: see text] challenges for level 3 subjects but similar [Formula: see text] responses for the three groups. Exercising greater than 10 h/week may produce a higher resting cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to [Formula: see text] inhalation. Establishing baseline values of [Formula: see text] and CVR to [Formula: see text] may aid in early detection of CBF changes.
Cai, Zhiyou; Zhao, Bin; Deng, Yanqing; Shangguan, Shouqin; Zhou, Faming; Zhou, Wenqing; Li, Xiaoli; Li, Yanfeng; Chen, Guanghui
The Notch signaling pathway is a crucial regulator of numerous fundamental cellular processes. Increasing evidence suggests that Notch signaling is involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, and thus in the progress of cerebrovascular diseases. In addition, Notch signaling in cerebrovascular diseases is associated with apoptosis, angiogenesis and the function of blood-brain barrier. Despite the contradictory results obtained to date as to whether Notch signaling is harmful or beneficial, the regulation of Notch signaling may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. PMID:27574001
Sato, Naoyuki; Shimamura, Munehisa; Morishita, Ryuichi
Gene therapy provides a potential strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular disease such as peripheral arterial disease, myocardial infarction, restenosis after angioplasty, and vascular bypass graft occlusion. Currently, more than 20 clinical studies of gene therapy for cardiovascular disease are in progress. Although cerebrovascular gene therapy has not proceeded to clinical trials, in contrast to cardiovascular gene therapy, there have been several trials in experimental models. Three major potential targets for cerebrovascular gene therapy are vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), ischemic cerebrovascular disease, and restenosis after angioplasty, for which current therapy is often inadequate. In experimental SAH models, strategies using genes encoding a vasodilating protein or decoy oligodeoxynucleotides have been reported to be effective against vasospasm after SAH. In experimental ischemic cerebrovascular disease, gene therapy using growth factors, such as Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), or Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), has been reported to be effective for neuroprotection and angiogenesis. Nevertheless, cerebrovascular gene therapy for clinical human treatment still has some problems, such as transfection efficiency and the safety of vectors. Development of an effective and safe delivery system for a target gene will make human cerebrovascular gene therapy possible.
Zhang, F; Slungaard, A; Vercellotti, G M; Iadecola, C
Recent evidence indicates that elevated plasma levels of homocysteine are a risk factor for ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. However, little is known about cerebrovascular effects of homocysteine. Homocysteine could impair cerebrovascular function by metal-catalyzed production of activated oxygen species. We studied whether homocysteine, in the presence of Cu2+, alters reactivity of cerebral circulation and, if so, whether this effect depends on O-2 generation. In halothane-anesthetized rats the parietal cortex was exposed and superfused with Ringer solution. Cerebrocortical blood flow (CBF) was monitored by a laser-Doppler probe. With Ringer solution superfusion, CBF increased with hypercapnia (+134 +/- 7%; PCO2 = 50-60 mmHg) and topical application of 10 microM ACh (+35 +/- 3%), the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, 500 microM; +66 +/- 6%), or 1 mM papaverine (+100 +/- 6%; n = 5). Superfusion with 40 microM Cu2+ alone did not perturb resting CBF or responses to hypercapnia, ACh, SNAP, or papaverine (P > 0.05, n = 5). However, superfusion of homocysteine-Cu2+ reduced resting CBF (-28 +/- 4%) and attenuated (P < 0.05) responses to hypercapnia (-31 +/- 9%), ACh (-73 +/- 6%), or SNAP (-48 +/- 4%), but not papaverine. The effect was observed only at 1 mM homocysteine. Cerebrovascular effects of homocysteine-Cu2+ were prevented by coadministration of superoxide dismutase (SOD; 1,000 U/ml; n = 5). SOD alone did not affect resting CBF or CBF reactivity (n = 5). The observation that homocysteine-Cu2+ attenuates the response to hypercapnia, ACh, and SNAP, but not the NO-independent vasodilator papaverine, suggests that homocysteine-Cu2+ selectively impairs NO-related cerebrovascular responses. The fact that SOD prevents such impairment indicates that the effect of homocysteine is O-2 dependent. The data support the conclusion that O-2, generated by the reaction of homocysteine with Cu2+, inhibits NO-related cerebrovascular responses by scavenging NO
Zuckerman, Scott L; Seder, David B; Tsujiura, Crystiana; Cushing, Deborah; Gallup, Holly; Mocco, J; Hanel, Richard A; Ecker, Robert D
Summary Aspirin (ASA) is the mainstay of treatment in cerebrovascular and systemic vascular disease. ASA hypersensitivity can pose a challenge to achieving optimum medical management prior to and after neurointerventional treatment. Desensitization to ASA is well described in the allergy and cardiovascular literature, but there are no similar discussions specific to neurointervention. The purpose of our study was to describe our experience with ASA hypersensitivity management and review the relevant literature. Two cases of patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease requiring neurointervention who were successfully desensitized to their ASA hypersensitivity prior to treatment are described. The subsequent literature is reviewed. Several ASA desensitization protocols exist and have been proven to successfully treat ASA hypersensitivity and allow for ASA therapy to be safely initiated. We describe several previously published protocols. ASA desensitization is a safe and simple way to manage ASA hypersensitivity. We provide comprehensive management guidelines for the neurointerventionalist engaging in ASA desensitization. PMID:24556294
Stephens, W. P.; Ferguson, I. T.
Three cases are described in which extensive livedo reticularis was associated with premature cerebrovascular disease. The patients presented with transient cerebral ischaemic attacks and gradually developed permanent neurological damage with intellectual impairment. The value of detailed neuropsychological testing to identify bilateral cortical abnormalities is demonstrated. CAT scanning may reveal multifocal cerebral infarction. The nature of this condition is not understood. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7100027
Korb, Pearce J; Jones, William
Accurate coding is critical for clinical practice and research. Ongoing changes to diagnostic and billing codes require the clinician to stay abreast of coding updates. Payment for health care services, data sets for health services research, and reporting for medical quality improvement all require accurate administrative coding. This article provides an overview of coding principles for patients with strokes and other cerebrovascular diseases and includes an illustrative case as a review of coding principles in a patient with acute stroke.
Cooper, Leroy L.; Mitchell, Gary F.
Background Aortic stiffness is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and cognitive decline. This mini-review focuses on relations of aortic stiffness with microvascular dysfunction and discusses the contribution of abnormal pulsatile hemodynamics to cerebrovascular damage and cognitive decline. We also provide a rationale for considering aortic stiffness as a putative and important contributor to memory impairment in older individuals. Summary Aging is associated with stiffening of the aorta but not the muscular arteries, which reduces wave reflection and increases the transmission of pulsatility into the periphery. Aortic stiffening thereby impairs a protective mechanism that shields the peripheral microcirculation from excessive pulsatility within downstream target organs. Beyond midlife, aortic stiffness increases rapidly and exposes the cerebral microcirculation to abnormal pulsatile mechanical forces that are associated with microvascular damage and remodeling in the brain. Aortic stiffening and high-flow pulsatility are associated with alterations in the microvasculature of the brain; however, a mechanistic link between aortic stiffness and memory has not been established. We showed that in a community-based sample of older individuals, cerebrovascular resistance and white matter hyperintensities - markers of cerebrovascular remodeling and damage - mediated the relation between higher aortic stiffness and lower performance on memory function tests. These data suggest that microvascular and white matter damage associated with excessive aortic stiffness contribute to impaired memory function with advancing age. Key Messages Increasing evidence suggests that vascular etiologies - including aortic stiffness and microvascular damage - contribute to memory impairment and the pathogenesis of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. Interventions that reduce aortic stiffness may delay memory decline among older individuals. PMID:27752478
Auditory dysfunction is a common clinical symptom that can induce profound effects on the quality of life of those affected. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the most prevalent neurological disorder today, but it has generally been considered a rare cause of auditory dysfunction. However, a substantial proportion of patients with stroke might have auditory dysfunction that has been underestimated due to difficulties with evaluation. The present study reviews relationships between auditory dysfunction and types of CVD including cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformation, moyamoya disease, and superficial siderosis. Recent advances in the etiology, anatomy, and strategies to diagnose and treat these conditions are described. The numbers of patients with CVD accompanied by auditory dysfunction will increase as the population ages. Cerebrovascular diseases often include the auditory system, resulting in various types of auditory dysfunctions, such as unilateral or bilateral deafness, cortical deafness, pure word deafness, auditory agnosia, and auditory hallucinations, some of which are subtle and can only be detected by precise psychoacoustic and electrophysiological testing. The contribution of CVD to auditory dysfunction needs to be understood because CVD can be fatal if overlooked. PMID:25401133
De Ley, G
In order to gain more insight into the pathophysiology of extracerebral cerebrovascular occlusion, the cerebral hemodynamic behaviour after uni- or bilateral carotid occlusion was investigated. In Wistar rats, acute occlusion of one common carotid artery leads to a moderate bilateral lowering of the resting hemispheric brain blood flow; no interhemispheric perfusion asymmetry is observed. During hypercapnia, however, a manyfold increase of the hemispheric blood flow is seen at the intact side, whereas blood flow increase at the side of the occlusion is suppressed indicating that the cerebrovascular reserve at the side of the occlusion is largely used to preserve resting hemispheric perfusion. During the days (1, 5, 15 and 30) following the occlusion, resting hemispheric blood flow is progressively restored rather rapidly (bilateral normalization on the fifth day) whereas restoration of the cerebrovascular reserve (hemispheric blood flow increase in hypercapnia) proceeds more slowly and a nearly normal hypercapnic response is reached on day thirty. Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) show structural abnormalities of their blood vessels during the development of hypertension, leading to impaired adaptation possibilities of the cerebral vasculature after unilateral common carotid occlusion. This is indicated by the striking comparability of the compensation of hemispheric cerebral blood flow (in normo- and hypercapnia) of SH rats five days after unilateral carotid occlusion with the cerebral hemodynamic status of normotensive animals already seen 24 hours after the same occlusion. Consecutive bilateral common carotid occlusion shows that survival rate increases by increasing the interval between both occlusions. This survival relation is much more unfavorable in SH rats. The parallelism between the restoration of the measured CO2-reactivity of the blood flow in the involved hemisphere after unilateral carotid occlusion and the evolution of survival rate after
Jellinger, K A
Recent epidemiological and clinico-pathologic data suggest overlaps between Alzheimer disease (AD) and cerebrovascular lesions that may magnify the effect of mild AD pathology and promote progression of cognitive decline or even may precede neuronal damage and dementia. Vascular pathology in the aging brain and in AD includes: 1. cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) with an incidence of 82-98% often associated with ApoE epsilon 2 and causing a) cerebral mass hemorrhages (around 70%, mainly in the frontal and parietal lobes), b) multiple or recurrent microhemorrhages (15%), and c) ischemic (micro-)infarcts or lacunes (around 20%). The frequency of these lesions increases with the severity of CAA and shows no correlation with that of senile amyloid plaques. CAA, significantly more frequent in patients with cerebral hemorrhages or infarcts than in aged controls, is an important risk factor for cerebrovascular lesions in AD. 2. Microvascular changes with decreased density and structural abnormalities causing regional metabolic and blood-brain barrier dysfunctions with ensuing neuronal damage. In large autopsy series of demented aged subjects, around 80% show Alzheimer type pathology, 20-40% with additional, often minor vascular lesions, 7-10% "pure" vascular dementia, and 3-5% "mixed" dementia (combination of AD and vascular encephalopathy). AD cases with additional minor cerebrovascular lesions have significantly more frequent histories of hypertension or infarcts than "pure" AD patients. Vascular lesions in AD include cortical microinfarcts, subcortical lacunes, white matter lesions / leukoencephalopathy, small hemorrhages and corticosubcortical infarcts, while in mixed type dementia multiple larger or hemispheral infarcts are more frequent. Small infarcts in AD patients have no essential impact on global cognitive decline which mainly depends on the severity of Alzheimer pathology, but in early stage of AD they may influence and promote the development of dementia
19-12-2005 article 12003-04; 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Cerebrovascular alterations in alcoholic and non-alcoholic patients. 5b...University Responsible publisher is the Dean of the Faculty Printed in the Printing offices of the Faculty 47 CEREBROVASCULAR ALTERATIONS IN ALCOHOLIC...The US vs. Hungarian group comparison confimned the cerebrovascular alteration in Hun- garian alcoholic group. Elevated KEG values in alcoholics may
of 41 THE ROLE OF OXYGEN IN CEREBROVASCULAR CONTROL: A MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS M. Ursino and E. Magosso Department of Electronics, Computer Science...and Systems, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Abstract- A former model of cerebrovascular regulation and intracranial pressure dynamics has been...the risk of secondary brain damage. The model may be of value to improve the present understanding of cerebrovascular control in a large range of
Bondar, R. L.; Kassam, M. S.; Stein, F.; Dunphy, P. T.; Fortney, S.; Riedesel, M. L.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Presyncope, characterized by symptoms and signs indicative of imminent syncope, can be aborted in many situations before loss of consciousness occurs. The plasticity of cerebral autoregulation in healthy humans and its behavior during this syncopal prodrome are unclear, although systemic hemodynamic instability has been suggested as a key factor in the precipitation of syncope. Using lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to simulate central hypovolemia, we previously observed falling mean flow velocities (MFVs) with maintained mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). These findings, and recent reports suggesting increased vascular tone within the cerebral vasculature at presyncope, cannot be explained by the classic static cerebral autoregulation curve; neither can they be totally explained by a recent suggestion of a rightward shift in this curve. METHODS: Four male and five female healthy volunteers were exposed to presyncopal LBNP to evaluate their cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses by use of continuous acquisition of MFV from the right middle cerebral artery with transcranial Doppler sonography, MABP (Finapres), and heart rate (ECG). RESULTS: At presyncope, MFV dropped on average by 27.3 +/- 14% of its baseline value (P < .05), while MABP remained at 2.0 +/- 27% above its baseline level. Estimated cerebrovascular resistance increased during LBNP. The percentage change from baseline to presyncope in MFV and MABP revealed consistent decreases in MFV before MABP. CONCLUSIONS: Increased estimated cerebrovascular resistance, falling MFV, and constant MABP are evidence of an increase in cerebral vascular tone with falling flow, suggesting a downward shift in the cerebral autoregulation curve. Cerebral vessels may have a differential sensitivity to sympathetic drive or more than one type of sympathetic innervation. Future work to induce dynamic changes in MABP during LBNP may help in assessing the plasticity of the cerebral autoregulation
Bondar, R. L.; Kassam, M. S.; Stein, F.; Dunphy, P. T.; Fortney, S.; Riedesel, M. L.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Presyncope, characterized by symptoms and signs indicative of imminent syncope, can be aborted in many situations before loss of consciousness occurs. The plasticity of cerebral autoregulation in healthy humans and its behavior during this syncopal prodrome are unclear, although systemic hemodynamic instability has been suggested as a key factor in the precipitation of syncope. Using lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to simulate central hypovolemia, we previously observed falling mean flow velocities (MFVs) with maintained mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). These findings, and recent reports suggesting increased vascular tone within the cerebral vasculature at presyncope, cannot be explained by the classic static cerebral autoregulation curve; neither can they be totally explained by a recent suggestion of a rightward shift in this curve. METHODS: Four male and five female healthy volunteers were exposed to presyncopal LBNP to evaluate their cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses by use of continuous acquisition of MFV from the right middle cerebral artery with transcranial Doppler sonography, MABP (Finapres), and heart rate (ECG). RESULTS: At presyncope, MFV dropped on average by 27.3 +/- 14% of its baseline value (P < .05), while MABP remained at 2.0 +/- 27% above its baseline level. Estimated cerebrovascular resistance increased during LBNP. The percentage change from baseline to presyncope in MFV and MABP revealed consistent decreases in MFV before MABP. CONCLUSIONS: Increased estimated cerebrovascular resistance, falling MFV, and constant MABP are evidence of an increase in cerebral vascular tone with falling flow, suggesting a downward shift in the cerebral autoregulation curve. Cerebral vessels may have a differential sensitivity to sympathetic drive or more than one type of sympathetic innervation. Future work to induce dynamic changes in MABP during LBNP may help in assessing the plasticity of the cerebral autoregulation
Morris, B; Partap, S; Yeom, K; Gibbs, I C.; Fisher, P G.; King, A A.
Background: Curative therapy for childhood cancer has dramatically improved over past decades. Therapeutic radiation has been instrumental in this success. Unfortunately, irradiation is associated with untoward effects, including stroke and other cerebrovascular disease (CVD). The Children’s Oncology Group (COG) has developed guidelines for screening survivors at risk for persistent or late sequelae of cancer therapy. Objectives: This review summarizes the pathophysiology and relevant manifestations of radiation-induced CVD and outlines the specific patient groups at risk for early-onset stroke. The reader will be alerted to the availability of the COG recommendations for monitoring, and, when applicable, specific screening and treatment recommendations will be highlighted. Methods: A multidisciplinary task force critically reviewed the existing literature and scored the evidence to establish the current COG guidelines for monitoring health of survivors treated with head and neck irradiation. Results: Previous head and neck exposure to therapeutic radiation is associated with latent CVD and increased risk for stroke in some patient groups. Common manifestations of radiation-induced CVD includes steno-occlusive disease, moyamoya, aneurysm, mineralizing microangiopathy, vascular malformations, and strokelike migraines. Conclusion: Risk for stroke is increased in survivors of pediatric CNS tumors, Hodgkin lymphoma, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia who received radiation to the brain and/or neck. As the population of survivors ages, vigilance for stroke and cerebrovascular disease needs to continue based on specific exposures during curative cancer therapy. GLOSSARY ALL = acute lymphoblastic leukemia; CCSS = Childhood Cancer Survivor Study; CI = confidence interval; COG = Children’s Oncology Group; CVD = cerebrovascular disease; NF1 = neurofibromatosis type I; RT = radiation therapy. PMID:19812380
Czabanka, Marcus; Acker, Gueliz; Jussen, Daniel; Finger, Tobias; Pena-Tapia, Pablo; Schubert, Gerrit A; Scharf, Johann; Martus, Peter; Schmiedek, Peter; Vajkoczy, Peter
Moyamoya disease and atherosclerotic cerebrovascular occlusive disease lead to hemodynamic impairment of cerebral blood flow. One major differentiation between both disease entities lies in the collateralization pathways. The clinical implications of the collateralization pathways for the development of hemodynamic ischemia remain unknown. The aim was to characterize collateralization and ischemia patterns in patients with chronic hemodynamic compromise. Hemodynamic compromise was verified using acetazolamide-stimulated xenon-CT or SPECT in 54 patients [30 moyamoya and 24 atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease (ACVD)]. All patients received MRI to differentiate hemodynamic ischemia into anterior/posterior cortical border zone infarction (CBI), inferior border zone infarction (IBI) or territorial infarction (TI). Digital subtraction angiography was applied to evaluate collateralization. Collateralization was compared and correlated with the localization of ischemia and number of vascular territories with impaired cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC). MM patients showed collateralization significantly more often via pericallosal anastomosis and the posterior communicating artery (flow in the anterior-posterior direction; MM: 95%/95% vs. ACVD: 23%/12%, p < 0.05). ACVD patients demonstrated collateralization via the anterior and posterior communicating arteries (flow in the posterior-anterior direction, MM: 6%/5% vs. ACVD: 62%/88%, p < 0.05). Patterns of infarction were comparable (aCBI: MM: 36% vs. ACVD: 35%; pCBI: MM: 10% vs. ACVD: 20%; IBI: MM: 35% vs. ACVD: 41%; TI: MM: 13% vs. ACVD: 18%). The number and localization of vascular territories with impaired CVRC were comparable. Despite significant differences in collateralization, the infarct patterns and severity of CVRC impairment do not differ between MMV and ACVD patients. Cerebral collateralization does not allow reaching conclusions about the localization of cerebral ischemia or severity of impaired
Saito, Satoshi; Ihara, Masafumi
Epidemiological investigations have proposed strict control of vascular risk factors as a strategy to overcome dementia, because of the close interaction between cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease. In light of recent advances in basic, translational, and clinical research in the area, this review focuses on the significance of CVD in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Alzheimer's disease and CVD share several risk factors, and the coexistence of both pathologies is frequently noted. CVD and subsequent cerebral blood flow reduction would increase amyloid β (Aβ) production by modulating β and γ-secretase. Furthermore, CVD impairs Aβ clearance, which is mainly driven by vascular mediated systems, including active transport across the blood-brain barrier, and perivascular lymphatic/paravascular glymphatic drainage systems. Thus, CVD may disturb homeostasis between Aβ production and clearance, thereby aggravating Alzheimer's disease. Recent translational researches in this field aim to facilitate Aβ clearance. Several candidate drugs are being tested in clinical trials. Compared with Aβ pathology, little is known about the relationship between tau pathology and CVD, although some studies have shown that CVD has an influence on tau pathology. The close interrelationship between Alzheimer's disease and CVD suggests the necessity of the maintenance of cerebrovascular integrity, which may herald a new generation of dementia treatment strategies.
Regan, Rosemary E; Fisher, Joseph A; Duffin, James
Background and Purpose Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), measures the ability of the cerebrovasculature to respond to vasoactive stimuli such as CO2. CVR is often expressed as the ratio of cerebral blood flow change to CO2 change. We examine several factors affecting this measurement: blood pressure, stimulus pattern, response analysis and subject position. Methods Step and ramp increases in CO2 were implemented in nine subjects, seated and supine. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were determined breath-by-breath. Cerebrovascular conductance (MCAc) was estimated as MCAv/MAP. CVR was calculated from both the relative and absolute measures of MCAc and MCAv responses. Results MAP increased with CO2 in some subjects so that relative CVR calculated from conductance responses were less than those calculated from CVR calculated from velocity responses. CVR measured from step responses were affected by the response dynamics, and were less than those calculated from CVR measured from ramp responses. Subject position did not affect CVR. Conclusions (1) MAP increases with CO2 and acts as a confounding factor for CVR measurement; (2) CVR depends on the stimulus pattern used; (3) CVR did not differ from the sitting versus supine in these experiments; (4) CVR calculated from absolute changes of MCAv was less than that calculated from relative changes. PMID:25328852
Knoefel, Janice; Bhaskar, Kiran
The prevalence of dementia is increasing in our aging population at an alarming rate. Because of the heterogeneity of clinical presentation and complexity of disease neuropathology, dementia classifications remain controversial. Recently, the National Plan to address Alzheimer’s Disease prioritized Alzheimer’s disease-related dementias to include: Alzheimer’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, and mixed dementias. While each of these dementing conditions has their unique pathologic signature, one common etiology shared among all these conditions is cerebrovascular dysfunction at some point during the disease process. The goal of this comprehensive review is to summarize the current findings in the field and address the important contributions of cerebrovascular, physiologic, and cellular alterations to cognitive impairment in these human dementias. Specifically, evidence will be presented in support of small-vessel disease as an underlying neuropathologic hallmark of various dementias, while controversial findings will also be highlighted. Finally, the molecular mechanisms shared among all dementia types including hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial bioenergetics, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and blood–brain barrier permeability responsible for disease etiology and progression will be discussed. PMID:26174330
Lyon, J L; Bishop, C T; Nielsen, N S
Utah mortality rates for cerebrovascular disease (ICD numbers 430--438) are 13% below U.S. rates. About 70% of Utahns are members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, commonly called Mormons of LDS, which proscribes use of tobacco and alcohol. Other studies on this group have found significantly lower occurrence of many cancers and ischemic heart disease. We tested the hypothesis that Utah's lower cerebrovascular disease (CBVD) mortality was contributed by the LDS population. We classified by religion all CBVD deaths (2,521) (except subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral embolism) occurring in the state in 1968--1971. No significant difference was found between LDS and non-LDS, but both groups had mortality rates below U.S. expectation. Although recent studies have reported smoking to be a risk factor for CBVD, we found no consistent difference between the LDS and non-LDS, even in the younger age groups. The results do not support the hypothesis that tobacco is an important etiologic agent in CBVD mortality.
Shenkar, Robert; Elliott, J. Paul; Diener, Katrina; Gault, Judith; Hu, Ling-Jia; Cohrs, Randall J.; Phang, Tzulip; Hunter, Lawrence; Breeze, Robert E.; Awad, Issam A.
OBJECTIVE We sought to identify genes with differential expression in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs), arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and control superficial temporal arteries (STAs) and to confirm differential expression of genes previously implicated in the pathobiology of these lesions. METHODS Total ribonucleic acid was isolated from four CCM, four AVM, and three STA surgical specimens and used to quantify lesion-specific messenger ribonucleic acid expression levels on human gene arrays. Data were analyzed with the use of two separate methodologies: gene discovery and confirmation analysis. RESULTS The gene discovery method identified 42 genes that were significantly up-regulated and 36 genes that were significantly down-regulated in CCMs as compared with AVMs and STAs (P = 0.006). Similarly, 48 genes were significantly up-regulated and 59 genes were significantly down-regulated in AVMs as compared with CCMs and STAs (P = 0.006). The confirmation analysis showed significant differential expression (P < 0.05) in 11 of 15 genes (angiogenesis factors, receptors, and structural proteins) that previously had been reported to be expressed differentially in CCMs and AVMs in immunohistochemical analysis. CONCLUSION We identify numerous genes that are differentially expressed in CCMs and AVMs and correlate expression with the immunohistochemistry of genes implicated in cerebrovascular malformations. In future efforts, we will aim to confirm candidate genes specifically related to the pathobiology of cerebrovascular malformations and determine their biological systems and mechanistic relevance. PMID:12535382
Hughson, Richard Lee; Shoemaker, Joel Kevin; Blaber, Andrew Philip; Arbeille, Philippe; Greaves, Danielle Kathleen
Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Control on Return from ISS (CCISS) will study the effects of long-duration spaceflight on crew members' heart functions and their blood vessels that supply the brain. Learning more about the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems could lead to specific countermeasures that might better protect future space travelers. This experiment is collaborative with the Canadian Space Agency.
Patel, S S
Increased risk of cerebrovascular accident in diabetes cannot be fully explained by traditional risk factors. Epidemiological studies show that postprandial hyperglycemia is strongly associated with cerebrovascular events and cerebrovascular-associated mortality. Postprandial hyperglycemia contributes to vascular damage by several mechanisms such as endothelial dysfunction, arthrosclerosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and hypercoagulability. Hyperglycemia has deleterious effects on the vascular endothelium and leads to the development of cerebrovascular disease. Thus, an important strategy to reduce cerebrovascular risk in patients with diabetes is to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and α-glucosidase inhibitors predominantly reduce postprandial plasma glucose levels. Among all of these, α-glucosidase inhibitors reduces postprandial hyperglycemia by delaying carbohydrate absorption from the intestine and this mechanism provides glycemic control without exacerbating coexisting cerebrovascular risk factors. Good glycemic control is proven to reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications, but equivalent evidence for cerebrovascular risk reduction is lacking. This review examines the evidences that postprandial hyperglycemia plays a major role in vascular damage, along with the complex interplay between hyperglycemia and coexisting risk factors. Furthermore, the mechanism by which α-glucosidase inhibitors may prevent this vascular damage as well as risk of hypoglycemia with α-glucosidase inhibitors are examined. Thus, this review suggests that α-glucosidase inhibitors are useful in reducing the risk of cerebrovascular events in patients with diabetes.
Wang, Xingce; Liu, Enhui; Wu, Zhongke; Zhai, Feifei; Zhu, Yi-Cheng; Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Mingquan
Cerebrovascular disease is the most common cause of death worldwide, with millions of deaths annually. Interest is increasing toward understanding the geometric factors that influence cerebrovascular diseases, such as stroke. Cerebrovascular shape analyses are essential for the diagnosis and pathological identification of these conditions. The current study aimed to provide a stable and consistent methodology for quantitative Circle of Willis (CoW) analysis and to identify geometric changes in this structure. An entire pipeline was designed with emphasis on automating each step. The stochastic segmentation was improved and volumetric data were obtained. The L1 medial axis method was applied to vessel volumetric data, which yielded a discrete skeleton dataset. A B-spline curve was used to fit the skeleton, and geometric values were proposed for a one-dimensional skeleton and radius. The calculations used to derive these values were illustrated in detail. In one example(No. 47 in the open dataset) all values for different branches of CoW were calculated. The anterior communicating artery(ACo) was the shortest vessel, with a length of 2.6mm. The range of the curvature of all vessels was (0.3, 0.9) ± (0.1, 1.4). The range of the torsion was (-12.4,0.8) ± (0, 48.7). The mean radius value range was (3.1, 1.5) ± (0.1, 0.7) mm, and the mean angle value range was (2.2, 2.9) ± (0, 0.2) mm. In addition to the torsion variance values in a few vessels, the variance values of all vessel characteristics remained near 1. The distribution of the radii of symmetrical posterior cerebral artery(PCA) and angle values of the symmetrical posterior communicating arteries(PCo) demonstrated a certain correlation between the corresponding values of symmetrical vessels on the CoW. The data verified the stability of our methodology. Our method was appropriate for the analysis of large medical image datasets derived from the automated pipeline for populations. This method was applicable to
Desai, Amish J; Fuller, Cindy J; Jesurum, Jill T; Reisman, Mark
Patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been linked to ischemic strokes of undetermined cause (cryptogenic strokes). PFO-a remnant of fetal circulation when the foramen ovale does not seal after birth-can permit microemboli to escape the pulmonary filter into the intracranial circulation, causing stroke. Coexistent atrial septal aneurysm, pelvic deep vein thrombosis and inherited clotting factor deficiencies could potentiate stroke risk in patients with PFO. Transcatheter PFO closure, a minimally invasive procedure, is one technique used to prevent recurrent cerebrovascular events. A connection between PFO and migraine headache has been conceptualized from retrospective evidence of reduced migraine frequency and severity after PFO closure; however, prospective randomized trials are needed to verify the efficacy of PFO closure on migraine prevention. In this review we discuss embryologic origins, diagnostic techniques and treatment options for prevention of paradoxical embolism thought to be related to PFO, and the relation of PFO to cryptogenic stroke and migraine.
Cooke, Mathew; Cuddy, Michael A; Farr, Brad; Moore, Paul A
Stroke, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is a medical emergency that may lead to permanent neurological damage, complications, and death. The rapid loss of brain function due to disruption of the blood supply to the brain is caused by blockage (thrombosis, arterial embolism) or hemorrhage. The incidence of CVA during anesthesia for noncardiac nonvascular surgery is as high as 1% depending on risk factors. Comprehensive preoperative assessment and good perioperative management may prevent a CVA. However, should an ischemic event occur, appropriate and rapid management is necessary to minimize the deleterious effects caused to the patient. This case report describes a patient who had an ischemic CVA while under general anesthesia for dental alveolar surgery and discusses the anesthesia management.
Cooke, Mathew; Cuddy, Michael A.; Farr, Brad; Moore, Paul A.
Stroke, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is a medical emergency that may lead to permanent neurological damage, complications, and death. The rapid loss of brain function due to disruption of the blood supply to the brain is caused by blockage (thrombosis, arterial embolism) or hemorrhage. The incidence of CVA during anesthesia for noncardiac nonvascular surgery is as high as 1% depending on risk factors. Comprehensive preoperative assessment and good perioperative management may prevent a CVA. However, should an ischemic event occur, appropriate and rapid management is necessary to minimize the deleterious effects caused to the patient. This case report describes a patient who had an ischemic CVA while under general anesthesia for dental alveolar surgery and discusses the anesthesia management. PMID:24932981
Del Brutto, O H
Ischaemic cerebrovascular disease is a relatively common but under-recognised complication of neurocysticercosis. It is usually caused by inflammatory occlusion of the arteries at the base of the brain secondary to cysticercotic arachnoiditis. In most cases, the involved vessels are of small diameter and the neurological picture is limited to a lacunar syndrome secondary to a small cerebral infarct. However, large infarcts related to the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery or even the internal carotid artery have also been reported in this setting. CT and CSF examination usually support the cause-and-effect relationship between neurocysticercosis and the cerebral infarct by showing abnormalities compatible with cysticercotic arachnoiditis. An accurate diagnosis of this condition is important since early treatment with steroids is advised to ameliorate the subarachnoid inflammatory reaction which may cause recurrent cerebral infarcts. PMID:1583508
Bolduc, Virginie; Thorin-Trescases, Nathalie; Thorin, Eric
Cognitive performances are tightly associated with the maximal aerobic exercise capacity, both of which decline with age. The benefits on mental health of regular exercise, which slows the age-dependent decline in maximal aerobic exercise capacity, have been established for centuries. In addition, the maintenance of an optimal cerebrovascular endothelial function through regular exercise, part of a healthy lifestyle, emerges as one of the key and primary elements of successful brain aging. Physical exercise requires the activation of specific brain areas that trigger a local increase in cerebral blood flow to match neuronal metabolic needs. In this review, we propose three ways by which exercise could maintain the cerebrovascular endothelial function, a premise to a healthy cerebrovascular function and an optimal regulation of cerebral blood flow. First, exercise increases blood flow locally and increases shear stress temporarily, a known stimulus for endothelial cell maintenance of Akt-dependent expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide generation, and the expression of antioxidant defenses. Second, the rise in circulating catecholamines during exercise not only facilitates adequate blood and nutrient delivery by stimulating heart function and mobilizing energy supplies but also enhances endothelial repair mechanisms and angiogenesis. Third, in the long term, regular exercise sustains a low resting heart rate that reduces the mechanical stress imposed to the endothelium of cerebral arteries by the cardiac cycle. Any chronic variation from a healthy environment will perturb metabolism and thus hasten endothelial damage, favoring hypoperfusion and neuronal stress.
Pan, Wen-Chi; Eliot, Melissa N.; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent A.; Sorond, Farzaneh A.; Wellenius, Gregory A.
Background and Purpose Some prior studies have linked ambient temperature with risk of cerebrovascular events. If causal, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this putative association remain unknown. Temperature-related changes in cerebral vascular function may play a role, but this hypothesis has not been previously evaluated. Methods We evaluated the association between ambient temperature and cerebral vascular function among 432 participants ≥65 years old from the MOBILIZE Boston Study with data on cerebrovascular blood flow, cerebrovascular resistance, and cerebrovascular reactivity in the middle cerebral artery. We used linear regression models to assess the association of mean ambient temperature in the previous 1 to 28 days with cerebrovascular hemodynamics adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results A 10°C increase in the 21-day moving average of ambient temperature was associated with a 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2%, 17.3%) lower blood flow velocity, a 9.0% (95% CI, 0.7%, 18.0%) higher cerebrovascular resistance, and a 15.3% (95%CI, 2.7%, 26.4%) lower cerebral vasoreactivity. Further adjustment for ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) did not materially alter the results. However, we found statistically significant interactions between ambient temperature and PM2.5 such that the association between temperature and blood flow velocity was attenuated at higher levels of PM2.5. Conclusions In this elderly population, we found that ambient temperature was negatively associated with cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebrovascular vasoreactivity and positively associated with cerebrovascular resistance. Changes in vascular function may partly underlie the observed associations between ambient temperature and risk of cerebrovascular events. PMID:26258469
Brzecka, Anna; Ejma, Maria
Obesity remains an important risk factor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, it has been observed that increased body fat and body mass index predicted longer survival after the occurrence of a cardiovascular event. This observation has been named the obesity paradox. Initially, the term obesity paradox referred to the observation of the better outcome of cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure and coronary heart disease, in obese patients as compared to underweight and normal-weight patients. Recently, similar, although fewer, observations confirm the occurrence of the obesity paradox in patients with acute cerebrovascular diseases. The underlying reasons for the protective effects of excessive body fat tissue against the consequences of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are poorly understood. The effect of preconditioning may be associated with the obesity paradox. The issue of the correlation between obesity and better survival of patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases still remains largely unexplored. Debates for and against the obesity paradox continue.
Sethi, S K; Sarm, P S A
Fatal bilateral cerebro-vascular accident with variable atrio-ventricular blocks, atrial fibrillation and refractory tachy-arrhythmias in a previously healthy 75-years-old hypertensive female is presented.
Hirsch, Sven; Reichold, Johannes; Schneider, Matthias; Székely, Gábor; Weber, Bruno
The cerebrovascular system continuously delivers oxygen and energy substrates to the brain, which is one of the organs with the highest basal energy requirement in mammals. Discontinuities in the delivery lead to fatal consequences for the brain tissue. A detailed understanding of the structure of the cerebrovascular system is important for a multitude of (patho-)physiological cerebral processes and many noninvasive functional imaging methods rely on a signal that originates from the vasculature. Furthermore, neurodegenerative diseases often involve the cerebrovascular system and could contribute to neuronal loss. In this review, we focus on the cortical vascular system. In the first part, we present the current knowledge of the vascular anatomy. This is followed by a theory of topology and its application to vascular biology. We then discuss possible interactions between cerebral blood flow and vascular topology, before summarizing the existing body of the literature on quantitative cerebrovascular topology. PMID:22472613
Liu, Peiying; Li, Yang; Pinho, Marco; Park, Denise C; Welch, Babu G; Lu, Hanzhang
Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), the ability of cerebral vessels to dilate or constrict, has been shown to provide valuable information in the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of patients with various cerebrovascular conditions. CVR mapping is typically performed using hypercapnic gas inhalation as a vasoactive challenge while collecting BOLD images, but the inherent need of gas inhalation and the associated apparatus setup present a practical obstacle in applying it in routine clinical use. Therefore, we aimed to develop a new method to map CVR using resting-state BOLD data without the need of gas inhalation. This approach exploits the natural variation in respiration and measures its influence on BOLD MRI signal. In this work, we first identified a surrogate of the arterial CO2 fluctuation during spontaneous breathing from the global BOLD signal. Second, we tested the feasibility and reproducibility of the proposed approach to use the above-mentioned surrogate as a regressor to estimate voxel-wise CVR. Third, we validated the "resting-state CVR map" with a conventional CVR map obtained with hypercapnic gas inhalation in healthy volunteers. Finally, we tested the utility of this new approach in detecting abnormal CVR in a group of patients with Moyamoya disease, and again validated the results using the conventional gas inhalation method. Our results showed that global BOLD signal fluctuation in the frequency range of 0.02-0.04Hz contains the most prominent contribution from natural variation in arterial CO2. The CVR map calculated using this signal as a regressor is reproducible across runs (ICC=0.91±0.06), and manifests a strong spatial correlation with results measured with a conventional hypercapnia-based method in healthy subjects (r=0.88, p<0.001). We also found that resting-state CVR was able to identify vasodilatory deficit in patients with steno-occlusive disease, the spatial pattern of which matches that obtained using the conventional gas method (r
Fujita, K; Yamasaki, S; Tamaki, N; Fujita, S; Shirakata, S; Matsumoto, S
Cerebro-vascular accident is an uncommon but formidable complication of pregnancy. Faced with these cases, the neurosurgeon and obstetrician might differ in the planning of the treatment, when the interests of mother and child appear to conflict between them. From our clinical data of 5 cases and review of the literatures, the following points should be considered for the management of a cerebro-vascular accident during pregnancy. (1) The possibility of cerebro-vascular accident should be considered in any pregnant patients with neurological symptoms, and full investigation should be done if clini-indicated. (2) Aneurysm and angioma are most often encountered in pregnant patients with a cerebro-vascular accident. (3) Unless labour begins during investigation, a cerebral lesion should be treated before delivery, irrespective of the stage of pregnancy and the method of treatment should be decided primarily on neurosurgical grounds. (4) The time of onset of cerebro-vascular accident may be related to the hemodynamic and hormonal change. It occurs more frequently after the second trimester, when the blood volume and cardiac output reach their peak. (5) Pregnancy per se does not influence the mortality from a cerebro-vascular accident in pregnant patients.
Gupta, Ajay; Nair, Sreejit; Schweitzer, Andrew D.; Kishore, Sirish; Johnson, Carl E.; Comunale, Joseph P.; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Sanelli, Pina C.
Cerebrovascular disease remains a significant public health burden with its greatest impact on the elderly population. Advances in neuroimaging techniques allow detailed and sophisticated evaluation of many manifestations of cerebrovascular disease in the brain parenchyma as well as in the intracranial and extracranial vasculature. These tools continue to contribute to our understanding of the multifactorial processes that occur in the age-dependent development of cerebrovascular disease. Structural abnormalities related to vascular disease in the brain and vessels have been well characterized with CT and MRI based techniques. We review some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms in the aging brain and cerebral vasculature and the related structural abnormalities detectable on neuroimaging, including evaluation of age-related white matter changes, atherosclerosis of the cerebral vasculature, and cerebral infarction. In addition, newer neuroimaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging, perfusion techniques, and assessment of cerebrovascular reserve, are also reviewed, as these techniques can detect physiologic alterations which complement the morphologic changes that cause cerebrovascular disease in the aging brain.Further investigation of these advanced imaging techniques has potential application to the understanding and diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease in the elderly. PMID:23185721
Len, T K; Neary, J P
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or sport-induced concussion has recently become a prominent concern not only in the athletic setting (i.e. sports venue) but also in the general population. The majority of research to date has aimed at understanding the neurological and neuropsychological outcomes of injury as well as return-to-play guidelines. Remaining relatively unexamined has been the pathophysiological aspect of mTBI. Recent technological advances including transcranial Doppler ultrasound and near infrared spectroscopy have allowed researchers to examine the systemic effects of mTBI from rest to exercise, and during both asymptomatic and symptomatic conditions. In this review, we focus on the current research available from both human and experimental (animal) studies surrounding the pathophysiology of mTBI. First, the quest for a unified definition of mTBI, its historical development and implications for future research is discussed. Finally, the impact of mTBI on the control and regulation of cerebral blood flow, cerebrovascular reactivity, cerebral oxygenation and neuroautonomic cardiovascular regulation, all of which may be compromised with mTBI, is discussed. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2010 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.
Sachdev, Anil; Sharma, Rachna; Gupta, Dhiren
Cerebrovascular complications are being frequently recognized in the pediatric intensive care unit in the recent few years. The epidemiology and risk factors for pediatric stroke are different from that of the adults. The incidence of ischemic stroke is almost slightly more than that of hemorrhagic stroke. The list of diagnostic causes is increasing with the availability of newer imaging modalities and laboratory tests. The diagnostic work up depends on the age of the child and the rapidity of presentation. Magnetic resonance imaging, computerized tomography and arteriography and venography are the mainstay of diagnosis and to differentiate between ischemic and hemorrhagic events. Very sophisticated molecular diagnostic tests are required in a very few patients. There are very few pediatric studies on the management of stroke. General supportive management is as important as the specific treatment. Most of the treatment guidelines and suggestions are extrapolated from the adult studies. Few guidelines are available for the use of anticoagulants and thrombolytic agents in pediatric patients. So, our objective was to review the available literature on the childhood stroke and to provide an insight into the subject for the pediatricians and critical care providers. PMID:21253346
Nanhoe-Mahabier, Wandana; de Laat, Karlijn F; Visser, Jasper E; Zijlmans, Jan; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Bloem, Bastiaan R
Optimal management of chronic diseases not only requires tackling of the primary disease processes, but also necessitates timely recognition and treatment of comorbid conditions. In this article, we illustrate this two-pronged approach for two common age-related disorders: Parkinson disease (PD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). We first discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms that could provide a link between PD and CVD. Patients with PD have a series of risk factors that could promote development of CVD, but also have several protective factors. We then review the available clinical, radiological and neuropathological evidence to support an association between these two conditions. We conclude by discussing the potential implications for clinical practice, highlighting how comorbid CVD could alter the clinical presentation of PD and reviewing the possibilities for prevention and secondary prophylaxis. Additional research will be needed to fully evaluate the prevalence and clinical relevance of comorbid CVD in PD. Pending further evidence, we recommend that cerebral neuroimaging should be considered if patients with initially uncomplicated PD develop-either acutely or chronically-prominent and/or treatment-resistant gait impairment, postural instability, depression, cognitive decline, or urinary incontinence. Finding comorbid CVD in such patients could have prognostic implications, and could necessitate treatment to arrest further progression of CVD.
Baños-González, Manuel; Cantú-Brito, Carlos; Chiquete, Erwin; Arauz, Antonio; Ruiz-Sandoval, José Luís; Villarreal-Careaga, Jorge; Barinagarrementeria, Fernando; Lozano, José Juan
To analyze the association between the admission systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 30-day outcome in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease. The REgistro NAcional Mexicano de Enfermedad VAScular Cerebral (RENAMEVASC) is a hospital-based multicenter registry performed between November 2002 and October 2004. A total of 2000 patients with clinical syndromes of acute cerebrovascular disease confirmed by neuroimaging were registered. The modified Rankin scale was used for outcome stratification. We analyzed 1721 patients who had registered their SBP: 78 (4.5%) had transient ischemic attack, 894 (51.9%) brain infarction, 534 (30.9%) intracerebral hemorrhage, 165 (9.6%) subarachnoid hemorrhage and 50 (2.9%) cerebral venous thrombosis. Among 1036 (60.2%) patients with the antecedent of hypertension, only 32.4% had regular treatment. The 30-day case fatality rate presented a J pattern with respect to SBP, so that the risk of death was highest in <100 mmHg (37.5%), decreased between 100 and 139, and reached gradually a new zenith in ?220 mmHg (35.3%). The best functional outcome corresponded to patients who had SBP between 100 mmHg and 159 mmHg. In a Cox proportional hazards model, SBP <100 mmHg or ?220 mmHg was an independent risk factor for 30-day mortality (RR: 1.52, IC 95%: 1.07 - 2.15), as well as the antecedent of hypertension (RR: 1.33, IC 95%: 1.06 - 1.65) and age >65 years (RR: 2.16, IC 95%: 1.74 - 2.67). Both hypotension and significant arterial hypertension at hospital admission are associated with an adverse outcome after acute cerebrovascular disease. Nevertheless, a good functional outcome can be attained in a wide range of SBP.
Buterbaugh, John; Wynstra, Charles; Provencio, Natalie; Combs, Daniel; Gilbert, Michael; Parthasarathy, Sairam
Study Objectives: Regional brain alterations may be involved in the pathogenesis and adverse consequences of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The objectives for the current study were to (1) determine cerebrovascular reactivity in the motor areas that control upper airway musculature in patients with OSA, and (2) determine whether young patients with OSA have decreased cerebrovascular reactivity in response to breath holding. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Academic center. Participants: Twelve subjects with OSA (age 24–42 y; apnea-hypopnea index 17; interquartile range [IQR] 9, 69 per hour) and control subjects (n = 10; age 29–44 y; AHI 2; IQR 1, 3 per hour). Measurements and Results: Subjects underwent blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) while awake, swallowing, and breath holding. In subjects with OSA, during swallowing, there was less activity in the brainstem than in controls (P = 0.03) that remained reduced after adjusting for cortical motor strip activity (P = 0.036). In OSA subjects, brain regions of increased cerebrovascular reactivity (38; IQR 17, 96 cm3) was smaller than that in controls (199; IQR 5, 423 cm3; P = 0.01). In OSA subjects, brain regions of decreased cerebrovascular reactivity during breath hold was greater (P = 0.01), and the ratio of increased-to-decreased brain regions was lower than that of controls (P = 0.006). Adjustment for cerebral volumes, body mass index, and white matter lesions did not change these results substantively. Conclusions: In patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), diminished change in brainstem activity during swallowing and reduced cerebrovascular reactivity may contribute to the etiopathogenesis and adverse cerebrovascular consequences, respectively. We speculate that decreased cerebral auto-regulation may be causative of gray matter loss in OSA. Citation: Buterbaugh J, Wynstra C, Provencio N, Combs D, Gilbert M, Parthasarathy S. Cerebrovascular reactivity in
Miller, S.; Richmond, I.; Borgos, J.; Mitra, K.
Alterations to cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been implicated in diverse neurological conditions, including mild traumatic brain injury, microgravity induced intracranial pressure (ICP) increases, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-measured regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) provides an estimate of oxygenation of the interrogated cerebral volume that is useful in identifying trends and changes in oxygen supply to cerebral tissue and has been used to monitor cerebrovascular function during surgery and ventilation. In this study, CO2-inhalation-based hypercapnic breathing challenges were used as a tool to simulate CBF dysregulation, and NIRS was used to monitor the CBF autoregulatory response. A breathing circuit for the selective administration of CO2-compressed air mixtures was designed and used to assess CBF regulatory responses to hypercapnia in 26 healthy young adults using non-invasive methods and real-time sensors. After a 5 or 10 minute baseline period, 1 to 3 hypercapnic challenges of 5 or 10 minutes duration were delivered to each subject while rSO2, partial pressure of end tidal CO2 (PETCO2), and vital signs were continuously monitored. Change in rSO2 measurements from pre- to intrachallenge (ΔrSO2) detected periods of hypercapnic challenges. Subjects were grouped into three exercise factor levels (hr/wk), 1: 0, 2:>0 and <10, and 3:>10. Exercise factor level 3 subjects showed significantly greater ΔrSO2 responses to CO2 challenges than level 2 and 1 subjects. No significant difference in ΔPETCO2 existed between these factor levels. Establishing baseline values of rSO2 in clinical practice may be useful in early detection of CBF changes.
Love, Seth; Miners, J Scott
Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have more in common than their association with ageing. They share risk factors and overlap neuropathologically. Most patients with AD have Aβ amyloid angiopathy and degenerative changes affecting capillaries, and many have ischaemic parenchymal abnormalities. Structural vascular disease contributes to the ischaemic abnormalities in some patients with AD. However, the stereotyped progression of hypoperfusion in this disease, affecting first the precuneus and cingulate gyrus, then the frontal and temporal cortex and lastly the occipital cortex, suggests that other factors are more important, particularly in early disease. Whilst demand for oxygen and glucose falls in late disease, functional MRI, near infrared spectroscopy to measure the saturation of haemoglobin by oxygen, and biochemical analysis of myelin proteins with differential susceptibility to reduced oxygenation have all shown that the reduction in blood flow in AD is primarily a problem of inadequate blood supply, not reduced metabolic demand. Increasing evidence points to non-structural vascular dysfunction rather than structural abnormalities of vessel walls as the main cause of cerebral hypoperfusion in AD. Several mediators are probably responsible. One that is emerging as a major contributor is the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (EDN1). Whilst there is clearly an additive component to the clinical and pathological effects of hypoperfusion and AD, experimental and clinical observations suggest that the disease processes also interact mechanistically at a cellular level in a manner that exacerbates both. The elucidation of some of the mechanisms responsible for hypoperfusion in AD and for the interactions between CVD and AD has led to the identification of several novel therapeutic approaches that have the potential to ameliorate ischaemic damage and slow the progression of neurodegenerative disease.
Wei, Corie W; Montanera, Walter; Selchen, Daniel; Lian, Jackie; Stevens, Christopher; de Tilly, Lyne Noël
Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) to the carotid and vertebral arteries is a potentially devastating injury in trauma patients. The optimal management for BCVI has not been standardized. At our institution, 64-slice multi-detector computed tomographic angiography (CTA) has been used as the initial screening exam for BCVI in patients who met predefined screening criteria. The purpose of this study is to review the incidence of CTA-diagnosed BCVI in at-risk patients and to evaluate the treatment and clinical outcome of patients with BCVI. This study included trauma patients with a positive diagnosis of BCVI on CTA during a 41-month study period. The medical records and relevant radiographic findings were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty seven of 222 blunt trauma patients evaluated with CTA had a positive diagnosis of BCVI, with an occurrence rate of 12.2%. Traumatic brain injury (72.2%) and basal skull fractures (55.6%) were the most frequent associated injuries with carotid trauma while 100% of blunt vertebral injuries occurred in the setting of cervical fractures. Fourteen (51.8%) patients received medical therapy; Eleven (40.7%) patients received conservative treatment. Endovascular treatment was attempted in a single case of vertebral arteriovenous fistula. BCVI-related stroke was found in four patients (14.8%), one of whom developed an infarct while on medical treatment. BCVI is found in a significant portion of blunt trauma patients with identifiable risk factors, and screening CTA has high diagnostic yield in detecting these lesions. Medical therapy is the mainstay of treatment at our institution; however, BCVI-related stroke may occur despite treatment.
Moore, Justin M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Gupta, Raghav; Adeeb, Nimer; Patel, Apar S; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Thomas, Ajith J
The management of cerebrovascular disease has advanced considerably in 2015. Five randomized control trials have firmly established the role of endovascular thrombectomy for ischemic strokes due to large vessel occlusion. The randomized trial of intraarterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke (MR CLEAN) (Berkhemer et al. NEJM 2015;372:11-20) was the first of a series on the topic. There was a total of 5 randomized controlled trials published showing benefit in terms of functional outcomes at 90days for mechanical thrombectomy including the Endovascular Therapy for Ischemic stroke with perfusion-imaging selection (EXTEND IA) (Campbell et al. NEJM 2015;372:1009-18), the Randomized assessment of rapid endovascular treatment of ischemic stroke (ESCAPE) (Goyal et al. NEJM 2015;372:1019-30) trials, the stent-retriever thrombectomy after IV t-PA is t-PA alone in stroke (SWIFT-PRIME) (Saver et al. NEJM 2015;372:2285-95), and the thrombectomy within 8h after symptom onset in Ischemic stroke (REVASCAT) trial (Jovin et al. NEJM 2015; 372:2296-306). Six-year results from randomized controlled Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial (BRAT) found no significant difference in functional outcomes in patients ruptured aneurysms treated surgically clippings versus endovascular treatment (Spetzler et al. JNS 2015;123:609-17. The 10-year results of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm trial (ISAT) reported similar mortality rates and good functional outcomes between clipped and coiled patients (Molyneux et al. Lancet 2015;385:691-7). We also discuss the impact of genome wide sequencing studies in familial aneurysms, the largest publication on stent assisted coiling and flow diverter for aneurysms and noteworthy papers relevant to Moyamoya and cavernous malformations (Yang et al. Neurosurgery 2015;77:241-7). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brea, Angel; Laclaustra, Martín; Martorell, Esperanza; Pedragosa, Angels
In Spain, cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is a very common cause of morbidity and hospitalization. They are the second leading cause of mortality in the general population, and the first in women. They also constitute a very high social spending, which is estimated to increase in coming years, due to the aging of our population. Data from the Hospital Morbidity Survey of the National Statistics Institute recorded, in 2011, 116,017 strokes and 14,933 transient ischemic attacks, corresponding, respectively, to an incidence of 252 and 32 events per 100,000 people. In 2002, the cost of hospitalization for each stroke was estimated at €3,047. The amount of total cost health care throughout the life of a stroke patient is calculated at €43,129. Internationally, the direct costs of stroke constitute 3% of national health spending, this being similar amount in different countries around us. Hypertension was the cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) more prevalent in both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, followed by dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Peripheral arterial disease and hypertension were more frequently associated with atherothrombotic events, atrial fibrillation with cardioembolic strokes, and obesity and high blood pressure to lacunar infarcts. In Spain, as showing several studies, we are far from optimal control of CVRF, especially in secondary prevention of stroke. According to the ICTUSCARE study, achieving recommended values was 17.6% in the case of hypertension, 29.8% in LDL-cholesterol, 74.9% of smoking, and 50.2% in diabetes mellitus. In this review, we analyze in detail the epidemiology, prevention and costs originated by CVD.
Bell, E David; Donato, Anthony J; Monson, Kenneth L
significantly different immediately after overstretch, the change to EC50 persisted for 60min. These results indicate that deformation can alter SMC contractile behavior and thus potentially play a role in cerebrovascular autoregulatory dysfunction independent of the pathological chemical environment in the brain post-TBI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Agnoli, A; Denaro, A; Ruggieri, S
Chronic cerebro-vascular disorders could be considered in a broad sense as a large body of knowledge in which three main categories of clinical disturbances have to be be considered: 1) Pathological aging that manifest itself with light short term memory impairment associated with a mild parkinsonian symptomatology or pseudobulbar signs. 2) Senile dementia Alzheimer type and multi infarct dementia. 3) Chronic cerebro-vascular disorders as defined by the Ad Hoc Committee (Paris, 1980). At present the therapy of chronic cerebro-vascular disorders is based on two main groups of drugs and can be divided into: 1) A treatment of prevention or secondary prevention which tends to correct or modify the different risk factors. 2) A treatment that seeks to control and modify the neurological and neuropsychological after effects and the disorders of the higher nervous activities which result from the lesion.
Byard, Roger W
A case of intracerebral hemorrhage in Turner syndrome is reported with an analysis of possible causes of cerebrovascular accidents in this condition. A 42-year-old woman with known Turner syndrome died soon after hospital admission having been found unconscious at her home address. At autopsy, she showed typical features of Turner syndrome with short stature, webbing of the neck, underdeveloped breasts, and an increased carrying angle of the arm. Death was due to a large left-sided intracerebral hemorrhage extending from the left basal ganglia into the white matter of the frontal lobe and lateral ventricle. Cases of unexpected death in Turner syndrome may arise from occult cerebrovascular accidents which may be hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic. Associated features include hypertension, vascular malformations, accelerated atherogenesis, cystic medial necrosis, and moyamoya syndrome. The possibility of Turner syndrome should be considered in cases where there has been a lethal cerebrovascular event in a younger woman.
Agyare, Edward K; Jaruszewski, Kristen M; Curran, Geoffry L; Rosenberg, Jens T; Grant, Samuel C; Lowe, Val J; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Paravastu, Anant K; Poduslo, Joseph F; Kandimalla, Karunya K
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by the deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) proteins within the walls of the cerebral vasculature with subsequent aggressive vascular inflammation leading to recurrent hemorrhagic strokes. The objective of the study was to develop theranostic nanovehicles (TNVs) capable of a) targeting cerebrovascular amyloid; b) providing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast for the early detection of CAA; and c) treating cerebrovascular inflammation resulting from CAA. The TNVs comprised of a polymeric nanocore made from Magnevist (MRI contrast agent) conjugated chitosan. The nanocore was also loaded with cyclophosphamide (CYC), an immunosuppressant shown to reduce the cerebrovascular inflammation in CAA. Putrescine modified F(ab')2 fragment of anti-amyloid antibody, IgG4.1 (pF(ab')24.1) was conjugated to the surface of the nanocore to target cerebrovascular amyloid. The average size of the control chitosan nanoparticles (conjugated with albumin and are devoid of Magnevist, CYC, and pF(ab')24.1) was 164±1.2 nm and that of the TNVs was 239±4.1 nm. The zeta potential values of the CCNs and TNVs were 21.6±1.7 mV and 11.9±0.5 mV, respectively. The leakage of Magnevist from the TNVs was a modest 0.2% over 4 days, and the CYC release from the TNVs followed Higuchi's model that describes sustained drug release from polymeric matrices. The studies conducted in polarized human microvascular endothelial cell monolayers (hCMEC/D3) in vitro as well as in mice in vivo have demonstrated the ability of TNVs to target cerebrovascular amyloid. In addition, the TNVs provided contrast for imaging cerebrovascular amyloid using MRI and single photon emission computed tomography. Moreover, the TNVs were shown to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine production by the Aβ challenged blood brain barrier (BBB) endothelium more effectively than the cyclophosphamide alone.
Iurov, I V
A comparative analysis was done of prevalence, incidence rates, and mortality from cerebrovascular disorders (CVD), including cerebral insults, in Mariupol over the period 1999-2000. Submitted in the paper are CVD epidemiological findings from the Donetsk region, Ukraine. Of much interest to us was studying prevalence, risk factors for CVD development among those workers occupied in labour at large industrial enterprises in Mariupol, with which purpose sampling population studies were made among workers occupied in labour at the Illyich Integrated Iron-and-Steel Works and seaport. During the course of the above studies epidemiological indices were examined together with risk factors for development of cerebrovascular disorders.
Zlokovic, Berislav V
Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) has 3 isoforms: apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4. APOE4 is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease and is associated with dementia in Down syndrome and poor neurological outcome after traumatic brain injury, cerebral hemorrhage, and other neuropathological disorders. While apoE4 can induce neuropathology by participating in various cellular and molecular pathways, herein I review data supporting the hypothesis that apoE4 has direct toxic effects on the cerebrovascular system that in turn can lead to secondary neuronal dysfunction and degeneration as well as accumulation of neurotoxins in brain such as β-amyloid (Aβ) in Alzheimer disease. I review Aβ-independent cerebrovascular effects of apoE, particularly activation of a proinflammatory cyclophilin A-mediated pathway in brain vascular pericytes by apoE4 that has recently been shown to lead to a loss of cerebrovascular integrity and blood-brain barrier breakdown causing neuronal injury. I also review Aβ-dependent cerebrovascular effects of apoE such as faulty Aβ clearance from brain to circulation by apoE4. Finally, I discuss isoform-specific interactions of apoE with low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 on brain vascular cells (ie, endothelial cells, pericytes), which play an important role in Aβ-independent and Aβ-dependent effects of apoE on cerebral vasculature.
Colon, E J; de Weerd, J P; Notermans, S L; Vingerhoets, H M
Of our patients who underwent quantitative Doppler sonography (Haemato-Tacho-Graphy), 382 underwent carotid angiography and 61 vertebral artery angiography. The reliability of the method proved to be between 90 and 95 percent for carotid as well as for vertebral arteries. The HTG proved to be a useful addition to angiography in patients with extracranial cerebro-vascular stenosis.
Svaldi, Diana O; Joshi, Chetas; Robinson, Meghan E; Shenk, Trey E; Abbas, Kausar; Nauman, Eric A; Leverenz, Larry J; Talavage, Thomas M
Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is impaired following brain injury, increasing susceptibility to subsequent injury. CVR was tracked in football and non-collision athletes throughout one season. CVR transiently decreased in football athletes during the first half of the season. Results indicate the brain adapts slowly to increases in loading, increasing risk for injury.
Bragin, Denis E.; Statom, Gloria; Nemoto, Edwin M.
SUMMARY We previously suggested that the discrepancy between the critical cerebral perfusion pressures (CPP) of 30 mmHg, obtained by increasing intracranial pressure (ICP), and 60 mmHg, obtained by decreasing arterial pressure, was due to pathological microvascular shunting at high ICP  and that the determination of the critical CPP by the static cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation curve is not valid with intracranial hypertension. Here we demonstrated that critical CPP, measured by induced dynamic ICP reactivity (iPRx) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVRx), accurately identifies the critical CPP in the hypertensive rat brain which differs from that obtained by the static autoregulation curve. Step changes in CPP from 70 to 50 and 30 mmHg were made by increasing ICP using an artificial cerebrospinal fluid reservoir connected to the cisterna magna. At each CPP, a transient 10-mmHg rise in arterial pressure was induced by bolus i.v. dopamine. iPRx and iCVRx were calculated as ΔICP/ΔMAP and as ΔCBF/ΔMAP, respectively. The critical CPP at high ICP, obtained by iPRx and iCVRx, is 50 mmHg, where compromised capillary flow, transition of blood flow to non-nutritive microvascular shunts, tissue hypoxia and BBB leakage begin to occur, which is higher than the 30 mmHg determined by static autoregulation. PMID:27165917
López-Liria, Remedios; Ferre-Salmerón, Rocío; Arrebola-López, Clara; Granados-Valverde, Rocío; Gobernado-Cabero, Miguel Ángel; Padilla-Góngora, David
Introduccion. El estudio de la eficacia en los tratamientos de rehabilitacion aplicados a pacientes con secuelas tras una enfermedad cerebrovascular (ECV) resulta decisivo en la actualidad para planificar su abordaje desde la sanidad publica y mejorar las directrices de evaluacion y tratamiento existentes. Objetivo. Describir las caracteristicas que presentan los pacientes que han sufrido ECV atendidos por las unidades moviles de rehabilitacion-fisioterapia (UMRF) y como influyen estos tratamientos sobre su recuperacion funcional. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio descriptivo prospectivo en 124 pacientes derivados a las UMRF de la provincia de Almeria entre 2008 y 2011. Se analizaron variables (pre y postratamiento) como las caracteristicas y antecedentes personales, indice de Barthel, escala de espasticidad de Ashworth modificada, dolor (hombro) y escala neurologica canadiense. Resultados. La muestra final estuvo compuesta por 106 participantes (edad media: 73,72 años). El proceso discapacitante fue isquemico en un 77,4%, y la hipertension, el factor de riesgo mas prevalente (81%). La media del indice de Barthel inicial fue de 31,04, y la media del indice final, de 57,62 (t = –11,75; p < 0,001). La escala canadiense mostro una evolucion favorable en el nivel de conciencia, orientacion y lenguaje (p < 0,001). El 56,2% de los pacientes recibio alta por mejoria, sin precisar rehabilitacion ambulatoria adicional. Conclusiones. Los resultados obtenidos reflejan una importante mejora funcional en los pacientes tratados en las UMRF. La rehabilitacion domiciliaria se plantea como una herramienta necesaria para las personas con mayor vulnerabilidad clinica y sin acceso a los cuidados ambulatorios, que logra los beneficios de tratamientos que son efectivos.
Pinto, Antonio; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Fernandez, Paola; Licata, Giuseppe
Cerebrovascular risk represents a progressive and evolving concept owing to the particular distribution of risk factors in patients with ischemic stroke and in light of the newest stroke subtype classifications that account for pathophysiological, instrumental, and clinical criteria. Age represents the strongest nonmodifiable risk factor associated with ischemic stroke, while hypertension constitutes the most important modifiable cerebrovascular risk factor, confirmed by a host of epidemiological data and by more recent intervention trials of primary (HOT, Syst-Eur, LIFE) and secondary (PROGRESS) prevention of stroke in hypertensive patients. To be sure, a curious relationship exists between stroke and diabetes. Although the Framingham Study, The Honolulu Heart Program, and a series of Finnish studies reported a linear relationship between improved glucose metabolism and cerebral ischemia, the clinical and prognostic profile of diabetic patients with ischemic stroke remains to be fully understood. Our group, on the basis of TOAST classification--a diagnostic classification of ischemic stroke developed in 1993 that distinguishes five different clinical subtypes of ischemic stroke: large-artery atherosclerosis (LAAS), cardioembolic infarct (CEI), lacunar infarct (LAC), stroke of other determined origin (ODE), and stroke of undetermined origin (UDE), and now extensively used in clinical and scientific context--analysed the prevalence of cerebrovascular risk factors and the distribution of TOAST subtypes in more 300 patients with acute ischemic stroke in two consecutives studies that reported the significant association between diabetes and the lacunar subtype and a better clinical outcome for diabetic patients, most likely related to the higher prevalence of the lacunar subtype. Well-confirmed are the roles of cigarette smoking, atrial fibrillation, and asymptomatic carotid stenosis as cerebrovascular risk factors. Particularly interesting seems to be the function of
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive chronic disorder and is characterized by β-amyloid plaques and angiopathy, tau pathology, neuronal cell death, and inflammatory responses. The reasons for this disease are not known. This review proposes the hypothesis that a chronic mild longlasting cerebrovascular dysfunction could initiate a cascade of events leading to AD. It is suggested that (vascular) risk factors (e.g. hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, hyperhomocysteinemia) causes either damage of the cerebrovascular system including silent strokes or causes dysregulation of beta-amyloid clearance at the blood-brain barrier resulting in increased brain beta-amyloid. A cascade of subsequent downstream events may lead to disturbed metabolic changes, and neuroinflammation and tau pathology. The role of NGF on the cell death of cholinergic neurons is discussed. Additional risk factors (e.g. acidosis, metals) contribute to plaque development. PMID:21112383
Chen, Junhui; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Chunlei; He, Jianqing; Li, Peipei; Zhou, Jingxu; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Yuhai
Angiographically occult cerebrovascular malformation (AOVM) is a type of complex cerebrovascular malformation that is not visible on digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Vascular malformation coexisting with glioma is clinically rare, and glioma coexisting with AOVM is even more rare. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report glioma coexisting with AOVM in the literature. The present study reports a rare case of glioma coexisting with AOVM in a 30-year-old male patient. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed calcification, hemorrhage and edema in the right frontal lobe. CT angiography revealed a vascular malformation in the right frontal lobe, which was not observed on DSA. Finally, glioma coexisting with AOVM was confirmed by 2.0T magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative pathological examination. The present patient had a positive outcome and no neurological dysfunctions during the 6-month follow-up subsequent to surgery. PMID:27698825
Gan, Yu; Jing, Zheng; Stetler, Ruth Anne; Cao, Guodong
Recent achievements in the understanding of molecular events involved in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) injury have made gene transfer a promising approach for various neurological disorders, including cerebrovascular diseases. However, special obstacles, including the post-mitotic nature of neurons and the blood-brain barrier (BBB), constitute key challenges for gene delivery to the CNS. Despite the various limitations in current gene delivery systems, a spectrum of viral vectors has been successfully used to deliver genes to the CNS. Furthermore, recent advancements in vector engineering have improved the safety and delivery of viral vectors. Numerous viral vector-based clinical trials for neurological disorders have been initiated. This review will summarize the current implementation of viral gene delivery in the context of cerebrovascular diseases including ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In particular, we will discuss the potentially feasible ways in which viral vectors can be manipulated and exploited for use in neural delivery and therapy.
Oomen, Charlotte A; Farkas, Eszter; Roman, Viktor; van der Beek, Eline M; Luiten, Paul G M; Meerlo, Peter
Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol abundant in grapes and red wine, has been reported to exert numerous beneficial health effects. Among others, acute neuroprotective effects of resveratrol have been described in several models of neurodegeneration, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we examined the neuroprotective effects of long-term dietary supplementation with resveratrol in mice on behavioral, neurochemical and cerebrovascular level. We report a preserved cognitive function in resveratrol-treated aging mice, as shown by an enhanced acquisition of a spatial Y-maze task. This was paralleled by a higher microvascular density and a lower number of microvascular abnormalities in comparison to aging non-treated control animals. We found no effects of resveratrol supplementation on cholinergic cell number or fiber density. The present findings support the hypothesis that resveratrol exerts beneficial effects on the brain by maintaining cerebrovascular health. Via this mechanism resveratrol can contribute to the preservation of cognitive function during aging.
expressed as mean ± SD. There was no statistical treament for data on the 24 pigs (Table 1); only percentage values were calculated. All applied...new, promising field for use of liposomes as a vehicle is in the treatment of cerebrovascular disease through gene therapy (Saito et al., 2004; Shi...brain by means of liposomes. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 136:219-229. Toyoda, K., Chu, Y., Heistad, D. D. (2003). Gene therapy for cerebral vascular disease
Goswami, Dheeraj; McLeod, Katherine; Leonard, Samantha; Kibler, Kathleen; Easley, Ronald Blaine; Fraser, Charles D; Andropoulos, Dean; Brady, Ken
Clinical studies measuring cerebral blood flow in infants during deep hypothermia have demonstrated diminished cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation. The coexistence of hypotension in these cohorts confounds the conclusion that deep hypothermia impairs cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation. We sought to compare the lower limit of autoregulation and the static rate of autoregulation between normothermic and hypothermic piglets. Twenty anesthetized neonatal piglets (5-7 days old; 10 normothermic and 10 hypothermic to 20°C) had continuous measurements of cortical red cell flux using laser Doppler flowmetry, while hemorrhagic hypotension was induced without cardiopulmonary bypass. Lower limit of autoregulation was determined for each subject using piecewise regression and SRoR was determined above and below each lower limit of autoregulation as (%change cerebrovascular resistance/%change cerebral perfusion pressure). The estimated difference in lower limit of autoregulation was 1.4 mm Hg (lower in the hypothermic piglets; 95% C.I. -10 to 14 mm Hg; P=0.6). The median lower limit of autoregulation in the normothermic group was 39 mm Hg [IQR 38-51] vs 35 mm Hg [31-50] in the hypothermic group. Intact steady-state pressure autoregulation was defined as static rate of autoregulation >0.5 and was demonstrated in all normothermic subjects (static rate of autoregulation=0.72 [0.65-0.87]) and in 9/10 of the hypothermic subjects (static rate of autoregulation=0.65 [0.52-0.87]). This difference in static rate of autoregulation of 0.06 (95% C.I. -0.3 to 0.1) was not significant (P=0.4). Intact steady-state cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation is demonstrated in a swine model of profound hypothermia. Lower limit of autoregulation and static rate of autoregulation were similar in hypothermic and normothermic subjects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Spinelli, Mariacarmela; Demitri, Christian; Sannino, Alessandro; Peruzzotti-Jametti, Luca; Bacigaluppi, Marco; Comi, Giancarlo; Corea, Francesco
The field of neurovascular ultrasound is growing rapidly with new applications. While ultrasound contrast agents were initially used to overcome poor transcranial bone windows for identification of cerebral arteries, newgeneration microbubbles in combination with innovative contrast-specific ultrasound techniques now enable potential therapeutic procedures. This article will provide a review of recent and emerging developments along with patents in ultrasound technology and contrast-specific therapeutic techniques for cerebrovascular patients.
Tugcu, Aylin; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Rundek, Tatjana; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Nakanishi, Koki; Shames, Sofia; Wright, Clinton B; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R
Aortic arch plaque (AAP) is a risk factor for ischemic stroke, but its association with subclinical cerebrovascular disease is not established. We investigated the association between AAP and subclinical cerebrovascular disease in an elderly stroke-free community-based cohort. The CABL study (Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions) was designed to investigate cardiovascular predictors of silent cerebrovascular disease in the elderly. AAPs were assessed by suprasternal transthoracic echocardiography in 954 participants. Silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) were assessed by brain magnetic resonance imaging. The association of AAP thickness with silent brain infarcts and WMHV was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Mean age was 71.6±9.3 years; 63% were women. AAP was present in 658 (69%) subjects. Silent brain infarcts were detected in 138 participants (14.5%). In multivariate analysis adjusted for potential confounders, AAP thickness and large AAP (≥4 mm in thickness) were significantly associated with the upper quartile of WMHV (WMHV-Q4; odds ratio =1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.32; P=0.009 and odds ratio =1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-3.09; P=0.036, respectively), but not with silent brain infarcts (odds ratio =1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.23; P=0.265 and odds ratio =1.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-2.77; P=0.251, respectively). Aortic arch atherosclerosis was associated with WMHV in a stroke-free community-based elderly cohort. This association was stronger in subjects with large plaques and independent of cardiovascular risk factors. Aortic arch assessment by transthoracic echocardiography may help identify subjects at higher risk of subclinical cerebrovascular disease, who may benefit from aggressive stroke risk factors treatment. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Badui, E; Estañol, B; Garcia-Rubi, D
Although it is well known that a myocardial and a cerebral infarction may be coincident, the nature of this association is not clear. The problem is further complicated because the myocardial infarction may be silent. This is a report of 3 patients with cerebral infarct in whom a silent recent myocardial infarction was found. All patients with cerebrovascular disease should be screened for a possible myocardial lesion.
Faerber, E.N.; Griska, L.A.B.; Swartz, J.D.; Capitanio, M.A.; Popky, G.L.
While conventional angiography has been used to demonstrate cerebrovascular occlusive disease in the past, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is capable of showing progressive vascular involvement with ease, simplicity, and extremely low morbidity, making it particularly well suited for children and outpatients either alone or coordinated with computed tomography. The authors discuss the usefulness and advantages of DSA as demonstrated in 7 infants and children with hemiplegia, 4 of whom had sickle-cell disease.
Hammond, Charles K; Eley, Brian; Wieselthaler, Nicky; Ndondo, Alvin; Wilmshurst, Jo M
An estimated 3.2 million children worldwide have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in prolonged survival, leading to an increase in complications previously recognized in adults. Children with HIV infection have increased risk of cerebrovascular disease from multiple aetiologies including HIV-associated vasculopathy, opportunistic vasculitis, cardioembolism or coagulopathy, all of which may be secondary to the infection. Prevalence of cerebrovascular disease in HIV-infected children is underestimated because of limited neuroimaging in low and middle income countries, silent events without overt motor manifestations, and mislabeling as HIV encephalopathy for non-motor manifestations such as behavioural and cognitive difficulties. No management guidelines for cerebrovascular disease in HIV-infected children exist but common practices target risk factors for stroke in low and middle income countries. Where capacity permits, screening for opportunistic infections, vasculitis, coagulopathy and cardioembolism is important. Optimising virological suppression, correction of anaemia, control of seizures and aspirin prophylaxis are management priorities. Neurosurgical interventions may have a role. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.
Kuriyama, Kana; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, Alan R.; Ueno, T.; Ballard, R. E.; Fortney, S. M.
Reduced orthostatic tolerance is commonly observed after space flight, occasionally causing presyncopal conditions. Although the cerebrovascular system may play an important role in presyncope, there have been few reports concerning cerebral hemodynamics during presyncope. The purpose of this study was to investigate cerebrovascular responses during presyncope induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Seven healthy male volunteers were exposed to LBNP in steps of -10 mmHg every 3 min until presyncopal symptoms were detected. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured with a finger cuff. Cerebral tissue oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were estimated using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity at the middle cerebral artery was measured with Transcranial Doppler Sonography (TCD). We focused on the data during the 2 min before endpoint. BP marked a gradual decrease (91 to 86 mmHg from 2 min to 30 sec before endpoint), which was accelerated along with HR decrease during the final 30 sec (86 to 71 mmHg). Cerebral oxy-Hb concentration decreases as presyncope is approached while total-Hb concentration remains fairly constant. TCD reveals a decrease in the CBF velocity. The TCD and NIRS results suggest that CBF decreases along with the BP decrease. Cerebrovascular responses during presyncope are closely related to cardiovascular responses.
Chen, M Y; Ott, D J; Peele, V N; Gelfand, D W
Forty-six patients with cerebrovascular disease underwent videofluoroscopic examination of the oropharynx to assess location and severity of swallowing dysfunction with use of boluses of various consistencies. Low- and high-viscosity barium suspensions, a barium paste, and a paste-coated cookie were used; not all patients were given all materials. Thirty-nine patients had abnormalities of both oral and pharyngeal function. Two patients had oral dysfunction only, and five had pharyngeal abnormalities only. Mild swallowing difficulties occurred in 18 patients (39%), moderate dysfunction in 23 (50%), and severe dysfunction in five (11%). Thirty-one patients had pharyngeal stasis, which was symmetric in 25 patients (81%), right-sided in three, and left-sided in three. Asymmetric stasis did not correlate to the site of cerebrovascular disease. Twenty-four episodes of aspiration occurred, half of them with the low-viscosity barium suspension. Thus, video-fluoroscopy can be used to define the location and severity of oropharyngeal abnormalities, which is critical for feeding recommendations. The abnormalities present, however, were not useful in predicting the type of cerebrovascular disease.
Cooper, Leroy L.; Woodard, Todd; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; van Buchem, Mark A.; Torjesen, Alyssa A.; Inker, Lesley A.; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Harris, Tamara B.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J.; Mitchell, Gary F.
Aortic stiffness is associated with cognitive decline. Here, we examined the association between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and cognitive function and investigated whether cerebrovascular remodeling and parenchymal small vessel disease damage mediate the relation. Analyses were based on 1820 (60% women) participants in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility – Reykjavik Study. Multivariable linear regression models adjusted for vascular and demographic confounders showed that higher carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was related to lower memory score (standardized β: −0.071±0.023; P=0.002). Cerebrovascular resistance and white matter hyperintensities were each associated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and memory (P<0.05). Together, cerebrovascular resistance and white matter hyperintensities (total indirect effect: −0.029; 95% CI: −0.043, −0.017) attenuated the direct relation between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and memory (direct effect: −0.042; 95% CI: −0.087, 0.003; P=0.07) and explained approximately 41% of the observed effect. Our results suggest that in older adults, associations between aortic stiffness and memory are mediated by pathways that include cerebral microvascular remodeling and microvascular parenchymal damage. PMID:26573713
Low, P. A.; Novak, V.; Spies, J. M.; Novak, P.; Petty, G. W.
Patients with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) have symptoms of orthostatic intolerance despite having a normal orthostatic blood pressure (BP), which suggests some impairment of cerebrovascular regulation. Cerebrovascular autoregulation refers to the maintenance of normal cerebral blood flow in spite of changing BP. Mechanisms of autoregulation include myogenic, metabolic and neurogenic vasoregulation. Beat-to-beat recording of blood-flow velocity (BFV) is possible using transcranial Doppler imaging. It is possible to evaluate autoregulation by regressing deltaBFV to deltaBP during head-up tilt. A number of dynamic methods, relating deltaBFV to deltaBP during sudden induced changes in BP by occluding then releasing peripheral arterial flow or by the Valsalva maneuver. The deltaBFV to deltaBP provides an index of autoregulation. In orthostatic hypotension, the autoregulated range is typically expanded. In contrast, paradoxical vasoconstriction occurs in POTS because of an increased depth of respiration, resulting in hypocapnic cerebrovascular constriction, and impaired autoregulation.
Lam, Virginie; Hackett, Mark; Takechi, Ryusuke
A number of natural and chemical compounds that exert anti-oxidative properties are demonstrated to be beneficial for brain and cognitive function, and some are reported to reduce the risk of dementia. However, the detailed mechanisms by which those anti-oxidative compounds show positive effects on cognition and dementia are still unclear. An emerging body of evidence suggests that the integrity of the cerebrovascular blood-brain barrier (BBB) is centrally involved in the onset and progression of cognitive impairment and dementia. While recent studies revealed that some anti-oxidative agents appear to be protective against the disruption of BBB integrity and structure, few studies considered the neuroprotective effects of antioxidants in the context of cerebrovascular integrity. Therefore, in this review, we examine the mechanistic insights of antioxidants as a pleiotropic agent for cognitive impairment and dementia through a cerebrovascular axis by primarily focusing on the current available data from physiological studies. Conclusively, there is a compelling body of evidence that suggest antioxidants may prevent cognitive decline and dementia by protecting the integrity and function of BBB and, indeed, further studies are needed to directly examine these effects in addition to underlying molecular mechanisms.
Lam, Virginie; Hackett, Mark; Takechi, Ryusuke
A number of natural and chemical compounds that exert anti-oxidative properties are demonstrated to be beneficial for brain and cognitive function, and some are reported to reduce the risk of dementia. However, the detailed mechanisms by which those anti-oxidative compounds show positive effects on cognition and dementia are still unclear. An emerging body of evidence suggests that the integrity of the cerebrovascular blood-brain barrier (BBB) is centrally involved in the onset and progression of cognitive impairment and dementia. While recent studies revealed that some anti-oxidative agents appear to be protective against the disruption of BBB integrity and structure, few studies considered the neuroprotective effects of antioxidants in the context of cerebrovascular integrity. Therefore, in this review, we examine the mechanistic insights of antioxidants as a pleiotropic agent for cognitive impairment and dementia through a cerebrovascular axis by primarily focusing on the current available data from physiological studies. Conclusively, there is a compelling body of evidence that suggest antioxidants may prevent cognitive decline and dementia by protecting the integrity and function of BBB and, indeed, further studies are needed to directly examine these effects in addition to underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:27999412
Sipos, Kornel; Bodo, Michael; Szalay, Piroska; Szucs, Attila
In order to test the hypothesis that anxiety is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, specifically stroke, we simultaneously measured anxiety and cerebral vascular alternation, using a computer-based system, "Cerberus." Sixty nine psychiatric patients (including an alcoholic subgroup) were selected as subjects for measurements conducted in Kecskemet, Hungary. The five-item short form of anxiety test (STAI) was administered twice during the same session. Between each test, brain pulse waves were recorded by rheoencephalogram (REG). A REG peak time above 180 milliseconds was considered a cerebrovascular alteration (modified after Jenkner). Data were sorted into two groups: low anxiety (N=10) and high anxiety (N=10). Significant differences were found between cardiovascular risk factors (p< 0.001), REG peak time (p<0.043), and heart rate (p< 0.045). Six subjects showed cerebrovascular alteration in the high anxiety group, and two in the low anxiety group. For the two anxiety groups, there were no significant differences in body mass index, cardiovascular sympathetic-parasympathetic balance, age and symptoms of transient ischemic attack. The correlation of REG and age was significantly different only for the alcoholic subgroup (Szalay et al, 2007). These data support the hypothesis that a correlation exists between cerebrovascular disorder and anxiety in the studied population.
Kuriyama, Kana; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, Alan R.; Ueno, T.; Ballard, R. E.; Fortney, S. M.
Reduced orthostatic tolerance is commonly observed after space flight, occasionally causing presyncopal conditions. Although the cerebrovascular system may play an important role in presyncope, there have been few reports concerning cerebral hemodynamics during presyncope. The purpose of this study was to investigate cerebrovascular responses during presyncope induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Seven healthy male volunteers were exposed to LBNP in steps of -10 mmHg every 3 min until presyncopal symptoms were detected. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured with a finger cuff. Cerebral tissue oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were estimated using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity at the middle cerebral artery was measured with Transcranial Doppler Sonography (TCD). We focused on the data during the 2 min before endpoint. BP marked a gradual decrease (91 to 86 mmHg from 2 min to 30 sec before endpoint), which was accelerated along with HR decrease during the final 30 sec (86 to 71 mmHg). Cerebral oxy-Hb concentration decreases as presyncope is approached while total-Hb concentration remains fairly constant. TCD reveals a decrease in the CBF velocity. The TCD and NIRS results suggest that CBF decreases along with the BP decrease. Cerebrovascular responses during presyncope are closely related to cardiovascular responses.
Huttenlocher, P.R.; Moohr, J.W.; Johns, L.; Brown, F.D.
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been studied by the xenon-133 (/sup 133/Xe) inhalation method in 16 children with suspected sickle cell cerebrovascular disease. Abnormalities consisting of decreases in total, hemispheral, or regional CBF were found in 17 of 26 studies. Eleven studies performed immediately after stroke, transient ischemic attack, or depression of state of alertness showed abnormalities. In addition to confirming regional cerebrovascular insufficiency in children with stroke due to major cerebral artery occlusion, the method detected diffuse decrease in CBF in children with stupor, coma, and seizures who had normal angiographic findings. In contrast, six of seven studies obtained after exchange transfusion or during maintenance on hypertransfusion therapy showed normal findings. The difference between results in patients with acute neurologic disturbances and those receiving transfusion therapy was statistically significant (P less than .005). The data indicate that the /sup 133/Xe method reliably demonstrates cerebrovascular impairment in sickle cell disease. They also suggest that CBF changes in patients with sickle cell disease can be reversed by exchange transfusion and by hypertransfusion therapy. The /sup 133/Xe CBF method may be useful for following up children with sickle cell disease who are at high risk for recurrent stroke.
Toledo, Jon B; Arnold, Steven E; Raible, Kevin; Brettschneider, Johannes; Xie, Sharon X; Grossman, Murray; Monsell, Sarah E; Kukull, Walter A; Trojanowski, John Q
Cerebrovascular disease and vascular risk factors are associated with Alzheimer's disease, but the evidence for their association with other neurodegenerative disorders is limited. Therefore, we compared the prevalence of cerebrovascular disease, vascular pathology and vascular risk factors in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases and correlate them with dementia severity. Presence of cerebrovascular disease, vascular pathology and vascular risk factors was studied in 5715 cases of the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Centre database with a single neurodegenerative disease diagnosis (Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration due to tau, and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 immunoreactive deposits, α-synucleinopathies, hippocampal sclerosis and prion disease) based on a neuropathological examination with or without cerebrovascular disease, defined neuropathologically. In addition, 210 'unremarkable brain' cases without cognitive impairment, and 280 cases with pure cerebrovascular disease were included for comparison. Cases with cerebrovascular disease were older than those without cerebrovascular disease in all the groups except for those with hippocampal sclerosis. After controlling for age and gender as fixed effects and centre as a random effect, we observed that α-synucleinopathies, frontotemporal lobar degeneration due to tau and TAR DNA-binding protein 43, and prion disease showed a lower prevalence of coincident cerebrovascular disease than patients with Alzheimer's disease, and this was more significant in younger subjects. When cerebrovascular disease was also present, patients with Alzheimer's disease and patients with α-synucleinopathy showed relatively lower burdens of their respective lesions than those without cerebrovascular disease in the context of comparable severity of dementia at time of death. Concurrent cerebrovascular disease is a common neuropathological finding in aged subjects with dementia, is more common in Alzheimer
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Glazer, Hilary; Dong, Chuanhui; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L; DeCarli, Charles; Stern, Yaakov; Wright, Clinton B
Memory has been examined in subjects with imaging markers of cerebrovascular disease, but learning has been less well studied. We examined the relationship among subclinical cerebrovascular disease, cerebral volumes, and verbal learning in an ethnically and racially diverse community sample. A clinically stroke-free subset of Northern Manhattan Study participants underwent cognitive testing and brain MRI with quantification of white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) and total cerebral volume (TCV) using semiautomated segmentation. We used generalized linear regression and mixed models to examine the association between imaging findings and verbal learning. There were 1,272 participants (61% women, mean age 70 ± 9 years). Participants with greater WMHV and smaller TCV remembered fewer total words on a list-learning task (β = -0.83 per SD change in WMHV, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.22 to -0.45, p < 0.0001; and β = 0.48 per SD change in TCV, 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.90, p = 0.03, respectively). Subclinical brain infarction (SBI) was not associated with total words learned (β = -0.04, 95% CI = -1.08 to 1.00, p = 0.94). Those with greater WMHV had increased odds of a flatter learning slope. After excluding participants with SBI, the association between total words learned and WMHV remained significant. All measurements were adjusted for age, education, race/ethnicity, medical insurance status, and the presence of SBI. White matter hyperintensities, a marker of cerebral small vessel disease, may have an impact on learning slope. This suggests that verbal learning performance can be incorporated into neuropsychological measures for vascular cognitive impairment and that cerebrovascular disease discovered on imaging affects the ability to learn new information. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
Vance, Ansar Z; Sivapatham, Thinesh
Background Advantages of radial access over brachial/axillary or femoral access have been well described for several decades and include decreased cost, patient preference, and decreased major access site complications. Despite these advantages, radial access is rarely employed or even considered for neurointerventional procedures. This attitude should be reconsidered given several recent large, randomized, controlled trials from the cardiovascular literature proving that radial access is associated with statistically lower costs, decreased incidence of myocardial infarctions, strokes, and even decreased mortality. Radial access is now considered the standard of care for percutaneous coronary interventions in most US centers. Although radial access has been described for neurovascular procedures in the past, overall experience is limited. The two major challenges are the unique anatomy required to access the cerebral vasculature given very acute angles between the arm and craniocervical vessels and limitations in available technology. Methods We present a simplified approach to radial access for cerebrovascular procedures and provide a concise step-by-step approach for patient selection, ultrasound-guided single-wall access, recommended catheters/wires, and review of patent hemostasis. Additionally, we present a complex cerebrovascular intervention in which standard femoral access was unsuccessful, while radial access was quickly achieved to highlight the importance of familiarity with the radial approach for all neurointerventionalists. Results We have found that the learning curve is not too steep and that the radial access approach can be adopted smoothly for a large percentage of diagnostic and interventional neuroradiologic procedures. Conclusions Radial access should be considered in all patients undergoing a cerebrovascular procedure. PMID:26659807
Preskorn, Sheldon H.; Raichle, Marcus E.; Hartman, Boyd K.
External detection of the annihilation radiation produced by water labeled with oxygen-15 was used to measure cerebrovascular permeability and cerebral blood flow in six rhesus monkeys. Use of oxygen-15 also permitted assessment of cerebral metabolic rate in two of the monkeys. Amitriptyline produced a dose-dependent, reversible increase in permeability at plasma drug concentrations which are therapeutic for depressed patients. At the same concentrations the drug also produced a 20 to 30 percent reduction in cerebral metabolic rate. At higher doses normal autoregulation of cerebral blood flow was suspended, but responsivity to arterial carbon dioxide was normal.
Gault, Judith; Sarin, Hemant; Awadallah, Nabil A; Shenkar, Robert; Awad, Issam A
Cerebrovascular malformations affect more than 3% of the population, exposing them to a lifetime risk of hemorrhagic stroke, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) exhibit an immature vessel wall, a brittle hemorrhagic tendency, and epileptogenesis, whereas arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) lack capillary beds and manifest apoplectic bleeding under high-flow conditions. There are also more benign venous anomalies, capillary malformations, and lesions with mixed and transitional features. Advances have been made toward understanding the natural history, radiological and pathological correlates, and clinical management. Yet, mechanisms of lesion genesis and clinical manifestations remain largely unknown, and the clinical behavior in individual patients is highly unpredictable. Lesion pathogenesis likely involves abnormal assembly or maintenance of blood vessels, resulting in dysmorphic vessel phenotypes. Familial CCM disease is in part caused by mutations in a cytoskeletal-related protein that is likely integral to interendothelial cell connectivity and maturation of the vascular wall. Rare familial forms of AVM disease have been correlated with two different transforming growth factor-beta receptor components, possibly causing disturbance in signaling during vascular assembly. Relevance of these mechanisms to the more common and otherwise identical sporadic CCM and AVM lesions is being explored. In this report, basic mechanisms of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis and how they possibly relate to the common cerebrovascular malformation lesions are reviewed. Novel concepts are discussed related to the cellular, molecular, and genetic substrates in CCM and AVM as well as to how this knowledge can be applied to predict, explain, and possibly modify clinical disease manifestations.
Bowers, Karen J.; deVeber, Gabrielle A.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Roach, E. Steve; Vexler, Zinaida S.; Maria, Bernard L.
Cerebrovascular disease in children manifests in many forms, all of which have devastating and long-lasting effects. Recent advances in diagnostic imaging have revealed that this condition is much more common in the pediatric population than previously believed, affecting as many as 1 in 1500 neonates and 1 in 3000 children. The underlying mechanisms that cause stroke—ischemic stroke, sinovenous thrombosis, and hemorrhagic stroke—are only beginning to be understood; however, progress has been made toward better understanding the mechanisms of disease, particularly in the fields of genetics, inflammation, and thrombus formation. Furthermore, new imaging techniques, and better understanding of how to use imaging in managing stroke, have enabled practitioners to more quickly and accurately identify cerebrovascular disease type in children, which is key to mitigation of negative outcomes. The 2010 Neurobiology of Disease in Children symposium, held in conjunction with the 39th annual meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to (1) describe clinical issues surrounding childhood stroke, including diagnosis and acute care; (2) discuss recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of childhood stroke; (3) review current management of and therapies for childhood stroke, including controversial therapies; and (4) establish research directions for investigators. This article summarizes the speakers’ presentations and includes an edited transcript of question-and-answer sessions. PMID:21778188
Oh, Chang Hyun; Chung, Joonho; Hyun, Dongkeun; Kim, Eunyoung
Purpose This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and stroke in Korean male adolescents. Materials and Methods The authors reviewed all medical certificates, medical records, and radiologic images from the examinations of Korean military conscription from January 2008 to May 2011. Results Of the 101156 examinees, 40 had CVD and stroke during adolescence. The overall prevalence and incidence of CVD and stroke was 39.54 cases per 100000 adolescents and 2.08 cases per 100000 adolescents per year, respectively and these were similar to the worldwide data. There were 3 cases of aneurysm, 3 cases of dural arteriovenous fistula, 11 cases of arteriovenous malformation, 4 cases of cavernous hemangioma, 4 cases of cerebrovascular infarction, 16 cases of Moyamoya disease, and 1 case of missing data. The incidence of arteriovenous malformation (0.57 cases per 100000 adolescents per year) was lower than the incidence for the worldwide general population. The incidence of Moyamoya disease was higher than that in any other country (15.82 cases per 100000 adolescents, vs. 0.83 cases per 100000 adolescents per year). Conclusion We observed ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, each accounting for approximately half of cases, and high incidence of Moyamoya disease with low incidence of arteriovenous malformation in Korean male adolescents. PMID:22476988
Neumann, Jan-Oliver; Giese, Henrik; Nagel, Armin M; Biller, Armin; Unterberg, Andreas; Meinzer, Hans-Peter
There is considerable amount of interindividual variability in the size and location of the vascular territories of the major brain arteries. More data are needed to assess the amount of variability and the possible implications for further research and patient care. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging has been applied in various forms to facilitate noninvasive imaging of cerebrovascular flow territories, but it requires the definition of the flow territory of interest prior to image acquisition. Assessing the vascular territories of the major brain territories by using ultra-high-field time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography. We have developed an alternative method to ASL by simulating cerebrovascular dye injections. Following bias field normalization and segmentation of the vessels from 7 Tesla TOF imaging, a virtual model of the arterial vessel tree was generated and a simulation of dye dispersion into the brain tissue was performed. The results provided by our method are consistent with the data obtained by autoptic dye injection studies in 23 human beings by van der Zwan in 1993. Further technical improvements in imaging and segmentation techniques will improve the accuracy of the method and will facilitate the delineation of flow territories after image acquisition on even smaller subtrees of the cerebral vasculature. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.
Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Greve, Julia Maria D’Andrea
INTRODUCTION There is still no consensus among different specialists on the subject of kinematic variation during the hemiparetic gait, including the main changes that take place during the gait cycle and whether the gait velocity changes the patterns of joint mobility. One of the most frequently discussed joints is the knee. OBJECTIVES This study aims to evaluate the variables found in the angular kinematics of knee joint, and to describe the alterations found in the hemiparetic gait resulting from cerebrovascular injury. METHODS This study included 66 adult patients of both genders with a diagnosis of either right or left hemiparesis resulting from ischemic cerebrovascular injury. All the participants underwent three-dimensional gait evaluation, an the angular kinematics of the joint knee were selected for analysis. RESULTS The results were distributed into four groups formed based on the median of the gait speed and the side of hemiparesis. CONCLUSIONS The relevant clinical characteristics included the important mechanisms of loading response in the stance, knee hyperextension in single stance, and reduction of the peak flexion and movement amplitude of the knee in the swing phase. These mechanisms should be taken into account when choosing the best treatment. We believe that the findings presented here may aid in preventing the occurrence of the problems found, and also in identifying the origin of these problems. PMID:18719753
Goldman, H; Berman, R F; Gershon, S; Murphy, S; Morehead, M; Altman, H J
Regional cerebrovascular permeability-capillary surface area products (rPS) and brain vascular space (BVS) were measured in aging, conscious, unrestrained Sprague-Dawley rats. Three groups of animals were examined: young-mature (6 months), middle-aged (12-14 months), and old (24-26 months) rats. Complex maze learning had been previously characterized in these same animals. Maze learning declined with age. Brain vascular space did not differ significantly with age in any brain region. However, small, but significant age-dependent decreases in rPS (25-33%) were observed. These decreases occurred mainly in the old animals in the basal ganglia and parietal cortex, and in the middle-aged and old rats in the olfactory bulbs. Significant and unexpected positive average correlations between brain permeability-capillary surface area products (PS) and learning errors occurred primarily in young rats and were attributable mainly to changes in 5 of 14 brain regions; hypothalamus, hippocampus, parietal cortex, septal area and superior colliculus. The higher correlations between maze learning errors and PS in young animals may indicate dynamic regulation of this cerebrovascular parameter which is lessened with aging. Average correlations between PS and cerebral blood flow also were determined and found to be generally small and not significant for most brain regions and age groups.
Brass, L.M.; Rattner, Z.
Every year, nearly half a million people in the United States have a stroke. Cerebrovascular disease is the third leading cause of death in the country, and it costs the economy approximately $25 billion annually. SPECT perfusion imaging is a sensitive indicator of stroke. Abnormal patterns of blood flow are recognized either as areas of hypoactivity (focal or diffused) or hyperactivity (hyperemia or luxury perfusion). Lesions are demonstrated earlier by SPECT than by CT or MRI, and the physiologic information from flow imaging is not available from such anatomic studies. Given the significance of stroke and the early sensitivity of SPECT, why do most neurologists not include SPECT in the evaluation of their patients? The authors feel that the answer is that most neurologists do not view SPECT flow imaging as providing additional information beyond the standard clinical and radiologic work-up. This article therefore concentrates on ways in which SPECT imaging can be useful in stroke, identifying the major concerns of clinicians, and demonstrating how some of these concerns can be addressed by SPECT. The goal is to expand the perspective of the nuclear-medicine physician and encourage investigations on urgent clinical problems in the diagnosis and management of patients with cerebrovascular diseases. Additional information may be obtained from several excellent reviews of SPECT imaging in stroke. 73 refs.
Antenatal intrauterine cerebrovascular events were found to play an important role in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain damage. Changes in placental vascular resistance, cardiac contractibility, vessel compliance, and blood viscosity alter the normal dynamics of fetal cerebral circulation. The circulatory mechanisms described in animal fetuses also operate in the human fetus. The isthmus of the aorta represents a watershed area reflecting the redistribution of blood during increased peripheral resistance and hypoxia. The fetal cerebrovascular system acts locally within the skull and interacts with the other components of fetal circulation to compensate by redistribution of blood in case of shortage in resources. The introduction of various sonographic techniques and the collection of data from the arterial and venous cerebral circulation have improved our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in fetal cerebral hemodynamic events. Anatomical and physiological considerations of cerebral vasculature in health and disease are relevant in the research of variations in fetal brain blood perfusion. Changes in flow characteristics in fetal cerebral vasculature can be used for clinical decisions. However, caution is advised before applying research data into practice. The clinical utility is well established in situations of fetal compromise such as growth restriction and anemia.
Schindler, R J
Patients with vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease with cerebrovascular disease (AD + CVD) have dementia associated with underlying CVD. Although diagnosis of VaD is challenging, VaD is typically characterized by a stepwise progression of dementia that is closely associated with stroke and focal neurological findings, and a symptom profile that often includes executive dysfunction leading to decreased ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). In contrast, AD + CVD patients typically present with progressive deterioration of cognition/memory that may also be influenced by concurrent cerebrovascular events. Early diagnosis and intervention are desirable to prevent further decline due to subsequent vascular events. Management of CVD can limit deterioration of cognitive symptoms in VaD patients, and treatment benefits with cholinesterase inhibitors may be realized as improvement above baseline levels in dementia symptoms. Results from a combined analysis of two 24-week, placebo-controlled clinical trials show that donepezil-treated VaD patients improve in cognition, global function, and performance of IADL. In contrast, AD + CVD patients may continue to decline despite management of CVD, and treatment benefits should be recognized as initial improvements followed by stabilization or slowed decline of dementia symptoms over time. In post-marketing studies, donepezil-treated AD and AD + CVD patients show similar benefits in cognition, global function, and quality of life. The results of these studies support the use of donepezil in treatment of patients with VaD or AD + CVD.
LaRovere, Kerri L
A major advantage of transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound is its ability to measure cerebral hemodynamics noninvasively at the patient's bedside. This article summarizes the basic physics and variables used during TCD, recent pediatric data published on the use of TCD in stroke and cerebrovascular disorders and how it may impact diagnosis and management, and some issues to be resolved so that TCD can be put into clinical practice. In sickle cell disease in children, TCD is the gold standard stroke prediction tool. Recent data suggest that TCD may provide important information in ischemic stroke because of other childhood arteriopathies such as moyamoya syndrome, transient or focal cerebral arteriopathy, and genetic/syndromic causes. TCD may also detect cerebral emboli and diagnose right-to-left atrial cardiac shunts in children with cryptogenic stroke and transient ischemic attack. There are many potential clinical applications for TCD in pediatric stroke and cerebrovascular disorders. Additional research in children is needed to determine whether TCD can identify markers of increased stroke risk, elucidate underlying stroke mechanisms, influence the choice of additional testing and treatment, and ultimately impact patient outcomes.
Last, Briana S; García Rubio, Maria-José; Zhu, Carolyn W; Cosentino, Stephanie; Manly, Jennifer J; DeCarli, Charles; Stern, Yaakov; Brickman, Adam M
Background/Study Context: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of cerebrovascular disease and atrophy are common in older adults and are associated with cognitive and medical burden. However, the extent to which they are related to health care expenditures has not been examined. We studied whether increased Medicare expenditures were associated with brain markers of atrophy and cerebrovascular disease in older adults.
Saenko, Ia A; Kovalenko, A V; Likhoshapko, E A; Man'kovskiĭ, B N
To investigate cerebrovascular reactivity in patients with diabetes mellitus complicated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. We examined 34 patients with diabetes mellitus (9 men and 25 women). Functional tests (hypercapnic, cold, orthostatic and others) and indices of cerebral hemodynamics were used for the evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity. There was a decrease in the rate of cerebral blood flow and the deterioration of cerebrovascular reserves in the middle cerebral artery of patients with diabetes mellitus with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and without it in comparison with the appropriate indices of healthy people. At the same time, no differences were found between diabetic patients with - and without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. The abnormalities of the cerebrovascular reactivity can play an important role in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular disease in this group of patients.
Brown, Scott C; Wang, Kefeng; Dong, Chuanhui; Farrell, Mary Beth; Heller, Gary V; Gornik, Heather L; Hutchisson, Marge; Needleman, Laurence; Benenati, James F; Jaff, Michael R; Meier, George H; Perese, Susana; Bendick, Phillip; Hamburg, Naomi M; Lohr, Joann M; LaPerna, Lucy; Leers, Steven A; Lilly, Michael P; Tegeler, Charles; Katanick, Sandra L; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Rundek, Tatjana
Accreditation of cerebrovascular ultrasound laboratories by the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC) and equivalent organizations is supported by the Joint Commission certification of stroke centers. Limited information exists on the accreditation status and geographic distribution of cerebrovascular testing facilities in the United States. Our study objectives were to identify the proportion of IAC-accredited outpatient cerebrovascular testing facilities used by Medicare beneficiaries, describe their geographic distribution, and identify variations in cerebrovascular testing procedure types and volumes by accreditation status. As part of the VALUE (Vascular Accreditation, Location, and Utilization Evaluation) Study, we examined the proportion of IAC-accredited facilities that conducted cerebrovascular testing in a 5% Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services random Outpatient Limited Data Set in 2011 and investigated their geographic distribution using geocoding. Among 7327 outpatient facilities billing Medicare for cerebrovascular testing, only 22% (1640) were IAC accredited. The proportion of IAC-accredited cerebrovascular testing facilities varied by region (χ(2) = 177.1; P < .0001), with 29%, 15%, 13%, and 10% located in the Northeast, South, Midwest, and West, respectively. However, of the total number of cerebrovascular outpatient procedures conducted in 2011 (38,555), 40% (15,410) were conducted in IAC-accredited facilities. Most cerebrovascular testing procedures were carotid duplex, with 40% of them conducted in IAC-accredited facilities. The proportion of facilities conducting outpatient cerebrovascular testing accredited by the IAC is low and varies by region. The growing number of certified stroke centers should be accompanied by more accredited outpatient vascular testing facilities, which could potentially improve the quality of stroke care.
Nicolaides, Andrew N; Kakkos, Stavros K; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Griffin, Maura; Sabetai, Michael; Thomas, Dafydd J; Tegos, Thomas; Geroulakos, George; Labropoulos, Nicos; Doré, Caroline J; Morris, Tim P; Naylor, Ross; Abbott, Anne L
The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. This was a prospective, multicenter, cohort study of patients undergoing medical intervention for vascular disease. Hazard ratios for ICA stenosis, clinical features, and plaque texture features associated with ipsilateral cerebrovascular or retinal ischemic (CORI) events were calculated using proportional hazards models. A total of 1121 patients with 50% to 99% asymptomatic ICA stenosis in relation to the bulb (European Carotid Surgery Trial [ECST] method) were followed-up for 6 to 96 months (mean, 48). A total of 130 ipsilateral CORI events occurred. Severity of stenosis, age, systolic blood pressure, increased serum creatinine, smoking history of more than 10 pack-years, history of contralateral transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or stroke, low grayscale median (GSM), increased plaque area, plaque types 1, 2, and 3, and the presence of discrete white areas (DWAs) without acoustic shadowing were associated with increased risk. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed for predicted risk versus observed CORI events as a measure of model validity. The areas under the ROC curves for a model of stenosis alone, a model of stenosis combined with clinical features and a model of stenosis combined with clinical, and plaque features were 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.64), 0.66 (0.62-0.72), and 0.82 (0.78-0.86), respectively. In the last model, stenosis, history of contralateral TIAs or stroke, GSM, plaque area, and DWAs were independent predictors of ipsilateral CORI events. Combinations of these could stratify patients into different levels of risk for ipsilateral CORI and stroke, with predicted risk close to observed risk. Of the 923 patients with ≥ 70% stenosis, the predicted cumulative
Gorelick, P B; Caplan, L R; Langenberg, P; Hier, D B; Pessin, M; Patel, D; Taber, J
We compared clinical and arteriographic features in 106 patients with symptomatic unilateral carotid territory occlusive disease to determine the frequency and distribution of occlusive arterial lesions in asymptomatic vessels. Among black patients who were predominantly from Chicago, young, and female, there were fewer transient ischemic attacks and myocardial infarcts, less claudication, and more asymptomatic lesions of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral artery stem, and the middle cerebral artery stem. Among white patients predominantly from New England, elderly, and male, there was more frequent and severe occlusive asymptomatic disease at extracranial carotid and vertebral artery sites. Knowledge of the distribution of asymptomatic lesions will help guide evaluation and treatment strategies for patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease.
Kuebler, W M; Kisch-Wedel, H; Kemming, G I; Meisner, F; Bruhn, S; Koehler, C; Flondor, M; Messmer, K; Zwissler, B
Although inhaled nitric oxide (NO(i)) is considered to act selectively on pulmonary vessels, EEG abnormalities and even occasional neurotoxic effects of NO(i) have been proposed. Here, we investigated cerebrovascular effects of increasing concentrations of 5, 10 and 50 ppm NO(i) in seven anesthetized pigs. Cerebral hemodynamics were assessed non-invasively by use of near-infared spectroscopy and indicator dilution techniques. NO(i) increased cerebral blood volume significantly and reversibly. This effect was not attributable to changes of macrohemodynamic parameters or arterial blood gases. Simultaneously, cerebral transit time increased while cerebral blood flow remained unchanged. These data demonstrate a vasodilatory action of NO(i) in the cerebral vasculature, which may occur preferentially in the venous compartment.
Rempfler, Markus; Schneider, Matthias; Ielacqua, Giovanna D.; ...
We introduce a probabilistic approach to vessel network extraction that enforces physiological constraints on the vessel structure. The method accounts for both image evidence and geometric relationships between vessels by solving an integer program, which is shown to yield the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate to the probabilistic model. Starting from an over-connected network, it is pruning vessel stumps and spurious connections by evaluating the local geometry and the global connectivity of the graph. We utilize a high-resolution micro computed tomography (µCT) dataset of a cerebrovascular corrosion cast to obtain a reference network and learn the prior distributions of ourmore » probabilistic model. As a result, we perform experiments on micro magnetic resonance angiography (µMRA) images of mouse brains and discuss properties of the networks obtained under different tracking and pruning approaches.« less
Powers, W.J.; Siegel, B.A.; Davis, H.H.; Mathias, C.J.; Clark, H.B.; Welch, M.J.
We obtained scintigraphic images of the neck from 100 patients with suspected cerebrovascular disease after injecting /sup 111/In-labeled autologous platelets. One or more focuses of increased activity, implying local platelet accumulation, were seen along the course of the cervical carotid arteries in 52 patients. In 64 patients, there was a highly significant correlation between the results of scintigraphy and carotid arteriography (p . 10(6)). There was no significant correlation between the scintigraphic findings and the previous or subsequent occurrence of transient ischemic attack or cerebral infarction in the carotid circulation. These data suggest that factors other than the simple formation of platlet thrombi in the cervical carotid arteries are of primary importance in the pathogenesis of stroke.
Pfeiffer, F E; Homburger, H A; Yanagihara, T
Serum creatine kinase B (CKB) concentrations were measured every 12 hours for five days in 38 patients during acute cerebrovascular diseases and in nine controls. Mean CKB concentration was 6.2 +/- 0.8 ng/mL. The fluctuation of the CKB concentration following ischemic stroke was as notable as the elevation immediately after the ischemic event. The two abnormalities were observed in 13 of 17 patients with acute cerebral infarction, and the extent of abnormalities roughly correlated with the volume of tissue damage. The profiles were normal for patients with transient vascular events. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage demonstrated wide fluctuation along with high CKB concentration. Although transient elevation of the CKB concentration in some patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage was observed after angiography or clinical worsening, the fluctuation in patients with ischemic stroke was not associated with worsening of neurologic conditions or recurrence of ischemic events.
LaPelusa, Michael B.; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Lee, Lesley R.; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary
The development of atherosclerosis is strongly associated with an increased risk for cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), including stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA). Certain unique occupational exposures that individuals in the NASA astronaut corps face, specifically high-performance aircraft training, SCUBA training, and spaceflight, are hypothesized to cause changes to the cardiovascular system. These changes, which include (but are not limited to) oxidative damage as a result of radiation exposure and circadian rhythm disturbance, increased arterial stiffness, and increased carotid-intima-media thickness (CIMT), may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and subsequent CVA. The purpose of this study was to review cases of CVA in the NASA astronaut corps and describe the comorbidities and occupational exposures associated with CVA.
Turner, Martin R; Goldacre, Raph; Talbot, Kevin; Goldacre, Michael J
Objective To use an unbiased method to test a previously reported association between cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) embolisation and the subsequent development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods A hospital record linkage database was used to create cohorts of individuals coded as having cerebral and peripheral vessel AVMs, stroke (separately for haemorrhagic and ischaemic), transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The rate ratio for subsequent ALS was compared to a reference cohort. Results An increased rate ratio for ALS was found in relation to prior AVM (2.69; p=0.005), all strokes (1.38; p<0.001), and TIA (1.47; p<0.001). Conclusions Cerebrovascular injury from a variety of causes, rather than the presence of AVM or the associated embolisation procedure per se, may be a risk factor for ALS within the context of a more complex multiple-hit model of pathogenesis. PMID:26260352
Gan'shina, T S; Kurza, E V; Kurdyumov, I N; Maslennikov, D V; Mirzoyan, R S
Experiments on nonlinear rats subjected to global transient cerebral ischemia revealed the ability of glutamic acid to improve cerebral circulation. Consequently, the excitatory amino acid can produce adverse (neurotoxic) and positive (anti-ischemic) effects in cerebral ischemia. The cerebrovascular effect of glutamic acid in cerebral ischemia is attenuated on the background action of the MNDA receptor blocker MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg intravenously) and eliminated by bicuculline. When glutamic acid is combined with the non-competitive MNDA receptor antagonist MK-801, neither one nor another drug shows its vasodilator effect. The results are indicative of the interaction between excitatory and inhibitory systems on the level of cerebral vessels and once again confirm our previous conclusion about the decisive role of GABA(A) receptors in brain vessels in the implementation of anti-ischemic activity of endogenous compounds (melatonin) and well-known pharmacological substances (mexidol, afobazole), and new chemical compounds based on GABA-containing lipid derivatives.
Intracerebral haemorrhage is the most dramatic, even if not the most frequent among cerebrovascular emergencies. However the improved treatment of arterial hypertension has decreased its frequency. Modern neuroradiological methods have led to an easier diagnosis, but the best choice for treatment (medical or surgical) is still debated. Decision must be based upon different factors, the most important of which are clinical condition volume, and location of haemorrhage. If the general prognosis has been improved by the transfer to specialized Units, wherein such are available, the benefit of surgery, while indispensable in some cases, has yet to be demonstrated by prospective studies. The problem is far different in subarachnoïd haemorrhage due to rupture of a vascular malformation: the necessity of a rapid treatment by surgery or embolization is largely admitted except for those patients in a bad clinical conditions.
Jean, Sherrie M; Preuss, Todd M; Sharma, Prachi; Anderson, Daniel C; Provenzale, James M; Strobert, Elizabeth; Ross, Stephen R; Stroud, Fawn C
Over a 5-y period, 3 chimpanzees at our institution experienced cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). In light of the increasing population of aged captive chimpanzees and lack of literature documenting the prevalence and effectiveness of various treatments for stroke in chimpanzees, we performed a retrospective review of the medical records and necropsy reports from our institution. A survey was sent to other facilities housing chimpanzees that participate in the Chimpanzee Species Survival Plan to inquire about their experience with diagnosing and treating stroke. This case report describes the presentation, clinical signs, and diagnosis of stroke in 3 recent cases and in historical cases at our institution. Predisposing factors, diagnosis, and treatment options of cerebral vascular accident in the captive chimpanzee population are discussed also. PMID:23043787
Rempfler, Markus; Schneider, Matthias; Ielacqua, Giovanna D.; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R.; Klohs, Jan; Szekely, Gabor; Andres, Bjoern; Menze, Bjoern H.
We introduce a probabilistic approach to vessel network extraction that enforces physiological constraints on the vessel structure. The method accounts for both image evidence and geometric relationships between vessels by solving an integer program, which is shown to yield the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate to the probabilistic model. Starting from an over-connected network, it is pruning vessel stumps and spurious connections by evaluating the local geometry and the global connectivity of the graph. We utilize a high-resolution micro computed tomography (µCT) dataset of a cerebrovascular corrosion cast to obtain a reference network and learn the prior distributions of our probabilistic model. As a result, we perform experiments on micro magnetic resonance angiography (µMRA) images of mouse brains and discuss properties of the networks obtained under different tracking and pruning approaches.
Rempfler, Markus; Schneider, Matthias; Ielacqua, Giovanna D; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R; Klohs, Jan; Székely, Gábor; Andres, Bjoern; Menze, Bjoern H
We introduce a probabilistic approach to vessel network extraction that enforces physiological constraints on the vessel structure. The method accounts for both image evidence and geometric relationships between vessels by solving an integer program, which is shown to yield the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate to a probabilistic model. Starting from an overconnected network, it is pruning vessel stumps and spurious connections by evaluating the local geometry and the global connectivity of the graph. We utilize a high-resolution micro computed tomography (μCT) dataset of a cerebrovascular corrosion cast to obtain a reference network and learn the prior distributions of our probabilistic model and we perform experiments on in-vivo magnetic resonance microangiography (μMRA) images of mouse brains. We finally discuss properties of the networks obtained under different tracking and pruning approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jean, Sherrie M; Preuss, Todd M; Sharma, Prachi; Anderson, Daniel C; Provenzale, James M; Strobert, Elizabeth; Ross, Stephen R; Stroud, Fawn C
Over a 5-y period, 3 chimpanzees at our institution experienced cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). In light of the increasing population of aged captive chimpanzees and lack of literature documenting the prevalence and effectiveness of various treatments for stroke in chimpanzees, we performed a retrospective review of the medical records and necropsy reports from our institution. A survey was sent to other facilities housing chimpanzees that participate in the Chimpanzee Species Survival Plan to inquire about their experience with diagnosing and treating stroke. This case report describes the presentation, clinical signs, and diagnosis of stroke in 3 recent cases and in historical cases at our institution. Predisposing factors, diagnosis, and treatment options of cerebral vascular accident in the captive chimpanzee population are discussed also.
Ogoh, Shigehiko; Nakahara, Hidehiro; Ueda, Shinya; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Shibasaki, Manabu; Subudhi, Andrew W; Miyamoto, Tadayoshi
In normoxic conditions, a reduction in arterial carbon dioxide tension causes cerebral vasoconstriction, thereby reducing cerebral blood flow and modifying dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA). It is unclear to what extent these effects are altered by acute hypoxia and the associated hypoxic ventilatory response (respiratory chemoreflex). This study tested the hypothesis that acute hypoxia attenuates arterial CO2 tension-mediated regulation of cerebral blood flow to help maintain cerebral O2 homeostasis. Eight subjects performed three randomly assigned respiratory interventions following a resting baseline period, as follows: (1) normoxia (21% O2); (2) hypoxia (12% O2); and (3) hypoxia with wilful restraint of the respiratory chemoreflex. During each intervention, 0, 2.0, 3.5 or 5.0% CO2 was sequentially added (8 min stages) to inspired gas mixtures to assess changes in steady-state cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity and dCA. During normoxia, the addition of CO2 increased internal carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean), while reducing dCA (change in phase = -0.73 ± 0.22 rad, P = 0.005). During acute hypoxia, internal carotid artery blood flow and MCA Vmean remained unchanged, but cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity (internal carotid artery, P = 0.003; MCA Vmean, P = 0.031) and CO2-mediated effects on dCA (P = 0.008) were attenuated. The effects of hypoxia were not further altered when the respiratory chemoreflex was restrained. These findings support the hypothesis that arterial CO2 tension-mediated effects on the cerebral vasculature are reduced during acute hypoxia. These effects could limit the degree of hypocapnic vasoconstriction and may help to regulate cerebral blood flow and cerebral O2 homeostasis during acute periods of hypoxia.
Thust, Stefanie C.; Chong, Wui Khean Kling; Gunny, Roxana; Mazumder, Asif; Poitelea, Marius; Welsh, Anna; Ederies, Ash
Background Paediatric cerebrovascular CT angiography (CTA) can be challenging to perform due to variable cardiovascular physiology between different age groups and the risk of movement artefact. This analysis aimed to determine what proportion of CTA at our institution was of diagnostic quality and identify technical factors which could be improved. Materials and methods a retrospective analysis of 20 cases was performed at a national paediatric neurovascular centre assessing image quality with a subjective scoring system and Hounsfield Unit (HU) measurements. Demographic data, contrast dose, flow rate and triggering times were recorded for each patient. Results Using a qualitative scoring system, 75% of studies were found to be of diagnostic quality (n=9 ‘good’, n=6 ‘satisfactory’) and 25% (n=5) were ‘poor’. Those judged subjectively to be poor had arterial contrast density measured at less than 250 HU. Increased arterial opacification was achieved for cases performed with an increased flow rate (2.5-4 mL/s) and higher intravenous contrast dose (2 mL/kg). Triggering was found to be well timed in nine cases, early in four cases and late in seven cases. Of the scans triggered early, 75% were poor. Of the scans triggered late, less (29%) were poor. Conclusions High flow rates (>2.5 mL/s) were a key factor for achieving high quality paediatric cerebrovascular CTA imaging. However, appropriate triggering by starting the scan immediately on contrast opacification of the monitoring vessel plays an important role and could maintain image quality when flow rates were lower. Early triggering appeared more detrimental than late. PMID:25525579
Perry, Blake G; Pritchard, Hayden J; Barnes, Matthew J
Ammonia is used as a stimulant in strength based sports to increase arousal and offset fatigue however little is known about its physiological and performance effects. The purpose of this study was twofold (1) establish the physiological response to acute ammonia inhalation (2) determine whether the timing of the physiological response corresponds with a performance enhancement, if any. Fifteen healthy males completed two trials. Trial one investigated the beat-to-beat middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv), heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) response to ammonia inhalation. During trial two, participants performed a maximal single mid-thigh pull (MTP) at various time points following ammonia inhalation in a randomised order: MTPs were conducted immediately, 15, 30 and 60 s following ammonia inhalation. A MTP with no ammonia inhalation served as the control. During this trial maximal MTP force, rate of force development (RFD) and electromyography (EMG) activity were recorded. MCAvmean increased and peaked on average by 6 cm s(-1) (P < 0.001), 9.4 ± 5.5 s following ammonia inhalation. Similarly, HR was increased by 6 ± 11 beats per minute 15 s following ammonia inhalation (P < 0.001). MAP remained unchanged following inhalation (P = 0.51). The use and timing of ammonia inhalation had no effect on maximal force, RFD or EMG (all P > 0.2) compared to control. MCAv was elevated despite no increase in MAP occurring; this is indicative of a cerebrovascular vasodilation. Despite the marked cerebrovascular and cardiovascular response to ammonia inhalation no ergogenic effect was observed during the MTP, irrespective of the timing of administration.
Betzen, Christian; White, Robin; Zehendner, Christoph M; Pietrowski, Eweline; Bender, Bianca; Luhmann, Heiko J; Kuhlmann, Christoph R W
N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R)-mediated oxidative stress has been implicated in blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in a variety of neuropathological diseases. Although some interactions between both phenomena have been elucidated, possible influences of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the NMDA-R itself have so far been neglected. The objective of this study was to examine how the cerebroendothelial NMDA-R is affected by exposure to oxidative stress and to assess possible influences on BBB integrity. RT-PCR confirmed several NMDA-R subunits (NR1, NR2B-D) expressed in the bEnd3 cell line (murine cerebrovascular endothelial cells). NR1 protein expression after exposure to ROS was observed via in-cell Western. The functionality of the expressed NMDA-R was determined by measuring DiBAC fluorescence in ROS-preexposed cells upon stimulation with the specific agonist NMDA. Finally, the effects on barrier integrity were evaluated using the ECIS system to detect changes in monolayer impedance upon NMDA-R stimulation after exposure to ROS. The expression of NR1 significantly (p<0.001) increased 72 h after 30 min exposure to superoxide (+33.8+/-7.5%), peroxynitrite (+84.9+/-10.7%), or hydrogen peroxide (+92.8+/-7.6%), resulting in increased cellular response to NMDA-R stimulation and diminished monolayer impedance. We conclude that oxidative stress upregulates NMDA-R on cerebrovascular endothelium and thus heightens susceptibility to glutamate-induced BBB disruption.
Prinz, Vincent; Endres, Matthias
The introduction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, i.e., statins, constitutes a milestone in the prevention of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease. The effects of statins extend far beyond their effects on cholesterol levels: pleiotropic effects include vasoprotective mechanisms, comprising improved endothelial function, increased bioavailability of nitric oxide, immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties, stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques, as well as antioxidant and stem cell-regulating capacities. Large clinical trials have clearly demonstrated that statins reduce the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Recent experimental and clinical data have demonstrated that in addition to risk reduction, statins may also improve outcome after stroke and myocardial infarction, even when statins were administered after the event. Moreover, abrupt discontinuation of statin therapy after acute cardio- or cerebrovascular events may impair vascular function and increase morbidity and mortality. Beyond stroke, statin treatment also has been shown to provide protective effects in critically ill patients, e.g., after major surgery, sepsis, or in patients at high-vascular risk. However, although large randomized controlled trials are missing, ongoing trials will clarify the impact of acute statin treatment in these conditions. Although evidence is presently limited, acute statin therapy is emerging as a new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of the critically ill. Until now, statins were only available as oral drugs. An IV formulation may be warranted for acute treatment of severely ill patients, for example, those who are unable to swallow or scheduled for surgery. Hydrophilic statins would be suitable for an IV formulation and have been safely tested in healthy volunteers.
Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra; Furieri, Lorena Barros; Briones, Ana María; Avendaño, María Soledad; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Salaices, Mercedes; Alonso, María Jesús
Mercury (Hg) has many harmful vascular effects by increasing oxidative stress, inflammation and vascular/endothelial dysfunction, all of which may contribute to cerebrovascular diseases development. We aimed to explore the effects of chronic low-mercury concentration on vascular function in cerebral arteries and the mechanisms involved. Basilar arteries from control (vehicle-saline solution, im) and mercury chloride (HgCl2)-treated rats for 30 days (first dose 4.6μg/kg, subsequent dose 0.07μg/kg/day, im, to cover daily loss) were used. Vascular reactivity, protein expression, nitric oxide (NO) levels and superoxide anion (O2(-)) production were analyzed. HgCl2 exposure increased serotonin contraction and reduced the endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to bradykinin. After NO synthase inhibition, serotonin responses were enhanced more in control than in mercury-treated rats while bradykinin-induced relaxation was abolished. NO levels were greater in control than Hg-treated rats. Tiron and indomethacin reduced vasoconstriction and increased the bradykinin-induced relaxation only in HgCl2-treated rats. Vascular O2(-) production was greater in mercury-treated when compared to control rats. Protein expressions of endothelial NO synthase, copper/zinc (Cu/Zn), Manganese (Mn) and extracellular-superoxide dismutases were similar in cerebral arteries from both groups. Results suggest that Hg treatment increases cerebrovascular reactivity by reducing endothelial negative modulation and NO bioavailability; this effect seems to be dependent on increased reactive oxygen species and prostanoids generation. These findings show, for the first time, that brain vasculature are also affected by chronic mercury exposure and offer further evidence that even at small concentration, HgCl2 is hazardous and might be an environmental risk factor accounting for cerebral vasospasm development.
Freixa, Xavier; Llull, Laura; Gafoor, Sameer; Cruz-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Shakir, Samera; Omran, Heyder; Berti, Sergio; Santoro, Gennaro; Kefer, Joelle; Landmesser, Ulf; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik; Kanagaratnam, Prapa; Nietlispach, Fabian; Gloekler, Steffen; Aminian, Adel; Danna, Paolo; Rezzaghi, Marco; Stock, Friederike; Stolcova, Miroslava; Paiva, Luis; Costa, Marco; Millán, Xavier; Ibrahim, Reda; Tichelbäcker, Tobias; Schillinger, Wolfgang; Park, Jai-Wun; Sievert, Horst; Meier, Bernhard; Tzikas, Apostolos
Cardioembolic strokes are generally more lethal and disabling than other source of strokes. Data from PROTECT AF (Watchman Left Atrial Appendage Closure Technology for Embolic Protection in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation) suggest that strokes after left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) with the Watchman device are less disabling than those in the warfarin group. No data assessing the severity of strokes after LAAO with the AMPLATZER Cardiac Plug (ACP) are available. The objective of the study was to evaluate the severity of cerebrovascular events after LAAO with the ACP in a population mostly characterized by an absolute or relative contraindication to oral anticoagulation. Data from the ACP multicenter registry were analyzed. Disabling strokes were defined as those with a modified Rankin score of 3 to 6 at 90 days after the event. A total of 1,047 subjects were included. The mean age and CHADS2 score were 75 ± 8 years and 2.8 ± 1.3, respectively. Procedural success was achieved in 97.3% and 4.9% of the patients presented procedural major adverse events. Clinical follow-up was complete in 98.2% of patients with a median of 13 months. There were 9 strokes (0.9%), 9 transient ischemic attacks (0.9%), and no intracranial hemorrhages (0%) at follow-up. After excluding 2 patients with pre-LAAO disability, functional assessment showed disabling events in 3 (19%) of the remaining 16 patients. The median time of presentation was 420 days (interquartile range 234 to 671) after LAAO, and 17 patients (94%) were on single-antiplatelet therapy when the event occurred. According to our results, cerebrovascular events after LAAO with the ACP system were infrequent and mostly nondisabling. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Xingce; Bie, Rongfang; Wu, Zhongke; Zhou, Mingquan; Cao, Rongfei; Xie, Lizhi; Zhang, Dong
Background In recent years, cerebrovascular disease has been the leading cause of death and adult disability in the world. This study describes an efficient approach to detect cerebrovascular disease. Objective In order to improve cerebrovascular treatment, prevention, and care, an automatic cerebrovascular disease detection eHealth platform is designed and studied. Methods We designed an automatic eHealth platform for cerebrovascular disease detection with a four-level architecture: object control layer, data transmission layer, service supporting layer, and application service layer. The platform has eight main functions: cerebrovascular database management, preprocessing of cerebral image data, image viewing and adjustment model, image cropping compression and measurement, cerebrovascular segmentation, 3-dimensional cerebrovascular reconstruction, cerebrovascular rendering, cerebrovascular virtual endoscope, and automatic detection. Several key technologies were employed for the implementation of the platform. The anisotropic diffusion model was used to reduce the noise. Statistics segmentation with Gaussian-Markov random field model (G-MRF) and Stochastic Estimation Maximization (SEM) parameter estimation method were used to realize the cerebrovascular segmentation. Ball B-Spline curve was proposed to model the cerebral blood vessels. Compute unified device architecture (CUDA) based on ray-casting volume rendering presented by curvature enhancement and boundary enhancement were used to realize the volume rendering model. We implemented the platform with a network client and mobile phone client to fit different users. Results The implemented platform is running on a common personal computer. Experiments on 32 patients’ brain computed tomography data or brain magnetic resonance imaging data stored in the system verified the feasibility and validity of each model we proposed. The platform is partly used in the cranial nerve surgery of the First Hospital
Wang, Xingce; Bie, Rongfang; Sun, Yunchuan; Wu, Zhongke; Zhou, Mingquan; Cao, Rongfei; Xie, Lizhi; Zhang, Dong
In recent years, cerebrovascular disease has been the leading cause of death and adult disability in the world. This study describes an efficient approach to detect cerebrovascular disease. In order to improve cerebrovascular treatment, prevention, and care, an automatic cerebrovascular disease detection eHealth platform is designed and studied. We designed an automatic eHealth platform for cerebrovascular disease detection with a four-level architecture: object control layer, data transmission layer, service supporting layer, and application service layer. The platform has eight main functions: cerebrovascular database management, preprocessing of cerebral image data, image viewing and adjustment model, image cropping compression and measurement, cerebrovascular segmentation, 3-dimensional cerebrovascular reconstruction, cerebrovascular rendering, cerebrovascular virtual endoscope, and automatic detection. Several key technologies were employed for the implementation of the platform. The anisotropic diffusion model was used to reduce the noise. Statistics segmentation with Gaussian-Markov random field model (G-MRF) and Stochastic Estimation Maximization (SEM) parameter estimation method were used to realize the cerebrovascular segmentation. Ball B-Spline curve was proposed to model the cerebral blood vessels. Compute unified device architecture (CUDA) based on ray-casting volume rendering presented by curvature enhancement and boundary enhancement were used to realize the volume rendering model. We implemented the platform with a network client and mobile phone client to fit different users. The implemented platform is running on a common personal computer. Experiments on 32 patients' brain computed tomography data or brain magnetic resonance imaging data stored in the system verified the feasibility and validity of each model we proposed. The platform is partly used in the cranial nerve surgery of the First Hospital Affiliated to the General Hospital of People
Maekawa, M; Awaya, S; Fukuda, S; Teramoto, A
The efficacy of encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS) using superficial temporal artery was evaluated for the treatment of the occlusive/stenotic cerebrovascular disease. Nine patients with the occlusive/stenotic cerebrovascular disease underwent EDAS in our hospital. The mean follow-up period was 6.6 months. Postoperative angiography showed no collateral formation via EDAS in any of the nine patients. We analyzed the following points: 1) operative procedure, 2) follow up period after surgery, 3) preoperative cerebral blood flow, and 4) age of the patients. Results showed that EDAS as a treatment of occlusive/stenotic cerebrovascular disease was not effective. This study failed to reinforce the suggestion that indirect extracranial/intracranial bypass surgery is effective as the treatment of occlusive/stenotic cerebrovascular disease.
Vitamin D deficiency has potential adverse effects on neurocognitive health and subcortical function. However, no studies have examined the association between vitamin D status, dementia, and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicators of cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Cross-sectional inves...
Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Rundek, Tatjana; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton B.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.
Background Silent brain infarcts (SBIs) and white matter hyperintensities are subclinical cerebrovascular lesions associated with incident stroke and cognitive decline. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a predictor of stroke in patients with heart failure, but its association with subclinical brain disease in the general population is unknown. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) can detect subclinical cardiac dysfunction even when LVEF is normal. We investigated the relationship of LVEF and GLS with subclinical brain disease in a community-based cohort. Methods and Results LVEF and GLS were assessed by 2-dimensional and speckle-tracking echocardiography in 439 participants free of stroke and cardiac disease from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study. SBIs and white matter hyperintensities were assessed by brain MRI. Mean age of the study population was 69±10 years, 61% were women, LVEF was 63.8±6.4%, GLS was −17.1±3.0%. SBIs were detected in 53 participants (12%), white matter hyperintensity volume was 0.63±0.86%. GLS was significantly lower in participants with SBI versus those without (−15.7±3.5% versus −17.3±2.9%, P<0.01), whereas no difference in LVEF was observed (63.3±8.6% versus 63.8±6.0%, P=0.60). In multivariate analysis, lower GLS was associated with SBI (odds ratio/unit decrease=1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–1.33; P<0.01), whereas LVEF was not (odds ratio/unit increase=1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.96–1.05; P=0.98). Lower GLS was associated with greater white matter hyperintensity volume (adjusted β=0.11, P<0.05), unlike LVEF (adjusted β=−0.04, P=0.42). Conclusions Lower GLS was independently associated with subclinical brain disease in a community-based cohort without overt cardiac disease. GLS can provide additional information on cerebrovascular risk burden beyond LVEF assessment. PMID:23902759
Wong, Judith M; Ziewacz, John E; Ho, Allen L; Panchmatia, Jaykar R; Kim, Albert H; Bader, Angela M; Thompson, B Gregory; Du, Rose; Gawande, Atul A
As part of a project to devise evidence-based safety interventions for specialty surgery, we sought to review current evidence concerning the frequency of adverse events in open cerebrovascular neurosurgery and the state of knowledge regarding methods for their reduction. This review represents part of a series of papers written to consolidate information about these events and preventive measures as part of an ongoing effort to ascertain the utility of devising system-wide policies and safety tools to improve neurosurgical practice. The authors performed a PubMed search using search terms "cerebral aneurysm", "cerebral arteriovenous malformation", "intracerebral hemorrhage", "intracranial hemorrhage", "subarachnoid hemorrhage", and "complications" or "adverse events." Only papers that specifically discussed the relevant complication rates were included. Papers were chosen to be included to maximize the range of rates of occurrence for the reported adverse events. The review revealed hemorrhage-related hyperglycemia (incidence rates ranging from 27% to 71%) and cerebral salt-wasting syndromes (34%-57%) to be the most common perioperative adverse events related to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Next in terms of frequency was new cerebral infarction associated with SAH, with a rate estimated at 40%. Many techniques are advocated for use during surgery to minimize risk of this development, including intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, but are not universally used due to surgeon preference and variable availability of appropriate staffing and equipment. The comparative effectiveness of using or omitting monitoring technologies has not been evaluated. The incidence of perioperative seizure related to vascular neurosurgery is unknown, but reported seizure rates from observational studies range from 4% to 42%. There are no standard guidelines for the use of seizure prophylaxis in these patients, and there remains a need for prospective studies to support such
Chen, Shin-Yan; Cherng, Yih-Giun; Lee, Fei-Peng; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Shih-Yu; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Liao, Chien-Chang; Chen, Ta-Liang
Abstract Little was known about the beneficial effects of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) on the outcomes after obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of UPPP on reducing risk of cerebrovascular diseases in patients with OSA. Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 10,339 patients with new OSA between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2009. The incident cerebrovascular disease was identified during the 1-year follow-up period in patients with and without receiving UPPP. The rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cerebrovascular disease associated with receiving UPPP in patients with OSA were calculated in multivariate Poisson regression. The 1-year incidences of cerebrovascular disease for OSA patients with and without UPPP were 1.06% and 5.14%, respectively. Patients with OSA receiving UPPP had lower risk of cerebrovascular disease compared with those without UPPP (RR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.33–0.61). The decreased risk of cerebrovascular disease following UPPP was observed in both sexes and all age groups. In the stratified analysis of medical conditions, the RR of cerebrovascular disease associated with UPPP for patients with 0, 1, ≥ 2 medical conditions were 0.28 (95% CI 0.12–0.68), 0.39 (95% CI 0.21–0.73), and 0.63 (95% CI 0.43–0.93), respectively. Patients with OSA who received UPPP had lower risk of cerebrovascular disease within 1 year after surgery compared with patients not receiving UPPP. Clinical physicians could have more evidence to persuade patients to receive surgical intervention, especially those who have severe OSA symptoms or do not acquire adequate symptom relief under conservative treatments. PMID:26469923
Fierstra, Jorn; Conklin, John; Krings, Timo; Slessarev, Marat; Han, Jay S; Fisher, Joseph A; Terbrugge, Karel; Wallace, M Christopher; Tymianski, Michael; Mikulis, David J
Epileptic seizures are a common presentation in patients with newly diagnosed brain arteriovenous malformations, but the pathophysiological mechanisms causing the seizures remain poorly understood. We used magnetic resonance imaging-based quantitative cerebrovascular reactivity mapping and conventional angiography to determine whether seizure-prone patients with brain arteriovenous malformations exhibit impaired cerebrovascular reserve or morphological angiographic features predictive of seizures. Twenty consecutive patients with untreated brain arteriovenous malformations were recruited (10 with and 10 without epileptic seizures) along with 12 age-matched healthy controls. Blood oxygen level-dependent MRI was performed while applying iso-oxic step changes in end-tidal partial pressure of CO(2) to obtain quantitative cerebrovascular reactivity measurements. The brain arteriovenous malformation morphology was evaluated by angiography, to determine to what extent limitations of arterial blood supply or the presence of restricted venous outflow and tissue congestion correlated with seizure susceptibility. Only patients with seizures exhibited impaired peri-nidal cerebrovascular reactivity by magnetic resonance imaging (0.11 ± 0.10 versus 0.25 ± 0.07, respectively; P < 0.001) and venous drainage patterns suggestive of tissue congestion on angiography. However, cerebrovascular reactivity changes were not of a magnitude suggestive of arterial steal, and were probably compatible with venous congestion in aetiology. Our findings demonstrate a strong association between impaired peri-nidal cerebrovascular reserve and epileptic seizure presentation in patients with brain arteriovenous malformation. The impaired cerebrovascular reserve may be associated with venous congestion. Quantitative measurements of cerebrovascular reactivity using blood oxygen level-dependent MRI appear to correlate with seizure susceptibility in patients with brain arteriovenous malformation.
Maruthappu, Mahiben; Shalhoub, Joseph; Tariq, Zoon; Williams, Callum; Atun, Rifat; Davies, Alun H; Zeltner, Thomas
The global economic downturn has been associated with unemployment rises, reduced health spending, and worsened population health. This has raised the question of how economic variations affect health outcomes. We sought to determine the effect of changes in unemployment and government healthcare expenditure on cerebrovascular mortality globally. Data were obtained from the World Bank and World Health Organization. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the effect of changes in unemployment and government healthcare expenditure on cerebrovascular mortality. Country-specific differences in infrastructure and demographics were controlled for. One- to five-year lag analyses and robustness checks were conducted. Across 99 countries worldwide, between 1981 and 2009, every 1% increase in unemployment was associated with a significant increase in cerebrovascular mortality (coefficient 187, CI: 86.6-288, P = 0.0003). Every 1% rise in government healthcare expenditure, across both genders, was associated with significant decreases in cerebrovascular deaths (coefficient 869, CI: 383-1354, P = 0.0005). The association between unemployment and cerebrovascular mortality remained statistically significant for at least five years subsequent to the 1% unemployment rise, while the association between government healthcare expenditure and cerebrovascular mortality remained significant for two years. These relationships were both shown to be independent of changes in gross domestic product per capita, inflation, interest rates, urbanization, nutrition, education, and out-of-pocket spending. Rises in unemployment and reductions in government healthcare expenditure are associated with significant increases in cerebrovascular mortality globally. Clinicians may also need to consider unemployment as a possible risk factor for cerebrovascular disease mortality. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.
Thulborn, Keith R.
Synopsis Cerebrovascular disease is a heterogeneous disease that may require objective criteria for developing optimal recurrent stroke prevention strategies. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and angiography together with MR perfusion and functional MR imaging provide sufficient parameters to tailor medical and surgical interventions for each patient and to monitor disease compensation or progression. These MR imaging procedures are demonstrated by clinical cases of advanced cerebrovascular pathology in which treatment varied from medical management to surgical intervention. PMID:19026896
Willie, C K; Colino, F L; Bailey, D M; Tzeng, Y C; Binsted, G; Jones, L W; Haykowsky, M J; Bellapart, J; Ogoh, S; Smith, K J; Smirl, J D; Day, T A; Lucas, S J; Eller, L K; Ainslie, P N
There is considerable utility in the use of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) to assess cerebrovascular function. The brain is unique in its high energy and oxygen demand but limited capacity for energy storage that necessitates an effective means of regional blood delivery. The relative low cost, ease-of-use, non-invasiveness, and excellent temporal resolution of TCD make it an ideal tool for the examination of cerebrovascular function in both research and clinical settings. TCD is an efficient tool to access blood velocities within the cerebral vessels, cerebral autoregulation, cerebrovascular reactivity to CO(2), and neurovascular coupling, in both physiological states and in pathological conditions such as stroke and head trauma. In this review, we provide: (1) an overview of TCD methodology with respect to other techniques; (2) a methodological synopsis of the cerebrovascular exam using TCD; (3) an overview of the physiological mechanisms involved in regulation of the cerebral blood flow; (4) the utility of TCD for assessment of cerebrovascular pathology; and (5) recommendations for the assessment of four critical and complimentary aspects of cerebrovascular function: intra-cranial blood flow velocity, cerebral autoregulation, cerebral reactivity, and neurovascular coupling. The integration of these regulatory mechanisms from an integrated systems perspective is discussed, and future research directions are explored.
Kim, Hyeong Su; Choi, Jae Wook; Chang, Soung Hoon; Lee, Kun Sei
The purpose of this study is to present the importance of work-related cerebrovascular and heart disease from the viewpoint of expenses. Using the insurance benefit paid for the 4,300 cases, this study estimated the burden of insurance benefits spent on work-related cerebrovascular and heart disease. The number of cases with work-related cerebrovascular and heart disease per 100,000 insured workers were 3.36 in 1995; they were increased to 13.16 in 2000. By the days of occurrence, the estimated number of cases were 1,336 in 2001 (95% CI: 1,211-1,460 cases) and 1,769 in 2005 (CI: 1,610-1,931 cases). The estimated average insurance benefits paid per person with work-related cerebrovascular and heart disease was 75-19 million won for medical care benefit and 56 million won for other benefits except medical care. By considering the increase in insurance payment and average pay, the predicted insurance benefits for work-related cerebrovascular and heart disease was 107.9 billion won for the 2001 cohort and 192.4 billion won for the 2005 cohort. From an economic perspective, the results will be used as important evidence for the prevention and management of work-related cerebrovascular and heart disease.
Garcia-Alloza, Monica; Gregory, Julia; Kuchibhotla, Kishore V.; Fine, Sara; Wei, Ying; Ayata, Cenk; Frosch, Matthew P.; Greenberg, Steven M.
Previous clinical studies have documented a close relationship between cerebrovascular disease and risk of Alzheimer's disease. We examined possible mechanistic interactions through use of experimental stroke models in a transgenic mouse model of β-amyloid deposition (APPswe/PS1dE9). Following middle cerebral artery occlusion, we observed a rapid increase in amyloid plaque burden in the region surrounding the infarction. In human tissue samples, however, we were unable to detect a localized increase in amyloid burden adjacent to cerebral infarcts. To resolve this discrepancy, we generated cerebral microstrokes in amyloid precursor protein mouse models with the photosensitive dye Rose bengal, and monitored plaque formation in real time using multiphoton microscopy. We observed a striking increase in the number of new plaques and amyloid angiopathy in the area immediately surrounding the infarcted area; however, the effect was transient, potentially resolving the discord between mouse and human tissue. We did not detect changes in candidate proteins related to β-amyloid generation or degradation such as β-amyloid-converting enzyme, amyloid precursor protein, presenilin 1, neprylisin or insulin-degrading enzyme. Together, these results demonstrate that strokes can trigger accelerated amyloid deposition, most likely through interference with amyloid clearance pathways. Additionally, this study indicates that focal ischaemia provides an experimental paradigm in which to study the mechanisms of plaque seeding and growth. PMID:22120142
López-Liria, Remedios; Fernández-Alonso, Melodie; Vega-Ramírez, Francisco A; Salido-Campos, M Ángeles; Padilla-Góngora, David
INTRODUCTION. Bronchopneumonia is a frequent complication in the first days after a cerebrovascular disease and is linked with a higher rate of mortality. It occurs in patients with an altered level of consciousness or tussigenic reflex, and could be prevented with an early dysphagia rehabilitation programme. AIMS. To review the scientific literature on the treatment and rehabilitation of patients with dysphagia after suffering a stroke, published between 2002 and 2012. DEVELOPMENT. A search conducted in the PubMed, Cochrane, PEDro, CINAHL and ENFISPO databases yielded 15 papers that fulfilled eligibility criteria and the initial aims of the study, providing information about 3,212 patients. The different protocols and techniques for re-education in dysphagia are described and include compensatory strategies, orofacial regulation therapy, music therapy, sensory stimulation, lip muscle, tongue, pharynx, larynx and respiratory tract training, Mendelsohn manoeuvre, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and acupuncture. CONCLUSIONS. The studies examined in this research claim that the treatment of dysphagia following a stroke can improve the function of deglutition (coordination, speed, volume), quality of life and people's social relationships. Further work needs to be carried out to establish or define what kind of therapies, techniques, exercises or manoeuvres are the most effective in dysphagia. Generally agreed treatment or rehabilitation protocols also need to be drawn up within units that address stroke in an integrated manner.
Lahousse, Lies; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan; Brusselle, Guy G
Along with the aging population, the public health burden of cerebrovascular disease is increasing. Cerebral small vessel disease and accumulation of brain pathology associate with cognitive decline and can lead to clinical outcomes, such as stroke and dementia. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common respiratory disease among elderly. The quality of life and prognosis of patients with COPD is greatly determined by the presence of comorbidities including stroke and cognitive impairment. Despite the clinical relevance of cerebral small vessel disease, stroke and (vascular) cognitive impairment in patients with COPD, literature is scarce and underlying mechanisms are unknown. The aim of the present review is therefore to summarize current scientific knowledge, to provide a better understanding of the interplay between COPD and the aging brain and to define remaining knowledge gaps. This narrative review article 1) overviews the epidemiology of cerebral small vessel disease, stroke and cognitive impairment in patients with COPD; 2) discusses potential underlying mechanisms including aging, smoking, systemic inflammation, vasculopathy, hypoxia and genetic susceptibility; and 3) highlights areas requiring further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sargento-Freitas, Joao; Silva, Fernando; Koehler, Sebastian; Isidoro, Luís; Mendonça, Nuno; Machado, Cristina; Cordeiro, Gustavo; Cunha, Luís
Cardioembolism due to atrial fibrillation assumes a dominant etiologic role in cerebrovascular diseases due to its growing incidence, high embolic risk and particular aspects of clinical events caused. Our objectives are to analyze the frequency of atrial fibrillation in patients with ischemic stroke, study the vital and functional impact of stroke due to different etiologies and evaluate antithrombotic options before and after stroke. We conducted a retrospective study including patients admitted in a central hospital due to ischemic stroke in 2010 (at least one year of follow-up). Etiology of stroke was defined using the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke (TOAST) classification, and functional outcome by modified Rankin scale. We performed a descriptive analysis of different stroke etiologies and antithrombotic medication in patients with atrial fibrillation. We then conducted a cohort study to evaluate the clinical impact of antithrombotic options in secondary prevention after cardioembolic stroke. In our population (n = 631) we found superior frequency of cardioembolism (34.5%) to that reported in the literature. Mortality, morbidity and antithrombotic options are similar to other previous series, confirming the severity of cardioembolic strokes and the underuse of vitamin K antagonists. Oral anticoagulation was effective in secondary prevention independently from post-stroke functional condition. Despite unequivocal recommendations, oral anticoagulation is still underused in stroke prevention. This study confirms the clinical efficacy of vitamin K antagonists in secondary prevention independently from residual functional impairment.
Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Firoz, Chelapram Kandy; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Zaidi, Syed Kashif; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Shakil, Shazi; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Tabrez, Shams
Cerebrovascular disease (CD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are two devastating health dilemma that continues to be a potential contributor to disability and mortality in human population all across the world. Scientific data clearly shows several mechanistic similarities between these two co-existing and interlinked conditions. The linkage exacerbates ongoing patho-physiological condition towards more lethal events. In view of the presence of modifiable risk factors in both CD and MetS, their management holds potential therapeutic value. Hence, developing common treatment strategies for these diseases could involve common molecular agents. In this communication, we have summarized some of the common pathological conditions viz. abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and endothelial dysfunction that further deteriorate existing homeostasis in CD and MetS. Based on our article, it is advocated that substantial improvements in novel multi-targeted drug discovery could provide the effective treatment methods in order to avoid the fatal complications related with CD and MetS. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Del Brutto, Oscar H; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio; Sacks, Claudio; Ameriso, Sebastián F; Náder, Juan; Alonso de Leciñana, María; Massaro, Ayrton
The Iberoamerican Cerebrovascular Diseases Society was founded 15 years ago. Being aware of the increased burden of stroke in Latin America, its members have been working to enhance the knowledge on stroke among physicians in the region, to increase public awareness on stroke warning signs, and to motivate public health authorities to implement programs that speed the access of stroke patients to specialized units. Besides organizing annual meetings that have convened an increasing number of attendees, the Society has been actively involved in the elaboration of guidelines for stroke classification and therapy that will be practical for use at a regional level, as well as in the consolidation of links with other stroke societies to increase the diffusion of local stroke issues to the medical community at large. The Society is also involved in the Safe Implementation of Treatment in Stroke trial as well as in other studies that will increase the knowledge on stroke management and prognosis in the region. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.
Göthe, F; Enache, D; Wahlund, L O; Winblad, B; Crisby, M; Lökk, J; Aarsland, D
Both cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and depression are common conditions in the elderly, and there is emerging evidence of a bi-directional relationship: 1) depression can cause CVD and stroke, transient ischemic attack; and 2) subcortical CVD are associated with increased risk for depression. The frequency of poststroke depression is highest during the first month after the stroke, but remains high even after several years. Depression is associated with poorer functional prognosis and higher mortality after stroke. There is good evidence that severity of functional impairment, high neuroticism, low social support as well as genetic factors are associated with an increased risk for post-stroke depression. Deep white matter lesions are the most consistent imaging correlate of depression. Potential mechanisms mediating the association between depression and CVD are neuroinflammation and HPA-axis activation, fronto-subcortical circuit lesions, and serotonergic dysfunction. Antidepressants have demonstrated effect on poststroke depression in meta-analyses, and such drugs as well as vitamin B can reduce the incidence of depression in stroke survivors. In addition, serotonergic drugs may strengthen poststroke motor and cognitive recovery, potentially through restorative mechanisms. Psychotherapeutic strategies such as problem-solving therapy seem to be effective. There is emerging evidence that treatment of cardiovascular disease and risk-factors can reduce the risk for late-life depression, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis.
Chen, Xu; Wang, Zhijun; Sy, Chrisopher; Liu, Xiaokun; Qian, Jinwu; Zheng, Jia; Dong, Zhiqiang; Cao, Limei; Geng, Xiang; Xu, Shuye; Liu, Xueyuan
To establish an expert diagnosis system for cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) and assess accuracy of the diagnosis system. An expert diagnosis system for CVDs was established and evaluated using actual clinical cases. An expert diagnosis system for CVDs was established and tested in 319 clinical patients. Diagnosis accordance was obtained in 307 patients (the diagnosis accordance rate was 96.2%). Involved were 223, 7, 23, 54 and 12 patients with cerebral thrombosis, cerebral embolism, transient ischemic attack, cerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, respectively; and diagnosis accordance was obtained in 219 (98.2%), 6 (85.7%), 23 (100%), 48 (88.9%) and 11 (91.7%), respectively. Overall, the case analysis results support and demonstrate the diagnostic reasoning accuracy of the expert diagnosis system for CVDs. With the expert diagnosis system, medical experts' diagnosis of CVDs can be effectively mimicked and auxiliary diagnosis of CVDs has been preliminarily realized, laying a foundation for increasing the diagnostic accuracy of clinical diagnoses as it pertains to CVDs.
Marchant, Natalie L.; Reed, Bruce R.; DeCarli, Charles S.; Madison, Cindee M.; Weiner, Michael W.; Chui, Helena C.; Jagust, William J.
The present study evaluated cerebrovascular disease (CVD), β-amyloid (Aβ), and cognition in clinically normal elderly adults. Fifty-four participants underwent MRI, PIB-PET imaging, and neuropsychological evaluation. High white matter hyperintensity burden and/or presence of infarct defined CVD status (CVD−: N = 27; CVD+: N = 27). PIB-PET ratios of Aβ deposition were extracted using Logan plotting (cerebellar reference). Presence of high levels of Aβ in prespecified regions determined PIB status (PIB−: N = 33; PIB+: N = 21). Executive functioning and episodic memory were measured using composite scales. CVD and Aβ, defined as dichotomous or continuous variables, were unrelated to one another. CVD+ participants showed lower executive functioning (P = 0.001) when compared to CVD− individuals. Neither PIB status nor amount of Aβ affected cognition (Ps ≥ .45), and there was no statistical interaction between CVD and PIB on either cognitive measure. Within this spectrum of normal aging CVD and Aβ aggregation appear to be independent processes with CVD primarily affecting cognition. PMID:22048124
De Montalembert, M; Wang, W
Cerebrovascular accidents were until recently responsible for much mortality and morbidity in children with sickle cell disease; the likelihood of a child with HbSS having a stroke was 11% before age 20 years, with a peak incidence of ischemic stroke between 2 and 5 years of age, and of hemorrhagic strokes between 20 and 29 years of age. Vessels occlusion is likely initiated by intimal proliferation and amplified by inflammation, excessive adhesion of cells to activated endothelium, hypercoagulable state, and vascular tone dysregulation. Silent infarcts may occur and are associated with decreased cognitive functions. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) was more recently demonstrated able to achieve early detection of the children at high risk for clinical strokes. A randomized study demonstrated that a first stroke may be prevented by monthly transfusion in children with abnormal TCD, leading to a recommendation for annual TCD screening of children aged between 2 and 16 years and monthly transfusion for those with abnormal results. In children who have had a first stroke, the risk of recurrence is more than 50% and is greatly reduced by chronic transfusion, although not completely abolished. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant is indicated in children with cerebral vasculopathy who have an HLA-identical sibling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Abner, Erin L.; Nelson, Peter T.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Fardo, David W.; Woltjer, Randall L.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Yu, Lei; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Xiong, Chengjie; Masaki, Kamal; Tyas, Suzanne L.; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Arvanitakis, Zoe
INTRODUCTION Diabetes’ relationship to specific neuropathological causes of dementia is incompletely understood. METHODS We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between diabetes and infarcts, Braak stage, neuritic plaque score, and level of Alzheimer’s neuropathological changes in 2,365 autopsied persons. In a subset of >1,300 persons with available cognitive data, we examined the association between diabetes and cognition using Poisson regression. RESULTS Diabetes increased odds of brain infarcts (OR=1.57, P<0.0001), specifically lacunes (OR=1.71, P<0.0001), but not Alzheimer neuropathology. Diabetes plus infarcts was associated with lower cognitive scores at end of life than infarcts or diabetes alone, and diabetes plus high level of Alzheimer’s neuropathological changes was associated with lower MMSE scores than the pathology alone. DISCUSSION This study supports the conclusions that diabetes increases the risk of cerebrovascular but not Alzheimer’s pathology, and at least some of diabetes’ relationship to cognitive impairment may be modified by neuropathology. PMID:26812281
Haupt, Walter F; Pawlik, Gunter; Thiel, Alexander
Results of somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) examinations performed early in the clinical course of patients with acute cerebrovascular disease correlate statistically significantly with outcome regardless of type and localization of the primary lesion. The prognostic value of serial examinations of SEP and BAEP has not been studied yet. The authors examined a group of 215 patients suffering from acute stroke requiring neurocritical care composed of 75 supratentorial and 36 infratentorial ischemic strokes, 58 supratentorial and 18 infratentorial hemorrhages, and 28 aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhages prospectively using spinal and cortical SEP and BAEP according to routine procedures on admission as well as after 1 and 2 weeks. The findings were correlated to outcome at 4 weeks. Statistical assessment was performed using standard methods of contingency analysis. In all groups, SEP findings were significantly correlated with outcome at initial and all subsequent examinations, similar correlations were also found for BAEP. However, after partialling out the prognostic information gained from the initial examination of SEP and BAEP, the follow-up examinations rendered only a marginal increase in prognostic information. Therefore, the initial examination of evoked potentials supplies valuable prognostic information, however, serial examinations of evoked potentials during the first weeks of disease improve the prognostic information only marginally.
Brosnan, Robert J; Steffey, Eugene P; LeCouteur, Richard A; Esteller-Vico, Alejandro; Vaughan, Betsy; Liu, Irwin K M
To test a hypothesis predicting that isoflurane would interfere with cerebrovascular autoregulation in horses and to evaluate whether increased mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) would increase cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure (ICP) during isoflurane anesthesia. 6 healthy adult horses. Horses were anesthetized with isoflurane at a constant end-tidal concentration sufficient to maintain MAP at 60 mm Hg. The facial, carotid, and dorsal metatarsal arteries were catheterized for blood sample collection and pressure measurements. A sub-arachnoid transducer was used to measure ICP Fluorescent microspheres were injected through a left ventricular catheter during MAP conditions of 60 mm Hg, and blood samples were collected. This process was repeated with different-colored microspheres at the same isoflurane concentration during MAP conditions of 80 and 100 mm Hg achieved with IV administration of dobutamine. Central nervous system tissue samples were obtained after euthanasia to quantify fluorescence and calculate blood flow. Increased MAP did not increase ICP or blood flow in any of the brain tissues examined. However, values for blood flow were low for all tested brain regions except the pons and cerebellum. Spinal cord blood flow was significantly decreased at the highest MAP. Results suggested that healthy horses autoregulate blood flow in the CNS at moderate to deep planes of isoflurane anesthesia. Nonetheless, relatively low blood flows in the brain and spinal cord of anesthetized horses may increase risks for hypoperfusion and neurologic injury.
Voss, Henning U; Dyke, Jonathan P; Tabelow, Karsten; Schiff, Nicholas D; Ballon, Douglas J
We analyze the pulsatile signal component of dynamic echo planar imaging data from the brain by modeling the dependence between local temporal and spatial signal variability. The resulting magnetic resonance advection imaging maps depict the location of major arteries. Color direction maps allow for visualization of the direction of blood vessels. The potential significance of magnetic resonance advection imaging maps is demonstrated on a functional magnetic resonance imaging data set of 19 healthy subjects. A comparison with the here introduced pulse coherence maps, in which the echo planar imaging signal is correlated with a cardiac pulse signal, shows that the magnetic resonance advection imaging approach results in a better spatial definition without the need for a pulse reference. In addition, it is shown that magnetic resonance advection imaging velocities can be estimates of pulse wave velocities if certain requirements are met, which are specified. Although for this application magnetic resonance advection imaging velocities are not quantitative estimates of pulse wave velocities, they clearly depict local pulsatile dynamics. Magnetic resonance advection imaging can be applied to existing dynamic echo planar imaging data sets with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution. It is discussed whether magnetic resonance advection imaging might have the potential to evolve into a biomarker for the health of the cerebrovascular system.
Nus, Meritxell; Ruperto, Mar; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J
Nuts have been included in human diets for ages. They are very appreciated and used as a central component of sweets and desserts. However, during the last decades, scientific interest in those foods has increased enormously as many epidemiologic studies show protective effects of nut consumption on coronary heart disease in different population groups. To date, many clinical trials have analyzed the positive effects of nuts consumption (almond, walnut, pistachio, Macadamia nut, and pecan) on the lipid profile, decreasing total and low density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol. However, whether these effects are only due to their fatty acid composition or to any other bioactive compounds, such as tocopherols, phytosterols and phytoestrogens, it is still unknown. This paper, aims to review comparative composition aspects of nuts, such as the positive effects on body weight, lipoprotein metabolism, and protection against cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The inclusion of 25 g/day of nuts, mainly raw, into a prudent diet seems to be recommended. Further investigations, as actual information is still scarce, in order to dilucidate the relationship between nuts consumption and vascular diseases are proposed.
Toledo, Jon B.; Arnold, Steven E.; Raible, Kevin; Brettschneider, Johannes; Xie, Sharon X.; Grossman, Murray; Monsell, Sarah E.; Kukull, Walter A.
Cerebrovascular disease and vascular risk factors are associated with Alzheimer’s disease, but the evidence for their association with other neurodegenerative disorders is limited. Therefore, we compared the prevalence of cerebrovascular disease, vascular pathology and vascular risk factors in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases and correlate them with dementia severity. Presence of cerebrovascular disease, vascular pathology and vascular risk factors was studied in 5715 cases of the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Centre database with a single neurodegenerative disease diagnosis (Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration due to tau, and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 immunoreactive deposits, α-synucleinopathies, hippocampal sclerosis and prion disease) based on a neuropathological examination with or without cerebrovascular disease, defined neuropathologically. In addition, 210 ‘unremarkable brain’ cases without cognitive impairment, and 280 cases with pure cerebrovascular disease were included for comparison. Cases with cerebrovascular disease were older than those without cerebrovascular disease in all the groups except for those with hippocampal sclerosis. After controlling for age and gender as fixed effects and centre as a random effect, we observed that α-synucleinopathies, frontotemporal lobar degeneration due to tau and TAR DNA-binding protein 43, and prion disease showed a lower prevalence of coincident cerebrovascular disease than patients with Alzheimer’s disease, and this was more significant in younger subjects. When cerebrovascular disease was also present, patients with Alzheimer’s disease and patients with α-synucleinopathy showed relatively lower burdens of their respective lesions than those without cerebrovascular disease in the context of comparable severity of dementia at time of death. Concurrent cerebrovascular disease is a common neuropathological finding in aged subjects with dementia, is more common in
Catalina-Romero, Carlos; Ruilope, Luis Miguel; Sánchez-Chaparro, Miguel Angel; Valdivielso, Pedro; Cabrera-Sierra, Martha; Fernández-Labandera, Carlos; Ruiz-Moraga, Montserrat; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva
The role of prior cardiovascular risk (CVR) in the multifactorial process of returning to work after a cerebrovascular event has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyse the association between previous CVR level, cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and return-to-work (RTW) following cerebrovascular disease. This was a prospective observational study. We analysed a cohort of 348 patients who had experienced an episode of cerebrovascular disease-related work absence. These individuals were selected from the ICARIA study (Ibermutuamur CArdiovascular RIsk Assessment). Global CVR was assessed using the SCORE system. We investigated the association between demographics, work-related variables, CVRFs and RTW following a cerebrovascular event. We found that a total of 254 individuals (73.0%; 95% CI: 68.3-77.7) returned to work after cerebrovascular disease. Also, we observed a median loss of 12 working years due to disability. Moreover, adjusting for potential confounders revealed that low CVR level and the absence of the following CVRFs was associated with a higher likelihood of RTW: low vs moderate-to-high CVR level (OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.42-4.57), no hypertension before stroke (OR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.11-3.41), non-smoker status (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.30-3.93) and no previous diabetes (OR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.26-4.79). Low CVR, along with the absence of several CVRFs, can be used to predict RTW rates following cerebrovascular events. Therefore, controlling hypertension, tobacco consumption and diabetes might contribute to the effectiveness of multidisciplinary rehabilitation and/or secondary/tertiary prevention programs for cerebrovascular disease. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.
Allan, Philip D; Faulkner, James; O’Donnell, Terrence; Lanford, Jeremy; Wong, Lai-kin; Saleem, Saqib; Woolley, Brandon; Lambrick, Danielle; Stoner, Lee; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh
We investigated if hemodynamic variability, cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, and their interrelationships differ between patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and controls. We recorded blood pressure (BP) and bilateral middle cerebral artery flow velocity (MCAv) in a cohort of TIA patients (n = 17), and age-matched controls (n = 15). Spontaneous fluctuations in BP and MCAv were characterized by spectral power analysis, and CBF regulation was assessed by wavelet phase synchronization analysis in the very low- (0.02–0.07 Hz), low- (0.07–0.20 Hz), and high-frequency (0.20–0.40 Hz) ranges. Furthermore, cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity was assessed as a second metric of CBF regulation by inducing hypercapnia with 8% CO2 inhalation followed by hyperventilation driven hypocapnia. We found that TIA was associated with higher BP power (group effect, P < 0.05), but not MCAv power (P = 0.11). CBF regulation (assessed by wavelet phase synchronization and CO2 reactivity) was intact in patients (all P ≥ 0.075) across both hemispheres (all P ≥ 0.51). Pooled data (controls and affected hemisphere of patients) showed that BP and MCAv power were positively correlated at all frequency ranges (R2 = 0.20–0.80, all P < 0.01). Furthermore, LF phase synchronization index was a significant determinant of MCAv power (P < 0.05), while VLF and HF phase synchronization index, and TIA were not (all P ≥ 0.50). These results indicate that CBF stability and control is maintained in TIA patients, but BPV is markedly elevated. BPV attenuation may be an important therapeutic strategy for enhancing secondary stroke prevention in patients who suffer a TIA. PMID:26537345
Azevêdo da Costa, F; Araujo da Silva, D L; da Rocha, V M
Most patients who suffer a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) belong to the adult-elderly age group. Thus, such patients are likely to display a certain degree of functional compromise as a result of the natural process of aging, regardless of whether they have suffered a CVA or not. AIM. To examine the functional condition of patients with CVA, as well as that of healthy individuals who have never suffered a stroke. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted with a control group made up of 82 individuals -41 of whom were CVA patients (G1) and 41 were individuals with no history of CVA (G2)-. These subjects were paired according to sex, age and educational level. The sample was predominantly made up of females (60%), who were married (70%), with ischaemic CVA (70%), in the right hemisphere of the brain (56%) and with a primary education (36%). The prevalence rate of patients with severe functional impairment was 58.53%, whereas in the control group there were no subjects with this level of deficiency. A relationship was found to exist (p < 0.05) between the functional condition and the variables age and causation of CVA for G1, and also between the functional condition and the variable age for the individuals in G2, which indicates that functional compromise is greater in more elderly subjects. Findings suggest that the functional compromise of patients with CVA is higher than that of individuals with no history of CVA with the same sex, age and educational level. This clearly shows that there is an association between CVA and functional impairment in these patients.
Haeren, R H L; Vink, H; Staals, J; van Zandvoort, M A M J; Dings, J; van Overbeeke, J J; Hoogland, G; Rijkers, K; Schijns, O E M G
Introduction Adequate functioning of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is important for brain homoeostasis and normal neuronal function. Disruption of the BBB has been described in several neurological diseases. Recent reports suggest that an increased permeability of the BBB also contributes to increased seizure susceptibility in patients with epilepsy. The endothelial glycocalyx is coating the luminal side of the endothelium and can be considered as the first barrier of the BBB. We hypothesise that an altered glycocalyx thickness plays a role in the aetiology of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common type of epilepsy. Here, we propose a protocol that allows intraoperative assessment of the cerebrovascular glycocalyx thickness in patients with TLE and assess whether its thickness is decreased in patients with TLE when compared with controls. Methods and analysis This protocol is designed as a prospective observational case–control study in patients who undergo resective brain surgery as treatment for TLE. Control subjects are patients without a history of epileptic seizures, who undergo a craniotomy or burr hole surgery for other indications. Intraoperative glycocalyx thickness measurements of sublingual, cortical and hippocampal microcirculation are performed by video microscopy using sidestream dark-field imaging. Demographic details, seizure characteristics, epilepsy risk factors, intraoperative haemodynamic parameters and histopathological evaluation are additionally recorded. Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been ethically approved by the local medical ethical committee (ID: NL51594.068.14) and complies with the Declaration of Helsinki and principles of Good Clinical Practice. Informed consent is obtained before study enrolment and only coded data will be stored in a secured database, enabling an audit trail. Results will be submitted to international peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences. Trial registration number
Schilling, Sabrina; DeStefano, Anita L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Choi, Seung Hoan; Mather, Karen A.; DeCarli, Charles D.; Wen, Wei; Høgh, Peter; Raz, Naftali; Au, Rhoda; Beiser, Alexa; Wolf, Philip A.; Romero, José Rafael; Zhu, Yi-Cheng; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Farrer, Lindsay; Dufouil, Carole; Kuller, Lewis H.; Mazoyer, Bernard; Seshadri, Sudha; Tzourio, Christophe
Objective: We aimed to examine the association of APOE ε genotype with MRI markers of cerebrovascular disease (CVD): white matter hyperintensities, brain infarcts, and cerebral microbleeds. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of 42 cross-sectional or longitudinal studies identified in PubMed from 1966 to June 2012 (n = 29,965). This included unpublished data from 3 population-based studies: 3C-Dijon, Framingham Heart Study, and Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. When necessary, authors were contacted to provide effect estimates for the meta-analysis. Results: APOE ε4 carrier status and APOE ε44 genotype were associated with increasing white matter hyperintensity burden (sample size–weighted z score meta-analysis [meta]-p = 0.0034 and 0.0030) and presence of cerebral microbleeds (meta odds ratio [OR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.07, 1.43], p = 0.004, and 1.87 [1.26, 2.78], p = 0.002), especially lobar. APOE ε2 carrier status was associated with increasing white matter hyperintensity load (z score meta-p = 0.00053) and risk of brain infarct (meta OR = 1.41[1.09, 1.81], p = 0.008). Conclusions: APOE ε4 and APOE ε2 were associated with increasing burden in MRI markers for both hemorrhagic and ischemic CVD. While the association of APOE ε4 with an increased burden of CVD could be partly contributing to the relationship between APOE ε4 and AD, APOE ε2 was associated with MRI markers of CVD in the opposite direction compared to AD. PMID:23858411
Klohs, Jan; Rudin, Markus; Shimshek, Derya R.; Beckmann, Nicolau
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular pathology may interact with neurodegeneration and thus aggravate cognitive decline. As the relationship between these two processes is poorly understood, research has been increasingly focused on understanding the link between cerebrovascular alterations and AD. This has at last been spurred by the engineering of transgenic animals, which display pathological features of AD and develop cerebral amyloid angiopathy to various degrees. Transgenic models are versatile for investigating the role of amyloid deposition and vascular dysfunction, and for evaluating novel therapeutic concepts. In addition, research has benefited from the development of novel imaging techniques, which are capable of characterizing vascular pathology in vivo. They provide vascular structural read-outs and have the ability to assess the functional consequences of vascular dysfunction as well as to visualize and monitor the molecular processes underlying these pathological alterations. This article focusses on recent in vivo small animal imaging studies addressing vascular aspects related to AD. With the technical advances of imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance, nuclear and microscopic imaging, molecular, functional and structural information related to vascular pathology can now be visualized in vivo in small rodents. Imaging vascular and parenchymal amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition as well as Aβ transport pathways have been shown to be useful to characterize their dynamics and to elucidate their role in the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and AD. Structural and functional imaging read-outs have been employed to describe the deleterious affects of Aβ on vessel morphology, hemodynamics and vascular integrity. More recent imaging studies have also addressed how inflammatory processes partake in the pathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, imaging can be pivotal in the search for novel therapies targeting the vasculature. PMID:24659966
Yezhuvath, Uma S.; Lewis-Amezcua, Kelly; Varghese, Rani; Xiao, Guanghua; Lu, Hanzhang
Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) reflects the capacity of blood vessels to dilate and is an important marker for brain vascular reserve. It may provide a useful addition to the traditional baseline blood flow measurement when assessing vascular factors in brain disorders. Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent MRI under CO2 inhalation offers a non-invasive and quantitative means to estimate CVR in humans. In this study, we investigated several important methodological aspects of this technique with the goal of optimizing the experimental and data processing strategies for clinical use. Comparing 4 min of 5% CO2 inhalation (less comfortable) to a 1 min inhalation (more comfortable) duration, it was found that the CVR values were 0.31 ±0.05%/mmHg (N = 11) and 0.31 ±0.08%/mmHg (N = 9), respectively, showing no significant differences between the two breathing paradigms. Therefore, the 1 min paradigm is recommended for future application studies for patient comfort and tolerability. Furthermore, we have found that end-tidal CO2 recording was useful for accurate quantification of CVR because it provided both timing and amplitude information regarding the input function to the brain vascular system, which can be subject-dependent. Finally, we show that inter-subject variations in CVR are of physiologic origin and affect the whole brain in a similar fashion. Based on this, it is proposed that relative CVR (normalized against the CVR of the whole brain or a reference tissue) may be a more sensitive biomarker than absolute CVR in clinical applications as it minimizes inter-subject variations. With these technological optimizations, CVR mapping may become a useful method for studies of neurological and psychiatric diseases. PMID:19388006
Chen, J L; Wang, Y C; Wang, J Y
1. The response of cerebral blood vessels to hyperosmolar agents in vivo remains controversial, and little is known about the effect of glycerol on cerebral vessels. In this study we investigated the cerebrovascular response to intravenous administration of glycerol (1 g/kg, infused over 25 min) in dogs under pentobarbital anaesthesia. 2. intracranial pressure, systemic arterial pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, serum osmolarity and packed cell volume were continuously monitored, and blood gases were checked frequently. Through a parietal cranial window, pial vessel diameter was measured by means of a surgical microscope and a video image-analyser. 3. Pial vessel diameter increased gradually with a maximum at 30 min after the beginning of glycerol infusion. The maximum increase in diameter in small (less than or equal to 100 microns) vessels was 14.3%, whereas that in large (greater than 100 microns) vessels was 10.3%. There was only a slight increase (less than 4%) in pial vessel diameter in vehicle-infused animals. The intracranial pressure decreased drastically after glycerol infusion, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure remained constant. There were correlations between the rise in serum osmolarity, fall in packed cell volume and vasodilatation, indicating that glycerol caused vasodilatation accompanied by plasma volume expansion. 4. Our data suggest that glycerol produces cerebral vasodilatation, which might be beneficial in cerebral ischaemia and vasospasm, in addition to its intracranial pressure-reducing effect on normal or oedematous brain. The degree of vasodilatation was not sufficient to affect the predominant intracranial pressure drop resulting from cerebral dehydration.
Manukhina, Eugenia B; Downey, H Fred; Shi, Xiangrong
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of death and disability among older adults. Modifiable vascular risk factors for AD (VRF) include obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea, and metabolic syndrome. Here, interactions between cerebrovascular function and development of AD are reviewed, as are interventions to improve cerebral blood flow and reduce VRF. Atherosclerosis and small vessel cerebral disease impair metabolic regulation of cerebral blood flow and, along with microvascular rarefaction and altered trans-capillary exchange, create conditions favoring AD development. Although currently there are no definitive therapies for treatment or prevention of AD, reduction of VRFs lowers the risk for cognitive decline. There is increasing evidence that brief repeated exposures to moderate hypoxia, i.e. intermittent hypoxic training (IHT), improve cerebral vascular function and reduce VRFs including systemic hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, and mental stress. In experimental AD, IHT nearly prevented endothelial dysfunction of both cerebral and extra-cerebral blood vessels, rarefaction of the brain vascular network, and the loss of neurons in the brain cortex. Associated with these vasoprotective effects, IHT improved memory and lessened AD pathology. IHT increases endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO), thereby increasing regional cerebral blood flow and augmenting the vaso- and neuroprotective effects of endothelial NO. On the other hand, in AD excessive production of NO in microglia, astrocytes, and cortical neurons generates neurotoxic peroxynitrite. IHT enhances storage of excessive NO in the form of S-nitrosothiols and dinitrosyl iron complexes. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD, and IHT reduces oxidative stress in a number of experimental pathologies. Beneficial effects of IHT in experimental neuropathologies other than AD, including dyscirculatory encephalopathy, ischemic stroke injury, audiogenic
van Os, Hendrikus J A; Mulder, Inge A; Broersen, Alexander; Algra, Ale; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Kappelle, L Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Terwindt, Gisela M; Schonewille, Wouter J; Visser, Marieke C; Ferrari, Michel D; van Walderveen, Marianne A A; Wermer, Marieke J H
Migraine is a well-established risk factor for ischemic stroke, but migraine is also related to other vascular diseases. This study aims to investigate the association between migraine and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We retrieved data on patients with ischemic stroke from the DUST (Dutch Acute Stroke Study). Migraine history was assessed with a migraine screener and confirmed by telephone interview based on the ICHD criteria (International Classification of Headache Disorders). We assessed intra- and extracranial atherosclerotic changes and quantified intracranial internal carotid artery calcifications as measure of atherosclerotic burden on noncontrast computed tomography and computed tomographic angiography. We calculated risk ratios with adjustments for possible confounders with multivariable Poisson regression analyses. We included 656 patients, aged 18 to 99 years, of whom 53 had a history of migraine (29 with aura). Patients with migraine did not have more frequent atherosclerotic changes in intracranial (51% versus 74%; adjusted risk ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-1.05) or extracranial vessels (62% versus 79%; adjusted risk ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-1.12) than patients without migraine and had comparable internal carotid artery calcification volumes (largest versus medium and smallest volume tertile, 23% versus 35%; adjusted risk ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.52). Migraine is not associated with excess atherosclerosis in large vessels in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Our findings suggest that the biological mechanisms by which migraine results in ischemic stroke are not related to macrovascular cerebral atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Lee, Sohee; Kang, Bok-Man; Shin, Min-Kyoo; Min, Jiwoong; Heo, Chaejeong; Lee, Yubu; Baeg, Eunha; Suh, Minah
Repeated stress is one of the major risk factors for cerebrovascular disease, including stroke, and vascular dementia. However, the functional alterations in the cerebral hemodynamic response induced by chronic stress have not been clarified. Here, we investigated the in vivo cerebral hemodynamic changes and accompanying cellular and molecular changes in chronically stressed rats. After 3 weeks of restraint stress, the elicitation of stress was verified by behavioral despair in the forced swimming test and by physical indicators of stress. The evoked changes in the cerebral blood volume and pial artery responses following hindpaw electrical stimulation were measured using optical intrinsic signal imaging. We observed that, compared to the control group, animals under chronic restraint stress exhibited a decreased hemodynamic response, with a smaller pial arterial dilation in the somatosensory cortex during hindpaw electrical stimulation. The effect of chronic restraint stress on vasomodulator enzymes, including neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2), was assessed in the somatosensory cortex. Chronic restraint stress downregulated nNOS and HO-2 compared to the control group. In addition, we examined the subtypes of cells that can explain the environmental changes due to the decreased vasomodulators. The expression of parvalbumin in GABAergic interneurons and glutamate receptor-1 in neurons were decreased, whereas the microglial activation was increased. Our results suggest that the chronic stress-induced alterations in cerebral vascular function and the modulations of the cellular expression in the neuro-vasomodulatory system may be crucial contributing factors in the development of various vascular-induced conditions in the brain. PMID:26778944
Zea-Sevilla, María Ascensión; Fernández-Blázquez, Miguel Angel; Calero, Miguel; Bermejo-Velasco, Pedro; Rábano, Alberto
The absence of a consensus system for full neuropathological evaluation limits clinicopathological studies and comparability between laboratories. Combined staging for Alzheimer's type and cerebral vascular pathology may allow a better classification of cases for clinical and cognitive correlation. Cognitive and postmortem neuropathological data were obtained from 70 brains donated to the Tissue Bank of the Centro de Investigación de Enfermedades Neurológicas (CIEN) Foundation according to recently developed staging schemes for Alzheimer's type and vascular pathology. Subjects belonged to a cohort of institutionalized patients with moderate or severe dementia and a mean follow-up period of 7 years. Cases were classified into three groups: Alzheimer's predominant (64.1%), vascular predominant (6.3%) and mixed pathology (29.6%). Significant differences were observed in Severe Mini-Mental State Examination and verbal fluency between the vascular predominant and the other groups of patients. The combination of scales measuring cerebral vascular and Alzheimer's type pathology allowed a classification of patients that reveals differences between groups in premortem cognitive features. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Rossato, Gianluca; Nollo, Giandomenico; Faes, Luca; Porta, Alberto
Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems are vital control mechanisms responsible for guaranteeing homeostasis and are affected by respiration. This work proposes the investigation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems and the nonlinear influences of respiration on both regulations through joint symbolic analysis (JSA), conditioned or unconditioned on respiration. Interactions between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems were evaluated as well by performing correlation analysis between JSA indexes describing the two control systems. Heart period, systolic and mean arterial pressure, mean cerebral blood flow velocity and respiration were acquired on a beat-to-beat basis in 13 subjects experiencing recurrent syncope episodes (SYNC) and 13 healthy individuals (non-SYNC) in supine resting condition and during head-up tilt test at 60° (TILT). Results showed that JSA distinguished conditions and groups, whereas time domain parameters detected only the effect of TILT. Respiration affected cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems in a nonlinear way and was able to modulate the interactions between the two control systems with different outcome in non-SYNC and SYNC groups, thus suggesting that the analysis of the impact of respiration on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems might improve our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the development of postural-related syncope. © 2016 The Author(s).
Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Rossato, Gianluca; Nollo, Giandomenico; Faes, Luca; Porta, Alberto
Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems are vital control mechanisms responsible for guaranteeing homeostasis and are affected by respiration. This work proposes the investigation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems and the nonlinear influences of respiration on both regulations through joint symbolic analysis (JSA), conditioned or unconditioned on respiration. Interactions between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems were evaluated as well by performing correlation analysis between JSA indexes describing the two control systems. Heart period, systolic and mean arterial pressure, mean cerebral blood flow velocity and respiration were acquired on a beat-to-beat basis in 13 subjects experiencing recurrent syncope episodes (SYNC) and 13 healthy individuals (non-SYNC) in supine resting condition and during head-up tilt test at 60° (TILT). Results showed that JSA distinguished conditions and groups, whereas time domain parameters detected only the effect of TILT. Respiration affected cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems in a nonlinear way and was able to modulate the interactions between the two control systems with different outcome in non-SYNC and SYNC groups, thus suggesting that the analysis of the impact of respiration on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems might improve our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the development of postural-related syncope.
Sun, Zhonghua; Lee, Shen Yuan
The application of 3-D printing has been increasingly used in medicine, with research showing many applications in cardiovascular disease. This systematic review analyzes those studies published about the applications of 3-D printed, patient-specific models in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. A search of PubMed/Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify studies investigating the 3-D printing in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Only studies based on patient's medical images were eligible for review, while reports on in vitro phantom or review articles were excluded. A total of 48 studies met selection criteria for inclusion in the review. A range of patient-specific 3-D printed models of different cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were generated in these studies with most of them being developed using cardiac CT and MRI data, less commonly with 3-D invasive angiographic or echocardiographic images. The review of these studies showed high accuracy of 3-D printed, patient-specific models to represent complex anatomy of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system and depict various abnormalities, especially congenital heart diseases and valvular pathologies. Further, 3-D printing can serve as a useful education tool for both parents and clinicians, and a valuable tool for pre-surgical planning and simulation. This systematic review shows that 3-D printed models based on medical imaging modalities can accurately replicate complex anatomical structures and pathologies of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system. 3-D printing is a useful tool for both education and surgical planning in these diseases.
Kooi, Elisabeth M W; Verhagen, Elise A; Elting, Jan Willem J; Czosnyka, Marek; Austin, Topun; Wong, Flora Y; Aries, Marcel J H
The preterm born infant's ability to regulate its cerebral blood flow (CBF) is crucial in preventing secondary ischemic and hemorrhagic damage in the developing brain. The relationship between arterial blood pressure (ABP) and CBF estimates, such as regional cerebral oxygenation as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), is an attractive option for continuous non-invasive assessment of cerebrovascular autoregulation. Areas covered: The authors performed a literature search to provide an overview of the current literature on various current clinical practices and methods to measure cerebrovascular autoregulation in the preterm infant by NIRS. The authors focused on various aspects: Characteristics of patient cohorts, surrogate measures for cerebral perfusion pressure, NIRS devices and their accompanying parameters, definitions for impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation, methods of measurements and clinical implications. Expert commentary: Autoregulation research in preterm infants has reported many methods for measuring autoregulation using different mathematical models, signal processing and data requirements. At present, it remains unclear which NIRS signals and algorithms should be used that result in the most accurate and clinically relevant assessment of cerebrovascular autoregulation. Future studies should focus on optimizing strategies for cerebrovascular autoregulation assessment in preterm infants in order to develop autoregulation-based cerebral perfusion treatment strategies.
Background Obesity is associated with increased risk for stroke. The breath-holding index (BHI) is a measure of vasomotor reactivity of the brain which can be measured with the transcranial Doppler (TCD). We aim to evaluate obesity as an independent factor for altered cerebrovascular reactivity. Methods Cerebrovascular hemodynamics (mean flow velocities MFV, pulsatility index, PI, resistance index, RI, and BHI) was determined in 85 non-obese (Body Mass Index, BMI ≤27 kg/m2) and 85 obese subjects (BMI ≥35 kg/m2) without diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Anthropometric and metabolic variables, and scores to detect risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were analyzed for their association with the cerebrovascular reactivity. Results The BHI was significantly lower in subjects with obesity according to BMI and in subjects with abdominal obesity, but the PI and RI were not different between groups. There was a linear association between the BMI, the HOMA-IR, the Matsuda index, the waist circumference, and the neck circumference, with the cerebrovascular reactivity. After adjusting for insulin resistance, neck circumference, and abdominal circumference, obesity according to BMI was negatively correlated with the cerebrovascular reactivity. Conclusions We found a diminished vasomotor reactivity in individuals with obesity which was not explained by the presence of insulin resistance. PMID:24383894
Biffl, Walter L.; Ray, Charles E.; Moore, Ernest E.; Franciose, Reginald J.; Aly, Somer; Heyrosa, Mary Grace; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Burch, Jon M.
Objective To assess the impact of routine follow-up arteriography on the management and outcome of patients with acute blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVI). Summary Background Data During the past 5 years there has been increasing recognition of BCVI, but the management of these lesions remains controversial. The authors previously proposed a grading system for BCVI, with grade-specific management guidelines. The authors have noted that a significant number of injuries evolve within 7 to 10 days, warranting alterations in therapy. Methods A prospective database of a regional trauma center’s experience with BCVI has been maintained since 1990. A policy of arteriographic screening for BCVI based on injury mechanism (e.g., cervical hyperextension) and injury patterns (e.g., cervical and facial fractures) was instituted in 1996. A grading system was devised to develop management protocols: I = intimal irregularity; II = dissection/flap/thrombus; III = pseudoaneurysm; IV = occlusion; V = transection. Results From June 1990 to October 2001, 171 patients (115 male, age 36 ± 1 years) were diagnosed with BCVI. Mean injury severity score was 28 ± 1; associated injuries included brain (57%), spine (44%), chest (43%), and face (34%). Mechanism was motor vehicle crash in 50%, fall in 11%, pedestrian struck in 11%, and other in 29%. One hundred fourteen patients had 157 carotid artery injuries (43 bilateral), and 79 patients had 97 vertebral artery injuries (18 bilateral). The breakdown of injury grades was 137 grade I, 52 grade II, 32 grade III, 25 grade IV, and 8 grade V. One hundred fourteen (73%) carotid and 65 (67%) vertebral arteries were restudied with arteriography 7 to 10 days after the injury. Eight-two percent of grade IV and 93% of grade III injuries were unchanged. However, grade I and II lesions changed frequently. Fifty-seven percent of grade I and 8% of grade II injuries healed, allowing cessation of therapy, whereas 8% of grade I and 43% of grade II lesions
Slatina, Enes; Music, Miralem; Babic, Nermina; Pleho-Kapic, Amna; Dervisevic, Senad; Salibasic, Mirhan; Mujaric, Ekrema
The intention of this work is to research whether the link between the barometer pressure and the cerebrovascular insult (CVI) exists. The stroke is the first cause of non-traumatic disability and third illness by mortality in the majority of available relevant literature. Goal of the sudy was to research all the cases of the patients who suffered from the acute stroke in the Canton of Sarajevo and those who were treated in the pre-hospital phase by Emergency Medical Institute staff and their working diagnosis was established as CVI ac. The criteria in the research were established for inclusion and exclusion of cases. The days with and without CVI cases were compared with the meteorological data obtained from the Hydro-meteorological Institute of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina . Since the approval was requested and obtained from the Hydro-meteorological Institute, all the meteorological data could be compared. The meteorological data comprise the barometer pressure measuring every day at 7 h, 14 h and 21 h. In the retrospective study, there will be followed, during three years (2004, 2005 and 2006), the cases of the patients who suffered from the stroke, and, the emergency medical care was offered to them by the side of the Emergency Medical Institute of Canton of Sarajevo staff. All the cases in the Canton of Sarajevo were followed regardless of the place of incidence: whether the help was offered in Institute's outpatient departments, patient's flat or at public place. Due to the extensiveness of data (in the analysis comprising three years, there was the total of 1930 cases), the test of normal distribution was used. Since it was about the pre-hospital research, the acute stroke was looked at generally without division by types. The certain diagnostics by types can only be established in the hospital. The results in the research indicate that the extreme values of barometer pressure, regardless of their being increased ones or decreased ones, influence
Slatina, Enes; Music, Miralem; Babic, nermina; Pleho –Kapic, Amna; Dervisevic, Senad; Salibasic, Mirhan; Mujaric, ekrema
Introduction: The intention of this work is to research whether the link between the barometer pressure and the cerebrovascular insult (CVI) exists. The stroke is the first cause of non-traumatic disability and third illness by mortality in the majority of available relevant literature. Goals: Goal of the sudy was to research all the cases of the patients who suffered from the acute stroke in the Canton of Sarajevo and those who were treated in the pre-hospital phase by Emergency Medical Institute staff and their working diagnosis was established as CVI ac. Material and methods: The criteria in the research were established for inclusion and exclusion of cases. The days with and without CVI cases were compared with the meteorological data obtained from the Hydro-meteorological Institute of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina . Since the approval was requested and obtained from the Hydro-meteorological Institute, all the meteorological data could be compared. The meteorological data comprise the barometer pressure measuring every day at 7 h, 14 h and 21 h. Results and discussion: In the retrospective study, there will be followed, during three years (2004, 2005 and 2006), the cases of the patients who suffered from the stroke, and, the emergency medical care was offered to them by the side of the Emergency Medical Institute of Canton of Sarajevo staff. All the cases in the Canton of Sarajevo were followed regardless of the place of incidence: whether the help was offered in Institute’s outpatient departments, patient’s flat or at public place. Due to the extensiveness of data (in the analysis comprising three years, there was the total of 1930 cases), the test of normal distribution was used. Since it was about the pre-hospital research, the acute stroke was looked at generally without division by types. The certain diagnostics by types can only be established in the hospital. Conclusion: The results in the research indicate that the extreme values of barometer
Roldan, Carlos A.; Schevchuck, Oleksandr; Tolstrup, Kirsten; Roldan, Paola C.; Macias, Leonardo; Qualls, Clifford R.; Greene, Ernest R.; Hayek, Reyaad; Charlton, Gerald; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.
Background Lambl’s excrescences (LEx) are detected by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and are characterized as thin, elongated, and hypermobile structures located at the leaflets’ coaptation point of the heart valves. The association of LEx with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is still undefined and yet patients with LEx and suspected CVD receive unproven effective antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy or even undergo valve surgery. Also, the association of LEx with aging and atherogenic, inflammatory, or thrombogenic parameters has not been reported. Methods 77 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (71 women, age 37±12 years) and 26 age-and-sex matched healthy controls (22 women, age 34±11 years) prospectively underwent routine history and physical exam, transcranial Doppler, brain MRI, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), carotid duplex, and clinical and laboratory evaluations of atherogenesis, inflammation, platelet activity, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Subjects without stroke/TIA on enrollment (with and without LEx) had a median follow-up of 57 months. Results On enrollment, 33 (43%) of 77 patients had CVD manifested as acute stroke/TIA (23 patients), cerebromicroembolism by transcranial Doppler (17 patients), or cerebral infarcts by MRI (14 patients). Mitral or aortic valve LEx were equally frequent in healthy controls (46%) as in patients with and without any CVD (39% and 43%), stroke/TIA (35% and 43%), cerebromicroembolism (41% and 42%), or cerebral infarcts (36% and 43%) (all p≥0.72). Also, other mechanisms for CVD other than LEx such as Libman-Sacks vegetations, patent foramen ovale or interatrial septal aneurysm, aortic or carotid atherosclerosis, or thrombogenesis were found in ≥94% of patients with CVD. In addition, 36 subjects with and 44 without LEx had similar low incidence of stroke/TIA [1(1.3%) and 2(2.5%), respectively, p=1.0] during follow-up. Finally, LEx were not associated with aging, atherogenic risk factors
Roldan, Carlos A.; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Qualls, Clifford R.; Jung, Rex E.; Greene, Ernest R.; Gasparovic, Charles M.; Hayek, Reyaad; Charlton, Gerald A.; Crookston, Kendall
Objective To determine whether Libman-Sacks endocarditis is a pathogenic factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Background A cardioembolic pathogenesis of SLE CVD manifested as 1) neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) including stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA), 2) neurocognitive dysfunction, and 3) MRI focal brain lesions has not been established. Methods A 6-year study of 30 patients with acute NPSLE (27 women, age 38±12 years), 46 age-and-sex matched SLE controls without NPSLE (42 women, age 36±12 years), and 26 age-and-sex matched healthy controls (22 women, age 34±11 years) who underwent clinical and laboratory evaluations, TEE, carotid duplex, transcranial Doppler, neurocognitive testing, and brain MRI/MRA. NPSLE patients were re-evaluated after 4.5 months of therapy. All patients were followed clinically for a median of 52 months. Results Libman-Sacks vegetations (87%), cerebromicroembolism (27% with 2.5 times more events per hour), neurocognitive dysfunction (60%), and cerebral infarcts (47%) were more common in NPSLE than in SLE (28%, 20%, 33%, and 0%) and healthy controls (8%, 0%, 4%, and 0%, respectively) (all p≤0.009). Patients with vegetations had 3 times more cerebromicroemboli per hour, lower cerebral blood flow, more stroke/TIA and overall NPSLE events, neurocognitive dysfunction, cerebral infarcts, and brain lesion load than those without (all p≤0.01). Libman-Sacks vegetations were independent risk factors of NPSLE (OR=13.4, p<0.001), neurocognitive dysfunction (OR=8.0, p=0.01), brain lesions (OR=5.6, p=0.004), and all 3 outcomes combined (OR=7.5, p<0.001). Follow-up re-evaluations in 18 (78%) of 23 surviving NPSLE patients demonstrated improvement of vegetations, microembolism, brain perfusion, neurocognitive dysfunction, and lesion load (all p≤0.04). Finally, patients with vegetations had reduced event free survival time to stroke/TIA, cognitive disability, or death (p=0.007). Conclusion The
Roldan, Carlos A; Sibbitt, Wilmer L; Qualls, Clifford R; Jung, Rex E; Greene, Ernest R; Gasparovic, Charles M; Hayek, Reyaad A; Charlton, Gerald A; Crookston, Kendall
The aim of this study was to determine whether Libman-Sacks endocarditis is a pathogenic factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A cardioembolic pathogenesis of SLE CVD manifested as: 1) neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE), including stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA); 2) neurocognitive dysfunction; and 3) magnetic resonance imaging of focal brain lesions has not been established. A 6-year study of 30 patients with acute NPSLE (27 women, 38 ± 12 years of age), 46 age- and sex-matched SLE controls without NPSLE (42 women, 36 ± 12 years of age), and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (22 women, 34 ± 11 years of age) who underwent clinical and laboratory evaluations, transesophageal echocardiography, carotid duplex ultrasound, transcranial Doppler ultrasound, neurocognitive testing, and brain magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance angiography. Patients with NPSLE were re-evaluated after 4.5 months of therapy. All patients were followed clinically for a median of 52 months. Libman-Sacks vegetations (87%), cerebromicroembolism (27% with 2.5 times more events per hour), neurocognitive dysfunction (60%), and cerebral infarcts (47%) were more common in NPSLE than in SLE (28%, 20%, 33%, and 0%) and healthy controls (8%, 0%, 4%, and 0%, respectively) (all p ≤ 0.009). Patients with vegetations had 3 times more cerebromicroemboli per hour, lower cerebral blood flow, more strokes/TIA and overall NPSLE events, neurocognitive dysfunction, cerebral infarcts, and brain lesion load than those without (all p ≤ 0.01). Libman-Sacks vegetations were independent risk factors of NPSLE (odds ratio [OR]: 13.4; p < 0.001), neurocognitive dysfunction (OR: 8.0; p = 0.01), brain lesions (OR: 5.6; p = 0.004), and all 3 outcomes combined (OR: 7.5; p < 0.001). Follow-up re-evaluations in 18 of 23 (78%) surviving patients with NPSLE demonstrated improvement of vegetations, microembolism, brain perfusion
Nadkarni, Girish N; Patel, Achint A; Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Mahajan, Abhimanyu; Agarwal, Shiv Kumar; Kamat, Sunil; Annapureddy, Narender; Benjo, Alexandre; Thakar, Charuhas V
The epidemiology of dialysis requiring acute kidney injury (AKI-D) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) admissions is poorly understood with previous studies being from a single center or year. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to evaluate the yearly incidence trends of AKI-D in hospitalizations with AIS and ICH from 2002 to 2011. We also evaluated the trend of impact of AKI-D on in-hospital mortality and adverse discharge using adjusted odds ratios (aOR) after adjusting for demographics and comorbidity indices. We extracted a total of 3,937,928 and 696,754 hospitalizations with AIS and ICH, respectively. AKI-D occurred in 1.5 and 3.5 per 1000 in AIS and ICH admissions, respectively. Incidence of admissions complicated by AKI-D doubled from 0.9/1000 to 1.7/1000 in AIS and from 2.1/1000 to 4.3/1000 in ICH admissions. In AIS admissions, AKI-D was associated with 30% higher odds of mortality (aOR, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.48; P<0.001) and 18% higher odds of adverse discharge (aOR, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.37; P<0.001). Similarly, in ICH admissions, AKI-D was associated with twice the odds of mortality (aOR, 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.61-2.36; P<0.01) and 74% higher odds of adverse discharge (aOR, 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-2.24; P<0.01). Attributable risk percent of mortality was high with AKI-D (98%-99%) and did not change significantly over the study period. Incidence of AKI-D complicating hospitalizations with cerebrovascular accident continues to grow and is associated with increased mortality and adverse discharge. This highlights the need for early diagnosis, better risk stratification, and preparedness for need for complex long-term care in this vulnerable population. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Keage, Hannah A.D.; Churches, Owen F.; Kohler, Mark; Pomeroy, Danielle; Luppino, Rocco; Bartolo, Michelle L.; Elliott, Scott
Background/Aim The contribution of cerebrovascular dysfunction to the manifestation of dementia and cognitive decline in late life is gaining increased attention. We aimed to systematically review evidence for associations between dementia or aging and cerebrovascular function as measured using transcranial Doppler (TCD) examination. Methods A total of 1,172 articles were retrieved from PsychInfo and PubMed searches, and 34 relevant articles were identified using a variety of TCD methods. Results The pulsatility index (vessel resistance), spontaneous emboli and cerebrovascular reactivity to hyper-/hypocapnia appeared good discriminators of dementia. Aging was associated with a slowing in blood flow velocity. Conclusion TCD ultrasonography is inexpensive, portable and well tolerated by aged and demented subjects. The technique stands to make a valuable contribution to the knowledge regarding the underlying functional biology of age-related cognitive change and dementia. PMID:22822408
Hynes, Brian G; Rodés-Cabau, Josep
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has revolutionized the care of high-risk patients with severe calcific aortic stenosis. Those considered at high or prohibitive risk of major adverse outcomes with open surgical aortic valve replacement may now be offered an alternative less-invasive therapy. Despite the rapid evolution and clinical application of this new technology, recent studies have raised concerns about adverse cerebrovascular event rates in patients undergoing TAVI. In this review, we explore the current data both in relation to procedure-related silent cerebrovascular ischemic events, as well as clinically apparent stroke. The timing of neurological events and their prognostic implications are also examined. Finally, potential mechanisms of TAVI-related cerebrovascular injury are described, in addition to efforts to minimize their occurrence.
Fleischer, C C; Wu, J; Qiu, D; Park, S-E; Nahab, F; Dehkharghani, S
Brain temperature is critical for homeostasis, relating intimately to cerebral perfusion and metabolism. Cerebral thermometry is historically challenged by the cost and invasiveness of clinical and laboratory methodologies. We propose the use of noninvasive MR thermometry in patients with cerebrovascular disease, hypothesizing the presence of a measurable brain thermal response reflecting the tissue hemodynamic state. Contemporaneous imaging and MR thermometry were performed in 10 patients (32-68 years of age) undergoing acetazolamide challenge for chronic, anterior circulation steno-occlusive disease. Cerebrovascular reactivity was calculated with blood oxygen level-dependent imaging and arterial spin-labeling methods. Brain temperature was calculated pre- and post-acetazolamide using previously established chemical shift thermometry. Mixed-effects models of the voxelwise relationships between the brain thermal response and cerebrovascular reactivity were computed, and the significance of model coefficients was determined with an F test (P < .05). We observed significant, voxelwise quadratic relationships between cerebrovascular reactivity from blood oxygen level-dependent imaging and the brain thermal response (x coefficient = 0.052, P < .001; x(2)coefficient = 0.0068, P < .001) and baseline brain temperatures (x coefficient = 0.59, P = .008; x(2) coefficient = -0.13, P < .001). A significant linear relationship was observed for the brain thermal response with cerebrovascular reactivity from arterial spin-labeling (P = .001). The findings support the presence of a brain thermal response exhibiting complex but significant interactions with tissue hemodynamics, which we posit to reflect a relative balance of heat-producing versus heat-dissipating tissue states. The brain thermal response is a potential noninvasive biomarker for cerebrovascular impairment. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Wong, Caine W.; Quaranta, Vito; Glenner, George G.
A synthetic peptide (Asp-Ala-Glu-Phe-Arg-His-Asp-Ser-Gly-Tyr), homologous to the amino terminus of a protein purified from cerebrovascular amyloid (β protein), induced antibodies in BALB/c mice that were used immunohistochemically to stain not only amyloid-laden cerebral vessels but neuritic plaques as well. These findings suggest that the amyloid in neuritic plaques shares antigenic determinants with β protein of cerebral vessels. Since the amino acid compositions of plaque amyloid and cerebrovascular amyloid are similar, it is likely that plaque amyloid also consists of β protein. This possibility suggests a model for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease involving β protein.
Leira, Yago; Blanco, Miguel; Blanco, Juan; Castillo, José
Periodontal disease and cerebrovascular disease are two of the most prevalent processes in elderly people. Various studies have shown an association between them, although some methodological differences exist and this difficult the data interpretation. The aim of this paper is to conduct a critical review of the studies published about this association. Eleven prospective studies and 11 retrospective studies are included in this review. We analyse the different methodological outcomes (study population, periodontal diagnosis, cerebrovascular disease definition, adjusted outcomes and odds ratio/relative risk). Furthermore, we review several pathogenic mechanisms implicated in the progression and the relationship between both processes.
Voloshin, P V; Mertsalov, V S; Lapshina, L A; Kirzhner, V M
The authors developed a system of adaptive bioregulation based on the principle of biological feedback. Sixty hypertensive patients with the initial forms of cerebrovascular disturbances and 30 clinically healthy subjects were examined. Adaptive bioregulation is successfully realized in the technical system with a visual control of changes in the REG area. The treatment is associated with normalization of the tonus, vessel blood filling, arterial pressure and clinical status of patients. Adaptive bioregulation may be one of the methods of treatment of patients with cerebrovascular pathology. The effect of its use is determined by the duration and nature of the disease.
Melaragno Filho, R
A critical review on the importance of hemorheology for establishing clinical management of acute cerebrovascular insufficiency is presented. With this purpose a revision is made on cerebral blood flow, acute cerebrovascular insufficiency, and clinical hemorheology. Data support an evaluation on main drugs presently used in the management of stroke, and on general principles adopted for medical treatment and prevention of stroke.
Yew, Belinda; Nation, Daniel A
See Markus (doi:10.1093/awx161) for a scientific commentary on this article.Evidence for vascular contributions to Alzheimer's disease has been increasingly identified, with increased blood pressure and decreased cerebral blood flow both linked to in vivo biomarkers and clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease. We therefore hypothesized that an elevated ratio of blood pressure to cerebral blood flow, indicative of cerebrovascular resistance, would exhibit earlier and more widespread associations with Alzheimer's disease than cerebral blood flow alone. Further, we predicted that increased cerebrovascular resistance and amyloid retention would synergistically influence cognitive performance trajectories, independent of neuronal metabolism. Lastly, we anticipated associations between cerebrovascular resistance and later brain atrophy, prior to amyloid accumulation. To evaluate these hypotheses, we investigated associations between cerebrovascular resistance and amyloid retention, cognitive decline, and brain atrophy, controlling for neuronal metabolism. North American older adults (n = 232) underwent arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging to measure regional cerebral blood flow in brain regions susceptible to ageing and Alzheimer's disease. An estimated cerebrovascular resistance index was then calculated as the ratio of mean arterial pressure to regional cerebral blood flow. Positron emission tomography with 18F-florbetapir and fludeoxyglucose was used to quantify amyloid retention and neuronal metabolism, respectively. Cognitive performance was evaluated via annual assessments of global cognition, memory, and executive function. Results indicated diminished inferior parietal and temporal cerebral blood flow for patients with Alzheimer's disease (n = 33) relative to both non-demented groups, but no cerebral blood flow differences between non-demented amyloid-positive (n = 87) and amyloid-negative (n = 112) cases. In contrast, the cerebrovascular
Jansen, J.; Rozeboom, W.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H. M.
Background: Epidemiological information on age-related cardiovascular disease in people with intellectual disability (ID) is scarce and inconclusive. We compared prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular accident and myocardial infarction over age 50 in a residential population with ID to that in a general practice population. Method: Lifetime…
open or closed head injury to determine the acute physiologic alterations in cerebrovascular status that occurred during chest physiotherapy (CPT). ICP...pressure (ICP) and prevention of complications of immobility. Pulmonary complications of immobility are prevented by regular endotracheal suctioning for...Dependent Variables Bibliography............................................ 96 vii LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Patient’s Etiology of Injury , Head
Warnert, Esther Ah; Hart, Emma C; Hall, Judith E; Murphy, Kevin; Wise, Richard G
Cerebral autoregulation ensures constant cerebral blood flow during periods of increased blood pressure by increasing cerebrovascular resistance. However, whether this increase in resistance occurs at the level of major cerebral arteries as well as at the level of smaller pial arterioles is still unknown in humans. Here, we measure cerebral arterial compliance, a measure that is inversely related to cerebrovascular resistance, with our novel non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging-based measurement, which employs short inversion time pulsed arterial spin labelling to map arterial blood volume at different phases of the cardiac cycle. We investigate the differential response of the cerebrovasculature during post exercise ischemia (a stimulus which leads to increased cerebrovascular resistance because of increases in blood pressure and sympathetic outflow). During post exercise ischemia in eight normotensive men (30.4 ± 6.4 years), cerebral arterial compliance decreased in the major cerebral arteries at the level of and below the Circle of Willis, while no changes were measured in arteries above the Circle of Willis. The reduction in arterial compliance manifested as a reduction in the arterial blood volume during systole. This study provides the first evidence that in humans the major cerebral arteries may play an important role in increasing cerebrovascular resistance. © The Author(s) 2015.
Mochizuki, Ronald M.; Richter, Kenneth J.
A case report is presented of a 32 year-old male bodybuilder who sustained an ischemic cerebrovascular accident and showed signs of cardiomyopathy. Although no cause was found, the man had been taking steroids for 16 years. Harmful effects of steroid use are discussed. (IAH)
Pönkä, A; Virtanen, M
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether low concentrations of ambient air pollutants are associated with hospital admissions for ischemic cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases. METHODS: Associations between daily concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulates and daily hospital admissions due to ischemic cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases were studied in Helsinki, Finland, 1987 through 1989. The regression analyses controlled for weather, day of the week, season, long-term trends, and influenza epidemics. RESULTS: Admissions via emergency rooms due to ischemic cardiac diseases (n = 7005) were significantly associated with the prevailing levels of nitric oxide and ozone, and those due to cerebrovascular diseases (n = 3737) were associated with nitrogen dioxide; these levels were only moderate. Long-term transient myocardial ischemic attacks were related to particulates, and short-term ischemic attacks were related to nitrogen dioxide. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of ischemic cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases may be provoked by pollutants in concentrations lower than those given as guidelines in many countries and lower than previously shown. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8806380
Cruse, Belinda; Cysique, Lucette A; Markus, Romesh; Brew, Bruce J
The widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected individuals mostly in developed countries has dramatically improved their prognosis. In such advantaged regions of the world, therefore, many patients are now transitioning from middle into older age, with altered patterns of disease. While previously a rare complication of HIV infection, cerebrovascular disease (particularly that associated with atherosclerosis) is becoming relatively more important in this treated group of individuals. This review summarises the evidence regarding the shifting epidemiology of cerebrovascular diseases affecting HIV-infected individuals. While outlining the association between HIV infection and AIDS and cerebrovascular disease, as well as opportunistic diseases and HIV-associated vasculopathies, the current evidence supporting an increase in atherosclerotic disease in treated HIV-infected individuals is emphasised and a management approach to ischaemic stroke in HIV-infected individuals is presented. Evidence supporting the important role of HAART and HIV infection itself in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease is discussed, together with preventative approaches to this increasingly important disease process as the population ages. Finally, a discussion regarding the significant association between cerebrovascular disease and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder is presented, together with possible mechanisms behind this relationship.
Carvalho, Janessa O; Tommet, Doug; Crane, Paul K; Thomas, Michael L; Claxton, Amy; Habeck, Christian; Manly, Jennifer J; Romero, Heather R
To evaluate the effects of vascular conditions and education quality on cognition over time in White and African American (AA) older adults. We investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal racial differences in executive functioning (EF) and memory composites among Whites (n = 461) and AAs (n = 118) enrolled in a cohort study. We examined whether cerebrovascular risk factors and Shipley Vocabulary scores (a proxy for education quality) accounted for racial differences. On average, AAs had lower quality of education and more cerebrovascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. AAs had lower mean EF and memory at baseline, but there were no group differences in rates of decline. Cross-sectional racial differences in EF and memory persisted after controlling for vascular disease, but disappeared when controlling for Shipley Vocabulary. Quality of education appears to be more important than cerebrovascular risk factors in explaining cross-sectional differences in memory and EF performance between White and AA older adults. Further investigation is needed regarding the relative contribution of education quality and cerebrovascular risk factors to cognitive decline among ethnically/racially diverse older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mochizuki, Ronald M.; Richter, Kenneth J.
A case report is presented of a 32 year-old male bodybuilder who sustained an ischemic cerebrovascular accident and showed signs of cardiomyopathy. Although no cause was found, the man had been taking steroids for 16 years. Harmful effects of steroid use are discussed. (IAH)
Jansen, J.; Rozeboom, W.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H. M.
Background: Epidemiological information on age-related cardiovascular disease in people with intellectual disability (ID) is scarce and inconclusive. We compared prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular accident and myocardial infarction over age 50 in a residential population with ID to that in a general practice population. Method: Lifetime…
This study aims to observe the tumble status for senior patients with cerebrovascular disease, and to analyze the balance and gait condition in order to provide the basis for clinical prevention and nursing care. A total of 48 senior patients with cerebrovascular disease were investigated with the Tinetti balance and gait evaluation, and the relation between tumble occurrence and balance ability was interrogated. The total score of balance evaluation value and gait value for 89.1% of the senior patients with cerebrovascular disease was fewer than 19 points, which indicated a risk of tumble. The majority of patients could not complete the immediate standing balance well, turning stand balance, mild chest-pushed balance and eyes-closed standing balance. The occurrence of immediate standing balance and turning stand balance fewer than three times was less frequent than the occurrence of tumble for one time, which had significant difference (P<0.05). The senior patients with cerebrovascular disease and immediate standing balance and turning stand balance could easily tumble many times, which was crucial for the nursing staff to carry out preventive strategies. Detailed observations of balance and gait function for senior patients were described, which provided a promising basis for designing appropriate nursing measures.
Carvalho, Janessa O.; Tommet, Doug; Crane, Paul K.; Thomas, Michael L.; Claxton, Amy; Habeck, Christian; Manly, Jennifer J.
Objectives. To evaluate the effects of vascular conditions and education quality on cognition over time in White and African American (AA) older adults. Method. We investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal racial differences in executive functioning (EF) and memory composites among Whites (n = 461) and AAs (n = 118) enrolled in a cohort study. We examined whether cerebrovascular risk factors and Shipley Vocabulary scores (a proxy for education quality) accounted for racial differences. Results. On average, AAs had lower quality of education and more cerebrovascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. AAs had lower mean EF and memory at baseline, but there were no group differences in rates of decline. Cross-sectional racial differences in EF and memory persisted after controlling for vascular disease, but disappeared when controlling for Shipley Vocabulary. Discussion. Quality of education appears to be more important than cerebrovascular risk factors in explaining cross-sectional differences in memory and EF performance between White and AA older adults. Further investigation is needed regarding the relative contribution of education quality and cerebrovascular risk factors to cognitive decline among ethnically/racially diverse older adults. PMID:25098527
Becker, James T.
Introducción y desarrollo En los próximos 50 años vamos a presenciar un incremento significativo de la población mayor de 65 años y por lo tanto va a aumentar, considerablemente, el número de individuos con riesgo de desarrollar demencias neurodegenerativas, especialmente la enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA). Las estrategias actuales de tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico se han centrado en las fases sintomáticas de esta enfermedad y, gradualmente, vamos teniendo una mayor comprensión de los posibles factores de riesgo del síndrome clínico. Conclusiones Los estudios de neuroimagen han sido muy útiles para mostrar los cambios estructurales del envejecimiento normal y patológico, así como también los factores de riesgo para la EA. Los tratamientos apropiados de los factores de riesgo y su posible combinación con tratamientos específicos para la EA podrían prolongar el período presintomático de la EA y, por tanto, mejorar la calidad de vida y disminuir la carga para el paciente, la familia y la sociedad. PMID:20517866
Brickman, Adam M; Reitz, Christiane; Luchsinger, José A; Manly, Jennifer J; Schupf, Nicole; Muraskin, Jordan; DeCarli, Charles; Brown, Truman R; Mayeux, Richard
The importance of subclinical cerebrovascular disease in the elderly is increasingly recognized, but its determinants have not been fully explicated. Elevated blood pressure (BP) and fluctuation in BP may lead to cerebrovascular disease through ischemic changes and compromised cerebral autoregulation. To determine the association of BP and long-term fluctuation in BP with cerebrovascular disease. A community-based epidemiological study of older adults from northern Manhattan. The Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project. A total of 686 nondemented older adults who had BP measurements during 3 study visits at 24-month intervals and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (corresponding temporally with the third assessment). We derived the mean (SD) of the mean BP for each participant during the 3 intervals and divided the participants into 4 groups defined as below or above the group median (
Engelhard, K; Werner, C; Möllenberg, O; Kochs, E
This study investigates the effects of remifentanil and propofol in comparison to isoflurane on dynamic cerebrovascular autoregulation in humans. In 16 awake patients dynamic cerebrovascular autoregulation was measured using transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD). Thereafter patients were intubated, ventilated with O2/air (FiO2=0.33) and randomly assigned to one of the following anesthetic protocols: group 1 (n=8): 0.5 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) remifentanil combined with a propofol-target plasma concentration of 1.5 microg x ml(-1) group 2 (n=8): 1.8 % isoflurane (1.5 MAC). Following 20 min of equilibration the autoregulatory challenge was repeated. Arterial blood gases and body temperature were maintained constant over time. Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Dynamic autoregulation was intact in all patients prior to induction of anesthesia expressed by an autoregulatory index (ARI) of 5.4+/-1.21 (mean+/-SD, group 1) and 5.9+/-0.98 (mean+/-SD, group 2). With remifentanil/propofol anesthesia dynamic autoregulation was similar to the awake state (group 1: ARI=4.9+/-0.88). In contrast, autoregulatory response was delayed with 1.5 MAC isoflurane (group 2, ARI=2.1+/-0.92) (P<0.05). These data show that dynamic cerebrovascular autoregulation is maintained with remifentanil-based total intravenous anesthesia. This is consistent with the view that narcotics (and hypnotics) do not alter the physiologic cerebrovascular responses to changes in MAP. In contrast, 1.5 MAC isoflurane delays cerebrovascular autoregulation compared to the awake state.
Sun, Zhonghua; Lee, Shen-Yuan
Objective: The application of 3-D printing has been increasingly used in medicine, with research showing many applications in cardiovascular disease. This systematic review analyzes those studies published about the applications of 3-D printed, patient-specific models in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Methods: A search of PubMed/Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify studies investigating the 3-D printing in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Only studies based on patient’s medical images were eligible for review, while reports on in vitro phantom or review articles were excluded. Results: A total of 48 studies met selection criteria for inclusion in the review. A range of patient-specific 3-D printed models of different cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were generated in these studies with most of them being developed using cardiac CT and MRI data, less commonly with 3-D invasive angiographic or echocardiographic images. The review of these studies showed high accuracy of 3-D printed, patient-specific models to represent complex anatomy of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system and depict various abnormalities, especially congenital heart diseases and valvular pathologies. Further, 3-D printing can serve as a useful education tool for both parents and clinicians, and a valuable tool for pre-surgical planning and simulation. Conclusion: This systematic review shows that 3-D printed models based on medical imaging modalities can accurately replicate complex anatomical structures and pathologies of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system. 3-D printing is a useful tool for both education and surgical planning in these diseases. PMID:28430115
Wallasch, T M; Beckmann, P; Kropp, P
The aim of this study was to investigate, by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD), cerebrovascular reactivity during the Valsalva maneuver (VM) during the headache-free interval in patients with migraine (M), migraine plus tension-type headache (M+TTH), and migraine plus medication overuse headache (M+MOH). A total of 114 patients (n=60 M, n=38 M+TTH, n=16 M+MOH) and n=60 controls were investigated; diagnoses were made according to the International Headache Society criteria. All subjects underwent TCD monitoring and, simultaneously, non-invasive assessment of arterial blood pressure and end-tidal CO2. Two indices were determined: the cerebrovascular Valsalva ratio (CVR) was calculated as the maximum end-diastolic flow velocity acceleration during the late straining phase of the VM [cm/s2] and the centroperipheral Valsalva ratio (CPVR) was defined as the quotient of CVR to the concomitant arterial blood pressure acceleration [cm/mmHg x s]. The dynamic cerebrovascular autoregulatory response to the VM, measured as CVR, was increased in patients with M and M+TTH compared to age-matched healthy subjects. By contrast, CPVR (i.e. the quotient of the cerebrovascular to the peripheral autonomic response), was increased in M patients compared to healthy subjects and all other headache conditions tested. Cerebrovascular autoregulatory response during the VM was increased in M patients compared to age-matched normal healthy subjects, indicating a disturbed autonomic control of cerebral vasoreactivity. The CPVR seems to be a sensitive parameter for distinguishing between M patients and M+TTH or M+MOH patients.
Ye, Zengpanpan; Ai, Xiaolin; Zheng, Jun; Hu, Xin; Lin, Sen; You, Chao; Li, Hao
Antihypertensive treatment is associated with clinical outcomes in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). ADAPT showed that intensive blood pressure lowering (<140 mm Hg) does not reduce peri-hematoma regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with sICH. However, the stenosis of main cerebral arteries that has a high presence in patients with sICH is well-known related to the brain ischemia. The effect of intensive BP lowering for sICH in patients with cerebrovascular stenosis is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and effectiveness of intensive BP lowering for sICH in patients with cerebrovascular stenosis. A pilot trial has been conducted to calculate the sample size and 80 patients of sICH with cerebrovascular stenosis will be involved. The target of systolic blood pressure (SBP) will be maintained at from 120 to 140 mm Hg or from 140 to 180 mm Hg for 7 days. Cerebral ischemia will be assessed at 24 hours after onset by computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging and the follow-up will be conducted at 30-day and 90-day. The primary outcome is the reduction of peri-hematoma rCBF. The other cerebral perfusion indexes and the rate of ischemic stroke are regarded as other primary outcomes. The secondary outcomes include clinical outcome at 30 days and 90 days, complications, and hospital stays. The ATICHST trial has been signed as a parallel, prospective, randomized, assessor-blinded clinical trial to determine the effects of intensive BP lowering on sICH in patients with cerebrovascular stenosis, the results of which will contribute to guide the management of blood pressure in sICH. The protocol will determine the safety and effectiveness of intensive BP lowering for sICH with cerebrovascular stenosis.
Coresh, Josef; Jaar, Bernard G.; Fink, Nancy E.; Plantinga, Laura C.; Armstrong, Paige A.; Longenecker, J. Craig; Sharrett, A. Richey; Powe, Neil R.; Parekh, Rulan S.
Summary Background and objectives Stroke remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for patients on dialysis; however, its risk factors in this population and measures to prevent it are not well understood. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We investigated whether inflammation was associated with cerebrovascular events in a national US cohort of 1041 incident dialysis patients enrolled from October 1995 to June 1998 and followed until January 31, 2004. Incident cerebrovascular events were defined as nonfatal (hospitalized stroke, carotid endarterectomy) and fatal (stroke death) events after dialysis initiation. With Cox proportional hazards regression analysis accounting for the competing risk of nonstroke death, we assessed the independent event risk associated with baseline levels of multiple inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], interleukin-6 (IL-6), matrix metalloproteinase-3 [MMP-3], and P-selectin) and hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor (statin) use, which may have pleiotropic inflammatory effects. Results 165 patients experienced a cerebrovascular event during 3548 person-years of follow-up; overall incidence rate was 4.9/100 person-years. None of the inflammatory markers were associated with cerebrovascular event risk (adjusted hazard ratios [HRs] per log unit [95% confidence interval]: hsCRP, 0.97 [0.85 to 1.11]; IL-6, 1.04 [0.85 to 1.26]; MMP-3, 1.02 [0.70 to 1.48]; P-selectin, 0.98 [0.57 to 1.68]). Statin use was also not associated with significant risk of events in unadjusted (HR 1.07 [0.69 to 1.68]) or propensity-score adjusted analyses (HR 0.98 [0.61 to 1.56]). Conclusions In conclusion, neither inflammatory markers nor statin use was associated with risk of cerebrovascular events. Further studies are needed to understand the pathophysiology and prevention of stroke in patients on dialysis. PMID:21551022
Hardigan, Trevor; Abdul, Yasir; Ergul, Adviye
The anti-hyperglycemic agent linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, has been shown to reduce inflammation and improve endothelial cell function. In this study, we hypothesized that DPP-IV inhibition with linagliptin would improve impaired cerebral blood flow in diabetic rats through improved insulin-induced cerebrovascular relaxation and reversal of pathological cerebrovascular remodeling that subsequently leads to improvement of cognitive function. Male type-2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and nondiabetic Wistar rats were treated with linagliptin, and ET-1 plasma levels and dose response curves to ET-1 (0.1-100nM) in basilar arteries were assessed. The impact of TLR2 antagonism on ET-1 mediated basilar contraction and endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh, 1nM-1M) in diabetic GK rats was examined with antibody directed against the TLR2 receptor (Santa Cruz, 5μg/mL). The expression of TLR2 in middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) from treated rats and in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) treated with 100nM linagliptin was assessed. Linagliptin lowered plasma ET-1 levels in diabetes, and reduced ET-1-induced vascular contraction. TLR2 antagonism in diabetic basilar arteries reduced ET-1-mediated cerebrovascular dysfunction and improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. Linagliptin treatment in the BMVEC was able to reduce TLR2 expression in cells from both diabetic and nondiabetic rats. These results suggest that inhibition of DPPIV using linagliptin improves the ET-1-mediated cerebrovascular dysfunction observed in diabetes through a reduction in ET-1 plasma levels and reduced cerebrovascular hyperreactivity. This effect is potentially a result of linagliptin causing a decrease in endothelial TLR2 expression and a subsequent increase in NO bioavailability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Satti, Sudhakar R; Vance, Ansar Z; Golwala, Sohil N; Eden, Tim
Shared decision-making, when physicians and patients collaborate and agree on health care decisions, is a key tenant of patient-centered care. Choice of access site for neurovascular procedures is rarely a shared decision point between physicians and patients. We present our initial evaluation of patient preference for radial over femoral access for cerebrovascular procedures. IRB approved single-center, prospective, and consecutive survey of all patients undergoing transradial access for cerebrovascular imaging and intervention. Primary inclusion criteria were patients who had previously undergone a transfemoral access procedure and chose to have their second procedure via a transradial approach. All patients underwent pre-procedural neurologic and extremity exams (including Barbeau tests for radial access suitability prior to radial access), post-procedural neurological evaluation and radial access assessment post-procedure, and complete neurological and radial access-site evaluation in the neurointerventional outpatient clinic 1-2 week post-procedure. Twenty five consecutive patients who underwent radial access cerebrovascular procedures after previous femoral access cerebrovascular procedures (16 diagnostic angiograms and 9 interventional procedures) were included. No major complications (including hematomas, infection, or delayed radial artery occlusion) were encountered during the immediate post-procedurral period or on outpatient follow-up (average 8 days). On immediate post-procedural examination, 16% had mild bruising and 24% had mild pain at the radial access site. Of the 25 patients included in this study, 24 strongly preferred radial access over femoral access and reported that, if they needed another procedure, they would prefer radial access. There was nearly unanimous patient preference for radial over femoral access for cerebrovascular procedures in this single-center prospective analysis. There were no major complications and no incidences of
Zenone, Thierry; Puget, Marie
The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics of cerebrovascular accidents at time of diagnosis in patients with giant cell arteritis. Retrospective data were collected from 98 patients at a single hospital with giant cell arteritis (according to the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria) diagnosed between October 1999 and January 2012. Cerebrovascular accident was found at initial presentation in 6 patients (6.1 %, 95 % CIs 2.3-12.9). Most of them had other symptoms of giant cell arteritis when the disease began. Signs reflecting the involvement of vertebro-basilar territory were present in 3 cases. No other case of cerebrovascular accident was described during the follow-up of patient; particularly no case of cerebrovascular accident occurred once corticosteroid therapy for the treatment of giant cell arteritis had been initiated. No differences in the epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory features at the time of diagnosis between patients who had cerebrovascular accidents and the rest of the giant cell arteritis patients were observed. Prognosis was good in our survey. However, there was no case of bilateral vertebral artery occlusion, a condition associated with poor prognosis. The present study confirms that cerebrovascular accidents may be the initial manifestation of giant cell arteritis, an argument in favor of a direct effect of the vasculitis in the development of cerebrovascular accidents rather than a complication of the corticosteroid therapy. The diagnosis of giant cell arteritis should always be considered in an elderly patient with stroke and an unexplained elevation of inflammatory biomarkers.
Background Although the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of estrogen on cerebrovascular function are well known, the age-dependent deleterious effects of estrogen are largely unstudied. It was hypothesized that age and sex interact in modulating cerebrovascular reactivity to vasopressin (VP) by altering the role of prostanoids in vascular function. Methods Female (F) Sprague–Dawley rats approximating key stages of “hormonal aging” in humans were studied: premenopausal (mature multigravid, MA, cyclic, 5–6 months) and postmenopausal (reproductively senescent, RS, acyclic, 10–12 months). Age-matched male (M) rats were also studied. Reactivity to VP (10−12–10−7 M) was measured in pressurized middle cerebral artery segments in the absence or presence of selective inhibitors of COX-1 (SC560, SC, 1 μM) or COX-2 (NS398, NS, 10 μM). VP-stimulated release of PGI2 and TXA2 were measured using radioimmunoassay of 6-keto-PGF1α and TXB2 (stable metabolites, pg/mg dry wt/45 min). Results In M, there were no changes in VP-induced vasoconstriction with age. Further, there were no significant differences in basal or in low- or high-VP-stimulated PGI2 or TXA2 production in younger or older M. In contrast, there were marked differences in cerebrovascular reactivity and prostanoid release with advancing age in F. Older RS F exhibited reduced maximal constrictor responses to VP, which can be attributed to enhanced COX-1 derived dilator prostanoids. VP-induced vasoconstriction in younger MA F utilized both COX-1 and COX-2 derived constrictor prostanoids. Further, VP-stimulated PGI2 and TXA2 production was enhanced by endogenous estrogen and decreased with advancing age in F, but not in M rats. Conclusions This is the first study to examine the effects of age and sex on the mechanisms underlying cerebrovascular reactivity to VP. Interestingly, VP-mediated constriction was reduced by age in F, but was unchanged in M rats. Additionally, it was observed
Finch, Caleb E.; Shams, Sara
Alzheimer disease (AD) research has mainly focused on neurodegenerative processes associated with the classic neuropathologic markers of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Additionally, cerebrovascular contributions to dementia are increasingly recognized, particularly from cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Remarkably, in AD brains, the ApoE ε4 allele shows male excess for cerebral microbleeds (CMB), a marker of SVD, which is opposite to the female excess of plaques and tangles. Mouse transgenic models add further complexities to sex-ApoE ε4 allele interactions, with female excess of CMBs and brain amyloid. We conclude that brain aging and AD pathogenesis cannot be understood in humans without addressing major gaps in the extent of sex differences in cerebrovascular pathology. PMID:27546867
Ethell, Douglas W; Cameron, D Joshua
Zebrafish are a powerful tool to study developmental biology and pathology in vivo. The small size and relative transparency of zebrafish embryos make them particularly useful for the visual examination of processes such as heart and vascular development. In several recent studies transgenic zebrafish that express EGFP in vascular endothelial cells were used to image and analyze complex vascular networks in the brain and retina, using confocal microscopy. Descriptions are provided to prepare, treat and image zebrafish embryos that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), and then generate comprehensive 3D renderings of the cerebrovascular system. Protocols include the treatment of embryos, confocal imaging, and fixation protocols that preserve EGFP fluorescence. Further, useful tips on obtaining high-quality images of cerebrovascular structures, such as removal the eye without damaging nearby neural tissue are provided. Potential pitfalls with confocal imaging are discussed, along with the steps necessary to generate 3D reconstructions from confocal image stacks using freely available open source software.
Molinari, Filippo; Rimini, Daniele; Liboni, William; Acharya, U Rajendra; Franzini, Marianno; Pandolfi, Sergio; Ricevuti, Giovanni; Vaiano, Francesco; Valdenassi, Luigi; Simonetti, Vincenzo
Ozone major autohemotherapy is effective in reducing the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but its effects on brain are still not clear. In this work, we have monitored the changes in the cerebrovascular pattern of MS patients and normal subjects during major ozone autohemotherapy by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as functional and vascular technique. NIRS signals are analyzed using a combination of time, time-frequency analysis and nonlinear analysis of intrinsic mode function signals obtained from empirical mode decomposition technique. Our results show that there is an improvement in the cerebrovascular pattern of all subjects indicated by increasing the entropy of the NIRS signals. Hence, we can conclude that the ozone therapy increases the brain metabolism and helps to recover from the lower activity levels which is predominant in MS patients.
Andrianova, I V; Ionova, V G; Demina, E G; Shabalina, A A; Karabasova, Ia A; Liutova, L I; Povorinskaia, T E; Orekhov, A N
A new form of garlic preparation--long-acting tablets of garlic powder allicor has been studied in patients with cerebral atherosclerosis (CA) complicated by chronic cerebrovascular pathology. A double blind placebo-controlled trial examined allicor effects on hemostasis and fibrinolysis in cross-over groups at two stages. At the first stage patients of group 1 (n = 15) received allicor in a dose 600 mg/day; patients of group 2 (n = 14) were given placebo. At the second stage group 1 received place and group 2 allicor in the same regimen. Before the treatment allicor effects on platelet aggregation and fibrinolysis were studied in vitro (20 patients). Allicor significantly inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo, reduced blood fibrinogen, normalized initially low fibrinolytic activity and fibrinolysis index. Due to the above properties allicor can be used for prevention and treatment of CA complicated by chronic cerebrovascular pathology.
Ribeiro, Joana Jesus; Sousa, Mário; Teotónio, Rute; Bento, Conceição; Sales, Francisco
Two elderly men, with previous history of cerebrovascular disease, were admitted to the emergency department due to focal motor status epilepticus with persistent myoclonic jerks of one side of the body. In both cases, the clinical picture evolved into a unilateral and isolated arrhythmic myoclonus of the abdominal muscles with preserved consciousness. These involuntary movements resolved with antiepileptic drugs. Although cerebrovascular disease is one of the most common causes of epilepsia partialis continua, reported cases in the literature with predominant abdominal involvement have a different aetiology. The neuroimaging and electroencephalographic findings showed a wide spectrum of different localizations and aetiologies associated with this particular type of epileptic seizure. Indeed, the pathophysiology of focal motor seizures involving the abdominal muscles is still a matter of discussion. In our second case, we present a patient with epilepsia partialis continua of the abdominal wall with an occipital focus, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously reported. [Published with video sequences].
Schumacher, M; Stoeter, P; Voigt, K
In 38 patients, the diagnosis of a cerebrovascular malformation (17 arteriovenous agniomas including one low-flow- and two venous angiomas; 10 aneurysms; 4 arteriovenous fistulae of the cavernous sinus, the tentorium and one of the Great Vein of Galen; 6 megadolical basilar arteries) was initially made by computertomographic (CT) examination, including contrast enhancement. The characteristic and pathognomonic CT findings are described and compared with those of cerebral angiography also done in these cases. The problems of differential diagnosis and the reasons for a false CT diagnosis in 5 other patients with a cerebro-vascular malformation are investigated; and the diagnostic value of cerebral angiography and CT is discussed and their complementary functions are being pointed out.
Vasilevko, Vitaly; Passos, Giselle F; Quiring, Daniel; Head, Elizabeth; Kim, Richard C; Fisher, Mark; Cribbs, David H
Age-related cerebrovascular dysfunction contributes to ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs), microbleeds, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and cognitive decline. Importantly, there is increasing recognition that this dysfunction plays a critical secondary role in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Atherosclerosis, hypertension, and CAA are the most common causes of blood-brain barrier (BBB) lesions. The accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) in the cerebrovascular system is a significant risk factor for ICH and has been linked to endothelial transport failure and blockage of perivascular drainage. Moreover, recent anti-Aβ immunotherapy clinical trials demonstrated efficient clearance of parenchymal amyloid deposits but have been plagued by CAA-associated adverse events. Although management of hypertension and atherosclerosis can reduce the incidence of ICH, there are currently no approved therapies for attenuating CAA. Thus, there is a critical need for new strategies that improve BBB function and limit the development of β-amyloidosis in the cerebral vasculature.
Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Mendoza, Eder; Torres-Hillera, Martin; Pinto, Neyla; Prada, Janette; Silva, Clara A; Vera, Silvia J; Castillo, Erwin; Valderrama, Vladimir; Prada, Didier G; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Garcia, Ingrid
Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a common cause of cardiopathy in South America leading it eventually to an established stroke; however, the association between T. cruzi infection itself and cerebrovascular disease is still unknown. We did a case-control study at Eastern Colombia and found that T. cruzi infection was more frequent and statistically significant in stroke cases (24.4%) than controls (1.9%), (Chi square: 21.72; OR: 16.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.64-71.4; p<0.00001). After removing the seropositive patients with cardiological abnormalities, the significance still remained by multivariate analysis (p<0.05). This is the first case-control study that demonstrated a significant link between this infection and symptomatic cerebrovascular disease, mainly ischemic, regardless of cardiac abnormalities. Therefore, we recommend that patients with stroke must be screened for T. cruzi infection if they currently live or have lived in places where this parasite is considered endemic.
Felsky, Daniel; De Jager, Philip L; Schneider, Julie A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Fleischman, Debra A; Arvanitakis, Zoe; Honer, William G; Pouget, Jennie G; Mizrahi, Romina; Pollock, Bruce G; Kennedy, James L; Bennett, David A; Voineskos, Aristotle N
The translocator protein, a microglial-expressed marker of neuroinflammation, has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease, which is characterized by alterations in vascular and inflammatory states. ATSPOvariant, rs6971, determines binding affinity of exogenous radioligandsin vivo; however, the effect of these altered binding characteristics on inflammatory and cerebrovascular biomarkers has not been assessed. In 2345 living subjects (Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, n = 1330) and postmortem brain samples (Religious Orders Study and Memory and Aging Project, n = 1015), we analyzed effects of rs6971 on white matter hyperintensisites, cerebral infarcts, circulating inflammatory biomarkers, amyloid angiopathy, and microglial activation. We found that rs6971 does not alter translocator protein in a way that impacts cerebrovascular and inflammatory states known to be affected in dementia. © The Author(s) 2016.
Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Hsien-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu
Abstract Long-term studies demonstrating the effect of pioglitazone use on primary prevention of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus are lacking. This study investigated the relationship between pioglitazone use and first attack of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in Taiwan. We conducted a case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 2359 type 2 diabetic subjects aged ≥65 years with newly diagnosed ischemic cerebrovascular disease from 2005 to 2011 as the case group and 4592 sex- and age-matched, randomly selected type 2 diabetic subjects aged ≥65 years without ischemic cerebrovascular disease as the control group. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of ischemic cerebrovascular disease associated with pioglitazone use was measured by the multivariable unconditional logistic regression model. After adjustment for confounding factors, the multivariable logistic regression analysis disclosed that the adjusted ORs of first attack of ischemic cerebrovascular disease associated with cumulative duration of using pioglitazone were 3.34 for <1 year (95% CI 2.59–4.31), 2.53 for 1 to 2 years (95% CI 1.56–4.10), 2.20 for 2 to 3 years (95% CI 1.05–4.64), and 1.09 for ≥3 years (95% CI 0.55–2.15), respectively. Our findings suggest that pioglitazone use does not have a protective effect on primary prevention for ischemic cerebrovascular disease among older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus during the first 3 years of use. Whether using pioglitazone for >3 years would have primary prevention for ischemic cerebrovascular disease needs a long-term research to prove. PMID:27495077
Nii, Maria; Maeda, Keisuke; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Nishioka, Shinta; Tanaka, Atsuko
Malnutrition affects the activities of daily living (ADLs) in convalescent patients with cerebrovascular disorders. We investigated the relationship between nutritional improvement, energy intake at admission, and recovery of ADLs. We evaluated 67 patients with cerebrovascular disorders admitted to our rehabilitation hospital between April 2013 and April 2015. These patients received interventions from the rehabilitation nutritional support team according to the following criteria: weight loss of 2 kg or more and body mass index of 19 kg/m(2) or lower. Exclusion criteria included a body mass index of 25 kg/m(2) or higher, duration of intervention of less than 14 days, or transfer to an acute care hospital because of clinical deterioration. We assessed nutritional status using the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and ADL using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score, FIM gain, and FIM efficiency. The mean age of the patients was 78.7 ± 8.0 years. The numbers of patients in each category of cerebrovascular disorder were 39 with cerebral infarction, 16 with intracerebral hemorrhage, 8 with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 4 others. Compared with the counterpart group, the group with an improvement in GNRI had a greater gain in FIM (median 17 and 20, respectively; P = .036) and a higher FIM efficiency (.14 and .22, respectively; P = .020). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that an improvement in GNRI, increasing energy intake at admission, and intracerebral hemorrhage were associated independently with greater FIM efficiency. This study suggested that nutritional improvement and energy intake at admission are associated with recovery of ADL after cerebrovascular disorders. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Providência, Rui; Gonçalves, Lino; Ferreira, Maria João
Cerebrovascular disease has long been the leading cause of death in Portugal. Despite improvements in the treatment of hypertension and the resulting decrease in associated mortality, the progressive aging of the population and increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation have prevented the incidence of stroke from falling as much as desired. The authors review the evidence on the situation in Portugal and propose an intervention plan.
MacKay, Christina M; Skow, Rachel J; Tymko, Michael M; Boulet, Lindsey M; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D; Ainslie, Philip N; Lemieux, Chantelle C M; Day, Trevor A
One of the most effective ways of engaging students of physiology and medicine is through laboratory demonstrations and case studies that combine 1) the use of equipment, 2) problem solving, 3) visual representations, and 4) manipulation and interpretation of data. Depending on the measurements made and the type of test, laboratory demonstrations have the added benefit of being able to show multiple organ system integration. Many research techniques can also serve as effective demonstrations of integrative human physiology. The "Duffin" hyperoxic rebreathing test is often used in research settings as a test of central respiratory chemosensitivity and cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2. We aimed to demonstrate the utility of the hyperoxic rebreathing test for both respiratory and cerebrovascular responses to increases in CO2 and illustrate the integration of the respiratory and cerebrovascular systems. In the present article, methods such as spirometry, respiratory gas analysis, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound are described, and raw data traces can be adopted for discussion in a tutorial setting. If educators have these instruments available, instructions on how to carry out the test are provided so students can collect their own data. In either case, data analysis and quantification are discussed, including principles of linear regression, calculation of slope, the coefficient of determination (R(2)), and differences between plotting absolute versus normalized data. Using the hyperoxic rebreathing test as a demonstration of the complex interaction and integration between the respiratory and cerebrovascular systems provides senior undergraduate, graduate, and medical students with an advanced understanding of the integrative nature of human physiology. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.
Myburgh, J A; Upton, R N; Grant, C; Martinez, A
Infusions of catecholamines are frequently administered to patients receiving propofol or isoflurane anaesthesia. Interactions between these drugs may affect regional circulations, such as the brain. The aim of this animal (sheep) study was to determine the effects of ramped infusions of adrenaline, noradrenaline (10, 20, 40 micrograms/min) and dopamine (10, 20, 40 micrograms/kg/min) on cerebral blood flow (CBF), intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) and cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). These measurements were made under awake physiological conditions, and during continuous propofol (15 mg/min) or 2% isoflurane anaesthesia. All three catecholamines significantly and equivalently increased mean arterial pressure from baseline in a dose-dependent manner in the three cohorts (P < 0.001). In the awake cohort (n = 8), dopamine (P < 0.01) significantly increased CBF from baseline whilst adrenaline and noradrenaline did not (P > 0.05). Under propofol (n = 6) and isoflurane (n = 6), all three catecholamines significantly increased CBF (P < 0.001). Dopamine caused the greatest increase in CBF, and was associated with significant increases in ICP (awake: P < 0.001; propofol P < 0.05; isoflurane P < 0.001) and CVR (isoflurane P < 0.05). No significant changes in CMRO2 were demonstrated. Under propofol and isoflurane anaesthesia, the cerebrovascular effects of catecholamines were significantly different from the awake, physiological state, with dopamine demonstrating the most pronounced effects, particularly under propofol. Dopamine-induced hyperaemia was associated with other cerebrovascular changes. In the presence of an equivalent effect on mean arterial pressure, the exaggerated cerebrovascular effects under anaesthesia appear to be centrally mediated, possibly induced by propofol- or isoflurane-dependent changes in blood-brain barrier permeability, thereby causing a direct influence on the cerebral vasculature.
Garkowski, Adam; Zajkowska, Joanna; Zajkowska, Agata; Kułakowska, Alina; Zajkowska, Olga; Kubas, Bożena; Jurgilewicz, Dorota; Hładuński, Marcin; Łebkowska, Urszula
Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is a disease caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, involving the nervous system. It usually manifests as lymphocytic meningoradiculitis, but in rare cases, it can also lead to cerebrovascular complications. We aimed to perform a systematic review of all reported cases of LNB complicated by central nervous system vasculitis and stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). We conducted a systematic review of literature between May 1987 and December 2016 with patients who presented with cerebrovascular course of LNB. This study included 88 patients with a median age of 46 years. The median interval from onset of symptoms suggesting Lyme disease to first symptoms of cerebrovascular manifestations of LNB was 3.5 months. The most common cerebrovascular manifestation of LNB was ischemic stroke (76.1%), followed by TIA (11.4%). The posterior circulation was affected alone in 37.8% of patients, the anterior circulation in 24.4% of patients, and in 37.8% of cases, posterior and anterior circulations were affected simultaneously. The most common affected vessels were middle cerebral artery-in 19 cases, basilar artery-in 17 cases, and anterior cerebral artery-in 16 cases. A good response to antibiotic treatment was achieved in the vast number of patients (75.3%). The overall mortality rate was 4.7%. Cerebral vasculitis and stroke due to LNB should be considered, especially in patients who live in or have come from areas with high prevalence of tick-borne diseases, as well as in those without cardiovascular risk factors, but with stroke-like symptoms of unknown cause.
Schreiber, W G; Gückel, F; Stritzke, P; Schmiedek, P; Schwartz, A; Brix, G
We have developed a new method for estimation of regional CBF (rCBF) and cerebrovascular reserve capacity on a pixel-by-pixel basis by means of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirteen healthy volunteers, 8 patients with occlusion and/or high grade stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA), and 2 patients with acute stroke underwent dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast enhanced MRI. Using principles of indicator dilution theory and deconvolution analysis, maps of rCBF, regional cerebral blood volume, and of the mean transit time (MTT) were calculated. In patients with ICA occlusion/stenosis, cerebrovascular reserve capacity was assessed by the rCBF increase after acetazolamide stimulation. Mean gray and white matter rCBF values in normals were 67.1 and 23.7 mL x 100 g(-1) x min(-1), respectively. Before acetazolamide stimulation, six of eight patients with ICA occlusions showed decreased rCBF values; and in seven patients increased MTT values were observed in tissue ipsilateral to the occlusion. After acetazolamide stimulation, decreased cerebrovascular reserve capacity was observed in five of eight patients with ICA occlusion. In acute stroke, rCBF in the central core of ischemia was less than 8 mL x 100 g(-1) x min(-1). In peri-infarct tissue, rCBF and MTT were higher than in unaffected tissue but rCBF was normal. Dynamic MRI provides important clinical information on the hemodynamic state of brain tissue in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease or acute stroke.
Pappa, Theodora; Alevizaki, Maria
Cardio- and cerebro-vascular diseases are two leading causes of death and long-term disability in postmenopausal women. The acute fall of estrogen in menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The relative contribution of androgen to this risk is also being recognized. The use of more sensitive assays for estradiol measurement and the study of receptor and carrier protein gene polymorphisms have provided some new information on the clinical relevance of endogenous sex steroids. We provide an update on the role of endogenous sex steroids on cardio- and cerebro-vascular disease in the postmenopausal period. We performed a PubMed search using the terms 'endogenous estrogen', 'androgen', 'cardiovascular disease', 'cerebro-vascular disease', 'stroke', 'carotid artery disease', and 'subclinical atherosclerosis'. The majority of studies show a beneficial effect of endogenous estrogen on the vasculature; however, there are a few studies reporting the contrary. A significant body of literature has reported associations of endogenous estrogen and androgen with early markers of atherosclerosis and metabolic parameters. Data on the relevance of endogenous sex steroids in heart disease and stroke are inconclusive. Most studies support a beneficial role of endogenous estrogens and, probably, an adverse effect of androgens in the vasculature in postmenopausal women. However, the described associations may not always be considered as causal. It is possible that circulating estrogen might represent a marker of general health status or alternatively reflect the sum of endogenous androgens aromatized in the periphery. Elucidating the role of sex steroids in cardio- and cerebro-vascular disease remains an interesting field of future research.
Moon, Hyung-Sik; Joo, Sung-Pil; Seo, Bo-Ra; Jang, Jae-Won; Kim, Jae-Hyoo
Objective Recently, microscope-integrated near infrared indocyanine green videoangiography (ICG-VA) has been widely used in cerebrovascular surgery because it provides real-time high resolution images. In our study, we evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative ICG-VA during cerebrovascular surgery. Methods Between August 2011 and April 2012, 188 patients with cerebrovascular disease were surgically treated in our institution. We used ICG-VA in that operations with half of recommended dose (0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg). Postoperative digital subtraction angiography and computed tomography angiography was used to confirm anatomical results. Results Intraoperative ICG-VA demonstrated fully occluded aneurysm sack, no neck remnant, and without vessel compromise in 119 cases (93.7%) of 127 aneurysms. Eight clipping (6.3%) of 127 operations were identified as an incomplete aneurysm occlusion or compromising vessel after ICG-VA. In 41 (97.6%) of 42 patients after carotid endarterectomy, the results were the same as that of postoperative angiography with good patency. One case (5.9%) of 17 bypass surgeries was identified as a nonfunctioning anastomosis after ICG-VA, which could be revised successfully. In the two patients of arteriovenous malformation, ICG-VA was useful for find the superficial nature of the feeding arteries and draining veins. Conclusion ICG-VA is simple and provides real-time information of the patency of vessels including very small perforators within the field of the microscope and has a lower rate of adverse reactions. However, ICG-VA is not a perfect method, and so a combination of monitoring tools assures the quality of cerebrovascular surgery. PMID:24003369
Ishizuka, Toshiaki; Niwa, Atsuko; Tabuchi, Masaki; Ooshima, Kana; Higashino, Hideaki
Inflammatory processes may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular injury in salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Recent reports revealed that acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) has anti-oxidative properties and elicits nitric oxide release by a direct activation of the endothelial NO synthase. The present study was designed to determine whether low-dose aspirin might prevent cerebrovascular injury in salt-loaded SHRSP by protecting oxidative damage. Nine-week-old SHRSP were fed a 0.4% NaCl or a 4% NaCl diet with or without treatment by naproxen (20 mg/kg/day), salicylic acid (5 mg/kg/day), or aspirin (5 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. Blood pressure, blood brain barrier impairment, mortality, and the parameters of cerebrovascular inflammation and damage were compared among them. High salt intake in SHRSP significantly increased blood brain barrier impairment and early mortality, which were suppressed by treatment with aspirin independent of changes in blood pressure. Salt loading significantly increased superoxide production in basilar arteries of SHRSP, which were significantly suppressed by treatment with aspirin. Salt loading also significantly decreased NOS activity in the basilar arteries of SHRSP, which were significantly improved by treatment with aspirin. At 5 weeks after salt loading, macrophage accumulation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity at the stroke-negative area in cerebral cortex of SHRSP were significantly reduced by treatment with aspirin. These results suggest that low-dose aspirin may exert protective effects against cerebrovascular inflammation and damage by salt loading through down-regulation of superoxide production and induction of nitric oxide synthesis.
Salva, Angela M; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Alban, Antonio J; Hughes, Charles; Smith, Eileen; Fidopiastis, Cali; Wiederhold, Mark D
There is new research showing that interactive multimodal rehabilitation may enhance cognitive therapy after cerebrovascular accident. A well-designed Mixed Reality system provides a diverse, controllable and versatile therapeutic environment to help promote neural plasticity during recovery. In addition to stroke patients, there are other groups, such as those with traumatic brain injury (TBI) that could benefit from the system. Initial results, both paper-and-pencil measures and physiological measures, in a trial with fourteen participants are discussed.
Colombo, Gianluca; Merico, Daniele; Boncoraglio, Giorgio; De Paoli, Flavio; Ellul, John; Frisoni, Giuseppe; Nagy, Zoltan; van der Lugt, Aad; Vassányi, István; Antoniotti, Marco
The NEUROWEB project supports cerebrovascular researchers' association studies, intended as the search for statistical correlations between a feature (e.g., a genotype) and a phenotype. In this project the phenotype refers to the patients' pathological state, and thus it is formulated on the basis of the clinical data collected during the diagnostic activity. In order to enhance the statistical robustness of the association inquiries, the project involves four European Union clinical institutions. Each institution provides its proprietary repository, storing patients' data. Although all sites comply with common diagnostic guidelines, they also adopt specific protocols, resulting in partially discrepant repository contents. Therefore, in order to effectively exploit NEUROWEB data for association studies, it is necessary to provide a framework for the phenotype formulation, grounded on the clinical repository content which explicitly addresses the inherent integration problem. To that end, we developed an ontological model for cerebrovascular phenotypes, the NEUROWEB Reference Ontology, composed of three layers. The top-layer (Top Phenotypes) is an expert-based cerebrovascular disease taxonomy. The middle-layer deconstructs the Top Phenotypes into more elementary phenotypes (Low Phenotypes) and general-use medical concepts such as anatomical parts and topological concepts. The bottom-layer (Core Data Set, or CDS) comprises the clinical indicators required for cerebrovascular disorder diagnosis. Low Phenotypes are connected to the bottom-layer (CDS) by specifying what combination of CDS values is required for their existence. Finally, CDS elements are mapped to the local repositories of clinical data. The NEUROWEB system exploits the Reference Ontology to query the different repositories and to retrieve patients characterized by a common phenotype. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Joshua F; Christmas, Kevin M; Harrison, Michelle L; Hurr, Chansol; Kim, Kiyoung; Brothers, R Matthew
A high degree of interindividual variability exists in the magnitude of heat stress (HS)-induced reductions in orthostatic tolerance relative to normothermia (NT). This variability may be associated with HS-mediated reductions in cerebral perfusion (indexed as middle cerebral artery blood velocity; MCAV(mean)) and altered cerebrovascular regulation. We tested the hypothesis that cerebrovascular reactivity to hypocapnia would be positively correlated with differences in tolerance to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) [assessed with a cumulative stress index (CSI)] between HS and NT (CSI(diff)). Subjects (N = 13) underwent LBNP twice (NT and HS) separated by > 72 h to assess CSI. On a third day, cerebrovascular reactivity [changes in cerebral vascular conductance (CVCi) during hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia (indexed by end tidal carbon dioxide; P(ET)CO2)] was assessed during NT, HS, and HS+LBNP (-20 mmHg; HS(LBNP)). Tolerance to LBNP was reduced after a 1.5 +/- 0.1 degrees C increase in internal temperature and a high degree of variability was observed for CSI(diff) (range: 122 to 1826 mmHg x min(-1)). The magnitude of reduction in CVCi during voluntary hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia (-16 +/- 5 Torr) was attenuated during HS and HS(LBNP) VS. NT (NT: -0.20 +/- 0.09 cm x s(-1) x mmHg(-1); HS: -0.12 +/- 0.09 cm x s(-1) x mmHg(-1); HS(LBNP): -0.11 +/- 0.11 cm x s(-1). mmHg(-1)); however, no relationship existed between deltaCVCi/ P(ET)CO2 and CSI(diff) in any condition. Cerebrovascular reactivity to hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia is attenuated when internal temperature is elevated, perhaps as a protective mechanism to protect against further reductions in the already diminished cerebral perfusion in this thermal state. However, individual differences in these responses do not appear to predict orthostatic tolerance during HS.
Rudenko, A Iu; Bashkirova, L M
The central goal of the investigation was to study Solcoseryl (SolcoSwitzerland) therapeutic efficacy for patients suffering from early or chronic cerebrovascular diseases complicated with different forms of paroxysms. 29 patients were examined. (14 of them were with vegetovascular dystonia, 7 with discirculatory encephalopathy of degree of 1 and 8 with discirculatory encephalopathy of degree of II). The authors revealed Solcoseryl to be positive in decreasing incidence and duration of vegetovascular fits, complaints, pathologic symptoms.
Klein, Rebecca; Menon, Bijoy K; Rabi, Doreen; Stell, William; Hill, Michael D
Background An acute medical condition following a previous stroke among those who operate trains, airplanes, and commercial vehicles can result in serious accidents. There are guidelines in place to assist physicians and employers in assessing the risks of returning to work after stroke but the extent and comprehensiveness across nations and among safety-critical occupations are not widely known. Methods Medical guidelines currently in place to regulate safety critical occupations including railway engineers, pilots and commercial vehicle drivers were systematically reviewed. Electronic and hand literature searches as well as review of grey literature for Canada, the USA, the UK, and Australia were conducted. Results There is no consistent set of guidelines that address the risk of a second catastrophic event after an initial cerebrovascular event in those employed in safety critical occupations in the four countries assessed. Some broad principles existed between the different countries and occupations but there was major variation in the approach to cerebrovascular disease and its impact on those working in safety-critical occupations. Conclusions A synthesis of current knowledge would assist in establishing risks of a catastrophic event in those who have already suffered from cerebrovascular illness. This will allow the creation of medical guidelines which could be applied to any safety critical occupation in any nation.
Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Pala, Andrea Norcini; Finco, Gabriele; Musu, Mario; Moro, Maria Francesca
Introduction : Depression and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis often occur in comorbidity showing neuropsychological impairment and poor response to antidepressant treatment. Objective is to evaluate if new antidepressant vortioxetine may be a potential treatment option. Mechanism of Action : Vortioxetine has 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D antagonists, 5-HT1B partial agonist and a 5-HT1A agonist and serotonin transporter inhibitor property. Efficacy and safety in Major Depressive Disorders and in cognitive impairment : The majority of trials (one of them in older people) showed efficacy for vortioxetine against placebo and no differences against other active treatments. The Adverse Effects ranged from 15.8% more to 10.8% less than placebo. In the elderly, only nausea was found higher than placebo. Effects on arterial blood pressure and cardiac parameters including the ECG-QT segment were similar to placebo. Elderly depressive patients on vortioxetine showed improvement versus placebo and other active comparators in Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores. The inclusion criteria admitted cases with middle cerebrovascular disease. Conclusion : The mechanism of action, the efficacy on depression and safety profile and early data on cognitive impairment make Vortioxetine a strong candidate for use in depression associated with cerebrovascular disease. This information must be supported by future randomized controlled trials. PMID:25893002
Liebeskind, David S
Crowdsourcing, an unorthodox approach in medicine, creates an unusual paradigm to study precision cerebrovascular health, eliminating the relative isolation and non-standardized nature of current imaging data infrastructure, while shifting emphasis to the astounding capacity of big data in the cloud. This perspective envisions the use of imaging data of the brain and vessels to orient and seed A Million Brains Initiative™ that may leapfrog incremental advances in stroke and rapidly provide useful data to the sizable population around the globe prone to the devastating effects of stroke and vascular substrates of dementia. Despite such variability in the type of data available and other limitations, the data hierarchy logically starts with imaging and can be enriched with almost endless types and amounts of other clinical and biological data. Crowdsourcing allows an individual to contribute to aggregated data on a population, while preserving their right to specific information about their own brain health. The cloud now offers endless storage, computing prowess, and neuroimaging applications for postprocessing that is searchable and scalable. Collective expertise is a windfall of the crowd in the cloud and particularly valuable in an area such as cerebrovascular health. The rise of precision medicine, rapidly evolving technological capabilities of cloud computing and the global imperative to limit the public health impact of cerebrovascular disease converge in the imaging of A Million Brains Initiative™. Crowdsourcing secure data on brain health may provide ultimate generalizability, enable focused analyses, facilitate clinical practice, and accelerate research efforts.
Liebeskind, David S.
Crowdsourcing, an unorthodox approach in medicine, creates an unusual paradigm to study precision cerebrovascular health, eliminating the relative isolation and non-standardized nature of current imaging data infrastructure, while shifting emphasis to the astounding capacity of big data in the cloud. This perspective envisions the use of imaging data of the brain and vessels to orient and seed A Million Brains Initiative™ that may leapfrog incremental advances in stroke and rapidly provide useful data to the sizable population around the globe prone to the devastating effects of stroke and vascular substrates of dementia. Despite such variability in the type of data available and other limitations, the data hierarchy logically starts with imaging and can be enriched with almost endless types and amounts of other clinical and biological data. Crowdsourcing allows an individual to contribute to aggregated data on a population, while preserving their right to specific information about their own brain health. The cloud now offers endless storage, computing prowess, and neuroimaging applications for postprocessing that is searchable and scalable. Collective expertise is a windfall of the crowd in the cloud and particularly valuable in an area such as cerebrovascular health. The rise of precision medicine, rapidly evolving technological capabilities of cloud computing and the global imperative to limit the public health impact of cerebrovascular disease converge in the imaging of A Million Brains Initiative™. Crowdsourcing secure data on brain health may provide ultimate generalizability, enable focused analyses, facilitate clinical practice, and accelerate research efforts. PMID:27921034
Bangen, Katherine J; Nation, Daniel A; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Weissberger, Gali H; Hansen, Lawrence A; Galasko, Douglas R; Salmon, David P; Bondi, Mark W
We examined the relationships of antemortem vascular risk factors to postmortem cerebrovascular and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathologies. Eighty-four AD patients underwent an assessment of vascular risk (blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, transient ischemic attack [TIA], or stroke) and later underwent brain autopsy. Given our aim to examine mild cerebrovascular changes (CVCs), individuals were excluded if autopsy revealed large stroke. The most common forms of CVC were circle of Willis atherosclerosis followed by arteriosclerosis, lacunes, and microinfarcts. Excluding the history of TIA/clinical stroke, individual vascular risk factors were not associated with CVC. However, the presence of multiple vascular risk factors was associated with CVC. Furthermore, the presence of CVC was associated with lower Braak and Braak stage. These findings highlight the importance of aggregate risk in the vascular contribution to dementia. Interventions designed to maintain cerebrovascular health may represent important opportunities for preventing or delaying dementia, even when AD is the dominant pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Smania, Nicola; Avesani, Renato; Roncari, Laura; Ianes, Patrizia; Girardi, Paolo; Varalta, Valentina; Gambini, Maria Grazia; Fiaschi, Antonio; Gandolfi, Marialuisa
To compare demographic data, clinical data, and rate of functional and cognitive recovery in patients with severe traumatic, cerebrovascular, or anoxic acquired brain injury (ABI) and to identify factors predicting discharge home. Three hundred twenty-nine patients with severe ABI (192 with traumatic, 104 with cerebrovascular, and 33 with anoxic brain injury). Longitudinal prospective study of inpatients attending the intensive Rehabilitation Department of the "Sacro Cuore" Don Calabria Hospital (Negrar, Verona, Italy). Etiology, sex, age, rehabilitation admission interval, rehabilitation length of stay, discharge destination, Glasgow Coma Scale, Disability Rating Scale (DRS), Glasgow Outcome Scale, Levels of Cognitive Functioning, and Functional Independence Measure. Predominant etiology was traumatic; male gender was prevalent in all the etiologic groups; patients with traumatic brain injury were younger than the patients in the other groups and had shorter rehabilitation admission interval, greater functional and cognitive outcomes on all considered scales, and a higher frequency of returning home. Patients with anoxic brain injury achieved the lowest grade of functional and cognitive recovery. Age, etiology, and admission DRS score predicted return home. Patients with traumatic brain injury achieved greater functional and cognitive improvements than patients with cerebrovascular and anoxic ABI. Age, etiology, and admission DRS score can assist in predicting discharge destination.
Wang, Dandan; Wang, Jing; Jin, Cheng; Ji, Ruijun; Wang, Anxin; Li, Xin; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Shouling; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Xingquan
Asymptomatic extracranial artery stenosis (ECAS) is a well-known risk factor for stroke events, but it remains unclear whether it has the same role in predicting cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, especially in China. We investigated the potential associations between ECAS, carotid plaque and carotid intima-media thickness and the new occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the study. Out of 5440 study participants, 364 showed an asymptomatic ECAS at baseline, and 185 had come up to the final vascular events (brain infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, coronary heart disease and death due to the vascular diseases). During the follow- up. ECAS, carotid plaque and its instability and increased CIMT have associated with vascular events significantly (P < 0.05). After adjusting relevant vascular risk factors, ECAS still has a strong relationship with the new occurrence of vascular events, especially the brain infarction (HR: 2.101; 95% CI: 1.027–4.298; P = 0.042). We observed a clear relationship between ECAS and the new occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, especially the brain infarction event. Carotid plaque and its instability and increased CIMT have all relevant with the occurrence of vascular events. Our findings provide direct evidence for the importance of ECAS in vascular events occurrence. PMID:27650877
Vasilj, Ivan; Cavaljuga, Semra; Lucić, Tomo; Kvesić, Ferdo
Cerebro-vascular insult is defined as sudden focal neurological deficit, caused by a cerebro-vascular disease lasting more then 24 hours. In this paper result of a retrospective epidemiological study of cerebro-vascular insult hospitalized and died patients from West Hercegovina Canton, was given. The study was done in Clinical hospital Mostar, for the period from 1998 to 2002. The source of the data was this hospital medical documentation. This hospital serves a total of 88,257 population of West Hercegovina Canton. A total of 393 insult cases were analyzed, out of which were 189 or 48.1% of male and 204 or 51.9% female patients. Hospital lethality found for that period was 37.4% (147 patients died out of 393 treated). Out of a total number of exited patients 37.1% (70 out of 189) were male and 37.7% (77 out of 204) were female patients. The highest lethality among both sexes was above the age of 65 years of life (37.4%), while the least was among patients between 30 to 49 years of life (25.0%).
Prasad, Shikha; Sajja, Ravi K; Kaisar, Mohammad Abul; Park, Jee Hyun; Villalba, Heidi; Liles, Taylor; Abbruscato, Thomas; Cucullo, Luca
Cigarette smoking (CS) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in a causative way primarily related to the TS content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotine, and inflammation. TS promotes glucose intolerance and increases the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (2DM) with which it shares other pathogenic traits including the high risk of cerebrovascular and neurological disorders like stroke via ROS generation, inflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment. Herein we provide evidence of the role played by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in CS-induced cerebrobvascular/BBB impairments and how these cerebrovascular harmful effects can be circumvented by the use of metformin (MF; a widely prescribed, firstline anti-diabetic drug) treatment. Our data in fact revealed that MF activates counteractive mechanisms primarily associated with the Nrf2 pathway which drastically reduce CS toxicity at the cerebrovascular level. These include the suppression of tight junction (TJ) protein downregulation and loss of BBB integrity induced by CS, reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress, renormalization of the expression levels of the major BBB glucose transporter Glut-1 and that of the anticoagulant factor thrombomodulin. Further, we provide additional insights on the controversial interplay between Nrf2 and AMPK.
Sabaté, S; Mases, A; Guilera, N; Canet, J; Castillo, J; Orrego, C; Sabaté, A; Fita, G; Parramón, F; Paniagua, P; Rodríguez, A; Sabaté, M
Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) represent the most common cause of serious perioperative morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to identify risk factors for MACCE in a broad surgical population with intermediate-to-high surgery-specific risk and to build and validate a model to predict the risk of MACCE. A prospective, multicentre study of patients undergoing surgical procedures under general or regional anaesthesia in 23 hospitals. The main outcome was the occurrence of at least one perioperative MACCE, defined as any of the following complications from admittance to discharge: cardiac death, cerebrovascular death, non-fatal cardiac arrest, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, new cardiac arrhythmia, angina, or stroke. The MACCE predictive index was based on β-coefficients and validated in an external data set. Of 3387 patients recruited, 146 (4.3%) developed at least one MACCE. The regression model identified seven independent risk factors for MACCE: history of coronary artery disease, history of chronic congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, history of cerebrovascular disease, preoperative abnormal ECG, intraoperative hypotension, and blood transfusion. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 75.9% (95% confidence interval, 71.2-80.6%). The risk score based on seven objective and easily assessed factors can accurately predict MACCE occurrence after non-cardiac surgery in a population at intermediate-to-high surgery-specific risk.
Borle, Kennedy J; Pfoh, Jamie R; Boulet, Lindsey M; Abrosimova, Maria; Tymko, Michael M; Skow, Rachel J; Varner, Amy; Day, Trevor A
Intra-individual variability in the magnitude of human cerebrovascular and respiratory chemoreflex responses is largely unexplored. By comparing response magnitudes of cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity (CVR; middle and posterior cerebral arteries; MCA, PCA), central (CCR; CO2) and peripheral respiratory chemoreflexes (PCR; CO2 and O2), we tested the hypothesis that a within-individual reactivity magnitude profile could be characterized. The magnitudes of CVR and CCR were tested with hyperoxic rebreathing and PCR magnitudes were tested through transient respiratory tests (TT-CO2, hypercapnia; TT-N2, hypoxia). No significant intra-individual relationships were found between CCR vs. CVR (MCA and PCA), CCR vs. PCR (TT-N2 or TT-CO2) (r<0.2, P>0.3) response magnitudes. Statistically significant relationships were found between MCA vs. PCA reactivity (r=0.45, P<0.01) and PCR TT-N2 vs. PCR TT-CO2 (r=0.79, P<0.001) responses. Using qualitative and quantitative comparisons, we conclude that an intra-individual chemoreflex reactivity magnitude profile cannot be characterized. These data highlight the considerable between- and within-individual variability that exists in human cerebrovascular and respiratory chemoreflexes.
Judd, B.W.; Meyer, J.S.; Rogers, R.L.; Gandhi, S.; Tanahashi, N.; Mortel, K.F.; Tawaklna, T.
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by the /sup 133/Xe inhalation method in patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID, N = 26), Alzheimer's dementia (AD, N = 19), and among age-matched, neurologically normal, healthy volunteers (N = 26). Cognitive performance was assessed in all subjects using the Cognitive Capacity Screening Examination (CCSE). Cerebral vasomotor responses were calculated from differences in values of mean hemispheric gray matter blood flow (Delta CBF) measured during inhalation of 100% oxygen (hyperoxia) compared with CBF measured while breathing room air. Significant correlations were found between CCSE performance and vasomotor responsiveness in patients with MID (P less than .01), but not in patients with AD or in neurologically normal volunteers. Loss of vasomotor responsiveness is an indicator of cerebrovascular disease with rigidity and/or loss of reactivity of cerebral vessels, which impairs cerebrovascular responses to situational demands and predisposes to cerebral ischemia. Loss of cerebral vasomotor responsiveness among MID patients, which is a biologic marker of cerebrovascular disease, provides confirmatory evidence of the vascular etiology of MID and assists in separating MID from AD patients.
Zuo, Pei-Yuan; Chen, Xing-Lin; Liu, Yu-Wei; Xiao, Chang-Liang; Liu, Cheng-Yun
Arterial ischemia and hemorrhage are associated with bevacizumab, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor that is widely used to treat many types of cancers. As specific types of arterial ischemia and hemorrhage, cerebrovascular events such as central nervous system (CNS) ischemic events and CNS hemorrhage are serious adverse events. However, increased cerebrovascular events have not been uniformly reported by previous studies. New randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been reported in recent years and we therefore conducted an up-to-date meta-analysis of RCTs to fully characterize the risk of cerebrovascular events with bevacizumab. We searched the databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and the American Society of Clinical Oncology conferences to identify relevant clinical trials up to February 2014. Eligible studies included prospective RCTs that directly compared patients with cancer treated with and without bevacizumab. A total of 12,917 patients from 17 RCTs were included in our analysis. Patients treated with bevacizumab had a significantly increased risk of cerebrovascular events compared with patients treated with control medication, with a relative risk of 3.28 (95% CI, 1.97-5.48). The risks of CNS ischemic events and CNS hemorrhage were increased compared with control, with RRs of 3.22 (95% CI, 1.71-6.07) and 3.09 (95% CI, 1.36-6.99), respectively. Risk varied with the bevacizumab dose, with RRs of 3.97 (95% CI, 2.15-7.36) and 1.96 (95% CI, 0.76-5.06) at 5 and 2.5 mg/kg/week, respectively. Higher risks were observed in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (RR, 6.42; 95% CI, 1.76-35.57), and no significant risk was observed in other types of tumors. In conclusion, the addition of bevacizumab significantly increased the risk of cerebrovascular events compared with controls, including CNS ischemic events and CNS hemorrhage. The risk may vary with bevacizumab dose and tumor type.
Liu, Yu-Wei; Xiao, Chang-Liang; Liu, Cheng-Yun
Arterial ischemia and hemorrhage are associated with bevacizumab, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor that is widely used to treat many types of cancers. As specific types of arterial ischemia and hemorrhage, cerebrovascular events such as central nervous system (CNS) ischemic events and CNS hemorrhage are serious adverse events. However, increased cerebrovascular events have not been uniformly reported by previous studies. New randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been reported in recent years and we therefore conducted an up-to-date meta-analysis of RCTs to fully characterize the risk of cerebrovascular events with bevacizumab. We searched the databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and the American Society of Clinical Oncology conferences to identify relevant clinical trials up to February 2014. Eligible studies included prospective RCTs that directly compared patients with cancer treated with and without bevacizumab. A total of 12,917 patients from 17 RCTs were included in our analysis. Patients treated with bevacizumab had a significantly increased risk of cerebrovascular events compared with patients treated with control medication, with a relative risk of 3.28 (95% CI, 1.97–5.48). The risks of CNS ischemic events and CNS hemorrhage were increased compared with control, with RRs of 3.22 (95% CI, 1.71–6.07) and 3.09 (95% CI, 1.36–6.99), respectively. Risk varied with the bevacizumab dose, with RRs of 3.97 (95% CI, 2.15–7.36) and 1.96 (95% CI, 0.76–5.06) at 5 and 2.5 mg/kg/week, respectively. Higher risks were observed in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (RR, 6.42; 95% CI, 1.76–35.57), and no significant risk was observed in other types of tumors. In conclusion, the addition of bevacizumab significantly increased the risk of cerebrovascular events compared with controls, including CNS ischemic events and CNS hemorrhage. The risk may vary with bevacizumab dose and tumor type. PMID:25025282
Fan, Jui-Lin; Subudhi, Andrew W.; Duffin, James; Lovering, Andrew T.; Roach, Robert C.; Kayser, Bengt
Previous studies reported enhanced cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity upon ascent to high altitude using linear models. However, there is evidence that this response may be sigmoidal in nature. Moreover, it was speculated that these changes at high altitude are mediated by alterations in acid-base buffering. Accordingly, we reanalyzed previously published data to assess middle cerebral blood flow velocity (MCAv) responses to modified rebreathing at sea level (SL), upon ascent (ALT1) and following 16 days of acclimatization (ALT16) to 5260 m in 21 lowlanders. Using sigmoid curve fitting of the MCAv responses to CO2, we found the amplitude (95 vs. 129%, SL vs. ALT1, 95% confidence intervals (CI) [77, 112], [111, 145], respectively, P = 0.024) and the slope of the sigmoid response (4.5 vs. 7.5%/mmHg, SL vs. ALT1, 95% CIs [3.1, 5.9], [6.0, 9.0], respectively, P = 0.026) to be enhanced at ALT1, which persisted with acclimatization at ALT16 (amplitude: 177, 95% CI [139, 215], P < 0.001; slope: 10.3%/mmHg, 95% CI [8.2, 12.5], P = 0.003) compared to SL. Meanwhile, the sigmoidal response midpoint was unchanged at ALT1 (SL: 36.5 mmHg; ALT1: 35.4 mmHg, 95% CIs [34.0, 39.0], [33.1, 37.7], respectively, P = 0.982), while it was reduced by ~7 mmHg at ALT16 (28.6 mmHg, 95% CI [26.4, 30.8], P = 0.001 vs. SL), indicating leftward shift of the cerebrovascular CO2 response to a lower arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) following acclimatization to altitude. Sigmoid fitting revealed a leftward shift in the midpoint of the cerebrovascular response curve which could not be observed with linear fitting. These findings demonstrate that there is resetting of the cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity operating point to a lower PaCO2 following acclimatization to high altitude. This cerebrovascular resetting is likely the result of an altered acid-base buffer status resulting from prolonged exposure to the severe hypocapnia associated with ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude. PMID:26779030
Kolmos, Mia; Krawcyk, Rikke Steen; Kruuse, Christina
Objectives: Exercise improves endothelial dysfunction, the key manifestation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and is recommended in both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular rehabilitation. Disagreement remains, however, on the role of intensity of exercise. The purpose of this review was to gather current knowledge on the effects of high-intensity training versus moderate-intensity continuous exercise on endothelial function in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients. Methods: A systematic review was performed in PubMed database, Embase and Cochrane libraries and on PEDro using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Studies were restricted to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients, and healthy subjects as general reference. Interventions comprised of high-intensity training alone, high-intensity training compared to moderate-intensity continuous exercise, or no training, with endothelial function as outcome measure. Endothelial function was measured either physiologically by flow-mediated dilatation and/or by systemic biomarkers. Data were analyzed descriptively due to non-comparability for a meta-analysis to be performed. Results: A total of 20 studies were included in the review. Although there was great heterogenecity in design, population and exercise protocols, all studies found high-intensity training to be safe. High-intensity training was equal to moderate-intensity continuous exercise through improvement in endothelial function in 15 of the 20 selected studies, as measured by flow-mediated dilatation, nitric oxide bioavailability and circulating biomarkers. Only a few studies examined high-intensity training in cerebrovascular patients, none with endothelial function as outcome. Conclusion: High-intensity training is promising as a time-efficient exercise strategy in cardiovascular rehabilitation, but data on endothelial effects in cerebrovascular rehabilitation are warranted. Agreement on a
Bianciardi, Marta; Toschi, Nicola; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Evans, Karleyton C; Bhat, Himanshu; Keil, Boris; Rosen, Bruce R; Boas, David A; Wald, Lawrence L
The influence of cardiac activity on the viscoelastic properties of intracranial tissue is one of the mechanisms through which brain-heart interactions take place, and is implicated in cerebrovascular disease. Cerebrovascular disease risk is not fully explained by current risk factors, including arterial compliance. Cerebrovascular compliance is currently estimated indirectly through Doppler sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of blood velocity changes. In order to meet the need for novel cerebrovascular disease risk factors, we aimed to design and validate an MRI indicator of cerebrovascular compliance based on direct endogenous measures of blood volume changes. We implemented a fast non-gated two-dimensional MRI pulse sequence based on echo-planar imaging (EPI) with ultra-short repetition time (approx. 30-50 ms), which stepped through slices every approximately 20 s. We constrained the solution of the Bloch equations for spins moving faster than a critical speed to produce an endogenous contrast primarily dependent on spin volume changes, and an approximately sixfold signal gain compared with Ernst angle acquisitions achieved by the use of a 90° flip angle. Using cardiac and respiratory peaks detected on physiological recordings, average cardiac and respiratory MRI pulse waveforms in several brain compartments were obtained at 7 Tesla, and used to derive a compliance indicator, the pulsatility volume index (pVI). The pVI, evaluated in larger cerebral arteries, displayed significant variation within and across vessels. Multi-echo EPI showed the presence of significant pulsatility effects in both S0 and [Formula: see text] signals, compatible with blood volume changes. Lastly, the pVI dynamically varied during breath-holding compared with normal breathing, as expected for a compliance indicator. In summary, we characterized and performed an initial validation of a novel MRI indicator of cerebrovascular compliance, which might prove useful
Sun, Baijun; Zhang, Liwen; Chen, Xi; Ma, Nannan; Yu, Fei; Guo, Huimin; Huang, Hui; Lee, Yungling Leo; Tang, Naijun; Chen, Jie
Background The relationship between ambient air pollution exposure and mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in human is controversial, and there is little information about how exposures to ambient air pollution contribution to the mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among Chinese. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exposure to ambient-air pollution increases the risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a retrospective cohort study among humans to examine the association between compound-air pollutants [particulate matter <10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and mortality in Shenyang, China, using 12 years of data (1998–2009). Also, stratified analysis by sex, age, education, and income was conducted for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality. The results showed that an increase of 10 µg/m3 in a year average concentration of PM10 corresponds to 55% increase in the risk of a death cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51 to 1.60) and 49% increase in cerebrovascular disease (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.45 to 1.53), respectively. The corresponding figures of adjusted HR (95%CI) for a 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2 was 2.46 (2.31 to 2.63) for cardiovascular mortality and 2.44 (2.27 to 2.62) for cerebrovascular mortality, respectively. The effects of air pollution were more evident in female that in male, and nonsmokers and residents with BMI<18.5 were more vulnerable to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion/Significance Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with the death of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among Chinese populations. PMID:21695220
Toschi, Nicola; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Evans, Karleyton C.; Bhat, Himanshu; Keil, Boris; Rosen, Bruce R.; Boas, David A.; Wald, Lawrence L.
The influence of cardiac activity on the viscoelastic properties of intracranial tissue is one of the mechanisms through which brain–heart interactions take place, and is implicated in cerebrovascular disease. Cerebrovascular disease risk is not fully explained by current risk factors, including arterial compliance. Cerebrovascular compliance is currently estimated indirectly through Doppler sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of blood velocity changes. In order to meet the need for novel cerebrovascular disease risk factors, we aimed to design and validate an MRI indicator of cerebrovascular compliance based on direct endogenous measures of blood volume changes. We implemented a fast non-gated two-dimensional MRI pulse sequence based on echo-planar imaging (EPI) with ultra-short repetition time (approx. 30–50 ms), which stepped through slices every approximately 20 s. We constrained the solution of the Bloch equations for spins moving faster than a critical speed to produce an endogenous contrast primarily dependent on spin volume changes, and an approximately sixfold signal gain compared with Ernst angle acquisitions achieved by the use of a 90° flip angle. Using cardiac and respiratory peaks detected on physiological recordings, average cardiac and respiratory MRI pulse waveforms in several brain compartments were obtained at 7 Tesla, and used to derive a compliance indicator, the pulsatility volume index (pVI). The pVI, evaluated in larger cerebral arteries, displayed significant variation within and across vessels. Multi-echo EPI showed the presence of significant pulsatility effects in both S0 and signals, compatible with blood volume changes. Lastly, the pVI dynamically varied during breath-holding compared with normal breathing, as expected for a compliance indicator. In summary, we characterized and performed an initial validation of a novel MRI indicator of cerebrovascular compliance, which might prove useful to investigate
VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. 2325 PIEDMONT (MRS. F.W. FISH HOUSE DESIGNED BY CHARLES S. KAISER, 1910. SEEN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA
Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Iinuma, Shin; Honma, Masaru; Iizuka, Hajime
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which may be associated with metabolic syndrome accompanied by cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. We investigated the relation between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases in Japanese psoriasis vulgaris patients. Ninety-seven psoriasis vulgaris patients and 79 healthy controls were assessed for serum CRP levels by immunoturbidimetry. The data were analyzed in terms of Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores, and comorbidity of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Serum CRP levels in psoriasis vulgaris patients were significantly higher than those of healthy controls. There was no significant difference between male and female CRP levels in either psoriasis or healthy controls. No correlation was detected between PASI scores and serum CRP levels, either. Psoriasis with cardio- and cerebrovascular disease showed significantly higher CRP levels compared with those without the diseases. Furthermore, psoriasis with metabolic syndrome showed significantly higher serum CRP levels than those without the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, serum CRP level is increased in psoriasis, and may be a useful marker for the prediction of the future risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease.
Erskine, Nathaniel; Tran, Hoang; Levin, Leonard; Ulbricht, Christine; Fingeroth, Joyce; Kiefe, Catarina; Singh, Sonal
Background Patients who develop herpes zoster or herpes zoster ophthalmicus may be at risk for cerebrovascular and cardiac complications. We systematically reviewed the published literature to determine the association between herpes zoster and its subtypes with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events. Methods/Results Systematic searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), SCOPUS (Embase) and Google Scholar were performed in December 2016. Eligible studies were cohort, case-control, and self-controlled case-series examining the association between herpes zoster or subtypes of herpes zoster with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events including stroke, transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. Data on the occurrence of the examined events were abstracted. Odds ratios and their accompanying confidence intervals were estimated using random and fixed effects models with statistical heterogeneity estimated with the I2 statistic. Twelve studies examining 7.9 million patients up to 28 years after the onset of herpes zoster met our pre-defined eligibility criteria. Random and fixed effects meta-analyses showed that herpes zoster, type unspecified, and herpes zoster ophthalmicus were associated with a significantly increased risk of cerebrovascular events, without any evidence of statistical heterogeneity. Our meta-analysis also found a significantly increased risk of cardiac events associated with herpes zoster, type unspecified. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the accumulating body of evidence that herpes zoster and herpes zoster ophthalmicus are significantly associated with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. PMID:28749981
Erskine, Nathaniel; Tran, Hoang; Levin, Leonard; Ulbricht, Christine; Fingeroth, Joyce; Kiefe, Catarina; Goldberg, Robert J; Singh, Sonal
Patients who develop herpes zoster or herpes zoster ophthalmicus may be at risk for cerebrovascular and cardiac complications. We systematically reviewed the published literature to determine the association between herpes zoster and its subtypes with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events. Systematic searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), SCOPUS (Embase) and Google Scholar were performed in December 2016. Eligible studies were cohort, case-control, and self-controlled case-series examining the association between herpes zoster or subtypes of herpes zoster with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events including stroke, transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. Data on the occurrence of the examined events were abstracted. Odds ratios and their accompanying confidence intervals were estimated using random and fixed effects models with statistical heterogeneity estimated with the I2 statistic. Twelve studies examining 7.9 million patients up to 28 years after the onset of herpes zoster met our pre-defined eligibility criteria. Random and fixed effects meta-analyses showed that herpes zoster, type unspecified, and herpes zoster ophthalmicus were associated with a significantly increased risk of cerebrovascular events, without any evidence of statistical heterogeneity. Our meta-analysis also found a significantly increased risk of cardiac events associated with herpes zoster, type unspecified. Our results are consistent with the accumulating body of evidence that herpes zoster and herpes zoster ophthalmicus are significantly associated with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events.
To investigate the impact of emission reduction and traffic restrictions measures before and after the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing on public health, which had cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Air quality and the hospitalizations of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases from Beijing Emergency Medical Center were collected from July to September during 2006 2010 in this paper. Using time series method of nonparametric generalized additive model (GAM) by controlling the long-term trend, "week effect", the influence of meteorological factors, to establish the relationship between the concentrations of PM2.5 and hospitalizations including gender and years stratification. There is significantly associations between PM2.5 and different cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease with a lag of 0 2d. From July to September during 2006 to 2010, the relative risks (RR) of different groups are least in 2008 and are largest in 2009. Increases of 0.0%, 0.18% and 0.07% in 2008, 3.43%-2.10% and 2.97% in 2009 for total, male and female cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases hospitalizations were associated with increase of 10μg/m3 in PM2.5. In addition, it is very important for reducing the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in Beijing by taking the related measures during the Olympic Game in 2008.
Dimant, J; Grob, D
In 100 consecutive patients with acute cerebrovascular accident, due to cerebral thrombosis in 72, cerebral hemorrhage in 12, embolus in 6, and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 10, there were 90 who had electrocardiographic abnormalities during the first three days after admission, compared to 50% in a control group. The patients with cerebrovascular accident had a 7- to 10-fold higher incidence of ST segment depression, prolonged Q-Tc interval and atrial fibrillation, and a 2- to 4-fold higher incidence of T wave inversion, conduction defects, premature ventricular beats and left ventricular hypetrophy. Patients who died had a 2-, 3- and 5-fold higher incidence of electrocardiographic evidence of recent myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation and conduction defects than those who survived, but these changes occurred in only 5, 21 and 14% of all patients, and other electrocardiographic changes could not be correlated with mortality. During the first three days after admission 29 patients had elevation of serum enzymes which may be derived from cardiac muscle, particularly CPK, which was increased 6-fold, compared to 2-fold increases in HBDH, GOT, and LDH. Only 5 of these patients had electrocardiographic evidence of recent myocardial infarction. Patients with elevated serum CPK had a 2-fold higher incidence of ST segment depression, T wave inversion, conduction defects and atrial fibrillation than those with normal CPK, and a mortality of 66%, compared to 30%. Of 41 patients who died, 49% had elevated serum CPK, compared to 15% of 59 patients who survived. These differences were significant (P less than 0.01). Serum CPK was more frequently helpful than the electrocardiogram in evaluating the extent of cardiac damage and in predicting mortality. Patients with acute cerebrovascular accident should have repeated evaluation of serum CPK and the ECG, and be monitored for arrhythmias.
Nahab, Fadi; Takesaka, Jennifer; Mailyan, Eugene; Judd, Lilith; Culler, Steven; Webb, Adam; Frankel, Michael; Choi, Dennis; Helmers, Sandra
Background: There are limited data on factors associated with 30-day readmissions and the frequency of avoidable readmissions among patients with stroke and other cerebrovascular disease. Methods: University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) database records were used to identify patients discharged with a diagnosis of stroke or other cerebrovascular disease at a university hospital from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 and readmitted within 30 days to the index hospital. Logistic regression models were used to identify patient and clinical characteristics associated with 30-day readmission. Two neurologists performed chart reviews on readmissions to identify avoidable cases. Results: Of 2706 patients discharged during the study period, 174 patients had 178 readmissions (6.4%) within 30 days. The only factor associated with 30-day readmission was the index length of stay >10 days (vs <5 days; odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% CI [1.4, 3.7]). Of 174 patients readmitted within 30 days (median time to readmission 10 days), 92 (53%) were considered avoidable readmissions including 38 (41%) readmitted for elective procedures within 30 days of discharge, 27 (29%) readmitted after inadequate outpatient care coordination, 15 (16%) readmitted after incomplete initial evaluations, 8 (9%) readmitted due to delayed palliative care consultation, and 4 (4%) readmitted after being discharged with inadequate discharge instructions. Only 5% of the readmitted patients had outpatient follow-up recommended within 1 week. Conclusions: More than half of the 30-day readmissions were considered avoidable. Coordinated timing of elective procedures and earlier outpatient follow-up may prevent the majority of avoidable readmissions among patients with stroke and other cerebrovascular disease. PMID:23983857
van Veen, Teelkien R; Panerai, Ronney B; Haeri, Sina; Zeeman, Gerda G; Belfort, Michael A
Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired autonomic function, which is hypothesized to cause cerebral hemodynamic abnormalities. Our aim was to test this hypothesis by estimating the difference in the cerebrovascular response to breath holding (BH; known to cause sympathetic stimulation) between women with preeclampsia and a group of normotensive controls. In a prospective cohort analysis, cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (BP, noninvasive arterial volume clamping), and end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) were simultaneously recorded during a 20-s breath hold maneuver. CBFV changes were broken down into standardized subcomponents describing the relative contributions of BP, cerebrovascular resistance index (CVRi), critical closing pressure (CrCP), and resistance area product (RAP). The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for changes in relation to baseline values. A total of 25 preeclamptic (before treatment) and 25 normotensive women in the second half of pregnancy were enrolled, and, 21 patients in each group were included in the analysis. The increase in CBFV and EtCO2 was similar in both groups. However, the AUC for CVRi and RAP during BH was significantly different between the groups (3.05 ± 2.97 vs. -0.82 ± 4.98, P = 0.006 and 2.01 ± 4.49 vs. -2.02 ± 7.20, P = 0.037), indicating an early, transient increase in CVRi and RAP in the control group, which was absent in PE. BP had an equal contribution in both groups. Women with preeclampsia have an altered initial CVRi response to the BH maneuver. We propose that this is due to blunted sympathetic or myogenic cerebrovascular response in women with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Katan, Mira; Moon, Yeseon; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Spanaus, Kathartina; DeRosa, Janet; Gutierrez, Jose; DeCarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton; Sacco, Ralph; Elkind, Mitchell
Chronic infections and cardiac dysfunction are risk factors for stroke. We hypothesized that blood biomarkers of infection (procalcitonin) and cardiac dysfunction (midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide [MR-proANP]), previously associated with small vessel stroke and cardioembolic stroke are also associated with subclinical cerebrovascular damage, including silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensity volume. The NOMAS (Northern Manhattan Study) was designed to assess risk factors for incident vascular disease in a multiethnic cohort. A subsample underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and had blood samples available for biomarker measurement (n=1178). We used logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association of these biomarkers with silent brain infarcts after adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and medical risk factors. We used linear regression to assess associations with log-white matter hyperintensity volume. Mean age was 70±9 years; 60% were women, 66% Hispanic, 17% black, and 15% were white. After adjusting for risk factors, subjects with procalcitonin or MR-proANP in the top quartile, compared with the lowest quartile were more likely to have silent brain infarcts (adjusted odds ratio for procalcitonin, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.7 and for MR-proANP, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.7-6.3) and increased white matter hyperintensity volume (adjusted mean change in log-white matter hyperintensity volume for procalcitonin, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.13-0.44 and for MR-proANP, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.004-0.36). Higher concentrations of procalcitonin, a marker of infection, and MR-proANP, a marker of cardiac dysfunction, are independently associated with subclinical cerebrovascular damage. If further studies demonstrate an incremental value for risk stratification, biomarker-guided primary prevention studies may lead to new approaches to prevent cerebrovascular disease. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Introduction The pathophysiology of sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is not entirely clear. One of the possible underlying mechanisms is the alteration of the cerebral microvascular function induced by the systemic inflammation. The aim of the present work was to test whether cerebral vasomotor-reactivity is impaired in patients with SAE. Methods Patients fulfilling the criteria of clinical sepsis and showing disturbance of consciousness of any severity were included (n = 14). Non-septic persons whithout previous diseases affecting cerebral vasoreactivity served as controls (n = 20). Transcranial Doppler blood flow velocities were measured at rest and at 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes after intravenous administration of 15 mg/kgBW acetazolamide. The time course of the acetazolamide effect on cerebral blood flow velocity (cerebrovascular reactivity, CVR) and the maximal vasodilatory effect of acetazolemide (cerebrovascular reserve capacity, CRC) were compared among the groups. Results Absolute blood flow velocities after adminsitration of the vasodilator drug were higher among control subjects than in SAE. Assessment of the time-course of the vasomotor reaction showed that patients with SAE reacted slower to the vasodilatory stimulus than control persons. When assessing the maximal vasodilatory ability of the cerebral arterioles to acetazolamide during vasomotor testing, we found that patients with SAE reacted to a lesser extent to the drug than did control subjects (CRC controls:46.2 ± 15.9%, CRC SAE: 31,5 ± 15.8%, P < 0.01). Conclusions We conclude that cerebrovascular reactivity is impaired in patients with SAE. The clinical significance of this pathophysiological finding has to be assessed in further studies. PMID:20356365
Brickman, Adam M.; Reitz, Christiane; Luchsinger, José A.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Schupf, Nicole; Muraskin, Jordan; DeCarli, Charles; Brown, Truman R.; Mayeux, Richard
Objective To determine the association of blood pressure (BP) level and longterm fluctuation in BP with cerebrovascular disease. Design Participants received structural MRI and BP measurements in 3, 24 month intervals prior to scanning. We derived the mean and standard deviation (SD) of the mean BP for each participant over the 3 intervals and divided them into four groups defined as above and below the group median (≤ 96.48 mmHg or >96.48mmHg) and further subdivided by the median standard deviation (below SD ≤ 7.21 mmHg or above SD > 7.21 mmHg). This scheme yielded four groups representing the full range of BP and fluctuations in BP. We examined differences in white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume and brain infarctions across these groups. Setting The Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project, a community-based epidemiological study of older adults from northern Manhattan. Participants 686 non-demented older adults who received structural MRI and had BP measurements over three study visits. Results WMH volume increased across the four groups in a linear fashion with the lowest WMH volume in the lowest mean/lowest SD group and the highest in the highest mean/highest SD group (F(3,610)=27.43, p=0.0017). Frequency of infarction also increased monotonically across groups (from 22% to 41%; p-for-trend=0.004). Conclusions Compared to individuals with low BP with low fluctuations in BP, the risk of cerebrovascular disease increases with increasing BP and BP fluctuation. Given that cerebrovascular disease is associated with disability, findings suggest that interventions should focus on longterm fluctuating BP as well as elevated BP. PMID:20457955
Villela, Paolo Blanco; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes de
Cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases are among the main causes of death worldwide. However, there are limited data about the trends of these diseases over the years. To evaluate the temporal trends in mortality rates and proportional mortality from cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases according to sex and age in Brazil between 1980 and 2012. We evaluated the underlying causes of death between 1980 and 2012 in both sexes and by age groups for circulatory diseases (CD), cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD), and hypertensive diseases (HD). We also evaluated death due to all causes (AC), external causes (EC), and ill-defined causes of death (IDCD). Data on deaths and population were obtained from the Department of Information Technology of the Unified Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, DATASUS/MS). We estimated crude and standardized annual mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants and percentages of proportional mortality rates. With the exception of EC, the mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants of all other diseases increased with age. The proportional mortality of CD, CBVD, and HD increased up to the age range of 60-69 years in men and 70-79 years in women, and reached a plateau in both sexes after that. The standardized rates of CD and CBVD declined in both sexes. However, the HD rates showed the opposite trend and increased mildly during the study period. Despite the decline in standardized mortality rates due to CD and CBVD, there was an increase in deaths due to HD, which could be related to factors associated with the completion of the death certificates, decline in IDCD rates, and increase in the prevalence of hypertension.
MacDonald, Matthew Ethan; Frayne, Richard
Cerebrovascular imaging is of great interest in the understanding of neurological disease. MRI is a non-invasive technology that can visualize and provide information on: (i) the structure of major blood vessels; (ii) the blood flow velocity in these vessels; and (iii) the microcirculation, including the assessment of brain perfusion. Although other medical imaging modalities can also interrogate the cerebrovascular system, MR provides a comprehensive assessment, as it can acquire many different structural and functional image contrasts whilst maintaining a high level of patient comfort and acceptance. The extent of examination is limited only by the practicalities of patient tolerance or clinical scheduling limitations. Currently, MRI methods can provide a range of metrics related to the cerebral vasculature, including: (i) major vessel anatomy via time-of-flight and contrast-enhanced imaging; (ii) blood flow velocity via phase contrast imaging; (iii) major vessel anatomy and tissue perfusion via arterial spin labeling and dynamic bolus passage approaches; and (iv) venography via susceptibility-based imaging. When designing an MRI protocol for patients with suspected cerebral vascular abnormalities, it is appropriate to have a complete understanding of when to use each of the available techniques in the 'MR angiography toolkit'. In this review article, we: (i) overview the relevant anatomy, common pathologies and alternative imaging modalities; (ii) describe the physical principles and implementations of the above listed methods; (iii) provide guidance on the selection of acquisition parameters; and (iv) describe the existing and potential applications of MRI to the cerebral vasculature and diseases. The focus of this review is on obtaining an understanding through the application of advanced MRI methodology of both normal and abnormal blood flow in the cerebrovascular arteries, capillaries and veins.
Gasbarrino, Karina; Mantzoros, Christos; Gorgui, Jessica; Veinot, John P; Lai, Chi; Daskalopoulou, Stella S
The rupture of unstable carotid atherosclerotic plaques is one of the main causes of cerebrovascular ischemic events. There is need for circulating markers that can predict plaque instability and risk of stroke. Proinflammatory chemerin, leptin, and resistin, along with anti-inflammatory adiponectin, are adipokines with direct influence on vascular function. We investigated the association of circulating adipokines with carotid plaque instability and cerebrovascular symptomatology. Neurologically symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (n=165) scheduled for carotid endarterectomy were recruited. Fasting blood samples were collected preoperatively; adiponectin and leptin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay; and chemerin and resistin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The instability of plaque specimens was assessed using gold-standard histological classifications. Chemerin was significantly associated with plaque instability. The fully adjusted model, accounting for age, sex, body mass index, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and circulating adiponectin, leptin, and resistin, yielded an odds ratio of 0.991 (95% confidence interval 0.985-0.998) for plaque instability per unit increase in chemerin. High leptin levels were significantly associated with presence of specific features of plaque instability. In subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, resistin levels were significantly elevated in symptomatic when compared with asymptomatic subjects (P=0.001) and increased the risk of cerebrovascular symptomatology (adjusted odds ratio 1.264, 95% confidence interval 1.004-1.594). Low chemerin and high resistin levels were associated with carotid disease severity, suggesting that these adipokines may act as potential markers for plaque instability and stroke risk. Future studies are needed to assess causation between circulating adipokines and plaque instability. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Sanfratello, L; Lundy, S L; Qualls, C; Knoefel, J E; Adair, J C; Caprihan, A; Stephen, J M; Aine, C J
The development and decline of brain structure and function throughout adulthood is a complex issue, with cognitive aging trajectories influenced by a host of factors including cerebrovascular risk. Neuroimaging studies of age-related cognitive decline typically reveal a linear decrease in gray matter (GM) volume/density in frontal regions across adulthood. However, white matter (WM) tracts mature later than GM, particularly in regions necessary for executive functions and memory. Therefore, it was predicted that a middle-aged group (MC: 35-45 years) would perform best on a verbal working memory task and reveal greater regional WM integrity, compared with both young (YC: 18-25 years) and elder groups (EC: 60+ years). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) were obtained from 80 healthy participants. Objective measures of cerebrovascular risk and cognition were also obtained. As predicted, MC revealed best verbal working memory accuracy overall indicating some maturation of brain function between YC and MC. However, contrary to the prediction fractional anisotropy values (FA), a measure of WM integrity, were not greater in MC (i.e., there were no significant differences in FA between YC and MC but both groups showed greater FA than EC). An overall multivariate model for MEG ROIs showed greater peak amplitudes for MC and YC, compared with EC. Subclinical cerebrovascular risk factors (systolic blood pressure and blood glucose) were negatively associated with FA in frontal callosal, limbic, and thalamic radiation regions which correlated with executive dysfunction and slower processing speed, suggesting their contribution to age-related cognitive decline. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nakamoto, Beau K; Jahanshad, Neda; McMurtray, Aaron; Kallianpur, Kalpana J; Chow, Dominic C; Valcour, Victor G; Paul, Robert H; Marotz, Liron; Thompson, Paul M; Shikuma, Cecilia M
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder remains prevalent in HIV-infected individuals despite effective antiretroviral therapy. As these individuals age, comorbid cerebrovascular disease will likely impact cognitive function. Effective tools to study this impact are needed. This study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize brain microstructural changes in HIV-infected individuals with and without cerebrovascular risk factors. Diffusion-weighted MRIs were obtained in 22 HIV-infected subjects aged 50 years or older (mean age = 58 years, standard deviation = 6 years; 19 males, three females). Tensors were calculated to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps. Statistical comparisons accounting for multiple comparisons were made between groups with and without cerebrovascular risk factors. Abnormal glucose metabolism (i.e., impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes mellitus) was associated with significantly higher MD (false discovery rate (FDR) critical p value = 0.008) and lower FA (FDR critical p value = 0.002) in the caudate and lower FA in the hippocampus (FDR critical p value = 0.004). Pearson correlations were performed between DTI measures in the caudate and hippocampus and age- and education-adjusted composite scores of global cognitive function, memory, and psychomotor speed. There were no detectable correlations between the neuroimaging measures and measures of cognition. In summary, we demonstrate that brain microstructural abnormalities are associated with abnormal glucose metabolism in the caudate and hippocampus of HIV-infected individuals. Deep gray matter structures and the hippocampus may be vulnerable in subjects with comorbid abnormal glucose metabolism, but our results should be confirmed in further studies.
Villela, Paolo Blanco; Klein, Carlos Henrique; de Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes
Background Cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases are among the main causes of death worldwide. However, there are limited data about the trends of these diseases over the years. Objective To evaluate the temporal trends in mortality rates and proportional mortality from cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases according to sex and age in Brazil between 1980 and 2012. Methods We evaluated the underlying causes of death between 1980 and 2012 in both sexes and by age groups for circulatory diseases (CD), cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD), and hypertensive diseases (HD). We also evaluated death due to all causes (AC), external causes (EC), and ill-defined causes of death (IDCD). Data on deaths and population were obtained from the Department of Information Technology of the Unified Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, DATASUS/MS). We estimated crude and standardized annual mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants and percentages of proportional mortality rates. Results With the exception of EC, the mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants of all other diseases increased with age. The proportional mortality of CD, CBVD, and HD increased up to the age range of 60-69 years in men and 70-79 years in women, and reached a plateau in both sexes after that. The standardized rates of CD and CBVD declined in both sexes. However, the HD rates showed the opposite trend and increased mildly during the study period. Conclusion Despite the decline in standardized mortality rates due to CD and CBVD, there was an increase in deaths due to HD, which could be related to factors associated with the completion of the death certificates, decline in IDCD rates, and increase in the prevalence of hypertension. PMID:27355586
Weinstock, Peter; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Flynn, Katie; Orbach, Darren B; Smith, Edward
OBJECT Despite the availability of multiplanar imaging, understanding relational 3D anatomy for complex cerebrovascular lesions can be difficult. A 3D printed model allows for instantaneous visualization of lesional anatomy from all perspectives, with the added ability to simulate operative approaches with tactile feedback. The authors report their experience with customized 3D printed models of pediatric cerebrovascular lesions as an educational and clinical tool for patients, trainees, and physicians. METHODS Via an "in-house" 3D print service, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) studies of pediatric patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were processed with specialized software, and regions of interest were selected by the surgical/endovascular team. Multiple models for each patient were then printed on a 3D printer, with each construct designed to illustrate different aspects of the specific lesion. Intraoperative validation of model fidelity was performed using perioperative imaging, surgical filming, and post hoc analysis of models with intraoperative photography. RESULTS Four cases involving pediatric patients (ages 0-16 years) were studied for initial proof of principle. Three of the patients had AVMs and one had a vein of Galen malformation (VOGM). The VOGM was embolized successfully and the AVMs were resected without complication. In the AVM cases, intraprocedural imaging and photography were performed and verified millimeter-level fidelity of the models (n = 5, 98% concordance, range 94%-100% with average of < 2 mm variation in the largest AVM [6-cm diameter]). The use of 3D models was associated with a 30-minute reduction in operative time (12%) in 2 cases when they were compared with matched controls as a feasibility study. CONCLUSIONS Patient-specific 3D printed models of pediatric cerebrovascular conditions can be constructed with high fidelity. This proof-of-principle series demonstrates, for the first time
Castañeda, Santos; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Llorca, Javier; Corrales, Alfonso; Ubilla, Begoña; Miranda-Filloy, José A.; Pina, Trinitario; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Balsa, Alejandro; Pascual-Salcedo, Dora; López-Longo, Francisco J.; Carreira, Patricia; Blanco, Ricardo; González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Martín, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A.
Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease with high incidence of cardiovascular disease due to accelerated atherosclerosis. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Several polymorphisms in the OPG gene with functional effects on cardiovascular disease in non-rheumatic individuals have been described. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the effect of three of these functional OPG polymorphisms on the risk of cardiovascular disease in a large and well-characterized cohort of Spanish patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Three OPG gene variants (rs3134063, rs2073618 and rs3134069) were genotyped by TaqMan assays in 2027 Spanish patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody testing was positive in 997 of 1714 tested. Also, 18.3% of the whole series had experienced cardiovascular events, including 5.4% with cerebrovascular accidents. The relationship between OPG variants and cardiovascular events was assessed using Cox regression. Results No association between OPG gene variants and cardiovascular disease was observed in the whole group of rheumatoid arthritis patients or in anti-CCP positive patients. Nevertheless, a protective effect of CGA haplotype on the risk of cardiovascular disease in general, and specifically in the risk of cerebrovascular complications after adjusting for sex, age at disease diagnosis and traditional cardiovascular risk factors was disclosed in anti-CCP negative patients (HR = 0.54; 95%CI: 0.31–0.95; p = 0.032 and HR = 0.17; 95%CI: 0.04–0.78; p = 0.022, respectively). Conclusion Our results indicate a protective effect of the OPG CGA haplotype on cardiovascular risk, mainly due to a protective effect against cerebrovascular events in anti-CCP negative rheumatoid arthritis patients. PMID:25184828
Spencer, Matthew D.; Tyndall, Amanda V.; Davenport, Margie H.; Argourd, Laurie; Anderson, Todd J.; Eskes, Gail A.; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Hogan, David B.; Leigh, Richard; Meshi, Bernard; Smith, Eric E.; Wilson, Ben J.; Wilton, Stephen B.; Poulin, Marc J.
The primary purpose of this Brain in Motion (BIM) sub-study was to determine the 6-month stability of resting blood flow velocity and cerebrovascular responsiveness to a euoxic hypercapnic challenge in a group of physically inactive community dwelling men and men aged ≥55 yrs (range 55–92 yrs). At baseline and 6 months later 88 women (65±6 yr) and 78 men (67±7 yr) completed a hypercapnic challenge (step changes from resting end-tidal PCO2 ((PETCO2) to +1, +5 and +8 mmHg above rest) while cerebral blood flow velocity was assessed using transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Peak velocity of the middle cerebral artery (MCAv) was increased (p<0.05) at the second visit during rest (51±2 vs. 52±4); however, these differences were abolished (p>0.05) when MCAv was normalized to PETCO2. During hypercapnia, MCAv tended to be increased at follow-up, but this finding was absent when MCAv/PETCO2 was compared across time. Cerebrovascular reactivity (i.e., ΔMCAv/ΔPETCO2) was similar (p>0.05) between testing occasions regardless of the approach taken (i.e., considering only the lower step [from +1 to +5 mmHg]; the upper step [+5 to +8 mmHg]; or the complete test taken together). In conclusion, this study has shown that cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular responsiveness to acute euoxic hypercapnia are stable in older, healthy adults over a 6-month period. Modest changes in MCAv over time must be viewed in the context of underlying differences in PETCO2, an important finding with implications for future studies considering cerebral blood flow velocity. PMID:26599343
FernÃ¡ndez, N.; GarcÃa, J. L.; GarcÃa-VillalÃ³n, A. L.; Monge, L.; GÃ³mez, B.; DiÃ©guez, G.
1. The role of nitric oxide in the cerebral circulation under basal conditions and after vasodilator stimulation was studied in instrumented, conscious goats, by examining the action of inhibiting endogenous nitric oxide production with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). 2. In 6 unanaesthetized goats, blood flow to one brain hemisphere (electromagnetically measured), systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate were continuously recorded. L-NAME (35 mg kg-1 by i.v. bolus) decreased resting cerebral blood flow by 43 +/- 3%, increased mean arterial pressure by 21 +/- 2%, and decreased heart rate by 41 +/- 2%; cerebrovascular resistance increased by 114 +/- 13% (P < 0.01); the immediate addition of i.v. infusion of L-NAME (0.15-0.20 mg kg-1 during 60-80 min) did not significantly modify these effects. Cerebral blood flow recovered at 72 h, arterial pressure and cerebrovascular resistance at 48 h, and heart rate at 6 days after L-NAME treatment. 3. A second treatment with L-NAME scheduled as above reproduced the immediate haemodynamic effects of the first treatment, which (except bradycardia) reversed with L-arginine (200-300 mg kg-1 by i.v. bolus). 4. Acetylcholine (0.01-0.3 micrograms), sodium nitroprusside (3-100 micrograms) and diazoxide (0.3-9 mg), injected into the cerebral circulation of 5 conscious goats, produced dose-dependent increases in cerebral blood flow, and decreases in cerebrovascular resistance; sodium nitroprusside (30 and 100 micrograms) also caused hypotension and tachycardia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8220904
Murray, Alison D; Staff, Roger T; McNeil, Christopher J; Salarirad, Sima; Ahearn, Trevor S; Mustafa, Nazahah; Whalley, Lawrence J
The cognitive reserve hypothesis explains the disparity between clinical and pathological phenotypes and why, in two individuals with the same extent of neuropathology, one may be demented while the other remains cognitively intact. We examined the balance between brain magnetic resonance imaging measures of the two most common pathologies associated with brain ageing, cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease, and parameters of cerebral reserve in well-characterized participants born in 1936, for whom childhood intelligence is known. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was carried out at 1.5T using fluid attenuation inversion recovery and T(1)-weighted volumetric sequences in 249 participants. Cerebrovascular disease was quantified by measuring brain white matter hyperintensities on fluid attenuation inversion recovery images using Scheltens' scale and Alzheimer's disease was measured from volumetric data using FreeSurfer to extract whole brain volume and hippocampal volumes in turn. The effect of these measures of brain burden on life-long cognitive ageing from the age of 11 to 68 years was compared with the effect of educational attainment and occupational grade using structural equation modelling. Complete brain burden and reserve data were available in 224 participants. We found that educational attainment, but not occupation, has a measurable and positive effect, with a standardized regression weight of +0.23, on late life cognitive ability in people without cognitive impairment aged 68 years, allowing for the influence of childhood intelligence and the two most common subclinical brain pathological burdens in the ageing brain. In addition, we demonstrate that the magnitude of the contribution of education is greater than the negative impact of either neuropathological burden alone, with standardized regression weights of -0.14 for white matter hyperintensities and -0.20 for hippocampal atrophy. This study illustrates how education counteracts the
Ugolini, Donatella; Neri, Monica; Cesario, Alfredo; Marazzi, Giuseppe; Milazzo, Daniele; Volterrani, Maurizio; Bennati, Luca; Bonassi, Stefano; Pasqualetti, Patrizio
To explore temporal trends, geographic distribution, and socioeconomic determinants of scientific production in the field of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease (CCD) rehabilitation. Citations from 1967 to 2008 were downloaded from the PubMed database. Core of the search strategy was the key word cardiovascular diseases in the Medical Subject Headings major field with the subheading rehabilitation. Journal Citation Reports was used to assign an impact factor (IF). Demographic and economic data were retrieved from the International Monetary Fund. All articles retrieved were included in the bibliometric analysis. The search strategy was validated on a random sample of the articles retrieved. The search quality reflected the level of error of the PubMed database. Publications retrieved were 10,379 and have grown 8.6 times in 40 years, faster than the all-diseases rehabilitation field (7.8 times), with a particularly steep growth for cerebrovascular diseases in the last 15 years (5 times). However, in the last decade, the articles' quality (IF) decreased. From 1994 to 2008, 3466 citations were retrieved; 44.4% came from the European Union and 30.3% from the United States. The highest mean IF was reported for France (4.127). The United Kingdom and some relatively small northern European Union countries had the best ratio of IF (sum) to resident population or to gross domestic product. The most frequently used key word was stroke, and 3 journals (Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clinical Rehabilitation, and Stroke) published one quarter of the articles. The overall scientific production in the field of CCD rehabilitation showed a steep growth in the last decade, especially because of cerebrovascular research. In the same period, a decrease in the overall IF was observed. The European Union and the United States contributed 3 of every 4 articles in the field, although some Asian countries showed promising performance. Copyright © 2013 American
Background Cerebrovascular diseases are the second leading cause of death worldwide and one of the health conditions which demand the highest level of social services. The aim of this study was to estimate the social cost of non-professional (informal) care provided to survivors of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) with some type of disability in Spain. Methods We obtained data from the 2008 Survey on Disability, Independent Living and Dependency (EDAD-08) on the main characteristics of individuals who provide informal care to survivors of CVAs in Spain. We estimated the cost of substituting informal care in favor of formal care provided by professional caregivers (proxy good method) and performed a statistical analysis of the relationship between degree of dependency and number of care hours provided using ordinary least squares regression. Results The number of disabled people diagnosed with CVA totaled 1,975 (329,544 people when extrapolating to the national population using the elevation factor provided by EDAD-08). Of these, 1,221 individuals (192,611 people extrapolated to the national population) received at least one hour of informal care per week. The estimated hours of informal care provided in 2008 amounted to 852 million. The economic valuation of the time of informal care ranges from 6.53 billion euros (at 7.67 euros/hour) to 10.83 billion euros (when calculating each hour of care at 12.71 euros). The results of our statistical analysis highlight the importance of degree of dependency in explaining differences in the number of hours of informal care provided. Conclusions The results of our study reveal the high social cost of cerebrovascular accidents in Spain. In addition, evidence is presented of a correlation between higher degree of dependency in CVA survivors and greater number of hours of care received. An integral approach to care for CVA survivors requires that the caregivers’ role and needs be taken into account. PMID:24308349
Kanber, B; Hartshorne, T C; Horsfield, M A; Naylor, A R; Robinson, T G; Ramnarine, K V
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a novel ultrasound-based carotid plaque risk index (CPRI) in predicting the presence of cerebrovascular symptoms in patients with carotid artery stenosis. This was a cross-sectional, observational study involving 56 patients (mean age 76.6 years, 62.5 % male). Plaque grayscale median (GSM) and surface irregularity indices (SII) were measured in 82 stenosed carotid arteries (range 10 - 95 %) and combined with the degree of stenosis (DOS) in the form of (DOS*SII)/(1 + GSM). A reduced index DOS/(1 + GSM) not incorporating plaque surface irregularities was also investigated. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were used to study the diagnostic efficacy of CPRI, comparing against DOS and an equivalent risk index constructed using a conventional logistic regression based method with model parameters optimized to the dataset (CPRIlogistic). There were 42 stenosed carotid arteries with cerebrovascular symptoms, and 40 without symptoms. The presence of symptoms significantly correlated with DOS, GSM and SII (p < 0.01). The median CPRI of the symptomatic (asymptomatic) groups were 23.2 (9.2) compared with 0.71 (0.30) for CPRIlogistic (p < 0.01). The diagnostic performance of CPRI exceeded that of CPRIlogistic and DOS, and demonstrated a better separation of the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. Our novel risk index combines quantitative measures of carotid plaque echogenicity and surface irregularities with the degree of stenosis. It is a better predictor of cerebrovascular symptoms than the degree of stenosis and could be valuable in studies and clinical trials aimed at identifying vulnerable carotid artery stenoses. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Abate, G; Berenga, A; Caione, F; Capodaglio, M; Cuzzupoli, M; Guido, A; Forestiero, G; Guizzardi, G; Mancini, G; Viscanti, G
One hundred and forty-five elderly patients affected by cerebrovascular diseases were included in the study. Patients were divided into two age-, sex- and clinically matched groups: the first group included 103 patients who were treated for six months with mesoglycan (100 mg/day), whereas the second group, which numbered 42 patients, received standard anti-platelet treatment over the same period. The results of the study confirm the clinical efficacy of mesoglycan compared to standard treatment with antiplatelet drugs in terms of ischemic events and the "quality of life" of cerebrovasculopathic patients.
Jayasurya, R; Murugesan, N; Kumar, R; Dubey, A K; Priyamvada, P S; Swaminathan, R P; Parameswaran, S
Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a dialysis patient is an uncommon occurrence and is often associated with high mortality. We report for the first time in India, a case of spontaneous nontraumatic, nonaneurysmal SAH without any cerebrovascular malformation in a maintenance hemodialysis patient, following a session of hemodialysis. The dialysis prescription needs to be modified in these patients, in order to prevent worsening of cerebral edema and progression of hemorrhage. Where available, continuous forms of renal replacement therapies, with regional anticoagulation seem to be the best option for such patients, till neurologic stabilization is achieved.
Jayasurya, R.; Murugesan, N.; Kumar, R.; Dubey, A. K.; Priyamvada, P. S.; Swaminathan, R. P.; Parameswaran, S.
Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a dialysis patient is an uncommon occurrence and is often associated with high mortality. We report for the first time in India, a case of spontaneous nontraumatic, nonaneurysmal SAH without any cerebrovascular malformation in a maintenance hemodialysis patient, following a session of hemodialysis. The dialysis prescription needs to be modified in these patients, in order to prevent worsening of cerebral edema and progression of hemorrhage. Where available, continuous forms of renal replacement therapies, with regional anticoagulation seem to be the best option for such patients, till neurologic stabilization is achieved. PMID:26628800
Doronin, B M; Marushak, A A; Popova, T F; Gribacheva, I A; Petrova, E V
The analysis of the work of the neurological department of the Novosibirsk regional vascular center of City Clinical Hospital #1 for the period from 2013 to 2015 was done. We analyzed the annual reports of the regional vascular center, dynamics of cerebrovascular disease patterns, lethality, about the provision of medical care to patients with stroke, the use of high-tech methods of diagnosis and treatment. Ascertain the progress achieved and the perspectives of further improving the quality of care to patients with stroke due to wider use of methods of rehabilitation in the acute stage of stroke.
Zhang Chong; Villa-Uriol, Maria-Cruz; De Craene, Mathieu; and others
Purpose: The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of detecting and quantifying 3D cerebrovascular wall motion from a single 3D rotational x-ray angiography (3DRA) acquisition within a clinically acceptable time and computing from the estimated motion field for the further biomechanical modeling of the cerebrovascular wall. Methods: The whole motion cycle of the cerebral vasculature is modeled using a 4D B-spline transformation, which is estimated from a 4D to 2D+t image registration framework. The registration is performed by optimizing a single similarity metric between the entire 2D+t measured projection sequence and the corresponding forward projections of the deformed volume at their exact time instants. The joint use of two acceleration strategies, together with their implementation on graphics processing units, is also proposed so as to reach computation times close to clinical requirements. For further characterizing vessel wall properties, an approximation of the wall thickness changes is obtained through a strain calculation. Results: Evaluation on in silico and in vitro pulsating phantom aneurysms demonstrated an accurate estimation of wall motion curves. In general, the error was below 10% of the maximum pulsation, even in the situation when substantial inhomogeneous intensity pattern was present. Experiments on in vivo data provided realistic aneurysm and vessel wall motion estimates, whereas in regions where motion was neither visible nor anatomically possible, no motion was detected. The use of the acceleration strategies enabled completing the estimation process for one entire cycle in 5-10 min without degrading the overall performance. The strain map extracted from our motion estimation provided a realistic deformation measure of the vessel wall. Conclusions: The authors' technique has demonstrated that it can provide accurate and robust 4D estimates of cerebrovascular wall motion within a clinically acceptable time, although it
Torén, Kjell; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Nilsson, Tohr; Järvholm, Bengt
Objectives A growing number of epidemiological studies are showing that ambient exposure to particulate matter air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, whether occupational exposure increases this risk is not clear. The aim of the present study was to examine whether occupational exposure to particulate air pollution increases the risk for ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Methods The study population was a cohort of 176 309 occupationally exposed Swedish male construction workers and 71 778 unexposed male construction workers. The definition of exposure to inorganic dust (asbestos, man‐made mineral fibres, dust from cement, concrete and quartz), wood dust, fumes (metal fumes, asphalt fumes and diesel exhaust) and gases and irritants (organic solvents and reactive chemicals) was based on a job‐exposure matrix with focus on exposure in the mid‐1970s. The cohort was followed from 1971 to 2002 with regard to mortality to ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Relative risks (RR) were obtained by the person‐years method and from Poisson regression models adjusting for baseline values of blood pressure, body mass index, age and smoking habits. Results Any occupational particulate air pollution was associated with an increased risk for ischemic heart disease (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19), but there was no increased risk for cerebrovascular disease (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.07). There was an increased risk for ischaemic heart disease and exposure to inorganic dust (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12) and exposure to fumes (RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.10), especially diesel exhaust (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.24). There was no significantly increased risk for cerebrovascular disease and exposure to inorganic dust, fumes or wood dust. Conclusions Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution, especially diesel exhaust, among construction workers increases the risk for ischaemic heart disease. PMID
Capone, Christine; Burjonrappa, Sathyaprasad
Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVI) carry significant morbidity if not diagnosed and treated early. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed to recognize the injury patterns associated with this condition and to order the requisite imaging studies needed to diagnose it accurately. We report of BCVI associated with a congenital cervical spine malformation after blunt trauma. We recommend inclusion of cervical spine malformations to the current Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma screening criteria for BCVI and explain our rationale for the same.
Tong, Xin-Kang; Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Fernandes, Priscilla; Ongali, Brice; Brouillette, Jonathan; Quirion, Rémi; Hamel, Edith
Cerebrovascular dysfunctions appear to contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis and the associated cognitive decline. Recently, it has been suggested that statins could be beneficial to AD patients independently from their cholesterol-lowering effects. Using 10 month-old amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice (APP mice), we sought to reverse cerebrovascular, neuronal and memory impairments with simvastatin (20 mg/kg/day, 8 weeks). Simvastatin improved reactivity of cerebral arteries, rescued the blood flow response to neuronal activation, attenuated oxidative stress and inflammation, and reduced cortical soluble amyloid-beta (Abeta) levels and the number of Abeta plaque-related dystrophic neurites. However, at such an advanced stage of the pathology, it failed to reduce Abeta plaque load and normalize cholinergic and memory deficits. These findings demonstrate that low-dose simvastatin treatment in aged APP mice largely salvages cerebrovascular function and has benefits on several AD landmarks, which could explain some of the positive effects of statins reported in AD patients.
Su, K P; Hsu, C Y; Hsieh, S C; Shen, W W
Delusions associated with cerebrovascular diseases have been sporadically reported. Although both psychiatrists and neurologists attempted to link delusions with anatomical locations of the brain lesion, comorbid psychiatric and neurological disorders make the interpretation of delusions difficult. The purpose of the present paper is to report the clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in patients with delusional disorder due to diffuse cerebrovascular diseases, and to redefine the concept of 'vascular delusion'. The clinical features and MRI findings were reviewed retrospectively in a series of seven patients with 'delusional disorder due to cerebrovascular disease' as defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSMIV). The average age of onset is 64. No patient had a prior personal or family history of major psychiatric illness. The illness is presented as acute, subacute or stepwise course. Hypertension was present in all patients. Two had diabetes mellitus, and one had atrial fibrillation. Three had clinical evidence of previous cerebrovascular attacks, only one showed minor neurological deficits. Three had diffuse cortical slow wave in electroencephalogram. No patient had significant cognitive impairment but had multiple cortical and subcortical cerebrovascular lesions in MRI, with white-matter lesions (WML) in bilateral frontal areas. Delusional disorder due to diffuse cerebrovascular change is characterized by late-onset, stepwise course, and comorbid medical and neurological diseases. The results of vascular changes in the present study did not establish a cause-effect relationship and should be considered as multifactorial in pathogenesis. The findings suggested the hypothesis of neural circuit theory. Further studies in larger numbers of patients and newer neuroimaging techniques are needed to expand the knowledge learned from these findings.
Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D; Brassard, Patrice; Bailey, Damian M
Exercise is a uniquely effective and pluripotent medicine against several noncommunicable diseases of westernised lifestyles, including protection against neurodegenerative disorders. High-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is emerging as an effective alternative to current health-related exercise guidelines. Compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise training, HIT confers equivalent if not indeed superior metabolic, cardiac, and systemic vascular adaptation. Consequently, HIT is being promoted as a more time-efficient and practical approach to optimize health thereby reducing the burden of disease associated with physical inactivity. However, no studies to date have examined the impact of HIT on the cerebrovasculature and corresponding implications for cognitive function. This review critiques the implications of HIT for cerebrovascular function, with a focus on the mechanisms and translational impact for patient health and well-being. It also introduces similarly novel interventions currently under investigation as alternative means of accelerating exercise-induced cerebrovascular adaptation. We highlight a need for studies of the mechanisms and thereby also the optimal dose-response strategies to guide exercise prescription, and for studies to explore alternative approaches to optimize exercise outcomes in brain-related health and disease prevention. From a clinical perspective, interventions that selectively target the aging brain have the potential to prevent stroke and associated neurovascular diseases.
Simonetto, Cristoforo; Schöllnberger, Helmut; Azizova, Tamara V.; Grigoryeva, Evgenia S.; Pikulina, Maria V.; Eidemüller, Markus
A detailed analysis of cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) for the cohort of workers at Mayak Production Association (PA) is presented. This cohort is especially suitable for the analysis of radiation induced circulatory diseases, due to the detailed medical surveillance and information on several risk factors. The risk after external, typically protracted, gamma exposure is analysed, accounting for potential additional internal alpha exposure. Three different endpoints have been investigated: incidence and mortality from all cerebrovascular diseases and incidence of stroke. Particular emphasis was given to the form of the dose-response relationship and the time dependence of the radiation induced risk. Young attained age was observed to be an important, aggravating modifier of radiation risk for incidence of CeVD and stroke. For incidence of CeVD, our analysis supports a dose response sub-linear for low doses. Finally, the excess relative risk per dose was confirmed to be significantly higher for incidence of CeVD compared to CeVD mortality and incidence of stroke. Arguments are presented for this difference to be based on a true biological effect. PMID:25933038
Macgowan, Christopher K; Stoops, Sarah Joy; Zhou, Yu-Qing; Cahill, Lindsay S; Sled, John G
Genetic and surgical mouse models are commonly used to study cerebrovascular disease, but their size makes invasive hemodynamic testing technically challenging. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a noninvasive measurement of cerebrovascular impedance and wave reflection in mice using high-frequency ultrasound in the left common carotid artery (LCCA), and to examine whether microvascular changes associated with hypercapnia could be detected with such an approach. Ten mice (C57BL/6J) were studied using a high-frequency ultrasound system (40 MHz). Lumen area and blood flow waveforms were obtained from the LCCA and used to calculate pulse-wave velocity, input impedance, and reflection amplitude and transit time under both normocapnic and hypercapnic (5% CO2) ventilation. With hypercapnia, vascular resistance was observed to decrease by 87%±12%. Although the modulus of input impedance was unchanged with hypercapnia, a phase decrease indicative of increased total arterial compliance was observed at low harmonics together with an increased reflection coefficient in both the time (0.57±0.08 versus 0.68±0.08, P=0.04) and frequency domains (0.62±0.08 versus 0.73±0.06, P=0.02). Interestingly, the majority of LCCA blood flow was found to pass into the internal carotid artery (range=76% to 90%, N=3), suggesting that hemodynamic measurements in this vessel are a good metric for intracerebral reactivity in mouse. PMID:25515209
Jussen, Daniel; Zdunczyk, Anna; Schmidt, Sein; Rösler, Judith; Buchert, Ralph; Julkunen, Petro; Karhu, Jari; Brandt, Stephan; Picht, Thomas; Vajkoczy, Peter
To explore plasticity in patients scheduled for extra-intracranial bypass surgery due to unilateral symptomatic occlusive cerebrovascular disease via navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation. In this observational study, patients were allocated to different substudies and examined before and 3 months after operation. (1) Corticospinal excitability was determined via identification of the resting motor threshold. (2) Intracortical inhibition and facilitation were tested by paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. (3) Area of cortical representation of the first dorsal interosseous muscle was identified. (1) Resting motor thresholds were higher in the affected hemispheres with impaired cerebrovascular reserve capacity compared to the unaffected hemispheres (45.7% ± 2.2% compared to 39.2% ± 1.4%, n = 39, p < 0.05). Reduced excitability normalized 3 months after revascularization (51% ± 2.6% → 45% ± 1.9%, n = 21, p < 0.05). (2) In paired pulse paradigms, there was a motor disinhibition in the operated hemispheres. (3) There was a reduction of the cortical representation areas of the first dorsal interosseous muscle (2.3 ± 0.5 cm(2) → 0.9 ± 0.6 cm(2), n = 9, p < 0.05) after operation. Our data demonstrate a reversibly impaired motor cortical function in the chronically ischemic brain. In carefully selected patients, cerebral revascularization leads to improved motor output indicated by a lower resting motor threshold, intracortical disinhibition, and more focused motor cortical representation. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.
Jacob, G.; Atkinson, D.; Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Furlan, R.; Black, B. K.; Robertson, D.
PURPOSE: Patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance often have debilitating symptoms on standing that are suggestive of cerebral hypoperfusion despite the absence of orthostatic hypotension. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the effects of graded head-up tilt on cerebral blood flow as determined by transcranial Doppler measurements in 10 patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (nine women, one man, 22 to 47 years) and nine age- and sex-matched control subjects. RESULTS: In patients, mean (+/- SD) arterial pressure at 0 degrees head-up tilt was 90 +/- 11 mm Hg and was well maintained at all tilt angles (90 +/- 11 mm Hg at 75 degrees). In controls, mean arterial pressure was 85 +/- 7 mm Hg at 0 degrees and 82 +/- 11 mm Hg at 75 degrees head-up tilt. There was a substantial decrease in peak velocity with increasing tilt angle in patients (28% +/- 10%) but not in controls (10% +/- 10% at 75 degrees, P <0.001). Similarly, mean velocity decreased 26% +/- 13% in patients and 12% +/- 11% in controls (P = 0.01). With increasing head-up tilt, patients had a significantly greater increase in regional cerebrovascular resistance than controls. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, peak and mean middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity decreased in response to head-up tilt despite well sustained arterial blood pressure. These observations indicate that in this group of patients, regulation of cerebrovascular tone may be impaired and might therefore be a target for therapeutic interventions.
Charidimou, Andreas; Hong, Young T; Jäger, Hans R; Fox, Zoe; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; Fryer, Tim D; Menon, David K; Warburton, Elizabeth A; Werring, David J; Baron, Jean-Claude
We investigated the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging-visible centrum semiovale perivascular spaces (CSO-PVS), a biomarker of impaired interstitial fluid drainage, and positron emission tomography-based amyloid-β burden across a wide range of cerebrovascular amyloid deposition. Thirty-one nondemented subjects (11 probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy patients and 10 healthy subjects≥60 years; 10 older individuals, <60 years) had brain magnetic resonance imaging and Pittsburgh compound B-positron emission tomography. CSO-PVS was evaluated on T2-magnetic resonance imaging using a 4-point scale. The association between Pittsburgh compound B and CSO-PVS was assessed in linear regression. In multivariable analyses adjusted for age, microbleeds and white matter hyperintensities, whole cortex Pittsburgh compound B binding was associated with CSO-PVS degree both as continuous (coefficient, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.22; P=0.040) and as dichotomous variable (coefficient, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.44; P=0.002). The median Pittsburgh compound B retention was higher in high versus low CSO-PVS degree (P=0.0007). This pilot study suggests a possible association between cerebrovascular amyloid deposition and CSO-PVS, with potential pathophysiological implications. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Gutierrez, Jose; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Cheung, Ken; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L; Wright, Clinton B
To assess whether pulse pressure (PP) is associated, independently of mean arterial pressure (MAP), with perivascular spaces (PVS), lacunar lesions presumably ischemic (LPI), and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) seen on brain MRI. Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study had their blood pressure (BP) taken during their baseline enrollment visit and again during a visit for a brain MRI a mean of 7 years later. We assessed small and large PVS, lacunar LPI, and WMHV on MRI. We examined the association of SBP, DBP, MAP, and PP at baseline with subclinical markers of cerebrovascular disease using generalized linear models and adjusting for vascular risk factors. Imaging and BP data were available for 1009 participants (mean age 68 ± 8 years, 60% women, 60% Hispanic). DBP was associated with lacunar LPI and WMHV, whereas SBP was associated with small and large PVS. Using MAP and PP together disclosed that the effect size for PP was greater for large PVS, whereas the effect of MAP was greater for lacunar LPI and WMHV. The effects of DBP were flat or negative at any degree of SBP higher than 120 mmHg for small and large PVS, whereas a positive association was noted for lacunar LPI and WMHV with any DBP increase over any degree of SBP. We report here a segregated association between the pulsatile and steady components of the BP with subclinical markers of cerebrovascular disease. These differential associations may reflect the underlying disease of these biomarkers.
Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.
Hypertension and hypertension associated cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases are on a rise. At-least 970 million people in the world and Seventy percent of the American adults are affected by high blood pressure, also known as hypertension. Even though blood pressure monitoring systems are readily available, the number of people being affected has been increasing. Most of the blood pressure monitoring systems require cumbersome approaches. Even the noninvasive techniques have not lowered the number of people affected nor did at-least increase the user base of these systems. Uncontrolled or untreated hypertension may lead to various cerebrovascular disorders including stroke, hypertensive crisis, lacunar infarcts intracerebral damage, microaneurysm, and cardiovascular disorders including heart failure, myocardial infraction, and ischemic heart disease. Hypertension is rated as the one of the most important causes of premature death in spite of the technical advances in biomedical technology. This paper briefs a review of the widely adopted blood pressure monitoring methods, research techniques, and finally, proposes a concept of implementing nanosensors and wireless communication for real time non-invasive blood pressure monitoring.
Takahashi, Hiroto; Xia, Peng; Cui, Jiankun; Talantova, Maria; Bodhinathan, Karthik; Li, Wenjun; Holland, Emily A.; Tong, Gary; Piña-Crespo, Juan; Zhang, Dongxian; Nakanishi, Nobuki; Larrick, James W.; McKercher, Scott R.; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Wang, Yuqiang; Lipton, Stuart A.
Stroke and vascular dementia are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Neuroprotective therapies have been proposed but none have proven clinically tolerated and effective. While overstimulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) is thought to contribute to cerebrovascular insults, the importance of NMDARs in physiological function has made this target, at least in the view of many in ‘Big Pharma,’ ‘undruggable’ for this indication. Here, we describe novel NitroMemantine drugs, comprising an adamantane moiety that binds in the NMDAR-associated ion channel that is used to target a nitro group to redox-mediated regulatory sites on the receptor. The NitroMemantines are both well tolerated and effective against cerebral infarction in rodent models via a dual allosteric mechanism of open-channel block and NO/redox modulation of the receptor. Targeted S-nitrosylation of NMDARs by NitroMemantine is potentiated by hypoxia and thereby directed at ischemic neurons. Allosteric approaches to tune NMDAR activity may hold therapeutic potential for cerebrovascular disorders. PMID:26477507
Kawauchi, Chikara; Kadoi, Yuji; Hinohara, Hiroshi; Kunimoto, Fumio; Saito, Shigeru
The present study compared cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity in diabetic patients on different treatment modalities under sedative doses of propofol. Fifteen patients with diabetes mellitus (on three different antidiabetic treatment modalities) who required mechanical ventilation during intensive care therapy were studied, sedation during mechanical ventilation being maintained using propofol. As controls, 6 patients without diabetes were monitored. A 2.5-MHz pulsed transcranial Doppler probe was attached to the head of the patient at the right temporal window for continuous measurement of mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (Vmca). After establishing baseline values of Vmca and cardiovascular hemodynamics, end-tidal CO2 was decreased by increasing ventilatory frequency by 5-8 breaths.min(-1). Values for absolute and relative CO2 reactivity in insulintreated patients were lower than those in the other three groups (absolute CO2 reactivity [means +/- SD]: control, 3.1 +/- 0.6 cm.s(-1).mmHg(-1), diet, 3.8 +/- 1.4 cm.s(-1) x mmHg(-1); oral antidiabetic drug 3.2 +/- 0.9 cm x s(-1) x mmHg(-1); insulin, 1.1 +/- 0.6 cm x s(-1) x mmHg(-1); P = 0.002).The present study shows that insulin-treated diabetic patients probably have lower cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity under propofol anesthesia than control patients or diabetics treated with dietary therapy or oral hypoglycemics.
Zhang, Bei; Chen, Lei; Choi, Jeong June; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal
Environmental polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are frequently bound onto nanoparticles (NPs). However, the toxicity and health effects of PCBs assembled onto nanoparticles are unknown. The aim of this study was to study the hypothesis that binding PCBs to silica NPs potentiates PCB-induced cerebrovascular toxicity and brain damage in an experimental stroke model. Mice (C57BL/6, males, 12-week-old) were exposed to PCB153 bound to NPs (PCB153-NPs), PCB153, or vehicle. PCB153 was administered in the amount of 5 ng/g body weight. A group of treated animals was subjected to a 40 min ischemia, followed by a 24 h reperfusion. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, brain infarct volume, expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins, and inflammatory mediators were assessed. As compared to controls, a 24 h exposure to PCB153-NPs injected into cerebral vasculature resulted in significant elevation of the BBB permeability, disruption of TJ protein expression, increased proinflammatory responses, and enhanced monocyte transmigration in mouse brain capillaries. Importantly, exposure to PCB153-NPs increased stroke volume and potentiated brain damage in mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. A long-term (30 days) oral exposure to PCB153-NPs resulted in a higher PCB153 content in the abdominal adipose tissue and amplified adhesion of leukocytes to the brain endothelium as compared to treatment with PCB153 alone. This study provides the first evidence that binding to NPs increases cerebrovascular toxicity of environmental toxicants, such as PCB153. PMID:23081707
Jacob, G.; Atkinson, D.; Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Furlan, R.; Black, B. K.; Robertson, D.
PURPOSE: Patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance often have debilitating symptoms on standing that are suggestive of cerebral hypoperfusion despite the absence of orthostatic hypotension. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the effects of graded head-up tilt on cerebral blood flow as determined by transcranial Doppler measurements in 10 patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (nine women, one man, 22 to 47 years) and nine age- and sex-matched control subjects. RESULTS: In patients, mean (+/- SD) arterial pressure at 0 degrees head-up tilt was 90 +/- 11 mm Hg and was well maintained at all tilt angles (90 +/- 11 mm Hg at 75 degrees). In controls, mean arterial pressure was 85 +/- 7 mm Hg at 0 degrees and 82 +/- 11 mm Hg at 75 degrees head-up tilt. There was a substantial decrease in peak velocity with increasing tilt angle in patients (28% +/- 10%) but not in controls (10% +/- 10% at 75 degrees, P <0.001). Similarly, mean velocity decreased 26% +/- 13% in patients and 12% +/- 11% in controls (P = 0.01). With increasing head-up tilt, patients had a significantly greater increase in regional cerebrovascular resistance than controls. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, peak and mean middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity decreased in response to head-up tilt despite well sustained arterial blood pressure. These observations indicate that in this group of patients, regulation of cerebrovascular tone may be impaired and might therefore be a target for therapeutic interventions.
Kim, Myeong-Bo; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Park, Won-Ju
In the Republic of Korea Air Force, the health of pilots is strictly supervised, but there is comparatively not enough interest in aircraft mechanics' health. Among mechanics, who are heavily involved in military aircraft maintenance, the occurrence of sudden cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCVDs) is a possible risk factor during the maintenance process, which should be performed perfectly. We performed health examinations on 2123 male aircraft pilots and 1271 aircraft mechanics over 30 yr of age and determined the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), an important risk factor for CCVDs. The prevalence of MetS in the aircraft mechanics (21.3%) was significantly higher than in the pilots (12.6%), and the gap in prevalence tended to grow as age increased. Among aircraft mechanics in their 30s and 40s, the prevalence of MetS was lower than in the general population. However, the prevalence of MetS among aircraft mechanics in their 50s (36.0%) was similar to that in the general population (35.7%). Systematic health management is needed for aircraft mechanics for aviation safety and for the maintenance of military strength via the prevention of CCVDs.Kim M-B, Kim H-J, Kim S-H, Lee S-H, Lee S-H, Park W-J. Metabolic syndrome and cardio-cerebrovascular risk disparities between pilots and aircraft mechanics. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(9):866-870.
Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D; Brassard, Patrice; Bailey, Damian M
Exercise is a uniquely effective and pluripotent medicine against several noncommunicable diseases of westernised lifestyles, including protection against neurodegenerative disorders. High-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is emerging as an effective alternative to current health-related exercise guidelines. Compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise training, HIT confers equivalent if not indeed superior metabolic, cardiac, and systemic vascular adaptation. Consequently, HIT is being promoted as a more time-efficient and practical approach to optimize health thereby reducing the burden of disease associated with physical inactivity. However, no studies to date have examined the impact of HIT on the cerebrovasculature and corresponding implications for cognitive function. This review critiques the implications of HIT for cerebrovascular function, with a focus on the mechanisms and translational impact for patient health and well-being. It also introduces similarly novel interventions currently under investigation as alternative means of accelerating exercise-induced cerebrovascular adaptation. We highlight a need for studies of the mechanisms and thereby also the optimal dose-response strategies to guide exercise prescription, and for studies to explore alternative approaches to optimize exercise outcomes in brain-related health and disease prevention. From a clinical perspective, interventions that selectively target the aging brain have the potential to prevent stroke and associated neurovascular diseases. PMID:25833341
Jones, Jesse; Duckwiler, Gary; Tateshima, Satoshi
Cornelia De Lange (CDL) is a rare genetic syndrome characterized by short stature, intellectual disability, skeletal abnormalities, and distinctive facial features. We present a case of CDL with several rare cerebrovascular anatomic variants that impacted the treatment of a direct cavernous carotid fistula (CCF). This 32-year-old male CDL patient suffered a direct, traumatic CCF on the left and presented to our institution for endovascular management. Cerebral angiography revealed several anatomic variants, including hypoplastic external carotid arteries bilaterally. The vascular territory typically supplied by the internal maxillary arteries was fed by a prominent vessel arising from the internal carotid artery (ICA) in the expected location of the vidian artery. This anatomic variant directly impacted management due to retrograde filling of the fistula, necessitating coil embolization at its origin from the left ICA. Advance knowledge of cerebrovascular variants associated with CDL may help interventionalists prepare to approach such cases. Additionally, further inquiry into the function of proteins encoded by genes associated with CDL could better our understanding of vascular development in the brain.
Bahrani, Ahmed A; Powell, David K; Yu, Guoquiang; Johnson, Eleanor S; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D
This study aims to add clarity to the relationship between deep and periventricular brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebrovascular risk in older persons. Deep white matter hyperintensity (dWMH) and periventricular white matter hyperintensity (pWMH) and regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) blood flow from arterial spin labeling were quantified from magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 cognitively normal elderly subjects stratified by cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were acquired using a high-resolution 3-dimensional (3-D) sequence that reduced partial volume effects seen with slice-based techniques. dWMHs but not pWMHs were increased in patients at high risk of CVD; pWMHs but not dWMHs were associated with decreased regional cortical (GM) blood flow. We also found that blood flow in WM is decreased in regions of both pWMH and dWMH, with a greater degree of decrease in pWMH areas. WMHs are usefully divided into dWMH and pWMH regions because they demonstrate differential effects. 3-D regional WMH volume is a potentially valuable marker for CVD based on associations with cortical CBF and WM CBF. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Donahue, Manus J; Strother, Megan K; Hendrikse, Jeroen
Changes in cerebral hemodynamics underlie a broad spectrum of ischemic cerebrovascular disorders. An ability to accurately and quantitatively measure hemodynamic (cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume) and related metabolic (cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen) parameters is important for understanding healthy brain function and comparative dysfunction in ischemia. Although positron emission tomography, single-photon emission tomography, and gadolinium-MRI approaches are common, more recently MRI approaches that do not require exogenous contrast have been introduced with variable sensitivity for hemodynamic parameters. The ability to obtain hemodynamic measurements with these new approaches is particularly appealing in clinical and research scenarios in which follow-up and longitudinal studies are necessary. The purpose of this review is to outline current state-of-the-art MRI methods for measuring cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen and provide practical tips to avoid imaging pitfalls. MRI studies of cerebrovascular disease performed without exogenous contrast are synopsized in the context of clinical relevance and methodological strengths and limitations.
Gebel, James M
The beneficial effects of antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention in patients with prior cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events, including stroke, transient ischemic attack, and myocardial infarction, have been demonstrated repeatedly over the past decade. It is increasingly apparent that pathophysiologic differences between patients with different types of prior vascular events have an important effect on treatment outcomes. Several large, important trials of antiplatelet therapies, including MATCH, CHARISMA, ESPRIT, and TRITON-TIMI 38, underscore the heterogeneity of the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet agents in patients with recent cerebrovascular disease, compared with patients with recent acute coronary syndromes. Trial data therefore support an individualized approach to antithrombotic therapy for secondary vascular-event prevention that is appropriate for any probable future vascular events and actively reduces the impact of modifiable risk factors common to all vascular events. The potential for benefit in reducing recurrent vascular events must be weighed against the increased risk of bleeding and of patient non-responsiveness to treatment. A number of other factors also need to be considered, including drug interactions, patient compliance, and adverse-effect profiles. Overall, there is now a substantial body of clinical trial evidence that supports the need to carefully individualize antiplatelet therapy and other risk-reducing strategies on the basis of each patient's pathology and specific needs.
Neuropsychological assessments of cognitive dysfunction in cerebrovascular illness commonly target basic cognitive functions involving aspects of memory, attention, language, praxis, and number processing. Here, I highlight the clinical importance of often-neglected social cognition functions. These functions recruit a widely distributed neural network, making them vulnerable in most cerebrovascular diseases. Sociocognitive deficits underlie most of the problematic social conduct observed in patients and are associated with more negative clinical outcomes (compared to nonsocial cognitive deficits). In clinical settings, social cognition deficits are normally gleaned from collateral information from caregivers or from indirect inferences made from patients' performance on standard nonsocial cognitive tests. Information from these sources is however inadequate. I discuss key social cognition functions, focusing initially on deficits in emotion perception and theory of mind, two areas that have gained sizeable attention in neuroscientific research, and then extend the discussion into relatively new, less covered but crucial functions involving empathic behaviour, social awareness, social judgements, and social decision making. These functions are frequently impaired following neurological change. At present, a wide range of psychometrically robust social cognition tests is available, and this review also makes the case for their inclusion in neuropsychological assessments. PMID:28729755
Stoeter, P; Ortega-Suhrkamp, E; Voigt, K
Although cerebral angiography should be approached with caution in the diagnosis of inflammatory cerebro-vascular disease there are some characteristic angiographic findings which may be helpful for classification and differential diagnosis. The proximal cerebral arteries are favourably affected by basal meningitis and thrombangiitis obliterans with resulting stenoses and occlusions. Whereas those inflammations originating from neighbouring skull structures mostly involve the intracavernous parts of the carotid artery, the tuberculous and mycotic arteritis prefer the supraclinoid carotid siphon. Peripheral vascular changes are found in luetic endangiitis, necrotizing and toxic angiitis and in collagenoses. Simultaneous involvement of the temporal arteries is of great diagnostic importance demonstrating the systemic character of the inflammatory process; in Horton's arteritis it can be a pathognomonic finding. Infectious endocarditis, some mycoses and malaria may lead to embolic occlusion of cerebral vessels. Mycotic aneurysms mostly have a broad base or a fusiform shape and do not prefer the localizations of congenital aneurysms. Angiographically, abscesses, tuberculomas and viral encephalitis may result in circumscribed hypervascularized areas. The characteristic angiographic findings are exemplified and discussed on the basis of 8 cases of inflammatory cerebro-vascular disease (tuberculosis, pneumococcal and unspecific bacterial meningitis, syphilis, mycosis, Takayasu-syndrome, panarteritis nodosa, temporal arteritis).
Vasilj, Ivan; Cavaljuga, Semra; Lucić, Tomo; Kvesić, Ferdo
Analysis of a cerebro-vascular insult hospitalised cases from West Herzegovina Canton as a retrospective epidemiological study was done in Clinical hospital Mostar for the period from 1998 to 2002. The major source of data was medical documentation of this hospital, the only hospital for the treatment of 88,257 inhabitants from this Canton. The study included a total of 393 cerebro-vascular insult cases from this Canton treated in the Clinical hospital Mostar. Among them 189 (48.1%) were male patients, while 204 (51.9%) cases were female. The majority of the cases were above 50 years of life. Majority of treated female patients were older then 65, while among male patients the majority were between 50 and 65 years old. The least number of cases was under 50 years in both groups. During the same period risk factors research for entire FBiH was performed on the sample of 2,750 national insurance holders. Out of them 1.7% was found to suffer of cerebro vascular insult.
Uchida, K; Nakayama, H; Tateyama, S; Goto, N
Immunohistochemical analysis of constituents of senile plaques and cerebro-vascular amyloid in the brain of aged dogs was performed using antisera against beta protein, cystatin C, ubiquitin, tau, and neurofilament (NF). All types of senile plaques and cerebro-vascular amyloid in aged dogs were labeled by anti-beta protein serum. Cystatin C immunoreactivity was detected in neuronal cell bodies, primitive or classical plaques, and amyloid deposited around cerebral capillaries, but not in diffuse plaques and amyloid deposited in the media tunica of cerebro-meningeal arterioles. Ubiquitin-positive granules distributed widely in both gray and white matter of aged dogs, while they were very small in number in young dogs. Swollen neurites-like materials in primitive plaques or classical plaques were immunoreactive for anti-ubiquitin serum. Tau immunostaining labeled commonly axons and several neuronal or glial cells after hydrate autoclave pretreatment. Tau-positive components were observed very rarely in the corona of classical plaques. Most of swollen neurites-like structures of primitive or classical plaques were not reactive for anti-NF serum, and only a few plaques contained small numbers of NF-positive elements.
Ellis, Michael J.; Ryner, Lawrence N.; Sobczyk, Olivia; Fierstra, Jorn; Mikulis, David J.; Fisher, Joseph A.; Duffin, James; Mutch, W. Alan C.
Concussion is a form of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that presents with a wide spectrum of subjective symptoms and few objective clinical findings. Emerging research suggests that one of the processes that may contribute to concussion pathophysiology is dysregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) leading to a mismatch between CBF delivery and the metabolic needs of the injured brain. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is defined as the change in CBF in response to a measured vasoactive stimulus. Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques can be used as a surrogate measure of CBF in clinical and laboratory studies. In order to provide an accurate assessment of CVR, these sequences must be combined with a reliable, reproducible vasoactive stimulus that can manipulate CBF. Although CVR imaging currently plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of many cerebrovascular diseases, only recently have studies begun to apply this assessment tool in patients with concussion. In order to evaluate the quality, reliability, and relevance of CVR studies in concussion, it is important that clinicians and researchers have a strong foundational understanding of the role of CBF regulation in health, concussion, and more severe forms of TBI, and an awareness of the advantages and limitations of currently available CVR measurement techniques. Accordingly, in this review, we (1) discuss the role of CVR in TBI and concussion, (2) examine methodological considerations for MRI-based measurement of CVR, and (3) provide an overview of published CVR studies in concussion patients. PMID:27199885
Scherle, C E; Nasiff, A; Beguería, R A; Pérez-Nellar, J; Colina-Rodríguez, A J
To study the blood levels of a group of lipids and lipoproteins in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease which was not secondary to cardiac embolic disease. We assessed 40 patients of an average age of 64.5 years. Of these, 26 had cerebral infarcts due to disease of the great vessels and 14 had lacunar infarcts. Forty persons with no cerebrovascular disease were used as controls. We excluded patients diagnosed as having renal failure, liver, hematological, neoplastic and acute febrile disorders. Plasma was analyzed for total cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoproteins (a), HDL, LDL, VLDL and apoprotein B between 3 weeks and 6 months after the initial stroke. Levels of triglycerides and of lipoprotein (a) were significantly greater in patients than in controls. We found no differences between the levels of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL in the three groups studied. However, apoprotein B was greater in the controls than in the patients. There were no significant differences between the groups with lacunar ictus and those with infarcts secondary to disease of the great vessels.
Kurauchi, Yuki; Hisatsune, Akinori; Seki, Takahiro; Katsuki, Hiroshi
Cerebrovascular endothelial cell dysfunction resulting in imbalance of cerebral blood flow contributes to the onset of psychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Although decrease in Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity has been reported in the patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, the contribution of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase to endothelial cell dysfunction remains poorly understood. Here, by using rat neonatal prefrontal cortex slice cultures, we demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase by ouabain induced endothelial cell injury. Treatment with ouabain significantly decreased immunoreactive area of rat endothelial cell antigen-1 (RECA-1), a marker of endothelial cells, in a time-dependent manner. Ouabain also decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio and phosphorylation level of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) (Ser9), which were prevented by lithium carbonate. On the other hand, ouabain-induced endothelial cell injury was exacerbated by concomitant treatment with LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3- (PI3-) kinase. We also found that xestospongin C, an inhibitor of inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptor, but not SEA0400, an inhibitor of Na(+), Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), protected endothelial cells from cytotoxicity of ouabain. These results suggest that cerebrovascular endothelial cell degeneration induced by Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibition resulting in Ca(2+) release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and activation of GSK3β signaling underlies pathogenesis of these psychiatric disorders.
Fierstra, Jorn; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; van Niftrik, Christiaan Hendrik Bas; Piccirelli, Marco; Pangalu, Athina; Kocian, Roman; Neidert, Marian Christoph; Valavanis, Antonios; Regli, Luca; Bozinov, Oliver
To assess the feasibility of functional blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) MRI to evaluate intraoperative cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) at 3 Tesla field strength. Ten consecutive neurosurgical subjects scheduled for a clinical intraoperative MRI examination were enrolled in this study. In addition to the clinical protocol a BOLD sequence was implemented with three cycles of 44 s apnea to calculate CVR values on a voxel-by-voxel basis throughout the brain. The CVR range was then color-coded and superimposed on an anatomical volume to create high spatial resolution CVR maps. Ten subjects (mean age 34.8 ± 13.4; 2 females) uneventfully underwent the intraoperative BOLD protocol, with no complications occurring. Whole-brain CVR for all subjects was (mean ± SD) 0.69 ± 0.42, whereas CVR was markedly higher for tumor subjects as compared to vascular subjects, 0.81 ± 0.44 versus 0.33 ± 0.10, respectively. Furthermore, color-coded functional maps could be robustly interpreted for a whole-brain assessment of CVR. We demonstrate that intraoperative BOLD MRI is feasible in creating functional maps to assess cerebrovascular reactivity throughout the brain in subjects undergoing a neurosurgical procedure. Magn Reson Med 77:806-813, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Semplicini, A; Inverso, G; Realdi, A; Macchini, L; Maraffon, M; Puato, M; Zanardo, M; Tirrito, C; Amodio, P; Schiff, S; Mapelli, D; Manara, R
Hypertension causes cognitive impairment, involving mainly executive functions, but the effect of blood pressure (BP) control on the different cognitive domains is still debated. We correlated executive function, attention and memory with BP control and cerebrovascular damage in 60 undemented middle-aged hypertensives at baseline and after 6-year follow-up. At first evaluation, the patients with poor BP control had higher score of white matter lesions, reduced cerebrovascular reserve capacity and greater carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) than those with good BP control. Performance on executive tests correlated with IMT and with performance on attention tests, which was impaired by low diastolic BP. At long-term follow-up, performance in attention and executive tests improved in spite of the minor improvement of BP control, increased IMT and worse memory. Low diastolic BP has a negative effect on attention, which affects executive performance at first cross-sectional examination. This confounding effect has to be taken into consideration when planning studies on cognitive function. Longitudinal studies are required to unravel the effect of BP control on cognitive function, as only long-term antihypertensive treatment improves both attention and executive performance.
Background The contribution of cerebrovascular function to cognitive performance is gaining increased attention. Transcranial doppler (TCD) is portable, reliable, inexpensive and extremely well tolerated by young and clinical samples. It enables measurement of blood flow velocity in major cerebral arteries at rest and during cognitive tasks. Methods We systematically reviewed evidence for associations between cognitive performance and cerebrovascular function in children (0-18 years), as measured using TCD. A total of 2778 articles were retrieved from PsychInfo, Pubmed, and EMBASE searches and 25 relevant articles were identified. Results Most studies investigated clinical groups, where decreased blood flow velocities in infants were associated with poor neurological functioning, and increased blood flow velocities in children with Sickle cell disease were typically associated with cognitive impairment and lower intelligence. Studies were also identified assessing autistic behaviour, mental retardation and sleep disordered breathing. In healthy children, the majority of studies reported cognitive processing produced lateralised changes in blood flow velocities however these physiological responses did not appear to correlate with behavioural cognitive performance. Conclusion Poor cognitive performance appears to be associated with decreased blood flow velocities in premature infants, and increased velocities in Sickle cell disease children using TCD methods. However knowledge in healthy samples is relatively limited. The technique is well tolerated by children, is portable and inexpensive. It therefore stands to make a valuable contribution to knowledge regarding the underlying functional biology of cognitive performance in childhood. PMID:24602446
Durrant, Lara M.; Khorram, Omid; Buchholz, John N.
Although the effects of prenatal undernutrition on adult cardiovascular health have been well studied, its effects on the cerebrovascular structure and function remain unknown. We used a pair-fed rat model of 50% caloric restriction from day 11 of gestation to term, with ad libitum feeding after birth. We validated that maternal food restriction (MFR) stress is mediated by glucocorticoids by administering metyrapone, a corticosterone synthesis inhibitor, to MFR mothers at day 11 of gestation. At age 8 mo, offspring from Control, MFR, and MFR + Metyrapone groups were killed, and middle cerebral artery (MCA) segments were studied using vessel-bath myography and confocal microscopy. Colocalization of smooth muscle α-actin (SMαA) with nonmuscle (NM), SM1 and SM2 myosin heavy-chain (MHC) isoforms was used to assess smooth muscle phenotype. Our results indicate that artery stiffness and wall thickness were increased, pressure-evoked myogenic reactivity was depressed, and myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity was decreased in offspring of MFR compared with Control rats. MCA from MFR offspring exhibited a significantly greater SMαA/NM colocalization, suggesting that the smooth muscle cells had been altered toward a noncontractile phenotype. MET significantly reversed the effects of MFR on stiffness but not myogenic reactivity, lowered SMαA/NM colocalization, and increased SMαA/SM2 colocalization. Together, our data suggest that MFR alters cerebrovascular contractility via both glucocorticoid-dependent and glucocorticoid-independent mechanisms. PMID:24477541
Berrocal-Izquierdo, Nuria; Bernardo, Miguel
The state of health of patients with schizophrenia is a field of growing interest that has probably not received sufficient attention in the past. It is currently held that physical health should form a part of the overall therapeutic strategy in these patients since reference is made to certain treatable conditions that may affect the final prognosis. One example is cardiovascular disease and its associated reduction in life expectancy. We carried out a retrospective study in which we described the consultations held between the psychiatric acute care service and the neurology service during a one-year period. We have analyzed the frequency of cerebrovascular complications in our sample and have included a summary of the most relevant published data regarding cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in patients with schizophrenia. We have described the high frequency of CVD in both our series of patients with severe mental illness receiving attention as well as in those from the neurology service (25.7%), and in the subgroup presenting psychotic disorders (25%). There are several studies focusing on the possible causes of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in schizophrenia. However, in regards to CVD specifically, little has been found in the literature and that found shows contradictory results. Given the direct relation between cardiovascular disease and CVD, a consistent relation between CVD and schizophrenia is to be expected.
Liu, Pengchong; Xi, Qi; Ahmed, Abu; Jaggar, Jonathan H.; Dopico, Alejandro M.
Binge drinking is associated with increased risk for cerebrovascular spasm and stroke. Acute exposure to ethanol at concentrations obtained during binge drinking constricts cerebral arteries in several species, including humans, but the mechanisms underlying this action are largely unknown. In a rodent model, we used fluorescence microscopy, patch-clamp electrophysiology, and pharmacological studies in intact cerebral arteries to pinpoint the molecular effectors of ethanol cerebrovascular constriction. Clinically relevant concentrations of ethanol elevated wall intracellular Ca2+ concentration and caused a reversible constriction of cerebral arteries (EC50 = 27 mM; Emax = 100 mM) that depended on voltage-gated Ca2+ entry into myocytes. However, ethanol did not directly increase voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents in isolated myocytes. Constriction occurred because of an ethanol reduction in the frequency (-53%) and amplitude (-32%) of transient Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) currents. Ethanol inhibition of BK transients was caused by a reduction in Ca2+ spark frequency (-49%), a subsarcolemmal Ca2+ signal that evokes the BK transients, and a direct inhibition of BK channel steady-state activity (-44%). In contrast, ethanol failed to modify Ca2+ waves, a major vasoconstrictor mechanism. Selective block of BK channels largely prevented ethanol constriction in pressurized arteries. This study pinpoints the Ca2+ spark/BK channel negative-feedback mechanism as the primary effector of ethanol vasoconstriction.
Buletsa, B A; Fatula, M I; Fabri, Z I
A total of 417 patients with cerebral circulatory disorders were examined in two biogeochemical regions of the UkrainianCarpathian Mountains. The first one is a region with iodine insufficiency; the second one is a region where the people use table salt in excess. It has been established that iodine insufficiency and excessive iodine concentration in the body of man are risk factors of the development of cerebrovascular disease. Besides, in persons with abnormal iodine metabolism, cerebrovascular diseases run a graver course than in those with normal content in the body of these trace elements.
YANG, Xu-Jie; XIAO, Shi-Ying
To discuss the distribution of patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular, the patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular were cluster analyzed by means of simple statistics and cluster analysis. Clustering variables were composed of patent applications, patent maintained number, related papers' quantity, etc. Chinese herbal compound patents' holders were divided into four categories according to their different scientific research and patent strength. It is the magic weapon for Chinese herbal compound patents' holders that have scientific research patents' transforming and make coordination of patent protection and scientific innovation.
Fischer, M Dominik
Las mutaciones en un gran número de genes provocan degeneración de la retina y ceguera sin que exista actualmente cura alguna. En las últimas décadas, la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina ha evolucionado y se ha convertido en un nuevo y prometedor paradigma terapéutico para estas enfermedades poco comunes. Este artículo refleja las ideas y los conceptos que parten de la ciencia básica hacia la aplicabilidad de la terapia génica en el ámbito clínico. Se describen los avances y las reflexiones actuales sobre la eficacia de los ensayos clínicos en la actualidad y se discuten los posibles obstáculos y soluciones de cara al futuro de la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Objectives: The Alzheimer's Disease Anti-inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT) was designed to evaluate the conventional NSAID naproxen sodium and the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib for primary prevention of Alzheimer's dementia (AD). On 17 December 2004, after the Adenoma Prevention with Celecoxib (APC) trial reported increased cardiovascular risks with celecoxib, the ADAPT Steering Committee suspended treatment and enrollment. This paper reports on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in ADAPT. Design: ADAPT is a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel chemoprevention trial with 1–46 mo of follow-up. Setting: The trial was conducted at six field sites in the United States: Baltimore, Maryland; Boston, Massachusetts; Rochester, New York; Seattle, Washington; Sun City, Arizona; and Tampa, Florida. Participants: The 2,528 participants were aged 70 y and older with a family history of AD. Interventions: Study treatments were celecoxib (200 mg b.i.d.), naproxen sodium (220 mg b.i.d.), and placebo. Outcome measures: Outcome measures were deaths, along with nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, congestive heart failure (CHF), transient ischemic attack (TIA), and antihypertensive treatment recorded from structured interviews at scheduled intervals. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to analyze these events individually and in several composites. Results: Counts (with 3-y incidence) of participants who experienced cardiovascular or cerebrovascular death, MI, stroke, CHF, or TIA in the celecoxib-, naproxen-, and placebo-treated groups were 28/717 (5.54%), 40/713 (8.25%), and 37/1070 (5.68%), respectively. This yielded a hazard ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) for celecoxib of 1.10 (0.67–1.79) and for naproxen of 1.63 (1.04–2.55). Antihypertensive treatment was initiated in 160/440 (47.43%), 147/427 (45.00%), and 164/644 (34.08%). This yielded hazard ratios (CIs) of 1.56 for celecoxib (1.26–1.94) and 1.40 for naproxen (1.12–1
Salih, Mustafa A; Murshid, Waleed R; Zahraa, Jihad N; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A; Kentab, Amal Y; Alorainy, Ibrahim A; Hassan, Hamdy H; Tjan, Giap T
To explore the role of and report on congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies as risk factors for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology (DPN), or were seen as inpatients in the Pediatric Wards at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Stroke work-up for each suspected case included hemostatic assays, serological, biochemical and neurophysiological tests. Neuroimaging modalities included routine skull x-rays, CT, MRI, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and conventional cerebral angiography. Of 104 children with stroke, congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying risk factor in 7 (6.7%). The patients were evaluated at the DPN at a mean age of 66 months (range = 8 months to 11 years, median = 6 years); and they had stroke at a mean age of 48 months (range = 2 months to 10 years, median = 8 months). Four patients had stroke in association with neurocutaneous syndromes. Two had Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS), one had Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome associated with SWS, and the fourth had neurofibromatosis type 1. Two patients had intracranial hemorrhage secondary to ruptured aneurysm. A girl (aged 9 years and 4 months) had left posterior cerebral artery aneurysm. She was diagnosed to have autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease following renal ultrasonography. She died 5 months later despite surgical intervention (clipping of aneurysm). The second child was an 8-month-old boy who presented with subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) following ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. He recovered with no residual symptoms following successful clipping of the aneurysm. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) caused IVH in a 7-year-old boy who reported to hospital 5 hours
Ye, Xun; Liu, Xing-Ju; Ma, Li; Liu, Ling-Tong; Wang, Wen-Lei; Wang, Shuo; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Rong; Zhao, Ji-Zong; Zhao, Yuan-Li
Microscope-integrated near-infrared indocyanine green video angiography (ICG-VA) has been used in neurosurgery for a decade. This study aimed to assess the value of intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) video angiography with Flow 800 software in cerebrovascular surgery and to discover its hemodynamic features and changes of cerebrovascular diseases during surgery. A total of 87 patients who received ICG-VA during various surgical procedures were enrolled in this study. Among them, 45 cases were cerebral aneurysms, 25 were cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and 17 were moyamoya disease (MMD). A surgical microscope integrating an infrared fluorescence module was used to confirm the residual aneurysms and blocking of perforating arteries in aneurysms. Feeder arteries, draining veins, and normal cortical vessels were identified by the time delay color mode of Flow 800 software. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded. All data were analyzed by SPSS version 18.0 (SPSS Inc., USA). T-test was used to analyze the hemodynamic features of AVMs and MMDs, the influence on peripheral cortex after resection in AVMs, and superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass in MMDs. The visual delay map obtained by Flow 800 software had more advantages than the traditional playback mode in identifying the feeder arteries, draining veins, and their relations to normal cortex vessels. The maximum fluorescence intensity (MFI) and the slope of ICG fluorescence curve of feeder arteries and draining veins were higher than normal peripheral vessels (MFI: 584.24±85.86 vs. 382.94 ± 91.50, slope: 144.95 ± 38.08 vs. 69.20 ± 13.08, P < 0.05). The arteriovenous transit time in AVM was significantly shorter than in normal cortical vessels ((0.60 ± 0.27) vs. (2.08 ± 1.42) seconds, P < 0.05). After resection of AVM, the slope of artery in the cortex increased, which reflected the increased cerebral flow. In patients with MMD, after STA-MCA bypass, cortex perfusion
Zhou, Quan; Dong, Yang; Chen, WenLi; Lin, Xueying; Xing, Da; Huang, Li
Cerebrovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death, and approximately 50% of survivors have a residual neurologic deficit and greater than 25% require chronic care. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) describes how far cerebral perfusion can increase from a baseline value after stimulation. High blood pressure is the most important independent risk factor for stroke and other vascular diseases. The incidence of stroke in the hypertensive is six times higher than in the patient with normal blood pressure. CVRC in the hypertensive was even lower than in control patients. MR perfusion weighted imaging (MR PWI) with the well-established acetazolamide (ACZ) stimulation test has been used for assessing brain function. The aim of this work is to assess the cerebrovascular reserve capacity by MR PWI with "ACZ" tolerance test in spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR) and to identify its value in evaluating the CVRC. Experimental animal including 3 groups: Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) (12-week-old) as control group, SHR (12-week-old and 20-week-old) as experimental group. MR PWI was performed respectively before and after acetazolamide administrated orally in 3 groups on a clinical 1.5 Tesla GE Signa MR fx/i whole-body MR system. The ROI was chosen in the bilateral frontal lobe to measure the value of rCBV, rCBF and MTT. The results showed that before ACZ-test, there was statistic differences between the WKY and SHR(12-week-old), and between SHR(12-week-old) and SHR(20-week-old) in the values of rCBV and rCBF (P>0.05), and after ACZ-test, there were statistic differences between WKY and SHR (20-week-old), and between SHR(12-week-old) and SHR(20-week-old) in the rCBV value (P<0.05). It is concluded that the method of MRI PWI combined with the "ACZ stress test" can provide more qualitative and half-quantitative information on the cerebral perfusion to evaluate the CVRC in SHR.
Grandhi, Ramesh; Weiner, Gregory M; Agarwal, Nitin; Panczykowski, David M; Ares, William J; Rodriguez, Jesse S; Gelfond, Jonathan A; Myers, John G; Alarcon, Louis H; Okonkwo, David O; Jankowitz, Brian T
OBJECTIVE Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVIs) following trauma carry risk for morbidity and mortality. Since patients with BCVI are often asymptomatic at presentation and neurological sequelae often occur within 72 hours, timely diagnosis is essential. Multidetector CT angiography (CTA) has been shown to be a noninvasive, cost-effective, reliable means of screening; however, the false-positive rate of CTA in diagnosing patients with BCVI represents a key drawback. Therefore, the authors assessed the role of DSA in the screening of BCVI when utilizing CTA as the initial screening modality. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective analysis of patients who experienced BCVI between 2013 and 2015 at 2 Level I trauma centers. All patients underwent CTA screening for BCVI according to the updated Denver Screening Criteria. Patients who were diagnosed with BCVI on CTA underwent confirmatory digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Patient demographics, screening indication, BCVI grade on CTA and DSA, and laboratory values were collected. Comparison of false-positive rates stratified by BCVI grade on CTA was performed using the chi-square test. RESULTS A total of 140 patients (64% males, mean age 50 years) with 156 cerebrovascular blunt injuries to the carotid and/or vertebral arteries were identified. After comparison with DSA findings, CTA findings were incorrect in 61.5% of vessels studied, and the overall CTA false-positive rates were 47.4% of vessels studied and 47.9% of patients screened. The positive predictive value (PPV) for CTA was higher among worse BCVI subtypes on initial imaging (PPV 76% and 97%, for BCVI Grades II and IV, respectively) compared with Grade I injuries (PPV 30%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS In the current series, multidetector CTA as a screening test for blunt cerebrovascular injury had a high-false positive rate, especially in patients with Grade I BCVI. Given a false-positive rate of 47.9% with an estimated average of 132 patients per year
Hoiland, Ryan L; Ainslie, Philip N; Wildfong, Kevin W; Smith, Kurt J; Bain, Anthony R; Willie, Chris K; Foster, Glen; Monteleone, Brad; Day, Trevor A
Cerebrovascular reactivity impacts CO2–[H+] washout at the central chemoreceptors and hence has marked influence on the control of ventilation. To date, the integration of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and ventilation has been investigated exclusively with measures of anterior CBF, which has a differential reactivity from the vertebrobasilar system and perfuses the brainstem. We hypothesized that: (1) posterior versus anterior CBF would have a stronger relationship to central chemoreflex magnitude during hypercapnia, and (2) that higher posterior reactivity would lead to a greater hypoxic ventilatory decline (HVD). End-tidal forcing was used to induce steady-state hyperoxic (300 mmHg ) hypercapnia (+3, +6 and +9 mmHg ) and isocapnic hypoxia (45 mmHg ) before and following pharmacological blunting (indomethacin; INDO; 1.45 ± 0.17 mg kg−1) of resting CBF and reactivity. In 22 young healthy volunteers, ventilation, intra-cranial arterial blood velocities and extra-cranial blood flows were measured during these challenges. INDO-induced blunting of cerebrovascular flow responsiveness (CVR) to CO2 was unrelated to variability in ventilatory sensitivity during hyperoxic hypercapnia. Further results in a sub-group of volunteers (n = 9) revealed that elevations of via end-tidal forcing reduce arterial–jugular venous gradients, attenuating the effect of CBF on chemoreflex responses. During isocapnic hypoxia, vertebral artery CVR was related to the magnitude of HVD (R2 = 0.27; P < 0.04; n = 16), suggesting that CO2–[H+] washout from central chemoreceptors modulates hypoxic ventilatory dynamics. No relationships were apparent with anterior CVR. As higher posterior, but not anterior, CVR was linked to HVD, our study highlights the importance of measuring flow in posterior vessels to investigate CBF and ventilatory integration. Key points Anterior and posterior cerebral circulations have differential reactivity to changes in arterial blood gases, but the
Lucas, Samuel J E; Burgess, Keith R; Thomas, Kate N; Donnelly, Joseph; Peebles, Karen C; Lucas, Rebekah A I; Fan, Jui-Lin; Cotter, James D; Basnyat, Rishi; Ainslie, Philip N
Upon ascent to high altitude, cerebral blood flow (CBF) rises substantially before returning to sea-level values. The underlying mechanisms for these changes are unclear. We examined three hypotheses: (1) the balance of arterial blood gases upon arrival at and across 2 weeks of living at 5050 m will closely relate to changes in CBF; (2) CBF reactivity to steady-state changes in CO2 will be reduced following this 2 week acclimatisation period, and (3) reductions in CBF reactivity to CO2 will be reflected in an augmented ventilatory sensitivity to CO2. We measured arterial blood gases, middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv, index of CBF) and ventilation () at rest and during steady-state hyperoxic hypercapnia (7% CO2) and voluntary hyperventilation (hypocapnia) at sea level and then again following 2–4, 7–9 and 12–15 days of living at 5050 m. Upon arrival at high altitude, resting MCAv was elevated (up 31 ± 31%; P < 0.01; vs. sea level), but returned to sea-level values within 7–9 days. Elevations in MCAv were strongly correlated (R2= 0.40) with the change in ratio (i.e. the collective tendency of arterial blood gases to cause CBF vasodilatation or constriction). Upon initial arrival and after 2 weeks at high altitude, cerebrovascular reactivity to hypercapnia was reduced (P < 0.05), whereas hypocapnic reactivity was enhanced (P < 0.05 vs. sea level). Ventilatory response to hypercapnia was elevated at days 2–4 (P < 0.05 vs. sea level, 4.01 ± 2.98 vs. 2.09 ± 1.32 l min−1 mmHg−1). These findings indicate that: (1) the balance of arterial blood gases accounts for a large part of the observed variability (∼40%) leading to changes in CBF at high altitude; (2) cerebrovascular reactivity to hypercapnia and hypocapnia is differentially affected by high-altitude exposure and remains distorted during partial acclimatisation, and (3) alterations in cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2 may also affect ventilatory sensitivity. PMID:21041534
Perry, Luke D; Robertson, Fergus; Ganesan, Vijeya
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (OMIM 210720) is a rare autosomal recessive condition frequently associated with early-onset cerebrovascular disease. Presymptomatic detection and intervention could prevent the adverse consequences associated with this. We reviewed published cases of microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II to ascertain prevalence and characteristics of cerebrovascular disease and use these data to propose an evidence-based approach to cerebrovascular screening. Of 147 cases identified, 47 had cerebrovascular disease (32%), including occlusive arteriopathy (including moyamoya) and cerebral aneurysmal disease. Occlusive disease occurred in younger individuals, and progression can be both rapid and clinically silent. A reasonable screening approach would be magnetic resonance imaging and angiography of the cervical and intracranial circulation at diagnosis, repeated at yearly intervals until 10 years, and every 2 years thereafter, unless clinical concerns occur earlier. At present it would appear that this needs to be life-long. Families and professionals should be alerted to the potential significance of neurologic symptoms and measures should be taken to maintain good vascular health in affected individuals.
Eskes, Gail A; Longman, Stewart; Brown, Allison D; McMorris, Carly A; Langdon, Kristopher D; Hogan, David B; Poulin, Marc
Studies of the effects of physical fitness on cognition suggest that exercise can improve cognitive abilities in healthy older adults, as well as delay the onset of age-related cognitive decline. The mechanisms for the positive benefit of exercise and how these effects interact with other variables known to influence cognitive function (e.g., involvement in cognitive activities) are less well understood. The current study examined the associations between the physical fitness, cerebrovascular blood flow regulation and involvement in cognitive activities with neuropsychological function in healthy post-menopausal women. Forty-two healthy women between the ages of 55 and 90 were recruited. Physical fitness (V˙O2 max), cerebrovascular reserve (cerebral blood flow during rest and response to an increase in end-tidal (i.e., arterial) PCO2), and cognitive activity (self-reported number and hours of involvement in cognitive activities) were assessed. The association of these variables with neuropsychological performance was examined through linear regression. Physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and total number of cognitive activities (but not total hours) were independent predictors of cognitive function, particularly measures of overall cognitive performance, attention and executive function. In addition, prediction of neuropsychological performance was better with multiple variables than each alone. Cognitive function in older adults is associated with multiple factors, including physical fitness, cerebrovascular health and cognitive stimulation. Interestingly, cognitive stimulation effects appear related more to the diversity of activities, rather than the duration of activity. Further examination of these relationships is ongoing in a prospective cohort study.
Piriyawat, Paisith; Smajsová, Miriam; Smith, Melinda A; Pallegar, Sanjay; Al-Wabil, Areej; Garcia, Nelda M; Risser, Jan M; Moyé, Lemuel A; Morgenstern, Lewis B
To provide a scientific rationale for choosing an optimal stroke surveillance method, the authors compared active surveillance with passive surveillance. The methods involved ascertaining cerebrovascular events that occurred in Nueces County, Texas, during calendar year 2000. Active methods utilized screening of hospital and emergency department logs and routine visiting of hospital wards and out-of-hospital sources. Passive means relied on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), discharge codes for case ascertainment. Cases were validated by fellowship-trained stroke neurologists on the basis of published criteria. The results showed that, of the 6,236 events identified through both active and passive surveillance, 802 were validated to be cerebrovascular events. When passive surveillance alone was used, 209 (26.1%) cases were missed, including 73 (9.1%) cases involving hospital admission and 136 (17.0%) out-of-hospital strokes. Through active surveillance alone, 57 (7.1%) cases were missed. The positive predictive value of active surveillance was 12.2%. Among the 2,099 patients admitted to a hospital, passive surveillance using ICD-9 codes missed 73 cases of cerebrovascular disease and mistakenly included 222 noncases. There were 57 admitted hospital cases missed by active surveillance, including 13 not recognized because of human error. This study provided a quantitative means of assessing the utility of active and passive surveillance for cerebrovascular disease. More uniform surveillance methods would allow comparisons across studies and communities.
Fan, Z; Li, F; Wang, Z; Huang, Z; Yi, Y; Zhang, Z; Yang, Z; Zhang, H; Ma, Y; Zen, X
The relationship between the mortality of cerebro-vascular diseases and farmer smokers in Shifang County was studied. The results indicated that the mortality of cerebro-vascular diseases in the male groups of cigarette-smokers older than 65 and cigar-smokers older than 55 was significantly higher than that of the nonsmokers (P < 0.05), the RR being 1.68-3.22. Also, the mortality in the female groups of cigarette-smokers older than 55 and cigar-smokers older than 65 was significantly higher than that of the non-smokers (P < 0.05), the RR being 1.99-3.19. The sex-specific mortalities of the other age groups revealed no significant differences in spite of some inequalities in smoking (P < 0.05). Age should be one of the risk factors for the death of cerebro-vascular diseases regardless of the sex. The mortality rose with the increasing accumulated amount of smoking. The relationship was not significant between the mortality of cerebro-vascular diseases and short-term smokers with small dose (P > 0.05). However, when the accumulated amount reached certain degree, i.e. the smoker consumed cigar more than 270 kg or consumed cigarette more than 10,000 packs, the relationship between the behavior of cigar-smoking and cigarette-smoking and the mortality became apparent, the RR being 2.53-3.91 (P < 0.01).
Montagne, Axel; Gauberti, Maxime; Macrez, Richard; Jullienne, Amandine; Briens, Aurélien; Raynaud, Jean-Sébastien; Louin, Gaelle; Buisson, Alain; Haelewyn, Benoit; Docagne, Fabian; Defer, Gilles; Vivien, Denis; Maubert, Eric
Since endothelial cells can be targeted by large contrast-carrying particles, molecular imaging of cerebrovascular cell activation is highly promising to evaluate the underlying inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cerebrovascular cell activation can reveal CNS disorders in the absence of visible lesions and symptoms. To this aim, we optimized contrast carrying particles targeting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MRI protocols through both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Although, pre-contrast MRI images failed to reveal the ongoing pathology, contrast-enhanced MRI revealed hypoperfusion-triggered CNS injury in vascular dementia, unmasked amyloid-induced cerebrovascular activation in Alzheimer's disease and allowed monitoring of disease activity during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Moreover, contrast-enhanced MRI revealed the cerebrovascular cell activation associated with known risk factors of CNS disorders such as peripheral inflammation, ethanol consumption, hyperglycemia and aging. By providing a dramatically higher sensitivity than previously reported methods and molecular contrast agents, the technology described in the present study opens new avenues of investigation in the field of neuroinflammation.
Björ, Ove; Jonsson, Håkan; Damber, Lena; Burström, Lage; Nilsson, Tohr
A cohort study that examined iron ore mining found negative associations between cumulative working time employed underground and several outcomes, including mortality of cerebrovascular diseases. In this cohort study, and using the same group of miners, we examined whether work in an outdoor environment could explain elevated cerebrovascular disease rates. This study was based on a Swedish iron ore mining cohort consisting of 13,000 workers. Poisson regression models were used to generate smoothed estimates of standardized mortality ratios and adjusted rate ratios, both models by cumulative exposure time in outdoor work. The adjusted rate ratio between employment classified as outdoor work ≥25 years and outdoor work 0-4 years was 1.62 (95 % CI 1.07-2.42). The subgroup underground work ≥15 years deviated most in occurrence of cerebrovascular disease mortality compared with the external reference population: SMR (0.70 (95 % CI 0.56-0.85)). Employment in outdoor environments was associated with elevated rates of cerebrovascular disease mortality. In contrast, work in tempered underground employment was associated with a protecting effect.
Chen, P P; Lou, P A; Zhang, P; Qiao, C; Li, T; Dong, Z M
Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and trend of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease mortality among Xuzhou residents from 2011 to 2015. Methods: The mortality data of the ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease were obtained from the registration disease surveillance system covering the residents of the city from 2011 to 2015. Ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease were identified according to the international classification of diseases (ICD-10), Ischemic heart diseases include I20 to I25 (angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, certain current complications following acute myocardial infarction, other acute ischemic heart diseases chronic ischemic heart disease); cerebrovascular diseases include I60 to I69 (subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, other non-traumatic hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, stroke not specified as hemorrhage or infarction, other cerebrovascular diseases, sequelae of cerebrovascular disease). Results: (1)From 2011 to 2015, the chronic ischemia Cardio-Cerebrovascular disease mortality of residents in Xuzhou was 261.2 per one hundred thousand (129 950/49 748 321), 269.9 per one hundred thousand(69 562/25 775 930)for male residents, 252.0 per one hundred thousand(60 388/23 972 391)for female residents, the mortality rate in men was significantly higher than that in women (P<0.05). The chronic ischemic Cardio-Cerebrovascular disease mortality rate of urban residents was 243.8 per one hundred thousand(17 049/6 993 787), which was lower than the rate of rural residents (264.0 per one hundred thousand(112 901/42 754 534), P<0.05). (2)From 2011 to 2015, the mortality rate of ischemic heart disease in Xuzhou city remained unchanged: 117.1 per one hundred thousand(11 416/9 747 768), 126.8 per one hundred thousand(12 177/9 600 745), 112.0 per one hundred thousand(11 184/9 986 877), 115.2 per one hundred thousand(11 697/10 151 842), 117.1 per one hundred thousand(12 019
Zeng, Mingfei; Pan, Linmei; Qi, Shunmei; Cao, Yuntai; Zhu, Huaxu; Guo, Liwei; Zhou, Jing
Recent studies have focused more on Chinese medicine used for the treatment of cerebrovascular disease. The current review covers researches on the pharmacokinetics of Chinese medicine, providing a convenient reference for researchers to increase efficiency of drug discovery, by compiling and discussing the pharmacokinetics of four classical Chinese medicines for therapy of cerebrovascular disease containing: Panax notoginseng, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Ligusticum Chuanxiong and Gardenia. It also helps to eliminate side effect as far as possible from inappropriate Chinese medicine usage. Current integrative and comprehensive review of Chinese medicine for cerebrovascular disease including 1) the absorption of some constituents is limited such as ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1. It may be affected by gastric juice, first-pass effect, etc. 2) The interactions between Chinese medicine and prescription can occur. Borneol and carbomer would enhance the absorption of R1 and Rg1 in vivo by increasing adjacent cell transport ability. 3) The distribution of active constituents in brain is important for cerebrovascular disease. BBB protects brain from xenobiotic. Intranasal, intra-tympanic administration is a promising alternative to conventional administration to reach brain for ligustrazine. 4) Renal excretion is the uppermost route of these Chinese medicines. But biliary, fecal and urinary excretion are the other major routes. Theoretical and practical aspects are described with pharmacokinetic examples. In the end, this paper also discusses recent development of bio-analysis of Chinese medicine.
Li, Weili; Cheng, Ruilian
To investigate the fall efficiency and its influence factors of the hospitalized geriatric patients with cerebrovascular diseases. The Modified Fall Efficacy Scale (MFES), Morse Fall Risk Assessment Scales (MFS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Tinetti Gait Analysis (TGA) were adopted and the combined ways of questionnaires and observation were utilized to investigate the 113 hospitalized geriatric patients with cerebrovascular diseases. The fall efficiency of the geriatric patients with cerebrovascular diseases were 7.85±2.57 scores. The two projects "walking up and down stairs" and "taking public transport means" have got the lowest scores; The two projects "stretching out the hand to the box or the drawer for taking something" and "sitting up and down to the chair" have got the highest scores. It was found that there were three factors which had significant influences on the fall efficiency, they were myodynamia of the right upper extremity, Berg balance functions and gait. For the sake of helping the geriatric patients with cerebrovascular diseases to establish the self-confidence of preventing the falls, the medical workers need to take further psychological counseling for the patients and befittingly and specifically to improve the fall efficiency of patients so as to effectively prevent the occurring of the fall on the basis of improving the balance ability and gait of patients.
Wang, Bin; Jia, Ming; Jia, Shijie; Wan, Jiuhe; Zhou, Xiao; Luo, Zhimin; Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Jianqun
To analyse risk factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) in patients with stroke history, and to propose preventive measures to reduce the incidence of these events. A total of 468 patients with a history of stroke underwent OPCAB surgery in Beijing Anzhen Hospital of China from January 2010 to September 2012. They were retrospectively divided into two groups according to the occurrence of early acute cerebrovascular accidents within 48 hours following OPCAB. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to find risk or protective factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents following the OPCAB. Fifty-two patients (11.1%) suffered from early acute cerebrovascular accidents in 468 patients, including 39 cases of cerebral infarction, two cases of cerebral haemorrhage, 11 cases of transient ischaemic attack (TIA). There were significant differences between the two groups in preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%, severe bilateral carotid artery stenosis, poorly controlled hypertension, intraoperative application of Enclose® II proximal anastomotic device, postoperative acute myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, hypotension, ventilation time > 48h, ICU duration >48h and mortality. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative severe bilateral carotid stenosis (OR=6.378, 95%CI: 2.278-20.987) and preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35% (OR=2.737, 95%CI: 1.267-6.389), postoperative acute myocardial infarction (OR=3.644, 95%CI: 1.928-6.876), postoperative atrial fibrillation (OR=3.104, 95%CI:1.135∼8.016) and postoperative hypotension (OR=4.173, 95%CI: 1.836∼9.701) were independent risk factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents in patients with a history of stroke following OPCAB procedures, while intraoperative application of Enclose® II proximal anastomotic device was protective factor (OR=0.556, 95%CI: 0.337-0.925). This
Ambrosio, L A; Marchese, G; Filippo, A; Romano, E; Musacchio, R
Mesoglycan is a preparation of natural glycosaminoglycans, containing mainly heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate. A clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and the tolerability of once-daily mesoglycan in 30 patients with clinical evidence of cerebrovascular insufficiency. Clinical effectiveness was assessed using psychometric and neurological scales: Sandoz Clinical Assessment for Geriatric Patients (SCAG); Parkside Behaviour Rating Scale Modified; Geriatric Depression Scale; and Anxiety Evaluation. Mesoglycan was given as a single oral once-daily dose of 100 mg for a period of 6 months. This treatment was shown to have positive effects on the cognitive and behavioural parameters evaluated. The effects on SCAG were already evident after 3 months' treatment and a significant improvement was observed after 6 months in those patients with a moderate to severe disease. During the treatment period only one patient suffered an adverse reaction attributed to the drug investigated.
Urbanova, Barbora; Tomek, Ales; Mikulik, Robert; Magerova, Hana; Horinek, Daniel; Hort, Jakub
There has been a growing interest in vascular impairment associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This interest was stimulated by the findings of higher incidence of vascular risk factors in AD. Signs of vascular impairment were investigated notably in the field of imaging methods. Our aim was to explore ultrasonographic studies of extra- and intracranial vessels in patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and define implications for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease. The most frequently studied parameters with extracranial ultrasound are intima-media thickness in common carotid artery, carotid atherosclerosis, and total cerebral blood flow. The transcranial ultrasound concentrates mostly on flow velocities, pulsatility indices, cerebrovascular reserve capacity, and cerebral microembolization. Studies suggest that there is morphological and functional impairment of cerebral circulation in AD compared to healthy subjects. Ultrasound as a non-invasive method could be potentially useful in identifying individuals in a higher risk of progression of cognitive decline. PMID:24478651
Nash, Kevin M.; Shah, Zahoor A.
Ginkgo biloba extract is an alternative medicine available as a standardized formulation, EGb 761®, which consists of ginkgolides, bilobalide, and flavonoids. The individual constituents have varying therapeutic mechanisms that contribute to the pharmacological activity of the extract as a whole. Recent studies show anxiolytic properties of ginkgolide A, migraine with aura treatment by ginkgolide B, a reduction in ischemia-induced glutamate excitotoxicity by bilobalide, and an alternative antihypertensive property of quercetin, among others. These findings have been observed in EGb 761 as well and have led to clinical investigation into its use as a therapeutic for conditions such as cognition, dementia, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular diseases. This review explores the therapeutic mechanisms of the individual EGb 761 constituents to explain the pharmacology as a whole and its clinical application to cardiovascular and neurological disorders, in particular ischemic stroke. PMID:26604665
Gusev, E I; Skvortsova, V I; Chukanova, E I
One hundred and eighty-seven patients with different stages of cerebrovascular insufficiency (CI) have been examined. A diagnosis of CI was based on the results of neurological and neuropsychological study, ultrasonic dopplerography, rheo- and encephalography, electrocardiography, brain MRI and eyegrounds examination. Neurological scales were used for neurological status assessment and further data processing. The study aimed at evaluation of tolerability and clinical efficacy of the medication and complications in CI course. Semax treatment resulted in significant clinical improvement, stabilization of the disease progress and reduced a risk of stroke and transitory ischemic attacks in the disease course. The drug is featured by minor percent of side-effects and is well tolerated by patients, including those of older age groups.
Mun, Jae-Hee; Jun, Seong Sook
This study was done to identify effects of carbonated water intake on constipation in elders who have experienced a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and are bed-ridden. Forty elderly patients with CVA were randomly assigned to one of two groups in a double-blind study. Patients in the experimental group drank carbonated water and those in the control group drank tap water for two weeks. Six patients dropped out during the study period. Data were analyzed by repeated measured ANCOVA and the covariance was the dose of laxatives used for the two weeks. Frequency of defecation increased significantly and symptoms of constipation decreased significantly for patients in the experimental group. The study results suggest that the intake of carbonated water is an effective method for the intervention of constipation in elderly patients with CVA.
Cooper, Isabelle; Reeve, Nina; Doherty, Warren
The authors report a case of atherosclerotic stroke in a 46-year-old recreational bodybuilder with a 20 year history of anabolic-adrenergic steroid (AAS) abuse. Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurred during his third week of hospital admission for an acute abdomen and on day 8, postemergency laparotomy. CVA presented with collapse, generalised seizures, reduced Glasgow Coma Score and severe hypertension. He was subsequently admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), where initial investigations did not illustrate an underlying diagnosis. By day 4 in ICU, there had been no significant clinical improvement and radiological investigations were repeated, identifying a left frontal lobe infarct in the middle cerebral artery territory. The authors propose CVA was secondary to AAS. After a prolonged and complicated period of rehabilitation, he has been discharged home; he requires carers due to dyspraxia and is mobilising independently. PMID:22693186
Aho, K.; Harmsen, P.; Hatano, S.; Marquardsen, J.; Smirnov, V. E.; Strasser, T.
In a cooperative study coordinated by WHO, stroke was registered between 1971 and 1974 in 17 centres both in developing and developed countries. A common operating protocol was used to obtain comparable data. Age-adjusted incidence of stroke shows moderate geographical variations, cerebrovascular accidents being common in all the contrasting populations studied in various parts of the world. Data were also obtained on the types of management of stroke patients, their survival rates, and functional prognosis. Control of hypertension, although known to be effective in the prevention of stroke, seemed to be insufficient in most countries. It is concluded that stroke registers may be used as a source of information for the planning and implementation of stroke control programmes in the community. PMID:6966542
Goldman, H; Morehead, M; Murphy, S
An ACTH1-14-related analog (GMM2) was tested for efficacy in reducing the cerebrovascular pathology that follows moderate, closed-head injury in our rat model. Posttraumatic subcutaneous administration of nanomolar amounts of GMM2 significantly minimized both the hypoperfusion and the increased blood-brain permeability observed 2 h following a concussion. Posttraumatic administration of the peptide also reduced the elevated brain water content observed at 24 and 48 h postinjury to nonsignificant levels. These findings complement previously described observations that GMM2 treatment prevents dangerous elevations of ICP (> 25 mm Hg) at 24 to 72 h in this model of head injury. In view of the potency and low toxicity of GMM2 these observation suggest that the peptide may have considerable clinical application in interrupting pathologic sequelae of traumatic brain injury.
Donahue, Manus J; Achten, Eric; Cogswell, Petrice M; De Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Derdeyn, Colin P; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Fan, Audrey P; Ghaznawi, Rashid; Heit, Jeremy J; Ikram, M Arfan; Jezzard, Peter; Jordan, Lori C; Jouvent, Eric; Knutsson, Linda; Leigh, Richard; Liebeskind, David S; Lin, Weili; Okell, Thomas W; Qureshi, Adnan I; Stagg, Charlotte J; van Osch, Matthias Jp; van Zijl, Peter Cm; Watchmaker, Jennifer M; Wintermark, Max; Wu, Ona; Zaharchuk, Greg; Zhou, Jinyuan; Hendrikse, Jeroen
Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability in most developed countries. This work summarizes state-of-the-art, and possible future, diagnostic and evaluation approaches in multiple stages of CVD, including (i) visualization of sub-clinical disease processes, (ii) acute stroke theranostics, and (iii) characterization of post-stroke recovery mechanisms. Underlying pathophysiology as it relates to large vessel steno-occlusive disease and the impact of this macrovascular disease on tissue-level viability, hemodynamics (cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and mean transit time), and metabolism (cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption and pH) are also discussed in the context of emerging neuroimaging protocols with sensitivity to these factors. The overall purpose is to highlight advancements in stroke care and diagnostics and to provide a general overview of emerging research topics that have potential for reducing morbidity in multiple areas of CVD.
Abe, A.; Ueda, T.; Ueda, M.; Nogoshi, S.; Nishiyama, Y.; Katayama, Y.
Summary This study evaluated the recoveries of cerebrovascular reserves (CVR) after applying percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) to patients with symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis of varying severity. The patients were submitted to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to obtain their regional cerebral blood flows at resting stage (rCBFrest) and acetazolamide-challenged CBF in five regions of interest (ROIs), including the MCA, on the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the hemisphere. rCVR values were then calculated from these CBF data to evaluate the CVR recoveries after PTA treatment. When the PTA effects were statistically analyzed of the patients dichotomized into more severe (n=9) and less severe (n=5) groups, distinctly significant ROI-specific PTA effectiveness was observed for CVR rather than CBF values in the patients of the severer group. PMID:22681739
Wilke, M.; Eiffert, H.; Christen, H.; Hanefeld, F.
As part of an ongoing study aiming to define the clinical spectrum of neuroborreliosis in childhood, we have identified four patients with unusual clinical manifestations. Two patients suffered from a primarily chronic form of neuroborreliosis and displayed only non-specific symptoms. An 11 year old boy presented with long standing symptoms of severe weight loss and chronic headache, while the other patient had pre-existing mental and motor retardation and developed seizures and failure to thrive. Two further children who presented with acute hemiparesis as a result of cerebral ischaemic infarction had a cerebrovascular course of neuroborreliosis. One was a 15 year old girl; the other, a 5 year old boy, is to our knowledge the youngest patient described with this course of illness. Following adequate antibiotic treatment, all patients showed substantial improvement of their respective symptoms. Laboratory and magnetic resonance imaging findings as well as clinical course are discussed and the relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:10869004
Shimada, A; Kuwamura, M; Awakura, T; Umemura, T; Takada, K; Ohama, E; Itakura, C
The distributions of senile plaques (SP) and cerebrovascular amyloidosis (CA) were studied by employing thioflavin S and modified Bielschowsky stains, and beta-protein immunohistochemistry on serial sections of the brains of aged dogs older than 10 years. Mature and perivascular plaques, both of which contained compact amyloid deposits, always showed a close topographic relationship to CA. In contrast, the majority of diffuse plaques showed no topographic relationship to CA. Cell bodies of neurons and/or glia were almost always involved in the diffuse plaques. In addition, beta-protein immunohistochemistry demonstrated amyloid deposits on the periphery of occasional neurons. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may be involved in the development of the different subtypes of SP in the brains of aged dogs.
Morris, Alan W. J.; Carare, Roxana O.; Schreiber, Stefanie; Hawkes, Cheryl A.
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the walls of cerebral blood vessels, is observed in the majority of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brains and is thought to be due to a failure of the aging brain to clear Aβ. Perivascular drainage of Aβ along cerebrovascular basement membranes (CVBMs) is one of the mechanisms by which Aβ is removed from the brain. CVBMs are specialized sheets of extracellular matrix that provide structural and functional support for cerebral blood vessels. Changes in CVBM composition and structure are observed in the aged and AD brain and may contribute to the development and progression of CAA. This review summarizes the properties of the CVBM, its role in mediating clearance of interstitial fluids and solutes from the brain, and evidence supporting a role for CVBM in the etiology of CAA. PMID:25285078
Alsayouf, Hamza; Zamel, Khaled M; Heyer, Geoffrey L; Khuhro, A Latif; Kahwash, Samir B; de los Reyes, Emily C
Homozygosity for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T mutation (MTHFR TT) has been linked to an increased risk for stroke, coronary artery disease, and migraine headaches. The authors analyzed the potential link between MTHFR 677C>T homozygosity and childhood stroke. A true association might facilitate screening, recurrence risk stratification, and treatment in patients with cerebrovascular disease. They performed a retrospective chart review of children tested for the MTHFR 677C>/T mutation; 533 patients underwent MTHFR testing, and 8% were homozygous for the MTHFR 677C>T mutation. There was no difference in the cohort compared with the prevalence in the general population. This suggests that the MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphism played a minimal role or no role in stroke risk. However, the data suggest that the MTHFR TT genotype may influence migraine susceptibility in children because there was a higher proportion of migraine patients (28.6%) with the MTHFR TT homozygous genotype.
Di Napoli, Mario; Shah, Imtiaz M.
The incidence of cerebrovascular disease is highest in the elderly population. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of brain response to cerebral ischemia in old age are currently poorly understood. Ischemic changes in the commonly used young animal stroke models do not reflect the molecular changes associated with the aged brain. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are important pathogenic processes occurring during the acute phase of cerebral ischemia. Free radical generation is also implicated in the aging process, and the combination of these effects in elderly stroke patients could explain the higher risk of morbidity and mortality. A better understanding of stroke pathophysiology in the elderly patient would assist in the development of new therapeutic strategies for this vulnerable age group. With the increasing use of reperfusion therapies, inflammatory pathways and oxidative stress remain attractive therapeutic targets for the development of adjuvant neuroprotective agents. This paper will discuss these molecular aspects of acute stroke and senescence from a bench-to-bedside research perspective. PMID:22132330
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by recurrent thunderclap headaches with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction, and often precipitated by the postpartum state and vasoactive medications. We describe a case of a patient with RCVS induced by amezinium metilsulfate, a sympathomimetic drug, in whom magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) initially revealed diffusely dilated cerebral arteries. A 34-year-old woman was prescribed amezinium metilsulfate for hypotension. Twelve days later, she suffered from abrupt severe headaches and was referred to our department. She had no neurological deficits; however, MRA revealed diffusely dilated anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries with vasoconstriction. She was tentatively diagnosed with RCVS and successfully treated with verapamil for headache. Nevertheless, follow-up MRAs disclosed widespread segmental vasoconstriction that resolved in two months. Diffuse cerebrovascular dilation has not been addressed but may be associated with RCVS pathophysiology. In addition, physicians should bear in mind that amezinium metilsulfate can potentially induce RCVS. © International Headache Society 2015.
Karlsson, William K; Sørensen, Caspar G; Kruuse, Christina
Endothelial dysfunction (ED), in particular cerebral ED, may be an essential biomarker for ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. However, there is no consensus on methods to best estimate cerebral ED. In this systematic review, we evaluate the use of l-arginine and N(G) -monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) for assessment of cerebral ED. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was done. We included studies investigating cerebrovascular response to l-arginine or l-NMMA in human subjects with vascular risk factors or ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. Seven studies (315 subjects) were eligible according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies investigated the effect of age (n=2), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=1), cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) (n=1), leukoaraiosis (n=1), and prior ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) (n=2) on cerebral ED. Most studies applied transcranial Doppler to quantify cerebral ED. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) induced by l-arginine was impaired in elderly and subjects with leukoaraiosis, but enhanced in CADASIL patients. Studies including subjects with prior ischaemic stroke or TIA reported both enhanced and impaired EDV to l-arginine. Responses to l-NMMA deviated between subjects with type 2 DM and the elderly. We found only few studies investigating cerebral endothelial responses to l-arginine and l-NMMA in subjects with vascular risk factors or ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. Inconsistencies in results were most likely due to variations in methods and included subject populations. In order to use cerebral ED as a prognostic marker, further studies are required to evaluate the association to cerebrovascular disease.
Sun, Hao; Sun, Ting; Ma, Bing; Yang, Bo-wen; Zhang, Yao; Huang, Dong-hui; Shi, Jing-pu
Measurement of the biomarker copeptin may help identify disease severity and risk of mortality for a various diseases. This study sought to determine the relationship between copeptin and all-cause mortality of patients with cardio-cerebrovascular disease. Database of Medline and Web of Science were searched for studies with data involving the baseline copeptin levels and subsequent all-cause mortality outcomes. The pooled HRs of all-cause mortality were calculated and presented with 95%CIs. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were conducted to explore the possible sources of heterogeneity. Data from 14,395 participants were derived from 28 prospective studies. Higher copeptin significantly increased the risk of all-cause mortality (per unit copeptin: HR=1.020, 95%CI=1.004-1.036; log unit copeptin: HR=2.884, 95%CI=1.844-4.512; categorical copeptin: HR=3.371, 95%CI=2.077-5.472). Subgroup analysis indicated that the risk of all-cause death was higher in cerebrovascular patients (per unit copeptin: HR=2.537, 95%CI=0.956-6.731; log unit copeptin: HR=3.419, 95%CI=2.391-4.888) than cardiovascular patients (per unit copeptin: HR=1.011, 95%CI=1.002-1.020; log unit copeptin: HR=2.009, 95%CI=1.119-3.608). Copeptin is associated with all-cause mortality of patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Our study suggests that copeptin seems to be a promising novel biomarker for prediction of mortality in cardio-cerebrovascular patients, especially for cerebrovascular patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Jang, Sung-In
Abstract We examined whether the level of hospital-based healthcare technology was related to the 30-day postoperative mortality rates, after adjusting for hospital volume, of ischemic stroke patients who underwent a cerebrovascular surgical procedure. Using the National Health Insurance Service-Cohort Sample Database, we reviewed records from 2002 to 2013 for data on patients with ischemic stroke who underwent cerebrovascular surgical procedures. Statistical analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard models to test our hypothesis. A total of 798 subjects were included in our study. After adjusting for hospital volume of cerebrovascular surgical procedures as well as all for other potential confounders, the hazard ratio (HR) of 30-day mortality in low healthcare technology hospitals as compared to high healthcare technology hospitals was 2.583 (P < 0.001). We also found that, although the HR of 30-day mortality in low healthcare technology hospitals with high volume as compared to high healthcare technology hospitals with high volume was the highest (10.014, P < 0.0001), cerebrovascular surgical procedure patients treated in low healthcare technology hospitals had the highest 30-day mortality rate, irrespective of hospital volume. Although results of our study provide scientific evidence for a hospital volume/30-day mortality rate relationship in ischemic stroke patients who underwent cerebrovascular surgical procedures, our results also suggest that the level of hospital-based healthcare technology is associated with mortality rates independent of hospital volume. Given these results, further research into what components of hospital-based healthcare technology significantly impact mortality is warranted. PMID:26986122
Fujino, Yoshihisa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tamakoshi, Akiko
This study prospectively examined the association between perceived noise exposure at work and cerebrovascular diseases among Japanese male workers. A baseline survey was conducted between 1988 and 1990, which involved 110,792 inhabitants (age range: 40-79 yr) from 45 areas throughout Japan. Subsequent causes of death were identified from death certificates. The analysis was restricted to 14,568 men free of a cerebrovascular diseases (age range: 40-59 yr) who were in work at the time of the baseline survey. All subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire at the baseline. This included a question regarding perceived noise exposure at work. The Cox proportional-hazards model was used to estimate the risks of perceived noise exposure for death due to cerebrovascular diseases. The model included age, smoking, alcohol consumption, educational level, perceived mental stress, past medical history, body mass index, hours of walking, hours of exercise, shift work, and job type. During the 190,777 person-years of follow-up, a total of 1,064 deaths were recorded, 98 from cerebrovascular diseases, 27 deaths from subarachnoid haemorrhage, 35 deaths from intracerebral haemorrhage, and 25 deaths from cerebral infarction. Noise exposure did not increase the risk of cerebrovascular diseases, subarachnoid haemorrhage, or cerebral infarction. However, perceived noise exposure increased the risk of intracerebral haemorrhage diseases (hazard ratio (HR)=2.38, 95%CI: 1.20, 4.71, p=0.013). Furthermore, individuals with hypertension were highly susceptible to the effect of perceived noise exposure on the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage, but this association was not observed among the subjects without hypertension. Although the underlying mechanisms are not clear, hypertensive individuals with perceived noise exposure at work should be regarded as a high-risk group for intracerebral hemorrhage.
Munot, Pinki; Saunders, Dawn E.; Milewicz, Dianna M.; Regalado, Ellen S.; Ostergaard, John R.; Braun, Kees P.; Kerr, Timothy; Lichtenbelt, Klaske D.; Philip, Sunny; Rittey, Christopher; Jacques, Thomas S.; Cox, Timothy C.
Mutations in the ACTA2 gene lead to diffuse and diverse vascular diseases; the Arg179His mutation is associated with an early onset severe phenotype due to global smooth muscle dysfunction. Cerebrovascular disease associated with ACTA2 mutations has been likened to moyamoya disease, but appears to have distinctive features. This study involved the analysis of neuroimaging of 13 patients with heterozygous missense mutations in ACTA2 disrupting Arg179. All patients had persistent ductus arteriosus and congenital mydriasis, and variable presentation of pulmonary hypertension, bladder and gastrointestinal problems associated with this mutation. Distinctive cerebrovascular features were dilatation of proximal internal carotid artery, occlusive disease of terminal internal carotid artery, an abnormally straight course of intracranial arteries, and absent basal ‘moyamoya’ collaterals. Patterns of brain injury supported both large and small vessel disease. Key differences from moyamoya disease were more widespread arteriopathy, the combination of arterial ectasia and stenosis and, importantly, absence of the typical basal ‘moyamoya’ collaterals. Evaluation of previously published cases suggests some of these features are also seen in the ACTA2 mutations disrupting Arg258. The observation that transition from dilated to normal/stenotic arterial calibre coincides with where the internal carotid artery changes from an elastic to muscular artery supports the hypothesis that abnormal smooth muscle cell proliferation caused by ACTA2 mutations is modulated by arterial wall components. Patients with persistent ductus arteriosus or congenital mydriasis with a label of ‘moyamoya’ should be re-evaluated to ensure the distinctive neuroimaging features of an ACTA2 mutation have not been overlooked. This diagnosis has prognostic and genetic implications, and mandates surveillance of other organ systems, in particular the aorta, to prevent life-threatening aortic dissection
Korada, Sai Krishna; Zhao, Di; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Guallar, Eliseo; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Alonso, Alvaro; Sharrett, A. Richey; Post, Wendy S.; Reis, Jared P.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Michos, Erin D.
Background Elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels have been associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors and events. We hypothesized that elevated PTH would also be associated with subclinical cerebrovascular disease. We examined the relationship of elevated PTH with white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and subclinical infarcts measured on brain MRI. Methods PTH was measured at baseline (1993–1994) among participants free of prior clinical stroke who underwent a brain MRI at baseline (n=1703) and a second brain MRI 10 years later (n=948). PTH levels ≥65 pg/ml were considered elevated (n=204). Participants who did not return for a follow-up MRI had, at baseline, higher PTH and a greater prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (p<0.05 for all); therefore multiple imputation was used. The cross-sectional and prospective associations of PTH levels with WMH and MRI-defined infarcts (and their progression) were investigated using multivariable regression models. Results At baseline, participants were mean age of 62 years, 60% female and 49% black. Cross-sectionally, after adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors, elevated PTH was associated with higher WMH score [β=0.19, 95%CI 0.04–0.35] and increased odds of prevalent infarcts [OR 1.56,1.02–2.36]. Results were attenuated after adjustment for potential mediators of this association (i.e. hypertension). No prospective associations were found between PTH and incident infarcts or change in estimated WMH volume, although estimates were imprecise. Conclusions Although associated cross-sectionally, we did not confirm any association of elevated PTH with progression of cerebrovascular changes on brain MRIs obtained 10 years apart. The relationship of PTH with subclinical brain disease warrants further study. PMID:26825350
Grasser, Erik Konrad; Dulloo, Abdul G; Montani, Jean-Pierre
The sale of energy drinks is often accompanied by a comprehensive and intense marketing with claims of benefits during periods of mental stress. As it has been shown that Red Bull negatively impacts human hemodynamics at rest, we investigated the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular consequences when Red Bull is combined with mental stress. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 young healthy humans ingested either 355 ml of a can Red Bull or water and underwent 80 minutes after the respective drink a mental arithmetic test for 5 minutes. Continuous cardiovascular and cerebrovascular recordings were performed for 20 minutes before and up to 90 minutes after drink ingestion. Measurements included beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP), heart rate, stroke volume, and cerebral blood flow velocity. Red Bull increased systolic BP (+7 mm Hg), diastolic BP (+4 mm Hg), and heart rate (+7 beats/min), whereas water drinking had no significant effects. Cerebral blood flow velocity decreased more in response to Red Bull than to water (-9 vs -3 cm/s, p <0.005). Additional mental stress further increased both systolic BP and diastolic BP (+3 mm Hg, p <0.05) and heart rate (+13 beats/min, p <0.005) in response to Red Bull; similar increases were also observed after water ingestion. In combination, Red Bull and mental stress increased systolic BP by about 10 mm Hg, diastolic BP by 7 mm Hg, and heart rate by 20 beats/min and decreased cerebral blood flow velocity by -7 cm/s. In conclusion, the combination of Red Bull and mental stress impose a cumulative cardiovascular load and reduces cerebral blood flow even under a mental challenge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aizer, Ayal A; Du, Rose; Wen, Patrick Y; Arvold, Nils D
Radiotherapy is often used in the management of primary brain tumors, but late cerebrovascular risks remain incompletely characterized. We examined the relationship between radiotherapy and the risk of death from cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in this population. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program to identify 19,565 patients of any age diagnosed with a primary brain tumor between 1983-2002. Multivariable competing risks analysis and an interaction model were used to determine whether receipt of radiotherapy was associated with an increased risk of CVD-specific death, adjusting for tumor proximity to central arterial circulations of the brain. The median follow up in surviving patients was 12.75 years. Baseline characteristics were similar in patients who did and did not receive radiotherapy. Ten-year CVD-specific mortality in patients with tumors near central arterial circulations who did and did not receive radiotherapy were 0.64 % (95 % CI 0.42-0.93 %) versus 0.16 % (95 % CI 0.055-0.40 %), p = 0.01. After adjustment for demographic, tumor-related, and treatment-related covariates, patients with tumors near central arterial circulations were significantly more likely to experience CVD-specific mortality after radiotherapy (HR 2.81; 95 % CI 1.25-6.31; p = 0.01); no association was observed among patients with more distant tumors (HR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.50-1.16; p = 0.21). The interaction model showed that tumor location was a key predictor of the risk of radiotherapy-associated, CVD-specific mortality (p-interaction = 0.004). Patients receiving radiotherapy for tumors near but not distant from the central vasculature of the brain are at increased risk for death secondary to CVD, which should be considered when counseling patients.
Cuenco, Karen T.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; McKee, Ann C.; Guo, Jianping; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Green, Robert C.; George-Hyslop, Peter H. St.; Chui, Helena; DeCarli, Charles; Farrer, Lindsay A.
Background Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2 distinct regions of the gene for the sortilin-related receptor (SORL1) (bounded by consecutively numbered SNPs 8−10 and 22−25) were shown to be associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) in multiple ethnically diverse samples. Objective To test the hypothesis that SORL1 is associated with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of atrophy and/or vascular disease. Design, Setting, and Patients We evaluated the association of 30 SNPs spanning SORL1 with MRI measures of general cerebral atrophy, hippocampal atrophy, white matter hyperintensities, and overall cerebrovascular disease in 44 African American and 182 white sibships from the MIRAGE Study. We performed single-and 3-SNP haplotype association analyses using family-based tests. Haplotypes found to be significantly associated with at least 1 MRI trait were tested for association with 6 pathological traits in a separate sample of 69 white patients with autopsy-confirmed AD. Results In white patients, white matter hyperintensities were associated with multiple markers in the region encompassing SNPs 6 to 10, whereas cerebral and hippocampal atrophy were associated with markers from the region including SNPs 21 to 26. Examination of specific 3-SNP haplotypes from these 2 regions in the autopsy-confirmed cases of AD revealed association of white matter disease with SNPs 8 to 10 and association of hippocampal atrophy with SNPs 22 to 26. The haplotype CGC at SNPs 8 to 10 was associated with fewer white matter changes in the clinical (P<.001) and autopsy (P=.02) samples. Conclusions Variants of SORL1 previously associated with AD are also associated with MRI and neuropathological measures of neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular disease. These findings not only support the hypothesis that multiple areas in SORL1 are of functional importance but also raise the possibility that multiple SORL1 variants influence amyloid precursor protein or endothelial
Wright, Clinton B; Shah, Nirav H; Mendez, Armando J; DeRosa, Janet T; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L; DeCarli, Charles; Rundek, Tatjana; Silverberg, Shonni; Dong, Chuanhui; Wolf, Myles
Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates phosphate homeostasis and is linked with mortality, cardiovascular events, and stroke. However, the role of FGF23 as a risk factor for subclinical cerebrovascular damage is unclear. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression to evaluate associations between FGF23, continuously and by quartiles, with white matter hyperintensity volume, expressed as percent intracranial volume (%ICV), and subclinical brain infarction (SBI) in a community-based stroke-free sample. There were 1170 stroke-free Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS) participants with FGF23 levels and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging data on white matter hyperintensity volume and SBI. Participants with FGF23 levels in the top quartile (range=85-1425 RU/mL) had greater white matter hyperintensity volume (β=0.19 %ICV; 95% CI, 0.04-0.33 %ICV; P=0.01) compared with those in the lowest quartile (range=15-49 RU/mL), adjusted for demographics, vascular risk factors, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. These findings remained significant in those without evidence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)). Elevated FGF23 was not associated with SBI overall after adjusting for demographic factors and estimated glomerular filtration rate, but sex modified the effect of FGF23 on odds of SBI (P for interaction=0.03). FGF23 was associated with significantly greater odds of SBI only in men (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7; P=0.03) after full adjustment. These cross-sectional community-based data from a diverse urban sample show an association between elevated FGF23 and small vessel disease and magnetic resonance imaging-defined brain infarction in men, independent of chronic kidney disease. Data on elevated FGF23 and subclinical cerebrovascular damage progression are needed. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Chiu, Hsienhsueh Elley; Hong, Yu-Chiang; Chang, Ku-Chou; Shih, Chun-Chuan; Hung, Jen-Wen; Liu, Chia-Wei; Tan, Teng-Yeow; Huang, Chih-Cheng
Abstract Background This study searches the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) used in a previous project, aiming for reconstructing possible cerebrovascular disease-related groups (DRG),and estimating the costs between cerebrovascular disease and related diseases. Methods and Materials We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study in stroke inpatients, we examined the overall costs in 3 municipalities in Taiwan, by evaluating the possible costs of the expecting diagnosis related group (DRG) by using the international classification of diseases version-9 (ICD-9) system, and the overall analysis of the re-admission population that received traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment and those who did not. Results The trend demonstrated that the non-participant costs were consistent with the ICD-9 categories (430 to 437) because similarities existed between years 2006 to 2007. Among the TCM patients, a wide variation and additional costs were found compared to non-TCM patients during these 2 years. The average re-admission duration was significantly shorter for TCM patients, especially those initially diagnosed with ICD 434 during the first admission. In addition, TCM patients demonstrated more severe general symptoms, which incurred high conventional treatment costs, and could result in re-admission for numerous reasons. However, in Disease 7 of ICD-9 category, representing the circulatory system was most prevalent in non-TCM inpatients, which was the leading cause of re-admission. Conclusion We concluded that favorable circulatory system outcomes were in adjuvant TCM treatment inpatients, there were less re-admission for circulatory system events and a two-third reduction of re-admission within ICD-9 code 430 to 437, compared to non-TCM ones. However, there were shorter re-admission duration other than circulatory system events by means of unfavorable baseline condition. PMID:24475108
Ferrándiz, Juan; Abellán, Juan J.; Gómez-Rubio, Virgilio; López-Quílez, Antonio; Sanmartín, Pilar; Abellán, Carlos; Martínez-Beneito, Miguel A.; Melchor, Inmaculada; Vanaclocha, Hermelinda; Zurriaga, Óscar; Ballester, Ferrán; Gil, José M.; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Ocaña, Ricardo
Previously published scientific papers have reported a negative correlation between drinking water hardness and cardiovascular mortality. Some ecologic and case–control studies suggest the protective effect of calcium and magnesium concentration in drinking water. In this article we present an analysis of this protective relationship in 538 municipalities of Comunidad Valenciana (Spain) from 1991–1998. We used the Spanish version of the Rapid Inquiry Facility (RIF) developed under the European Environment and Health Information System (EUROHEIS) research project. The strategy of analysis used in our study conforms to the exploratory nature of the RIF that is used as a tool to obtain quick and flexible insight into epidemiologic surveillance problems. This article describes the use of the RIF to explore possible associations between disease indicators and environmental factors. We used exposure analysis to assess the effect of both protective factors—calcium and magnesium—on mortality from cerebrovascular (ICD-9 430–438) and ischemic heart (ICD-9 410–414) diseases. This study provides statistical evidence of the relationship between mortality from cardiovascular diseases and hardness of drinking water. This relationship is stronger in cerebrovascular disease than in ischemic heart disease, is more pronounced for women than for men, and is more apparent with magnesium than with calcium concentration levels. Nevertheless, the protective nature of these two factors is not clearly established. Our results suggest the possibility of protectiveness but cannot be claimed as conclusive. The weak effects of these covariates make it difficult to separate them from the influence of socioeconomic and environmental factors. We have also performed disease mapping of standardized mortality ratios to detect clusters of municipalities with high risk. Further standardization by levels of calcium and magnesium in drinking water shows changes in the maps when we remove the
Yang, Changbin; Gao, Yuan; Greaves, Danielle K.; Villar, Rodrigo; Beltrame, Thomas; Fraser, Katelyn S.
The hypothesis that cerebrovascular autoregulation was not impaired during head-up tilt (HUT) that followed brief exposures to varying degrees of prior head-down tilt (HDT) was tested in 10 healthy young men and women. Cerebral mean flow velocity (MFV) and cardiovascular responses were measured in transitions to a 60-s period of 75° HUT that followed supine rest (control) or 15 s HDT at −10°, −25°, and −55°. During HDT, heart rate (HR) was reduced for −25° and −55°, and cardiac output was lower at −55° HDT. MFV increased during −10° HDT, but not in the other conditions even though blood pressure at the middle cerebral artery (BPMCA) increased. On the transition to HUT, HR increased only for −55° condition, but stroke volume and cardiac output transiently increased for −25° and −55°. Total peripheral resistance index decreased in proportion to the magnitude of HDT and recovered over the first 20 s of HUT. MFV was significantly less in all HDT conditions compared with the control in the first 5-s period of HUT, but it recovered quickly. An autoregulation correction index derived from MFV recovery relative to BPMCA decline revealed a delay in the first 5 s for prior HDT compared with control but then a rapid increase to briefly exceed control after −55° HDT. This study showed that cerebrovascular autoregulation is modified by but not impaired by brief HDT prior to HUT and that cerebral MFV recovered quickly and more rapidly than arterial blood pressure to protect against cerebral hypoperfusion and potential syncope. PMID:25749443
Chiu, Hsienhsueh Elley; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Hong, Yu-Chiang; Chang, Ku-Chou; Shih, Chun-Chuan; Hung, Jen-Wen; Liu, Chia-Wei; Tan, Teng-Yeow; Huang, Chih-Cheng
This study searches the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) used in a previous project, aiming for reconstructing possible cerebrovascular disease-related groups (DRG),and estimating the costs between cerebrovascular disease and related diseases. We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study in stroke inpatients, we examined the overall costs in 3 municipalities in Taiwan, by evaluating the possible costs of the expecting diagnosis related group (DRG) by using the international classification of diseases version-9 (ICD-9) system, and the overall analysis of the re-admission population that received traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment and those who did not. The trend demonstrated that the non-participant costs were consistent with the ICD-9 categories (430 to 437) because similarities existed between years 2006 to 2007. Among the TCM patients, a wide variation and additional costs were found compared to non-TCM patients during these 2 years. The average re-admission duration was significantly shorter for TCM patients, especially those initially diagnosed with ICD 434 during the first admission. In addition, TCM patients demonstrated more severe general symptoms, which incurred high conventional treatment costs, and could result in re-admission for numerous reasons. However, in Disease 7 of ICD-9 category, representing the circulatory system was most prevalent in non-TCM inpatients, which was the leading cause of re-admission. We concluded that favorable circulatory system outcomes were in adjuvant TCM treatment inpatients, there were less re-admission for circulatory system events and a two-third reduction of re-admission within ICD-9 code 430 to 437, compared to non-TCM ones. However, there were shorter re-admission duration other than circulatory system events by means of unfavorable baseline condition.
Flück, Daniela; Siebenmann, Christoph; Keiser, Stefanie; Cathomen, Adrian; Lundby, Carsten
Controversy exists regarding the effect of high-altitude exposure on cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity (CVR). Confounding factors in previous studies include the use of different experimental approaches, ascent profiles, duration and severity of exposure and plausibly environmental factors associated with altitude exposure. One aim of the present study was to determine CVR throughout acclimatization to high altitude when controlling for these. Middle cerebral artery mean velocity (MCAvmean) CVR was assessed during hyperventilation (hypocapnia) and CO2 administration (hypercapnia) with background normoxia (sea level (SL)) and hypoxia (3,454 m) in nine healthy volunteers (26±4 years (mean±s.d.)) at SL, and after 30 minutes (HA0), 3 (HA3) and 22 (HA22) days of high-altitude (3,454 m) exposure. At altitude, ventilation was increased whereas MCAvmean was not altered. Hypercapnic CVR was decreased at HA0 (1.16%±0.16%/mm Hg, mean±s.e.m.), whereas both hyper- and hypocapnic CVR were increased at HA3 (3.13%±0.18% and 2.96%±0.10%/mm Hg) and HA22 (3.32%±0.12% and 3.24%±0.14%/mm Hg) compared with SL (1.98%±0.22% and 2.38%±0.10%/mm Hg; P<0.01) regardless of background oxygenation. Cerebrovascular conductance (MCAvmean/mean arterial pressure) CVR was determined to account for blood pressure changes and revealed an attenuated response. Collectively our results show that hypocapnic and hypercapnic CVR are both elevated with acclimatization to high altitude. PMID:25806704
Altay, Tamer; Gonzales, Ernesto R; Park, T S; Gidday, Jeffrey M
Obstructive sleep apnea, apnea of prematurity, and sudden infant death syndrome are associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality secondary to the neuronal and cerebrovascular consequences of the associated intermittent hypoxia. We hypothesized that episodic hypoxia (EH) promotes inflammation in the cerebral microcirculation and that nitric oxide (NO) produced by the endothelial and neuronal isoforms of NO synthase (eNOS and nNOS, respectively) modulates this response. Anesthetized and ventilated Swiss-Webster ND4 mice, wild-type mice, and NO synthase knockout mice were subjected to a 1-h period of EH (twelve 30-s periods of hypoxia every 5 min). Four, 24, or 48 h later, mice were reanesthetized for imaging of leukocyte dynamics in the cortical venular microcirculation by epifluorescence videomicroscopy through closed cranial windows. In Swiss-Webster ND4 mice, leukocyte adherence increased 2.1-fold at 4 h, 3.4-fold at 24 h, and 1.8-fold at 48 h relative to time-matched, normoxic controls; there was no evidence of delayed hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell death. A similar response was noted in wild-type mice. However, in eNOS knockouts, leukocyte-endothelial cell adherence was elevated to 4.4-fold over baseline 24 h after EH, and a significant fraction of these animals showed evidence of delayed CA1 cell death. Conversely, in nNOS knockouts, no increase in adherence was noted at 24 h and CA1 viability remained unaffected. We conclude that NO derived from nNOS promotes an inflammatory response in the cerebrovascular microcirculation after short-term EH and that NO produced by eNOS blunts the extent of this response and exerts neuroprotective effects.
Donahue, Manus J; Dethrage, Lindsey M; Faraco, Carlos C; Jordan, Lori C; Clemmons, Paul; Singer, Robert; Mocco, J; Shyr, Yu; Desai, Aditi; O'Duffy, Anne; Riebau, Derek; Hermann, Lisa; Connors, John; Kirshner, Howard; Strother, Megan K
A promising method for identifying hemodynamic impairment that may serve as a biomarker for stroke risk in patients with intracranial stenosis is cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) mapping using noninvasive MRI. Here, abilities to measure CVR safely in the clinic using hypercarbic hyperoxic (carbogen) gas challenges, which increase oxygen delivery to tissue, are investigated. In sequence with structural and angiographic imaging, blood oxygenation level-dependent carbogen-induced CVR scans were performed in patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis (n=92) and control (n=10) volunteers, with a subgroup of patients (n=57) undergoing cerebral blood flow-weighted pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling CVR. Subjects were stratified for 4 substudies to evaluate relationships between (1) carbogen and hypercarbic normoxic CVR in healthy tissue (n=10), (2) carbogen cerebral blood flow CVR and blood oxygenation level-dependent CVR in intracranial stenosis patients (n=57), (3) carbogen CVR and clinical measures of disease in patients with asymmetrical intracranial atherosclerotic (n=31) and moyamoya (n=29) disease, and (4) the CVR scan and immediate and longer-term complications (n=92). Noninvasive blood oxygenation level-dependent carbogen-induced CVR values correlate with (1) lobar hypercarbic normoxic gas stimuli in healthy tissue (R=0.92; P<0.001), (2) carbogen-induced cerebral blood flow CVR in patients with intracranial stenosis (R=0.30-0.33; P<0.012), and (3) angiographic measures of disease severity both in atherosclerotic and moyamoya patients after appropriate processing. No immediate stroke-related complications were reported in response to carbogen administration; longer-term neurological events fell within the range for expected events in this patient population. Carbogen-induced CVR elicited no added adverse events and provided a surrogate marker of cerebrovascular reserve consistent with intracranial vasculopathy. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Esnault, Pierre; Cardinale, Mickaël; Boret, Henry; D'Aranda, Erwan; Montcriol, Ambroise; Bordes, Julien; Prunet, Bertrand; Joubert, Christophe; Dagain, Arnaud; Goutorbe, Philippe; Kaiser, Eric; Meaudre, Eric
OBJECTIVE Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVIs) affect approximately 1% of patients with blunt trauma. An antithrombotic or anticoagulation therapy is recommended to prevent the occurrence or recurrence of neurovascular events. This treatment has to be carefully considered after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), due to the risk of intracranial hemorrhage expansion. Thus, the physician in charge of the patient is confronted with a hemorrhagic and ischemic risk. The main objective of this study was to determine the incidence of BCVI after severe TBI. METHODS The authors conducted a prospective, observational, single-center study including all patients with severe TBI admitted in the trauma center. Diagnosis of BCVI was performed using a 64-channel multidetector CT. Characteristics of the patients, CT scan results, and outcomes were collected. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed to determine the risk factors of BCVI. Patients in whom BCVI was diagnosed were treated with systemic anticoagulation. RESULTS In total, 228 patients with severe TBI who were treated over a period of 7 years were included. The incidence of BCVI was 9.2%. The main risk factors were as follows: motorcycle crash (OR 8.2, 95% CI 1.9-34.8), fracture involving the carotid canal (OR 11.7, 95% CI 1.7-80.9), cervical spine injury (OR 13.5, 95% CI 3.1-59.4), thoracic trauma (OR 7.3, 95% CI 1.1-51.2), and hepatic lesion (OR 13.3, 95% CI 2.1-84.5). Among survivors, 82% of patients with BCVI received systemic anticoagulation therapy, beginning at a median of Day 1.5. The overall stroke rate was 19%. One patient had an intracranial hemorrhagic complication. CONCLUSIONS Blunt cerebrovascular injuries are frequent after severe TBI (incidence 9.2%). The main risk factors are high-velocity lesions and injuries near cervical arteries.
Donahue, Manus J.; Dethrage, Lindsey; Faraco, Carlos C.; Jordan, Lori C.; Clemmons, Paul; Singer, Robert; Mocco, J; Shyr, Yu; Desai, Aditi; O’Duffy, Anne; Riebau, Derek; Hermann, Lisa; Connors, John; Kirshner, Howard; Strother, Megan K.
Background and Purpose A promising method for identifying hemodynamic impairment that may serve as a biomarker for stroke risk in patients with intracranial (IC) stenosis is cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) mapping using non-invasive MRI. Here, abilities to measure CVR safely in the clinic using hypercarbic hyperoxic (carbogen) gas challenges, which increase oxygen delivery to tissue, are investigated. Methods In sequence with structural and angiographic imaging, blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) carbogen-induced CVR scans were performed in patients with symptomatic IC stenosis (n=92) and control (n=10) volunteers, with a subgroup of patients (n=57) undergoing cerebral blood flow-weighted (CBFw) pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) CVR. Subjects were stratified for four sub-studies: to evaluate relationships between (i) carbogen and hyercarbic normoxic (HN) CVR in healthy tissue (n=10), (ii) carbogen CBF CVR and BOLD CVR in IC stenosis patients (n=57), (iii) carbogen CVR and clinical measures of disease in patients with asymmetric IC atherosclerotic (n=31) and moyamoya (n=29) disease, and (iv) the CVR scan and immediate and longer-term complications (n=92). Results Non-invasive BOLD carbogen-induced CVR values correlate with (i) lobar HN gas stimuli in healthy tissue (R=0.92; P<0.001), (ii) carbogen-induced CBF CVR in IC stenosis patients (R=0.30–0.33; P<0.012), and (iii) angiographic measures of disease severity both in atherosclerotic and moyamoya patients after appropriate processing. No immediate stroke-related complications were reported in response to carbogen administration; longer-term neurological events fell within the range for expected events in this patient population. Conclusions Carbogen-induced CVR elicited no added adverse events and provided a surrogate marker of cerebrovascular reserve consistent with IC vasculopathy. PMID:24938845
Schokker, S A M; Van Oostwaard, M F; Melman, E M; Van Kessel, J P; Baharoglu, M I; Roos, Y B W E M; Vogt, L; De Winter, R J; Mol, B W; Ganzevoort, W
Strong associations have been established in nationwide registry studies between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and later vascular morbidities and mortality. The aim of this case-control study is to examine the interdependent relationships of different predictive factors for vascular disease and HDP, because they are not clearly elucidated due to lack of detail in registries. We assembled three different case groups of women who had cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, or hypertensive kidney disease before the age of 55. The control group consisted of age-matched women who underwent hysterectomy for benign reasons. We assessed the occurrence of HDP in previous pregnancies. The strength of the association with vascular morbidities was tested with multivariable logistic regression in comparison with classic vascular risk factors. In all case groups, previous HDP occurred more frequent than in the control group. In logistic regression analysis, previous HDP were the strongest predictor in the cerebrovascular group (OR 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-11.0). In the cardiovascular group and the kidney failure group a similar association was found, however, this was not statistically significant (OR 4.4 (95% CI 0.82-4) and 2.9 (95% CI 0.61-14), respectively). Previous hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are a strong predictor for later vascular morbidity. This is partially mediated through the presence of classic vascular risk factors, but our data suggest it is also an independent predictor. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Barone, Frank C; Gustafson, Deborah; Crystal, Howard A; Moreno, Herman; Adamski, Mateusz G; Arai, Ken; Baird, Alison E; Balucani, Clotilde; Brickman, Adam M; Cechetto, David; Gorelick, Philip; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kiliaan, Amanda; Launer, Lenore; Schneider, Julie; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Whitmer, Rachel; Wright, Clinton; Zhang, Zheng Gang
As the human population continues to age, an increasing number of people will exhibit significant deficits in cognitive function and dementia. It is now recognized that cerebrovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases all play major roles in the evolution of cognitive impairment and dementia. Thus with our more recent recognition of these relationships and our need to understand and more positively impact on this world health problem, "The Leo and Anne Albert Charitable Trust" (Gene Pranzo, Trustee with significant support from Susan Brogan, Meeting Planner) provided generous support for this inaugural international workshop that was held from April 13-16, 2015 at the beautiful Ritz Carlton Golf Resort in North Naples, Florida. Researchers from SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY organized the event by selecting the present group of translationally inclined preclinical, clinical and population scientists focused on cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk and its progression to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia. Participants at the workshop addressed important issues related to aging, cognition and dementia by: (1) sharing new data, information and perspectives that intersect vascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, (2) discussing gaps in translating population risk, clinical and preclinical information to the progression of cognitive loss, and (3) debating new approaches and methods to fill these gaps that can translate into future therapeutic interventions. Participants agreed on topics for group discussion prior to the meeting and focused on specific translational goals that included promoting better understanding of dementia mechanisms, the identification of potential therapeutic targets for intervention, and discussed/debated the potential utility of diagnostic/prognostic markers. Below summarizes the new data-presentations, concepts, novel directions and specific discussion topics addressed by this international
Di Tullio, Marco R; Jin, Zhezhen; Russo, Cesare; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Rundek, Tatjana; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton B; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between patent foramen ovale (PFO), ischemic stroke, and subclinical cerebrovascular disease in the general population. PFO is found more frequently in stroke patients than in stroke-free controls. However, the PFO-related stroke risk in the general population is not well established, and the relationship between PFO and silent brain infarcts (SBI) is not known. PFO presence was assessed by transthoracic echocardiography with saline contrast injection in 1,100 stroke-free individuals over age 39 of a community-based sample followed for a mean of 11 years. In addition, 360 participants underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for SBI detection. We evaluated the risk of stroke associated with PFO after adjusting for established stroke risk factors and examined the odds of having SBI among those with and without PFO. PFO was present in 164 participants (14.9%). Over a mean follow-up of 11.0 ± 4.5 years, 111 ischemic strokes occurred (10.1%), 15 (9.2%) in the PFO+ and 96 (10.3%) in the PFO- groups. The 12.5-year cumulative risk of stroke was 10.1% (standard error: 2.5%) in the PFO+ and 10.4% (standard error: 1.1%) in the PFO- group (p = 0.46). The adjusted hazard ratio for PFO and stroke was 1.10 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64 to 1.91). In the MRI subcohort, PFO was not associated with SBI (adjusted odds ratio: 1.15, 95% CI: 0.50 to 2.62). In this community-based cohort, PFO was not associated with an increased risk of clinical stroke or subclinical cerebrovascular disease. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Di Tullio, Marco R.; Jin, Zhezhen; Russo, Cesare; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Rundek, Tatjana; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton B.; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L.
Objectives To evaluate the relationship between patent foramen ovale (PFO), ischemic stroke and subclinical cerebrovascular disease in the general population. Background PFO is more frequently found in stroke patients than in stroke-free controls. However, the PFO-related stroke risk in the general population is not well established, and the relationship between PFO and silent brain infarcts (SBI) is not known. Methods PFO presence was assessed by transthoracic echocardiography with saline contrast injection in 1,100 stroke-free individuals over age 39 of a community-based sample followed for a mean of 11 years. In addition, 360 participants underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for SBI detection. We evaluated the risk of stroke associated with PFO after adjusting for established stroke risk factors, and examined the odds of having SBI among those with and without PFO. Results A PFO was present in 164 participants (14.9%). Over a mean follow up of 11.0 ± 4.5 years, 111 ischemic strokes occurred (10.1%), 15 (9.2%) in the PFO + and 96 (10.3%) in the PFO− groups. The 12.5 year cumulative risk of stroke was 10.1% (standard error 2.5%) in the PFO+ and 10.4% (standard error 1.1%) in the PFO− group (p=0.46). The adjusted hazard ratio for PFO and stroke was 1.10 (95% confidence interval 0.64–1.91). In the MRI subcohort, PFO was not associated with SBI (adjusted odds ratio 1.15, 95% CI 0.50–2.62). Conclusions In this community-based cohort, PFO was not associated with an increased risk of clinical stroke or subclinical cerebrovascular disease. PMID:23644084
Ferrandiz, Juan; Abellan, Juan J; Gomez-Rubio, Virgilio; Lopez-Quilez, Antonio; Sanmartin, Pilar; Abellan, Carlos; Martinez-Beneito, Miguel A; Melchor, Inmaculada; Vanaclocha, Hermelinda; Zurriaga, Oscar; Ballester, Ferran; Gil, Jose M; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Ocana, Ricardo
Previously published scientific papers have reported a negative correlation between drinking water hardness and cardiovascular mortality. Some ecologic and case-control studies suggest the protective effect of calcium and magnesium concentration in drinking water. In this article we present an analysis of this protective relationship in 538 municipalities of Comunidad Valenciana (Spain) from 1991-1998. We used the Spanish version of the Rapid Inquiry Facility (RIF) developed under the European Environment and Health Information System (EUROHEIS) research project. The strategy of analysis used in our study conforms to the exploratory nature of the RIF that is used as a tool to obtain quick and flexible insight into epidemiologic surveillance problems. This article describes the use of the RIF to explore possible associations between disease indicators and environmental factors. We used exposure analysis to assess the effect of both protective factors--calcium and magnesium--on mortality from cerebrovascular (ICD-9 430-438) and ischemic heart (ICD-9 410-414) diseases. This study provides statistical evidence of the relationship between mortality from cardiovascular diseases and hardness of drinking water. This relationship is stronger in cerebrovascular disease than in ischemic heart disease, is more pronounced for women than for men, and is more apparent with magnesium than with calcium concentration levels. Nevertheless, the protective nature of these two factors is not clearly established. Our results suggest the possibility of protectiveness but cannot be claimed as conclusive. The weak effects of these covariates make it difficult to separate them from the influence of socioeconomic and environmental factors. We have also performed disease mapping of standardized mortality ratios to detect clusters of municipalities with high risk. Further standardization by levels of calcium and magnesium in drinking water shows changes in the maps when we remove the effect of
Anazodo, Udunna C.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Suskin, Neville; Ssali, Tracy; Wang, Danny J. J.; St. Lawrence, Keith S.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) poses a risk to the cerebrovascular function of older adults and has been linked to impaired cognitive abilities. Using magnetic resonance perfusion imaging, we investigated changes in resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia in 34 CAD patients and 21 age-matched controls. Gray matter volume (GMV) images were acquired and used as a confounding variable to separate changes in structure from function. Compared to healthy controls, CAD patients demonstrated reduced CBF in the superior frontal, anterior cingulate (AC), insular, pre- and post-central gyri, middle temporal, and superior temporal regions. Subsequent analysis of these regions demonstrated decreased CVR in the AC, insula, post-central and superior frontal regions. Except in the superior frontal and precentral regions, regional reductions in CBF and CVR were identified in brain areas where no detectable reductions in GMV were observed, demonstrating that these vascular changes were independent of brain atrophy. Because aerobic fitness training can improve brain function, potential changes in regional CBF were investigated in the CAD patients after completion of a 6-months exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program. Increased CBF was observed in the bilateral AC, as well as recovery of CBF in the dorsal aspect of the right AC, where the magnitude of increased CBF was roughly equal to the reduction in CBF at baseline compared to controls. These exercise-related improvements in CBF in the AC is intriguing given the role of this area in cognitive processing and regulation of cardiovascular autonomic control. PMID:26779011
Background The study of the cerebrovascular physiology is crucial to understand the pathogenesis of neurological disease and the pharmacokinetic of drugs. Appropriate models in vitro often fail to represent in vivo physiology. To address these issues we propose the use of a novel artificial vascular system that closely mimics capillary and venous segments of human cerebrovasculature while also allowing for an extensive control of the experimental variables and their manipulation. Results Using hollow fiber technology, we modified an existing dynamic artificial model of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) (DIV-capillary) to encompass the distal post-capillary (DIV-venules) segments of the brain circulatory system. This artificial brain vascular system is comprised of a BBB module serially connected to a venule segment. A pump generates a pulsatile flow with arterial pressure feeding the system. The perfusate of the capillary module achieves levels of shear stress, pressure, and flow rate comparable to what observed in situ. Endothelial cell exposure to flow and abluminal astrocytic stimuli allowed for the formation of a highly selective capillary BBB with a trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER; >700 ohm cm2) and sucrose permeability (< 1X10-u cm/sec) comparable to in vivo. The venule module, which attempted to reproduce features of the hemodynamic microenvironment of venules, was perfused by media resulting in shear stress and intraluminal pressure levels lower than those found in capillaries. Because of altered cellular and hemodynamic factors, venule segments present a less stringent vascular bed (TEER <250 Ohm cm2; Psucrose > 1X10-4 cm/sec) than that of the BBB. Abluminal human brain vascular smooth muscle cells were used to reproduce the venular abluminal cell composition. Conclusion The unique characteristics afforded by the DIV-BBB in combination with a venule segment will realistically expand our ability to dissect and study the physiological and
Luo, Chuanming; Liang, Fengyin; Ren, Huixia; Yao, Xiaoli; Liu, Qiang; Li, Mingyue; Qin, Dajiang; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Pei, Zhong; Su, Huanxing
Collateral blood flow as vascular adaptions to focal cerebral ischemia is well recognized. However, few studies directly investigate the dynamics of collateral vessel recruitment in vivo and little is known about the effect of collateral blood flow in different cerebrovascular hierarchy on the neuropathology after focal ischemic stroke. Here, we report that collateral blood flow is critically involved in blood vessel compensations following regional ischemia. We occluded a pial arteriole using femtosecond laser ablating under the intact thinned skull and documented the changes of collateral flow around the surface communication network and between the surface communication network and subsurface microcirculation network using in vivo two photon microscopy imaging. Occlusion of the pial arteriole apparently increased the diameter and collateral blood flow of its leptomeningeal anastomoses, which significantly reduced the cortical infarction size. This result suggests that the collateral flow via surface communicating network connected with leptomeningeal anastomoses could greatly impact on the extent of infarction. We then further occluded the target pial arteriole and all of its leptomeningeal anastomoses. Notably, this type of occlusion led to reversals of blood flow in the penetrating arterioles mainly proximal to the occluded pial arteriole in a direction from the subsurface microcirculation network to surface arterioles. Interesting, the cell death in the area of ischemic penumbra was accelerated when we performed occlusion to cease the reversed blood flow in those penetrating arterioles, suggesting that the collateral blood flow from subsurface microcirculation network exerts protective roles in delaying cell death in the ischemic penumbra. In conclusion, we provide the first experimental evidence that collateral blood vessels at different cerebrovascular hierarchy are endogenously compensatory mechanisms in brain ischemia. This article is protected by
Zinman, Bernard; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Lachin, John M; Wanner, Christoph; Fitchett, David; Kohler, Sven; Mattheus, Michaela; Woerle, Hans J; Broedl, Uli C; Johansen, Odd Erik; Albers, Gregory W; Diener, Hans Christoph
In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial (Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients), empagliflozin added to standard of care in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk reduced the risk of 3-point major adverse cardiovascular events, driven by a reduction in cardiovascular mortality, with no significant difference between empagliflozin and placebo in risk of myocardial infarction or stroke. In a modified intent-to-treat analysis, the hazard ratio for stroke was 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-1.56; P=0.26). We further investigated cerebrovascular events. Patients were randomized to empagliflozin 10 mg, empagliflozin 25 mg, or placebo; 7020 patients were treated. Median observation time was 3.1 years. The numeric difference in stroke between empagliflozin and placebo in the modified intent-to-treat analysis was primarily because of 18 patients in the empagliflozin group with a first event >90 days after last intake of study drug (versus 3 on placebo). In a sensitivity analysis based on events during treatment or ≤90 days after last dose of drug, the hazard ratio for stroke with empagliflozin versus placebo was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.45; P=0.60). There were no differences in risk of recurrent, fatal, or disabling strokes, or transient ischemic attack, with empagliflozin versus placebo. Patients with the largest increases in hematocrit or largest decreases in systolic blood pressure did not have an increased risk of stroke. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk, there was no significant difference in the risk of cerebrovascular events with empagliflozin versus placebo. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01131676. © 2017 The Authors.
Ruiz-Sandoval, José L; Chiquete, Erwin; Bañuelos-Becerra, L Jacqueline; Torres-Anguiano, Carolina; González-Padilla, Christian; Arauz, Antonio; León-Jiménez, Carolina; Murillo-Bonilla, Luis M; Villarreal-Careaga, Jorge; Barinagarrementería, Fernando; Cantú-Brito, Carlos
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare form of cerebrovascular disease that is usually not mentioned in multicenter registries on all-type acute stroke. We aimed to describe the experience on hospitalized patients with CVT in a Mexican multicenter registry on acute cerebrovascular disease. CVT patients were selected from the RENAMEVASC registry, which was conducted between 2002 and 2004 in 25 Mexican hospitals. Risk factors, neuroimaging, and 30-day outcome as assessed by the modified Rankin scale (mRS) were analyzed. Among 2000 all-type acute stroke patients, 59 (3%; 95% CI, 2.3-3.8%) had CVT (50 women; female:male ratio, 5:1; median age, 31 years). Puerperium (42%), contraceptive use (18%), and pregnancy (12%) were the main risk factors in women. In 67% of men, CVT was registered as idiopathic, but thrombophilia assessment was suboptimal. Longitudinal superior sinus was the most frequent thrombosis location (78%). Extensive (>5 cm) venous infarction occurred in 36% of patients. Only 81% of patients received anticoagulation since the acute phase, and 3% needed decompressive craniectomy. Mechanical ventilation (13.6%), pneumonia (10.2%) and systemic thromboembolism (8.5%) were the main in-hospital complications. The 30-day case fatality rate was 3% (2 patients; 95% CI, 0.23-12.2%). In a Cox proportional hazards model, only age <40 years was associated with a mRS score of 0 to 2 (functional independence; rate ratio, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.34-8.92). The relative frequency of CVT and the associated in-hospital complications were higher than in other registries. Thrombophilia assessment and acute treatment was suboptimal. Young age is the main determinant of a good short-term outcome. Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fancellu, Laura; Borsini, Walter; Romani, Ilaria; Pirisi, Angelo; Deiana, Giovanni Andrea; Sechi, Elia; Doneddu, Pietro Emiliano; Rassu, Anna Laura; Demurtas, Rita; Scarabotto, Anna; Cassini, Pamela; Arbustini, Eloisa; Sechi, GianPietro
The etiologic determinants of stroke in young adults remain a diagnostic challenge in up to one-fourth of cases. Increasing evidences led to consider Fabry's disease (FD) as a possible cause to check up. We aimed at evaluating the prevalence of unrecognized FD in a cohort of patients with juvenile stroke in northern Sardinia. For this study, we enrolled 178 patients consecutively admitted to our Neurological Ward for ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, intracerebral haemorrhage, neuroradiological evidence of silent infarcts, or white matter lesions possibly related to cerebral vasculopathy at brain MRI, and cerebral venous thrombosis. The qualifying events have to occur between 18 and 55 years of age. We identified two patients with an α-galactosidase A gene variant, with a prevalence of 0.9 %. According to recent diagnostic criteria, one patient, included for the occurrence of multiple white matter lesions at brain MRI, had a diagnosis of definite FD, the other, included for ischemic stroke, had a diagnosis of uncertain FD. Our study places in a middle position among studies that found a prevalence of FD up to 4 % and others that did not find any FD patients. Our findings confirm that FD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with juvenile stroke, particularly those with a personal or familial history positive for cerebrovascular events, or evidence of combined cardiologic and/or renal impairment. All types of cerebrovascular disorders should be screened for FD, including patients with white matter lesions possibly related to cerebral vasculopathy at brain MRI.
Rolfs, Arndt; Fazekas, Franz; Grittner, Ulrike; Dichgans, Martin; Martus, Peter; Holzhausen, Martin; Böttcher, Tobias; Heuschmann, Peter U; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Tanislav, Christian; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J; Giese, Anne-Katrin; Putaala, Jukaa; Huber, Roman; Bodechtel, Ulf; Lichy, Christoph; Enzinger, Christian; Schmidt, Reinhold; Hennerici, Michael G; Kaps, Manfred; Kessler, Christof; Lackner, Karl; Paschke, Eduard; Meyer, Wolfgang; Mascher, Hermann; Riess, Olaf; Kolodny, Edwin; Norrving, Bo
Strokes have especially devastating implications if they occur early in life; however, only limited information exists on the characteristics of acute cerebrovascular disease in young adults. Although risk factors and manifestation of atherosclerosis are commonly associated with stroke in the elderly, recent data suggests different causes for stroke in the young. We initiated the prospective, multinational European study Stroke in Young Fabry Patients (sifap) to characterize a cohort of young stroke patients. Overall, 5023 patients aged 18 to 55 years with the diagnosis of ischemic stroke (3396), hemorrhagic stroke (271), transient ischemic attack (1071) were enrolled in 15 European countries and 47 centers between April 2007 and January 2010 undergoing a detailed, standardized, clinical, laboratory, and radiological protocol. Median age in the overall cohort was 46 years. Definite Fabry disease was diagnosed in 0.5% (95% confidence interval, 0.4%-0.8%; n=27) of all patients; and probable Fabry disease in additional 18 patients. Males dominated the study population (2962/59%) whereas females outnumbered men (65.3%) among the youngest patients (18-24 years). About 80.5% of the patients had a first stroke. Silent infarcts on magnetic resonance imaging were seen in 20% of patients with a first-ever stroke, and in 11.4% of patients with transient ischemic attack and no history of a previous cerebrovascular event. The most common causes of ischemic stroke were large artery atherosclerosis (18.6%) and dissection (9.9%). Definite Fabry disease occurs in 0.5% and probable Fabry disease in further 0.4% of young stroke patients. Silent infarcts, white matter intensities, and classical risk factors were highly prevalent, emphasizing the need for new early preventive strategies. Clinical Trial Registration Information- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.Unique identifier: NCT00414583.
Flück, Daniela; Siebenmann, Christoph; Keiser, Stefanie; Cathomen, Adrian; Lundby, Carsten
Controversy exists regarding the effect of high-altitude exposure on cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity (CVR). Confounding factors in previous studies include the use of different experimental approaches, ascent profiles, duration and severity of exposure and plausibly environmental factors associated with altitude exposure. One aim of the present study was to determine CVR throughout acclimatization to high altitude when controlling for these. Middle cerebral artery mean velocity (MCAv mean) CVR was assessed during hyperventilation (hypocapnia) and CO2 administration (hypercapnia) with background normoxia (sea level (SL)) and hypoxia (3,454 m) in nine healthy volunteers (26 ± 4 years (mean ± s.d.)) at SL, and after 30 minutes (HA0), 3 (HA3) and 22 (HA22) days of high-altitude (3,454 m) exposure. At altitude, ventilation was increased whereas MCAv mean was not altered. Hypercapnic CVR was decreased at HA0 (1.16% ± 0.16%/mm Hg, mean ± s.e.m.), whereas both hyper- and hypocapnic CVR were increased at HA3 (3.13% ± 0.18% and 2.96% ± 0.10%/mm Hg) and HA22 (3.32% ± 0.12% and 3.24% ± 0.14%/mm Hg) compared with SL (1.98% ± 0.22% and 2.38% ± 0.10%/mm Hg; P < 0.01) regardless of background oxygenation. Cerebrovascular conductance (MCAv mean/mean arterial pressure) CVR was determined to account for blood pressure changes and revealed an attenuated response. Collectively our results show that hypocapnic and hypercapnic CVR are both elevated with acclimatization to high altitude.
T Cuenco, Karen; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Baldwin, Clinton T; McKee, Ann C; Guo, Jianping; Cupples, L Adrienne; Green, Robert C; St George-Hyslop, Peter H; Chui, Helena; DeCarli, Charles; Farrer, Lindsay A
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2 distinct regions of the gene for the sortilin-related receptor (SORL1) (bounded by consecutively numbered SNPs 8-10 and 22-25) were shown to be associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) in multiple ethnically diverse samples. To test the hypothesis that SORL1 is associated with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of atrophy and/or vascular disease. We evaluated the association of 30 SNPs spanning SORL1 with MRI measures of general cerebral atrophy, hippocampal atrophy, white matter hyperintensities, and overall cerebrovascular disease in 44 African American and 182 white sibships from the MIRAGE Study. We performed single- and 3-SNP haplotype association analyses using family-based tests. Haplotypes found to be significantly associated with at least 1 MRI trait were tested for association with 6 pathological traits in a separate sample of 69 white patients with autopsy-confirmed AD. In white patients, white matter hyperintensities were associated with multiple markers in the region encompassing SNPs 6 to 10, whereas cerebral and hippocampal atrophy were associated with markers from the region including SNPs 21 to 26. Examination of specific 3-SNP haplotypes from these 2 regions in the autopsy-confirmed cases of AD revealed association of white matter disease with SNPs 8 to 10 and association of hippocampal atrophy with SNPs 22 to 26. The haplotype CGC at SNPs 8 to 10 was associated with fewer white matter changes in the clinical (P<.001) and autopsy (P=.02) samples. Variants of SORL1 previously associated with AD are also associated with MRI and neuropathological measures of neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular disease. These findings not only support the hypothesis that multiple areas in SORL1 are of functional importance but also raise the possibility that multiple SORL1 variants influence amyloid precursor protein or endothelial lipoprotein processing or both in different regions of the brain.
Budohoski, Karol P; Czosnyka, Marek; de Riva, Nicolas; Smielewski, Peter; Pickard, John D; Menon, David K; Kirkpatrick, Peter J; Lavinio, Andrea
Cerebrovascular pressure reactivity is the principal mechanism of cerebral autoregulation. Assessment of cerebral autoregulation can be performed by using the mean flow index (Mx) based on transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Cerebrovascular pressure reactivity can be monitored by using the pressure reactivity index (PRx), which is based on intracranial pressure monitoring. From a practical point of view, PRx can be monitored continuously, whereas Mx can only be monitored in short periods when transcranial Doppler probes can be applied. To assess to what degree impairment in pressure reactivity (PRx) is associated with impairment in cerebral autoregulation (Mx). A database of 345 patients with traumatic brain injury was screened for data availability including simultaneous Mx and PRx monitoring. Absolute differences, temporal changes, and association with outcome of the 2 indices were analyzed. A total of 486 recording sessions obtained from 201 patients were available for analysis. Overall a moderate correlation between Mx and PRx was found (r = 0.58; P < .001). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve designed to detect the ability of PRx to predict impaired cerebral autoregulation was 0.700 (95% confidence interval: 0.607-0.880). Discrepancies between Mx and PRx were most pronounced at an intracranial pressure of 30 mm Hg and they were significantly larger for patients who died (P = .026). Both Mx and PRx were significantly lower at day 1 postadmission in patients who survived than in those who died (P < .01). There is moderate agreement between Mx and PRx. Discrepancies between Mx and PRx are particularly significant in patients with sustained intracranial hypertension. However, for clinical purposes, there is only limited interchangeability between indices.
Colla-Machado, Pedro E; Luzzi, Ariel A; Balian, Natalia R; Pigretti, Santiago G; Zurrú-Ganen, M Cristina; Cristiano, Edgardo; Valiensi, Stella M
Introduccion. El sindrome de apnea/hipopnea obstructiva del sueño (SAHOS) confiere mayor riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular, dada su asociacion con otros factores de riesgo vascular. Tanto el SAHOS como otros factores de riesgo vascular se asocian con lesiones cerebrales silentes. Objetivo. Evaluar la prevalencia de lesiones cerebrales silentes en pacientes con SAHOS. Pacientes y metodos. Se evaluo retrospectivamente una cohorte de 137 pacientes con SAHOS, con una edad media de 65 ± 12 años, el 45% mujeres. Las lesiones cerebrales silentes en resonancia magnetica se evaluaron con la escala visual de Fazekas, y se consigno la presencia de infartos corticales, lacunares y microsangrados. Resultados. La prevalencia de factores de riesgo vascular fue: hipertension, 64%; dislipidemia, 58%; diabetes, 18%; tabaquismo, 34%; ateromatosis carotidea, 26%; enfermedad coronaria, 13%; y fibrilacion auricular, 4%. El SAHOS fue leve en el 47%, moderado en el 31% y grave en el 22% de los casos. El 91% de los pacientes tenia hiperintensidades periventriculares y el 66% presentaba lesiones en la sustancia blanca subcortical. El valor medio del indice de apnea/hipopnea fue mayor en los pacientes con mayor carga de lesiones, aunque sin significacion estadistica. Conclusiones. Los pacientes con SAHOS presentan una elevada prevalencia de lesiones cerebrales silentes, fundamentalmente con un patron microangiopatico. Posiblemente esto se explique por la asociacion entre el SAHOS, la hipertension arterial y otros factores de riesgo vascular.
Willey, Joshua Z; Gardener, Hannah; Moon, Yeseon P; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Wright, Clinton B
Subclinical cerebrovascular disease has been associated with multiple adverse events related to aging, including stroke and dementia. The modifiable risk factors for subclinical cerebrovascular disease beyond hypertension have not been well characterized. Our objective was to examine the association between baseline, and changes over time, in lipid profile components and subclinical cerebrovascular disease on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fasting plasma lipids were collected on participants in the Northern Manhattan Study, a prospective cohort study examining risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a multiethnic elderly urban-dwelling population. A subsample of the cohort underwent brain MRI between 2003 and 2008 (a median of 6.2 years, range = 0-14, after enrollment), when repeat fasting lipids were obtained. We used lipid profile components at the time of initial enrollment (n = 1,256 with lipids available) as categorical variables, as well as change in clinical categories over the two measures (n = 1,029). The main outcome measures were (1) total white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) using linear regression and (2) silent brain infarcts (SBI) using logistic regression. None of the plasma lipid profile components at the time of enrollment were associated with WMHV. The association between baseline lipids and WMHV was, however, modified by apolipoprotein E (apoE) status (χ(2) with 2 degrees of freedom, p = 0.03), such that among apoE4 carriers those with total cholesterol (TC) ≥200 mg/dl had a trend towards smaller WMHV than those with TC <200 mg/dl (difference in logWMHV -0.19, p = 0.07), while there was no difference among apoE3 carriers. When examining the association between WMHV and change in lipid profile components we noted an association with change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, >50 mg/dl for women, >40 mg/dl for men) and TC. A transition from low-risk HDL-C (>50 mg/dl for women, >40 mg/dl for men) at baseline to high
Willey, Joshua Z.; Gardener, Hannah; Moon, Yeseon P.; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Sacco, Ralph L.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Wright, Clinton B.
Background Subclinical cerebrovascular disease has been associated with multiple adverse events related to aging, including stroke and dementia. The modifiable risk factors for subclinical cerebrovascular disease beyond hypertension have not been well characterized. Our objective was to examine the association between baseline, and changes over time, in lipid profile components and subclinical cerebrovascular disease on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Fasting plasma lipids were collected on participants in the Northern Manhattan Study, a prospective cohort study examining risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a multi-ethnic elderly urban dwelling population. A subsample of the cohort underwent brain MRI between 2003 and 2008 (a median of 6.2 (range=0–14) years after enrollment, when repeat fasting lipids were obtained. We used lipid profile components at the time of initial enrollment (n=1256 with lipids available) as categorical variables, as well as change in clinical categories over the 2 measures (n=1029). The main outcome measures were (1)total white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) using linear regression, and (2)silent brain infarcts (SBI) using logistic regression. Results None of the plasma lipid profile components at the time of enrollment were associated with WMHV. The association between baseline lipids and WMHV was however modified by apoE status (chi-squared with 2 degrees of freedom, p=0.03), such that among apoE4 carriers those with total cholesterol (TC) ≥200mg/dl had a trend towards smaller WMHV than those with TC<200mg/dl (difference in log WMHV − 0.19, p=0.07) while there was no difference among apoE3 carriers. When examining the association between WMHV and change in lipid profile components we noted an association with change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)(>50 mg/dl for women,>40 mg/dl for men) and TC. A transition from low risk high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)(>50 mg/dl for women,>40 mg
Policha, Aleksandra; Baldwin, Melissa; Lee, Victoria; Adelman, Mark A; Rockman, Caron; Berland, Todd; Cayne, Neal S; Maldonado, Thomas S
Reversal of flow in the vertebral artery (RFVA) is an uncommon finding on cerebrovascular duplex ultrasound examination. The clinical significance of RFVA and the natural history of patients presenting with it are poorly understood. Our objective was to better characterize the symptoms and outcomes of patients presenting with RFVA. A retrospective review was performed of all cerebrovascular duplex ultrasound studies performed at our institution between January 2010 and January 2016 (N = 2927 patients). Individuals with RFVA in one or both vertebral arteries were included in the analysis. Seventy-four patients (74/2927 patients [2.5%]) with RFVA were identified. Half of the patients were male. Mean age at the time of the first ultrasound study demonstrating RFVA was 71 years (range, 27-92 years); 78% of patients had hypertension, 28% were diabetic, and 66% were current or former smokers. Indications for the ultrasound examination were as follows: 44% screening/asymptomatic, 7% anterior circulation symptoms, 20% posterior circulation symptoms, 28% follow-up studies after cerebrovascular intervention, and 5% upper extremity symptoms. At the time of the initial ultrasound examination, 21 patients (28%) had evidence of a prior carotid intervention (carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting), 21 patients had evidence of moderate (50%-79%) carotid artery stenosis (CAS) in at least one carotid artery, and 12 patients (16%) had evidence of severe (>80%) CAS. Of the 15 patients presenting with posterior circulation symptoms, 11 (73%) had evidence of concomitant CAS. In contrast, 22 of the 59 patients (37%) without posterior circulation symptoms had duplex ultrasound findings of CAS (P = .01). The mean duration of follow-up was 28 ± 22 months. Follow-up data were available for 63 patients (85%), including the 15 patients who presented with posterior circulation symptoms. Of these 15 patients, 5 underwent subclavian artery revascularization, including balloon
Zhang, Xuejing; Tang, Xuelian; Liu, Kai; Hamblin, Milton H; Yin, Ke-Jie
The study was designed to determine the role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (Malat1), in ischemic stroke outcome. Primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) were cultured and treated with Malat1 GapmeR before 16 h oxygen and glucose depravation (OGD). Cell death was assayed by LDH and MTT methods. Malat1 knock-out and wild-type mice were subjected to 1 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and 24-72 h of reperfusion. To explore the underlying mechanism, apoptotic and inflammatory factors were measured by qPCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. The physical interaction between Malat1 and apoptotic or inflammatory factors was measured by RNA immunoprecipitation. Increased Malat1 levels were found in cultured mouse BMECs after OGD as well as in isolated cerebral microvessels in mice after MCAO. Silencing of Malat1 by Malat1 GapmeR significantly increased OGD-induced cell death and Caspase 3 activity in BMECs. Silencing of Malat1 also significantly aggravated OGD-induced expression of the proapoptotic factor Bim and proinflammatory cytokines MCP-1, IL-6, and E-selectin. Moreover, Malat1 KO mice presented larger brain infarct size, worsened neurological scores, and reduced sensorimotor functions. Consistent with in vitro findings, significantly increased expression of proapoptotic and proinflammatory factors was also found in the cerebral cortex of Malat1 KO mice after ischemic stroke compared with WT controls. Finally, we demonstrated that Malat1 binds to Bim and E-selectin both in vitro and in vivo Our study suggests that Malat1 plays critical protective roles in ischemic stroke.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Accumulative studies have demonstrated the important regulatory roles of microRNAs in vascular and neural damage after ischemic stroke. However, the functional significance and mechanisms of other classes of noncoding RNAs in cerebrovascular pathophysiology after stroke are less studied. Here we
Skrobot, Olivia A; Attems, Johannes; Esiri, Margaret; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Ironside, James W; Kalaria, Rajesh N; King, Andrew; Lammie, George A; Mann, David; Neal, James; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kehoe, Patrick G; Love, Seth
There are no generally accepted protocols for post-mortem assessment in cases of suspected vascular cognitive impairment. Neuropathologists from seven UK centres have collaborated in the development of a set of vascular cognitive impairment neuropathology guidelines (VCING), representing a validated consensus approach to the post-mortem assessment and scoring of cerebrovascular disease in relation to vascular cognitive impairment. The development had three stages: (i) agreement on a sampling protocol and scoring criteria, through a series of Delphi method surveys; (ii) determination of inter-rater reliability for each type of pathology in each region sampled (Gwet's AC2 coefficient); and (iii) empirical testing and validation of the criteria, by blinded post-mortem assessment of brain tissue from 113 individuals (55 to 100 years) without significant neurodegenerative disease who had had formal cognitive assessments within 12 months of death. Fourteen different vessel and parenchymal pathologies were assessed in 13 brain regions. Almost perfect agreement (AC2 > 0.8) was found when the agreed criteria were used for assessment of leptomeningeal, cortical and capillary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, large infarcts, lacunar infarcts, microhaemorrhage, larger haemorrhage, fibrinoid necrosis, microaneurysms, perivascular space dilation, perivascular haemosiderin leakage, and myelin loss. There was more variability (but still reasonably good agreement) in assessment of the severity of arteriolosclerosis (0.45-0.91) and microinfarcts (0.52-0.84). Regression analyses were undertaken to identify the best predictors of cognitive impairment. Seven pathologies-leptomeningeal cerebral amyloid angiopathy, large infarcts, lacunar infarcts, microinfarcts, arteriolosclerosis, perivascular space dilation and myelin loss-predicted cognitive impairment. Multivariable logistic regression determined the best predictive models of cognitive impairment. The preferred model included moderate
Lang, Erhard W; Kasprowicz, Magdalena; Smielewski, Peter; Pickard, John; Czosnyka, Marek
Plateau waves in intracranial pressure (ICP) are frequently recorded in neuro intensive care and are not yet fully understood. To further investigate this phenomenon, we analyzed partial pressure of cerebral oxygen (pbtO2) and a moving correlation coefficient between ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (ABP), called PRx, along with the cerebral oxygen reactivity index (ORx), which is a moving correlation coefficient between cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and pbtO2 in an observational study. We analyzed 55 plateau waves in 20 patients after severe traumatic brain injury. We calculated ABP, ABP pulse amplitude (ampABP), ICP, CPP, pbtO2, heart rate (HR), ICP pulse amplitude (ampICP), PRx, and ORx, before, during, and after each plateau wave. The analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare the differences in the variables before, during, and after the plateau wave. We considered all plateau waves, even in the same patient, independent because they are separated by long intervals. We found increases for ICP and ampICP according to our operational definitions for plateau waves. PRx increased significantly (p = 0.00026), CPP (p < 0.00001) and pbtO2 (p = 0.00007) decreased significantly during the plateau waves. ABP, ampABP, and HR remained unchanged. PRx during the plateau was higher than before the onset of wave in 40 cases (73 %) with no differences in baseline parameters for those with negative and positive ΔPRx (difference during and after). ORx showed an increase during and a decrease after the plateau waves, however, not statistically significant. PbtO2 overshoot after the wave occurred in 35 times (64 %), the mean difference was 4.9 ± 4.6 Hg (mean ± SD), and we found no difference in baseline parameters between those who overshoot and those who did not overshoot. Arterial blood pressure remains stable in ICP plateau waves, while cerebral autoregulatory indices show distinct changes, which indicate cerebrovascular
Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Rundek, Tatjana; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton B; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R
Silent brain infarcts (SBIs) and white matter hyperintensities are subclinical cerebrovascular lesions associated with incident stroke and cognitive decline. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a predictor of stroke in patients with heart failure, but its association with subclinical brain disease in the general population is unknown. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) can detect subclinical cardiac dysfunction even when LVEF is normal. We investigated the relationship of LVEF and GLS with subclinical brain disease in a community-based cohort. LVEF and GLS were assessed by 2-dimensional and speckle-tracking echocardiography in 439 participants free of stroke and cardiac disease from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study. SBIs and white matter hyperintensities were assessed by brain MRI. Mean age of the study population was 69±10 years, 61% were women, LVEF was 63.8±6.4%, GLS was -17.1±3.0%. SBIs were detected in 53 participants (12%), white matter hyperintensity volume was 0.63±0.86%. GLS was significantly lower in participants with SBI versus those without (-15.7±3.5% versus -17.3±2.9%, P<0.01), whereas no difference in LVEF was observed (63.3±8.6% versus 63.8±6.0%, P=0.60). In multivariate analysis, lower GLS was associated with SBI (odds ratio/unit decrease=1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.33; P<0.01), whereas LVEF was not (odds ratio/unit increase=1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.05; P=0.98). Lower GLS was associated with greater white matter hyperintensity volume (adjusted β=0.11, P<0.05), unlike LVEF (adjusted β=-0.04, P=0.42). Lower GLS was independently associated with subclinical brain disease in a community-based cohort without overt cardiac disease. GLS can provide additional information on cerebrovascular risk burden beyond LVEF assessment.
Guo, Hao; Li, Lei; Hou, Jin-Cai; Liu, Jian-Xun
Remaining organic and functional damage of ischemia cardio-cerebrovascular disease is always a main trouble puzzling the clinicians. After the discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), researchers realize that postnatal angiogenesis is an important biological process, which play a key role to repair the ischemia tissue and improve the function. So a new concept which names therapeutic angiogenesis supply a new treament way for the ischemia cardio-cerebrovascular disease. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has accumulated rich experience on treating the ischemia disease, studies found that many Chinese medicine prescriptions and effective ingredients can increase the therapeutic angiogenesis, howerer the mechanisms were not the same, they mainly manifest in regular the secretion of angiogenic factors, increase the proliferation and differentiation etc. In this paper, we review recent studies, summary the Chinese medicine prescriptions and effective ingredients which can increase the therapeutic angiogenesis, and analyze the differernt pathway. We view to provide reference for the later researchers.
Zuckerman, Scott L; Seder, David B; Tsujiura, Crystiana; Cushing, Deborah; Gallup, Holly; Mocco, J; Hanel, Richard A; Ecker, Robert D
Aspirin (ASA) is the mainstay of treatment in cerebrovascular and systemic vascular disease. ASA hypersensitivity can pose a challenge to achieving optimum medical management prior to and after neurointerventional treatment. Desensitization to ASA is well described in the allergy and cardiovascular literature, but there are no similar discussions specific to neurointervention. The purpose of our study was to describe our experience with ASA hypersensitivity management and review the relevant literature. Two cases of patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease requiring neurointervention who were successfully desensitized to their ASA hypersensitivity prior to treatment are described. The subsequent literature is reviewed. Several ASA desensitization protocols exist and have been proven to successfully treat ASA hypersensitivity and allow for ASA therapy to be safely initiated. We describe several previously published protocols. ASA desensitization is a safe and simple way to manage ASA hypersensitivity. We provide comprehensive management guidelines for the neurointerventionalist engaging in ASA desensitization.
Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Hsien-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu
Long-term studies demonstrating the effect of pioglitazone use on primary prevention of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus are lacking. This study investigated the relationship between pioglitazone use and first attack of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in Taiwan.We conducted a case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 2359 type 2 diabetic subjects aged ≥65 years with newly diagnosed ischemic cerebrovascular disease from 2005 to 2011 as the case group and 4592 sex- and age-matched, randomly selected type 2 diabetic subjects aged ≥65 years without ischemic cerebrovascular disease as the control group. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of ischemic cerebrovascular disease associated with pioglitazone use was measured by the multivariable unconditional logistic regression model.After adjustment for confounding factors, the multivariable logistic regression analysis disclosed that the adjusted ORs of first attack of ischemic cerebrovascular disease associated with cumulative duration of using pioglitazone were 3.34 for <1 year (95% CI 2.59-4.31), 2.53 for 1 to 2 years (95% CI 1.56-4.10), 2.20 for 2 to 3 years (95% CI 1.05-4.64), and 1.09 for ≥3 years (95% CI 0.55-2.15), respectively.Our findings suggest that pioglitazone use does not have a protective effect on primary prevention for ischemic cerebrovascular disease among older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus during the first 3 years of use. Whether using pioglitazone for >3 years would have primary prevention for ischemic cerebrovascular disease needs a long-term research to prove.
Tyndall, Amanda V; Davenport, Margie H; Wilson, Ben J; Burek, Grazyna M; Arsenault-Lapierre, Genevieve; Haley, Eryka; Eskes, Gail A; Friedenreich, Christine M; Hill, Michael D; Hogan, David B; Longman, R Stewart; Anderson, Todd J; Leigh, Richard; Smith, Eric E; Poulin, Marc J
Aging and physical inactivity are associated with declines in some cognitive domains and cerebrovascular function, as well as an elevated risk of cerebrovascular disease and other morbidities. With the increase in the number of sedentary older Canadians, promoting healthy brain aging is becoming an increasingly important population health issue. Emerging research suggests that higher levels of physical fitness at any age are associated with better cognitive functioning and this may be mediated, at least in part, by improvements in cerebrovascular reserve. We are currently conducting a study to determine: if a structured 6-month aerobic exercise program is associated with improvements or maintenance of both cerebrovascular function and cognitive abilities in older individuals; and, the extent to which any changes seen persist 6 months after the completion of the structured exercise program. Two hundred and fifty men and women aged 55-80 years are being enrolled into an 18-month combined quasi-experimental and prospective cohort study. Participants are eligible for enrollment into the study if they are inactive (i.e., not participating in regular physical activity), non-smokers, have a body mass index <35.0 kg/m(2), are free of significant cognitive impairment (defined as a Montreal Cognitive Assessment score of 24 or more), and do not have clinically significant cardiovascular, cerebrovascular disease, or chronic obstructive pulmonary airway disease. Repeated measurements are done during three sequential six-month phases: 1) pre-intervention; 2) aerobic exercise intervention; and 3) post-intervention. These outcomes include: cardiorespiratory fitness, resting cerebral blood flow, cerebrovascular reserve, and cognitive function. This is the first study to our knowledge that will examine contemporaneously the effect of an exercise intervention on both cerebrovascular reserve and cognition in an older population. This study will further our understanding of whether
Kholmogorov, N A; Shprakh, V V; Miriutova, N F
Treatment of patients at the early stages of cerebrovascular diseases with the use of sodium chloride baths resulted in the improvement of morphological and functional characteristics of brain vessels. Combination of sodium chloride baths with impulse currents and magnetic fields caused regression of neurologic and neuropsychotic disturbances in 80% of the patients. Beneficial therapeutic effects persisted especially long when the patients received the above treatment during 21-24 days.
Omama, Shinichi; Yoshida, Yuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Ogawa, Akira; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Tanno, Kozo; Ohsawa, Masaki; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Sakata, Kiyomi
Little information is available regarding the occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases after tsunamis. This study was performed to determine the influence of the tsunami damage caused by the Great East Japan earthquake on occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases. Subjects from the coastline and inland areas of Iwate Prefecture who developed cerebrovascular diseases before and after the disaster were included in the analysis. Standardized incidence ratios of 2011 against the previous 3 years were calculated in two 4-week periods before and four 4-week periods after the disaster, according to stroke subtype, sex, age group, and flood damage. The standard incidence ratio for cerebrovascular diseases was 1.20 (1.00-1.40) in the first 4-week period after the disaster and was not significant in other periods. The standard incidence ratios in the first 4-week period for cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage were 1.22 (0.98-1.46), 1.15 (0.76-1.55), and 1.20 (0.52-1.88), respectively. These values were 1.51 (1.19-1.88) for men, 1.35 (1.06-1.64) for subjects aged ≥ 75 years, and 1.35 (1.06-1.64) for the high flooding areas. The standard incidence ratio of cerebral infarction in the first 4-week period for men aged ≥ 75 years in the high flooding areas was 2.34 (1.34-3.34). In the areas highly flooded by the tsunami caused by the Great East Japan earthquake, the occurrence of cerebral infarction among elderly men more than doubled in the first 4 weeks after the disaster.
Mey, Lilli; Hörmann, Mareike; Schleicher, Nadine; Reuter, Peter; Dönges, Simone; Kinscherf, Ralf; Gassmann, Max; Gerriets, Tibo; Al-Fakhri, Nadia
Cerebral ischemia is encompassed by cerebrovascular apoptosis, yet the mechanisms behind apoptosis regulation are not fully understood. We previously demonstrated inhibition of endothelial apoptosis by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through upregulation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) expression. However, PARP overactivation through oxidative stress can lead to necrosis. This study tested the hypothesis that neuropilin-1 (NP-1), an alternative VEGF receptor, regulates the response to cerebral ischemia by modulating PARP expression and, in turn, apoptosis inhibition by VEGF. In endothelial cell culture, NP-1 colocalized with VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and acted as its coreceptor. This significantly enhanced VEGF-induced PARP mRNA and protein expression demonstrated by receptor-specific inhibitors and VEGF-A isoforms. NP-1 augmented the inhibitory effect of VEGF/VEGFR-2 interaction on apoptosis induced by adhesion inhibition through the αV-integrin inhibitor cRGDfV. NP-1/VEGFR-2 signal transduction involved JNK and Akt. In rat models of permanent and temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion, the ischemic cerebral hemispheres displayed endothelial and neuronal apoptosis next to increased endothelial NP-1 and VEGFR-2 expression compared to non-ischemic cerebral hemispheres, sham-operated or untreated controls. Increased vascular superoxide dismutase-1 and catalase expression as well as decreased glycogen reserves indicated oxidative stress in the ischemic brain. Of note, protein levels of intact PARP remained stable despite pro-apoptotic conditions through increased PARP mRNA production during cerebral ischemia. In conclusion, NP-1 is upregulated in conditions of imminent cerebrovascular apoptosis to reinforce apoptosis inhibition and modulate VEGF-dependent PARP expression and activation. We propose that NP-1 is a key modulator of VEGF maintaining cerebrovascular integrity during ischemia. Modulating the function of NP-1 to target PARP could help to
Nakanishi, Koki; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Rundek, Tatjana; Tugcu, Aylin; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton B; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R
Although abnormal left ventricular geometric patterns have prognostic value for morbidity and mortality, their possible association with silent cerebrovascular disease has not been extensively evaluated. We examined 665 participants in the CABL study who underwent transthoracic echocardiography and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were divided into 4 geometric patterns: normal geometry (n=397), concentric remodeling (n=89), eccentric hypertrophy (n=126), and concentric hypertrophy (n=53). Subclinical cerebrovascular disease was defined as silent brain infarcts (SBIs) and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV; expressed as log-transformed percentage of the total cranial volume). Silent brain infarcts were observed in 94 participants (14%). Mean log-WMHV was -0.97±0.93. Concentric hypertrophy carried the greatest risk for both SBI (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.39, P<.001) and upper quartile of log-WMHV (adjusted OR 3.35, P<.001), followed by eccentric hypertrophy (adjusted ORs 2.52 [P=.001 for SBI] and 1.96 [P=.004] for log-WMHV). Concentric remodeling was not associated with subclinical brain disease. In subgroup analyses, concentric and eccentric hypertrophies were significantly associated with SBI and WMHV in both genders and nonobese participants, but differed for SBI by age (all ages for eccentric hypertrophy, only patients ≥70years for concentric hypertrophy) and by race-ethnicity (Hispanics for eccentric hypertrophy, blacks for concentric hypertrophy; no association in whites). Left ventricular hypertrophy, with both eccentric and concentric patterns, was significantly associated with subclinical cerebrovascular disease in a multiethnic stroke-free general population. Left ventricular geometric patterns may carry different risks for silent cerebrovascular disease in different sex, age, race-ethnic, and body size subgroups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maaravi, Y; Raz, E; Gilon, D; Rubinow, A
A 26 year old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus, including malar rash, photosensitivity, and arthritis, developed a cerebrovascular accident and acute myocardial infarction. High titres to antinuclear factor, anti-DNA antibodies, positive Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test, and anticardiolipin antibodies were found in her serum. A possible association between the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies and the two major thrombotic events is discussed. PMID:2637695
Fazekas, Franz; Enzinger, Christian; Schmidt, Reinhold; Grittner, Ulrike; Giese, Anne-Katrin; Hennerici, Michael G; Huber, Roman; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J; Kaps, Manfred; Kessler, Christof; Martus, Peter; Putaala, Jukka; Ropele, Stefan; Tanislav, Christian; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Thijs, Vincent; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Norrving, Bo; Rolfs, Arndt
Fabry disease (FD) may cause stroke and is reportedly associated with typical brain findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In a large group of young patients with an acute cerebrovascular event, we wanted to test whether brain MRI findings can serve to suggest the presence of FD. The Stroke in Young Fabry Patients (SIFAP 1) study prospectively collected clinical, laboratory, and radiological data of 5023 patients (18-55 years) with an acute cerebrovascular event. Their MRI was interpreted centrally and blinded to all other information. Biochemical findings and genetic testing served to diagnose FD in 45 (0.9%) patients. We compared the imaging findings between FD and non-FD patients in patients with at least a T2-weighted MRI of good quality. A total of 3203 (63.8%) patients had the required MRI data set. Among those were 34 patients with a diagnosis of FD (1.1%), which was definite in 21 and probable in 13 cases. The median age of patients with FD was slightly lower (45 versus 46 years) and women prevailed (70.6% versus 40.7%; P<0.001). Presence or extent of white matter hyperintensities, infarct localization, vertebrobasilar artery dilatation, T1-signal hyperintensity of the pulvinar thalami, or any other MRI finding did not distinguish patients with FD from non-FD cerebrovascular event patients. Pulvinar hyperintensity was not present in a single patient with FD but seen in 6 non-FD patients. Brain MRI findings cannot serve to suspect FD in young patients presenting with an acute cerebrovascular event. This deserves consideration in the search for possible causes of young patients with stroke. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00414583. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Lu, Z Kevin; Li, Minghui; Yuan, Jing; Wu, Jun
The aim of this study is to assess whether diabetes mellitus is associated with overall dementia and its subtypes (Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia) among the elderly and to identify the role of cerebrovascular disease in the association between diabetes and dementia. In a retrospective cross-sectional study, 5160 community-dwelling and institutionalized Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or over without health maintenance organization enrollment from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey in 2010 were included. The International Classification of Diseases-9 codes were used to identify the outcome and independent variables from the Medicare claims. The key predictor was diabetes mellitus and the outcomes were overall dementia and its subtypes. Logistic regression was employed to assess the association between dementia and diabetes after adjusting for age, gender, race, education, income, smoking status, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. After adjusting for potential confounders, diabetes mellitus was significantly associated with overall dementia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-1.77), vascular dementia (OR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02-1.64), and Alzheimer's disease (OR = 1.51, 95% CI, 1.10-2.09). The OR decreased to 1.26 (95% CI, 1.01-1.58) for overall dementia, controlling for cerebrovascular disease. The associations between diabetes mellitus and vascular dementia (OR = 1.13, 95% CI, 0.89-1.44) and Alzheimer's disease (OR = 1.39, 95% CI, 1.00-1.92) were no longer statistically significant once cerebrovascular disease was controlled. The association between diabetes mellitus and dementia is only partially mediated through cerebrovascular disease, suggesting that diabetes mellitus is associated independently with overall dementia among the elderly, but not with vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Thrift, Amanda G; Howard, George; Cadilhac, Dominique A; Howard, Virginia J; Rothwell, Peter M; Thayabaranathan, Tharshanah; Feigin, Valery L; Norrving, Bo; Donnan, Geoffrey A
Background Current information on mortality attributed to stroke among different countries is important for policy development and monitoring prevention strategies. Unfortunately, mortality data reported to the World Health Organization by different countries are inconsistent. Aims and/or hypothesis To update the repository of the most recent country-specific data on mortality from stroke for countries that provide data using a broad code for "cerebrovascular disease." Methods Data on mortality from stroke were obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database. We searched for countries that provided data, since 1999, on a combined category of "cerebrovascular disease" (code 1609) that incorporated International Classification of Diseases (10th edition) codes I60-I69. Using population denominators provided by the World Health Organization for the same year when available, or alternatively estimates obtained from the United Nations, we calculated crude mortality from "cerebrovascular disease" and mortality adjusted to the World Health Organization world population. We used the most recent year reported to the World Health Organization, as well as comparing changes over time. Results Since 1999, seven countries have provided these mortality data. Among these countries, crude mortality was greatest in the Russian Federation (in 2011), Ukraine (2012), and Belarus (2011) and was greater in women than men in these countries. Crude mortality was positively correlated with the proportion of the population aged ≥65 years but not with time. Age-adjusted mortality was greatest in the Russian Federation and Turkmenistan, and greater in men than women. Over time, mortality declined, with the greatest decline per annum evident in Kazakhstan (8.7%) and the Russian Federation (7.0%). Conclusions Among countries that provided data to the World Health Organization using a broad category of "cerebrovascular disease," there was a decline in mortality in two of the
Pittella, José Eymard H; Duarte, Juliana Elias
To describe the prevalence and the types of cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) in autopsied elderly individuals. Consecutive clinical charts and neuropathological reports of 242 patients aged 61 years or older were reviewed. The patients died in Hospital das Clínicas, Federal University of Minas Gerais, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 1976 to 1997. The prevalent diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) found in decreasing order were: CVDs (71.9%), infections (12.4%), neoplasms (7.1%), head trauma (3.7%), nutritional diseases (2.5%) and degenerative diseases (1.7%). The most common CVDs were cerebral atherosclerosis (61.2%), hypertensive cerebrovascular disease (25.6%) and cerebral infarct (14.9%). There was an increase in prevalence and severity of atherosclerosis and an increase in prevalence of hypertensive cerebrovascular disease with advancing age. A significant association between hypertensive cerebrovascular disease and atherosclerosis was found. The CVDs patients had clinical stroke and this was the direct cause of death in 42,7% and 17,3% of the cases, respectively. The CVDs were the most prevalent group of diseases of the CNS in elderly patients. Atherosclerosis and hypertensive cerebrovascular disease were the most common CVDs, and its prevalence increased with advancing age. Hypertensive cerebrovascular disease was significantly associated with atherosclerosis.
Gauthier, Sebastien A; Sahoo, Susmita; Jung, Sonia S; Levy, Efrat
The use of murine cerebrovascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells has not been widely employed as a cell culture model for the investigation of cellular mechanisms involved in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Difficulties in isolation and propagation of murine cerebrovascular cells and insufficient yields for molecular and cell culture studies have deterred investigators from using mice as a source for cerebrovascular cells in culture. Instead, cerebrovascular cells from larger mammals are preferred and several methods describing the isolation of endothelial and smooth muscle cells from human, canine, rat, and guinea pig have been published. In recent years, several transgenic mouse lines showing CAA pathology have been established; consequently murine cerebrovascular cells derived from these animals can serve as a key cellular model to study CAA. Here, we describe a procedure for isolating murine microvessels that yields healthy smooth muscle and endothelial cell populations and produce sufficient material for experimental purposes. Murine smooth muscle cells isolated using this protocol exhibit the classic "hill and valley" morphology and are immunoreactive for the smooth muscle cell marker α-actin. Endothelial cells display a "cobblestone" pattern phenotype and show the characteristic immunostaining for the von Willebrand factor and the factor VIII-related antigen. In addition, we describe methods designed to preserve these cells by storage in liquid nitrogen and reestablishing viable cell cultures. Finally, we compare our methods with protocols designed to isolate and maintain human cerebrovascular cell cultures.
Smith, Eric E; Saposnik, Gustavo; Biessels, Geert Jan; Doubal, Fergus N; Fornage, Myriam; Gorelick, Philip B; Greenberg, Steven M; Higashida, Randall T; Kasner, Scott E; Seshadri, Sudha
Two decades of epidemiological research shows that silent cerebrovascular disease is common and is associated with future risk for stroke and dementia. It is the most common incidental finding on brain scans. To summarize evidence on the diagnosis and management of silent cerebrovascular disease to prevent stroke, the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association convened a writing committee to evaluate existing evidence, to discuss clinical considerations, and to offer suggestions for future research on stroke prevention in patients with 3 cardinal manifestations of silent cerebrovascular disease: silent brain infarcts, magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin, and cerebral microbleeds. The writing committee found strong evidence that silent cerebrovascular disease is a common problem of aging and that silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities are associated with future symptomatic stroke risk independently of other vascular risk factors. In patients with cerebral microbleeds, there was evidence of a modestly increased risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients treated with thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke but little prospective evidence on the risk of symptomatic hemorrhage in patients on anticoagulation. There were no randomized controlled trials targeted specifically to participants with silent cerebrovascular disease to prevent stroke. Primary stroke prevention is indicated in patients with silent brain infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, or microbleeds. Adoption of standard terms and definitions for silent cerebrovascular disease, as provided by prior American Heart Association/American Stroke Association statements and by a consensus group, may facilitate diagnosis and communication of findings from radiologists to clinicians.
Guo, Yu-Jiao; Wang, De-Wang; Meng, Ling; Wang, Yong-Qing
Several reports describing anaphylactic shock following treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with Chinese herbal injections were described. Our analysis of these reports showed that anaphylactic shock caused by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injections for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases is common but also sometimes fatal. Therefore, we proposed the following four suggestions for improving the clinical safety of delivering Chinese herbal injections and reducing the occurrence of allergic shock. First, patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are at high risk, so they should only be given TCM injections after a doctor's diagnosis and approval. Second, people in allergic groups can suffer anaphylactic shock, so vigilance is important in the treatment of all age groups, although even more caution should be exercised when treating children or elderly people. In fact, TCM injections may not be appropriate for those age groups, so that they should be carefully considered before treatment. Third, no significant gender differences have been noted in patients with anaphylactic shock, so all patients should be carefully monitored, irrespective of gender. Fourth, the timeframe in which different drugs cause anaphylactic shock varies; thus, patients should be observed as long as possible.
Guo, Yu-Jiao; Wang, De-Wang; Meng, Ling; Wang, Yong-Qing
Several reports describing anaphylactic shock following treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with Chinese herbal injections were described. Our analysis of these reports showed that anaphylactic shock caused by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injections for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases is common but also sometimes fatal. Therefore, we proposed the following four suggestions for improving the clinical safety of delivering Chinese herbal injections and reducing the occurrence of allergic shock. First, patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are at high risk, so they should only be given TCM injections after a doctor's diagnosis and approval. Second, people in allergic groups can suffer anaphylactic shock, so vigilance is important in the treatment of all age groups, although even more caution should be exercised when treating children or elderly people. In fact, TCM injections may not be appropriate for those age groups, so that they should be carefully considered before treatment. Third, no significant gender differences have been noted in patients with anaphylactic shock, so all patients should be carefully monitored, irrespective of gender. Fourth, the timeframe in which different drugs cause anaphylactic shock varies; thus, patients should be observed as long as possible. PMID:26000291
Accurate definition and better understanding of the mechanisms of stroke are crucial as this will guide the effective care and therapy. In this paper, we review the previous basic and clinical researches on the causes or mechanisms of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (ICVD) and interpret the correlation between embolism and hypoperfusion based on vascular stenosis and arterial intimal lesions. It was suggested that if there is no embolus (dynamic or in situ emboli), there might be no cerebral infarction. Three kinds of different clinical outcomes of TIA were theoretically interpreted based on its mechanisms. We suppose that there is a correlation between embolism and hypoperfusion, and which mechanisms (hypoperfusion or hypoperfusion induced microemboli) playing the dominant role in each type of ICVD depends on the unique background of arterial intimal lesions (the vulnerability of vessels). That is to say, the vulnerability of vessels is involved in the role of embolism and hypoperfusion in the mechanisms of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. This inference might enrich and provide better understandings for the underlying etiologies of ischemic cerebrovascular events. PMID:27314040
Zhang, Liyong; Xing, Tao; Geng, Fenyang; Du, Lixin; Wang, Jiyue
Along with the recent development of intraluminal interventional techniques and correlated imaging methods, one-stop hybrid operation has become a new focus in clinical settings. The aim of this study is to discuss the clinical significance of the one-stop hybrid endarterectomy surgery in the treatment of complex ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. In this study, clinical data from 10 patients with complex ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (including multi-vessel severe stenosis of the internal extracranial carotid artery, single vessel series stenosis of the internal extracranial carotid artery, in-stent restenosis, complete occlusion of the common carotid or the internal carotid artery) admitted to Beijing Xuanwu Hospital and Liaocheng Brain Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. All enrolled subjects underwent three types of hybrid operations. The clinical efficacy of this surgery was subsequently assessed in this clinical trial. The results indicated that no related surgical complications were noted during the perioperative period. Intraoperative and postoperative imaging revealed no signs of vascular stenosis, the blood supply recovered, and clinical symptoms were alleviated. The follow-up lasted for 6 to 12 months. Imaging re-examination showed no evidence of re-stenosis and good blood circulation was present in the recanalized blood vessels. Favorable treatment efficacy was achieved. The intracranial blood supply was significantly improved postoperatively. In conclusion, one-stop hybrid operation plays an important role in treating complex stenosis cerebrovascular diseases. PMID:25197423
Kulick, Erin R; Wellenius, Gregory A; Kaufman, Joel D; DeRosa, Janet T; Kinney, Patrick L; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Wright, Clinton B; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S
Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. We hypothesized that long-term exposure to air pollution would be associated with magnetic resonance imaging markers of subclinical cerebrovascular disease. Participants were 1075 stroke-free individuals aged ≥50 years drawn from the magnetic resonance imaging subcohort of the Northern Manhattan Study who had lived at the same residence for at least 2 years before magnetic resonance imaging. Cross-sectional associations between ambient air pollution and subclinical cerebrovascular disease were analyzed. We found an association between distance to roadway, a proxy for residential exposure to traffic pollution, and white matter hyperintensity volume; however, after adjusting for risk factors, this relationship was no longer present. All other associations between pollutant measures and white matter hyperintensity volume were null. There was no clear association between exposure to air pollutants and subclinical brain infarcts or total cerebral brain volume. We found no evidence that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is independently associated with subclinical cerebrovascular disease in an urban population-based cohort. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Oshima, Marie; Torii, Ryo; Tokuda, Shigefumi; Yamada, Shigeki; Koizumi, Akio
To develop a targeted drug delivery system for cerebrovascular disorders such as stroke, it is important to obtain detailed information on flow rates and hemodynamics of the human cerebrovascular system for individual patients. A patient-specific integrated numerical simulation system has been developed by the authors such that vascular geometry is constructed from medical images such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) data, and computational conditions are modeled mathematically to represent the realistic in vivo environments. In general, the three-dimensional numerical simulation using a patient-specific model is conducted only for a localized diseased region with atherosclerosis or an aneurysm. Although the analysis region is only a part of the circulatory system, the simulation should include the effects from the entire circulatory system. Since the peripheral network determines the flow distributions in the cerebrovascular system, the paper reviews the recent simulation methods to take into account the network by coupling the image-based three-dimensional simulation with a one- and zero-dimensional simulations as an outflow boundary condition The paper shows the mathematical modeling of the multi-scale outflow boundary condition and its applications to patient- specific models of the arterial circle of Willis. The results are compared to those using the conventional, free-stream boundary condition. As a result, the multi-scale outflow boundary condition shows a significant difference in flow rate of each artery and in flow distribution in the arterial circle of Willis.
Kim, Gab Seok; Yang, Li; Zhang, Guoqi; Zhao, Honggang; Selim, Magdy; McCullough, Louise D.; Kluk, Michael J.; Sanchez, Teresa
The use and effectiveness of current stroke reperfusion therapies are limited by the complications of reperfusion injury, which include increased cerebrovascular permeability and haemorrhagic transformation. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is emerging as a potent modulator of vascular integrity via its receptors (S1PR). By using genetic approaches and a S1PR2 antagonist (JTE013), here we show that S1PR2 plays a critical role in the induction of cerebrovascular permeability, development of intracerebral haemorrhage and neurovascular injury in experimental stroke. In addition, inhibition of S1PR2 results in decreased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity in vivo and lower gelatinase activity in cerebral microvessels. S1PR2 immunopositivity is detected only in the ischemic microvessels of wild-type mice and in the cerebrovascular endothelium of human brain autopsy samples. In vitro, S1PR2 potently regulates the responses of the brain endothelium to ischaemic and inflammatory injury. Therapeutic targeting of this novel pathway could have important translational relevance to stroke patients. PMID:26243335
Crowson, Cynthia S.; Makol, Ashima; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Saitta, Antonino; Salvarani, Carlo; Matteson, Eric L.; Warrington, Kenneth J.
Objective To investigate the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and cerebrovascular events in a community-based incidence cohort of patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) compared to the general population. Methods A population-based inception cohort of patients with incident GCA between January 1, 1950 and December 31, 2009 in Olmsted County, Minnesota and a cohort of non-GCA subjects from the same population were assembled and followed until December 31, 2013. Confirmed VTE and cerebrovascular events were identified through direct medical record review. Results The study population included 244 patients with GCA with a mean ± SD age at diagnosis of 76.2 ± 8.2 years (79% women) and an average length of follow-up of 10.2 ± 6.8 years. Compared to non-GCA subjects of similar age and sex, patients diagnosed with GCA had a higher incidence (%) of amaurosis fugax (cumulative incidence ± SE: 2.1 ± 0.9 versus 0, respectively; p = 0.014) but similar rates of stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and VTE. Among patients with GCA, neither baseline characteristics nor laboratory parameters at diagnosis reliably predicted risk of VTE or cerebrovascular events. Conclusion In this population-based study, the incidence of VTE, stroke and TIA was similar in patients with GCA compared to non-GCA subjects. PMID:26901431
Durgan, David J; Crossland, Randy F; Lloyd, Eric E; Phillips, Sharon C; Bryan, Robert M
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cerebrovascular diseases. However, little is known regarding the effects of OSA on the cerebrovascular wall. We tested the hypothesis that OSA augments endothelin-1 (ET-1) constrictions of cerebral arteries. Repeated apneas (30 or 60 per hour) were produced in rats during the sleep cycle (8 hours) by remotely inflating a balloon implanted in the trachea. Four weeks of apneas produced a 23-fold increase in ET-1 sensitivity in isolated and pressurized posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) compared with PCAs from sham-operated rats (EC50=10−9.2 mol/L versus 10−10.6 mol/L; P<0.001). This increased sensitivity was abolished by the ET-B receptor antagonist, BQ-788. Constrictions to the ET-B receptor agonist, IRL-1620, were greater in PCAs from rats after 2 or 4 weeks of apneas compared with that from sham-operated rats (P=0.013). Increased IRL-1620 constrictions in PCAs from OSA rats were normalized with the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) blocker, SKF96365, or the Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, Y27632. These data show that OSA increases the sensitivity of PCAs to ET-1 through enhanced ET-B activity, and enhanced activity of TRPCs and ROCK. We conclude that enhanced ET-1 signaling is part of a pathologic mechanism associated with adverse cerebrovascular outcomes of OSA. PMID:25425077
Kraft, Peter; Drechsler, Christiane; Gunreben, Ignaz; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Stoll, Guido; Heuschmann, Peter Ulrich; Kleinschnitz, Christoph
Background and Purpose In animal models, von Willebrand factor (VWF) is involved in thrombus formation and propagation of ischemic stroke. However, the pathophysiological relevance of this molecule in humans, and its potential use as a biomarker for the risk and severity of ischemic stroke remains unclear. This study had two aims: to identify predictors of altered VWF levels and to examine whether VWF levels differ between acute cerebrovascular events and chronic cerebrovascular disease (CCD). Methods A case–control study was undertaken between 2010 and 2013 at our University clinic. In total, 116 patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transitory ischemic attack (TIA), 117 patients with CCD, and 104 healthy volunteers (HV) were included. Blood was taken at days 0, 1, and 3 in patients with AIS or TIA, and once in CCD patients and HV. VWF serum levels were measured and correlated with demographic and clinical parameters by multivariate linear regression and ANOVA. Results Patients with CCD (158±46%) had significantly higher VWF levels than HV (113±36%, P<0.001), but lower levels than AIS/TIA patients (200±95%, P<0.001). Age, sex, and stroke severity influenced VWF levels (P<0.05). Conclusions VWF levels differed across disease subtypes and patient characteristics. Our study confirms increased VWF levels as a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease and, moreover, suggests that it may represent a potential biomarker for stroke severity, warranting further investigation. PMID:24937073
Dittmar, Michael S; Vatankhah, Bijan; Fehm, Nando P; Schuierer, Gerhard; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Horn, Markus; Schlachetzki, Felix
Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in Fischer-344 rats results in a small variance of infarct size. However, complications are frequent especially in aged Fisher-344 rats undergoing endovascular suture occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Analyzing our experiences with 165 Wistar, 13 Sprague-Dawley and 10 F-344 rats, we compared the incidence of impossible thread advancement and subarachnoid hemorrhage, respectively. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was applied to study the course of the internal carotid artery (ICA) in Fischer and Wistar rats. Finally, we performed a structured review of the literature from 1991 to 2005 evaluating reports on Fischer rats subjected to intraluminal filament MCAO. Complications like fruitless filament advancement or subarachnoid hemorrhage were found to be significantly more frequent in Fischer rats than in other strains. MRA revealed significantly more pronounced kinking of the ICA in F-344 than in Wistar rats. In seven publications available on filament MCAO in F-344 rats, complication rates of 50-100% were reported, corroborating our data. Surgical difficulties accompanied by high complication rates due to their cerebrovascular anatomy make Fischer rats unsuitable for filament MCAO. If the use of Fischer rats for studies on focal cerebral ischemia is indicated, other ischemia models than intraluminal suture occlusion should be chosen.
Fornaro, Michele; Solmi, Marco; Veronese, Nicola; De Berardis, Domenico; Buonaguro, Elisabetta Filomena; Tomasetti, Carmine; Perna, Giampaolo; Preti, Antonio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni
Cardio-vascular diseases (CVDs) and CVD-related disorders (including cerebrovascular diseases; CBVDs) are a major public health concern as they represent the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developed countries. Patients with CVDs and CBVDs co-morbid with mood disorders, especially bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), suffer reduced quality-of-life and significant disability adjusted for years of life and mortality. The relationship between CVDs/CBVDs and mood disorders is likely to be bidirectional. Evidence for shared genetic risk of pathways involved in stress reaction, serotonin or dopamine signalling, circadian rhythms, and energy balance was reported in genome-wide association studies. There is some evidence of a neuroprotective effect of various antidepressants, which may be boosted by physical exercise, especially by aerobic ones. Patients with CVDs/CBVDs should be routinely attentively evaluated for the presence of mood disorders, with tools aimed at detecting both symptoms of depression and of hypomania/mania. Behavioural lifestyle interventions targeting nutrition and exercise, coping strategies, and attitudes towards health should be routinely provided to patients with mood disorders, to prevent the risk of CVDs/CBVDs. A narrative review of the evidence is herein provided, focusing on pharmacological and physical therapy interventions.
Talebi, Hossein; Moossavi, Abdollah; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat
Background: Older adults with cerebrovascular accident (CVA) show evidence of auditory and speech perception problems. In present study, it was examined whether these problems are due to impairments of concurrent auditory segregation procedure which is the basic level of auditory scene analysis and auditory organization in auditory scenes with competing sounds. Methods: Concurrent auditory segregation using competing sentence test (CST) and dichotic digits test (DDT) was assessed and compared in 30 male older adults (15 normal and 15 cases with right hemisphere CVA) in the same age groups (60-75 years old). For the CST, participants were presented with target message in one ear and competing message in the other one. The task was to listen to target sentence and repeat back without attention to competing sentence. For the DDT, auditory stimuli were monosyllabic digits presented dichotically and the task was to repeat those. Results: Comparing mean score of CST and DDT between CVA patients with right hemisphere impairment and normal participants showed statistically significant difference (p=0.001 for CST and p<0.0001 for DDT). Conclusion: The present study revealed that abnormal CST and DDT scores of participants with right hemisphere CVA could be related to concurrent segregation difficulties. These findings suggest that low level segregation mechanisms and/or high level attention mechanisms might contribute to the problems. PMID:25679009
Tomimoto, H; Akiguchi, I; Wakita, H; Kinoshita, A; Ikemoto, A; Nakamura, S; Kimura, J
We examined the immunohistochemical localization of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, lymphotoxin and interferon-gamma in 22 autopsy brains of patients with either cerebrovascular disease (CVD) or other neurological diseases as well as 2 non-neurological control brains. These cytokines were coexpressed mostly in the microglia/macrophages and in a few astroglia in the brains with acute cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage. In cases with cerebral infarction, they were observed as early as 33 h after the onset of the illness and persisted for up to 40 days after the onset. In one patient with cerebral hemorrhage who survived for 4 h, the cytokine-immunoreactive glial cells were confined to the margins of the hematoma. In contrast, the cytokine-immunoreactive glia were distributed diffusely in one patient with cerebral hemorrhage who died 12 days after the onset of the illness. Labeling for these cytokines was weak in the glial cells of control brains and those with neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy, in so far as there were no concomitant acute CVD foci. The present results indicate that proinflammatory cytokines are up-regulated in the brains of patients with acute stroke, and suggest an early inflammatory response in human CVD.
Cuellar, Trajan A; Lottenberg, Lawrence; Moore, Frederick A
Contact sports have long been a part of human existence. The two earliest recorded organized contact games, both of which still exist, include Royal Shrovetide Football played since the 12(th) century in England and Caid played since 1308 AD in Ireland. Rugby is the premier contact sport played throughout the world with the very popular derivative American football being the premier contact sport of the North American continent. American football in the USA has on average 1,205,037 players at the high school and collegiate level per year while rugby in the USA boasts a playing enrollment of 457,983 at all levels. Recent media have highlighted injury in the context of competitive contact sports including their long-term sequelae such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) that had previously been underappreciated. Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) has become a recognized injury pattern for trauma; however, a paucity of data regarding this injury can be found in the sports trauma literature. We present a case of an international level scrum-half playing Rugby Union at club level for a local non-professional team, in which a player sustained a fatal BCVI followed by a discussion of the literature surrounding sport related BCVI.
Meairs, S; Beyer, J; Hennerici, M
Although recent studies have demonstrated the potential value of compounded data for improvement in signal-to-noise ratio and speckle contrast for three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasonography, clinical applications are lacking. We investigated the potential of six degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) scanhead position and orientation measurement (POM) devices for registration of in vivo multiplanar, irregularly sampled ultrasound (US) images to a regular 3-D volume space. The results demonstrate that accurate spatial and temporal registration of four-dimensional (4-D) US data can be achieved using a 6-DOF scanhead tracking system. For reconstruction of arbitrary, irregularly sampled US data, we introduce a technique based upon a weighted, ellipsoid Gaussian convolution kernel. Volume renderings of 3-D and 4-D compounded in vivo US data are presented. The results, although restricted to the field of cerebrovascular disease, will be of value to other applications of 3-D sonography, particularly those in which compounding of data through irregular sampling may provide superior information on tissue or vessel structure.
Brugniaux, Julien V; Marley, Christopher J; Hodson, Danielle A; New, Karl J; Bailey, Damian M
Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness improves resting cerebral perfusion, although to what extent this is further amplified during acute exposure to exercise stress and the corresponding implications for cerebral oxygenation remain unknown. To examine this, we recruited 12 moderately active and 12 sedentary healthy males. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) and prefrontal cortical oxyhemoglobin (cO(2)Hb) concentration were monitored continuously at rest and throughout an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. Despite a subtle elevation in the maximal oxygen uptake (active: 52±9 ml/kg per minute versus sedentary: 33±5 ml/kg per minute, P<0.05), resting MCAv was not different between groups. However, more marked increases in both MCAv (+28±13% versus +18±6%, P<0.05) and cO(2)Hb (+5±4% versus -2±3%, P<0.05) were observed in the active group during the transition from low- to moderate-intensity exercise. Collectively, these findings indicate that the long-term benefits associated with moderate increase in physical activity are not observed in the resting state and only become apparent when the cerebrovasculature is challenged by acute exertional stress. This has important clinical implications when assessing the true extent of cerebrovascular adaptation.
Diamond, Solomon Gilbert; Perdue, Katherine L.; Boas, David A.
Functional neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to isolate an evoked response to a stimulus from significant background physiological fluctuations. Data analysis approaches typically use averaging or linear regression to remove this physiological baseline with varying degrees of success. Biophysical model-based analysis of the functional hemodynamic response has also been advanced previously with the Balloon and Windkessel models. In the present work, a biophysical model of systemic and cerebral circulation and gas exchange is applied to resting state NIRS neuroimaging data from 10 human subjects. The model further includes dynamic cerebral autoregulation, which modulates the cerebral arteriole compliance to control cerebral blood flow. This biophysical model allows for prediction, from noninvasive blood pressure measurements, of the background hemodynamic fluctuations in the systemic and cerebral circulations. Significantly higher correlations with the NIRS data were found using the biophysical model predictions compared to blood pressure regression and compared to transfer function analysis (multifactor ANOVA, p<0.0001). This finding supports the further development and use of biophysical models for removing baseline activity in functional neuroimaging analysis. Future extensions of this work could model changes in cerebrovascular physiology that occur during development, aging and disease. PMID:19442671
Wang, Hui; Sun, Wei; Ji, Yue; Shi, Jing; Xuan, Qinkao; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xiao, Junjie; Kong, Xiangqing
Although the mortality of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has been steadily declined in the European Union (EU), CVD remains among the major causes of death in EU. As risk factors such asobesity and diabetes mellitus are increasing, the trends of European CVD mortality remains unknown. To understand the variation in CVD mortality of different EU countries, we studied the trends in CVD mortality in EU countries over the last three decades between males and females. Age- and sex-specific mortality rates between 1980 and 2011 were calculated by data from the WHO mortality database. Joinpoint software was used to calculate annual percentage changes and to characterize trends in mortality rates over time. Our study showed that between 1980 and 2011, CVD mortality significantly decreased in both men and women across all age groups. The specific mortality trends varied largely between EU countries. The plateau trend was observed in little regions at different age groups, however, the EU as a whole displayed declined trend CVD mortality. During the last three decades, CVD mortality decreased substantially in the entire population of EU. However, despite this overall decline in CVD mortality, several areas were identified as having no change in their CVD mortality rates at different period. The whole EU needs to establish strict prevention measures toreduce the incidence of CVD risk factors. PMID:25550927
Friedler, Brett; Crapser, Joshua; McCullough, Louise
The deleterious effects of chronic social isolation (SI) have been recognized for several decades. Isolation is a major source of psychosocial stress and is associated with an increased prevalence of vascular and neurological diseases. In addition, isolation exacerbates morbidity and mortality following acute injuries such as stroke or myocardial infarction. In contrast, affiliative social interactions can improve organismal function and health. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Recently, results from large epidemiological trials and pre-clinical studies have revealed several potential mediators of the detrimental effects of isolation. At least three major biological systems have been implicated: the neuroendocrine (HPA) axis, the immune system, and the autonomic nervous system. This review summarizes studies examining the relationship between isolation and mortality and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying SI. Cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and neurological diseases including atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease are given special emphasis in the context of SI. Sex differences are highlighted and studies are separated into clinical and basic science for clarity.
Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Sokolovski, S. G.; Goltsov, A.; Gekaluyk, A. S.; Saranceva, E. I.; Bragina, O. A.; Tuchin, V. V.; Rafailov, E. U.
For over 55 years, laser technology has expanded from laboratory research to widespread fields, for example telecommunication and data storage amongst others. Recently application of lasers in biology and medicine presents itself as one of the emerging areas. In this review, we will outline the recent advances in using lasers for the generation of singlet oxygen, traditionally used to kill tumour cells or induce thrombotic stroke model due to damage vascular effects. Over the last two decade, completely new results on cerebrovascular effects of singlet oxygen generated during photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been shown alongside promising applications for delivery of drugs and nanoparticles into the brain for therapy of brain cancer. Furthermore, a ;gold key; has been found to overcome the limitations of PDT, such as low light penetration and high toxicity of photosensitizers, by direct generation of singlet oxygen using quantum-dot laser diodes emitting in the near infrared (NIR) spectral range. It is our motivation to highlight these pioneering results in this review, to improve understanding of the biological role of singlet oxygen and to provide new perspectives for improving clinical application of laser based therapy in further research.
Cayuela-Domínguez, A; Rodríguez-Domínguez, S; Iglesias-Bonilla, P; Mir-Rivera, P; Martínez-Fernández, E
In previous publications we analysed the tendency of mortality from cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) in Andalusia over the period 1975-1992, and we observed a marked decrease in the mortality rates in both sexes. AIMS. To describe the evolution of mortality from CVD in Andalusia throughout the period 1975-1999. Deaths from CVD over the period 1975 1999 were obtained from the Instituto Andaluz de Estadística. We employed the direct method of standardisation of rates (world standard population). The rates were subjected to logarithmic transformations and the regression lines were adjusted. A considerable decrease was found in the rates: 3.9% in males and 4.0% in females. The drop in truncated rates (35 64 years old) was greater in women ( 5.9%) than in men ( 4.3%). Our work shows a marked and continuous decrease in mortality from CVD in Andalusia (1975-1999). In accordance with the process of aging of the population, the magnitude of CVD measured in terms of deaths, invalidity and health costs still represents a great challenge for preventative and health care policies.
Evans-Meza, Ronald; Pérez-Fallas, José; Bonilla-Carrión, Roger
To analyze the trend in mortality from cerebrovascular diseases in Costa Rica and its impact on overall mortality from 1920 to 2009. Crude rates by triennium and quinquennium were obtained. We also obtanied age standardized rates in the age group 35-74 years during the period 1970-2009. Finally we got the death percentage from stroke in relation to overall mortality. The trend for the period 1920-1969 was to the upside (r=0.82, r(2)=0.67, betha 0.30; P≤0.00) whereas for the period 1970 occurred otherwise (r=0.42, r(2)=0.18, betha -0064; P=0.01). Adjusted for the group 35-74 years between 1970-2009 rates decreased by 58.03% was statistically significant trend for both sexes; men r2=0.94, betha: -0.73; women: r2=0.97, betha: 0.95. The maximum percentage of mortality from stroke in relation to the overall mortality was 7.22 in the period 1985-1989 reached down to 5.92% in 2005-2009. In the Latin American context, stroke mortality rates in Costa Rica are low but still represent a serious public health problem by the high mortality, morbidity and disability that they cause, despite a downward trend. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Contact sports have long been a part of human existence. The two earliest recorded organized contact games, both of which still exist, include Royal Shrovetide Football played since the 12th century in England and Caid played since 1308 AD in Ireland. Rugby is the premier contact sport played throughout the world with the very popular derivative American football being the premier contact sport of the North American continent. American football in the USA has on average 1,205,037 players at the high school and collegiate level per year while rugby in the USA boasts a playing enrollment of 457,983 at all levels. Recent media have highlighted injury in the context of competitive contact sports including their long-term sequelae such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) that had previously been underappreciated. Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) has become a recognized injury pattern for trauma; however, a paucity of data regarding this injury can be found in the sports trauma literature. We present a case of an international level scrum-half playing Rugby Union at club level for a local non-professional team, in which a player sustained a fatal BCVI followed by a discussion of the literature surrounding sport related BCVI. PMID:24872841
Yau, Po Lai; Ross, Naima; Tirsi, Andrew; Arif, Arslan; Ozinci, Zeynep; Convit, Antonio
To investigate in adolescents the relationships between retinal vessel diameter, physical fitness, insulin sensitivity, and systemic inflammation. We evaluated 157 adolescents, 112 with excessive weight and 45 lean, all without type 2 diabetes mellitus. All received detailed evaluations, including measurements of retinal vessel diameter, insulin sensitivity, levels of inflammation, and physical fitness. Overweight/obese adolescents had significantly narrower retinal arteriolar and wider venular diameters, significantly lower insulin sensitivity, and physical fitness. They also had decreased levels of anti-inflammatory and increased levels of proinflammatory markers as well as an overall higher inflammation balance score. Fitness was associated with larger retinal arteriolar and narrower venular diameters and these relationships were mediated by insulin sensitivity. We demonstrate that inflammation also mediates the relationship between fitness and retinal venular, but not arterial diameter; insulin sensitivity and inflammation balance score jointly mediate this relationship with little overlap in their effects. Increasing fitness and insulin sensitivity and reducing inflammation among adolescents carrying excess weight may improve microvascular integrity. Interventions to improve physical fitness and insulin function and reduce inflammation in adolescents, a group likely to benefit from such interventions, may reduce not only cardiovascular disease in middle age, but also improve cerebrovascular function later in life.
Ryan, Clodagh M; Battisti-Charbonney, Anne; Sobczyk, Olivia; Mikulis, David J; Duffin, James; Fisher, Joseph A; Venkatraghavan, Lashmi
Both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and altered cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) are associated with increased stroke risk. Nevertheless, the incidence of abnormal CVR in patients with OSA is uncertain due to the high variability in the way CVR is measured both within and between studies. We hypothesized that a standardized CVR with a consistent vasoactive stimulus and cerebral blood flow (CBF) measure would be reduced in patients with severe OSA compared with healthy controls. This was a prospective study in which subjects with and without OSA were administered a standardized hypercapnic stimulus, and CBF was monitored by blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance signal changes, a high space and time resolved surrogate for CBF. Twenty-four subjects with OSA (mean age 45.9 years, apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] 26.8 per hour) and 6 control subjects (mean age 42.8 years, AHI 2.4 per hour) were included. Compared with controls, subjects with OSA had a significantly greater whole brain (.1565 versus .1094, P = .013), gray matter (.2077 versus .1423, P = .009), and white matter (.1109 versus .0768, P = .024) CVR, respectively. Contrary to expectations, subjects with OSA had greater CVR compared with control subjects. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Yufen; Parrish, Todd B.
The blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal is dependent on multiple physiological factors such as cerebral blood flow (CBF), local oxygen metabolism (CMRO2) and cerebral blood volume (CBV). Since caffeine affects both CBF and neural activity, its effects on BOLD remain controversial. The calibrated BOLD approach is an excellent tool to study caffeine because it combines CBF and BOLD measures to estimate changes in CMRO2. The present study used the calibrated BOLD approach with 5% CO2 to determine if a 2.5mg/kg intravenous injection of caffeine changes the coupling between CBF and CMRO2 during motor and visual tasks. The results show that caffeine decreases n, the CBF:CMRO2 coupling ratio, from 2.58 to 2.33 in motor (p=0.006) and from 2.45 to 2.23 in visual (p=0.002) areas respectively. The current study also demonstrated that caffeine does not alter cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2. These results highlight the importance of the calibrated BOLD approach in improving interpretation of the BOLD signal in the presence of substances like caffeine. PMID:19000770
Cayuela, A; Cayuela, L; Escudero-Martínez, I; Rodríguez-Domínguez, S; González, A; Moniche, F; Jiménez, M D; Montaner, J
In recent decades, mortality rates for cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) have declined significantly in many countries. This study analyses changes in CVD mortality rates in Spain (1980-2011) to determine if previously observed trends remain. Data on CVD mortality rates and the population data needed for the analysis were provided by Spain's National Statistics Institute. We calculated age-specific mortality rate, age-standardised overall mortality, and age-truncated mortality (35-64 years) using the direct method and standard European population structure. Joinpoint analysis was used to estimate the percentage of annual change in rates and identify significant changes in trends. CVD mortality rate decreased considerably and continuously over the last 32 years in all age groups and in both sexes in Spain. For both sexes, joinpoint analysis identifies a final period with more marked decline: 2005-2011 in women (-6.3%) and 2007-2011 in men (-7.2%). CVD mortality rates displayed a marked and continuous decline in Spain between 1980 and 2011. Due to the ageing of the population, doctors expect an increase in CVD prevalence and therefore its magnitude in terms of disability and healthcare costs, which poses a challenge to our health system. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Yoon, SeongHun; Zuccarello, Mario; Rapoport, Robert M
This study investigated the involvement of sensory nerves and, in particular, neuronal transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 1 channels, in the CO(2)-mediated regulation of cerebrovascular tone. Basilar artery diameter and blood flow velocity in the ventral midbrain were determined in a rat cranial window preparation by digital imaging and laser-Doppler flowmetry, respectively. Superfusion of the basilar artery with capsaicin, a selective TRPV1 receptor agonist, caused a transient relaxation, consistent with acute desensitization of neuronal TRPV1 channels. Constriction to respiratory hypocapnia remained unaffected following capsaicin superfusion. Denervation of sensory nerves by repeated capsaicin injection of neonates also did not reduce the respiratory hypocapnia constriction of the basilar artery as well as the decreased flow velocity in the ventral midbrain in adults. These findings suggest that sensory nerves and, in particular, neuronal TRPV1 channels, do not play a role in respiratory hypocapnia constriction and decreased flow, at least in rat basilar artery and ventral midbrain. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Lee, Young-Hoon; Lee, Kun Sei; Jeong, Hyo Seon; Ahn, Hye Mi; Oh, Gyung-Jae
Background This study investigates the perception of the general public regarding the concentration to metropolitan, hospitals of cardiac and cerebrovascular surgeries, and the perceived public need for government policies to resolve this issue. Methods A total of 800 participants were recruited for our telephone interview survey. Quota sampling was performed, adjusting for age and sex, to select by various geographic regions. Sampling with random digit dialing was performed; we called the randomly generated telephone numbers and made three attempts for non-responders before moving on to a different telephone number. Results Our sample population was 818 participants, 401 men (49.0%) and 417 women (51.0%). Our data showed that 85.5% of participants thought that cardiac surgery and neurosurgery patients are concentrated in large hospitals in Seoul. The principle reason for regional patients to want to receive surgery at major hospitals in Seoul was because of poor medical standards associated with regional hospitals (87.7%). We found that a vast majority of participants (97.5%) felt that government policies are needed to even out the clustering of cardiac surgery and neurosurgery patients, and that this clustering may be alleviated if policies that can specifically enhance the quality and the capacity of regional hospitals to carry out surgeries are adopted (98.3%). Conclusion Government policy making must reflect public desiderata, and we suggest that these public health needs may be partially resolved through government-designated cardiac and neurosurgery specialist hospitals in regional areas. PMID:28035297
Tancredi, F B; Girouard, H; Hoge, R D
Increases in blood osmolarity have been shown to exert a vasodilatory effect on cerebral and other vasculature, with accompanying increases in blood flow. It has also been shown that, through an influence on blood concentration of the bicarbonate ion and pH, changes in blood levels of CO2 can alter blood osmolarity sufficiently to have an impact on vessel diameter. We propose here that this phenomenon plays a previously unappreciated role in CO2-mediated vasodilation, and present a biophysical model of osmotically driven vasodilation. Our model, which is based on literature data describing CO2-dependent changes in blood osmolarity and hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of the blood-brain barrier, is used to predict the change in cerebral blood flow (CBF) associated with osmotic forces arising from a specific hypercapnic challenge. Modeled changes were then compared with actual CBF changes determined using arterial spin-labeling (ASL) MRI. For changes in the arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) of 20 mmHg, our model predicted increases of 80% from baseline CBF with a temporal evolution that was comparable to the measured hemodynamic responses. Our modeling results suggest that osmotic forces could play a significant role in the cerebrovascular response to CO2.
Goldman, H; Hodgson, V; Morehead, M; Hazlett, J; Murphy, S
We have developed and tested a rat (Wistar) model of moderate concussion. Concussion is produced by controlled and repeatable mechanical fixed, closed-head injury. Moderate concussion in this model is characterized by 4 to 10 minutes of unconsciousness, absence of skull fractures or brain contusions, and few, if any, acute neurologic symptoms. By 2 hours postinjury, the subsequent trauma is further characterized by regional and global increases in cerebrovascular permeability and decreases in cerebral blood flow. Such changes are accompanied by brain swelling and two phases of elevated intracranial pressure; one lasting about 5 hours with a peak of about 10 mmHg, the other lasting more than 3 days postinjury with a peak of about 30 mmHg. Regional neurohistologic damage detected between 3 and 4 days postinjury correlates for the most part with earlier changes in regional permeability and blood flow. Significant morphologic changes which are characterized by patchy neuronal degeneration can be found in numerous forebrain locations, particularly in the frontal (coup) and entorhinal (contre coup) cortices. These observations have important parallels in human head trauma and suggest that this reliable physiological model may be a useful, relatively simple and inexpensive tool for investigating the mechanisms and therapeutics of head trauma.
Keller, I; Schlenker, A; Pigache, R M
According to clinical experience a frequent consequence of head injury is an impairment of auditory attention. We investigated the possibility that patients with either closed head injuries (CHI), or cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) of the right hemisphere, would be impaired by comparison to healthy subjects on an objective test of auditory attention. We used an experimental paradigm that consisted of four subtests which comprised strings of auditory digits heard either diotically or dichotically, at either fast or slow presentation rates, respectively. Omission and commission errors were scored for each subtest and combined by an index of errors. The results showed that CHI patients were significantly impaired initially by the fast stimulus presentation conditions, whereas CVA patients made significantly more errors on the dichotic subtests independent of the speed of presentation. It is proposed that the observed selective attention deficits of these patients were due to differential disruptions of an interactive cortical network incorporating prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and temporoparietal structures of the right hemisphere. Statistically significant correlations between the error index scores and subjectively perceived attention deficits suggested that the auditory attention task measured clinically relevant aspects of attention.
Yezhuvath, Uma S.; Uh, Jinsoo; Cheng, Yamei; Martin-Cook, Kristin; Weiner, Myron; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; van Osch, Matthias; Lu, Hanzhang
Epidemiologic evidence and postmortem studies of cerebral amyloid angiopathy suggest that vascular dysfunction may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). However, alterations in vascular function under in vivo conditions are poorly understood. In this study, we assessed cerebrovascular-reactivity (CVR) in AD patients and age-matched controls using CO2-inhalation while simultaneously acquiring Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) MR images. Compared to controls, AD patients had widespread reduction in CVR in the rostral brain including prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and insular cortex (p<0.01). The deficits could not be explained by cardiovascular risk factors. The spatial distribution of the CVR deficits differed drastically from the regions of cerebral blood flow (CBF) deficits, which were found in temporal and parietal cortices. Individuals with greater CVR deficit tended to have a greater volume of leukoaraiosis as seen on FLAIR MRI (p=0.004). Our data suggest that early AD subjects have evidence of significant forebrain vascular contractility deficits. The localization, while differing from CBF findings, appears to be spatially similar to PIB amyloid imaging findings. PMID:20359779
Donnelly, Joseph; Czosnyka, Marek; Sudhan, Nazneen; Varsos, Georgios V; Nasr, Nathalie; Jalloh, Ibrahim; Liu, Xiuyun; Dias, Celeste; Sekhon, Mypinder S; Carpenter, Keri L H; Menon, David K; Hutchinson, Peter J; Smielewski, Peter
Increased blood glucose and impaired pressure reactivity (PRx) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are both known to correlate with unfavorable patient outcome. However, the relationship between these two variables is unknown. To test the hypothesis that increased blood glucose leads to increased PRx, we retrospectively analyzed data from 86 traumatic brain injured patients admitted to the Neurocritical Care Unit. Data analyzed included arterial glucose concentration, intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and end-tidal CO2. PRx was calculated as the moving correlation coefficient between averaged (10 seconds) arterial blood pressure and ICP. One arterial glucose concentration and one time-aligned PRx value were obtained for each patient, during each day until the fifth day after ictus. Mean arterial glucose concentrations during the first 5 days since ictus were positively correlated with mean PRx (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.25, p = 0.02). The correlation was strongest on the first day after injury (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.47, p = 0.008). Our preliminary findings indicate that increased blood glucose may impair cerebrovascular reactivity, potentially contributing to a mechanistic link between increased blood glucose and poorer outcome after TBI.
Sayama, I; Fukasawa, H; Yasui, N; Suzuki, A
A 53-year-old, non-hypertensive farmer, who had sudden attack of severe headache, was transferred to our clinic. He presented comatous state and tetraparesis without extraocular movements nor reactive pupils to light. CT scan, 7 hours after the ictus showed intracerebral hematoma in the right temporo-parietal region with ventricular extension. The following bilateral carotid angiograms established the diagnosis of the intracerebral hemorrhage due to cerebrovascular moyamoya disease. In angiograms of the affected side, irregular spotty stains spread from the periphei of the right posterior choroidal artery was delineated. The repeated CT scan after that indicated increment of hematoma. Fifty-three hours from the ictus, the patient died and an autopsy study was performed. After the fixation, the coronal brain section was made, and the careful observation of them elucidated the formation of an organized dissecting aneurysm in the angiographically extravasated vessel. About seven hundreds of serial specimen, 4 micron in thickness, was then investigated adjacent to the aneurysm. The organized dissecting aneurysm seemed to initiate from the branch of it, where marked fraying and undulation of the fibroelastic intima and internal elastic laminae were observed. The concavity toward the true lumen was completely disrupted and communicated to the extravascular space. As a result, the continuous part of it obstructed the lumen of the branch. These findings suggested the newly-developed dissection and it seemed to correspond to the angiographical extravasated points.