Science.gov

Sample records for engine lubrication oil

  1. Engine wear and lubricating oil contamination from plant oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Darcey, C.L.; LePori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1982-12-01

    Engine disassembly with wear measurements, and lubricating oil analysis were used to determine wear rates on a one cylinder diesel engine. Results are reported from short duration tests on the wear rates of various levels of processed sunflower oil, a 25% blend with diesel fuel, and processed cottonseed oil.

  2. Characterization of lubrication oil emissions from aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhong; Liscinsky, David S; Winstead, Edward L; True, Bruce S; Timko, Michael T; Bhargava, Anuj; Herndon, Scott C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Anderson, Bruce E

    2010-12-15

    In this first ever study, particulate matter (PM) emitted from the lubrication system overboard breather vent for two different models of aircraft engines has been systematically characterized. Lubrication oil was confirmed as the predominant component of the emitted particulate matter based upon the characteristic mass spectrum of the pure oil. Total particulate mass and size distributions of the emitted oil are also investigated by several high-sensitivity aerosol characterization instruments. The emission index (EI) of lubrication oil at engine idle is in the range of 2-12 mg kg(-1) and increases with engine power. The chemical composition of the oil droplets is essentially independent of engine thrust, suggesting that engine oil does not undergo thermally driven chemical transformations during the ∼4 h test window. Volumetric mean diameter is around 250-350 nm for all engine power conditions with a slight power dependence.

  3. Engineered silica nanoparticles as additives in lubricant oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Faes López, Teresa; Fernández González, Alfonso; Del Reguero, Ángel; Matos, María; Díaz-García, Marta E.; Badía-Laíño, Rosana

    2015-10-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) synthesized by the sol-gel approach were engineered for size and surface properties by grafting hydrophobic chains to prevent their aggregation and facilitate their contact with the phase boundary, thus improving their dispersibility in lubricant base oils. The surface modification was performed by covalent binding of long chain alkyl functionalities using lauric acid and decanoyl chloride to the SiO2 NP surface. The hybrid SiO2 NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, simultaneous differential thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and dynamic light scattering, while their dispersion in two base oils was studied by static multiple light scattering at low (0.01% w/v) and high (0.50%w/v) concentrations. The nature of the functional layer and the functionalization degree seemed to be directly involved in the stability of the suspensions. The potential use of the functional SiO2 NPs as lubricant additives in base oils, specially designed for being used in hydraulic circuits, has been outlined by analyzing the tribological properties of the dispersions. The dendritic structure of the external layer played a key role in the tribological characteristics of the material by reducing the friction coefficient and wear. These nanoparticles reduce drastically the waste of energy in friction processes and are more environmentally friendly than other additives.

  4. Engineered silica nanoparticles as additives in lubricant oils

    PubMed Central

    López, Teresa Díaz-Faes; González, Alfonso Fernández; Del Reguero, Ángel; Matos, María; Díaz-García, Marta E; Badía-Laíño, Rosana

    2015-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) synthesized by the sol–gel approach were engineered for size and surface properties by grafting hydrophobic chains to prevent their aggregation and facilitate their contact with the phase boundary, thus improving their dispersibility in lubricant base oils. The surface modification was performed by covalent binding of long chain alkyl functionalities using lauric acid and decanoyl chloride to the SiO2 NP surface. The hybrid SiO2 NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, simultaneous differential thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and dynamic light scattering, while their dispersion in two base oils was studied by static multiple light scattering at low (0.01% w/v) and high (0.50%w/v) concentrations. The nature of the functional layer and the functionalization degree seemed to be directly involved in the stability of the suspensions. The potential use of the functional SiO2 NPs as lubricant additives in base oils, specially designed for being used in hydraulic circuits, has been outlined by analyzing the tribological properties of the dispersions. The dendritic structure of the external layer played a key role in the tribological characteristics of the material by reducing the friction coefficient and wear. These nanoparticles reduce drastically the waste of energy in friction processes and are more environmentally friendly than other additives. PMID:27877840

  5. The Stability of Lubricant Oil Acidity of Biogas Fuelled Engine due to Biogas Desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gde Tirta Nindhia, Tjokorda; Wayan Surata, I.; Wardana, Ari

    2017-05-01

    This research is established for the purpose of the understanding the stability of the acidity of lubricant oil in biogas fuelled engine due to the absence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). As was recognized that other than Methane (CH4), there are also other gas impurities in the biogas such as carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), moisture (H2O) and ammonia (NH3). Due to H2S contents in the biogas fuel, the engine was found failure. This is caused by corrosion in the combustion chamber due to increase of lubricant acidity. To overcome this problem in practical, the lubricant is increased the pH to basic level with the hope will be decrease to normal value after several time use. Other method is by installing pH measurement sensor in the engine lubricant so that when lubricant is known turn to be acid, then lubricant replacement should be done. In this research, the effect of biogas desulfurization down to zero level to the acidity of lubricant oil in the four stroke engine was carried out with the hope that neutral lubrication oil to be available during running the engine. The result indicates that by eliminating H2S due desulfurization process, effect on stability and neutrality of pH lubricant. By this method the engine safety can be obtained without often replacement the lubricant oil.

  6. Failure Analysis and Regeneration Performances Evaluation on Engine Lubricating Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. L.; Zhang, G. N.; Zhang, J. Y.; Yin, Y. L.; Xu, Y.

    To investigate the behavior of failure and recycling of lubricating oils, three sorts of typical 10w-40 lubricating oils used in heavy-load vehicle including the new oil, waste oil and regeneration oil regenerated by self-researched green regeneration technology were selected. The tribology properties were tested by four-ball friction wear tester as well. The results indicated that the performance of anti-extreme pressure of regeneration oil increase by 34.1% compared with the waste one and its load- carrying ability is close to the new oil; the feature of wear spot are better than those of the waste oil and frictional coefficient almost reach the level of the new oil's. As a result, the performance of anti-wear and friction reducing are getting better obviously.

  7. Natural oils as lubricants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is currently an availability of vegetable oil lubricants, with the exception of engine oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly, renewable, contribute to the reduction of our dependence on imported petroleum, and add value to the farmer. However, there are inherent weaknesses in veg...

  8. Fuel-efficient lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, T.R.

    1986-04-22

    A method is described of improving the fuel economy of an internal combustion engine comprising lubricating the crankcase of the engine with a lubricating composition consisting of a hydrocarbon oil of lubricating viscosity and from 15 to 25 millimols per kilogram of zinc O,O-di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphorodithioate and from 0.25 to 2 weight percent of pentaerythritol monooleate.

  9. Engine Lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    PS 212, a plasma-sprayed coating developed by NASA, is used to coat valves in a new rotorcam engine. The coating eliminates the need for a liquid lubricant in the rotorcam, which has no crankshaft, flywheel, distributor or water pump. Developed by Murray United Development Corporation, it is a rotary engine only 10 inches long with four cylinders radiating outward from a central axle. Company officials say the engine will be lighter, more compact and cheaper to manufacture than current engines and will feature cleaner exhaust emissions. A licensing arrangement with a manufacturer is under negotiation. Primary applications are for automobiles, but the engine may also be used in light aircraft.

  10. Characterization and Evaluation of Re-Refined Engine Lubricating Oil.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    LUBRICANT PROPERTIES Virgin Re-refined Test Basestock Basestock Property Method AL-10575 AL-8481 KVis, 40"C, cSt D 445 62.21 56.61 KVis, 100C, cSt D 445...Types, volZ D 1319 Saturates, 42 Olefins 12 Aromatics 46 41 TABLE 24. BASE OIL INSPECTION PROPERTIES Test Oil Test A B D Property Method AL-8481 AL-8181...be established. 446 .46 TABLE 28. ASTM/NBS BASESTOCK CONSISTENCY PARTICIPATION Test Method Viscosity D 445 at 100*C, cSt at 400C, cSt Viscosity Index D

  11. Oil-air mist lubrication as an emergency system and as a primary lubrication system. [for helicopter engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of an emergency aspirator once-through lubrication system was demonstrated as a viable survivability concept for Army helicopter mainshaft engine bearings for periods as long as 30 minutes. It was also shown in an experimental study using a 46-mm bore bearing test machine that an oil-air mist once-through system with auxiliary air cooling is an effective primary lubrication system at speeds up to 2,500,000 DN for extended operating periods of at least 50 hours.

  12. The use of surface layer with boron in friction pairs lubricated by engine oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczypiński-Sala, W.; Lubas, J.

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to determine the influence of surface layers with boron and engine oil on the processes of friction and wear in friction pairs. The ring samples with borided surface layer cooperated under test conditions with counterparts made with CuPb30 and AlSn20 bearing alloys. During the tests, the friction pairs were lubricated with 15W/40 Lotos mineral oil and 5W/40 Lotos synthetic oil. The lubrication of friction area with Lotos mineral oil causes the reduction of the friction force, the temperature in the friction area and the wear of the bearing alloys under study, whereas the lubrication with Lotos synthetic oil reduces the changes in the geometrical structure of the cooperating friction pair elements. Lubrication of the friction area in the start-up phase of the friction pair by mineral oil causes faster stabilization of the friction conditions in the contact area than in the cause of lubrication of the friction pair by synthetic oil. The intensity of wear of the AlSn20 bearing alloy cooperating with the borided surface layer is three times smaller than the intensity of use of the CuPb30 alloy bearing.

  13. Quantifying the Contribution of Lubrication Oil Carbon to Particulate Emissions from a Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W; Rich, D; Cheng, A S

    2003-01-31

    The contribution of lubrication oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions from a Cummins B5.9 Diesel engine was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to trace carbon isotope concentrations. The engine operated at fixed medium load (285 N-m (210 ft.lbs.) at 1600 rpm) used 100% biodiesel fuel (8100) with a contemporary carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) concentration of 103 amol {sup 14}C mg C. The {sup 14}C concentration of the exhaust CO{sub 2} and PM were 102 and 99 amol {sup 14}C/mg C, respectively. The decrease in {sup 14}C content in the CO, and PM are due to the consumption of lubrication oil which is {sup 14}C-free. Approximately 4% of the carbon in PM came from lubrication oil under these operating conditions.

  14. Quantifying the Contribution of Lubrication Oil to Particulate Emissions from a Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A S; Rich, D; Dibble, R W; Buchholz, B A

    2002-12-06

    The contribution of lubrication oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions from a Cummins B5.9 Diesel engine was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to trace carbon isotope concentrations. The engine operated at fixed medium load (285 N-m (210 ft.lbs.) 1600 m) used 100% biodiesel fuel (B100) with a contemporary carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) concentration of 103 amol {sup 14}C/ mg C. The C concentration of the exhaust C02 and PM were 102 and 99 amol {sup 14}C/mg C, respectively. The decrease in I4C content in the PM is due to the consumption of lubrication oil which is {sup 14}C-free. Approximately 4% of the carbon in PM came from lubrication oil under these operating conditions. The slight depression in CO{sub 2} isotope content could be attributed to ambient CO{sub 2} levels and measurement uncertainty.

  15. Identification of lubrication oil in the particulate matter emissions from engine exhaust of in-service commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhong; Herndon, Scott C; Ziemba, Luke D; Timko, Michael T; Liscinsky, David S; Anderson, Bruce E; Miake-Lye, Richard C

    2012-09-04

    Lubrication oil was identified in the organic particulate matter (PM) emissions of engine exhaust plumes from in-service commercial aircraft at Chicago Midway Airport (MDW) and O'Hare International Airport (ORD). This is the first field study focused on aircraft lubrication oil emissions, and all of the observed plumes described in this work were due to near-idle engine operations. The identification was carried out with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS) via a collaborative laboratory and field investigation. A characteristic mass marker of lubrication oil, I(85)/I(71), the ratio of ion fragment intensity between m/z = 85 and 71, was used to distinguish lubrication oil from jet engine combustion products. This AMS marker was based on ion fragmentation patterns measured using electron impact ionization for two brands of widely used lubrication oil in a laboratory study. The AMS measurements of exhaust plumes from commercial aircraft in this airport field study reveal that lubrication oil is commonly present in organic PM emissions that are associated with emitted soot particles, unlike the purely oil droplets observed at the lubrication system vent. The characteristic oil marker, I(85)/I(71), was applied to quantitatively determine the contribution from lubrication oil in measured aircraft plumes, which ranges from 5% to 100%.

  16. Lubrication System 1. Check and Change the Engine Oil. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on checking and changing the engine oil is the second of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

  17. Lubrication System 1. Check and Change the Engine Oil. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on checking and changing the engine oil is the second of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

  18. Role of lubrication oil in particulate emissions from a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Arthur L; Stipe, Christopher B; Habjan, Matthew C; Ahlstrand, Gilbert G

    2007-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that trace metals emitted by internal combustion engines are derived mainly from combustion of lubrication oil. This hypothesis was examined by investigation of the formation of particulate matter emitted from an internal combustion engine in the absence of fuel-derived soot. Emissions from a modified CAT 3304 diesel engine fueled with hydrogen gas were characterized. The role of organic carbon and metals from lubrication oil on particle formation was investigated under selected engine conditions. The engine produced exhaust aerosol with log normal-size distributions and particle concentrations between 10(5) and 10(7) cm(-3) with geometric mean diameters from 18 to 31 nm. The particles contained organic carbon, little or no elemental carbon, and a much larger percentage of metals than particles from diesel engines. The maximum total carbon emission rate was estimated at 1.08 g h(-1), which is much lower than the emission rate of the original diesel engine. There was also evidence that less volatile elements, such as iron, self-nucleated to form nanoparticles, some of which survive the coagulation process.

  19. Environmentally friendly lubricating oil candidate.

    PubMed

    Ozgülsün, A; Karaosmanoğlu, F

    1999-01-01

    Synthetic lubricating oils based on renewable sources, excluding petroleum, have a great importance among all of the lubricating oil alternatives that are included in the research field about clean and environmentally friendly lubricating oil technologies. One of the environmentally friendly lubricating oils is a vegetable oil-based product. In this study, the esterification product of oleic acid with a fraction of molasses fusel oil as a lubricating oil candidate was determined according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard tests. The results indicate that the ester product can be used as an environmental friendly lubricating oil or lubricating oil additive.

  20. Lubricating oil containing VII pour depressant

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, W.P.; Mays, D.L.

    1986-08-19

    Lubricating oils for internal combustion engines typically contain a multitude of additives which function as detergents, dispersants, viscosity index improvers, pour depressants, etc. in order to improve the properties of the oil. It is found that it is particularly necessary to improve the properties exhibited by lubricating oil compositions at low temperatures. It is an object of this invention to provide a lubricating oil containing an additive which provides improved properties at low temperatures.

  1. 40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lubricating oil and test fuels. 89.330... Equipment Provisions § 89.330 Lubricating oil and test fuels. (a) Lubricating oil. Use the engine lubricating oil for testing that meets the requirements as specified by the manufacturer for a particular...

  2. 40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Lubricating oil and test fuels. 89.330... Equipment Provisions § 89.330 Lubricating oil and test fuels. (a) Lubricating oil. Use the engine lubricating oil for testing that meets the requirements as specified by the manufacturer for a particular...

  3. Comparison of the constituents of two jet engine lubricating oils and their volatile pyrolytic degradation products.

    PubMed

    van Netten, C; Leung, V

    2000-03-01

    Leaking oil seals in jet engines, at locations prior to the compressor stage, can be a cause of smoke in the cabins of BAe-146 aircraft. Compressed combustion air is bled off to pressurize the cabin and to provide a source of fresh air. Bleed air is diverted from a location just prior to the combustion chamber at a temperature around 500 degrees C. To prevent oil breakdown products from entering the cabin air, catalytic converters have been used to clean the air. During an oil seal failure this device becomes overloaded and smoke is observed in the cabin. Some aircraft companies have removed the catalytic converters and claim an improvement in air quality. During an oil seal failure, however, the flight crew is potentially exposed to the thermal breakdown products of the engine oils. Because very little is known regarding the thermal breakdown products of jet engine lubrication oils, two commercially available oils were investigated under laboratory conditions at 525 degrees C to measure the release of CO, CO2,NO2, and HCN as well as volatiles which were analyzed using GC-Mass spectrometry in an attempt to see if the neurotoxic agents tricresyl phosphates (TCPs) and trimethyl propane phosphate (TMPP) would be present or formed. TMPP was not found in these experiments. Some CO2 was generated along with CO which reached levels in excess of 100 ppm. HCN and NO2 were not detected. GC compositions of the two bulk oils and their breakdown products were almost identical. The presence of TCPs was confirmed in the bulk oils and in the volatiles. Localized condensation in the ventilation ducts and filters in the air conditioning packs are likely the reason why the presence of TCPs has not been demonstrated in cabin air. It was recommended that this needed to be verified in aircraft.

  4. Fuel detergent compositions containing lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Bagnetto, L.J.

    1982-04-20

    A motor fuel additive composition comprising a fuel detergent composition and a lubricating oil is disclosed. In preferred embodiments aminosuccinimide and amide-sulfonate fuel additive compositions are combined with lubricating oil in a fuel composition which exhibits reduced formation of engine deposits, particularly under additive-overdose conditions.

  5. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  6. Lubricating oil composition

    SciTech Connect

    Malec, R.E.

    1980-01-29

    The reaction product of (A) high molecular weight hydrocarbon-substituted phenols, (B) aldehydes, (C) ammonia or amines having a reactive hydrogen atom, and (D) alkylene oxides are effective dispersants for lubricating oil and impart detergent properties to liquid hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline.

  7. Solid Lubricants for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in gas foil bearing solid lubricants and computer based modeling has enabled the development of revolulionary Oil-Free turbomachinery systems. These innovative new and solid lubricants at low speeds (start-up and shut down). Foil bearings are hydrodynamic, self acting fluid film bearings made from thin, flexible sheet metal foils. These thin foils trap a hydrodynamic lubricating air film between their surfaces and moving shaft surface. For low temperature applications, like ainrafl air cycle machines (ACM's), polymer coatings provide important solid lubrication during start-up and shut down prior to the development of the lubricating fluid film. The successful development of Oil-Free gas turbine engines requires bearings which can operate at much higher temperatures (greater than 300 C). To address this extreme solid lubrication need, NASA has invented a new family of compostie solid lubricant coatings, NASA PS300.

  8. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOEpatents

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Reynolds, James W.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  9. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

    2010-04-01

    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

  10. Oil-mist lubrication handbook: Systems and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    Oil-mist lubrication is said to reduce bearing failures by up to ninety percent. This book describes the process for the benefit of plant managers and maintenance engineers. It explains how the low application and consumption rates eliminate the need for a circulating system, while reducing manufacturing, installation, and clean-up costs. It further discusses how oil-mist lubrication reduces heat caused by lubricant friction, and how the slight, positive pressure created in bearing housings prevents the entrance of contaminants that can shorten bearing life. The book covers such subjects as lubricants for oil-mist systems, components, application and venting, lubricant collection, selecting fittings, and dry-sump lubrication.

  11. n-alkane profiles of engine lubricating oil and particulate matter by molecular sieve extraction.

    PubMed

    Caravaggio, Gianni A; Charland, Jean-Pierre; Macdonald, Penny; Graham, Lisa

    2007-05-15

    As part of the Canadian Atmospheric Fine Particle Research Program to obtain reliable primary source emission profiles, a molecular sieve method was developed to reliably determine n-alkanes in lubricating oils, vehicle emissions, and mobile source dominated ambient particulate matter (PM). This work was also initiated to better calculate carbon preference index values (CPI: the ratio of the sums of odd over even n-alkanes), a parameter for estimating anthropogenic versus biogenic contributions in PM. n-Alkanes in lubricating oil and mobile source dominated PM are difficult to identify and quantify by gas chromatography due to the presence of similar components that cannot be fully resolved. This results in a hump, the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) that leads to incorrect n-alkane concentrations and CPI values. The sieve method yielded better chromatography, unambiguous identification of n-alkanes and allowed examination of differences between n-alkane profiles in light (LDV) and heavy duty vehicle (HDV) lubricating oils that would have been otherwise difficult. These profile differences made it possible to relate the LDV profile to that of the PM samples collected during a tunnel study in August 2001 near Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada). The n-alkane PM data revealed that longer sampling times result in a negative artifact, i.e., the desorption of the more volatile n-alkanes from the filters. Furthermore, the sieve procedure yielded n-alkane data that allowed calculation of accurate CPI values for lubricating oils and PM samples. Finally, this method may prove helpful in estimating the respective diesel and gasoline contributions to ambient PM.

  12. Development and validation of an environmentally friendly attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region method for the determination of ethanol content in used engine lubrication oil.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Rafael Rodrigues; Sequinel, Rodrigo; Gualtieri, Carlos Eduardo; Tercini, Antônio Carlos Bergamaschi; Flumignan, Danilo Luiz; de Oliveira, José Eduardo

    2013-05-15

    Lubricating oils are crucial in the operation of automotive engines because they both reduce friction between moving parts and protect against corrosion. However, the performance of lubricant oil may be affected by contaminants, such as gasoline, diesel, ethanol, water and ethylene glycol. Although there are many standard methods and studies related to the quantification of contaminants in lubricant oil, such as gasoline and diesel oil, to the best of our knowledge, no methods have been reported for the quantification of ethanol in used Otto cycle engine lubrication oils. Therefore, this work aimed at the development and validation of a routine method based on partial least-squares multivariate analysis combined with attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region to quantify ethanol content in used lubrication oil. The method was validated based on its figures of merit (using the net analyte signal) as follows: limit of detection (0.049%), limit of quantification (0.16%), accuracy (root mean square error of prediction=0.089% w/w), repeatability (0.05% w/w), fit (R(2)=0.9997), mean selectivity (0.047), sensitivity (0.011), inverse analytical sensitivity (0.016% w/w(-1)) and signal-to-noise ratio (max: 812.4 and min: 200.9). The results show that the proposed method can be routinely implemented for the quality control of lubricant oils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.330 Lubricating oil and test fuels. (a) Lubricating oil. Use the engine... that use sulfur-sensitive emission-control technology, the diesel test fuel is the ultra low-sulfur...

  14. Oil-mist lubrication handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book gives one sound working knowledge of the design, specifications, applications, and implementation of oil-mist lubrication systems for machine tools, pumps, electric motors, and other rotating equipment in the paper, pharmaceutical, steel, petrochemical, and similar process industries.

  15. Engine sealing and lubrication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1975-01-01

    Engine sealing programs are discussed which are directed toward the two major classes of engine seals: engine shaft seals and primary gas path seals. In addition, some concepts and results from fundamental lubrication research, as it pertains to the lubrication of bearings, are presented.

  16. Support of Oil Lubrication by Bonded Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holinski, R.

    1984-01-01

    A new generation of lubricating lacquers for treatment of metal surfaces has been developed. These coatings have proved to be oil-compatible and are used in oil-lubricated systems. The oil lubrication is supported thereby through reduction of friction and increase of load-carrying capacity during boundary conditions. For difficult tribological systems, the problem-solving lubricating concept has proved to be the beneficial combination of lubricating oil and bonded coatings. A number of practical applications are presented.

  17. Advanced airbreathing engine lubricants study with a tetraester fluid and a synthetic paraffinic oil at 492 K (425 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, E. V.; Bamberger, E. N.

    1972-01-01

    Groups of 120-mm-bore angular-contact ball bearings made from AISI M-50 steel were fatigue tested with a tetraester and a synthetic paraffinic oil at a bearing temperature of 492 K (425 F) in an air environment. Bearing life exceeded AFBMA-predicted (catalog) life by factors in excess of 4 and 10 for the tetraester and synthetic paraffinic fluids, respectively. The final viscosities after 500 hours of operation were 14 and 6 times the initial values, respectively. During the same time period, when the test oil is replaced at a rate approximating the replenishment rate in actual commerical engine usage, no significant increase in lubricant viscosity with time was observed.

  18. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, W.R.; Fusaro, R.L.

    1992-08-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  19. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  20. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  1. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  2. Assessment of infrared spectroscopy and multivariate techniques for monitoring the service condition of diesel-engine lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Caneca, Arnobio Roberto; Pimentel, M Fernanda; Galvão, Roberto Kawakami Harrop; da Matta, Cláudia Eliane; de Carvalho, Florival Rodrigues; Raimundo, Ivo M; Pasquini, Celio; Rohwedder, Jarbas J R

    2006-09-15

    This paper presents two methodologies for monitoring the service condition of diesel-engine lubricating oils on the basis of infrared spectra. In the first approach, oils samples are discriminated into three groups, each one associated to a given wear stage. An algorithm is proposed to select spectral variables with good discriminant power and small collinearity for the purpose of discriminant analysis classification. As a result, a classification accuracy of 93% was obtained both in the middle (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) ranges. The second approach employs multivariate calibration methods to predict the viscosity of the lubricant. In this case, the use of absorbance measurements in the NIR spectral range was not successful, because of experimental difficulties associated to the presence of particulate matter. Such a problem was circumvented by the use of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) measurements in the MIR spectral range, in which an RMSEP of 3.8cSt and a relative average error of 3.2% were attained.

  3. Microfog lubrication for aircraft engine bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis and system study was performed to provide design information regarding lubricant and coolant flow rates and flow paths for effective utilization of the lubricant and coolant in a once through bearing oil mist (microfog) and coolant air system. Both static and dynamic tests were performed. Static tests were executed to evaluate and calibrate the mist supply system. A total of thirteen dynamic step speed bearing tests were performed using four different lubricants and several different mist and air supply configurations. The most effective configuration consisted of supplying the mist and the major portion of the cooling air axially through the bearing. The results of these tests have shown the feasibility of using a once through oil mist and cooling air system to lubricate and cool a high speed, high temperature aircraft engine mainshaft bearing.

  4. Electrical techniques for monitoring the condition of lubrication oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J. D.; Austin, L.

    2003-10-01

    The lubricating oil used in engines for vehicle and other applications is renewed according to a schedule specified by the manufacturer. This timetable is, naturally, very conservative, and makes no allowance for the way in which the engine is operated. Constant-speed operation (such as motorway use) is much less harmful to the lubricant than variable-speed operation, such as urban driving, during which the oil experiences extreme variations of temperature and engine speed. The net result of the conservative lubricant replacement schedule is that most engine oil is discarded well before it has reached the end of its useful life. This paper reports a study in which changes to the dielectric and magnetic properties of the oil are assessed as methods of measuring the degradation of lubricating oil. The relationship between oil use (measured by the distance a vehicle has travelled) and oil viscosity is also measured. The conclusions from this work are that simple distance travelled (miles/kilometres) is not a good indicator of the state of an oil, as estimated by measuring its viscosity. The magnetic characteristics of lubricating oil (i.e. its magnetic permeability) do change as the oil degrades, but the measurements were poorly correlated with viscosity and do not seem to offer much promise as the basis of an oil monitoring system. The dielectric properties of lubricating oil are reasonably well correlated with viscosity, and it is proposed that this could form the basis of a useful sensing technique.

  5. Lifetime Lubricated Engines Using Triboreactive Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    polyglycol blend as crank case oil. An unlubricated internal combustion engine is of interest, because it will be more compact in its basic...wear debris/particles [34] (piston group, valve guide and cam). The enormous improvement of the internal combustion engine is due mainly to the many...AG For life-time lubrication [43], DaimlerChrysler investigates „Lubricious Oxides“ (LO) as coatings for tribosystems of internal combustion engines

  6. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  7. Tribological performance evaluation of oil mist lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Shamim, A.; Kettleborough, C.F. )

    1994-09-01

    In this research work, the tribological performance of oil mist lubrication (pure mist), as applied to rolling element bearings, was investigated. In the first part of this research, tests were conducted to compare the performances of oil mist and conventional oil sump lubrication in terms of operating temperature and friction with variation of load and speed. In the second part, the two methods of lubrication were compared directly under endurance test conditions. The oil mist lubricated high-precision angular contact test bearings ran cooler by about 10 C. Also, the oil mist lubricated bearings had about 25 percent less friction. In the third part, endurance tests were conducted to investigate the influence of oil mist lubrication on the life of rolling element bearings. Weibull and maximum likelihood analysis of the endurance test data indicated that, in addition to savings in energy, oil mist lubrication provides better wear and fatigue protection to the test bearings compared to conventional sump lubrication.

  8. Method of removing hydroperoxides from lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Shaub, H.; Brownawell, D.W.; DiBenedetto, A.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes a method of decomposing hydroperoxides present in a lubricating oil. It comprises: contacting the lubricating oil with a heterogenous hydroperoxide decomposer for a period of time sufficient to cause a reduction in the amount of hydroperoxides present in the oil, the hydroperoxide decomposer being immobilized when contacting the oil so as not to pass into the oil.

  9. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    DOE PAGES

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; ...

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are usedmore » as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.« less

  10. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    SciTech Connect

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are used as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.

  11. Detail view of lubricating oil pumps used in maintenance of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of lubricating oil pumps used in maintenance of the engines and compressors. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  12. NMR relaxometry analysis of lubricant oils degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballari, M.; Bonetto, F.; Anoardo, E.

    2005-10-01

    The present work was undertaken in order to investigate lubricant oil degradation at the molecular level. Ageing effects, as reflected on the proton spin-lattice relaxation rate (T_1^{-1}) dispersion, were studied in two different lubricant engine oils. The proton field cycling technique was used to scan relaxation of new and aged samples of monograde and multigrade oils. Relaxation dispersions were interpreted in terms of self-diffusion and molecular rotations. Our study shows that proton T_1^{-1} could be very sensitive to degradation processes, especially at low Larmor frequencies. The analysis reveals a noticeable sensitivity of the involved correlation times. The pros and cons of the technique are also discussed.

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground type...

  14. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground type...

  15. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground type...

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground type...

  17. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground type...

  18. Engineering Lubrication in Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    McNary, Sean M.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite continuous progress toward tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage, significant challenges still remain. Advances in morphogens, stem cells, and scaffolds have resulted in enhancement of the bulk mechanical properties of engineered constructs, but little attention has been paid to the surface mechanical properties. In the near future, engineered tissues will be able to withstand and support the physiological compressive and tensile forces in weight-bearing synovial joints such as the knee. However, there is an increasing realization that these tissue-engineered cartilage constructs will fail without the optimal frictional and wear properties present in native articular cartilage. These characteristics are critical to smooth, pain-free joint articulation and a long-lasting, durable cartilage surface. To achieve optimal tribological properties, engineered cartilage therapies will need to incorporate approaches and methods for functional lubrication. Steady progress in cartilage lubrication in native tissues has pushed the pendulum and warranted a shift in the articular cartilage tissue-engineering paradigm. Engineered tissues should be designed and developed to possess both tribological and mechanical properties mirroring natural cartilage. In this article, an overview of the biology and engineering of articular cartilage structure and cartilage lubrication will be presented. Salient progress in lubrication treatments such as tribosupplementation, pharmacological, and cell-based therapies will be covered. Finally, frictional assays such as the pin-on-disk tribometer will be addressed. Knowledge related to the elements of cartilage lubrication has progressed and, thus, an opportune moment is provided to leverage these advances at a critical step in the development of mechanically and tribologically robust, biomimetic tissue-engineered cartilage. This article is intended to serve as the first stepping stone toward future studies in functional

  19. Engineering lubrication in articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    McNary, Sean M; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Reddi, A Hari

    2012-04-01

    Despite continuous progress toward tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage, significant challenges still remain. Advances in morphogens, stem cells, and scaffolds have resulted in enhancement of the bulk mechanical properties of engineered constructs, but little attention has been paid to the surface mechanical properties. In the near future, engineered tissues will be able to withstand and support the physiological compressive and tensile forces in weight-bearing synovial joints such as the knee. However, there is an increasing realization that these tissue-engineered cartilage constructs will fail without the optimal frictional and wear properties present in native articular cartilage. These characteristics are critical to smooth, pain-free joint articulation and a long-lasting, durable cartilage surface. To achieve optimal tribological properties, engineered cartilage therapies will need to incorporate approaches and methods for functional lubrication. Steady progress in cartilage lubrication in native tissues has pushed the pendulum and warranted a shift in the articular cartilage tissue-engineering paradigm. Engineered tissues should be designed and developed to possess both tribological and mechanical properties mirroring natural cartilage. In this article, an overview of the biology and engineering of articular cartilage structure and cartilage lubrication will be presented. Salient progress in lubrication treatments such as tribosupplementation, pharmacological, and cell-based therapies will be covered. Finally, frictional assays such as the pin-on-disk tribometer will be addressed. Knowledge related to the elements of cartilage lubrication has progressed and, thus, an opportune moment is provided to leverage these advances at a critical step in the development of mechanically and tribologically robust, biomimetic tissue-engineered cartilage. This article is intended to serve as the first stepping stone toward future studies in functional

  20. A study of oil lubrication in a rotating engine using stroboscopic neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillinger, Burkhard; Brunner, Johannes; Calzada, Elbio

    2006-11-01

    Even at modern high-flux neutron sources, the required exposure time for one neutron radiography image with high counting statistics is in the order of 1 s. Continuous time-resolved imaging of objects in motion is thus very limited in time resolution and signal dynamics. However, repetitive motions can be recorded with a stroboscopic technique: A triggerable accumulating detector is triggered for many identical time windows of the cyclic motion until sufficient fluence is accumulated for one image. The image is read out, the delay for the time window is shifted and the recording repeated until a complete movie of the cyclic motion can be put together. We report about a study of oil flux in a running, electrically driven BMW engine out of current production.

  1. ORNL-GM: Development of Ionic Liquid-Additized, GF-5/6 Compatible Low-Viscosity Oils for Automotive Engine and Rear Axle Lubrication for 4% Improved Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Zhou, Yan; Luo, Huimin; Toops, Todd J.; Brookshear, Daniel W.; Stump, Benjamin C.; Viola, Michael B.; Zreik, Khaled; Ahmed, Tasfia

    2017-01-01

    The overall objective of this project are as follows: Further develop ionic liquid (IL)-additized lowviscosity engine oils meeting the GF-5/6 specifications and possessing superior lubricating characteristics; Expand the IL additive technology to rear axle lubricants; and Seek a combined improvement in the vehicle fuel economy

  2. Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps

    DOEpatents

    Lane, William H.

    2006-10-03

    A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.

  3. Lubricating oil compositions containing hydroxy polyether polyamines

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.B.

    1987-09-29

    This patent describes a hydroxy polyether amine or polyamine additive, and a lubricating oil composition containing a major amount of oil of lubricating viscosity and from about 0.01 to about 10 weight percent of the additive. The additives consist of certain lubricating oil soluble hydroxy polyoxyalkylene polyamines. The compositions may be either mono or polyamines, but polyamines are preferred. The additive compounds have molecular weights of from about 500 to 2000, and preferably from about 700 to 1200.

  4. Investigations on the effect of chlorine in lubricating oil and the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst on PCDD/F releases from an internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Patrick H; Sutton, Mike; Wood, David; Marshall, Jonathan

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports on an intensive study into releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated furans (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from a diesel engine and the analysis of PCDD/F and PCB in crankcase lubricating oil. Experimental conditions were set and carefully controlled in order to maximize the possible impact of, and our ability to measure the effect of, changes in the levels of chlorine in the lubricant. Emissions to air were measured using modified EPA methods following the principles of the European EN 1948 standards. A series of 40 experimental runs were completed using three reference lubricants formulated to have three levels of chlorine present as a residual component (at levels of 12, 131 and 259 mg kg(-1) or ppm). The engine was run with and without the diesel oxidation catalyst. All lubricants were realistic oils and the use of unrealistic additives or doping of components - particularly chlorine - in the fuel and lubricant was carefully avoided. Analysis of fuel and lubricant (before and after testing) samples required strenuous attention to achieve acceptable recoveries and showed non-detectable levels of PCB and PCDD/F at a detection limit of around 1.5 ng I-TEQ kg(-1) (ppt), indistinguishable from the laboratory blank. The testing demonstrated the need for extreme care to be taken in developing measurement methods that are sufficiently sensitive for measuring chlorine content of fluids and PCDD/F in oils, the latter being particularly challenging. Mean emissions of PCDD/F with the diesel oxidation catalyst in place were 23 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel and with the diesel oxidation catalyst removed 97 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel. The results of this testing showed that the emissions of PCDD/F were greatly reduced by the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst in the exhaust, a finding that has not been explicitly tested in previous work. They also show that emissions from the engine were not controlled by the level of

  5. Solvent extraction of lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Sequeira, A. Jr.

    1991-08-13

    This patent describes improvement in a process for solvent refining a hydrocarbon based lubricating oil stock containing aromatics and non-aromatics components with an extraction solvent wherein the lubricating oil stock is contacted with the extraction solvent in a first extraction zone at a first extraction temperature in the range of 100{degrees} F to 250{degrees} F and a solvent to oil dosage in the range of 75 to 500 vol % forming an aromatics-rich primary extract and an aromatics-lean primary raffinate of high viscosity index of at least 85. The improvement comprises: withdrawing and cooling the primary extract to a temperature 10{degrees} F to 120{degrees} F below the extraction temperature and admixing with 0.0 vol % to 10 vol % anti-solvent thereby forming a secondary extract and a secondary raffinate, passing the secondary raffinate to a second extraction zone wherein the secondary raffinate is contacted with the extraction solvent at a second extraction temperature in the range of 100{degrees} F to 250{degrees} F and solvent to oil dosage in the range of 75 to 500 vol %, to form an aromatics-lean tertiary raffinate phase of viscosity index 65 or greater.

  6. 76 FR 49525 - Advisory Circular 20-24C, Approval of Propulsion Fuels and Lubricating Oils

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular 20-24C, Approval of Propulsion Fuels and Lubricating... Propulsion Fuels and Lubricating Oils. This AC provides guidance on regulations and policy applicable to... aircraft, engines, or APUs to operate with specified propulsion fuels and lubricating oils. DATES:...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....122 Section 1065.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.122 Engine cooling and lubrication. (a) Engine cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block,...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....122 Section 1065.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.122 Engine cooling and lubrication. (a) Engine cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block,...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....122 Section 1065.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.122 Engine cooling and lubrication. (a) Engine cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block,...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....122 Section 1065.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.122 Engine cooling and lubrication. (a) Engine cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block,...

  11. Multi Tasking Engine Oils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-21

    Petroleum Institute has standards for engine and gear oils but none for multipurpose lubricants of the type described above. The concept of...Transmission Oils (UTTOs) to satisfy this consumer market. Unfortunately, there are no industry-wide standards for these UTTOs as the American

  12. Potential of vegetable oils for lubricants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability, biodegradability, and comparable performance properties to petroleum-based products. The petroleum-based lubricants render unfavorable impact on the environment. With the growing environmental concerns, seed oils are find...

  13. Lubricating oil compositions containing modified succinimides

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, R.H.

    1987-05-05

    A lubricating oil composition is described comprising an oil of lubricating viscosity and from 0.2 to 10 percent by weight of a product produced by the process. A temperature is contacted sufficient to cause reaction. A polyamino alkenyl or alkyl succinimide contains at least one primary or secondary amine and a compound. A formula is given.

  14. Lubricating system for horizontal cylinder overhead valve engine

    SciTech Connect

    Mitadera, T.; Shirai, T.; Nakagawa, T.; Watanabe, K.

    1987-08-25

    A lubricating system is described for an internal combustion engine having: a cylinder with a substantially horizontal axis and a valve at the head therefor; a crank chamber for accumulating lubricating oil; an air-oil separating chamber for accommodating a part of a mechanism for operating the valve; a breather passage connecting the crank chamber and the air-oil separating chamber for supplying oil mist to the valve operating mechanism; and a lubricating-oil returning passage which is disposed under the breather passage such as to connect the crank chamber and the air-oil separating chamber and through which the lubricating oil accumulated in the air-oil separating chamber flows towards the crank chamber, the system comprising means disposed in the breather passage in such a manner as to allow a fluid to flow solely toward the air-oil separating chamber and means disposed in the lubricating-oil returning passage in such a manner as to impart to the flow of the fluid toward the air-oil separating chamber a resistance higher than that of the fluid flow toward the air-oil separating chamber through the breather passage.

  15. Modified Thermoresponsive Hyperbranched Polymers for Improved Viscosity and Enhanced Lubricity of Engine Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Cosimbescu, Lelia; Robinson, Joshua W.; Bays, John Timothy; Qu, Jun; West, Brian

    2016-09-30

    The manuscript captures the chronological succession of the molecular design progression through multiple architectures and topologies of the polymeric viscosity index improvers and their rheology bench test performance. Tribology testing was also performed on selected analogs and their friction and wear was evaluated. Finally, a top performing polymer was selected for engine testing, scaled-up, and its rheological performance in a complete formulation was assessed. The engine performance of the viscosity index improver was examined against an industry-established baseline.

  16. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.

    1995-07-11

    Lubricating compositions are disclosed including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  17. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali

    1995-01-01

    Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  18. Turbine Engine Lubricant Reclamation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    appearance is that of an almost unused oil. Samples 0-79-04 and 0-79-05 are similar, showing high concentrations of cresols . Note that these two oils...had very high acid numbers, possibly attributable to the high cresol concentration at approxi- mately 24+ min. Sample 0-79-09 is also unique and not... cresols , 24.0 to 26 min. Sample ATL 9123 (Figure 20) has an addi- tional major peak that corresponds to the rt of phenothiazine, approximately 15.7 min

  19. Anti-friction additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Karol, T.J.; Magaha, H.S.; Schlicht, R.C.

    1987-03-03

    A lubricating oil composition is described comprising (i) a major portion of lubricant oil; and (ii) from about 0.05 to about 10.0 wt.% of, as an additive, a product prepared by reacting a natural oil selected from the group consisting of coconut, babassu, palm, palm kernel, olive, castor, peanut, beef tallow and lard, with a (C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/) hydroxy acid and a polyamine.

  20. Engine oils: Rheology and tribology

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This publication focuses on experimental methods, environmental issues, and friction and wear studies. A variety of problems are considered, including valve train friction, bearing lubrication, testing of piston materials, and transfer pump wear. Contents include: Experimental study on viscosity-shear characteristics of lubricating oils; Effects of lubricant composition on fuel efficiency in modern engines; Oxidation and corrosion characteristics of vegetable-base biodegradable hydraulic oils; Analysis of cam/roller follower friction and slippage in valve train systems; Tribological analysis of the transfer pump vane/bore interface using a mixed lubrication model; and more.

  1. Multi-elemental analysis of jet engine lubricating oils and hydraulic fluids and their implication in aircraft air quality incidents.

    PubMed

    van Netten, C

    1999-05-07

    The flight crews of aircraft often report symptoms including dizziness, nausea, disorientation, blurred vision and tingling in legs and arms. Many of these incidents have been traced to contamination of cabin air with lubricating oil, as well as hydraulic fluid, constituents. Considering that these air contaminants are often subjected to temperatures in excess of 500 degrees C, a large number of different exposures can be expected. Although the reported symptoms are most consistent with exposures to volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and the organophosphate constituents in these oils and fluids, the involvement of these agents has not been clearly demonstrated. Possible exposure to toxic elements, such as lead, mercury, thallium and others, have not been ruled out. In order to assess the potential of exposure to toxic elements a multi-elemental analysis was done on two hydraulic fluids and three lubricating oils which have been implicated in a number of air quality incidents. A secondary objective was to establish if the multi-elemental concentrations of the fluids tested are different enough to allow such an analysis to be used as a possible method of identifying the source of exposure that might have been present during aircraft air quality incidents. No significant concentrations of toxic elements were identified in any of the oils or hydraulic fluids. The elemental compositions of the samples were different enough to be used for identification purposes and the measurement of only three elements was able to achieve this. Whether these findings have an application, in aircraft air quality incident investigations, needs to be established with further studies.

  2. Method for reclaiming waste lubricating oils

    DOEpatents

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A method for purifying and reclaiming used lubricating oils containing additives such as detergents, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, extreme pressure agents and the like and other solid and liquid contaminants by preferably first vacuum distilling the used oil to remove water and low-boiling contaminants, and treating the dried oil with a solvent mixture of butanol, isopropanol and methylethyl ketone which causes the separation of a layer of sludge containing contaminants, unspent additives and oxidation products. After solvent recovery, the desludged oil is then subjected to conventional lubricating oil refining steps such as distillation followed by decolorization and deodorization.

  3. Used lubricating oil recycling using hydrocarbon solvents.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Ahmad; Al-Zubaidy, Essam; Fayed, Muhammad E

    2005-01-01

    A solvent extraction process using new hydrocarbon solvents was employed to treat used lubricant oil. The solvents used were liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) condensate and stabilized condensate. A demulsifier was used to enhance the treatment process. The extraction process using stabilized condensate demonstrated characteristics that make it competitive with existing used oil treatment technologies. The process is able to reduce the asphaltene content of the treated lubricating oil to 0.106% (w/w), the ash content to 0.108%, and the carbon residue to 0.315% with very low levels of contaminant metals. The overall yield of oil is 79%. The treated used oil can be recycled as base lubricating oil. The major disadvantage of this work is the high temperature of solvent recovery. Experimental work and results are presented in detail.

  4. Valve mechanism lubrication system for an overhead valve engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kronich, P.G.

    1986-07-22

    In an internal combustion engine, including a crankcase, an oil sump, push rods for operating the valves of the engine, a rocker box for housing the valve actuating mechanism, a lubrication system for lubricating the valve actuating mechanism is described which consists of: a first hollow tube for housing a first of the push rods, and first tube having one end open to the crankcase, and an opposite end open to the rocker box, for conducting oil mist from the crankcase to the rocker box to lubricate the valve rocker mechanism; a second hollow tube for housing a second push rod, the second tube having one end open to the rocker box and an opposite end open to a breather chamber for conducting liquid oil and oil mist from the rocker box to the breather chamber, the breather chamber being vented to the atmosphere; an oil drain passage for conducting liquid oil from the breather chamber to the oil sump; and baffle means in the rocker box for causing the oil mist entering the rocker box from the first tube to flow past the valve actuating mechanism for lubrication thereof before flowing from the rocker box into the second tube.

  5. Method of rerefining used lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, H.J.; Fletcher, L.C.

    1982-08-03

    Used oil is refined by distillation to remove a volatile forecut followed by further distillation with recirculation provisions to obtain the desired fractions of lubricating oil products while reducing the vaporization temperature of the oil. The recycle effect tends to reduce coking and cracking while providing a greater recovery of lubricating oil products through the carrier effect of the light ends. In one embodiment of the invention, a waste oil feedstock has water, gasoline and other similarly volatile components removed in a first stage evaporator (16). Heavier fuel, such as fuel oil is then removed in a second stage evaporator (28). A light lube oil fraction is then obtained by distillation with a third stage wiped-film evaporator (40). Finally, a heavy lube oil fraction is obtained by distillation of the bottoms from the evaporator (40) with a fourth-stage evaporator (64).

  6. New crop oils - Properties as potential lubricants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New crops oils such as lesquerella, field pennycress, meadowfoam and cuphea were investigated and compared to common commodity vegetable oils for their fatty acid profiles, low temperature and lubricating properties. The fatty acid profile investigation showed that lesquerella is high in hydroxy fat...

  7. Modification of Vegetable Oils for Lubricants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The current talk deals with a partial review of research for developing improved lubricants from vegetable oils through modifications of the chemical structure. The typical vegetable oil is a mixture of triesters of glycerin with linear fatty acids, most of them with one or more double bonds. The ...

  8. Model-based diagnostics of gas turbine engine lubrication systems

    SciTech Connect

    Byington, C.S.

    1998-09-01

    The objective of the current research was to develop improved methodology for diagnosing anomalies and maintaining oil lubrication systems for gas turbine engines. The effort focused on the development of reasoning modules that utilize the existing, inexpensive sensors and are applicable to on-line monitoring within the full-authority digital engine controller (FADEC) of the engine. The target application is the Enhanced TF-40B gas turbine engine that powers the Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) platform. To accomplish the development of the requisite data fusion algorithms and automated reasoning for the diagnostic modules, Penn State ARL produced a generic Turbine Engine Lubrication System Simulator (TELSS) and Data Fusion Workbench (DFW). TELSS is a portable simulator code that calculates lubrication system parameters based upon one-dimensional fluid flow resistance network equations. Validation of the TF- 40B modules was performed using engineering and limited test data. The simulation model was used to analyze operational data from the LCAC fleet. The TELSS, as an integral portion of the DFW, provides the capability to experiment with combinations of variables and feature vectors that characterize normal and abnormal operation of the engine lubrication system. The model-based diagnostics approach is applicable to all gas turbine engines and mechanical transmissions with similar pressure-fed lubrication systems.

  9. Reciprocating seals: Lubrication and wear resistance. (Latest citations from Fluidex (Fluid Engineering Abstracts) database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical and practical analyses of reciprocating seal wear and lubrication. Topics include behavior, friction coefficient, cylinder wear, lubrication film thickness, friction forces, design innovations, lubricating oil viscosity, and wear modeling relative to reciprocating seal frictional wear and lifetime optimization. Applications in piston ring lubrication, internal combustion engines, and vehicle suspension systems are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Process for producing lubricating oils and white oils

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, G.L.; Hu, W.C.

    1982-04-20

    The preparation of high quality, e.g., high viscosity index, base lubricating oils and white oils, particularly food grade white mineral oils, of suitable viscosity in high yield from a mineral oil distillate of suitable lubricating oil viscosity comprises contacting the distillate with hydrogen in four catalytic stages. The first reaction stage employs hydrocracking conditions. Subsequent reaction stages employ hydrogenation conditions. The second reaction stage, preferably employs a sulfur-resistant hydrogenation catalyst and produces a product suitable as a high quality lubricating oil base stock. The third reaction stage preferably employs a sulfur-resistant hydrogenation catalyst to obtain further aromatic saturation. The final stage employs a selective hydrogenation catalyst, optionally activated with a halogen, and produces a product suitable as a white oil, preferably a food grade white oil.

  11. Camshaft with lubricating oil supplying function

    SciTech Connect

    Umeha, G.; Hirakawa, O.

    1986-10-07

    A camshaft with a lubricating-oil supplying function is described comprising a tubular shaft and a filter element disposed in the tubular shaft to control the amount or rate of oil distribution. The filler element contains projections extending along its length from the outer surface thereof and resiliently contacting the inner surface of the tubular shaft. The projections together with the inner surface of the tubular shaft define oil passages.

  12. Study on the applicability of a precise, accurate method for rapid evaluation of engine and lubricant performance. [determination of wear metal in used lubricating oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a procedure for obtaining data related to wear metal determinations in used lubricants is discussed. The procedure makes it possible to obtain rapid, simultaneous determinations of a number of wear metals at levels of parts per thousand to low parts per billion using a small amount of sample. The electrode assembly and instrumentation used in the process are described. Samples of data obtained from tests conducted under controlled conditions are tabulated.

  13. Carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali; Ramirez, Giovanni; Eryilmaz, Osman L.; Narayanan, Badri; Liao, Yifeng; Kamath, Ganesh; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.

    2016-08-03

    Moving mechanical interfaces are commonly lubricated and separated by a combination of fluid films and solid 'tribofilms', which together ensure easy slippage and long wear life(1). The efficacy of the fluid film is governed by the viscosity of the base oil in the lubricant; the efficacy of the solid tribofilm, which is produced as a result of sliding contact between moving parts, relies upon the effectiveness of the lubricant's anti-wear additive (typically zinc dialkyldithiophosphate)(2). Minimizing friction and wear continues to be a challenge, and recent efforts have focused on enhancing the anti-friction and anti-wear properties of lubricants by incorporating inorganic nanoparticles and ionic liquids(3,4). Here, we describe the in operando formation of carbon-based tribofilms via dissociative extraction from base-oil molecules on catalytically active, sliding nanometre-scale crystalline surfaces, enabling base oils to provide not only the fluid but also the solid tribofilm. We study nanocrystalline catalytic coatings composed of nitrides of either molybdenum or vanadium, containing either copper or nickel catalysts, respectively. Structurally, the resulting tribofilms are similar to diamond-like carbon(5). Ball-on-disk tests at contact pressures of 1.3 gigapascals reveal that these tribofilms nearly eliminate wear, and provide lower friction than tribofilms formed with zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. Reactive and ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations show that the catalytic action of the coatings facilitates dehydrogenation of linear olefins in the lubricating oil and random scission of their carbon-carbon backbones; the products recombine to nucleate and grow a compact, amorphous lubricating tribofilm.

  14. Carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Ali; Ramirez, Giovanni; Eryilmaz, Osman L; Narayanan, Badri; Liao, Yifeng; Kamath, Ganesh; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S

    2016-08-04

    Moving mechanical interfaces are commonly lubricated and separated by a combination of fluid films and solid 'tribofilms', which together ensure easy slippage and long wear life. The efficacy of the fluid film is governed by the viscosity of the base oil in the lubricant; the efficacy of the solid tribofilm, which is produced as a result of sliding contact between moving parts, relies upon the effectiveness of the lubricant's anti-wear additive (typically zinc dialkyldithiophosphate). Minimizing friction and wear continues to be a challenge, and recent efforts have focused on enhancing the anti-friction and anti-wear properties of lubricants by incorporating inorganic nanoparticles and ionic liquids. Here, we describe the in operando formation of carbon-based tribofilms via dissociative extraction from base-oil molecules on catalytically active, sliding nanometre-scale crystalline surfaces, enabling base oils to provide not only the fluid but also the solid tribofilm. We study nanocrystalline catalytic coatings composed of nitrides of either molybdenum or vanadium, containing either copper or nickel catalysts, respectively. Structurally, the resulting tribofilms are similar to diamond-like carbon. Ball-on-disk tests at contact pressures of 1.3 gigapascals reveal that these tribofilms nearly eliminate wear, and provide lower friction than tribofilms formed with zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. Reactive and ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations show that the catalytic action of the coatings facilitates dehydrogenation of linear olefins in the lubricating oil and random scission of their carbon-carbon backbones; the products recombine to nucleate and grow a compact, amorphous lubricating tribofilm.

  15. Confirmation of heavy metal ions in used lubricating oil from a passenger car using chelating self-assembled monolayer.

    PubMed

    Ko, Young Gun; Kim, Choong Hyun

    2006-09-01

    In order to prevent engine failure, the oil must be changed before it loses its protective properties. It is necessary to monitor the actual physical and chemical condition of the oil to reliably determine the optimum oil-change interval. Our study focuses on the condition of the lubricating oil in an operated car engine. Shear stress curves and viscosity curves as a function of the shear rate for fresh and used lubricating oil were examined. Metal nitrate was detected in the lubricating oil from the operated car engine through the use of a chelating self-assembled monolayer.

  16. Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

  17. Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

  18. Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

  19. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship of... area under or around each fuel oil or bulk lubricating oil tank vent, overflow, and fill pipe, that: (1...

  20. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship of... area under or around each fuel oil or bulk lubricating oil tank vent, overflow, and fill pipe, that: (1...

  1. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship of... area under or around each fuel oil or bulk lubricating oil tank vent, overflow, and fill pipe, that: (1...

  2. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship of... area under or around each fuel oil or bulk lubricating oil tank vent, overflow, and fill pipe, that: (1...

  3. Evaluation of PS 212 Coatings Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions with an Ester-based Oil to 300 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Loomis, William R.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    High friction and wear of turbine engine components occur during high temperature excursions above the oxidation threshold of the liquid lubricant. This paper reports on research to study the use of a high temperature self lubricating coating, PS 212 for back-up lubrication in the event of failure of the liquid lubricant. Pin on disk tests were performed under dry and boundary-lubricated conditions at disk temperatures up to 300 C. The liquid lubricant was a formulated polyol ester qualified under MIL L-23699. At test temperatures above the oil's thermal degradation level, the use of PS 212 reduced wear, providing a back-up lubricant effect.

  4. Polymerization of sunflower oil diesel fuel: Copper catalysis in contaminated lubrication oil

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, S.J.; Shaffer, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    Diesel lubrication oil contaminated with sunflower oil fuel was exposed to conditions simulating an engine crankcase environment to study the role of copper catalysts in oil mixture thickening. Trace levels of dissolved copper species appear to dominate catalysis of triglyceride autooxidative polymerization with metallic copper surface seemingly only functioning as a dissolution interface. The importance of soluble copper forms was confirmed by replacing copper foil catalysts with a soluble complex, cupric acetylacetonate, to yield equivalent viscosity increases.

  5. Application of Symbolic Regression to Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Data for Lubricating Oil Health Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-27

    nitration, soot content, total base number, total acid number, and viscosity . 1. INTRODUCTION An on-line oil condition monitoring device for...Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Data for Lubricating Oil Health Evaluation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W56HZV-10-C-0364 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...tools to evaluation of diesel engine lubricating oil health (based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data) is detailed. It is demonstrated that

  6. Cold forming of steel with lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Komatsuzaki, S.; Uematsu, T.; Narahara, T.

    1996-03-01

    In forward extrusions, the antiseizure property could be improved fairly simply when condensed phosphoric acids were directly added to lubricating oils together with monoalkyl phosphates or dialkyl phosphites. The condensed phosphoric acids had poor forming load-lowering properties despite their high antiseizure property, while the phosphates and phosphites had good forming load-lowering properties. When used in combination, both properties supplemented each other and the antiseizure property was enhanced (Maximum workable die temperature: over 312{degrees}C at a reduction rate of cross-sectional area of 75 percent). However, seizure occured more readily in backward extrusion, since a larger active nascent surface was formed, and a sufficient amount of oil could not be supplied to the nascent surface. Powdery ureas or amide compounds helped the formation of micropools (oil pockets) and played an effective role in preventing seizure between the workpiece and the tool. Such powders acted as a good oil trapping agent and indirectly improved the effectiveness of lubricating oils. Their particles could remain at the deformed surface in the form of micropools to improve lubrication at a high piercing ration (ratio of piercing distance and punch diameter). 4 refs., 14 fig., 7 tab.

  7. Carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdemir, Ali; Ramirez, Giovanni; Eryilmaz, Osman L.; Narayanan, Badri; Liao, Yifeng; Kamath, Ganesh; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.

    2016-08-01

    Moving mechanical interfaces are commonly lubricated and separated by a combination of fluid films and solid ‘tribofilms’, which together ensure easy slippage and long wear life. The efficacy of the fluid film is governed by the viscosity of the base oil in the lubricant; the efficacy of the solid tribofilm, which is produced as a result of sliding contact between moving parts, relies upon the effectiveness of the lubricant’s anti-wear additive (typically zinc dialkyldithiophosphate). Minimizing friction and wear continues to be a challenge, and recent efforts have focused on enhancing the anti-friction and anti-wear properties of lubricants by incorporating inorganic nanoparticles and ionic liquids. Here, we describe the in operando formation of carbon-based tribofilms via dissociative extraction from base-oil molecules on catalytically active, sliding nanometre-scale crystalline surfaces, enabling base oils to provide not only the fluid but also the solid tribofilm. We study nanocrystalline catalytic coatings composed of nitrides of either molybdenum or vanadium, containing either copper or nickel catalysts, respectively. Structurally, the resulting tribofilms are similar to diamond-like carbon. Ball-on-disk tests at contact pressures of 1.3 gigapascals reveal that these tribofilms nearly eliminate wear, and provide lower friction than tribofilms formed with zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. Reactive and ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations show that the catalytic action of the coatings facilitates dehydrogenation of linear olefins in the lubricating oil and random scission of their carbon-carbon backbones; the products recombine to nucleate and grow a compact, amorphous lubricating tribofilm.

  8. Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R.

    1995-05-01

    The physical and chemical properties of mineral oils that affect lubrication are reviewed. Recognition of these properties is useful for designing lubrication systems, diagnostics, friction and wear problems, and selecting appropriate test methods.

  9. 7 CFR 3201.102 - Engine crankcase oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Designated Items § 3201.102 Engine crankcase oils. (a) Definition. Lubricating products formulated to provide lubrication and wear protection for four-cycle gasoline or diesel engines. (b) Minimum biobased content. The... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine crankcase oils. 3201.102 Section...

  10. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE, UNIT V, MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE LUBE OILS USED, MAINTENANCE OF THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM, AND CRANKCASE VENTILATION COMPONENTS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "BASIC ENGINE…

  11. Lubricant base stock potential of chemically modified vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Erhan, Sevim Z; Sharma, Brajendra K; Liu, Zengshe; Adhvaryu, Atanu

    2008-10-08

    The environment must be protected against pollution caused by lubricants based on petroleum oils. The pollution problem is so severe that approximately 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the environment via volatility, spills, or total loss applications. This threat to the environment can be avoided by either preventing undesirable losses, reclaiming and recycling mineral oil lubricants, or using environmentally friendly lubricants. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates as base fluids in environment friendly lubricants. Lubricants based on vegetable oils display excellent tribological properties, high viscosity indices, and flash points. To compete with mineral-oil-based lubricants, some of their inherent disadvantages, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature stability, must be corrected. One way to address these problems is chemical modification of vegetable oils at the sites of unsaturation. After a one-step chemical modification, the chemically modified soybean oil derivatives were studied for thermo-oxidative stability using pressurized differential scanning calorimetry and a thin-film micro-oxidation test, low-temperature fluid properties using pour-point measurements, and friction-wear properties using four-ball and ball-on-disk configurations. The lubricants formulated with chemically modified soybean oil derivatives exhibit superior low-temperature flow properties, improved thermo-oxidative stability, and better friction and wear properties. The chemically modified soybean oil derivatives having diester substitution at the sites of unsaturation have potential in the formulation of industrial lubricants.

  12. Optimizing power cylinder lubrication on a large bore natural gas engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luedeman, Matthew R.

    More than 6000 integral compressors, located along America's natural gas pipelines, pump natural gas across the United States. These compressors are powered by 2-stroke, large bore natural gas burning engines. Lowering the operating costs, reducing the emissions, and ensuring that these engines remain compliant with future emission regulations are the drivers for this study. Substantial research has focused on optimizing efficiency and reducing the fuel derived emissions on this class of engine. However, significantly less research has focused on the effect and reduction of lubricating oil derived emissions. This study evaluates the impact of power cylinder lubricating oil on overall engine emissions with an emphasis on reducing oxidation catalyst poisoning. A traditional power cylinder lubricator was analyzed; power cylinder lubricating oil was found to significantly impact exhaust emissions. Lubricating oil was identified as the primary contributor of particulate matter production in a large bore natural gas engine. The particulate matter was determined to be primarily organic carbon, and most likely direct oil carryover of small oil droplets. The particulate matter production equated to 25% of the injected oil at a nominal power cylinder lubrication rate. In addition, power cylinder friction is considered the primary contributor to friction loss in the internal combustion engine. This study investigates the potential for optimizing power cylinder lubrication by controlling power cylinder injection to occur at the optimal time in the piston cycle. By injecting oil directly into the ring pack, it is believed that emissions, catalyst poisoning, friction, and wear can all be reduced. This report outlines the design and theory of two electronically controlled lubrication systems. Experimental results and evaluation of one of the systems is included.

  13. Toxicological characteristics of refinery streams used to manufacture lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Kane, M L; Ladov, E N; Holdsworth, C E; Weaver, N K

    1984-01-01

    In the past, reports on the tumorigenic potential of lubricating oils in experimental animals have poorly defined the materials under study. In this paper the results of mouse skin painting studies with 46 clearly defined samples of refinery streams associated with lubricating oil processing show that modern conventional solvent refining of distillates removes tumorigenic potential while conventional acid refining may not. Furthermore, dewaxing, hydrofinishing, and clay treatments do not appear to mitigate the tumorigenicity of the lubricant distillates. Lubricant processing has changed over the years and assessments of the carcinogenicity of present-day lubricating materials must be based on knowledge of modern processing.

  14. New oils for oil mist lubrication to reduce fine oil droplets in stray mist

    SciTech Connect

    Shamim, A.; Kettleborough, C.F.

    1997-07-01

    In the widely used open loop oil mist lubrication system, the unused oil mist, called stray mist, is vented out into the atmosphere. The stray mist contains very little oil and applications can easily meet the OSHA requirement of maximum allowable 5 mg of oil per m{sup 3} of air. However, it has been found that for some widely used oils the stray mist contains large numbers of sub-micrometer oil particles. These particles are too small to lubricate bearings and are potentially harmful to the human respiratory system. Several new lubricating oils have been developed and tested to reduce fine oil droplets in the stray mist. The best blend of oil was able to reduce the sub-micrometer particles in the stray mist by about 75% as compared to the version of this oil currently being used. This has been accomplished without any significant change in the parameters influencing the lubrication of bearings.

  15. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives for Diesel Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Meyer III, Harry M

    2009-01-01

    The lubricating properties of two ionic liquids with the same anion but different cations, one ammonium IL [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium IL C10mim.Tf2N, were evaluated both in neat form and as oil additives. Experiments were conducted using a standardized reciprocating sliding test using a segment of a Cr-plated diesel engine piston ring against a grey cast iron flat specimen with simulated honing marks as on the engine cylinder liner. The selected ionic liquids were benchmarked against conventional hydrocarbon oils. Substantial friction and wear reductions, up to 55% and 34%, respectively, were achieved for the neat ionic liquids compared to a fully-formulated 15W40 engine oil. Adding 5 vol% ILs into mineral oil has demonstrated significant improvement in the lubricity. One blend even outperformed the 15W40 engine oil with 9% lower friction and 34% less wear. Lubrication regime modeling, worn surface morphology examination, and surface chemical analysis were conducted to help understand the lubricating mechanisms for ionic liquids. Results suggest great potential for using ionic liquids as base lubricants or lubricant additives for diesel engine applications.

  16. Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R.

    1996-02-01

    The lubricating properties of mineral oils, and contaminants which affect those properties, are discussed. A contaminant is any material not in the original fresh oil, whether it is generated within the system or ingested. 5 refs.

  17. Influence of lubricant contamination by methylesters of plant oils on oxidation stability and life

    SciTech Connect

    Siekmann, R.W.; Blackman, D.; Pischinger, G.H.; Carvalho, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Lubricating oil deterioration due to contamination by methylester of plant oil is studied in laboratory tests in MacCoull apparatus and, for comparison, bench and mixed-driving tests. Methylester of soybean oil (MESO) is added intentionally to the lubricating oil. Laboratory tests show that the amount of double bonds introduced is significant in increasing viscosity and reducing TBN. Gas-chromatographic analysis of extracted ester shows degradation mainly in fatty acids with conjugated double bonds. Tests in engines, both bench and mixed-driving, gave results similar to MacCoull but respectively and much less pronounced.

  18. Engine fuels and lubrication systems at Nakajima Aircraft Co. from 1936-1945

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, R.; Mizutani, S

    1988-01-01

    From 1941 on, all newly designed engines had to use 87-92 motor octane fuel by order of the Army and Navy. It was a very difficult task to change the engine specifications to meet this requirement, particularly for the Homare engine, which was initially designed for 100-octane fuel. The authors explain various steps taken to overcome this difficulty. As for lubricants, the main lubricant changed from castor oil to mineral oil after 1937. The Homare engine design program got under way soon after that. The lubrication system design proved to be one of the most difficult problems, and a total lubrication system was planned from the beginning. At the development stage, various difficulties were encountered, including problems with the main connecting rod bearing metal.

  19. High temperature solid lubricant materials for heavy duty and advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    DellaCorte, C.; Wood, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature sterling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. The following paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis to heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

  20. High Temperature Solid Lubricant Materials for Heavy Duty and Advanced Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, C.; Wood, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature Stirling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines, and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. This paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis on heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

  1. Investigation of vapor-phase lubrication in a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Van Treuren, K.W.; Barlow, D.N.; Heiser, W.H.; Wagner, M.J.; Forster, N.H.

    1998-04-01

    The liquid oil lubrication system of current aircraft jet engines accounts for approximately 10--15% of the total weight of the engine. It has long been a goal of the aircraft gas turbine industry to reduce this weight. Vapor-Phase Lubrication (VPL) is a promising technology to eliminate liquid oil lubrication. The current investigation resulted in the first gas turbine to operate in the absence of conventional liquid lubrication. A phosphate ester, commercially known as DURAD 620B, was chosen for the test. Extensive research at Wright Laboratory demonstrated that this lubricant could reliably lubricate rolling element bearings in the gas turbine engine environment. The Allison T63 engine was selected as the test vehicle because of its small size and bearing configuration. Specifically, VPL was evaluated in the number eight bearing because it is located in a relatively hot environment, in line with the combustor discharge, and it can be isolated from the other bearings and the liquid lubrication system. The bearing was fully instrumented and its performance with standard oil lubrication was documented. Results of this baseline study were used to develop a thermodynamic model to predict the bearing temperature with VPL. The engine was then operated at a ground idle condition with VPL with the lubricant misted into the No. 8 bearing at 13 ml/h. The bearing temperature stabilized at 283 C within 10 minutes. Engine operation was continued successfully for a total of one hour. No abnormal wear of the rolling contact surfaces was found when the bearing was later examined. Bearing temperatures after engine shutdown indicated the bearing had reached thermodynamic equilibrium with its surroundings during the test.

  2. Lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Alejandrina; Rustoy, Eduardo; Baldessari, Alicia; Baltanás, Miguel A

    2010-01-01

    This work reports laboratory results obtained from the production of polyols with branched ether and ester compounds from epoxidized vegetable oils pertaining to annual, temperate climate crops (soybean, sunflower and high-oleic sunflower oils), focusing on their possible use as components of lubricant base stocks. To this end, two different opening reactions of the epoxide ring were studied. The first caused by the attack with glacial acetic acid (exclusively in a single organic phase) and the second using short-chain aliphatic alcohols, methanol and ethanol, in acid media. Both reactions proceed under mild conditions: low synthesis temperature and short reaction times and with conversions above 99%. Spectroscopic (NMR), thermal (DSC) and rheological techniques were used to characterize the oils, their epoxides and polyols, to assess the impact of the nature of the vegetable oil and the chemical modifications introduced, including long-term storage conditions. Several correlations were employed to predict the viscosity of the vegetable oils with temperature, and good agreement with the experimental data was obtained.

  3. Toxicity and biodegradation in sandy soil contaminated by lubricant oils.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Paulo Renato Matos; Montagnolli, Renato Nallin; de Fátima Domingues, Renata; Bidoia, Ederio Dino

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the environmental behavior of different types of automotive lubricant oils. Based on respirometry assays the biodegradability was monitored, and toxicological tests were executed to assess the lubricants toxicity before and after microbial activity. Used oil was the most biodegradable, however, it was the most toxic. Also, all lubricants presented toxicity even after biodegradation due to 40% Eruca sativa germination inhibition and a low LC50 to Eisenia foetida (0.50-0.25 mL). Moreover, used automotive lubricants have a high toxicity because of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentration that establishes them as a potential carcinogen.

  4. Krytox Lubrication Tape Study. [fluorinated lubricating oil for video tape recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F.

    1978-01-01

    The use of Krytox, a fluorinated oil, as a tape surface lubricant was studied for a wideband video tape recorder. In spite of the 5 to 1 head wear reduction credited to the surface lubricant, the resultant head life fell short of the 1500 hour goal.

  5. Influence of fatty acid methyl esters from hydroxylated vegetable oils on diesel fuel lubricity.

    PubMed

    Goodrum, John W; Geller, Daniel P

    2005-05-01

    Current and future regulations on the sulfur content of diesel fuel have led to a decrease in lubricity of these fuels. This decreased lubricity poses a significant problem as it may lead to wear and damage of diesel engines, primarily fuel injection systems. Vegetable oil based diesel fuel substitutes (biodiesel) have been shown to be clean and effective and may increase overall lubricity when added to diesel fuel at nominally low levels. Previous studies on castor oil suggest that its uniquely high level of the hydroxy fatty acid ricinoleic acid may impart increased lubricity to the oil and its derivatives as compared to other vegetable oils. Likewise, the developing oilseed Lesquerella may also increase diesel lubricity through its unique hydroxy fatty acid composition. This study examines the effect of castor and Lesquerella oil esters on the lubricity of diesel fuel using the High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test and compares these results to those for the commercial vegetable oil derivatives soybean and rapeseed methyl esters.

  6. Clerget 100 hp heavy-oil engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leglise, Pierre

    1931-01-01

    A complete technical description of the Clerget heavy-oil engine is presented along with the general characteristics. The general characteristics are: 9 cylinders, bore 120 mm, stroke 130 mm, four-stroke cycle engine, rated power limited to 100 hp at 1800 rpm; weight 228 kg; propeller with direct drive and air cooling. Moving parts, engine block, and lubrication are all presented.

  7. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and grease..., lubricating oil and grease kept in all underground areas in a coal mine shall be in fireproof, closed...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and grease..., lubricating oil and grease kept in all underground areas in a coal mine shall be in fireproof, closed...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and grease..., lubricating oil and grease kept in all underground areas in a coal mine shall be in fireproof, closed...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and grease..., lubricating oil and grease kept in all underground areas in a coal mine shall be in fireproof, closed...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and grease..., lubricating oil and grease kept in all underground areas in a coal mine shall be in fireproof, closed...

  12. Worldwide lubricant trends

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on lubricating oils for internal combustion engines. Topics considered at the conference included worldwide environmental regulations and their impact on lubricant additives, passenger car gasoline engine oils in Japan, valve train wear, the field performance of super premium engine oils, wear resistance, deposits, scale control, oil thickening, low-phosphorus engine oils, bore polishing, the Tornado test, the coordination of international needs for lubricant quality,and the corrosive wear of cast iron under reciprocating lubrication.

  13. Lubricating oils for cold forward extrusion of aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Komatsuzaki, S.; Uematsu, T.

    1995-08-01

    In cold metal-forming applications, where processing is carried out continuously at high speeds, the die temperature rises due to accumulation of heat generated by friction and deformation. This heat leads to lubricant film breakdown and, subsequently, to seizure between the die and the workpiece. Actual process conditions were taken into consideration in evaluating antiseizure properties of lubricants by their maximum workable die temperature (MWT), where workpieces were formed without seizure. MWTs of lubricating oils were as follows: mineral oils: 100{degrees}-120{degrees}C; poly-{alpha}-olefin oils: 160{degrees}-170{degrees}C; polybutene oil: 150{degrees}C; ester oils: 90{degrees}C. MWTs of mineral oils or poly-{alpha}-olefins could be enhanced to around 300{degrees}C by combining them with phosphorous extreme pressure (EP) agents. An ordinary chemical conversion film, the lubricating film formed on the workpiece surface prior to working, was examined for reference. This film had an MWT of over 360{degrees}C. In addition to good antiseizure properties than lubricating oils, it had an unavoidable drawback of a color change to dark gray. With lubricating oils, the products had good luster, as long as seizure did not occur. However, in the case of oils containing phosphorus EP agents, surface degradation was recognized when the die temperature was over 250{degrees}C due to the reaction between the EP agent and the workpieces. 13 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups as additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, V.N.; Abramov, E.G.; Tenyushev, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups, which we synthesized from polyoxypropylene diols (molecular weight 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, or 3000) with toluene diisocyanate and salicylaldehyde, are of interest as additives for lubricating oils. The effects of these oligomers on the service properties and physicochemical characteristics of lubricating oils were investigated by methods prreviously described. As the lube base stocks we used castor oil, a polyoxypropylene diol and a polyethoxysiloxane. The oligomers are readily soluble in organic solvents and in the lube base stocks, and their solutions are stable during storage and use. We found that the optimal concentration of oligomers is 5%, providing the best lubricating properties, in particular the best antiwear properties.

  15. Lubricant Basestock Potential of Chemically Modified Vegetable Oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The environment must be protected against pollution caused by lubricants based on petroleum oils. The pollution problem is so severe that approximately 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the environment via volatility, spills, and total loss applications. This threat to the environment...

  16. NASA PS304 Lubricant Tested in World's First Commercial Oil-Free Gas Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Harold F.

    2003-01-01

    In a marriage of research and commercial technology, a 30-kW Oil-Free Capstone microturbine electrical generator unit has been installed and is serving as a test bed for long-term life-cycle testing of NASA-developed PS304 shaft coatings. The coatings are used to reduce friction and wear of the turbine engine s foil air bearings during startup and shut down when sliding occurs, prior to the formation of a lubricating air film. This testing supports NASA Glenn Research Center s effort to develop Oil-Free gas turbine aircraft propulsion systems, which will employ advanced foil air bearings and NASA s PS304 high temperature solid lubricant to replace the ball bearings and lubricating oil found in conventional engines. Glenn s Oil-Free Turbomachinery team s current project is the demonstration of an Oil-Free business jet engine. In anticipation of future flight certification of Oil-Free aircraft engines, long-term endurance and durability tests are being conducted in a relevant gas turbine environment using the Capstone microturbine engine. By operating the engine now, valuable performance data for PS304 shaft coatings and for industry s foil air bearings are being accumulated.

  17. DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING SYSTEM FOR UNIT #3. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  18. Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating system for unit 43. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  19. Improved biobased lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetable oils possess a number of desirable properties for lubricant application such as excellent boundary properties, high viscosity index, low volatility, low traction coefficient, renewability, and biodegradability. Unfortunately, they also have a number of weaknesses that make them less desira...

  20. Modified vegetable oils for environmentally friendly lubricant applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Synthetic lubricant base oils offer improved stability and performance characteristics over refined petroleum oils, but at a price. Most of the biodegradable synthetic oils are chemical esters that offer superior thermal and oxidative stability [8.9]. Prices for these niche products are higher tha...

  1. [The method of time series modeling and its application in the spectral analysis of lubricating oil].

    PubMed

    Gan, M; Zuo, H; Yang, Z; Jiang, Y

    2000-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss the applications of time series modeling method in the analysis of lubricating oil of mechanical equipment. We obtained satisfactory results by applying AR model to perform time series modeling and forecasting analysis to the collected spectral analysis data of the air engine. So we have built a practical method for state monitoring and trouble forecasting of mechanical equipment.

  2. Two methodologies for optical analysis of contaminated engine lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghayan, Hamid; Bordatchev, Evgueni; Yang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The performance, efficiency and lifetime of modern combustion engines significantly depend on the quality of the engine lubricants. However, contaminants, such as gasoline, moisture, coolant and wear particles, reduce the life of engine mechanical components and lubricant quality. Therefore, direct and indirect measurements of engine lubricant properties, such as physical-mechanical, electro-magnetic, chemical and optical properties, are intensively utilized in engine condition monitoring systems and sensors developed within the last decade. Such sensors for the measurement of engine lubricant properties can be used to detect a functional limit of the in-use lubricant, increase drain interval and reduce the environmental impact. This paper proposes two new methodologies for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the presence of contaminants in the engine lubricants. The methodologies are based on optical analysis of the distortion effect when an object image is obtained through a thin random optical medium (e.g. engine lubricant). The novelty of the proposed methodologies is in the introduction of an object with a known periodic shape behind a thin film of the contaminated lubricant. In this case, an acquired image represents a combined lubricant-object optical appearance, where an a priori known periodic structure of the object is distorted by a contaminated lubricant. In the object shape-based optical analysis, several parameters of an acquired optical image, such as the gray scale intensity of lubricant and object, shape width at object and lubricant levels, object relative intensity and width non-uniformity coefficient are newly proposed. Variations in the contaminant concentration and use of different contaminants lead to the changes of these parameters measured on-line. In the statistical optical analysis methodology, statistical auto- and cross-characteristics (e.g. auto- and cross-correlation functions, auto- and cross-spectrums, transfer function

  3. The characterization of oil-degrading microorganisms from lubricating oil contaminated (scale) soil.

    PubMed

    Jirasripongpun, K

    2002-01-01

    To isolate and characterize oil-degrading microorganisms from contaminated (scale) soil. Oil-degrading microorganisms were isolated from enrichment cultures of scale soil. Each isolate was identified using 16S rDNA gene and oil degradability was determined on both unused and used lubricating oil. The weight of the extracted remaining oil revealed that most isolates degraded unused lubricating oil more than used lubricating oil. Chemical composition of oil analysed by TLC-FID and GC-MS demonstrated that Nocardia simplex W9 degraded used oil the best, and resulted in a decrease in saturates, aromatics and resins to 52.46, 38.13 and 18.81%, respectively. Nocardia simplex W9 is the best degrader, among all the isolates, on both used and unused lubricating oil. The presence of Nocardia simplex W9 in scale soil enables iron to be recycled by biodegradation.

  4. Rise of Air Bubbles in Aircraft Lubricating Oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. V.

    1950-01-01

    Lubricating and antifoaming additives in aircraft lubricating oils may impede the escape of small bubbles from the oil by forming shells of liquid with a quasi-solid or gel structure around the bubbles. The rates of rise of small air bubbles, up to 2 millimeters in diameter, were measured at room temperature in an undoped oil, in the same oil containing foam inhibitors, and in an oil containing lubricating additives. The apparent diameter of the air bubbles was measured visually through an ocular micrometer on a traveling telescope. The bubbles in the undoped oil obeyed Stokes' Law, the rate of rise being proportional to the square of the apparent diameter and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the oil. The bubbles in the oils containing lubricating additives or foam inhibitors rose more slowly than the rate predicted by Stokes 1 Law from the apparent diameter, and the rate of rise decreased as the length of path the bubbles traveled increased. A method is derived to calculate the thickness of the liquid shell which would have to move with the bubbles in the doped oils to account for the abnoi'I!l8.lly slow velocity. The maximum thickness of this shell, calculated from the velocities observed, was equal to the bubble radius.

  5. Lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Shubkin, R.L.

    1980-08-19

    Hydrogenated dimers of /sup 12 -18/C alpha olefins (e.g., 1-tetradecene) made using a friedel-crafts catalyst (e.g., /sup 3/Bf promoted with water) have low pour points, low volatility and viscosities which make them suitable as crankcase lubricants for internal combustion engines.

  6. Tribological performance of NFC coatings under oil lubrication[Near Frictionless Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O. O.; Alzoubi, M.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Zimmerman, S.

    2000-01-20

    An increase in engine and vehicle efficiency usually requires an increase in the severity of contact at the interfaces of many critical components. Examples of such components include piston rings and cylinder liners in the engine, gears in the transmission and axle, bearings, etc. These components are oil-lubricated and require enhancement of their tribological performance. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) recently developed a carbon-based coating with very low friction and wear properties. These near-frictionless-carbon (NFC) coatings have potential for application in various engine components for performance enhancement. This paper presents the study of the tribological performance of NFC-coated steel surfaces when lubricated with fully formulated and basestock synthetic oils. The NFC coatings reduced both the friction and wear of lubricated steel surfaces. The effect of the coating was much more pronounced in tests with basestock oil. This suggests that NFC-coated parts may not require heavily formulated lubricant oils to perform satisfactorily in terms of reliability and durability.

  7. Optical fiber spectroscopy for measuring quality indicators of lubricant oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazia Mignani, Anna; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Díaz-Herrera, Natalia; Azelio Mencaglia, Andrea; Ottevaere, Heidi; Thienpont, Hugo; Francalanci, Stefano; Paccagnini, Alessandro; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2009-03-01

    A collection of lubricant oils from different types of turbines, which were characterized by different degrees of degradation, were analyzed by means of wide-range absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and scattering measurements. All these measurements were performed by means of optical fiber-based instrumentation that made use of compact lamps or LED illumination, and miniaturized spectrometers for detection. Multivariate data analysis was used to successfully correlate the wide optical spectral signature of lubricant oils with some of the most important parameters indicating the degree of oil degradation, such as TAN, JOAP index, water content and phosphorus.

  8. Optical fiber spectroscopy for measuring quality indicators of lubricant oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Díaz-Herrera, N.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Francalanci, S.; Paccagnini, A.; Pavone, F.

    2008-04-01

    A collection of lubricant oils from different types of turbines, which were characterized by different degrees of degradation, were analyzed by means of UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and scattering measurements. All these measurements were performed by means of optical fiber-based instrumentation that made use of LEDs or compact lamps for illumination and miniaturized spectrometers for detection. Multivariate data analysis was used to successfully correlate the wide optical spectral signature of lubricant oils to some of the most important parameters for indicating the degree of degradation of the oil, such as TAN, JOAP-index, water content, and phosphorus.

  9. Low phosphorus- and sulfur-containing lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.E.

    1986-04-15

    A lubricating oil composition is described containing less than about 0.1% by weight of phosphorus and comprising a major amount of an oil of lubricating viscosity, and a minor amount of at least one oil-soluble sulfur-containing material which comprises the reaction product of sulfur and a Diels-Alder adduct in a molar ratio of less than 1.7:1 wherein the adduct is an adduct of at least one dienophile with at least one aliphatic conjugated diene.

  10. Tribological effects of oxide based nanoparticles in lubricating oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Cai-Xiang; Zhu, Guan-Jun; Li, Lei; Tian, Xiao-Yu; Zhu, Guang-Yao

    2009-03-01

    In order to enhance the tribological properties of lubricating oil, suitable surfactants such as Tween-20, Tween-60, Span-20 and Sodium sodecylbenzenesulfonate were selected and lubricating oils containing CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared. The morphology and size of CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles were examined with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The tribological properties of the oils were tested using an MRS-1J four-ball tribotester. The research results show that when the proportion by weight of CeO2 nanoparticles to TiO2 nanoparticles is 1:3, and the total weight fraction is 0.6%, the lubricating oil has optimal anti-wear and friction reducing properties. The addition of CeO2 nanoparticles reduces the required amount of TiO2 nanoparticles.

  11. Lubricity characteristics of seed oils modified by acylation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chemically modified seed oils via acylation of epoxidized and polyhydroxylated derivatives were investigated for their potential as candidates for lubrication. The native oil was preliminarily epoxidized and ring-opened in a one-pot reaction using formic acid-H2O2 followed by aqueous HCl treatment t...

  12. Emulsification of chemically modified vegetable oils for lubricant use

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several previously uncharacterized emulsions were studied in this paper, including those made form epoxidized vegetable oils. A series of different surfactants were studied in order to obtain emulsions suitable for lubrication applications. The epoxidized oils were found to form stable emulsions i...

  13. Lubricant oil production: The proper marriage of process and catalyst technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, G.L.; Suchanek, A.

    1996-12-01

    As the industry moves into the next millennium, higher product quality demands to meet the higher performance needs of modern engine technology and rising costs of traditional good quality lube crudes are driving lubricant base oil manufacturers to select hydroprocessing options versus traditional solvent refining techniques. This paper discusses how to properly select the best economic hydroprocessing technology necessary to produce high quality lubricant base oils and waxes. The economic success of such operations depends on the proper combination of process and catalyst technologies that maximizes yields of high quality products with minimum consumption of hydrogen resources and process utilities. This is particular true on the extreme end of the quality spectrum, namely, Very High Viscosity Index (VHVI) base oils and food grade white oils and waxes where there is no room for marginal product quality. Multiplicity of operations is also becoming more important as refiners try to upgrade their facilities with as little capital expense as possible, while at the same time, broaden their high valued product slate to recoup these expenses in the shortest possible payback period. Lyondell Licensing and Criterion Catalyst have put together an effective alliance based on years of development and commercial experience in both the process and catalyst areas to assist lubricant oil manufacturers in meeting these future challenges using as much existing equipment and infrastructure as is practical. Their experience will permit the proper fitting of the chemistry of hydroprocessing to make lubricant base oils to existing or new operations.

  14. 7 CFR 2902.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 2902.25 Section 2902.25... Items § 2902.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle engines to... least 34 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as...

  15. 7 CFR 2902.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 2902.25 Section 2902.25... Items § 2902.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle engines to... least 34 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as...

  16. Contribution of unburned lubricating oil and diesel fuel to particulate emission from passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenberger, Sandro; Mohr, Martin; Grob, Koni; Neukom, Hans Peter

    In this study we determined particle-bound paraffins in the exhaust of six light-duty diesel vehicles on a chassis dynamometer for different driving cycles and ambient temperatures. The filters containing particulate matter were extracted with dichloromethane in a Soxhlet apparatus, and the paraffin analysis was performed using two-dimensional normal phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled on-line to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The different molecular mass of lubricant and diesel paraffins facilitated the distinction between diesel and lubricant contribution to the emission. Although all vehicles were certified according to the same emission class, there were considerable variations between vehicles. The study showed that under cold-start conditions the organic mass fraction ranged from 10% to 30% with respect to particle mass and the paraffins from 30% to 60% with respect to the organic mass. With cold engine, falling ambient temperature increased the emission of unburned diesel fuel, whereas that from unburned lubricating oil was less affected. Under warm-start conditions, the ambient temperature had less impact on the emission of paraffins. The emissions were also affected by the operating conditions of the engine: driving cycles with higher mean load tend towards higher emissions of lubricant. The operating conditions also affected the distribution of paraffins: the emission of light paraffins seemed to be lower with higher load in the driving cycle. With an urban and a highway cycle, roughly 40% and 80% w/w, respectively, of unburned paraffins were contributed by the lubricant. Measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in lubricating oil showed lubricant to be a sink for PAHs. As lubricant significantly contributes to the organic emission, as shown in this study, it can be assumed that it is also a significant source of PAH emissions.

  17. Turbine engine lubricant foaming due to silicone basestock used in non-specification spline lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Centers, P.W.

    1995-05-01

    Dependent upon molecular weight and distribution, concentration, temperature, air flow, and test details or field application, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) may be neutral, profoamant or antifoamant in polyolesters. This understanding was critical in the solution of a turbine engine lubrication system foaming problem occurring at several military locations. Suspect turbine engine-accessory gearbox assembly materials gathered from several sites were evaluated. One non-specification PDMS-based spline lubricant caused copious foaming of the lubricant at less than ten parts-per-million concentration, while a specification polymethyl-phenylsiloxane (PMPS)-based lubricant required a concentration nearly 2000 times greater to generate equivalent foam. Use of the profoamant PDMS spline lubricant was then prohibited. Since prohibition, foaming of turbine engine lubricants used in the particular application has not been reported. PMPS impact on foaming of ester lubricants is similar to a much more viscous PDMS attributed to the reduced interaction of PMPS in esters due to pendant phenyl structure of PMPS absent in PDMS. These data provide significant additional insight and methodology to investigate foaming tendencies of partially miscible silicone-ester and other fluid systems. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Role of engine age and lubricant chemistry on the characteristics of EGR soot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeniran, Olusanmi Adeniji

    Exhaust products of Diesel Engines serves as an environmental hazard, and to curtail this problem a Tier 3 emission standard was introduced which involves change in engine designs and introduction of EGR systems in Diesel engines. EGR systems, however has the challenge of generating soot which are abrasive and are major causes of wear in Diesel engines. This work has studied the characteristics of EGR soot formed in different range of engine age and in different lubricant chemistries of Mineral and Synthetic based diesel Oils. It is found that lubricant degradation is encouraged by less efficient combustion as engine age increases, and these are precursors to formation of crystalline and amorphous particles that are causes of wear in Diesel Engines. It is found that soot from new engine is dominated by calcium based crystals which are from calcium sulfonate detergent, which reduces formation of second phase particles that can be abrasive. Diversity and peak intensity is seen to increase in soot samples as engine age increases. This understanding of second phase particles formed in engines across age ranges can help in the durability development of engine, improvement of Oil formulation for EGR engines, and in development of chemistries for after-treatment Oil solutions that can combat formation of abrasive particles in Oils.

  19. Recycling used lubricating oil at the deep space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koh, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison is made of the lubricating oil recycling methods used in the Deep Space Station 43 test and the basic requirements which could favor recycling of oil for continuous reuse. The basic conditions for successful recycling are compared to the conditions that exist in the Deep Space Network (DSN). This comparison shows that to recycle used oil in the DSN would not only be expensive but also nonproductive.

  20. The Performance of Perfluoropolyalkylether Oils Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-15

    Lubricants 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify, by block number) -erfi uoropolya lkyl ether ( PFPE ) oils and oil-based greases are...because of the inability of the PFPE fluids to dissolve antiwear additives. To augment the fundamental studies, a series of wear tests comparing PFPE ...oils - i greases with hydrocarbon fluids under boundary conditions were performed. As predicted, tre performances of the PFPE fluids were below that of

  1. Distillation and solvent extraction process for rerefining used lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, H.J.; Fletcher, L.C.; O'blasny, R.

    1982-11-23

    Used oil is rerefined by distillation and extraction with tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. In accordance with the process, used oil is rerefined by distillation to remove a volatile forecut followed by further distillation with recirculation provisions to obtain the desired fractions of lubricating oil products while reducing the vaporization temperature of the oil. The recycle effect tends to reduce coking and cracking while providing a greater recovery of lubricating oil products through the carrier effect of the light ends. After the desired fractions of lubricating oil have been obtained by the distillation phase of the process, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol is utilized in an extraction process to remove impurities remaining in the distilled oil. The tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol-lube oil mixture is separated into a raffinate and extract stream for distilling and steam stripping the tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol therefrom. In one embodiment of the invention, a waste oil feedstock has water, gasoline and other similarly volatile components removed in a first stage evaporator (16). Heavier fuel, such as fuel oil is then removed in the second stage evaporator (28). A light lube oil fraction is then obtained by distillation with a third stage wiped-film evaporator (40). Finally, a heavy lube oil fraction is obtained by distillation of the bottoms from the evaporator (40) in a fourth-stage with a wiped-film evaporator (64). The heavy and light lube oil fractions are then treated in the fifth stage of the process in which each of the lube oil fractions mix with tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol in extraction columns (80) and (96). Each of the tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and oil fractions are then separated into raffinate and extract streams for further treatment to further separate and recover the finished light and heavy lube oil products and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol which is reused in the fifth stage of the process.

  2. Measurement of rod seal lubrication for Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauter, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The elastohydrodynamic behavior of sliding elastomeric seals for the Stirling engine, was analyzed using an experimental apparatus to determine the instantaneous oil film thickness throughout the cyclic reciprocating motion. Tests were conducted on two commercial elastomeric seals: a "T" seal (76 mm O.D. and 3.8 mm between backing rings) and an "O" ring (76 mm O.D. and 5.3 mm diameter). Testing conditions included seal durometers of 70 and 90, sliding velocities of 0.8, 2.0, and 3.6 m/s, and no pressure gradient across the seal. Both acrylic and aluminum cylinders were used. Measured oil film thickness profiles were compared to results of the elastohydrodynamic analysis. The comparison shows an overall qualitative agreement. Friction and oil leakage measurements were also made at these sliding speeds. The fluid used was a typical synthetic base automotive lubricant. It is concluded that this first time experimental analytical comparison for oil film thickness indicates the need for some improvements in the analytical model and in the experimental technique.

  3. Antiwear performance and mechanism of an oil-miscible ionic liquid as a lubricant additive.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G; Yu, Bo; Howe, Jane Y; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Li, Huaqing; Blau, Peter J; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald J

    2012-02-01

    An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential antiwear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in nonpolar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 °C, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in an ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8°). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective antiscuffing and antiwear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt % addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced in neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by 3 orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current antiwear additive when added into a fully formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL's antiscuffing and antiwear functionality.

  4. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final engineering evaluation/cost analysis: Petroleum, oil, and lubricants area, Galena Airport, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-05

    This decision document presents the selected removal action for the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) site ST005, otherwise known as the POL Tank Farm, at Galena Airport, Alaska. This decision is based on the administrative record for this site, specifically the draft Remedial Investigation Report (March 1995) and the Treatability Study Report (January 1995) (PB95-225314). The information from these documents is summarized, along with an analysis of potential removal action alternatives in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA).

  5. Spectroscopic analysis of automotive engine oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmani, Rachid; Gupta, Neelam

    2002-02-01

    Infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) and acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology were combined to develop a portable spectrophotometer for use in engine oil analysis to identify and quantify oil contaminants and residue products, Preliminary measurements were taken with a field-portable AOTF-based spectrometer (2 to 4.5 micrometers ) and an FTIR spectrometer (2 to 25 micrometers ) for comparison. Absorption spectra of used and unused oil samples were measured and compared to determine absorption changes between the various samples resulting from oil degradation and any chemical reactions that might have taken place during high- temperature engine lubrication. These preliminary results indicate that IR spectroscopy can be used for oil quality monitoring in automotive engines, which will help predict and prevent engine failure and degradation. This work can be extended to other remote sensing applications, such as the monitoring of environmental oil spills.

  6. Safety engineering in handling fuels and lubricants in civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protoereiskii, Aleksandr Stepanovich

    The book is concerned with methods of improving working conditions, work hygiene, safety engineering, and fire and explosion prevention during the storage and handling of petroleum products at fuel and lubricant storage facilities. The discussion covers methods of protection against static and atmospheric discharges, lightning protection, safety engineering in fuel and lubricant laboratories, and methods of fire prevention and fire extinction. Attention is also given to methods for administering first aid in case of accidents and poisoning.

  7. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven... and a permanent 5° trim. (b) When pressure or gravity-forced lubrication is employed for the steam... coolers on steam driven machinery shall be provided with two separate means of circulating water...

  8. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven... and a permanent 5° trim. (b) When pressure or gravity-forced lubrication is employed for the steam... coolers on steam driven machinery shall be provided with two separate means of circulating water...

  9. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven... and a permanent 5° trim. (b) When pressure or gravity-forced lubrication is employed for the steam... coolers on steam driven machinery shall be provided with two separate means of circulating water...

  10. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven... and a permanent 5° trim. (b) When pressure or gravity-forced lubrication is employed for the steam... coolers on steam driven machinery shall be provided with two separate means of circulating water...

  11. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven... and a permanent 5° trim. (b) When pressure or gravity-forced lubrication is employed for the steam... coolers on steam driven machinery shall be provided with two separate means of circulating water...

  12. High-Temperature Solid Lubricants Developed by NASA Lewis Offer Virtually "Unlimited Life" for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is capitalizing on breakthroughs in foil air bearing performance, tribological coatings, and computer analyses to formulate the Oil-free Turbomachinery Program. The program s long-term goal is to develop an innovative, yet practical, oil-free aeropropulsion gas turbine engine that floats on advanced air bearings. This type of engine would operate at higher speeds and temperatures with lower weight and friction than conventional oil-lubricated engines. During startup and shutdown, solid lubricant coatings are required to prevent wear in such engines before the self-generating air-lubrication film develops. NASA s Tribology Branch has created PS304, a chrome-oxide-based plasma spray coating specifically tailored for shafts run against foil bearings. PS304 contains silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic (BaF2/CaF2) lubricant additives that, together, provide lubrication from cold start temperatures to over 650 C, the maximum use temperature for foil bearings. Recent lab tests show that bearings lubricated with PS304 survive over 100 000 start-stop cycles without experiencing any degradation in performance due to wear. The accompanying photograph shows a test bearing after it was run at 650 C. The rubbing process created a "polished" surface that enhances bearing load capacity.

  13. [Acidity and temperature effect on the fluorescence characteristics of hydraulic oils and lubricants].

    PubMed

    Deng, Hu; Zhou, Xun; Shang, Li-ping; Zhang, Ze-lin; Wang, Shun-li

    2014-12-01

    By analyzing HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil environmental impacts (oil, etc.) and confounding factors (pH, temperature, etc.), the feasibility was studied for the fluorescence detection of aircraft hydraulic oil leaks. By using the fluorescence spectrophotometer at various acidities and temperatures, the fluorescence properties of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil, Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant were gained. The experimental results are shown as following: The fluorescence peaks of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil, Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant are at 362, 405 and 456 nm, respectively. The impact of temperature on HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil is less effective; Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant fluorescence intensity decreases with increasing temperature. When acidity increases, the fluorescence peak of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil gradient shifts from 370 to 362 nm, and the fluorescence intensity decreases; the fluorescence peak of Jet Oil II lubricant is always 405 nm, while the fluorescence intensity decreases; the fluorescence peak of 2197 lubricant at 456 nm red shifts to 523 nm, and double fluorescence peaks appeare. The results are shown as following: under the influence of the environment and interference factors, the fluorescence characteristics of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil remain unchanged, and distinguish from Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant. Therefore, the experiments indicate that the detection of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil leak is feasible by using fluorescence method.

  14. Advantages of catalytically de-waxed lubricant base oils

    SciTech Connect

    Schoonmaker, J.P.; Stiponavic, A.J.

    1996-10-01

    The production of base oils used in the formulation of lubricants involves the vacuum distillation of crude oil followed by a series of processing steps that improve physical and chemical properties including viscosity index and oxidative stability. An important stage in this process is the removal of linear parafins (wax) from the base oil which can crystalize causing poor flow properties at low temperatures. {open_quotes}De-waxing{close_quotes} may be accomplished using a solvent precipitation batch process (solvent de-waxing: SDW) or through a more modern continuous catalytic process (catalytic de-waxing: CDW) which offers many advantages. In general, catalytically de-waxed base oils exhibit improved low temperature fluidity which provides enhanced performance for transmission fluids and other lubricants required to operate efficiently at temperature reaching -40{degrees}C. A discussion of the molecular mechanisms involved in CDW and results of viscometric testing at low temperatures will be presented.

  15. 39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE LOCATED AT ROOF LEVEL AT THE NORTHEAST REAR CORNER OF DIABLO POWERHOUSE, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  16. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine cooling and lubrication. 1065.122 Section 1065.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.122 Engine cooling...

  17. 7 CFR 3201.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 3201.25 Section 3201.25... Designated Items § 3201.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle... of at least 34 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in...

  18. 7 CFR 3201.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 3201.25 Section 3201.25... Designated Items § 3201.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle... of at least 34 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in...

  19. 7 CFR 3201.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 3201.25 Section 3201.25... Designated Items § 3201.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle... of at least 34 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in...

  20. Oil-air mist lubrication for helicopter gearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrogan, F.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of a once-through oil mist system to the lubrication of helicopter spur gears was investigated and compared to conventional jet spray lubrication. In the mist lubrication mode, cooling air was supplied at 366K (200 F) to the out of mesh location of the gear sets. The mist air was also supplied at 366K (200 F) to the radial position mist nozzle at a constant rate of 0.0632 mol/s (3 SCFM) per nozzle. The lubricant contained in the mist air varied between 32 - 44 cc/hour. In the recirculating jet spray mode, the flow rate was varied between 1893 - 2650 cc/hour. Visual inspection revealed the jet spray mode produced a superior surface finish on the gear teeth but a thermal energy survey showed a 15 - 20% increase in heat generated. The gear tooth condition in the mist lubrication mode system could be improved if the cooling air and lubricant/air flow ratio were increased. The test gearbox and the procedure used are described.

  1. Diagnosis of lubricating oil by evaluating cyanide and carbon molecular emission lines in laser induced breakdown spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnasharty, I. Y.; Kassem, A. K.; Sabsabi, M.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-08-01

    To prevent engine failure it is essential to change lubricating oil regularly before it loses its protective properties. It is also necessary to monitor the physical and chemical conditions of the oil to reliably determine the optimum oil-change intervals. The present work focuses on studying evolution of the cyanide (CN) and carbon (C 2) molecular spectral emission lines in the laser induced breakdown spectra of lubricating oil as a function of its consumption. The intensities of these molecular bands have been taken as indicator of engine oil degradation at certain mileage. Furthermore, the percentage of decay of CN and C 2 integral intensity values at the corresponding mileage was calculated in order to relate it to the degree of consumption of the motor oil. Such percentage decay of the CN and C 2 integral intensities have been found to increase gradually with increasing mileage which is accompanied with increasing depletion of engine oil. The results of using LIBS technique in the present measurements proved that it is possible to have a direct, straightforward and easy method for prediction of lubricating oil degree of consumption. This may facilitate scheduling the proper time and/or mileage intervals for changing the oil to avoid any possibility of engine failure.

  2. Development of high temperature liquid lubricants for low-heat rejection heavy duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wiczynski, T.A.; Marolewski, T.A.

    1993-03-01

    Objective was to develop a liquid lubricant that will allow advanced diesel engines to operate at top ring reversal temperatures approaching 500 C and lubricant sump temperatures approaching 250 C. Base stock screening showed that aromatic esters and diesters has the lowest deposit level, compared to polyol esters, poly-alpha-olefins, or refined mineral oil of comparable viscosity. Classical aryl and alkyl ZDP antiwear additives are ineffective in reducing wear with aromatic esters; the phosphate ester was a much better antiwear additive, and polyol esters are more amenable to ZDP treatment. Zeolites and clays were evaluated for filtration.

  3. Solvent extraction process for rerefining used lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, L.C.; O'blasny, R.H.

    1981-11-24

    In accordance with the present invention, a process is provided for removing impurities from heavy and light lube oil fractions that have been obtained from waste lubricating oil. The impurities in the light lube oil fraction are removed utilizing tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol in an extraction column (10). An oilrich raffinate has the solvent removed therefrom by steam distillation and stripping at reduced pressure in a distillation tower (20). The heavy lube oil fraction is purified in a manner similar to the purification of the light lube oil fraction. The finished heavy and light lube oil may then be subjected to further treatment, such as polishing steps or additives may be blended into the lube oil product depending on the desired use.

  4. Biobased lubricant from used cooking oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As more and more people look for healthy alternatives for cooking and frying oils, the opportunity to develop high-value products from these waste streams increases. Cooking oils that are often described as healthier contain higher levels of monounsaturated fats. NuSun® sunflower oil is an example o...

  5. Mixed film lubrication with biobased oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most tribological processes (e.g. metalworking), occur in the mixed film regime where the boundary and hydrodynamic properties of the oils play critical roles. In the work described here, the boundary and hydrodynamic properties of various biobased oils were evaluated. The oils were then investiga...

  6. Factors affecting the forensic examination of automotive lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, Ryan; Goodpaster, John V; Evans, Michelle R

    2011-05-01

    Lubricating oil comparisons impact a variety of forensic investigations, including cases where oil was transferred from a suspect vehicle to the crime scene or victim. In this study, high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to examine the influence of oil mixtures and oil changes over time on the comparison of known and questioned lubricating oils. Varying concentrations of oil mixtures were prepared and showed the potential for identifying individual components. Motor oils from 18 automobiles monitored over a 2-month period did not demonstrate significant changes in the chromatographic data. Chemometric analysis of motor oil mass spectral data provided little information regarding differentiation of, or changes in, the samples. Power steering fluid (PSF) from a naturally occurring leak collected from several locations was consistent with the PSF in the automobile's reservoir, and the PSF composition did not change over time. 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  7. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155.320 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR...

  8. Effects of two lubricant oils on marine nematode assemblages in a laboratory microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Beyrem, H; Louati, H; Essid, N; Aïssa, P; Mahmoudi, E

    2010-05-01

    The effects of two lubricating oils on nematode assemblages of a Tunisian lagoon were investigated in a microcosm experiment. Sediment from a pristine site in Ghar El Melh lagoon (Western Mediterranean) was treated with either mineral oil (Mobil 20 W-50), a synthetic lubricant (Mobil 0 W-40), the same two lubricants after use in a vehicle, and effects were examined after 5 weeks. Univariate analysis showed significant differences between most univariate indices of the nematode assemblages in all the lubricant treatments as compared to the control. Total nematode abundance (I), species richness (d) and number of species (S) decreased significantly in all lubricant contaminated microcosms. However, evenness was not affected in all treated replicates except in used mineral lubricant treatment where it was significantly higher than in the control. Diversity (H') was only altered in synthetic lubricant treatments. Results from multivariate analyses of the species abundance data demonstrated that responses of nematode species to the two lubricants treatments were varied: Daptonema trabeculosum was eliminated in all lubricant treatments and seemed to be an intolerant species to oil contamination. Spirinia gerlachi increased in mineral lubricant treatments ("clean" and used) but was eliminated in all synthetic lubricant treatments. This species could be categorized as "resistant" to mineral oil contamination and intolerant to synthetic lubricant contamination. Terschellingia longicaudata increased only in synthetic lubricant treatments ("clean" and used) and appeared to be a "synthetic oil-resistant" species. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An integrated lubricant oil conditioning sensor using signal multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoliang; Du, Li; Zhe, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    One effective approach to detect signs of potential failure of a rotating or reciprocating machine is to examine the conditions of its lubrication oil. Here we present an integrated oil condition sensor for detecting both wear debris and lubricant properties. The integrated sensor consists of miniature multiplexed sensing elements for detection of wear debris and measurements of viscosity and moisture. The oil debris sensing element consists of eight sensing channels to detect wear debris in parallel; the elements for measuring oil viscosity and moisture, based on interdigital electrode sensing, were fabricated using micromachining. The integrated sensor was installed and tested in a laboratory lubricating system. Signal multiplexing was applied to the outputs of the three sensing elements such that responses from all sensing elements were obtained within two measurements, and the signal-to-noise ratio was improved. Testing results show that the integrated sensor is capable of measuring wear debris (>50 µm), moisture (>50 ppm) and viscosity (>12.4 cSt) at a high throughput (200 ml min-1). The device can be potentially used for online health monitoring of rotating machines.

  10. Lubrication properties of new crop oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oils from new crops such as lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.), and cuphea PSR-23 (Cuphea viscosissima × Cuphea lanceolata) were investigated and compared with vegetable oils from commodity crops such as castor, corn, and soybea...

  11. Lubricants and functional fluids from lesquerella oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lesquerella fendleri is an oilseed crop belonging to the Brassicaceae (mustard) family that is native to the desert of the southwestern United States. The interest in this crop is due to the high level of hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) in the oil. The seed contains 33% oil, 23% protein, and 15% gums. The...

  12. Lubricants based on renewable resources--an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products.

    PubMed

    Willing, A

    2001-04-01

    The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the Club of Rome, 1972) and the two oil crises of 1979 and 1983, however, elucidated that mineral oil is on principle a limited resource. In addition, environmental problems associated with the production and use of chemicals and the limited capacity of nature to tolerate pollution became obvious (G.H. Brundtland, et al., in: Hauff, Volker (Ed.), World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Report of the Brundtland-Commission, Oxford, UK, 1987), and the critical discussion included besides acid rain, smog, heavy metals, and pesticides also mineral oil (especially oil spills like the case Exxon Valdes). A disadvantage of mineral oil is its poor biodegradability and thus its potential for long-term pollution of the environment. From the early development of lubricants for special applications (e.g. turbojet engine oils) it was known, that fatty acid polyol esters have comparable or even better technical properties than mineral oil. Subsequently, innumerable synthetic esters have been synthesized by systematic variation of the fatty acid and the alcohol components. Whereas the alcohol moiety of the synthetic esters are usually of petrochemical origin, the fatty acids are almost exclusively based on renewable resources. The physico-chemical properties of oleochemical esters can cover the complete spectrum of technical requirements for the development of high-performance industrial oils and lubricants (e.g. excellent lubricating properties, good heat stability, high viscosity index, low volatility and superior shear stability). For a comprehensive review of their technical properties see F. Bongardt, in: Jahrbuchf

  13. Reclamation of Used MIL-L-23699 Lubricants for Reuse in Military Aircraft Turbine Engines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    SQUIRES 13. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Yr.. Mo.. Day) 15. PAGE COUNT FINAL FROM AUG 85 TO JUL 87 NOVEMBER 1987 43 16...Turbine Engine Lubricant. Thirteen 55 gallon drums of this type of used oil were provided by United StatfsNavy for this research. Three of these were...Reclaimed feedstocks After Additive Treatment ................................................ 33 14 Foaming Test "ASIM. D .892-IP.146 Alternative

  14. Marine Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  15. 22. DETAIL TO NORTHWEST OF LUBRICATING OIL TANKS AND FILTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL TO NORTHWEST OF LUBRICATING OIL TANKS AND FILTERS FOR UNITS 1-4 (CENTER), AND UNIT 3 GOVERNOR (RIGHT CENTER FOREGROUND) AND GATE VALVE (RIGHT CENTER BACKGROUND) CONTROLS, OLD POWERHOUSE GENERATOR FLOOR - Trenton Falls Hydroelectric Station, Powerhouse & Substation, On west bank of West Canada Creek, along Trenton Falls Road, 1.25 miles north of New York Route 28, Trenton Falls, Oneida County, NY

  16. Effect of corrosive contaminants on lubricating properties of turbine oil

    SciTech Connect

    Spirkin, V.G.; Gil`mutdinov, Sh.K.

    1995-01-01

    In the operation of centrifugal and piston compressors on natural gas transmission lines, it is found that air, moisture, and hydrogen sulfide get into the lubricating oil. These contaminants, especially hydrogen sulfide, affect the lubricating properties of the oil to a great degree; however, this problem, which is directly related to the operating reliability of the moving parts of compressors, has not been studied adequately. Oxygen dissolved in the oil forms an iron oxide film on rubbing metal surfaces, protecting them from wear. When no oxygen is present, the wear becomes much more severe, all the way up to grabbing of the rubbing surfaces and pitting. Oil contaminants that form surface films with a different composition and structure, for example oxysulfide films, have received less attention. Using a procedure that we had developed, in which the oil can be saturated with hydrogen sulfide or other gases, we investigated the effects on wear rate and coefficient of friction from the presence of corrosive contaminants that find their way into turbine oil in the process of natural gas transmission.

  17. Logistics of Industrial Lubrication Oil Reclamation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-24

    anti-friction bearings , 0.5 micron and up. Clearances in many hydraulic components are very close, 0.5 micron and less. Another troublesome...oxidation by-products, and heat in the process in hydraulic oil will cause waxy and gummy residue on valve surface which will cause erratic valve performance...passing through to the coolant pump. The negative effect of fine contamination in cutting oil has a marked bearing on tool performance. Since the

  18. Lubrication of Space Shuttle Main Engine Turbopump Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Howard; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has three main engines that are used for propulsion into orbit. These engines are fed propellants by four turbopumps on each engine. A main element in the turbopump is the bearings supporting the rotor that spins the turbine blades and the pump impeller. These bearings are required to spin at very high speeds, support radial and thrust loads, and have high wear resistance without the benefit of lubrication. The liquid hydrogen and oxygen propellants flow through the bearings to cool the surfaces. The volatile nature of the propellants excludes any conventional means of lubrication. Lubrication for these bearings is provided by the ball separator inside the bearing. The separator is a composite material that supplies a transfer film of lubrication to the rings and balls. New separator materials and lubrication schemes have been investigated at Marshall Space Flight Center in a bearing test rig with promising results. Hybrid bearings with silicon nitride balls have also been evaluated. The use of hybrid, silicon nitride ball bearings in conjunction -with better separator materials has shown excellent results. The work that Marshall has done is being utilized in turbopumps flying on the space shuttle fleet and will be utilized in future space travel. This result of this work is valuable for all aerospace and commercial applications where high-speed bearings are used.

  19. Lubrication of Space Shuttle Main Engine Turbopump Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Howard; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has three main engines that are used for propulsion into orbit. These engines are fed propellants by four turbopumps on each engine. A main element in the turbopump is the bearings supporting the rotor that spins the turbine blades and the pump impeller. These bearings are required to spin at very high speeds, support radial and thrust loads, and have high wear resistance without the benefit of lubrication. The liquid hydrogen and oxygen propellants flow through the bearings to cool the surfaces. The volatile nature of the propellants excludes any conventional means of lubrication. Lubrication for these bearings is provided by the ball separator inside the bearing. The separator is a composite material that supplies a transfer film of lubrication to the rings and balls. New separator materials and lubrication schemes have been investigated at Marshall Space Flight Center in a bearing test rig with promising results. Hybrid bearings with silicon nitride balls have also been evaluated. The use of hybrid, silicon nitride ball bearings in conjunction -with better separator materials has shown excellent results. The work that Marshall has done is being utilized in turbopumps flying on the space shuttle fleet and will be utilized in future space travel. This result of this work is valuable for all aerospace and commercial applications where high-speed bearings are used.

  20. Waste lubricating oil removal in a batch reactor by mixed bacterial consortium: a kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Munna; Guchhait, Sugata; Biswas, Dipa; Datta, Sriparna

    2015-11-01

    The growth kinetics and biodegradation of two waste lubricating oil samples including waste engine oil (WEO) and waste transformer oil (WTO) were studied using pure isolates and mixed culture of Ochrobactrum sp. C1 and Bacillus sp. K1. The mixed culture significantly influenced degradation efficiency of the pure isolates through bioaugmentation process. In particular, the mixed culture was capable of growing on various n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and was able to tolerate unusually high concentrations of waste lubricants (WEO-86.0 g/L and WTO-81.5 g/L). The initial concentration of waste lubricating oils has been varied in the range of 1-10 % (v/v). Under this experimental range, the bacterial growth has been observed to follow Haldane-type kinetics characterizing the presence of substrate inhibition. Haldane model was used to fit the exponential growth data and the following kinetic parameters were obtained: μ max = 0.078 h(-1), K S = 23.101 g/L, K i = 43.844 g/L for WEO; and μ max = 0.044 h(-1), K S = 10.662 g/L, K i = 58.310 g/L for WTO. The values of intrinsic kinetic parameters, like specific growth rate μ max, half saturation constant, K S, inhibition constant, K i and the maximum substrate concentration, S max and growth yield coefficient Y x/s , have been determined using each model hydrocarbon and their mixture as limiting substrate. Relative changes in the values of the kinetic parameters have been correlated to the number of carbon atoms present in n-alkanes. The metabolites from degradation of model hydrocarbon compounds have been identified by GC-MS to elucidate the possible pathway of waste lubricating oil degradation process.

  1. Stationary Engineers Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 11.1-11.2 Lubrication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This learning module, one in a series of 20 related training modules for apprentice stationary engineers, deals with lubrication. Addressed in the individual instructional packages included in the module are the various types of lubricants, lubricant standards, and criteria for selecting lubricants. Each instructional package in the module…

  2. Improving vegetable oil properties for lubrication methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The inherent problems of vegetable oils, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature properties, can be improved by attaching functional groups at the sites of unsaturation through chemical modifications. In this article, you will see how functionalization helps overcome these disadvantages....

  3. Pyrolysis bio-oils as additives for vegetable oil based lubricants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Softwood and hardwood lignins, along with hardwood as such, were pyrolyzed to afford bio-oil distillates in which phenols were major products. Extraction with alkali gave a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. Because vegetable oil based lubricants have dra...

  4. Lubrication System. Teacher's Guide. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This teacher's guide accompanies three student manuals and together with them comprises an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped/special needs students. The first section, "Notes to the Instructor," covers equipment needs, preparation before teaching the instructional package,…

  5. Lubrication System. Teacher's Guide. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This teacher's guide accompanies three student manuals and together with them comprises an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped/special needs students. The first section, "Notes to the Instructor," covers equipment needs, preparation before teaching the instructional package,…

  6. Lubrication of engineering surfaces - II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McCool, J.I.

    1983-12-01

    The focus of the work was to improve the state-of-the-art of performance prediction for rolling/sliding contacts in terms of the statistical microgeometry of the contacting bodies and the properties of the fluid medium that separates the surfaces. The work was divided into several interrelated areas: development of an asperity contact model that accounts for the inherent directionality (anisotropy) that typifies real surfaces and that specifically reflects the effect of frequency content of the roughness process; development of guidelines for preprocessing (filtering) roughness data and for assessing the distortional effect of stylus radius and flight, record length, sampling rate and quantization error on the generalized surface characterization required by the contact model; delineate the limitations of the assumptions of mechanical and statistical independence and gaussianity, inherent in asperity contact models and the limitations of modelling asperity shapes as 2nd order polynomials; development and experimental validation of a combined fluid/coulomb model for predicting the traction transmitted when real surfaces undergo relative rolling and sliding in the important regime where the lubricant film is thin enough to permit some degree of asperity contact; and generation and compilation of lubricant and surface roughness data required for contact performance prediction and quantification of the statistical error inherent in surface characterizations.

  7. Lubrication of engineering surfaces - II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Cool, J.I.

    1983-12-01

    The focus of the work was to improve the state-of-the-art of performance prediction for rolling/sliding contacts in terms of the statistical microgeometry of the contacting bodies and the properties of the fluid medium that separates the surfaces. The work was divided into several interrelated areas: development of an asperity contact model that accounts for the inherent directionality (anisotropy) that typifies real surfaces and that specifically reflects the effect of frequency content of the roughness process; development of guidelines for preprocessing (filtering) roughness data and for assessing the distortional effect of stylus radius and flight, record length, sampling rate and quantization error on the generalized surface characterization required by the contact model; delineate the limitations of the assumptions of mechanical and statistical independence and gaussianity, inherent in asperity contact models and the limitations of modelling asperity shapes as 2nd order polynomials; development and experimental validation of a combined fluid/coulomb model for predicting the traction transmitted when real surfaces undergo relative rolling and sliding in the important regime where the lubricant film is thin enough to permit some degree of asperity contact; and generation and compilation of lubricant and surface roughness data required for contact performance prediction and quantification of the statistical error inherent in surface characterizations. To the extent that this work has been completed and reported, these reports or papers are included and synopsized. To the extent that the work is as yet unreported or otherwise incomplete, its status and plans for eventual completion are discussed.

  8. Fuels and Lubrication Researcher at the Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1943-08-21

    A researcher at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory studies the fuel ignition process. Improved fuels and lubrication was an area of particular emphasis at the laboratory during World War II. The military sought to use existing types of piston engines in order to get large numbers of aircraft into the air as quickly as possible. To accomplish its goals, however, the military needed to increase the performance of these engines without having to wait for new models or extensive redesigns. The Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory was called on to lead this effort. The use of superchargers successfully enhanced engine performance, but the resulting heat increased engine knock [fuel detonation] and structural wear. These effects could be offset with improved cooling, lubrication, and fuel mixtures. The NACA researchers in the Fuels and Lubrication Division concentrated on new synthetic fuels, higher octane fuels, and fuel-injection systems. The laboratory studied 16 different types of fuel blends during the war, including extensive investigations of triptane and xylidine.

  9. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with engineering plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Cavestri, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Seven oil immersion studies were completed at both 20 and 60C. Test bars used in this study fall within the manufacturer specification limits of physical consistency and integrity. Refrigerant Immersion studies at ambient and 60C are also complete. Equilibrium refrigerant gas solubilities of the 32 ISO VG branched acid polyolester with all ten refrigerants have been determined and completed at 20C. Finally, the thermal aging of plastics at constant refrigerant pressure exposure with seventeen refrigerant lubricant combinations have been completed.

  10. The Feasibility of Oil Analysis for Air Force Diesel Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    period 18 September 1978 to 18 June 1979. The Air F’orce Project Monitor was MrW~ le MaW e, - an rton16h ALC /MMET,’ . Mr. J,P. Cuellar, Jr., of SwRI...insolub les 28 TABLE 5. RELATION OF USED CRANKCASE OIL ANALYSIS TO ENGINE CONDITION OR OPERATION (Cont’d) Contributing Engine Condition Test Result...guidelines for wearmetal and lubricant control limits. 46. Schilling, A. (Chief Engineer, Institut Francais du Petrole ), Automobile Engine Lubrication, 1972

  11. Oil supply system for a valve operating mechanism in internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sonoda, T.; Hiro, T.; Matsubara, T.

    1988-03-08

    A system for supplying oil to a camshaft and hydraulic lash adjusters of a valve operating mechanism in an internal combustion engine having an engine body is described comprising: a supply passage in the engine body for supplying oil under pressure; a distribution passage in the engine body connected to the supply passage for distributing oil from the supply passage as working oil to the hydraulic lash adjusters; a lubricating oil passage connected the distribution passage for supplying oil from the distribution passage as lubricating oil to lubricate journals and cams of the camshaft; and a relief passage communicating between the distribution passage and one of the journals and having a relief valve openable when the pressure of oil in the distribution passage rises beyond a predetermined level.

  12. High temperature aircraft turbine engine bearing and lubrication system development

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, D.H.; Chin, H.A.; Klenke, C.; Galbato, A.T.; Ragen, M.A.; Spitzer, R.F.

    1998-12-31

    Results are reported for a project sponsored by the US Air Force Wright Laboratories. The major emphasis of this project was the evaluation of bearing materials with improved corrosion resistance, high hot hardness, and high fracture toughness, intended to meet the requirements of the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technologies (IHPTET) Phase 2 engine. The project included material property studies on candidate bearing materials and lubricants which formed the selection basis for subscale and full-scale bearing rig verification tests. The carburizing stainless steel alloy Pyrowear 675 demonstrated significant fatigue life, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance improvements relative to the M50 NiL baseline bearing material. The new Skylube 2 (MCS-2482) lubricant provided significant thermal degradation improvements with respect to the Skylube 600 (PWA-524, MIL-L-87100) lubricant. Two 130 mm bore Pyrowear 675 hybrid ball bearings with silicon nitride balls were run successfully for 231 hours with Skylube 2 lubricant at temperatures consistent with IHPTET 2 requirements.

  13. Biosurfactant production by Corynebacterium kutscheri from waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake.

    PubMed

    Thavasi, R; Jayalakshmi, S; Balasubramanian, T; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2007-12-01

    Production and characterization of biosurfactant from renewable sources. Biosurfactant production was carried out in 3-l fermentor using waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake. Maximum biomass (9.8 mg ml(-l)) and biosurfactant production (6.4 mg ml(-l)) occurred with peanut oil cake at 120 and 132 h, respectively. Chemical characterization of the biosurfactant revealed that it is a glycolipopeptide with chemical composition of carbohydrate (40%), lipid (27%) and protein (29%). The biosurfactant is able to emulsify waste motor lubricant oil, crude oil, peanut oil, kerosene, diesel, xylene, naphthalene and anthracene; the emulsification activity was comparatively higher than the activity found with Triton X-100. This study indicates the possibility of biosurfactant production using renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resources like waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake. Emulsification activity found with the biosurfactant against different hydrocarbons showed the possibility of the application of biosurfactants against diverse hydrocarbon pollution. The data obtained from the study could be useful for large-scale biosurfactant production using economically cheaper substrates. Information obtained in emulsification activity and laboratory-scale experiment on bioremediation inferred that bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted sites may be treated with biosurfactants or the bacteria that produces it.

  14. Automotive fuel economy - potential improvement through selected engine and differential gear lubricants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Naman, T.M.

    1981-07-01

    This report evaluates the effects of four engine lubricants and three differential gear lubricants on the fuel economy of two 1978 automobiles operated at 20F, 70F, and 100F ambient temperatures. The engine lubricants were evaluated using the 1978 Federal Test procedure and steady state tests from a cold start. The gear lubricants were evaluated in steady state operation from a cold start.

  15. Anti-Wear Performance and Mechanism of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid as a Lubricant Additive

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G; Yu, Bo; Howe, Jane Y; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Li, Huaqing; Blau, Peter Julian; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2012-01-01

    An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential anti-wear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in non-polar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 oC, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8o). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective anti-scuffing and anti-wear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt.% addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced by the neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by three orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current anti-wear additive when added into a fully-formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL s anti-scuffing and anti-wear functionality.

  16. Military Fuel and Alternative Fuel Effects on a Modern Diesel Engine Employing a Fuel-Lubricated High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-09

    injected, turbo- charged, air- water intercooled engine which employs a fuel- lubricated high pressure common rail pump , and piezo- electric fuel injectors...military fuels. Many of these modern HPCR systems utilize fuel-lubricated high pressure pumps , and can generate upwards of 2000-bar fuel rail pressures...steps were allowed to meet their own steady state temperatures. In addition, engine oil sump temperature was dictated by an internal jacket water

  17. Evaporation rate and vapor pressure of selected polymeric lubricating oils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardos, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    A recently developed ultrahigh-vacuum quartz spring mass sorption microbalance has been utilized to measure the evaporation rates of several low-volatility polymeric lubricating oils at various temperatures. The evaporation rates are used to calculate the vapor pressures by the Langmuir equation. A method is presented to accurately estimate extended temperature range evaporation rate and vapor pressure data for polymeric oils, incorporating appropriate corrections for the increases in molecular weight and the change in volatility of the progressively evaporating polymer fractions. The logarithms of the calculated data appear to follow linear relationships within the test temperature ranges, when plotted versus 1000/T. These functions and the observed effusion characteristics of the fluids on progressive volatilization are useful in estimating evaporation rate and vapor pressure changes on evaporative depletion.

  18. Evaporation rate and vapor pressure of selected polymeric lubricating oils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardos, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    A recently developed ultrahigh-vacuum quartz spring mass sorption microbalance has been utilized to measure the evaporation rates of several low-volatility polymeric lubricating oils at various temperatures. The evaporation rates are used to calculate the vapor pressures by the Langmuir equation. A method is presented to accurately estimate extended temperature range evaporation rate and vapor pressure data for polymeric oils, incorporating appropriate corrections for the increases in molecular weight and the change in volatility of the progressively evaporating polymer fractions. The logarithms of the calculated data appear to follow linear relationships within the test temperature ranges, when plotted versus 1000/T. These functions and the observed effusion characteristics of the fluids on progressive volatilization are useful in estimating evaporation rate and vapor pressure changes on evaporative depletion.

  19. Lubricating oil having improved rust inhibition and demulsibility

    SciTech Connect

    Pillon, L.Z.; Asselin, A.E.

    1993-07-13

    A lubricating oil is described which comprises a major amount of a lubricating oil base stock and a synergistic additive combination comprising (a) a rust inhibiting amount of a rust inhibitor wherein the rust inhibitor contains a succinic acid derivative of the formula, HOOC-C-(R[sub 4])[sub 2]-(R[sub 5])[sub 2]-C-COOH, and partially esterified alkyl succinic acid of the formula, HOOC-C-(R[sub 4])[sub 2]-(R[sub 5])[sub 2]-C-COOR[sub 6]-OH where R[sub 4], R[sub 5], and R[sub 6] may be the same or different and are each an alkyl group containing from about 2 to about 10 carbon atoms, and (b) a pyridine derivative having the formula C[sub 5]H[sub 2]NR[sub 1]R[sub 2]R[sub 3] where R[sub 1], R[sub 2], and R[sub 3] are independently an alkyl group containing from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, wherein the weight ratio of (b) to (a) is greater than zero and less than about 0.06.

  20. Lubricating oil dominates primary organic aerosol emissions from motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Worton, David R; Isaacman, Gabriel; Gentner, Drew R; Dallmann, Timothy R; Chan, Arthur W H; Ruehl, Christopher; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; Wilson, Kevin R; Harley, Robert A; Goldstein, Allen H

    2014-04-01

    Motor vehicles are major sources of primary organic aerosol (POA), which is a mixture of a large number of organic compounds that have not been comprehensively characterized. In this work, we apply a recently developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry approach utilizing "soft" vacuum ultraviolet photoionization to achieve unprecedented chemical characterization of motor vehicle POA emissions in a roadway tunnel with a mass closure of >60%. The observed POA was characterized by number of carbon atoms (NC), number of double bond equivalents (NDBE) and degree of molecular branching. Vehicular POA was observed to predominantly contain cycloalkanes with one or more rings and one or more branched alkyl side chains (≥80%) with low abundances of n-alkanes and aromatics (<5%), similar to "fresh" lubricating oil. The gas chromatography retention time data indicates that the cycloalkane ring structures are most likely dominated by cyclohexane and cyclopentane rings and not larger cycloalkanes. High molecular weight combustion byproducts, that is, alkenes, oxygenates, and aromatics, were not present in significant amounts. The observed carbon number and chemical composition of motor vehicle POA was consistent with lubricating oil being the dominant source from both gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles, with an additional smaller contribution from unburned diesel fuel and a negligible contribution from unburned gasoline.

  1. Effect of Inertial Force on Thermal Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Oil Film Bearing in Rolling Mill Lubricated by the Oil-water Two-phase Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, You-Qiang; Wang, Jian; Fan, Xiao-Meng

    2016-05-01

    The oil film bearing in rolling mill as the research object in this paper is established oilwater two-phase flow of thermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) model with the inertia force and thermal effect of the Reynolds equation. The oil film bearing in rolling mill in oil-water two-phase flow is analyzed the effect on the pyrolysis with considering inertia force, and the lubricant film pressure, film thickness with the changes in the relationship between water content, rolling force and spindle speed. The results showed that the lubricant film thickness is increased and carrying capacity is also increased with considering inertial force. With the increase of water content, lubricant film thickness is increased and the carrying capacity is decreased.

  2. Evaluation of sensor arrays for engine oils using artificial oil alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Sedat; Schneidhofer, Christoph; Dörr, Nicole; Vellekoop, Michael J.

    2011-06-01

    With respect to varying operation conditions, only sensors directly installed in the engine can detect the current oil condition hence enabling to get the right time for the oil change. Usually, only one parameter is not sufficient to obtain reliable information about the current oil condition. For this reason, appropriate sensor principles were evaluated for the design of sensor arrays for the measurement of critical lubricant parameters. In this contribution, we report on the development of a sensor array for engine oils using laboratory analyses of used engine oils for the correlation with sensor signals. The sensor array comprises the measurement of conductivity, permittivity, viscosity and temperature as well as oil corrosiveness as a consequence of acidification of the lubricant. As a key method, rapid evaluation of the sensors was done by short term simulation of entire oil change intervals based on artificial oil alteration. Thereby, the compatibility of the sensor array to the lubricant and the oil deterioration during the artificial alteration process was observed by the sensors and confirmed by additional laboratory analyses of oil samples take.

  3. Biodegradation of Diesel, Crude Oil and Spent Lubricating Oil by Soil Isolates of Bacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Raju, Maddela Naga; Leo, Rodriguez; Herminia, Sanaguano Salguero; Morán, Ricardo Ernesto Burgos; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Laura, Scalvenzi

    2017-05-01

    Two species of Bacillus, B. thuringiensis B3 and B. cereus B6, isolated from crude oil-contaminated sites in Ecuador, were tested for their capability in degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in diesel (shake-flask), and to remove total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from crude oil- or spent lubricating oil-polluted soils (plot-scale). TPHs and PAHs were analyzed by Gas chromatography-Flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Degradation percentages of PAHs by strain B6 were in the range of 11-83 after 30 days. A mixed culture of both the strains removed 84% and 28% of TPHs from crude oil- and spent lubricating oil-polluted soils, respectively. Reduction in the abundance of total n-alkane fractions (C8-C40) of spent lubricating oil was 94%, which was 18% higher than the control. Our results clearly indicate that the selected strains have great potential in degrading petroleum hydrocarbons at both laboratory- and field-scales.

  4. A Systems Approach to the Solid Lubrication of Foil Air Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Zaldana, Antonio R.; Radil, Kevin C.

    2002-01-01

    Foil air bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings which rely upon solid lubricants to reduce friction and minimize wear during sliding which occurs at start-up and shut-down when surface speeds are too low to allow the formation of a hydrodynamic air film. This solid lubrication is typically accomplished by coating the non-moving foil surface with a thin, soft polymeric film. The following paper introduces a systems approach in which the solid lubrication is provided by a combination of self lubricating shaft coatings coupled with various wear resistant and lubricating foil coatings. The use of multiple materials, each providing different functions is modeled after oil-lubricated hydrodynamic sleeve bearing technology which utilizes various coatings and surface treatments in conjunction with oil lubricants to achieve optimum performance. In this study, room temperature load capacity tests are performed on journal foil air bearings operating at 14,000 rpm. Different shaft and foil coating technologies such as plasma sprayed composites, ceramic, polymer and inorganic lubricant coatings are evaluated as foil bearing lubricants. The results indicate that bearing performance is improved through the individual use of the lubricants and treatments tested. Further, combining several solid lubricants together yielded synergistically better results than any material alone.

  5. Lubrication System. Introduction: Things for You to Know. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual introducing the lubrication system is the first of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose of the booklet is to help students learn about the lubrication system and safe and good work habits. Informative material and diagrams are…

  6. Lubrication System. Introduction: Things for You to Know. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual introducing the lubrication system is the first of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose of the booklet is to help students learn about the lubrication system and safe and good work habits. Informative material and diagrams are…

  7. The plasma generated and photons emitted in an oil-lubricated sliding contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Keiji

    2007-02-01

    Intensive work has long been going on to find out the unknown origin that sets off curious tribo-physicochemical phenomena and that causes various kinds of problems in oil-lubricated sliding contacts in mechanical and processing systems. The strange tribochemical reaction is one of the such curious chemical phenomena observed in the degradation of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricating oil film in a hard disk drive. Plasma (triboplasma) (Nakayama and Mirza 2006 Tribol. Trans. 49 17) would be one of the most probable origins of the problems if it were generated sufficiently intensely in oil-lubricated sliding contacts, as it is in such a highly energetic state. The generation of plasma was predicted in both dry and oil-lubricated sliding (Nakayama 1997 Japan. J. Tribol. 42 1077, Nakayama 2004 Surf. Coat. Technol. 188-189 599). However, plasma generation in industrially important oil-lubricated contacts has not yet been proven, though it has been found in dry sliding (Nakayama and Nevshupa 2002 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35 L53). Here the author reports the discovery of the predicted plasma generated in the rear part of an oil-lubricated sliding contact, together with a new finding on photon emission phenomena from inside and outside of the sliding contact in the tribosystem of a diamond pin sliding against a sapphire disc. The plasma in oil-lubricated sliding has a simple ellipse shape, while that in dry sliding has a horseshoe pattern. Visible and infrared (IR) photons are emitted from oil-lubricated sliding contact, while ultraviolet (UV), visible and IR photons are emitted from the region of plasma generation as well as from dry sliding. The UV photon spectra emitted under oil-lubrication completely coincided with those in dry sliding and air discharge, demonstrating that plasma is generated by air discharge even under oil-lubrication. Two kinds of new concepts have been proposed. One is plasma generation by discharge of air through bubble formation in decompressed

  8. [Detection of low temperature rheologic behavior of lubricating oil by FTIR].

    PubMed

    Feng, X; Shi, Y; Wang, Q; Li, Z

    1999-08-01

    The composition and structure of lubricating oil expressed by FTIR were used for its characterization. Artificial nervous network was used as a mathematical model. CCS-15C viscosity of base oil was forecasted and good result was obtained. The result has shown that the artificial nervous network is an effective mathematical model for studying the relation between the composition and structure of lubricating oil and its performance.

  9. Influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils

    SciTech Connect

    Rolek, R.J.; Cusano, C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased. 19 references.

  10. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  11. Investigation of biobased and petroleum base oils in the entire spectrum of lubrication regimes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tribological properties of biobased and petroleum-based base oils in the entire lubrication regime were investigated. High oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO) and commercially available polyalphaolefin (PAO-6) were selected to represent biobased and petroleum-based base oils, respectively. These two oil...

  12. Research into Oil-based Colloidal-Graphite Lubricants for Forging of Al-based Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, A.; Petrov, P.; Petrov, M.

    2011-05-04

    The presented paper describes the topical problem in metal forging production. It deals with the choice of an optimal lubricant for forging of Al-based alloys. Within the scope of the paper, the properties of several oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricants were investigated. The physicochemical and technological properties of these lubricants are presented. It was found that physicochemical properties of lubricant compositions have an influence on friction coefficient value and quality of forgings.The ring compression method was used to estimate the friction coefficient value. Hydraulic press was used for the test. The comparative analysis of the investigated lubricants was carried out. The forging quality was estimated on the basis of production test. The practical recommendations were given to choose an optimal oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricant for isothermal forging of Al-based alloy.

  13. Evaluation of High-Temperature Lubricants for Low-Heat Rejection Diesel Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    were scheduled for a minimum duration of 50 hours, and some were stopped prematurely because of oil degradation or engine problems such as high blowby or...average CWT for a scheduled 50 hours. During Test A-2, high blowby from ring sticking occurred at 14, 19, 32, 40, and 49 hours. This condition was...2.0 Antithrust NA 1.5 2.2 1.8 1,25 Other Distres - - High Bluwby High Blowby No No, 2 CR Cleaned 2nd Ring at 14 hr Used Lubricant Properties K. Vii

  14. Development of high temperature liquid lubricants for low-heat rejection: Heavy duty diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiczynski, P. D.; Marolewski, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this DOE program was to develop a liquid lubricant that will allow advanced diesel engines to operate at top ring reversal temperatures approaching 500 C and sump temperatures approaching 250 C. The lubricants developed demonstrated at marginal increase in sump temperature capability, approximately 15 C, and an increase in top ring reversal temperature. A 15W-40 synthetic lubricant designated HTL-4 was the best lubricant developed in terms of stability, wear control, deposit control dispersancy, and particulate emissions.

  15. [Monitoring Water in Lubricating Oil with Min-Infrared LED].

    PubMed

    Yu, Liang-wu; Tian, Hong-xiang; Ming, Ting-feng; Yang, Kun

    2015-06-01

    A method that could be used to quantify the water concentration in ship machinery lubricating oil based on Mid-infrared LED is discussed. A Mid-infrared LED with peak emission wavelength of 2 840 nm and FWHM of 400 nm is used as the light source, the emitting light is partly absorbed by the oil sample, the remaining is received by the infrared detector. The percentage of water is determined according to the absorbance. In the experiment, a optical configuration including the transmission, absorbing and receiving of infrared light is designed, calcium fluoride wafer is used as the window, a hard metal coil with circular section is selected as the washer to get the fixed thickness of oil film accurately, a photoelectric diode with detection wavelength of 2 500-4 800 nm and response time of 10-20 ns is used as the detector of light intensity. Matching with this, a system of signal preamplifier, microcontroller-based data acquisition, storage and communication is developed. Absorbance data of six oil samples with different water mass concentration: 0, 0.062 5%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.375% and 0.5% is acquired through experiment. Fitting the data by the method of least squares, a linear equation in terms of absorbance and water concentration is obtained, and the determination coefficient is 0.996. Finally, in order to test the accuracy of this measurement method, using oil sample with water concentration of 0.317 5% to validate the equation, measuring the absorbance by the experimental device, the water content is calculated through the linear equation, the results show that the relative error is 2.7% between the percentage calculated and the real sample, indicating that this method can accurately measure the water concentration in the oil.

  16. A Study of the Factors Affecting Deposition Characteristics of Synthetic Lubricants for Gas Turbine Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    seriously jeopardize engine performance since decomposition products , such as coke and sludge, interfere with the proper functioning of bearings, seals...harmful coke deposits Vas investigated. This study consisted of an engineering evaluation of the lubricant deposition-degradation characteristics...guideline for avoiding those environments which are most conducive to the generation of lubricant degradation products that can jeopardize engine

  17. Oxidative Degradation and Stabilisation of Mineral Oil-Based Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, G.; Mazzamaro, G.; Rasberger, M.

    Thermally induced hydrocarbon oxidation is a self-accelerating autoxidation process and is divided into 'low'-, 30-120°C, and 'high'-, >120°C, temperature phases. The first has four stages - induction of radical chain reactions, propagation, branching and then termination. Mechanisms of these processes are described and discussed. Differences in hydrocarbon reactivity are related to molecular structure. For hydrocarbon oxidation >120°C, the first stage is the same as low-temperature oxidation but with reduced selectivity and increased reactivity; second, the oxidation phase becomes diffusion controlled as hydrocarbon viscosities increase from progressive polycondensation of higher molecular weight products, causing varnish and sludge formation. Base oil oxidation stabilities depend upon their derivation, whether solvent neutral, hydrocracked or synthetic, and their response to antioxidant treatment. Lubricant oxidation control focuses on radical scavengers and hydroperoxide decomposers and their synergistic mixtures.

  18. Effects of fresh lubricant oils on particle emissions emitted by a modern gasoline direct injection passenger car.

    PubMed

    Pirjola, Liisa; Karjalainen, Panu; Heikkilä, Juha; Saari, Sampo; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Kulmala, Kari; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2015-03-17

    Particle emissions from a modern turbocharged gasoline direct injection passenger car equipped with a three-way catalyst and an exhaust gas recirculation system were studied while the vehicle was running on low-sulfur gasoline and, consecutively, with five different lubrication oils. Exhaust particle number concentration, size distribution, and volatility were determined both at laboratory and on-road conditions. The results indicated that the choice of lubricant affected particle emissions both during the cold start and warm driving cycles. However, the contribution of engine oil depended on driving conditions being higher during acceleration and steady state driving than during deceleration. The highest emission factors were found with two oils that had the highest metal content. The results indicate that a 10% decrease in the Zn content of engine oils is linked with an 11-13% decrease to the nonvolatile particle number emissions in steady driving conditions and a 5% decrease over the New European Driving Cycle. The effect of lubricant on volatile particles was even higher, on the order of 20%.

  19. Comparison of Extreme Pressure Additive Treat Rates in Soybean and Mineral Oils Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditionally, it is considered that, under boundary lubrication conditions, the reduction in friction and wear is mostly dependent on Extreme Pressure (EP) additives, rather than the basestock. However, several studies indicate that vegetable oils also contribute to the lubricity under this regime...

  20. Tritium Method Oil Consumption and its Relation to Oil Film Thickness in a Production Diesel Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    34 iC FILE COPY TRITIUM METHOD OIL CONSUMPTION AND ITS RELATION TO OIL FILM THICKNESSES IN A PRODUCTION DIESEL ENGINE (0by 11 RICHARD M. HARTMAN...releasoe L0 9 2ted 90 09 24 059 2 TRITIUM NIET1t(D OIL CONSUMPTION AND ITS RELATION TO OIL FILM THICKNESSES IN A PRODUCTION DIESEL ENGINE by RICHARD M...using tritium as a radiotracer. The measurements were made primarily at two speeds and one load using first a single-grade lubricant and then a multi

  1. Special single-cylinder engine contributes to lube-oil development

    SciTech Connect

    Chellini, R.

    1994-12-01

    This article reports on the newly installed test engine called ELF Optimizer developed to carry out research on lubricants that will match future lube oils with future engine technology, new environmental legislation and changes in fuel quality. ELF Optimizer is expected to allow important improvements in lubricants as well as provide useful information to engine components and systems, such as fuel injection equipment, filters and separators. 3 figs.

  2. Conductometric sensors for monitoring degradation of automotive engine oil.

    PubMed

    Latif, Usman; Dickert, Franz L

    2011-01-01

    Conductometric sensors have been fabricated by applying imprinted polymers as receptors for monitoring engine oil quality. Titania and silica layers are synthesized via the sol-gel technique and used as recognition materials for acidic components present in used lubricating oil. Thin-film gold electrodes forming an interdigitated structure are used as transducers to measure the conductance of polymer coatings. Optimization of layer composition is carried out by varying the precursors, e.g., dimethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (DMAPTMS), and aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES). Characterization of these sensitive materials is performed by testing against oil oxidation products, e.g., carbonic acids. The results depict that imprinted aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) polymer is a promising candidate for detecting the age of used lubricating oil. In the next strategy, polyurethane-nanotubes composite as sensitive material is synthesized, producing appreciable differentiation pattern between fresh and used oils at elevated temperature with enhanced sensitivity.

  3. Research of the pre-launch powered lubrication device of major parts of the engine D-240

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korchuganova, M.; Syrbakov, A.; Tkachev, A.; Zorina, T.

    2015-09-01

    In the publication, the issues have been considered concerning combustion engine start wear of mobile machines in case of outside storage in the conditions of low environmental temperature. Based on the analysis of existing methods and constructions of powered lubrication devices for contact surfaces of engines, a design of a combined device has been suggested which unites the functions of hydraulic and heat accumulators. On the basis of the elaborated design, preparatory tests have been conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of pre-start oil circulation in the engine D-240, as well as the effectiveness rate of thermoinsulation and the heating device of the hydraulic accumulator. The findings of the survey have shown that the pre-start powered lubrication device for major parts of the engine is effective.

  4. Object shape-based optical sensing methodology and system for condition monitoring of contaminated engine lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordatchev, Evgueni; Aghayan, Hamid; Yang, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Presence of contaminants, such as gasoline, moisture, and coolant in the engine lubricant indicates mechanical failure within the engine and significantly reduces lubricant quality. This paper describes a novel sensing system, its methodology and experimental verifications for analysis of the presence of contaminants in the engine lubricants. The sensing methodology is based on the statistical shape analysis methodology utilizing optical analysis of the distortion effect when an object image is obtained through a thin random optical medium. The novelty of the proposed sensing system lies within the employed methodology which an object with a known periodic shape is introduced behind a thin film of the contaminated lubricant. In this case, an acquired image represents a combined lubricant-object optical appearance, where an a priori known periodical structure of the object is distorted by a contaminated lubricant. The object, e.g. a stainless steel woven wire cloth with a mesh size of 65×65 µm2 and a circular wire diameter of 33 µm was placed behind a microfluidic channel, containing engine lubricant and optical images of flowing lubricant with stationary object were acquired and analyzed. Several parameters of acquired optical images, such as, color of lubricant and object, object shape width at object and lubricant levels, object relative color, and object width non-uniformity coefficient, were proposed. Measured on-line parameters were used for optical analysis of fresh and contaminated lubricants. Estimation of contaminant presence and lubricant condition was performed by comparison of parameters for fresh and contaminated lubricants. Developed methodology was verified experimentally showing ability to distinguish lubricants with 1%, 4%, 7%, and 10% coolant, gasoline and water contamination individually and in a combination form of coolant (0%-5%) and gasoline (0%-5%).

  5. Simulated 'On-Line' Wear Metal Analysis of Lubricating Oils by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Partos, Richard D.; Nelson, Irina

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the sensitivity of X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XFS) for quantitative evaluation of metal particle content in engine oil suspensions and the feasibility of real-time, dynamic wear metal analysis. The study was focused on iron as the majority wear metal component. Variable parameters were: particle size, particle concentration and oil velocity. A commercial XFS spectrometer equipped with interchangeable static/dynamic (flow cell) sample chambers was used. XFS spectra were recorded for solutions of Fe-organometallic standard and for a series of DTE oil suspensions of high purity spherical iron particles of 2g, 4g, and 8g diameter, at concentrations from 5 ppm to 5,000 ppm. Real contaminated oil samples from Langley Air Force Base aircraft engines and NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels were also analyzed. The experimental data conform the reliability of XFS as the analytical method of choice for this project. Intrinsic inadequacies of the instrument for precise analytic work at low metal concentrations were identified as being related to the particular x-ray beam definition, system geometry, and flow-cell materials selection. This work supports a proposal for the design, construction and testing of a conceptually new, miniature XFS spectrometer with superior performance, dedicated to on-line, real-time monitoring of lubricating oils in operating engines. Innovative design solutions include focalization of the incident x-ray beam, non-metal sample chamber, and miniaturization of the overall assembly. The instrument would contribute to prevention of catastrophic engine failures. A proposal for two-year funding has been presented to NASA Langley Research Center Internal Operation Group (IOG) Management, to continue the effort begun by this summer's project.

  6. Simulated 'On-Line' Wear Metal Analysis of Lubricating Oils by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Partos, Richard D.; Nelson, Irina

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the sensitivity of X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XFS) for quantitative evaluation of metal particle content in engine oil suspensions and the feasibility of real-time, dynamic wear metal analysis. The study was focused on iron as the majority wear metal component. Variable parameters were: particle size, particle concentration and oil velocity. A commercial XFS spectrometer equipped with interchangeable static/dynamic (flow cell) sample chambers was used. XFS spectra were recorded for solutions of Fe-organometallic standard and for a series of DTE oil suspensions of high purity spherical iron particles of 2g, 4g, and 8g diameter, at concentrations from 5 ppm to 5,000 ppm. Real contaminated oil samples from Langley Air Force Base aircraft engines and NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels were also analyzed. The experimental data conform the reliability of XFS as the analytical method of choice for this project. Intrinsic inadequacies of the instrument for precise analytic work at low metal concentrations were identified as being related to the particular x-ray beam definition, system geometry, and flow-cell materials selection. This work supports a proposal for the design, construction and testing of a conceptually new, miniature XFS spectrometer with superior performance, dedicated to on-line, real-time monitoring of lubricating oils in operating engines. Innovative design solutions include focalization of the incident x-ray beam, non-metal sample chamber, and miniaturization of the overall assembly. The instrument would contribute to prevention of catastrophic engine failures. A proposal for two-year funding has been presented to NASA Langley Research Center Internal Operation Group (IOG) Management, to continue the effort begun by this summer's project.

  7. Lubricant oil condition monitoring using a scattering-free single-wavelength optical scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Mencaglia, Andrea A.; Adriani, G.; Paccagnini, A.; Campatelli, M.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.

    2014-05-01

    A simple and low-cost optical setup can be used for monitoring online the condition of lubricant oil in big machineries, as an action of preventive maintenance. The total acid number and the water content, as indicators of the lubricant oil quality, can be assessed by means of an integrating sphere for achieving scattering-free absorption measurements. For each indicator, spectroscopy showed that a peculiar wavelength is enough for predicting with good accuracy the value of the indicator.

  8. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil with waste-lubricant oils and zinc.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Woo; Lee, Jae-Young; Yang, Jung-Seok; Kim, Kyoung-Jo; Baek, Kitae

    2009-09-30

    The feasibility of electrokinetic technology on the remediation of mixed-waste-contaminated railroad soil, contaminated by lubricant oil and zinc, was investigated. To enhance the removal efficiency, catholyte purging with 0.1M HNO(3) and a supply of non-ionic surfactant, secondary alcohol ethoxylate, was applied to the anode to remove Zn and to solubilize the lubricant oil. The catholyte purging maintained the soil pH as acidic and enhanced desorption of zinc from the soil, where the zeta potential of the acidic soil became positive. Thereafter, the direction of electro-osmotic flow was changed from the cathode to anode and the flow rate was reduced. The lesser in magnitude reverse electro-osmotic flow inhibited the migration of zinc and the lubricant oil was removed by the electro-osmotic flow. The removal of zinc and lubricant oil was enhanced with an increase in voltage gradient; however, a higher voltage gradient resulted in higher energy expenditure. After electrokinetic operation over 17 days, the removal efficiency of zinc was 22.1-24.3%, and that of lubricant oil was 45.1-55.0%. Although the removal of lubricant oil was quite high, the residual concentration did not meet Korean regulation levels.

  9. Entry and retention of methanol fuel in engine oil

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S.E.; Smolenski, D.J.; Clark, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    To ensure that vehicles do not suffer adverse consequences when high-methanol-content fuel (M100 or M85) is used, it is important to understand the ways that the use of this fuel affects various vehicle systems. For that reason, some of the changes which occur in the engine oil when using methanol fuel were investigated. During a single cold start with an extended cranking time, as much as six percent fuel entered the engine oil. Over a 15-minute period, the lubricating medium changed from engine oil to an oil-methanol-water emulsion. With multiple cold starts followed by a five-minute trip and ambient temperatures near freezing, the oil contained 19 percent volatile contamination. In addition, the oil contained elevated levels of water, lead, iron, chromium, and aluminum. Efforts need to be directed toward reducing the adverse consequences of methanol fuel.

  10. Research into oil-based high-dispersion graphite lubricants for extrusion of Ni-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Alexander N.; Petrov, Mikhail A.; Petrov, Pavel A.

    2016-10-01

    The presented paper deals with oil-based high-dispersion graphite lubricants for hot extrusion Ni-based alloys. This paper emphasize an influence of the lubricant's flash point and oil burning on composition changing of the lubricants. It was found out that oil-based lubricants increase heat shielding properties of the die during extrusion. The temperature of a die surface was estimated on the base of production tests on the mechanical press with nominal force of 1,6MN. The practical recommendations were presented and should help to choose lubricants properly in accordance to the analysis.

  11. Haze, oxidation, and corrosion resistant diesel engine lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.L.; Zoleski, B.H.; O'Rourke, R.L.

    1987-11-10

    This patent describes a haze, oxidation, and corrosion resistant diesel engine lubricant composition, particularly useful in marine and railway diesel engines, contains 0.1-5.0 weight percent of a reaction product additive. The reaction product additive is produced by first reacting substantially equimolar amounts of an anhydride compound which is either a dibasic acid anhydride or isatoic anhydride and a hydrocarbon-substituted mono primary amine or ether amine at a temperature range of 50/sup 0/C-150/sup 0/C to produce an intermediate reaction product. The intermediate reaction product is thereafter further reacted at an elevated temperature with a substantially equimolar amount of a heterocyclic azole or polyalkylene polyamine compound to form the final reaction product.

  12. Lubricating properties of molybdenum disulfide. Part 3: Performance of molybdenum disulfide-containing oils in fluid lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soda, Norimune; Miyahara, Yoshinori

    1988-01-01

    The lubricating properties of a straight mineral oil with and without MoS2 powder were studied. Bearing testers of thrust-collar type and of journal bearing type were used for thin- and fluid-film conditions, respectively. The effectiveness of the MoS2 powder in the oil differed depending on the conditions of the rubbing surfaces. For fluid film conditions, considerable effects of the MoS2 were observed, in contrast to the thin-film cases. The addition of MoS2 powder was effective only when the lubricant film was formed between surfaces thickly enough to allow the inflow of MoS2 particles.

  13. Lubricating properties of molybdenum disulfide. Part 3: Performance of molybdenum disulfide-containing oils in fluid lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soda, Norimune; Miyahara, Yoshinori

    1988-01-01

    The lubricating properties of a straight mineral oil with and without MoS2 powder were studied. Bearing testers of thrust-collar type and of journal bearing type were used for thin- and fluid-film conditions, respectively. The effectiveness of the MoS2 powder in the oil differed depending on the conditions of the rubbing surfaces. For fluid film conditions, considerable effects of the MoS2 were observed, in contrast to the thin-film cases. The addition of MoS2 powder was effective only when the lubricant film was formed between surfaces thickly enough to allow the inflow of MoS2 particles.

  14. Lubrication characteristics of nano-oil with different degrees of surface hardness of sliding members.

    PubMed

    Ku, Boncheol; Han, Youngcheol; Lee, Kwangho; Choi, Youngmin; Koo, Bonyoung; Hwang, Yujin; Lee, Jaekeun

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the lubrication characteristics of sliding members were compared with the changes in the hardness of friction surfaces and the application of nano-oil. The materials of the specimens were gray cast iron (AISI 35 and AISI 60) and nickel chromium molybdenum steel (AISI 4320). The friction coefficients and the temperature variations of the frictional surfaces were measured with a disk-on-disk tribotester under a fixed rotation speed. The friction surfaces were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The friction coefficients of the plate surface increased as the hardness difference increased. The friction coefficient after the lubrication with nano-oil was less than that after lubrication with mineral oil. This is because a spherical nanoparticle plays the role of a tiny ball bearing between the frictional surfaces that improve the lubrication characteristics.

  15. Evaluation and selection of regeneration of waste lubricating oil technology.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Lung; Liu, Chun-Chu

    2011-05-01

    Lubricant is one of the important resources that cannot be disposed of randomly due to the presence of pollutants. In response to economic efficiency and environmental protection, there is a growing trend of regeneration and reuse of waste lubricant. However, the technologies shall be compared to provide a useful reference for the use of waste lubricant. The major aim of this paper is to use analytic hierarchy process to select, analyze, and compare the regenerative technologies, thus laying a basis for the governmental bodies in policy making of lubricant recovery as well as for industrial operators in deciding the recovery methods.

  16. Engineered soy oils for new value added applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Phuong T.

    Soybean oil is an abundant annually renewable resource. It is composed of triglycerides with long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The presence of unsaturated fatty acids allows for chemical modification to introduce new functionalities to soybean oil. A portfolio of chemically modified soy oil with suitable functional groups has been designed and engineered to serve as the starting material in applications such as polyamides, polyesters, polyurethanes, composites, and lubricants. Anhydride, hydroxyl, and silicone functionalities were introduced to soy oil. Anhydride functionality was introduced using a single-step free radical initiated process, and the chemically modified soy oils were evaluated for potential applications as a composite and lubricant. Hydroxyl functionalities were introduced in a single-step catalytic ozonolysis process recently developed in our labs, which proceeds rapidly and efficiently at room temperature without solvent. The transformed soy oil was used to successfully prepare bio-lubricants with good thermal/oxidative stability and bio-plastics such as polyamides, polyesters, and polyurethanes. A new class of organic-inorganic hybrid materials was prepared by curing vinyltrimethoxysilane functionalized soy oil. This hybrid material could have potential as biobased sealant through a moisture initiated room temperature cure. These new classes of soy-based materials are competitive both in cost and performance to petroleum based materials, but offer the advantage of being biobased.

  17. Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point contacts. Part 1: Graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    A Hertzian contact was lubricated with dispersed graphite in mineral oils under boundary lubrication conditions. The contact was optically observed under pure rolling, combined rolling and sliding, and pure sliding conditions. The contact was formed with a steel ball on the flat surface of a glass disk. Photomicrographs are presented which show the distribution of the graphite in and around the contact. Friction and surface damage are also shown for conditions when the base oils are used alone and when graphite is added to the base oils. Under pure rolling and combined rolling and sliding conditions, it is found that, for low speeds, a graphite film can form which will separate the contacting surfaces. Under pure sliding conditions, graphite accumulates at the inlet and sweeps around the contact, but very little of the graphite passes through the contact. The accumulated graphite appears to act as a barrier which reduces the supply of oil available to the contact for boundary lubrication. Friction data show no clear short term beneficial or detrimental effect caused by addition of graphite to the base oil. However, during pure sliding, more abrasion occurs on the polished balls lubricated with the dispersion than on those lubricated with the base oil alone. All observations were for the special case of a highly-polished ball on a glass surface and may not be applicable to other geometries and materials, or to rougher surfaces.

  18. Effects of used lubricating oil on two mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yong; Tam, N F Y

    2007-01-01

    An outdoor experiment was set up to investigate the effects of used lubricating oil (5 L/m2) on Aegiceras corniculatum Blanco. and Avicennia marina (Forsk) Vierh., two salt-excreting mangroves. A. marina was more sensitive to used lubricating oil than A. corniculatum and canopy-oiling resulted in more direct physical damage and stronger lethal effects than base-oiling. When treated with canopy-oiling, half of A. corniculatum plants survived for the whole treatment time (90 d); but, for A. marina, high mortality (83%) resulted from canopy-oiling within 3 weeks and no plants survived for 80 d. Base-oiling had no lethal effects onA. corniculatum plants even at the termination of this experiment, but 83% of A. marina plants died 80 d after treatment. Forty days after canopy-oiling, 93% of A. corniculatum leaves fell and no live leaves remained on A. marina plants. By the end of the experiment, base-oiling treatment resulted in about 45% of A. corniculatum leaves falling, while all A. marina leaves and buds were burned to die. Lubricating oil resulted in physiological damage to A. corniculatum leaves, including decreases in chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, nitrate reductase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, and increases in malonaldehyde contents. For both species, oil pollution significantly reduced leaf, root, and total biomass, but did not significantly affect stem biomass. Oil pollution resulted in damage to the xylem vessels of fine roots but not to those of mediate roots.

  19. Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Dilution During Active Regeneration of Aftertreatment Systems

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Williams, A.; Christensen, E.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R.

    2011-12-01

    Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution. Stage two consisted of 16 hours of normal engine operation over a transient test cycle, which created an opportunity for any accumulated fuel in the oil sump to evaporate. Light duty (LD) vehicle testing was conducted on a 2010 VW Jetta equipped with DOC, DPF and a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). Vehicle testing comprised approximately 4,000 miles of operation on a mileage-accumulation dynamometer (MAD) using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Highway Fuel Economy Cycle because of the relatively low engine oil and exhaust temperatures, and high DPF regeneration frequency of this cycle relative to other cycles examined. Comparison of the lube oil dilution analysis methods suggests that D3524 does not measure dilution by biodiesel. The new back-flush GC method provided analysis for both diesel and biodiesel, in a shorter time and with lower detection limit. Thus all lube oil dilution results in this paper are based on this method. Analysis of the HD lube-oil samples showed only 1.5% to 1.6% fuel dilution for both fuels during continuous

  20. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 2. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes in barramundi, Lates calcarifer, a tropical fish species.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A; Cavanagh, Joanne

    2004-05-01

    An increasing number of vegetable-based oils are being developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum products. However, toxicity towards key tropical marine species has not been investigated. In this study we used laboratory-based biomarker induction experiments to compare the relative stress of a vegetable-based lubricating oil for marine 2-stroke engines with its mineral oil-based counterpart on tropical fish. The sub-lethal stress of 2-stoke outboard lubricating oils towards the fish Lates calcarifer (barramundi) was examined using liver microsomal mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction assays. This study is the first investigation into the use of this key commercial species in tropical North Queensland, Australia in stress assessment of potential hydrocarbon pollution using ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. Our results indicated that barramundi provide a wide range of inducible rates of EROD activity in response to relevant organic stressors. The vegetable- and mineral-based lubricants induced significant EROD activity at 1.0 mg kg(-1) and there was no significant difference between the two oil treatments at that concentration. At increasing concentrations of 2 and 3 mg kg(-1), the mineral-based lubricant resulted in slightly higher EROD activity than the vegetable-based lubricant. The EROD activity of control and treated barramundi are found to be within ranges for other species from temperate and tropical environments. These results indicate that vegetable-based lubricants may be less stressful to barramundi than their mineral counterparts at concentrations of lubricant > or =2 mg kg(-1). There is great potential for this species to be used in the biomonitoring of waterways around tropical North Queensland and SE Asia.

  1. Characteristics of lubricating grease produced from Nigerian tarsand-derived heavy oil

    SciTech Connect

    Ogunsola, O.I.; Agoi-George, S.O. )

    1990-01-01

    The results of a study involving the laboratory production of lubricating grease from heavy oil extracted from the Nigerian tarsands are reported. Toluene-extracted oil from the tarsands was used in making a soap-based grease and a clay-based grease. The grease produced was then tested in accordance with the standard National Laboratory for Grease Institute (NLGI) specifications. The two types of grease produced from the tarsands oil conformed with the NLGI specifications and were in the category of grease suitable for use as lubricant for plain and roller bearings and as sealants.

  2. Impact of engine lubricant properties on regulated gaseous emissions of 2000-2001 model-year gasoline vehicles.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Thomas D; Sauer, Claudia G; Pisano, John T; Rhee, Sam H; Huai, Tao; Miller, J Wayne; MacKay, Gervase I; Robbins, John; Gamble, Heather; Hochhauser, Albert M; Ingham, Michael C; Gorse, Robert A; Beard, Loren K

    2004-03-01

    The impact of the sulfur (S) content in lubricating oil was evaluated for four ultra-low-emission vehicles and two super-ultra-low-emission vehicles, all with low mileage. The S content in the lube oils ranged from 0.01 to 0.76%, while the S content of the gasoline was fixed at 0.2 ppmw. Vehicles were configured with aged catalysts and tested over the Federal Test Procedure, at idle and at 50-mph cruise conditions. In all testing modes, variations in the S level of the lubricant did not significantly affect the regulated gas-phase tailpipe emissions. In addition to the regulated gas-phase emissions, a key element of the research was measuring the engine-out sulfur dioxide (SO2) in near-real-time. This research used a new methodology based on a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) to measure SO2 from the lubricants used in this study. With the DOAS, the contribution of SO2 emissions for the highest-S lubricant was found to range from less than 1 to 6 ppm on a gasoline S equivalent basis over the range of vehicles and test cycles used. The development and operation of the DOAS is discussed in this paper.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION AND TRIBOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1-BENZYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYL)IMIDE AS NEAT LUBRICANT AND OIL ADDITIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Dinesh G; Qu, Jun; Yu, Bo; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Bunting, Bruce G; Blau, Peter Julian; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Selected physical and chemical properties and tribological data for a newly-developed, imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) are presented. The IL is soluble in the SAE 5W-30 oil up to a certain weight percentage, and is as a promising candidate for use in lubrication applications, either in its neat version or as an oil additive. Characterization of the IL included dynamic viscosity at different temperatures, corrosion effects on cast iron cylinder liners, and thermal stability analysis. The tribological performance was evaluated using a reciprocating ring-on-liner test arrangement. When used in neat version this IL demonstrated friction coefficient comparable to a fully formulated engine oil, and when used as an oil additive it produced less wear.

  4. Adsorption Behavior of Heat Modified Soybean Oil via Boundary Lubrication Coefficient of Friction Measurements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The frictional behaviors of soybean oil and heat modified soybean oils with different Gardner scale viscosities as additives in hexadecane have been examined in a boundary lubrication test regime (steel contacts) using Langmuir adsorption model. The free energy of adsorption (delta-Gads) of various...

  5. Properties of dry film lubricants prepared by spray application of aqueous starch-oil composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aqueous dispersions of starch-soybean oil (SBO) and starch-jojoba oil (JO) composites, prepared by excess steam jet cooking, form effective dry film lubricants when applied as thick coatings to metal surfaces by doctor blade. This application method necessitates long drying times, is wasteful, requ...

  6. Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of chlorinated paraffin (CP) and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) concentration in polar and non-polar base fluids on boundary lubrication properties was investigated. The non-polar fluid was a solvent refined low sulfur heavy paraffinic mineral oil (150N oil); and the polar fl...

  7. Oxidation and low temperature stability of polymerized soybean oil-based lubricants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxidation and low temperature stability of polymerized soybean oil (PSO)-based lubricants have been investigated by the pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) method. It was found that PSO samples have lower oxidative stability than their precursor, soybean oil. The main reason for the...

  8. Use of Multiviscosity/Synthetic Engine Oil in Army Combat/Tactical Vehicles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    Approach to the Characterization of Military Lubricants," Interim Report AFLRL No. 77, AD A027397, prepared at U.S. Army Fuels and Lubricants Research...Lubricating Oil, Internal Com- bustion Engine, Tactical Service, November 1970. 15. "Multigrade Oils for Diesel Application," 4emorandum for Record, DRX - FB-GL...signific.ant ’cdolei rtz’oas wero e:’countered. Non vr-hi1cleo, Act-ain. #I nQ-680, sustalmed r~iajr~ engimed-r.~ dur-Ing ciprtlcn, One c tio conne

  9. Aerosol aspects of oil mist lubrication -- Generation and penetration in supply line

    SciTech Connect

    Shamim, A.; Kettleborough, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    In this research work the characteristics of the oil mist generated by the vortex type oil mist generator and the behavior of oil mist flowing through the oil mist supply line have been investigated using the tools, theories and models of aerosol mechanics. In the first part of this research, the influence of oil viscosity and oil level in the generator reservoir on the generated oil mist have been studied. The characteristics of the generated oil mist has also been investigated for several commercially available lubricating oils. In the second part, the penetration (percentage of oil droplets carried with air flow without deposition in the supply pipe) of oil mist has been studied experimentally and compared to a generalized model. It has been observed that for oil mist flow through a particular diameter pipe, there exists an optimum flow rate range for maximum penetration.

  10. Determination of the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Yoko; Suzuki, Kumi; Ogimoto, Mami

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants; a survey was also conducted of commercial lubricants. Hydrocarbons in lubricants were separated from the matrix components of lubricants using a silica gel solid phase extraction (SPE) column. Normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) coupled with an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) was used to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) and a refractive index detector (RID) was used to estimate carbon numbers and the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons, which supplemented the results obtained by NPLC/ELSD. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not detected in 12 lubricants specified for use for incidental food contact, but were detected in 13 out of 22 lubricants non-specified for incidental food contact at a ratio up to 18%. They were also detected in 10 out of 12 lubricants collected at food factories at a ratio up to 13%. The centre carbon numbers of hydrocarbons in commercial lubricants were estimated to be between C16 and C50.

  11. CFD analysis of turboprop engine oil cooler duct for best rate of climb condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalia, Saurabh; CA, Vinay; Hegde, Suresh M.

    2016-09-01

    Turboprop engines are widely used in commuter category airplanes. Aircraft Design bureaus routinely conduct the flight tests to confirm the performance of the system. The lubrication system of the engine is designed to provide a constant supply of clean lubrication oil to the engine bearings, the reduction gears, the torque-meter, the propeller and the accessory gearbox. The oil lubricates, cools and also conducts foreign material to the oil filter where it is removed from further circulation. Thus a means of cooling the engine oil must be provided and a suitable oil cooler (OC) and ducting system was selected and designed for this purpose. In this context, it is relevant to study and analyse behaviour of the engine oil cooler system before commencing actual flight tests. In this paper, the performance of the oil cooler duct with twin flush NACA inlet housed inside the nacelle has been studied for aircraft best rate of climb (ROC) condition using RANS based SST K-omega model by commercial software ANSYS Fluent 13.0. From the CFD analysis results, it is found that the mass flow rate captured and pressure drop across the oil cooler for the best ROC condition is meeting the oil cooler manufacturer requirements thus, the engine oil temperature is maintained within prescribed limits.

  12. Comparison Between Oil-mist and Oil-jet Lubrication of High-speed, Small-bore, Angular-contact Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7 percent was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

  13. Comparison Between Oil-Mist and Oil-Jet Lubrication of High-Speed, Small-Bore, Angular-Contact Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7% was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

  14. Comparison Between Oil-Mist and Oil-Jet Lubrication of High-Speed, Small-Bore, Angular-Contact Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7% was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

  15. In vitro effects of coital lubricants and synthetic and natural oils on sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Ranjit S; Wong, Timothy H; Kling, Crystal A; Chohan, Kazim R

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of coital lubricants and oils on sperm motility. Comparative prospective in vitro study. University Andrology laboratory. Twenty-two normozoospermic donors. Semen samples were incubated in modified human tubal fluid (mHTF) control and in 10% Pre-Seed, Astroglide, and KY products (Sensitive, Warming, and Tingling) and baby, canola, sesame, and mustard oils. Total and progressive sperm motility was evaluated before and at 5, 30, and 60 minutes of incubation. Sperm motility. Control samples exhibited no significant decrease in sperm motility. Pre-Seed showed a slight (∼4%) but significant drop in progressive motility after 30 minutes. Total and progressive sperm motility significantly declined under Astroglide, KY products (Sensitive, Warming, and Tingling) and sesame oil incubation. Canola oil significantly decreased total motility after 30 minutes and progressive motility after 5 minutes of incubation. Similarly, baby oil decreased total motility after 60 minutes and progressive motility after 5 minutes. After initial decline, total and progressive sperm motility under Pre-Seed and canola and baby oils remained high. Exposure to mustard oil caused persistent hyperactivation of sperm in each sample with no decrease in motility. Sesame oil and synthetic coital lubricants impaired sperm motility and may hamper fertility. Pre-Seed and canola, mustard, and baby oils showed no deleterious effect and may be considered sperm-friendly coital lubricants. Mustard oil exposure resulted in hyperactivation of sperm and needs to be studied further. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of temperature on lubrication with biobased oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Temperature is an important parameter affecting the performance of lubricant ingredients. It affects such important tribological characteristics as viscosity, film thickness, adsorption, desorption, friction, and wear. Temperature also promotes oxidation, polymerization, and degradation which nega...

  17. Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  18. Development of an instrumentation system for measurement of degradation of lubricating oil using optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, S.; Bordoloi, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an instrumentation system to measure the degradation in lubricating oil using a bare, tapered and bent multi-mode optical fiber (BTBMOF) sensor probe and a temperature probe. The sensor system consists of (i) a bare, tapered and bent multi-mode optical fiber (BTBMOF) as optical sensor along with a laser source and a LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) as detector (ii) a temperature sensor (iii) a ATmega microcontroller based data acquisition system and (iv) a trained ANN for processing and calibration. The BTBMOF sensor and the temperature sensor are used to provide the measure of refractive index (RI) and the temperature of a lubricating oil sample. A microcontroller based instrumentation system with trained ANN algorithm has been developed to determine the degradation of the lubricating oil sample by sampling the readings of the optical fiber sensor, and the temperature sensor.

  19. Tribological behavior of oil-lubricated, TiN-coated steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O.O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.R.; Nichols, F.A. ); Sproul, W.D.; Graham, M.; Rudnik, P.J. )

    1992-02-01

    The effects of titanium nitride (TiN) coatings on the tribological behavior of M50 and 52100 steels under both dry and synthetic polyol ester-based oil lubrication were evaluated using a reciprocating sliding pin-on-flat test machine. Under dry conditions, the TiN coating reduced the wear, which occurred by abrasion as well as the oxidation of the sliding surface. It also reduced the amount of wear-debris accumulation at the contact interface. During oil lubrication, wear and roughening of the contact area, usually associated with the boundary lubrication regime, was eliminated by the TiN coating. Formation of boundary film by the chemical interaction between the oil additives and wearing surface was also prevented by the TiN coating.

  20. Tribological behavior of oil-lubricated, TiN-coated steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O.O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.R.; Nichols, F.A.; Sproul, W.D.; Graham, M.; Rudnik, P.J.

    1992-02-01

    The effects of titanium nitride (TiN) coatings on the tribological behavior of M50 and 52100 steels under both dry and synthetic polyol ester-based oil lubrication were evaluated using a reciprocating sliding pin-on-flat test machine. Under dry conditions, the TiN coating reduced the wear, which occurred by abrasion as well as the oxidation of the sliding surface. It also reduced the amount of wear-debris accumulation at the contact interface. During oil lubrication, wear and roughening of the contact area, usually associated with the boundary lubrication regime, was eliminated by the TiN coating. Formation of boundary film by the chemical interaction between the oil additives and wearing surface was also prevented by the TiN coating.

  1. Determination of calcium, magnesium and zinc in lubricating oils by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using a three-component solution.

    PubMed

    Zmozinski, Ariane V; de Jesus, Alexandre; Vale, Maria G R; Silva, Márcia M

    2010-12-15

    Lubricating oils are used to decrease wear and friction of movable parts of engines and turbines, being in that way essential for the performance and the increase of that equipment lifespan. The presence of some metals shows the addition of specific additives such as detergents, dispersals and antioxidants that improve the performance of these lubricants. In this work, a method for determination of calcium, magnesium and zinc in lubricating oil by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F AAS) was developed. The samples were diluted with a small quantity of aviation kerosene (AVK), n-propanol and water to form a three-component solution before its introduction in the F AAS. Aqueous inorganic standards diluted in the same way have been used for calibration. To assess the accuracy of the new method, it was compared with ABNT NBR 14066 standard method, which consists in diluting the sample with AVK and in quantification by F AAS. Two other validating methods have also been used: the acid digestion and the certified reference material NIST (SRM 1084a). The proposed method provides the following advantages in relation to the standard method: significant reduction of the use of AVK, higher stability of the analytes in the medium and application of aqueous inorganic standards for calibration. The limits of detection for calcium, magnesium and zinc were 1.3 μg g(-1), 0.052 μg g(-1) and 0.41 μg g(-1), respectively. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium and zinc in six different samples obtained by the developed method did not differ significantly from the results obtained by the reference methods at the 95% confidence level (Student's t-test and ANOVA). Therefore, the proposed method becomes an efficient alternative for determination of metals in lubricating oil. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point contacts. I - Graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    A Hertzian contact is lubricated with dispersed graphite in mineral oils under boundary lubrication conditions. The contacts are optically observed under pure rolling, combined rolling and sliding, and pure sliding conditions. The contact is formed with a steel ball on the flat surface of a glass disk. Under pure rolling and combined rolling and sliding conditions, it is found that, for low speeds, a graphite film can form which will separate the contacting surfaces. In contrast, under pure sliding conditions, graphite accumulates at the inlet and sweeps around the contact, but very little of graphite passes through the contact. The accumulated graphite appears to act as a barrier which reduces the supply of oil available to the contact for boundary lubrication. Friction data show no clear short-term beneficial or detrimental effect caused by addition of graphite to the base oil. However, during pure sliding, more abrasion occurs on the polished balls lubricated with the dispersion than on those lubricated with the base oil alone.

  3. Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

  4. Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

  5. Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

  6. Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

  7. Evaluating lubricating capacity of vegetal oils using Abbott-Firestone curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, C.; Cristea, G. C.; Dima, C.; Deleanu, L.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the change of functional parameters defined on the Abbott-Firestone curve in order to evaluate the surface quality of the balls from the four ball tester, after tests done with several vegetable oils. The tests were done using two grades of rapeseed oil (degummed and refined) and two grades of soybean oil (coarse and degummed) and a common transmission oil (T90). Test parameters were 200 N and 0.576 m/s (1500 rpm) for 60 minutes. For the refined rapeseed oil, the changes in shape of the Abbott-Firestone curves are more dramatic, these being characterized by high values of Spk (the average value for the wear scars on the three balls), thus being 40% of the sum Svk + Sk + Spk, percentage also obtained for the soybean oil, but the value Spk being lower. For the degummed soybean oil, the profile height of the wear scars are taller than those obtained after testing the coarse soybean oil, meaning that the degumming process has a negative influence on the worn surface quality and the lubricating capacity of this oil. Comparing the surface quality of the wear scars on fixed tested balls is a reliable method to point out the lubricant properties of the vegetable oils, especially if they are compared to a “classical” lubricant as a non-additivated transmission mineral oil T90. The best surface after testing was obtained for the soybean oil, followed by T90 oil and the degummed grades of the soybean oil and rapeseed oil (these three giving very close values for the functional parameters), but the refined rapeseed oil generated the poorest quality of the wear scars on the balls, under the same testing conditions.

  8. Lubrication handbook for the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    This handbook is intended to provide a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel can conveniently locate data needed for their work. This handbook is divided into two major parts (A and B). Part A is a compilation of solid lubricant suppliers information on chemical and physical property of data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical porperty data of more then 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications of spacecraft.

  9. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, J.; Viola, M. B.

    2013-10-31

    This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

  10. Numerical predictions and measurements in the lubrication of aeronautical engine and transmission components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraru, Laurentiu Eugen

    2005-11-01

    This dissertation treats a variety of aspects of the lubrication of mechanical components encountered in aeronautical engines and transmissions. The study covers dual clearance squeeze film dampers, mixed elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) cases and thermal elastohydrodynamic contacts. The dual clearance squeeze film damper (SFD) invented by Fleming is investigated both theoretically and experimentally for cases when the sleeve that separates the two oil films is free to float and for cases when the separating sleeve is supported by a squirrel cage. The Reynolds equation is developed to handle each of these cases and it is solved analytically for short bearings. A rotordynamic model of a test rig is developed, for both the single and dual SFD cases. A computer code is written to calculate the motion of the test rig rotor. Experiments are performed in order to validate the theoretical results. Rotordynamics computations are found to favorably agree with measured data. A probabilistic model for mixed EHL is developed and implemented. Surface roughness of gears are measured and processed. The mixed EHL model incorporates the average flow model of Patir and Cheng and the elasto-plastic contact mechanics model of Chang Etsion and Bogy. The current algorithm allows for the computation of the load supported by an oil film and for the load supported by the elasto-plastically deformed asperities. This work also presents a way to incorporate the effect of the fluid induced roughness deformation by utilizing the "amplitude reduction" results provided by the deterministic analyses. The Lobatto point Gaussian integration algorithm of Elrod and Brewe was extended for thermal lubrication problems involving compressible lubricants and it was implemented in thermal elastohydrodynamic cases. The unknown variables across the film are written in series of Legendre polynomials. The thermal Reynolds equation is obtained in terms of the series coefficients and it is proven that it can

  11. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with used lubricating oil using Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Agamuthu, P; Abioye, O P; Aziz, A Abdul

    2010-07-15

    Soil contamination by used lubricating oil from automobiles is a growing concern in many countries, especially in Asian and African continents. Phytoremediation of this polluted soil with non-edible plant like Jatropha curcas offers an environmental friendly and cost-effective method for remediating the polluted soil. In this study, phytoremediation of soil contaminated with 2.5 and 1% (w/w) waste lubricating oil using J. curcas and enhancement with organic wastes [Banana skin (BS), brewery spent grain (BSG) and spent mushroom compost (SMC)] was undertaken for a period of 180 days under room condition. 56.6% and 67.3% loss of waste lubricating oil was recorded in Jatropha remediated soil without organic amendment for 2.5% and 1% contamination, respectively. However addition of organic waste (BSG) to Jatropha remediation rapidly increases the removal of waste lubricating oil to 89.6% and 96.6% in soil contaminated with 2.5% and 1% oil, respectively. Jatropha root did not accumulate hydrocarbons from the soil, but the number of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria was high in the rhizosphere of the Jatropha plant, thus suggesting that the mechanism of the oil degradation was via rhizodegradation. These studies have proven that J. curcas with organic amendment has a potential in reclaiming hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on the dynamic characteristics, refrigerant and lubricating oil in the high-pressure hermetic compressor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Tetsuji

    The dynamics characteristics and refrigerant and lubricating oil in the high-pressure hermeti compressor has been studied. The compressor is 1 HP for the air conditioner of home use. The experiment and the analytic simulation have been researched. As a result, the theoretic compressor model was proposed. This model has three processes inside of compressor. They are the suction process, the compression process, and the discharge process. In each process, mass equations and energy equations are considered. Also, the inlet refrigerant conditions (2-phase refrigerant) were simulated and the dynamic characteristics of refrigerant and refrigerant and lubricating oil at starting was obtaied.

  13. Minimal blocking thermoplastic material and lubricating oil composition containing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Kosinsky, E.

    1980-07-22

    A lubricating oil composition having a low viscosity index comprising a mineral lubricating oil containing from about 0.5 to about 5.0 percent by volume of conjugated dienemonovinylarene copolymer having incorporated into or onto said copolymer at least one metal salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of a metal of group I, II, III or IV of the periodic table and a fatty acid having about 8 to about 30 carbon atoms per molecule and a polyhydrocarbylsiloxane silicone compound, the relative amounts of said metal salt and said silicone compound being sufficient to significantly reduce the blocking between contact surfaces of said conjugated diene-monovinylarene copolymer.

  14. Oil supply system for valves in an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Sonoda, T.; Koinuma, Y.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes an oil supply system for a valve actuating mechanism of an internal combustion engine wherein the valve actuating mechanism includes a rocker arm pivotally mounted on a rocker shaft and engaging a head of a valve, a hydraulic tappet, and a cam follower and interlinking mechanism interconnecting the hydraulic tappet to the rocker arm for actuating the valve. The improvement described here comprises an oil supply passage communicating with an oil reservoir chamber in the hydraulic tappet, and oil passage means in the rocker arm and cam follower and interlinking mechanism in mutual communication and communicating with the hydraulic tappet oil reservoir chamber and rocker shaft for supplying lubricating oil from the reservoir chamber to the rocker shaft.

  15. Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect

    Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

    1998-04-30

    Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

  16. Effect of metallic coating properties on the tribology of oil- lubricated coated-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O.O.; Fenske, G.R.; Erdemir, A.; Erck, R.A.; Hsieh, J.H.; Nichols, F.A.

    1992-04-01

    The friction and wear behavior of zirconia ceramics lubricated with solid coatings (AG, Au, and Nb), deposited by ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) techniques, and a polyol-ester-based synthetic oil are presented. These results demonstrate that, although the simultaneous use of soft (e.g. Ag and Au) solid lubricants in conjunction with the synthetic lubricant significantly reduces the friction and wear under boundary lubrication at temperatures up to 250{degree}C, the durability of the soft films was poor. In contrast, durability of Nb coating (in terms of chemical reactivity and adhesion during the tribo-tests) was better than that of the Ag or Au films. However, the friction and wear behavior of the Nb-coated films was poorer than that of the ceramics coated with Ag or Au.

  17. Effect of metallic coating properties on the tribology of oil- lubricated coated-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O.O.; Fenske, G.R.; Erdemir, A.; Erck, R.A.; Hsieh, J.H.; Nichols, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    The friction and wear behavior of zirconia ceramics lubricated with solid coatings (AG, Au, and Nb), deposited by ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) techniques, and a polyol-ester-based synthetic oil are presented. These results demonstrate that, although the simultaneous use of soft (e.g. Ag and Au) solid lubricants in conjunction with the synthetic lubricant significantly reduces the friction and wear under boundary lubrication at temperatures up to 250{degree}C, the durability of the soft films was poor. In contrast, durability of Nb coating (in terms of chemical reactivity and adhesion during the tribo-tests) was better than that of the Ag or Au films. However, the friction and wear behavior of the Nb-coated films was poorer than that of the ceramics coated with Ag or Au.

  18. Monitoring of the molecular structure of lubricant oil using a FT-Raman spectrometer prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Meyrueis, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The determination of the physical state of the lubricant materials in complex mechanical systems is highly critical from different points of view: operative, economical, environmental, etc. Furthermore, there are several parameters that a lubricant oil must meet for a proper performance inside a machine. The monitoring of these lubricants can represent a serious issue depending on the analytical approach applied. The molecular change of aging lubricant oils have been analyzed using an all-standard-components and self-designed FT-Raman spectrometer. This analytical tool allows the direct and clean study of the vibrational changes in the molecular structure of the oils without having direct contact with the samples and without extracting the sample from the machine in operation. The FT-Raman spectrometer prototype used in the analysis of the oil samples consist of a Michelson interferometer and a self-designed photon counter cooled down on a Peltier element arrangement. The light coupling has been accomplished by using a conventional 62.5/125μm multi-mode fiber coupler. The FT-Raman arrangement has been able to extract high resolution and frequency precise Raman spectra, comparable to those obtained with commercial FT-Raman systems, from the lubricant oil samples analyzed. The spectral information has helped to determine certain molecular changes in the initial phases of wearing of the oil samples. The proposed instrument prototype has no additional complex hardware components or costly software modules. The mechanical and thermal irregularities influencing the FT-Raman spectrometer have been removed mathematically by accurately evaluating the optical path difference of the Michelson interferometer. This has been achieved by producing an additional interference pattern signal with a λ= 632.8 nm helium-neon laser, which differs from the conventional zero-crossing sampling (also known as Connes advantage) commonly used by FT-devices. It enables the FT-Raman system to

  19. Numerical Prediction of Flow and Heat Transfer on lubricant Supplying and Scavenging Flow Path of an Aero-Engine Lubrication System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. Q.; Liu, Z. X.; Lv, Y. G.; Zhang, L. F.; Xu, T.

    This paper presents a numerical model of internal flows on lubricant supplying and scavenging flow path of an aero-engine lubrication system. The numerical model was built in the General Analysis Software of Aero-engine Lubrication System (GASLS), developed by Northwestern Polytechnical University. The lubricant flow flux, pressure and temperature distribution at steady state were calculated. GASLS is a general purpose computer program employed a ID steady state network algorithm for analyzing flowrates, pressures and temperatures in a complex flow network. All kinds of aero-engine lubrication systems can be divided into finite correlative typical elements and nodes from which the calculation network is developed in GASLS. Special emphasis is put on how to use combinational elements which is a type of typical elements to replace some complex components such as bearing compartments, accessory drive gearboxes or heat exchangers. This method can reduce network complexity and improve calculation efficiency. The computational results show good agreement with experimental data.

  20. Determination of insolubles in diesel lubricating oil by FIA-visible spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Knochen, M; Sixto, A; Pignalosa, G; Domenech, S; Garrigues, S; de la Guardia, M

    2004-12-15

    Insolubles determination is one of the parameters usually recommended to evaluate the residual life of oil because their presence at elevated levels in diesel lubricating oil changes the viscosity, prematurely clogs filters and is one of the major factors in causing abrasive engine wear. The proposed method employs visible spectrophotometric detection in association with flow injection analysis. The results obtained by this method were compared with the ones obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) since this is the most employed method for insolubles determination. The proposed method presented a linear response from 0 to 3% (w/w) of insolubles in pentane (ASTM D-893). The sampling frequency was about 30 samplesh(-1), with a relative standard deviation (n=5) of 2.4% or better. Accuracy was evaluated analysing 98 real samples and the results obtained with the FIA-spectrophotometric method were plotted against those obtained by the FT-IR method by means of linear regression. Slope and intercept of the straight line obtained were compared with the theoretical values of 1 and 0 by means of the joint-confidence ellipse F-test. At the confidence level of 95% no evidence of a difference was found between both methods.

  1. Effect of metallic-coating properties on the tribology of coated and oil-lubricated ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O.O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.R.; Erck, R.A.; Hsieh, J.H.; Nichols, F.A.

    1992-09-01

    Friction and wear behavior was determined for zirconia ceramics lubricated with solid coatings (Ag, Au, and Nb) deposited by ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) techniques, and a polyol-ester-based synthetic oil. Although the use of soft Ag and Au coatings as solid lubricants in conjunction with the synthetic oil significantly reduced the friction and wear under boundary lubrication at temperatures up to 250[degrees]C, these films had poor durability. In contrast, the Nb coating was more durable (in terms of chemical reactivity and adhesion during the tribo-tests) than were the Ag or Au films. However, the friction and wear behavior of the Nb-coated zirconia was poorer than that of the ceramics coated with Ag or Au.

  2. Relative toxicity of spent lubricant oil and detergent against benthic macro-invertebrates of a west African estuarine lagoon.

    PubMed

    Chukwu, L O; Odunzeh, C C

    2006-07-01

    The relative acute toxicity of spent lubricant oil and detergent was evaluated against hermit crab, Clibanarius africanus (Aurivillus) and periwinkle, Tympanotonus fuscatus (L) from the Lagos lagoon in laboratory bioassays. Based on the derived toxicity indices, the detergent (96 hr LC50 = 5.77ml/l) was found to be 1.73 times more toxic than spent engine oil (96 hr LC50 = 10.01 ml/l) when acting singly against C africanus and 18.73 times (96 hr LC50-48.67 ml/l) more toxic (96 hr LC50 = 911.57 ml/l) when acting singly against T. fuscatus. On the basis of the computed susceptibility factors, C. africanus was found to be about eight times and ninety-one times more susceptible to the toxic effect of detergent and spent lubricant oil respectively. The randomized analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was significant difference (Fcal 58.83 Ftab 3.87; DF 13; p > 0.05) between all treatments of spent lubricant oil and detergent during the 96 hr exposure period of test animals. At 5% level of significance the Student Neuman-Keuls (SNK) test further revealed significant differences in the mean mortality response of test animals exposed to toxicants at all concentrations and untreated control. The results obtained in this study suggest that the estuarine benthic macroinvertebrates, which play key roles in the environment, may serve as useful in-situ sentinels for biomonitoring studies of petroleum pollutants in fragile aquatic ecosystems such as the Lagos lagoon.

  3. On-Board Monitoring of Engine Oil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    constant shown as a function of kinematic viscosity .................... 103 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Engine Lubrication...stabilizes. As previously discussed (see Chapter 1), there are numerous 102 factors that cause a change in the kinematic viscosity, or no change if there...and kinematic viscosity. Specific causes for this correlation and the change in the lubricant properties with respect to engine operating time

  4. Oil-Miscible and Non-Corrosive Phosphonium Ionic Liquids as Candidate Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Bo; Bansal, Dinesh G; Qu, Jun; Sun, Xiaoqi; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Blau, Peter Julian; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been receiving considerable attention from the lubricants industry as potential friction and wear-reducing additives, but their solubility in oils is an issue. Unlike most ionic liquids that are insoluble in non-polar hydrocarbon oils, this study reports phosphonium-based ILs (PP-ILs) that are fully miscible with both mineral oil-based and synthetic lubricants. Both the cation and anion in quaternary structures, long alkyl chains, and capability of pairing the cation and the anion via a H-O bond are hypothesized to improve the compatibility between ions and neutral oil molecules. The measured viscosities of the oil-IL blends agree well with the Refutas equation that is for solutions containing multiple components. High thermal stability and non-corrosiveness were observed for the PP-ILs. Effective friction reduction and anti-wear functionality have been demonstrated in tribological tests when adding 5 wt% of a PP-IL into a base oil, suggesting potential applications for using the oil-miscible PP-ILs as lubricant additives.

  5. Base Oil-Extreme Pressure Additive Synergy in Lubricants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extreme pressure (EP) additives are those containing reactive elements such as sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine. In lubrication processes that occur under extremely severe conditions (e.g., high pressure and/or slow speed), these elements undergo chemical reactions generating new materials (tribofi...

  6. Evaluation of Environmentally Acceptable Lubricants (EALS) for Dams Managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    the environmental damage was estimated at $322 million (Etkin 2010). Brunner and Salmon (1997) documented that oil and lubricant leaks from...of Synthetic Lubrication 18:291-300. Brunner, W. J., and G. M. Salmon . 1997. Reducing the risk of environmental damage from oil spillage

  7. Effect of EGR contamination of diesel engine oil on wear.

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O. O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.; Aldajah, S.; Goldblatt, I. L.; Energy Systems; United Arab Emirates Univ.; BP-Global Lubricants Technology

    2007-09-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the effective means to reduce the NO{sub X} emission from diesel engines. Returning exhaust product to the diesel engine combustion chamber accelerated the degradation of the lubricant engine oil, primarily by increasing the total acid number (TAN) as well as the soot content and, consequently, the viscosity. These oil degradation mechanisms were observed in engine oil exposed to EGR during a standard Cummins M-l 1 diesel engine test. Four-ball wear tests with M-50 balls showed that, although the used oils slightly decrease the friction coefficients, they increased the ball wear by two orders of magnitude when compared to tests with clean oil. Wear occurred primarily by an abrasive mechanism, but in oil with the highest soot loading of 12%, scuffing and soot particle embedment were also observed. Laboratory wear tests showed a linear correlation with the TAN, while the crosshead wear during the engine test was proportional to the soot content.

  8. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Roger A. E.; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-06

    Developments of high performance lubricants are driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. We demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Moreover, these hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100°C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100°C showed that addition of 1 wt% of hairy NPs into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40%) and wear volume (up to ≈90%). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.

  9. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Roger A. E.; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-06

    Developments of high performance lubricants are driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. We demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Moreover, these hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100°C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100°C showed that addition of 1 wt% of hairy NPs into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40%) and wear volume (up to ≈90%). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.

  10. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Wright, Roger A. E.; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; ...

    2016-06-06

    Developments of high performance lubricants are driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. We demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Moreover, these hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100°C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100°C showed that addition of 1 wt% of hairy NPsmore » into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40%) and wear volume (up to ≈90%). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.« less

  11. Corrosion protection of steel by thin coatings of starch-oil dry lubricants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corrosion of materials is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced 3 worldwide by industry. This research investigated the inhibition of corrosive behavior a 4 dry lubricant formulation consisting of jet-cooked corn starch and soybean oil on SAE 5 1010 steel. Electrochemical Impedance ...

  12. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction.

    PubMed

    Wright, Roger A E; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-07-18

    The development of high performance lubricants has been driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. Herein, we demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. These hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100 °C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100 °C showed that addition of 1 wt % of hairy NPs into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40 %) and wear volume (up to ≈90 %). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.

  13. Rheological and tribological behaviour of lubricating oils containing platelet MoS2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Qingming; Jin, Yi; Sun, Pengcheng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-05-01

    This work concerns rheological and frictional behaviour of lubricating oils containing platelet molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoparticles (average diameter 50 nm; single layer thickness 3 nm). Stable nano-MoS2 lubricants were formulated and measured for their rheological behaviour and tribological performance. Rheological experiments showed that the nano-MoS2 oils were non-Newtonian following the Bingham plastic fluid model. The viscosity data fitted the classic Hinch-Leal (H-L) model if an agglomeration factor of 1.72 was introduced. Tribological experiments indicated that the use of MoS2 nanoparticles could enhance significantly the tribological performance of the base lubricating oil (reduced frictional coefficient, reduced surface wear and increased stability). Scanning electron microscopy, laser confocal microscope and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses suggested that the reduced frictional coefficient and surface wear be associated with surface patching effects. Such patching effects were shown to depend on the concentration of MoS2 nanoparticles, and an effective patching required a concentration over approximately 1 wt%. The increased stability could be attributed to the enhanced heat transfer and lubricating oil film strength due to the presence of nanoparticles.

  14. Dose and accumulative effects of spent lubricating oil on four common mangrove plants in South China.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lin; Zhang, Chunguang; Wong, Yuk Shan; Tam, Nora Fung Yee

    2011-01-01

    The growth of four mangrove species seedlings, namely Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Kandelia obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum and Acanthus ilicifolius in sediments contaminated by spent lubricating oil, even at the lowest oil dose (2.5 L m(-2)), showed different degrees of sub-lethal damages. All the seedlings of K. obovata and A. corniculatum were killed at 10 L m(-2) oil, while the lethal oil dose was 15 L m(-2) for A. ilicifolius seedlings. B. gymnorrhiza was the most tolerant species to oil pollution, which could survive under the highest oil dose treatment (15 L m(-2)). Biochemical responses including superoxide radical (O(2)(-)) release, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content in both leaves and roots of the oil-treated seedlings were increased significantly with oil dose, and presented a positive relationship with leaf and root biomass. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolek, R. J.; Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased.

  16. The influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolek, R. J.; Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased.

  17. Palm oil derived trimethylolpropane triesters synthetic lubricants and usage in industrial metalworking fluid.

    PubMed

    Chang, Teck-Sin; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Choong, Thomas S Y; Awang Biak, Dayang Radiah; Syam, Azhari M

    2015-01-01

    Trimethylolpropane triesters are biodegradable synthetic lubricant base oil alternative to mineral oils, polyalphaolefins and diesters. These oils can be produced from trimethylolpropane (TMP) and fatty acid methyl esters via chemical or enzymatic catalyzed synthesis methods. In the present study, a commercial palm oil derived winter grade biodiesel (ME18) was evaluated as a viable and sustainable methyl ester source for the synthesis of high oleic trimethylolpropane triesters (HO-TMPTE). ME18 has fatty acid profile containing 86.8% oleic acid, 8.7% linoleic acid with the remaining minor concentration of palmitic acid, stearic acid and linolenic acid. It's high oleic property makes it superior to produce synthetic lubricant base oil that fulfills both the good low temperature property as well as good oxidative stability. The synthetic base oil produced had a viscosity of 44.3 mm(2)/s at 40°C meeting the needs for ISO 46 oils. It also exhibited an excellent viscosity index of 219 that is higher than some other commercial brands of trimethylolpropane trioleate. Properties of base oil such as cloud point, density, acid value, demulsibility and soap content were also examined. The oil was then used in the formulation of tapping oil and appraised in term of adaptability, stability and field test performance.

  18. Engineered Joint Lubrication for OA Prevention and Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    joint and related injuries are complex with aspects of tissue structure loss, inflammation and lubrication all playing roles in dysfunction and...small molecule drugs to target inflammation , to create a comprehensive approach for treating the complex joint environment and its dysfunction. The... bathes the joint surface with several molecules that contribute to lubrication, including lubricin4,5, surface-active phospholipids6–8 and HA (ref. 9

  19. Synthesis of epoxy jatropha oil and its evaluation for lubricant properties.

    PubMed

    Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara Venkata; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayna

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable oils are being investigated as potential source of environmentally favorable lubricants over synthetic products. Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) identified as a potential raw material for biodiesel was explored for its use as a feedstock for biolubricants. Epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) was prepared by peroxyformic acid generated in situ by reacting formic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid as catalyst. Almost complete conversion of unsaturated bonds in the oil into oxirane was achieved with oxirane value 5.0 and iodine value of oil reduced from 92 to 2 mg I2/g. EJO exhibited superior oxidative stability compared to JO. This study employed three antioxidants such as butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate (ZDDC), and diphenyl amine (DPA) and found that DPA antioxidant performed better than ZDDC and BHT over EJO compared to JO. The lubricating properties of EJO and epoxy soybean oil (ESBO) are comparable. Hence, EJO can be projected as a potential lubricant basestock for high temperature applications.

  20. Phytotreatment of soil contaminated with used lubricating oil using Hibiscus cannabinus.

    PubMed

    Abioye, O P; Agamuthu, P; Abdul Aziz, A R

    2012-04-01

    Soil contamination by hydrocarbons, especially by used lubricating oil, is a growing problem in developing countries, which poses a serious threat to the environment. Phytoremediation of these contaminated soils offers environmental friendly and a cost effective method for their remediation. Hibiscus cannabinus was studied for the remediation of soil contaminated with 2.5 and 1% used lubricating oil and treated with organic wastes [banana skin (BS), brewery spent grain (BSG) and spent mushroom compost (SMC)] for a period of 90 days under natural conditions. Loss of 86.4 and 91.8% used lubricating oil was recorded in soil contaminated with 2.5 and 1% oil and treated with organic wastes respectively at the end of 90 days. However, 52.5 and 58.9% oil loss was recorded in unamended soil contaminated with 2.5 and 1% oil, respectively. The plant did not accumulate hydrocarbon from the soil but shows appreciable accumulation of Fe and Zn in the root and stem of H. cannabinus at the end of the experiment. The first order kinetic rate of uptake of Fe and Zn in H. cannabinus was higher in organic wastes amendment treatments compared to the unamended treatments, which are extremely low. The results of this study suggest that H. cannabinus has a high potential for remediation of hydrocarbon and heavy metal contaminated soil.

  1. Tribopolymerization: An advanced lubrication concept for automotive engines and systems of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Furey, M.J.; Kajdas, C.; Kaltenbach, K.W.

    1997-12-31

    Advanced lubrication technologies based on the concept of tribopolymerization as a mechanism of boundary lubrication are described. Advantages of this approach as well as potential applications which could have an impact on the design, manufacture, and performance of existing and future automotive engines are presented and discussed. Tribopolymerization, a novel concept of molecular design developed by Furey and Kajdas, involves the continuous formation of thin polymeric films on rubbing surfaces; the protective films formed are self-replenishing. The antiwear compounds developed from this technology are effective with metals as well as ceramics and in the liquid as well as vapor phases. Furthermore, they are ashless and contain no harmful phosphorus or sulfur; and many are biodegradable. Thus, potential applications of this technology are diverse and include a variety of cost/performance/energy/environmental advantages. Examples include the following: (a) machining and cutting applications using thin films to reduce friction and ceramic tool wear; (b) the lubrication of ceramic engines (e.g., low heat rejection diesel engines) or ceramic components; (c) the development of ashless lubricants for existing and future automotive engines to reduce exhaust catalyst poisoning and environmental emissions; (d) ashless antiwear or ``lubricity`` additives for fuels, including gasoline, diesel and jet fuel; (e) vapor phase applications of this technology to high temperature gaseous systems or to fuel injector wear problems associated with the use of natural gas engines; and (f) the use of the concept of tribopolymerization as an enabling technology in the development of new engines and new automotive propulsion systems.

  2. Liquid cryogenic lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, M. W.; Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1970-01-01

    Fluorinated polyethers are suitable lubricants for rolling-element bearings in cryogenic systems. Lubrication effectiveness is comparable to that of super-refined mineral oil lubricants operating at room temperature.

  3. Grease versus Oil Lubrication of Wheel Bearings in Army Equipment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    and David A. Brown 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK Fuels and Lubricants Div, STRBE-VF; Materials, Fuels...I Commander-. M60 Tank Development US Army Troop Support Command US Army Tank-Automotive Command ATTN: DRSTS-M Bradely Fighting Vehicle Systems 4300...Mr. Layne) Program Planning, STRBE-HP Washington, DC 20362 Program Support, STRBE-HR Systems Analysis, STRBE-HA 2 Commander CIRCULATE David Taylor

  4. [Application of PCA to diesel engine oil spectrometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Tian, Hong-Xiang; Guo, Wen-Yong

    2010-03-01

    In order to study wear characteristics of a 6-cylinder diesel engine, six different working statuses were arranged by altering the clearance between cylinder and piston. Sixty-nine oil samples were taken from engine at different loads under 6 working statuses and analyzed by Spectroil M Instrument made in US. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to analyzing spectrometric data of sixty-nine oil samples and clustering those data according to elements and oil samples separately based on the weighted coefficient and principal component scores. All 21 elements were used in element clustering and only 6 wear-related elements, namely iron, chromium, aluminum, copper, plumbum and silicon, were used in sample clustering. It is shown that PCA effectively clustered oil spectrometric data into three different principal components according to elements. The projection of two different principal components exhibited five types of elements combinations, namely wear elements (Fe, Cr, Cu, Al and Pb), high concentration additives elements (Na, Zn, P, Ca and Mg), low concentration additives elements (Ba and B), base constituent of lubricating oils (C and H) and interferential elements (Ni, Ti, Mo, V, Ag and Sn). Furthermore, PCA clearly clustered oil samples according to different clearance between cylinder and piston in the diesel engine. The study suggests that analyzing oil spectrographic data by PCA could find the sources of different elements, monitor engine conditions and diagnose wear faults.

  5. Intermetallic Nickel-Titanium Alloys for Oil-Lubricated Bearing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, C.; Pepper, S. V.; Noebe, R.; Hull, D. R.; Glennon, G.

    2009-01-01

    An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, NITINOL 60 (60NiTi), containing 60 wt% nickel and 40 wt% titanium, is shown to be a promising candidate material for oil-lubricated rolling and sliding contact applications such as bearings and gears. NiTi alloys are well known and normally exploited for their shape memory behavior. When properly processed, however, NITINOL 60 exhibits excellent dimensional stability and useful structural properties. Processed via high temperature, high-pressure powder metallurgy techniques or other means, NITINOL 60 offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. NITINOL 60 is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, less dense than steel, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, nongalling and nonmagnetic. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic encompasses all of these attributes. Further, NITINOL 60 has shown remarkable tribological performance when compared to other aerospace bearing alloys under oil-lubricated conditions. Spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) tests were conducted in vacuum using NITINOL 60 balls loaded between rotating 440C stainless steel disks, lubricated with synthetic hydrocarbon oil. Under conditions considered representative of precision bearings, the performance (life and friction) equaled or exceeded that observed with silicon nitride or titanium carbide coated 440C bearing balls. Based upon this preliminary data, it appears that NITINOL 60, despite its high titanium content, is a promising candidate alloy for advanced mechanical systems requiring superior and intrinsic corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity and nonmagnetic behavior under lubricated contacting conditions.

  6. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A L; Griffith, William {Bill} L

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  7. Lubricating Oil Burn-Off in Coast Guard Power Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-01

    mixing are applicaLie to other waste oil products , including those from running gear and bilge. The analysis described in this report was carried out...by volume (maximum particle size 5 microns). For waste lube oil treatments, the viscosity should be lowered by heating or by dilution with fuel oil. It...effectiveness of centrifigual purifiers with waste oil. As can be seen with refere.ice to TLble 2, the sulphated ash has been reduced to values typical

  8. Lubrication handbook for use in the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. E.; Thompson, M. B.

    1972-01-01

    This handbook provides a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel in the space industry can conveniently locate data needed for their work. The handbook is divided into two major parts. Part A is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum, from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications for missiles and spacecraft.

  9. Synthesis of lubrication fluids and surfactant precursors from soybean oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starting with soybean oil or soybean oil derived methyl oleate, a variety of compounds have been synthesized. The epoxidation of oleochemicals is a simple way to use the unsaturation naturally available in the vegetable oil and convert it into a variety of other useful chemicals. Epoxidized methyl...

  10. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with engineering plastics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cavestri, R.C.

    1993-12-01

    23 plastics have been subjected to immersion studies using 7 different lubricants at 60 C and 100 C, and 10 different refrigerants at ambient and 60 C. In the first part of the study, 22 hermetic stress crack-creep rupture test chambers were used to determine dynamic effects of a constant dead weight load on plastic test bars immersed at 20 C in a 40% refrigerant 32 ISOVG branched acid polyolester lubricant. The creep modulus data of the 10 refrigerants, using a dead weight load of 25% of ultimate tensile, are compared to values for air and HCFC-22. In the second part, the plastic test bars were aged for 14 d at constant refrigerant pressure 300 psia with 17 refrigerant lubricant combinations at 150 C. Additional evaluations were conducted to elucidate the effects of temperature, refrigerant, and lubricant on the plastics. At 150 C, high acid formation (high TAN) was further examined with dehydrated plastics. These evaluations indicate that dehydrating the plastics reduced, but did not eliminate, high TAN values and that heat alone caused the lost physicals. Alternative HFC refrigerants had little impact on plastics; some polyolester lubricants caused identifiable changes.

  11. Stable dispersion of nanodiamonds in oil and their tribological properties as lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Park, Jin-Ju; Lee, Min-Ku; Rhee, Chang Kyu

    2017-09-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are innovative additives when a combination of mechanical, thermal, tribological, and dielectric properties are required. In this study, a surface modification with oleic acid (OA) is developed for the deaggregation and prolonged dispersion of NDs in oil, and the effect of the NDs as lubricant additives on the tribological properties of a steel substrate is investigated. The OA renders the ND surface hydrophobic and decreases the average particle size from 268.6 to 20.1 nm. The OA-treated NDs exhibit very stable dispersion in oil even after more than 10 days, compared with the untreated NDs. From the analyses of the friction coefficient, wear loss, and worn surfaces using a ball-on-disk wear test, it is concluded that a 0.05 wt% addition of OA-treated NDs in oil lubricant provides excellent friction and anti-wear properties with the friction coefficient being reduced by 23%.

  12. Inverse gas chromatographic study of the oxidation stability of lubricating base oils via solubility parameter calculations.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Nagy Emam; Eissa, Elham Ahmed

    2007-11-01

    The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (chi1, 2(infinity)) and solubility parameter (delta2) and its hydrogen bonding sensing component (delta(h)) were determined using inverse gas chromatography (IGC). These parameters were successfully used in the probes of chemical changes that occur during the oxidation of naphthenic and paraffinic base oils in a GC column. Changes in chi1, 2(infinity) values reflect the different types of intermolecular interactions (dispersive, polar, hydrogen bonding) of the given lubricating base oil during oxidation. The obtained results showed that delta(h) component of solubility parameter is the most important parameter for probing the oxidative-chemical changes during the oxidation of given lubricating oils.

  13. Supercritical Fluid Synthesis and Tribological Applications of Silver Nanoparticle-decorated Graphene in Engine Oil Nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yuan; Su, Fenghua; Chen, Yangzhi

    2016-08-01

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene nanocomposites were synthesized by a facile chemical reduction approach with the assistance of supercritical CO2 (ScCO2). The silver nanoparticles with diameters of 2-16 nm are uniformly distributed and firmly anchored on graphene nanosheets. The tribological properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposites as lubricant additives in engine oil were investigated by a four-ball tribometer. The engine oil with 0.06~0.10 wt.% Sc-Ag/GN nanocomposites displays remarkable lubricating performance, superior than the pure engine oil, the engine oil containing zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP), as well as the oil dispersed with the single nanomaterial of graphene oxides (GOs) and nano-Ag particles alone. The remarkable lubricating behaviors of Sc-Ag/GN probably derive from the synergistic interactions of nano-Ag and graphene in the nanocomposite and the action of the formed protective film on the contact balls. The anchored nano-Ag particles on graphene expand the interlamination spaces of graphene nanosheets and can prevent them from restacking during the rubbing process, resulting in the full play of lubricating activity of graphene. The formed protective film on the friction pairs significantly reduces the surface roughness of the sliding balls and hence preventing them from direct interaction during the sliding process.

  14. Supercritical Fluid Synthesis and Tribological Applications of Silver Nanoparticle-decorated Graphene in Engine Oil Nanofluid.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yuan; Su, Fenghua; Chen, Yangzhi

    2016-08-04

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene nanocomposites were synthesized by a facile chemical reduction approach with the assistance of supercritical CO2 (ScCO2). The silver nanoparticles with diameters of 2-16 nm are uniformly distributed and firmly anchored on graphene nanosheets. The tribological properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposites as lubricant additives in engine oil were investigated by a four-ball tribometer. The engine oil with 0.06~0.10 wt.% Sc-Ag/GN nanocomposites displays remarkable lubricating performance, superior than the pure engine oil, the engine oil containing zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP), as well as the oil dispersed with the single nanomaterial of graphene oxides (GOs) and nano-Ag particles alone. The remarkable lubricating behaviors of Sc-Ag/GN probably derive from the synergistic interactions of nano-Ag and graphene in the nanocomposite and the action of the formed protective film on the contact balls. The anchored nano-Ag particles on graphene expand the interlamination spaces of graphene nanosheets and can prevent them from restacking during the rubbing process, resulting in the full play of lubricating activity of graphene. The formed protective film on the friction pairs significantly reduces the surface roughness of the sliding balls and hence preventing them from direct interaction during the sliding process.

  15. Supercritical Fluid Synthesis and Tribological Applications of Silver Nanoparticle-decorated Graphene in Engine Oil Nanofluid

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yuan; Su, Fenghua; Chen, Yangzhi

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene nanocomposites were synthesized by a facile chemical reduction approach with the assistance of supercritical CO2 (ScCO2). The silver nanoparticles with diameters of 2–16 nm are uniformly distributed and firmly anchored on graphene nanosheets. The tribological properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposites as lubricant additives in engine oil were investigated by a four-ball tribometer. The engine oil with 0.06~0.10 wt.% Sc-Ag/GN nanocomposites displays remarkable lubricating performance, superior than the pure engine oil, the engine oil containing zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP), as well as the oil dispersed with the single nanomaterial of graphene oxides (GOs) and nano-Ag particles alone. The remarkable lubricating behaviors of Sc-Ag/GN probably derive from the synergistic interactions of nano-Ag and graphene in the nanocomposite and the action of the formed protective film on the contact balls. The anchored nano-Ag particles on graphene expand the interlamination spaces of graphene nanosheets and can prevent them from restacking during the rubbing process, resulting in the full play of lubricating activity of graphene. The formed protective film on the friction pairs significantly reduces the surface roughness of the sliding balls and hence preventing them from direct interaction during the sliding process. PMID:27488733

  16. On the performance of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for direct determination of trace metals in lubricating oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lijuan; Cao, Fan; Xiu, Junshan; Bai, Xueshi; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Gilon, Nicole; Zeng, Heping; Yu, Jin

    2014-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a technique to directly determine metals in viscous liquids and especially in lubricating oils. A specific laser ablation configuration of a thin layer of oil applied on the surface of a pure aluminum target was used to evaluate the analytical figures of merit of LIBS for elemental analysis of lubricating oils. Among the analyzed oils, there were a certified 75cSt blank mineral oil, 8 virgin lubricating oils (synthetic, semi-synthetic, or mineral and of 2 different manufacturers), 5 used oils (corresponding to 5 among the 8 virgin oils), and a cooking oil. The certified blank oil and 4 virgin lubricating oils were spiked with metallo-organic standards to obtain laboratory reference samples with different oil matrix. We first established calibration curves for 3 elements, Fe, Cr, Ni, with the 5 sets of laboratory reference samples in order to evaluate the matrix effect by the comparison among the different oils. Our results show that generalized calibration curves can be built for the 3 analyzed elements by merging the measured line intensities of the 5 sets of spiked oil samples. Such merged calibration curves with good correlation of the merged data are only possible if no significant matrix effect affects the measurements of the different oils. In the second step, we spiked the remaining 4 virgin oils and the cooking oils with Fe, Cr and Ni. The accuracy and the precision of the concentration determination in these prepared oils were then evaluated using the generalized calibration curves. The concentrations of metallic elements in the 5 used lubricating oils were finally determined.

  17. Deep drawing of 304 L Steel Sheet using Vegetable oils as Forming Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashidhara, Y. M.; Jayaram, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The study involves the evaluation of deep drawing process using two non edible oils, Pongam (Pongammia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha carcass) as metal forming lubricants. Experiments are conducted on 304L steel sheets under the raw and modified oils with suitable punch and die on a hydraulic press of 200 ton capacity. The punch load, draw-in-length and wall thickness distribution for deep drawn cups are observed. The drawn cups are scanned using laser scanning technique and 3D models are generated using modeling package. The wall thickness profiles of cups at different sections (or height) are measured using CAD package. Among the two raw oils, the drawn cups under Jatropha oil, have uniform wall thickness profile compared to Pongam oil. Uneven flow of material and cup rupturing is observed under methyl esters of Pongam and Jatropha oil lubricated conditions. However, the results are observed under epoxidised Jatropha oil with uniform metal flow and wall thicknesses compared to mineral and other versions of vegetable oils.

  18. Determination of metallo-organic and particulate wear metals in lubricating oils associated with hybrid ceramic bearings by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Robin Ann

    It is possible to increase both the performance and operating environment of jet engines by using hybrid ceramic bearings. Our laboratory is concerned with investigating lubricating fluids for wear metals associated with silicon nitride ball bearings and steel raceways. Silicon nitride is characterized by low weight, low thermal expansion, high strength, and corrosion resistance. These attributes result in longer engine lifetimes than when metallic ball bearings are used. Before the routine use of ceramic ball bearings can be realized, the wear mechanisms of the materials should be thoroughly understood. One important variable in determining wear degradation is the concentration of metal present in the lubricating oils used with the bearings. A complete method for analyzing used lubricating oils for wear metal content must accurately determine all metal forms present. Oil samples pose problems for routine analysis due to complex organic matrices. Nebulizing these types of samples into an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer introduces many problems including clogging of the sample cone with carbon and increasing interferences. In addition, other techniques such as Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Atomic Emission Spectrometry are particle size dependent. They are unable to analyze particles greater than 10 mum in size. This dissertation describes a method of analyzing lubricating oils for both metallo-organic and particulate species by ICP-MS. Microwave digestion of the oil samples eliminates the need for elaborate sample introduction schemes as well as the use of a modified carrier gas. Al, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Ti, and Y have been determined in both aqueous and organic media. Metallo-organic solutions of these metals were successfully digested, nebulized into the ICP, and the singly charged ions measured by mass spectrometry. Metal particulates in oil matrices have also been quantitatively determined by the above method. Linear analytical curves were

  19. Tribological properties of lubricating oil-based nanofluids with metal/carbon nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Choi, Cheol; Jung, Mihee; Choi, Youngmin; Lee, Jaekeun; Oh, Jemyung

    2011-01-01

    Oil-based nanofluids were prepared by dispersing several metal and/or carbon nanoparticles in lubricating oil, and their tribological properties were investigated using a four-ball tribotester and an FZG machine. Each nanofluid can possess excellent wear resistance or extreme pressure capacity, but not both. Therefore, a new concept of mixed nanofluids was developed to satisfy both properties at the same time. The mixed nanofluids containing graphite and Ag nanoparticles not only showed enhanced load-carrying and anti-wear properties in the FZG gear rig test but also reduced the electric-power consumption by more than 3% compared to the base oil.

  20. Waste lubricating oil disposal practices in Providence, Rhode Island: potential significance to coastal water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.J.; Falke, A.M.; Quinn, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    A 1979-80 survey of Providence, R.I., residents indicated that about 35% change their own automotive lubricating oil, disposing of this oil by a variety of methods. The most popular disposal method was putting the oil in garbage cans, followed by backyard dumping, sewer disposal, dumping it on roads, or taking it to the town dump. Road and sewer disposal can account for 44 metric tons of hydrocarbons discharged into the city's combined storm and sanitary sewage treatment system. Residents indicated a high degree of willingness to participate in a state-wide recycling program.

  1. Lubricating oil and fuel contributions to particulate matter emissions from light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Kleeman, Michael J; Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Jakober, Chris A

    2008-01-01

    Size-resolved particulate matter emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) and light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) operated under realistic driving cycles were analyzed for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), hopanes, steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measured hopane and sterane size distributions did not match the total carbon size distribution in most cases, suggesting that lubricating oil was not the dominant source of particulate carbon in the vehicle exhaust. A regression analysis using 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-29-norhopane as a tracer for lubricating oil and benzo[ghi/perylene as a tracer for gasoline showed that gasoline fuel and lubricating oil both make significant contributions to particulate EC and OC emissions from LDGVs. A similar regression analysis performed using 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-29-norhopane as a tracer for lubricating oil and flouranthene as a tracerfor diesel fuel was able to explain the size distribution of particulate EC and OC emissions from HDDVs. The analysis showed that EC emitted from all HDDVs operated under relatively high load conditions was dominated by diesel fuel contributions with little EC attributed to lubricating oil. Particulate OC emitted from HDDVs was more evenly apportioned between fuel and oil contributions. EC emitted from LDGVs operated underfuel-rich conditions was dominated by gasoline fuel contributions. OC emitted from visibly smoking LDGVs was mostly associated with lubricating oil, but OC emitted from all other categories of LDGVs was dominated by gasoline fuel. The current study clearly illustrates that fuel and lubricating oil make separate and distinct contributions to particulate matter emissions from motor vehicles. These particles should be tracked separately during ambient source apportionment studies since the atmospheric evolution and ultimate health effects of these particles may be different. The source profiles for fuel and lubricating oil contributions to EC and OC

  2. Analysis of chain saw lubricating oils commonly used in Thailand's southern border provinces for forensic science purpose.

    PubMed

    Choodum, Aree; Tripuwanard, Kijja; Daeid, Niamh Nic

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, Thailand's southern border provinces (Malay-Muslim-majority border provinces) have become the scene of violence and insurgency. One of the attack patterns is the blocking of roads with perennial plants followed by planned attacks using improvised explosive devices (IEDs) or weapons on first responders. Containers of viscous dark lubricating oil and traces of lubricants on the felled trees were usually found at the scene. These were suspected to be chain oil lubricant from the chainsaws used to cut down the trees used for the roadblock. This work aimed to differentiate the chromatographic patterns of used lubricating oils available in automobile repair shops from various locations across Thailand's southern border provinces. Lubricating oils were analyzed using gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) every two weeks to study their variation in chemical compositions over time. The results obtained from GC/FID were normalized for differentiation. This included four two-stroke, six four-stroke, and three recycled oils. Two lubricating oils found at an incident scene were also analyzed and the results compared with the chain oil from five seized chainsaws. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tribological properties of few-layer graphene oxide sheets as oil-based lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhe; Liu, Yuhong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-03-01

    The performance of a lubricant largely depends on the additives it involves. However, currently used additives cause severe pollution if they are burned and exhausted. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new generation of green additives. Graphene oxide (GO) consists of only C, H and O and thus is considered to be environmentally friendly. So the tribological properties of the few-layer GO sheet as an additive in hydrocarbon base oil are investigated systematically. It is found that, with the addition of GO sheets, both the coefficient of friction (COF) and wear are decreased and the working temperature range of the lubricant is expanded in the positive direction. Moreover, GO sheets has better performance under higher sliding speed and the optimized concentration of GO sheets is determined to be 0.5wt%. After rubbing, GO is detected on the wear scars through Raman spectroscopy. And it is believed that, during the rubbing, GO sheets adhere to the sliding surfaces, behaving like protective films and preventing the sliding surfaces from contacting with each other directly. This paper proves that the GO sheet is an effective lubricant additive, illuminates the lubrication mechanism, and provides some critical parameters for the practical application of GO sheets in lubrication.

  4. Identification of tribological research and development needs for lubrication of advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    Fehrenbacher, L.L.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    The continuous evolution of higher power density propulsion systems has always fueled the search for materials and lubricants with improved thermal and/or durability characteristics. Tribology of the upper cylinder region is the major technology roadblock in the path of the adiabatic diesel engine which has an energy reduction potential that exceeds that of all other engine development types. This tribology assessment resulted in the following major conclusions: a low friction and a low wear seal between the ring belt and cylinder bore are the most critical tribology functions in the diesel combustion chamber; development of solid lubrication systems will not satisfy the simultaneous low friction and low wear requirements in the upper cylinder area; development of separate upper cylinder liquid lubrication systems offers the most attractive design alternative for meeting the operational goals of future ''minimum cooled'' diesel engines.

  5. Rheological properties and lubricity of poly-alpha-olefin oils

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, O.N.; Kolesova, G.E.; Bogdanov, S.K.; Toporishcheva, R.I.

    1988-01-01

    Oils were obtained by polymerization of alpha-olefins with a complex aluminum chloride catalyst, followed by neutralization of the polymerized product, distillation, and hydrogenation. Materials were tested to determine the kinematic viscosity at above- and below-freezing temperatures and dynamic viscosity at below-freezing temperatures. Poly-alpha-olefin oils were obtained at different levels of average molecular weight by varying the conditions of polymerization and distillation. The antiwear properties of petroleum, PAOO, and alkylbenzene oils having equal viscosities and an addition of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate were compared. The dialkylbenzene oil had strong associative-solvation properties with respect to the additive.

  6. Determination of refractory elements in used lubricating oil by ICPOES employing emulsified sample introduction and calibration with inorganic standards.

    PubMed

    Souza, Roseli Martins; da Silveira, Carmem Lúcia P; Aucélio, Ricardo Queiroz

    2004-02-01

    The quantification of trace elements in used lubricating oil is useful for evaluating the wearing of specific components of engines. In the present work, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) was used for determining five refractory elements (Ni, Mo, Cr, V and Ti) in lubricating-oil samples. The methodology was developed while aiming at the introduction of such organic samples into the ICP as emulsions. Several nebulization systems were tested with clear advantage for Meinhard K3 coupled with a cyclonic spray chamber. The carbon deposition on the injector tip as well as the plasma background was minimized through careful optimization of the Ar and O2 gas mixture flows into the plasma. The optimization of instrumental and experimental parameters allowed quantification using calibration curves prepared with analyte inorganic standards. An internal standard (Sc) was used to correct the matrix effects and signal fluctuations. The limits of detection (3Sb/m), in the ng g(-1) range were obtained for all five elements. The methodology was validated through an analysis of standard reference materials (SRM 1084a, 1085a and 1085b). Good analyte recoveries (from 92.6 to 104.7%) were achieved. Comparison studies against established ICPOES methodologies (sample acid decomposition or sample direct dilution in an organic solvent) have shown that the proposed methodology present clear advantages in terms of simplicity of sample preparation, overall analysis time, and the use of inorganic standards for calibration instead of expensive metallorganic standards.

  7. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions: November 28, 2006 - March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J. N.; Khalek, I. A.; Smith, L. R.; Fujita, E.; Zielinska, B.

    2011-10-01

    The Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project was a pilot investigation of how fuels and crankcase lubricants contribute to the formation of particulate matter (PM) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in vehicle exhaust. As limited vehicles were tested, results are not representative of the whole on-road fleet. Long-term effects were not investigated. Pairs of vehicles (one normal PM emitting, one high-PM emitting) from four categories were selected: light-duty (LD) gasoline cars, medium-duty (MD) diesel trucks, heavy-duty (HD) natural-gas-fueled buses, and HD diesel buses. HD vehicles procured did not exhibit higher PM emissions, and thus were labeled high mileage (HM). Fuels evaluated were non-ethanol gasoline (E0), 10 percent ethanol (E10), conventional low-sulfur TxLED diesel, 20% biodiesel (B20), and natural gas. Temperature effects (20 degrees F, 72 degrees F) were evaluated on LD and MD vehicles. Lubricating oil vintage effects (fresh and aged) were evaluated on all vehicles. LD and MD vehicles were operated on a dynamometer over the California Unified Driving Cycle, while HD vehicles followed the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. Regulated and unregulated emissions were measured. Chemical markers from the unregulated emissions measurements and a tracer were utilized to estimate the lubricant contribution to PM.

  8. Absorption of water and lubricating oils into porous nylon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertrand, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Oil and water absorption from air into sintered porous nylon can be described by infiltration into the pores of the material. This process can be modeled by a diffusion-like mechanism. For water absorption, we find a formal diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min when the nylon is initially dry. The diffusion coefficient is 4 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min when the nylon is oil-impregnated prior to air exposure. In a 52% RH atmosphere, dry nylon absorbs 3% w/w water, and oil-impregnated nylon absorbs 0.6% w/w water. For oil absorption there are three steps: (1) surface absorption and infiltration into (2) larger and (3) smaller pores. Surface absorption is too fast to be measured in these experiments. The diffusion coefficient for the second step is 6 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for SRG-60 oil into dry nylon and 4 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for air-equilibrated nylon. The diffusion coefficient for the third step is about 1 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min for both cases. The total amount of oil absorbed is 31% w/w. The interaction between water and nylon is not as strong as that between water and cotton-phenolic: oil can replace water, and only a small amount of water can enter previously oil-impregnated nylon.

  9. [Quick determination of lubricating oil additive by infrared spectrum method].

    PubMed

    Jin, Z; Su, Y

    1999-04-01

    Some additives were measured by PE-FTIR 1725 X instrument and "Quant" Software (PE company), with the relative error less than 10%. Several oil samples such as 15W/40SE, 15W/30 SG/CD, 15W/40CD and 15W/30CC were analysed in which the additive and base oil ranged from 0.2%-90%.

  10. Annual Report - Compatibility of ZDDP and ionic liquid anti-wear additives with hard coatings for engine lubrications

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Zhou, Yan; Leonard, Donovan N; Meyer, III, Harry M; Luo, Huimin

    2016-03-01

    The objectives for this considerations described here are to; investigate the compatibility of engine lubricant antiwear (AW) additives, specifically conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) and newly developed ionic liquids (ILs), with selected commercial hard coatings, and provide fundamental understanding to guide future development of engine lubricants.

  11. Analysis of oil consumption in cylinder of diesel engine for optimization of piston rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junhong; Zhang, Guichang; He, Zhenpeng; Lin, Jiewei; Liu, Hai

    2013-01-01

    The performance and particulate emission of a diesel engine are affected by the consumption of lubricating oil. Most studies on oil consumption mechanism of the cylinder have been done by using the experimental method, however they are very costly. Therefore, it is very necessary to study oil consumption mechanism of the cylinder and obtain the accurate results by the calculation method. Firstly, four main modes of lubricating oil consumption in cylinder are analyzed and then the oil consumption rate under common working conditions are calculated for the four modes based on an engine. Then, the factors that affect the lubricating oil consumption such as working conditions, the second ring closed gap, the elastic force of the piston rings are also investigated for the four modes. The calculation results show that most of the lubricating oil is consumed by evaporation on the liner surface. Besides, there are three other findings: (1) The oil evaporation from the liner is determined by the working condition of an engine; (2) The increase of the ring closed gap reduces the oil blow through the top ring end gap but increases blow-by; (3) With the increase of the elastic force of the ring, both the left oil film thickness and the oil throw-off at the top ring decrease. The oil scraping of the piston top edge is consequently reduced while the friction loss between the rings and the liner increases. A neural network prediction model of the lubricating oil consumption in cylinder is established based on the BP neural network theory, and then the model is trained and validated. The main piston rings parameters which affect the oil consumption are optimized by using the BP neural network prediction model and the prediction accuracy of this BP neural network is within 8%, which is acceptable for normal engineering applications. The oil consumption is also measured experimentally. The relative errors of the calculated and experimental values are less than 10%, verifying the

  12. Impact of an oil-based lubricant on the effectiveness of the sterilization processes .

    PubMed

    Rutala, William A; Gergen, Maria F; Weber, David J

    2008-01-01

    Surgical instruments, including hinged instruments, were inoculated with test microorganisms (ie, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, approximately 2 x 10(6) colony-forming units [cfu]; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, approximately 3 x 10(6) cfu; Escherichia coli, approximately 2 x 10(5) cfu; vancomycin-resistant enterococci, 1 x 10(5) cfu; Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores, 2 x 10(5) cfu or more; or Bacillus atrophaeus spores, 9 x 10(4) cfu or more), coated with an oil-based lubricant (hydraulic fluid), subjected to a sterilization process, and then samples from the instruments were cultured. We found that the oil-based lubricant did not alter the effectiveness of the sterilization process because high numbers of clinically relevant bacteria and standard test spores (which are relatively resistant to the sterilization process) were inactivated.

  13. Ionic Liquids as Multi-Functional Lubricant Additives to Enhance Engine Efficiency (final report NFE-12-03876)

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Toops, Todd J.; West, Brian H.; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Papke, Brian L.; Gao, Hong; Kheireddin, Bassem; Chen, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    This ORNL-Shell CRADA developed and investigated ionic liquids (ILs) as multifunctional additives for next-generation low-viscosity engine oils. Several groups of oil-miscible ILs were successfully designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Synergistic effects between the common anti-wear additive zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) and a particular group of ILs were discovered with > 30% friction reduction and 70% wear reduction compared with using ZDDP or IL alone. The IL+ZDDP tribofilm distinguishes itself from the IL or ZDDP tribofilms with substantially higher contents of metal phosphates but less metal oxides and sulfur compounds. Notably, it was revealed that the actual concentrations of functional elements on the droplet surface of the oil containing IL+ZDDP are one order magnitude higher than their nominal values. Such significantly increased concentrations of anti-wear agents are presumably expected for the oilsolid interface and believed to be responsible for the superior lubricating performance. A prototype SAE 0W-16 engine oil using a synergistic IL+ZDDP pair as the anti-wear additive has been formulated based on the compatibility between the IL and other additives. Sequence VIE full-scale engine dynamometer tests demonstrated fuel economy improvement (FEI) for this prototype oil and revealed the individual contributions from the lower oil viscosity and reduced boundary friction. The impact of IL and IL+ZDDP on exhaust emission catalyst was investigated using an accelerated small engine aging test and results were benchmarked against ZDDP.

  14. 14 CFR 33.71 - Lubrication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.71 Lubrication system. (a... in which an aircraft is expected to operate. (b) Oil strainer or filter. There must be an oil...

  15. 14 CFR 33.71 - Lubrication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.71 Lubrication system. (a... in which an aircraft is expected to operate. (b) Oil strainer or filter. There must be an oil...

  16. Combination of ultrasonic extraction and stripping analysis: an effective and reliable way for the determination of Cu and Pb in lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Rodrigo A A; Oliveira, Pedro V; Angnes, Lúcio

    2006-01-15

    The determination of metals in lubricating oil has been used as an important way to prevent components failures, to provide environmental information and in some cases, to identify adulteration. In this work, an effective and simple procedure is proposed for Cu and Pb determination in lubricating oils. An ultrasonic bath was employed for extraction of these elements from oil samples in a mixture 1:1 (v/v) of concentrated HCl and H(2)O(2). A very efficient extraction of Cu and Pb (approximately 100%) was attained after 30 min of ultrasound, allowing the simultaneous determination of both metals using square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry at thin-film gold electrodes. The extraction procedure was performed in 4 mL polypropylene closed vessels and dozens of samples could be treated simultaneously in the same ultrasonic bath. The regions of the ultrasonic bath, where the maximum efficiency of extraction was attained were evaluated. Over the optimized region, 30 samples can be treated simultaneously. Used lubricating oils from automotive engines were analyzed by using the optimized extraction procedure.

  17. The quantitative surface analysis of an antioxidant additive in a lubricant oil matrix by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Caitlyn; Reynolds, James C; Whitmarsh, Samuel; Lynch, Tom; Creaser, Colin S

    2013-11-15

    Chemical additives are incorporated into commercial lubricant oils to modify the physical and chemical properties of the lubricant. The quantitative analysis of additives in oil-based lubricants deposited on a surface without extraction of the sample from the surface presents a challenge. The potential of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for the quantitative surface analysis of an oil additive in a complex oil lubricant matrix without sample extraction has been evaluated. The quantitative surface analysis of the antioxidant additive octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix was carried out by DESI-MS in the presence of 2-(pentyloxy)ethyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate as an internal standard. A quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with an in-house modified ion source enabling non-proximal DESI-MS was used for the analyses. An eight-point calibration curve ranging from 1 to 80 µg/spot of octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix and in the presence of the internal standard was used to determine the quantitative response of the DESI-MS method. The sensitivity and repeatability of the technique were assessed by conducting replicate analyses at each concentration. The limit of detection was determined to be 11 ng/mm(2) additive on spot with relative standard deviations in the range 3-14%. The application of DESI-MS to the direct, quantitative surface analysis of a commercial lubricant additive in a native oil lubricant matrix is demonstrated. © 2013 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The quantitative surface analysis of an antioxidant additive in a lubricant oil matrix by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Caitlyn; Reynolds, James C; Whitmarsh, Samuel; Lynch, Tom; Creaser, Colin S

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE Chemical additives are incorporated into commercial lubricant oils to modify the physical and chemical properties of the lubricant. The quantitative analysis of additives in oil-based lubricants deposited on a surface without extraction of the sample from the surface presents a challenge. The potential of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for the quantitative surface analysis of an oil additive in a complex oil lubricant matrix without sample extraction has been evaluated. METHODS The quantitative surface analysis of the antioxidant additive octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix was carried out by DESI-MS in the presence of 2-(pentyloxy)ethyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate as an internal standard. A quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with an in-house modified ion source enabling non-proximal DESI-MS was used for the analyses. RESULTS An eight-point calibration curve ranging from 1 to 80 µg/spot of octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix and in the presence of the internal standard was used to determine the quantitative response of the DESI-MS method. The sensitivity and repeatability of the technique were assessed by conducting replicate analyses at each concentration. The limit of detection was determined to be 11 ng/mm2 additive on spot with relative standard deviations in the range 3–14%. CONCLUSIONS The application of DESI-MS to the direct, quantitative surface analysis of a commercial lubricant additive in a native oil lubricant matrix is demonstrated. © 2013 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24097398

  19. A proposed measurement method for void fraction in lubricant oil based on the image processing technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianwen; An, Qi

    2008-02-01

    A new method for measuring void fraction in lubricating oils is presented based on the image processing technique. The problem here differs from the bubbles detection problem in two-phase fluids in that our interest lies in the gross amount of gas voids in oils. Our method is based on an observation that gas voids in oils change the color of the mixed gas-oil material. Therefore, a measurement technique was established based on the change in color. In particular, the relationship between the change in color and amount of voids was established experimentally. The experiment and testing were performed on a particular setup which consists of a pipe, oil, and air. The test result has shown that this method is effective. The method is the simplest and most accurate one among the existing methods.

  20. A proposed measurement method for void fraction in lubricant oil based on the image processing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianwen; An, Qi

    2008-02-01

    A new method for measuring void fraction in lubricating oils is presented based on the image processing technique. The problem here differs from the bubbles detection problem in two-phase fluids in that our interest lies in the gross amount of gas voids in oils. Our method is based on an observation that gas voids in oils change the color of the mixed gas-oil material. Therefore, a measurement technique was established based on the change in color. In particular, the relationship between the change in color and amount of voids was established experimentally. The experiment and testing were performed on a particular setup which consists of a pipe, oil, and air. The test result has shown that this method is effective. The method is the simplest and most accurate one among the existing methods.

  1. Effect of dissolved lubricating oils on the viscosity of alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.N.; Nagashima, A. )

    1993-09-01

    The operation of refrigeration systems involves the circulation of a working fluid which is actually a mixture of refrigerant and lubricant oil. Since the viscosity of oil and that of refrigerants normally differ by up to a factor of 4, the effect of dissolved oil is very large. In order to use new alternative refrigerants, accurate information on thermophysical properties of refrigerant-oil mixtures is needed. In the present study, the viscosity of refrigerant oil mixtures was measured for HCFC-123 + 3GSD and HFC-134a + PAG in the compressed liquid region with a falling-ball viscometer. The temperature range of the measurements was 253-333 K. 15 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Carcinogenicity of petroleum lubricating oil distillates: effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, and blending.

    PubMed

    Halder, C A; Warne, T M; Little, R Q; Garvin, P J

    1984-01-01

    Certain refining processes were investigated to determine their influence on the dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum-derived lubricating oil distillates. Specifically, the effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, a combination of both processes, and the blending of oils processed using each technique were evaluated in standard mouse skin-painting bioassays. The refining process used as well as the level or severity of treatment greatly influenced the carcinogenic outcome of processed lubricating oils. Solvent refining at severities normally used appeared to eliminate carcinogenicity. In contrast, hydroprocessing alone at mild levels of treatment was successful only in reducing the carcinogenic potency; severe hydroprocessing conditions were necessary to eliminate carcinogenic activity without the use of additional refining processes. Carcinogenic activity could also be eliminated by following moderate solvent refining with mild hydroprocessing. Blending of hydroprocessed oils with solvent-refined oils resulted in a substantial reduction or even elimination of carcinogenic activity. However, the degree of protection obtained varied with the particular distillates used and appeared largely dependent on the inherent biological activity of the hydroprocessed oil.

  3. Bench Wear and Single-Cylinder Engine Evaluations of High-Temperature Lubricants for U.S. Army Ground Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    because of viscosity increase, leakage from the rear crankshaft seal, and blowby increase. The blowby increase was caused by the alignment of the...additive concentration (as the oil evaporates), additive depletion, vaporization, and polymerization of the base stock. Extrinsic factors such as build...prohibitively difficult task. As previously stated, lubricant polymerization , additive depletion, oxidation resistance, lubricant vaporization, wear

  4. Fuels and Lubricants Influence on Turbine Engine Design and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-01

    class of fluids are the hexafluoropropylene epoxide (HFPO) polymers, marketed by Du Pont tnder the trade name " Krytox "** fluids, and by Montecatini-Edison...System opthimiz-tion with the higher tLeniperature lubricants was accomplished by the removal of he-It shield-.- and insulation al-L by scaling the tif...perfluorinated polyether permits the removal of the heat shield on the aft wall of the forward sump, however, its high vapor pressure necessitates nonvented

  5. Characteristics of gas and residues produced from electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil.

    PubMed

    Song, Geum-Ju; Seo, Yong-Chil; Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, In-Tae

    2010-07-01

    An attempt has been made to recover high-calorific fuel gas and useful carbonaceous residue by the electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil. The characteristics of gas and residues produced from electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil were investigated in this study. The produced gas was mainly composed of hydrogen (35-40%), acetylene (13-20%), ethylene (3-4%) and other hydrocarbons, whereas the concentration of CO was very low. Calorific values of gas ranged from 11,000 to 13,000 kcal kg(-1) and the concentrations of toxic gases, such as NO(x), HCl and HF, were below the regulatory emissions limit. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of liquid-phase residues showed that high molecular-weight hydrocarbons in waste lubricating oil were pyrolyzed into low molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrogen. Dehydrogenation was found to be the main pyrolysis mechanism due to the high reaction temperature induced by electric arc. The average particle size of soot as carbonaceous residue was about 10 microm. The carbon content and heavy metals in soot were above 60% and below 0.01 ppm, respectively. The utilization of soot as industrial material resources such as carbon black seems to be feasible after refining and grinding. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of syringe material and silicone oil lubrication on the stability of pharmaceutical proteins.

    PubMed

    Krayukhina, Elena; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2015-02-01

    Currently, polymer-based prefillable syringes are being promoted to the pharmaceutical market because they provide an increased break resistance relative to traditionally used glass syringes. Despite this significant advantage, the possibility that barrel material can affect the oligomeric state of the protein drug exists. The present study was designed to compare the effect of different syringe materials and silicone oil lubrication on the protein aggregation. The stability of a recombinant fusion protein, abatacept (Orencia), and a fully human recombinant immunoglobulin G1, adalimumab (Humira), was assessed in silicone oil-free (SOF) and silicone oil-lubricated 1-mL glass syringes and polymer-based syringes in accelerated stress study. Samples were subjected to agitation stress, and soluble aggregate levels were evaluated by size-exclusion chromatography and verified with analytical ultracentrifugation. In accordance with current regulatory expectations, the amounts of subvisible particles resulting from agitation stress were estimated using resonant mass measurement and dynamic flow-imaging analyses. The amount of aggregated protein and particle counts were similar between unlubricated polymer-based and glass syringes. The most significant protein loss was observed for lubricated glass syringes. These results suggest that newly developed SOF polymer-based syringes are capable of providing biopharmaceuticals with enhanced physical stability upon shipping and handling.

  7. Effects of Syringe Material and Silicone Oil Lubrication on the Stability of Pharmaceutical Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Krayukhina, Elena; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2015-01-01

    Currently, polymer-based prefillable syringes are being promoted to the pharmaceutical market because they provide an increased break resistance relative to traditionally used glass syringes. Despite this significant advantage, the possibility that barrel material can affect the oligomeric state of the protein drug exists. The present study was designed to compare the effect of different syringe materials and silicone oil lubrication on the protein aggregation. The stability of a recombinant fusion protein, abatacept (Orencia), and a fully human recombinant immunoglobulin G1, adalimumab (Humira), was assessed in silicone oil-free (SOF) and silicone oil-lubricated 1-mL glass syringes and polymer-based syringes in accelerated stress study. Samples were subjected to agitation stress, and soluble aggregate levels were evaluated by size-exclusion chromatography and verified with analytical ultracentrifugation. In accordance with current regulatory expectations, the amounts of subvisible particles resulting from agitation stress were estimated using resonant mass measurement and dynamic flow-imaging analyses. The amount of aggregated protein and particle counts were similar between unlubricated polymer-based and glass syringes. The most significant protein loss was observed for lubricated glass syringes. These results suggest that newly developed SOF polymer-based syringes are capable of providing biopharmaceuticals with enhanced physical stability upon shipping and handling. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:527–535, 2015 PMID:25256796

  8. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XVII, I--MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNIT INSTALLATION AND REMOVAL--DRIVE LINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE DRIVE LINE USED IN DIESEL ENGINE POWER DISTRIBUTION. TOPICS ARE (1) PROLONGING ENGINE LIFE, (2) FUNCTIONS OF THE LUBRICATING SYSTEM, (3) TRACING THE LUBRICANT FLOW, (4) DETERMINING…

  9. Ionic Liquid Adsorption and Nanotribology at the Silica-Oil Interface: Hundred-Fold Dilution in Oil Lubricates as Effectively as the Pure Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Cooper, Peter K; Somers, Anthony E; Rutland, Mark W; Howlett, Patrick C; Forsyth, Maria; Atkin, Rob

    2014-12-04

    The remarkable physical properties of ionic liquids (ILs) make them potentially excellent lubricants. One of the challenges for using ILs as lubricants is their high cost. In this article, atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanotribology measurements reveal that a 1 mol % solution of IL dissolved in an oil lubricates the silica surface as effectively as the pure IL. The adsorption isotherm shows that the IL surface excess need only be approximately half of the saturation value to prevent surface contact and effectively lubricate the sliding surfaces. Using ILs in this way makes them viable for large-scale applications.

  10. Subchronic delayed neurotoxicity evaluation of jet engine lubricants containing phosphorus additives.

    PubMed

    Daughtrey, W; Biles, R; Jortner, B; Ehrich, M

    1996-08-01

    Synthetic polyol-based lubricating oils containing 3% of either commercial tricresyl phosphate (TCP), triphenylphosphorothionate (TPPT), or butylated triphenyl phosphate (BTP) additive were evaluated for neurotoxicity in the adult hen using clinical, biochemical, and neuropathological endpoints. Groups of 17-20 hens were administered the oils by oral gavage at a "limit dose" of 1 g/kg, 5 days a week for 13 weeks. A group of positive control hens was included which received 7.5 mg/kg of one isomer of TCP (tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate, TOCP) on the same regimen, with an additional oral dose of 500 mg/kg given 12 days before the end of the experiment. A negative control group received saline. Neurotoxic esterase (NTE) activity in brain and spinal cord of hens dosed with the lubricating oils was not significantly different from saline controls after 6 weeks of treatment. After 13 weeks of dosing, NTE was inhibited 23 to 34% in brains of lubricant-treated hens. Clinical assessments of walking ability did not indicate any differences between the negative control group and lubricant-treated hens. Moreover, neuropathological examination revealed no alterations indicative of organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN). In hens treated with the positive control, significant inhibition of NTE was observed in brain and spinal cord at both 6 and 13 weeks of dosing; this group also demonstrated clinical impairment and pathological lesions indicative of OPIDN. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that synthetic polyol-based lubricating oils containing up to 3% TCP, TPPT, or BTP had low neurotoxic potential and should not pose a hazard under realistic conditions of exposure.

  11. The ASTM viscosity index and other systems for classifying lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Zakarian, J.A.

    1982-11-01

    Even though the ASTM V.I. is based on an arbitrary and inconsistent series of reference oils, the system still persists as an industry standard to rate the viscosity-temperature characteristics of lubricating oils. There is need for an industry wide reassessment of the value of the V.I., particularly to answer the question, ''What does the V.I. measure.''. Before defining an alternative classification system, it is important to clearly formulate the problem and to realize that both relative and nonrealtive indices suffer from inherent assumptions and limitations, and that the choice of no rating index may be better than the choice of a misleading one.

  12. Tribological Testing of Hemispherical Titanium Pin Lubricated by Novel Palm Oil: Evaluating Anti-Wear and Anti-Friction Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapawe, Norzahir; Samion, Syahrullail; Ibrahim, Mohd Izhan; Daud, Md Razak; Yahya, Azli; Hanafi, Muhammad Farhan

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the properties of hip implant material and lubricants were examined using a pin on disc apparatus, to compare the effect of metal-on-metal (MoM) contact with a bio-lubricant derived from palm oil. The behaviour of the lubricants was observed during the experiments, in which a hemispherical pin was loaded against a rotating disc with a groove. A titanium alloy was used to modify the hemispherical pin and disc. Before and after the experiments, the weight and surface roughness were analysed, to detect any degradation. The results were compared according to the different kinematic viscosities. The wear rates and level of friction with each lubricant were also examined. The lubricant with the highest viscosity had the lowest frictional value. Therefore, developing suitable lubricants has the potential to prolong the lifespan of prostheses or implants used in biomedical applications. The experiments collectively show that lubricants derived from palm oil could be used as efficient bio-lubricants in the future.

  13. The contribution of lubricant to the formation of particulate matter with reactivity controlled compression ignition in light-duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse; Curran, Scott; Dempsey, Adam B.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur; Reitz, Rolf; Walker, N. Ryan; Wright, Chris

    2014-12-25

    Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has been shown in single- and multi-cylinder engine research to achieve high thermal efficiencies with ultra-low NOX and soot emissions. The nature of the particulate matter (PM) produced by RCCI operation has been shown in recent research to be different than that of conventional diesel combustion and even diesel low-temperature combustion. Previous research has shown that the PM from RCCI operation contains a large amount of organic material that is volatile and semi-volatile. However, it is unclear if the organic compounds are stemming from fuel or lubricant oil. The PM emissions from dual-fuel RCCI were investigated in this study using two engine platforms, with an emphasis on the potential contribution of lubricant. Both engine platforms used the same base General Motors (GM) 1.9-L diesel engine geometry. The first study was conducted on a single-cylinder research engine with primary reference fuels (PRFs), n-heptane, and iso-octane. The second study was conducted on a four-cylinder GM 1.9-L ZDTH engine which was modified with a port fuel injection (PFI) system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. Multi-cylinder RCCI experiments were run with PFI gasoline and direct injection of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) mixed with gasoline at 5 % EHN by volume. In addition, comparison cases of conventional diesel combustion (CDC) were performed. Particulate size distributions were measured, and PM filter samples were collected for analysis of lube oil components. Triplicate PM filter samples (i.e., three individual filter samples) for both gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS; organic) analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF; metals) were obtained at each operating point and queued for analysis of both organic species and lubricant metals. Here, the results give a clear indication that lubricants do not contribute significantly to the formation of RCCI PM.

  14. The contribution of lubricant to the formation of particulate matter with reactivity controlled compression ignition in light-duty diesel engines

    DOE PAGES

    Storey, John Morse; Curran, Scott; Dempsey, Adam B.; ...

    2014-12-25

    Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has been shown in single- and multi-cylinder engine research to achieve high thermal efficiencies with ultra-low NOX and soot emissions. The nature of the particulate matter (PM) produced by RCCI operation has been shown in recent research to be different than that of conventional diesel combustion and even diesel low-temperature combustion. Previous research has shown that the PM from RCCI operation contains a large amount of organic material that is volatile and semi-volatile. However, it is unclear if the organic compounds are stemming from fuel or lubricant oil. The PM emissions from dual-fuel RCCI weremore » investigated in this study using two engine platforms, with an emphasis on the potential contribution of lubricant. Both engine platforms used the same base General Motors (GM) 1.9-L diesel engine geometry. The first study was conducted on a single-cylinder research engine with primary reference fuels (PRFs), n-heptane, and iso-octane. The second study was conducted on a four-cylinder GM 1.9-L ZDTH engine which was modified with a port fuel injection (PFI) system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. Multi-cylinder RCCI experiments were run with PFI gasoline and direct injection of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) mixed with gasoline at 5 % EHN by volume. In addition, comparison cases of conventional diesel combustion (CDC) were performed. Particulate size distributions were measured, and PM filter samples were collected for analysis of lube oil components. Triplicate PM filter samples (i.e., three individual filter samples) for both gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS; organic) analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF; metals) were obtained at each operating point and queued for analysis of both organic species and lubricant metals. Here, the results give a clear indication that lubricants do not contribute significantly to the formation of RCCI PM.« less

  15. The dynamics and stability of lubricating oil films during droplet transport by electrowetting in microfluidic devices

    PubMed Central

    Kleinert, Jairus; Srinivasan, Vijay; Rival, Arnaud; Delattre, Cyril; Velev, Orlin D.; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2015-01-01

    The operation of digital microfluidic devices with water droplets manipulated by electrowetting is critically dependent on the static and dynamic stability and lubrication properties of the oil films that separate the droplets from the solid surfaces. The factors determining the stability of the films and preventing surface fouling in such systems are not yet thoroughly understood and were experimentally investigated in this study. The experiments were performed using a standard digital microfluidic cartridge in which water droplets enclosed in a thin, oil-filled gap were transported over an array of electrodes. Stable, continuous oil films separated the droplets from the surfaces when the droplets were stationary. During droplet transport, capillary waves formed in the films on the electrode surfaces as the oil menisci receded. The waves evolved into dome-shaped oil lenses. Droplet deformation and oil displacement caused the films at the surface opposite the electrode array to transform into dimples of oil trapped over the centers of the droplets. Lower actuation voltages were associated with slower film thinning and formation of fewer, but larger, oil lenses. Lower ac frequencies induced oscillations in the droplets that caused the films to rupture. Films were also destabilized by addition of surfactants to the oil or droplet phases. Such a comprehensive understanding of the oil film behavior will enable more robust electrowetting-actuated lab-on-a-chip devices through prevention of loss of species from droplets and contamination of surfaces at points where films may break. PMID:26045729

  16. The dynamics and stability of lubricating oil films during droplet transport by electrowetting in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Kleinert, Jairus; Srinivasan, Vijay; Rival, Arnaud; Delattre, Cyril; Velev, Orlin D; Pamula, Vamsee K

    2015-05-01

    The operation of digital microfluidic devices with water droplets manipulated by electrowetting is critically dependent on the static and dynamic stability and lubrication properties of the oil films that separate the droplets from the solid surfaces. The factors determining the stability of the films and preventing surface fouling in such systems are not yet thoroughly understood and were experimentally investigated in this study. The experiments were performed using a standard digital microfluidic cartridge in which water droplets enclosed in a thin, oil-filled gap were transported over an array of electrodes. Stable, continuous oil films separated the droplets from the surfaces when the droplets were stationary. During droplet transport, capillary waves formed in the films on the electrode surfaces as the oil menisci receded. The waves evolved into dome-shaped oil lenses. Droplet deformation and oil displacement caused the films at the surface opposite the electrode array to transform into dimples of oil trapped over the centers of the droplets. Lower actuation voltages were associated with slower film thinning and formation of fewer, but larger, oil lenses. Lower ac frequencies induced oscillations in the droplets that caused the films to rupture. Films were also destabilized by addition of surfactants to the oil or droplet phases. Such a comprehensive understanding of the oil film behavior will enable more robust electrowetting-actuated lab-on-a-chip devices through prevention of loss of species from droplets and contamination of surfaces at points where films may break.

  17. Contribution of unburned lubricating oil and gasoline-derived n-alkanes to particulate emission from non-catalyst and catalyst-equipped two-stroke mopeds operated with synthetic lubricating oil.

    PubMed

    Spezzano, Pasquale; Picini, Paolo; Cataldi, Dario

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated the contribution of unburned lubricating oil and gasoline-derived n-alkanes to particulate emission from non-catalyst and catalyst-equipped two-stroke (2-S) mopeds operated with ester-based, fully synthetic lubricating oil. Exhaust particulate matter (PM) from ten 2-S, 50 cm3 mopeds belonging to three different levels of emission legislation (EURO-0, EURO-1 and EURO-2) was collected during the sampling phase of the ECE 47 driving cycle through which each mopeds was driven on a dynamometer bench. Filters containing PM were extracted with an accelerated solvent extractor and analysed by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry. The contribution of unburned lubricating oil to the PM was ascertained and quantified by exploiting characteristic ions in its mass spectrum. The experimental results show that unburned lubricating oil accounted for a significant fraction (4.7-38.7%) of the PM emitted from 2-S mopeds. Emission rates of particulate unburned lubricating oil and n-alkanes from non-catalyst EURO-0 mopeds were 15.4-56.2 mg km(-1) and 1-2 mg km(-1), respectively. These emission rates were reduced of 75% and 88%, respectively, for catalyst-equipped EURO-1 mopeds. The results of the tests carried out on two EURO-2 mopeds of different technology were contrasting. A EURO-2 moped with carburettor and secondary air injection exhibited a clear reduction of 95% and 88% for unburned lubricating oil and n-alkanes emission rates with respect to the average values observed for EURO-1 mopeds. On the other hand, the second EURO-2 moped, equipped with catalyst and direct injection, had unburned lubricating oil emission rates roughly in the range of EURO-0 mopeds while particulate n-alkanes were emitted at rates comparable with typical values observed for catalyst EURO-1 mopeds.

  18. 40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... deactivator, antioxidant, dehazer, antirust, pour depressant, dye, dispersant, and biocide. (2) Use petroleum... 500 ppm fuel. (ii) None of the engines in the engine family may employ sulfur-sensitive technologies... that use sulfur-sensitive emission-control technology, the diesel test fuel is the ultra...

  19. 40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... are commercially available; (2) Information acceptable to the Administrator is provided to show that...) of this section would have a detrimental effect on emissions or durability; and (4) Fuel... 500 ppm fuel. (ii) None of the engines in the engine family may employ sulfur-sensitive technologies...

  20. Lubrication System 2. Service the Crankcase Breather. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on servicing the crankcase breather is the third of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

  1. Lubrication System 2. Service the Crankcase Breather. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on servicing the crankcase breather is the third of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

  2. Recycling of the used automotive lubricating oil by ionizing radiation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapin, M. A.; Duarte, C.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Sato, I. M.

    2007-11-01

    The recycling process of the used mineral oils has been gaining a very important gap in the context of environmental protection. Among mineral oils from petroleum, the lubricating oils are not entirely consumed during their use; therefore, it is necessary to apply a treatment for recuperation seeking their reuse. Moreover, the environmental legislation of countries does not allow their discard in any type of soils, rivers, lakes, oceans or sewerage systems. The conventional treatment has shown certain difficulties in the recuperation process for used oils. The ionizing radiation process is renowned in the industrial effluents treatments due to its high efficiency in the degradation of organic compounds and in the removal of metals by the action of OH rad , rad H and e aq radicals. In this work, used automotive lubricating oil was treated by the ionizing radiation process for metal removal and degradation of organic compounds. The samples were irradiated with 100 and 200 kGy irradiation doses. Determination of the elements Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo, Nb, Cd, Sn, Ba, Bi and Pb, before and after the irradiation, was done by X-ray fluorescence technique and the organic profile was obtained by infrared spectroscopy.

  3. Dermal exposure assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: in vitro percutaneous penetration from lubricating oil.

    PubMed

    Sartorelli, P; Cenni, A; Matteucci, G; Montomoli, L; Novelli, M T; Palmi, S

    1999-11-01

    Percutaneous penetration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is affected by various factors connected to exposure conditions. The nature of the matrix, such as that of oil, can strongly affect their percutaneous penetration. Risk assessment should consider these effects. We examined the effect of matrix on percutaneous penetration of PAHs, particularly that of lubricating oil. The test apparatus consisted of an in vitro static diffusion cell system using full-thickness monkey (Cercopithecus aetiops) skin as the membrane and saline solution with gentamycin sulfate and 4% bovine serum albumin as receptor fluid. Chemical analysis of PAHs in the samples obtained from cells was carried out by inverse-phase HPCL, and the results were read by spectrofluorimetry. Comparing the penetration of 13 PAHs from a lubricating oil and from acetone solution with artificial sweat resulted in a significantly slower passage from the oil matrix for acenaphthene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, naphthalene, pyrene, fluorene (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05). No significant differences in the passage were found for chrysene because, in the test with oil, its concentration was very often below the detection limit. For benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene it was possible to demonstrate a passage through the skin only when compounds were applied in acetone solution with artificial sweat. The results of the study suggest the necessity of dermal penetration data relevant for risk assessment, obtained under experimental conditions similar to the real exposure conditions.

  4. Oil lubricant tribological behaviour improvement through dispersion of few layer graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Sarno, Maria; Senatore, Adolfo; Cirillo, Claudia; Petrone, Vincenzo; Ciambelli, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Few layer graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were prepared by a very fast modified Hummers method and widely characterized. Avoiding further chemical reactions, trying to take advantage of the easy exfoliation of GO favoring the formation of a tribofilm, and using a methodology well known to the lubricant industry, they were added to a mineral oil by the help of a dispersant. The tribological behaviour of GO in mineral oil was investigated under a wide spectrum of conditions, from boundary and mixed lubrication to elastohydrodynamic regimes. A ball on disc setup tribometer has been used to verify the friction reduction due to nanosheets dispersed in mineral oil. Their good friction and anti-wear properties may possibly be attributed to the small and extremely thin laminated structure, which offer lower shear stress and prevent interaction between metal interfaces. Furthermore, the results clearly prove that graphene platelets in oil easily form a protective film to prevent the direct contact between steel surfaces and, thereby, improving the frictional behaviour of the base oil. This evidence is also related to the frictional coefficient trend in boundary regime.

  5. Synergistic lubricating compositions

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.

    1980-07-08

    A synergistic lubricating composition a lubricant selected from the group consisting of base lubricating oils and greases having admixed with the lubricant a friction reducing amount of a synergistic mixture of 1 to 99% weight molybdenum disulfide and 99 to 1% weight of a polymer of thiadiazoledithiols. The lubricant is a base lubricating grease selected from the group consisting of lithium grease, clay grease, silicone grease and aluminum complex grease.

  6. Recycling and re-refining used lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Pyziak, T.; Brinkman, D.W.

    1993-05-01

    This article will point out the advantages and disadvantages of current oil and oily water disposal techniques in operation today. The emphasis will be on the environmental (long- and short-term) ramifications which may be encountered by each disposal technique.

  7. Viscous lubricant composition comprising mixed esters and a silicone oil

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, P.J.

    1981-03-03

    A viscous composition capable of substantially retaining its viscosity within a temperature range of from 5*-30* C. Comprising as its components diisopropyl adipate, a mixture of cetyl and stearyl octanoates, glyceryl tribehenate, silicone oil and a surfactant is described.

  8. Biobased lubricants and functional products from Cuphea oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cuphea (Lythraceae) is an annual plant that produces a small seed rich in saturated medium-chain triacylglycerols (TAGs). With the need for higher seed yields, oil content, and less seed shattering, Oregon State University began developing promising cuphea crosses. Cuphea PSR23 is a hybrid between C...

  9. Study on the engine oil's wear based on the flash point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, R.; Iorga-Simăn, V.; Trică, A.; Clenci, A.

    2016-08-01

    Increasing energy performance of internal combustion engines is largely influenced by frictional forces that arise between moving parts. Thus, in this respect, the nature and quality of the engine oil used is an important factor. Equally important is the effect of various engine injection strategies upon the oil quality. In other words, it's of utmost importance to maintain the quality of engine oil during engine's operation. Oil dilution is one of the most common causes that lead to its wear, creating lubrication problems. Moreover, at low temperatures operating conditions, the oil dilution with diesel fuel produces wax. When starting the engine, this may lead to lubrication deficiencies and even oil starvation with negative consequences on the engine mechanism parts wear (piston, rings and cylinders) but also crankcase bearings wear.Engine oil dilution with diesel fuel have several causes: wear of rings and/or injectors, late post-injection strategy for the sake of particulate filter regeneration, etc.This paper presents a study on the degree of deterioration of engine oils as a result of dilution with diesel fuel. The analysed oils used for this study were taken from various models of engines equipped with diesel particulate filter. The assessment is based on the determination of oil flash point and dilution degree using the apparatus Eraflash produced by Eralytics, Austria. Eraflash measurement is directly under the latest and safest standards ASTM D6450 & D7094), which are in excellent correlation with ASTM D93 Pensky - Martens ASTM D56 TAG methods; it uses the Continuous Closed Cup method for finding the Flash Point (CCCFP).

  10. On the direct determination of metals in lubricating oils by ICP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algeo, J. D.; Heine, D. R.; Phillips, H. A.; Hoek, F. B. G.; Schneider, M. R.; Freelin, J. M.; Denton, M. B.

    New equipment and procedures are evaluated for the direct analysis of metals in lubricating oils without the need for sample pretreatment or dilution. A modified Babington principle nebulizer equipped with a sample heater is shown to be capable of producing aerosols from undiluted oils, which are suitable for introduction into an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer. Heating the samples immediately prior to nebulization greatly increases the output of aerosol and reduces output variations in emission intensity due to differences in oil manufacture and viscosity. The type of organometallic complex used in the preparation of standards is shown to be unimportant if the plasma observation region is properly chosen. Performance of a conventional plasma geometry and an inverted torch geometry on analysis of field collected oil samples is presented.

  11. Development of micro engine oil condition sensor using multi-wall carbon nanotube films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Dae Seok; Jung-Ho Pak, James; Kyeong Kim, Jai

    2007-03-01

    A new interdigit-type micro oil condition sensor was designed and fabricated for monitoring the deterioration of lubricating and insulating oils. The designed sensor operates based on the change of the dielectric constant and electrical conductivity. In order to improve sensor performance, an oil condition sensor was fabricated using MEMS technology and multi-wall carbon nanotube film. The experiment was performed with automobile engine oils with the same brand and quality so as to ensure measurement reliability. Capacitance changes were measured according to increasing mileage and the sensors' performance was improved. These results show that the proposed sensor could measure the degree of oil deterioration with a high sensitivity and it is applicable to other lubricating systems as well as insulating systems.

  12. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 °C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 °C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 °C to 255 °C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor.

  13. Microfog lubricant application system for advanced turbine engine components, phase 3. [wetting characteristics and deposit forming tendencies of lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrucco, R. J.; Leonardi, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    The wetting characteristics and deposit forming tendencies of a series of lubricants were evaluated using a microfog jet delivery system to wet a flat heated rotating disc. The performances of the nine lubricants are discussed in terms of the various testing parameters which include temperature, disc speed and lubricant gas flow rates. Also discussed are the heat transfer characteristics of two of the lubricants on that same plane disc specimen. The wetting characteristics and heat transfer characteristics of one of the lubricants on a complex disc simulating bearing geometry are also discussed.

  14. Effectiveness of liquid crystal admixtures in the lubricating oil for a multi-operational machine

    SciTech Connect

    Vekteris, V.; Murachver, A.

    1995-10-01

    Reliable cyclic operation of modern multioperational, numerically controlled (N/C) machine tools strongly depends not only on the precision manufacturing of kinematic pairs, but also on the conditions of their maintenance and running-in periods. In the machine tool industry, the running-in of the most important newly assembled kinematic units and mechanisms of machines, i.e., spindle head units, gearboxes, ball screw paris, etc., is attained during a 2- to 36-hour period in the plant and subsequent long-term operational running-in of all units on the assembled machine. For the reduction of the running-in duration, low-viscosity oil, sulfurized lubricants and various additives are used. However, the usage of low viscosity oil may cause scoring and increase the wear due to squeezing-out of the oil and contact between mating surfaces. In other cases the low effectiveness of the additives in the running-in process is observed, as well as surface corrosion and the long duration of the run-in process itself. The influence of lubricants and their additives on the running-in process of gearboxes of metal-cutting machine tools is investigated. Theoretical and experimental analysis proved the expediency of adding liquid crystals (fatty acid esters of cholesterol) into the oil. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Tribotronic control of friction in oil-based lubricants with ionic liquid additives.

    PubMed

    Cooper, P K; Li, H; Rutland, M W; Webber, G B; Atkin, R

    2016-08-24

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that tribotronic control of friction using an external potential applied to a gold surface is possible for ionic liquid (IL) concentrations as low as 5 mol% in hexadecane. The IL used is trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate, in which both the cation and anion have surfactant-like structures, and is miscible with hexadecane in all proportions. For IL concentrations less than 5 mol% friction does not vary with applied potential, but for 5 mol% and above changing the potential changes the composition of the IL boundary layer from cation-enriched (negative potentials) to anion-enriched (positive potentials). As the lubricities of the cation-rich and anion-rich boundary layers differ, this enables active control of friction in oil-based lubricants.

  16. Feasibility of a Single Common Powertrain Lubricant-Transmission Bench Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    mechanical applications including engine crankcase lubrication, powershift transmission operation, and some hydraulic system operation. Several diesel ...performance in SCPL. Overall, the performance of various diesel engine oils tested in a variety of friction bench tests was determined. The results indicate...friction bench test results with the slate of engine oils tested. This will enable the marriage of diesel engine oil performance with military

  17. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator is provided to show that only the designated fuel would be used in customer service; and (iii...) Alternative fuels, such as natural gas, propane, and methanol, used for exhaust emission testing and service... testing and engine service accumulation in accordance with paragraph (b)(3) of this section. (ii) The...

  18. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Administrator is provided to show that only the designated fuel would be used in customer service; and (iii...) Alternative fuels, such as natural gas, propane, and methanol, used for exhaust emission testing and service... testing and engine service accumulation in accordance with paragraph (b)(3) of this section. (ii) The...

  19. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Test fuels—service accumulation and aging. Unleaded gasoline representative of commercial gasoline generally available through retail outlets must be used in service accumulation and aging for gasoline... (b) of this section may be used for engine service accumulation and aging. Leaded fuel may not be...

  20. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Test fuels—service accumulation and aging. Unleaded gasoline representative of commercial gasoline generally available through retail outlets must be used in service accumulation and aging for gasoline... (b) of this section may be used for engine service accumulation and aging. Leaded fuel may not be...

  1. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Test fuels—service accumulation and aging. Unleaded gasoline representative of commercial gasoline generally available through retail outlets must be used in service accumulation and aging for gasoline... (b) of this section may be used for engine service accumulation and aging. Leaded fuel may not be...

  2. Hydrofinishing of re-refined used lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Bhan, O.K.; Tai, W.P.; Brinkman, D.W.

    1986-01-31

    This study was conducted to establish hydrotreating as an environmentally attractive and economically feasible waste oil re-refining final process step. The major emphasis of this study was on determining the feasibility of using heterogenous catalysts for polishing distilled used lube oil. Considerable attention also was focused on reactor corrosion and plugging problems. Armak-840, a commercial Ni-Mo-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst, was determined to have the highest activity for product liquid color improvement and nitrogen removal among the catalysts we tested. Operating the hydrofinishing reactor at a temperature of 350/sup 0/C, a pressure of 800 psig, and a space velocity of 1.0 hr/sup -1/ produced liquids of acceptable chemical and physical properties. Guard-bed reactors containing high surface area alumina and operated in a temperature range of 285 to 295/sup 0/C effectively removed all the metals and phosphorus present in the feed liquid. During the extended catalyst life-test study of the Armak-840 Ni-Mo-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst, severe loss in hydrodenitrogenation activity was observed after 300 hours of oil-catalyst contact. No such decay was observed for the product liquid color. It is argued that the catalysts had not reached their equilibrium activity during the 564 hours of operation. Ammonium chloride, a white crystalline material, formed in the hydrofinishing reactor by the reaction of ammonia and hydrochloric acid, deposited in the reactor exit lines causing severe reactor plugging. Accelerated lowering of the reactor effluent temperature causes the plug to disappear. This problem only occurred in the hydrofinishing reactor. Dark residues were formed in the guard-bed reactor at temperatures higher than 310/sup 0/C. Operating the guard-bed reactor in a temperature range of 285 to 29/sup 0/C suppressed the residue formation. 18 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 3. Coral fertilization and adult corals.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P; Burns, Kathryn A; Heyward, Andrew J

    2004-05-01

    Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to each life stage. In the fertilization experiment, gametes from the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of VDL-1A and MDL for four hours. The MDL and VDL-1A WAFs inhibited normal fertilization of the corals at 200 microg l(-1) total hydrocarbon content (THC) and 150 microg l(-1) THC respectively. Disturbance of a stable coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is regarded as a valid measure of sub-lethal stress in adult corals. The state of the symbiosis in branchlets of adult colonies of Acropora formosa was monitored using indicators such as dinoflagellate expulsion and dark-adapted photosystem II yields of dinoflagellate (using pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence). An effect on symbiosis was measurable following 48 h exposure to the lubricants at concentrations of 190 microg l(-1) and 37 microg l(-1) THC for the MDL and VDL-1A respectively. GC/MS revealed that the main constituent of the VDL-1A WAF was the compound coumarin, added by the manufacturer to improve odour. The fragrance containing coumarin was removed from the lubricant formulation and the toxicity towards adult corals re-examined. The coumarin-free VDL-2 exhibited significantly less toxicity towards the adult corals than all of the other oil types tested, with the only measurable effect being a slight but significant drop in photosynthetic efficiency at 280 microg l(-1).

  4. Virgin and recycled engine oil differentiation: a spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Al-Atoum, Lina

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the changes that occur during their use, used engine oils tend to differ in chemical and physical composition from a virgin oil. In general recycled oils have: much higher water and sediment levels than virgin oil; relatively higher concentrations of organic compounds (oxidation products); and relatively higher levels of metals such as Fe, Cd, Cr, Pb, etc. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate, assess and to observe, by means of the physical and the chemical properties of the oils, atomic absorption (AA), inductive couple plasma (ICP) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses the extent of the differences occurring between the virgin and recycled oil. In important part of this work was also the development of analytical techniques based on the use of FTIR spectroscopy; in relation to the rapid analysis of lubricants; in particular for the differentiation of virgin and recycled oil. The results obtained were expected to be useful for differentiation purposes, providing information on whether the metal concentrations and oxidation products could be an appropriate feature for differentiating a particular oil sample from the others. This work is categorized into a two-step procedure. Firstly, an evaluation of a typical FTIR spectrum of an engine oil sample (mono- and multigrade) is presented. The broad feature centered at 1716 cm(-1) is due to the presence of carbonyl containing degradation products of oil. A band observed at 1732, 1169, 1154 and 1270 cm(-1) assigned to the polymethacrylate stretching vibrations, allows the determination of viscosity modifier and pour point depressant additives. The observed differences in the specific spectral bands (1732, 1169, 1154 and 1270 and 1716 cm(-1)) are investigated and discussed. Secondly, an analytical technique for the measurement of the levels of the wear metals is also applied.

  5. Aviation gas turbine lubricants - military and civil aspects: aviation fuel and lubricants - performance testing; Proceedings of the Aerospace Technology Conference and Exposition, Long Beach, CA, October 14-17, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Research and development programs in the areas of gas turbine lubricants for civil and military aviation and the performance testing of aviation gas turbine fuels and lubricants are discussed. The topics addressed include: laboratory and field evaluation of a high temperature jet engine oil, performance advantages of high load aviation lubricants, fluorocarbon elastomer compatibility with gas turbine lubricants, potential benefits in the development of a dedicated helicopter transmission lubricant, and feasibility of formulating advanced four centistoke gas turbine oils. Also covered are: advanced lubricants for aircraft turbine engines, future trends for U.S. Naval aviation propulsion system lubricants, electrochemical evaluation of corrosivity in turbine engine oils, the influence of esters on elastomer seals, deposition in gas turbine oil systems, development of the portable water separometer for the WSIM test, influence of JFTOT operating parameters on the assessment of fuel thermal stability, and evaluation of JFTOT tube deposits by carbon burnoff.

  6. Environmentally Acceptable Lubricants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-30

    referred to as environmentally friendly lubricants ( EFLs ) or biolubricants. EPA, wastewater, lubricants, oil, biolubricants, VGP, vessels U U U UU 27...qualities, but have not been demonstrated to meet these standards, are referred to as environmentally friendly lubricants ( EFLs ) or biolubricants...clarify the difference between EAL and EFL products in the marketplace. Because the majority of a lubricant is composed of the base oil, the base oil

  7. Combined air-oil cooling on a supercharged TC IC TAM diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Trenc, F. ); Pavletic, R. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    In order to reduce the maximum cylinder wall temperatures of an air-cooled TC IC diesel engine with large longitudinal and circumferential temperature gradients, a curved, squared cross-sectional channel supplied with engine lubrication oil was introduced into the upper part of the cylinder wall. Numerical analyses of the heat transfer within the baseline air-cooled cylinder and intensive experimental work helped to understand the temperature situation in the cylinder at diverse engine running conditions. The results of the combined cooling were greatly affected by the design, dimensions, position of the channel, and the distribution of the cooling oil flow, and are presented in the paper.

  8. Tribology of steel/steel interaction in oil-in-water emulsion; a rationale for lubricity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Daniel, Jency; Biswas, S K

    2010-05-15

    Oil droplets are dispersed in water by an anionic surfactant to form an emulsion. The lubricity of this emulsion in steel/steel interaction is explored in a ball on flat nanotribometer. The droplet size and charge are measured using dynamic light scattering, while the substrate charge density is estimated using the pH titration method. These data are combined to calculate the DLVO forces for the droplets generated for a range of surfactant concentration and two oil to water volume ratios. The droplets have a clear bi-modal size distribution. The study shows that the smaller droplets which experience weak repulsion are situated (at the highest DLVO barrier) much closer to the substrate than the bigger droplets, which experience the same DLVO force, are. We suggest that the smaller droplets thus play a more important role in lubricity than what the bigger droplets do. The largest volume of such small droplets occurs in the 0.5 mM-1 mM range of surfactant concentration and 1% oil to water volume ratio, where the coefficient of friction is also observed to be the least.

  9. Effect of extrusion ratio on paraffinic mineral oil lubricant in cold forward extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafis, S. M.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Imaduddin Helmi, W. N.; Syahrullail, S.

    2012-06-01

    A finite element (FE) analysis is made for steady-state two-dimensional forward extrusion with three different extrusion ratio values. Predicting extrusion force of aluminum billet extruded with palm oil lubricant will definitely be helpful in deciding the right extrusion ratio. Hence, the finite element method was applied to investigate the influence of extrusion ratio on palm oil lubricant. The extrusion ratios evaluated were 1.5, 2, and 3. The reference of the study was in accordance to the experiment results of 0.1 mg paraffinic mineral oil grade 95 (Pr95) with kinematic viscosity of 90.12 mm2/s at 40 °C for the extrusion ratio of 3. The result was found to be reliable once the FE model was validated by the established work. The extrusion force for each extrusion ratio was described and evaluated. The FE analysis also accounts for plasticity material flow and equivalent plastic strains in the deformation region. The analysis agreed that the extrusion ratio of 1.5 reduced the extrusion force compared to the extrusion ratio of 2 and 3. This was confirmed by the plotted equivalent plastic strain deformation which shows that the high value of equivalent plastic strain near the extrusion die surface was decreased. As a result, the extrusion force becomes greater with the increasing of extrusion ratio.

  10. Viscosity test standards for engine oils

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a compilation of 10 ASTM standards that cover both low and high temperature viscosity tests for automotive engine oils, with respect to low temperature flow properties and performance requirements under high temperature, high shear rate conditions. Society of Automotive Engineer's Engine Oil Viscosity Classification SAE J300 is included to provide low temperature high shear rate method.

  11. Molecular origin of limiting shear stress of elastohydrodynamic lubrication oil film studied by molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washizu, Hitoshi; Ohmori, Toshihide; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2017-06-01

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations of an elastohydrodynamic lubrication oil film are performed to study the effect of pressure. Fluid molecules of n-hexane are confined between two solid plates under a constant normal force of 0.1-8.0 GPa. Traction simulations are performed by applying relative sliding motion to the solid plates. A transition in the traction behavior is observed around 0.5-2.0 GPa, which corresponds to the viscoelastic region to the plastic-elastic region, which are experimentally observed. This phase transition is related to the suppression of the fluctuation in molecular motion.

  12. The filling of powdered herbs into two-piece hard capsules using hydrogenated cotton seed oil as lubricant.

    PubMed

    Aling, Joanna; Podczeck, Fridrun

    2012-11-20

    The aim of this work was to investigate the plug formation and filling properties of powdered herbal leaves using hydrogenated cotton seed oil as an alternative lubricant. In a first step, unlubricated and lubricated herbal powders were studied on a small scale using a plug simulator, and low-force compression physics and parameterization techniques were used to narrow down the range in which the optimum amount of lubricant required would be found. In a second step these results were complemented with investigations into the flow properties of the powders based on packing (tapping) experiments to establish the final optimum lubricant concentration. Finally, capsule filling of the optimum formulations was undertaken using an instrumented tamp filling machine. This work has shown that hydrogenated cotton seed oil can be used advantageously for the lubrication of herbal leaf powders. Stickiness as observed with magnesium stearate did not occur, and the optimum lubricant concentration was found to be less than that required for magnesium stearate. In this work, lubricant concentrations of 1% or less hydrogenated cotton seed oil were required to fill herbal powders into capsules on the instrumented tamp-filling machine. It was found that in principle all powders could be filled successfully, but that for some powders the use of higher compression settings was disadvantageous. Relationships between the particle size distributions of the powders, their flow and consolidation as well as their filling properties could be identified by multivariate statistical analysis. The work has demonstrated that a combination of the identification of plug formation and powder flow properties is helpful in establishing the optimum lubricant concentration required using a small quantity of powder and a powder plug simulator. On an automated tamp-filling machine, these optimum formulations produced satisfactory capsules in terms of coefficient of fill weight variability and capsule weight

  13. Biodegradation of waste-lubricating petroleum oil in a tropical alfisol as mediated by animal droppings.

    PubMed

    Adesodun, J K; Mbagwu, J S C

    2008-09-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of some organic wastes from animal droppings as bioremediation alternative for soils spiked with waste-lubricating oil (spent oil). The total hydrocarbon contents (THC) with time of sampling were markedly reduced with addition of cow dung (CD), poultry manure (PM) and pig wastes (PW). The general trend in the first year indicated that PW stimulated the highest net percentage loss in THC for soils polluted with 5,000 mg kg(-1) (0.5%SP) and 50,000 mg kg(-1) (5%SP) oil levels. Poultry manure induced the highest reduction in soils polluted with medium, i.e. 2.5%SP (25,000 mg kg(-1)) oil concentration. The overall net loss mediated by each organic waste in the 2nd year showed that PM addition was better irrespective of total oil loading. For example, at 3 months PM led to 16.1% and 14.6% net reduction in THC for soils treated with 50,000 mg kg(-1) (5%) and 100,000 mg kg(-1) (10%) total oil loading, respectively; whereas at same period, the performance of the organic wastes were relatively similar in soils with 10,000 mg kg(-1) oil loading. At 6 and 12 months, PM reduced the oil levels better than CD and PW. Further evaluation by first-order kinetic model which utilized combine data for the entire periods for each year indicated that PW was better at low oil pollution level, while PM performed better at high oil pollution levels. Overall, the differential performance of these organic amendments followed PM>PW>CD.

  14. Antifriction and antiwear characteristics of molybdenum dithiophosphate in engine oils

    SciTech Connect

    Yichao Lin

    1995-10-01

    Antifriction and antiwear studies of lubricating oil compounded with engine oil additives such as petroleum calcium sulfonate (PCS) metal detergents, polyisobutylene succinimide (PSI) ashless dispersant, zinc dithiophosphate (ZnDTP) antioxidant and molybdenum dithiophosphate (MoDTP) using the four-ball machine (FBM) are reported. The results show that binary or ternary mixtures of MoDTP with ZnDTP, or ZnDTP and dipolyisobutylene succinimide (DPSI) obviously have beneficial effects on the antifriction and antiwear properties of MoDTP. However, binary or ternary mixtures of MoDTP with PCS, multipolyisobutylene succinimide (MPSI), or PCS and ZnDTP show different responses to the MoDTP antifriction and antiwear properties which depend upon different compositions. The molecular structures of the components of the MoDTP additive are analyzed by {sup 31}P-NMR spectroscopy. 18 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. (1) H-NMR with Multivariate Analysis for Automobile Lubricant Comparison.

    PubMed

    Kim, Siwon; Yoon, Dahye; Lee, Dong-Kye; Yoon, Changshin; Kim, Suhkmann

    2017-02-23

    Identification of suspected automobile-related lubricants could provide valuable information in forensic cases. We examined that automobile lubricants might exhibit the chemometric characteristics to their individual usages. To compare the degree of clustering in the plots, we co-plotted general industrial oils that were highly dissimilar with automobile lubricants in additive compositions. (1) H-NMR spectroscopy was used with multivariate statistics as a tool for grouping, clustering, and identification of automobile lubricants in laboratory conditions. We analyzed automobile lubricants including automobile engine oils, automobile transmission oils, automobile gear oils, and motorcycle oils. In contrast to the general industrial oils, automobile lubricants showed relatively high tendencies of clustering to their usages. Our pilot study demonstrated that the comparison of known and questioned samples to their usages might be possible in forensic fields.

  16. Design of Oil-Lubricated Machine for Life and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2007-01-01

    In the post-World War II era, the major technology drivers for improving the life, reliability, and performance of rolling-element bearings and gears have been the jet engine and the helicopter. By the late 1950s, most of the materials used for bearings and gears in the aerospace industry had been introduced into use. By the early 1960s, the life of most steels was increased over that experienced in the early 1940s, primarily by the introduction of vacuum degassing and vacuum melting processes in the late 1950s. The development of elastohydrodynamic (EHD) theory showed that most rolling bearings and gears have a thin film separating the contacting bodies during motion and it is that film which affects their lives. Computer programs modeling bearing and gear dynamics that incorporate probabilistic life prediction methods and EHD theory enable optimization of rotating machinery based on life and reliability. With improved manufacturing and processing, the potential improvement in bearing and gear life can be as much as 80 times that attainable in the early 1950s. The work presented summarizes the use of laboratory fatigue data for bearings and gears coupled with probabilistic life prediction and EHD theories to predict the life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox. The resulting predictions are compared with field data.

  17. Steady-state and dynamic analysis of a jet engine, gas lubricated shaft seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, W.; Colsher, R.

    1974-01-01

    Dynamic response of a gas-lubricated, jet-engine main shaft seal was analytically established as a function of collar misalignment and secondary seal friction. Response was obtained by a forward integration-in-time (time-transient) scheme, which traces a time history of seal motions in all its degrees of freedom. Results were summarized in the form of a seal tracking map which indicated regions of acceptable collar misalignments and secondary seal friction. Methodology, results and interpretations are comprehensively described.

  18. X-ray fluorescence analysis of wear metals in used lubricating oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddox, W. E.; Kelliher, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Used oils from several aircraft at NASA's Langley Research Center were analyzed over a three year period using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic emission spectrometry. The results of both analyses are presented and comparisons are made. Fe and Cu data for oil from four internal combustion engines are provided and XRF and atomic emission spectrometry measurements were found to be in perfect agreement. However, distributions were found in the case of oil from a jet aircraft engine whereby the latter method gave values for total iron concentration in the oil and did not distinguish between suspended particles and oil additives. XRF does not have these particle-size limitations; moreover, it is a faster process. It is concluded that XRF is the preferred method in the construction of a man-portable oil wear analysis instrument.

  19. X-ray fluorescence analysis of wear metals in used lubricating oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddox, W. E.; Kelliher, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Used oils from several aircraft at NASA's Langley Research Center were analyzed over a three year period using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic emission spectrometry. The results of both analyses are presented and comparisons are made. Fe and Cu data for oil from four internal combustion engines are provided and XRF and atomic emission spectrometry measurements were found to be in perfect agreement. However, distributions were found in the case of oil from a jet aircraft engine whereby the latter method gave values for total iron concentration in the oil and did not distinguish between suspended particles and oil additives. XRF does not have these particle-size limitations; moreover, it is a faster process. It is concluded that XRF is the preferred method in the construction of a man-portable oil wear analysis instrument.

  20. Ferrographic and spectrometer oil analysis from a failed gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental gas turbine engine was destroyed as a result of the combustion of its titanium components. It was concluded that a severe surge may have caused interference between rotating and stationary compressor that either directly or indirectly ignited the titanium components. Several engine oil samples (before and after the failure) were analyzed with a Ferrograph, a plasma, an atomic absorption, and an emission spectrometer to see if this information would aid in the engine failure diagnosis. The analyses indicated that a lubrication system failure was not a causative factor in the engine failure. Neither an abnormal wear mechanism nor a high level of wear debris was detected in the engine oil sample taken just prior to the test in which the failure occurred. However, low concentrations (0.2 to 0.5 ppm) of titanium were evident in this sample and samples taken earlier. After the failure, higher titanium concentrations ( 2 ppm) were detected in oil samples taken from different engine locations. Ferrographic analysis indicated that most of the titanium was contained in spherical metallic debris after the failure. The oil analyses eliminated a lubrication system bearing or shaft seal failure as the cause of the engine failure.

  1. Application of biosurfactant from Sphingobacterium spiritivorum AS43 in the biodegradation of used lubricating oil.

    PubMed

    Noparat, Pongsak; Maneerat, Suppasil; Saimmai, Atipan

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the application of biosurfactant from Sphingobacterium spiritivorum AS43 using molasses as a substrate and fertilizer to enhance the biodegradation of used lubricating oil (ULO). The cell surface hydrophobicity of bacteria, the emulsification activity, and the biodegradation efficiency of ULO were measured. The bacterial adhesion in the hydrocarbon test was used to denote the cell surface hydrophobicity of the used bacterial species. The results indicate a strong correlation between cell surface hydrophobicity, emulsification activity, and the degree of ULO biodegradation. The maximum degradation of ULO (62 %) was observed when either 1.5 % (w/v) of biosurfactant or fertilizer was added. The results also revealed that biosurfactants alone are capable of promoting biodegradation to a large extent without added fertilizer. The data indicate the potential for biosurfactant production by using low-cost substrate for application in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons or oils.

  2. Quantitative Analysis for Monitoring Formulation of Lubricating Oil Using Terahertz Time-Domain Transmission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lu; Zhao, Kun; Zhou, Qing-Li; Shi, Yu-Lei; Zhang, Cun-Lin

    2012-04-01

    The quantitative analysis of zinc isopropyl-isooctyl-dithiophosphate (T204) mixed with lube base oil from Korea with viscosity index 70 (T204-Korea70) is presented by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Compared with the middle-infrared spectra of zinc n-butyl-isooctyl-dithiophosphate (T202) and T204, THz spectra of T202 and T204 show the weak broad absorption bands. Then, the absorption coefficients of the T204-Korea70 system follow Beer's law at the concentration from 0.124 to 4.024%. The experimental absorption spectra of T204-Korea70 agree with the calculated ones based on the standard absorption coefficients of T204 and Korea70. The quantitative analysis enables a strategy to monitor the formulation of lubricating oil in real time.

  3. Experimental investigations about the influence of oil lubricant between teeth on the gear rattle phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Riccardo; Brancati, Renato; Rocca, Ernesto

    2009-04-01

    The article describes an experimental investigation into the "gear rattle" phenomenon in automotive manual transmissions with a special focus on the influence that lubricant oil may have in reducing this undesirable event. The experimental analysis has been conducted in order to validate a theoretical model developed by the authors that accounts for the presence of oil between the meshing gear teeth of unloaded gear pairs during the no-contact phase. An original measurement technique has been adopted for the tests that consist of the acquisition of the angular relative motion of a gear pair by two high resolution encoders. The experimental test rig designed for this analysis offers the possibility of varying the distance between the wheel axes so that the influence of the backlash variation on the rattle phenomenon can be investigated. The paper presents the results of a series of experiments conducted on helical gear pairs from an automotive gear box in the "idle gear rattle" condition by varying the lubrication mechanism. The experimental results show good agreement with the expectations provided by the theoretical model.

  4. Gas chromatographic determination of residual solvents in lubricating oils and waxes

    SciTech Connect

    De Andrade Bruening, I.M.R.

    1983-10-01

    A direct gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of residual solvents is described, using tert-butylbenzene as an internal standard. The lube oils and waxes were prevented from contaminating the chromatographic column by injecting the samples directly into a precolumn containing a silicone stationary phase. The samples of lube oils and waxes were injected directly into the chromatographic column containing another stationary phase, 1,2,3-tris(2-cyanoethoxy)propane. (The waxy samples were dissolved in a light neutral oil). With proper operating conditions, analysis time was 7 min. The procedure has been applied in the control of a lube oil dewaxing plant; the chromatographic column showed no sign of deterioration after 1 h when the precolumn was removed. Known amounts of toluene and methylethyl ketone were added to the solvent-free lubricating oils and wax, and these mixtures were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the procedure. Precision and accuracy of these data are comparable to those of methods previously described. 1 figure, 1 table.

  5. Ferrographic and spectrographic analysis of oil sampled before and after failure of a jet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental gas turbine engine was destroyed as a result of the combustion of its titanium components. Several engine oil samples (before and after the failure) were analyzed with a Ferrograph as well as plasma, atomic absorption, and emission spectrometers. The analyses indicated that a lubrication system failure was not a causative factor in the engine failure. Neither an abnormal wear mechanism, nor a high level of wear debris was detected in the oil sample from the engine just prior to the test in which the failure occurred. However, low concentrations of titanium were evident in this sample and samples taken earlier. After the failure, higher titanium concentrations were detected in oil samples taken from different engine locations. Ferrographic analysis indicated that most of the titanium was contained in spherical metallic debris after the failure.

  6. The accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lubricating oil over time--a comparison of supercritical fluid and liquid-liquid extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Wong, P K; Wang, J

    2001-01-01

    Optimal extraction conditions including extraction temperature, fluid density of carbon dioxide and concentration of modifier for supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to extract of 16 2-6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) spiked into used lubricating oil collected from a gasoline-driven automobile were determined. A comparison of extraction efficiency 2-6-ring PAHs spiked into the used lubricating oil extracted by SFE and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) methods was made. Results indicated that recoveries of PAHs extracted by SFE from the used lubricating oil were higher than those by LLE. PAH profiles of lubricating oil samples collected at various driving distances from an old and a new gasoline-driven automobiles were determined by combining SFE, gel permeation chromatography clean up and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results showed that the concentrations of total PAH in lubricating oils collected from both automobiles increased rapidly after oil change. Two- and three-ring PAHs dominated the PAH profiles of oil samples collected from both automobiles. High concentrations of the more toxic 4-6-ring PAHs, were found in the oil samples collected from both automobiles even at a short driving distance after oil change. The concentrations of total PAH in lubricating oil collected from two automobiles driven for a longer distance after oil change were very similar.

  7. Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ficken, W. H.; Schulien, H. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device supplies controlled amounts of lubricating oil to ball bearings during operation of the bearings. The dynamic reservoir lubricating device includes a rotating reservoir nut, a hollow cylinder filled with lubricating oil, flow restrictors and a ball bearing retainer.

  8. Effects of Micronic Filtration on Turbine Engine Lubricant Deposition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    hub body, but rubbing occurred only on a circular track about 3 x 10- 3 m (0.1-in.) in width defined by the end faces of the drive plug. For tests...classified as follows: * Heavy normal rubbing wear * None to a few severe wear particles 0 None to a few cutting wear particles * Moderate to heavy in...follows: New oil had a few each of normal rubbing wear, severe wear, laminar, corrosive wear and nonmetallic, amorphous particles with moderately-light

  9. Coated carbide drill performance under soluble coconut oil lubricant and nanoparticle enhanced MQL in drilling AISI P20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, N. A. M.; Azmi, A. I.; Fairuz, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    This research experimentally investigates the performance of a TiAlN coated carbide drill bit in drilling AISI P20 through two different kinds of lubricants, namely; soluble coconut oil (SCO) and nanoparticle-enhanced coconut oil (NECO) under minimum quantity lubrication system. The tool life and tool wear mechanism were studied using various cutting speeds of 50, 100 and 150 m/min with a constant feed of 0.01 mm/rev. Since the flank wear land was not regular along the cutting edge, the average flank wear (VB) was measured at several points using image analysis software. The drills were inspected using a scanning electron microscope to further elucidate the wear mechanism. The result indicates that drilling with the nanoparticle- enhanced lubricant was better in resisting the wear and improving the drill life to some extent

  10. Isolation and characterization of novel strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens possessing high efficiency to degrade gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil, and lubricating oil.

    PubMed

    Wongsa, Patcharaporn; Tanaka, Makiko; Ueno, Akio; Hasanuzzaman, Mohammad; Yumoto, Isao; Okuyama, Hidetoshi

    2004-12-01

    Bacteria possessing high capacity to degrade gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil, and lubricating oil were screened from several areas of Hokkaido, Japan. Among isolates, two strains, WatG and HokM, which were identified as new strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens species, respectively, showed relatively high capacity and wide spectrum to degrade the hydrocarbons in gasoline, kerosene, diesel, and lubricating oil. About 90-95% of excess amount of total diesel oil and kerosene added to mineral salts media as a sole carbon source could be degraded by WatG within 2 and 3 weeks, respectively. The same amount of lubricating oil was 60% degraded within 2 weeks. Strain HokM was more capable than WatG in degrading aromatic compounds in gasoline. This strain could also degrade kerosene, diesel, and lubricating oil with a capacity of 50-60%. Thus, these two isolates have potential to be useful for bioremediation of sites highly contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  11. Aerosol aspects of oil mist lubrication -- Reclassification and deposition of oil mist in bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Shamim, A.; Kettleborough, C.F.

    1996-11-01

    In this investigation the tools of aerosol mechanics have been used to investigate the influence of several commercially available reclassifiers on the droplet size distribution of oil mist. It has been observed that the mist type reclassifier causes negligible change in the droplet size distribution of oil mist. The influence of the bearing speed and the droplet size distribution of oil mist on the deposition of oil droplets in bearings have also been investigated. It has been observed that the bearing speed influences the deposition of oil mist on the bearing surfaces. However the droplet size has been found to be the most important parameter influencing the deposition of airborne oil droplets in bearings. It has been found that there is an optimum range of airborne oil droplet size which maximizes the deposition of oil mist in bearings without significantly increasing the deposition of oil droplets in the supply pipe.

  12. Technical Seminar: Oil-Free Turbomachinery for Rotorcraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Rotorcraft engines are among the most demanding applications for conventional oil-lubricated bearings because they must operate with extreme reliability and the highest possible power density. Rece...

  13. SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    azelaic , and sebacic acids are the most readily available dibasic acids suitable for ester lubricant production, while the petroleum derived Oxo alcohols...of synthetic lubricants for use at low and high temperatures. The diesters of straight-chain dibasic acids lead the field of esters mutable as...dibasic acid esters in all the characteristics studied so far, and this type of ester therefore represents a promising source of synthetic oil. Mono

  14. Assessment of the oxidative stability of lubricant oil using fiber-coupled fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Omrani, Hengameh; Dudelzak, Alexander E; Hollebone, Bruce P; Loock, Hans-Peter

    2014-02-06

    The fluorescence of antioxidant additives in lubricant oil was used as an indicator of oxidative stability of the oil. It was found that the decrease in fluorescence intensities of phenyl-α-napthylamine, its dimer, and another unidentified antioxidant coincide with the formation of decomposition products of the oil base stock. Simple kinetic models were developed that were capable of describing antioxidant reactions as a pseudo first-order processes. It is shown that fluorescence excitation emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy coupled with an optical fiber probe can provide real-time assessment of the oxidative stability of the lubricant. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis was used to correlate the component scores to the oil breakdown number. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on the oxidative stability of poly a-olefin aviation lubricating base oil using PDSC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, N.; Fei, Y. W.; Yang, H. W.; Wang, Y. M.; Zong, Z. M.

    2016-08-01

    The oxidation stability of the domestic and import PAO aviation lubricating base oil was studied by the method of pressurized differential scanning calorimetry testing the initial oxidation temperature. The effects of anti-oxidants were investigated, and the best ratio of antioxidants was determined.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain Hex1T Isolated from Soils Contaminated with Used Lubricating Oil in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Luján, Adela M.; Feliziani, Sofía

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa Hex1T was isolated from soils contaminated with used lubricating oil from a garage in Córdoba, Argentina. This strain is capable of utilizing this pollutant as the sole carbon and energy source. Here, we present the 6.9-Mb draft genome sequence of Hex1T, which contains many heavy metal-resistance genes. PMID:28082504

  17. Effects of environmental stresses on the responses of mangrove plants to spent lubricating oil.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lin; Zhang, Chunguang; Guo, Chuling; Lin, Guang Hui; Tam, Nora Fung Yee

    2011-01-01

    The influence of different environmental stresses, including salinity (5-35‰), tidal cycle (6/6, 12/12 and 24/24 h of high/low tidal regimes) and nutrient addition (1-6 times background nitrogen and phosphorus content) on Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Aegiceras corniculatum grown in sediment contaminated with spent lubricating oil (7.5 L m(-2)) were investigated. The oil-treated 1-year-old mangrove seedlings subject to low (5‰) and high (35‰) salinity had significantly more reduction in growth, more release of superoxide radical (O2·-) and higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) than those subject to moderate salinity (15‰). Extended flooding (24/24 h of high/low tidal regime) enhanced O2·- release and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in both oil-treated species but had little negative effects on biomass production (P>0.05) except the stem of A. corniculatum (P=0.012). The addition of nutrients had no beneficial or even posed harmful effects on the growth and cellular responses of the oil-treated seedlings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, Brian D.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Lane, William H.

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  19. Oil-Free Turbomachinery Team Passed Milestone on Path to the First Oil-Free Turbine Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bream, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    The Oil-Free Turbine Engine Technology Project team successfully demonstrated a foil-air bearing designed for the core rotor shaft of a turbine engine. The bearings were subjected to test conditions representative of the engine core environment through a combination of high speeds, sustained loads, and elevated temperatures. The operational test envelope was defined during conceptual design studies completed earlier this year by bearing manufacturer Mohawk Innovative Technologies and the turbine engine company Williams International. The prototype journal foil-air bearings were tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Glenn is working with Williams and Mohawk to create a revolution in turbomachinery by developing the world's first Oil-Free turbine aircraft engine. NASA's General Aviation Propulsion project and Williams International recently developed the FJX-2 turbofan engine that is being commercialized as the EJ-22. This core bearing milestone is a first step toward a future version of the EJ-22 that will take advantage of recent advances in foil-air bearings by eliminating the need for oil lubrication systems and rolling element bearings. Oil-Free technology can reduce engine weight by 15 percent and let engines operate at very high speeds, yielding power density improvements of 20 percent, and reducing engine maintenance costs. In addition, with NASA coating technology, engines can operate at temperatures up to 1200 F. Although the project is still a couple of years from a full engine test of the bearings, this milestone shows that the bearing design exceeds the expected environment, thus providing confidence that an Oil-Free turbine aircraft engine will be attained. The Oil-Free Turbomachinery Project is supported through the Aeropropulsion Base Research Program.

  20. Lubrication with solids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Johnson, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Brief discussion of the historical background, variety range, chemistry, physics, and other properties of solid lubricants, and review of their current uses. The widespread use of solid lubricants did not occur until about 1947. At present, they are the object of such interest that a special international conference on their subject was held in 1971. They are used at temperatures beyond the useful range of conventional lubricating oils and greases. Their low volatility provides them with the capability of functioning effectively in vacuum and invites their use in space applications. Their high load carrying ability makes them useful with heavily loaded components. Solid lubricants, however, do lack some of the desirable properties of conventional lubricants. Unlike oils and greases, which have fluidity and can continuously be carried back into contact with lubricated surfaces, solid lubricants, because of their immobility, have finite lives. Also, oils and greases can carry away frictional heat from contacting surfaces, while solid lubricants cannot.

  1. Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on the Behavior of Antifriction and Wear Resistance of Al2O3/Al2O3 Ceramic Friction Pairs Under Oil Lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X. Y.; Qiao, Y. L.; Zang, Y.; Cui, Q. S.

    The behavior of antifriction and wear resistance of Al2O3/Al2O3 ceramic friction pairs lubricated by four different lubrication oils under ultrasonic vibration was studied. The surface morphologies of wear scare was analyzed by metallographic microscope. The effect mechanism of ultrasonic vibration on frictional pairs under different lubrication oils was discussed. The studied results showed that, ultrasonic vibration would improve the behavior of antifriction and wear resistance of the Al2O3/Al2O3 ceramic friction pairs under various lubrication oils.The improving would be dramaticer when the viscosity of lubrication oil was low. Ultrasonic vibration decreased the friction coefficient and wear volume 12.9% and 38.7% respectively, when the lubrication oil was 6#,the viscosity of which is 39.77 mm2/s. When the lubrication oil was 150BS, the viscosity of which is 549.69 mm2/s, ultrasonic vibration made friction coefficient and wear volume decreased 4.6% and 11.6% respectively.The effect of ultrasonic vibration on the behavior of antifriction and wear resistance of Al2O3/Al2O3 ceramic friction pairs was determined by the formation and the destruction of oil film on the friction surface and the upward floatage created by ultrasonic vibration.

  2. Diesel engine evaluation of a nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejeuski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.; Schwab, A.W.; Pryde, E.H.

    1984-10-01

    A nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion was formulated, characterized and evaluated as a fuel in a direct injection, turbocharged, intercooled, 4 cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during a 200 hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance test. Differences in engine operation between a baseline Phillips 2D reference fuel and the experimental fuel were observed. The major problem experienced while operating with the microemulsion was an incomplete combustion process at low-load engine operation. Significant lubricating oil dilution was observed initially, followed by an abnormal increase in the viscosity of the lubricative oil. Heavier carbon residue on the piston lands, in the piston ring grooves and in the intake ports were noted. In addition, premature injection-nozzle deterioration (sticking of the needle) was experienced. At present, the sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion studied cannot be recommended for long-term use in a direct-injection diesel engine, but further modifications in formulation may produce acceptable sunflower oil microemulsions as alternative diesel fuels. 15 references.

  3. Experimental Studies on a Single Stage Stirling Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler Driven by Oil-Lubricated Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ren; Jianying, Hu; Ercang, Luo; Xiaotao, Wang

    2010-04-01

    Because lubricating oil for moving parts is not allowed to go into the pulse tube cryocooler, Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers are generally driven by oil-free compressors although oil-lubricated compressors are much cheaper and facile. Recently, it was proposed that an acoustic transparent and oil blocking diaphragm could be employed to separate the compressor and the cryocooler. Thus, the cryocooler can be driven by oil-lubricated compressors. In this paper, a pulse tube cryocooler is designed to match a crankcase compressor. Although the efficiency of the crankcase compressor is lower compared with the oil-free linear compressor, the crankcase compressor can easily work at lower frequency which results in higher efficiency for the cryocooler. So the relative high performance of the whole system can be maintained. In this system, the cryocooler delivers 28.5 W of cooling at 80 K with 680 W of electrical input power and operates at 15 Hz. The corresponding Carnot efficiency is 11.52%.

  4. High performance solid and liquid lubricants: An industrial guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, Ernest L.

    1987-01-01

    This handbook is intended to provide a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel can conveniently locate data needed for their work. This handbook is divided into two major parts (A and B). Part A is a compilation of solid lubricant suppliers information on chemical and physical property of data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications of spacecraft.

  5. Bio-derived Fuel Blend Dilution of Marine Engine Oil and Imapct on Friction and Wear Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, Oyelayo O.; Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta; Fenske, George R.; Corlett, John; Murphy, Chris; Przesmitzki, Steve

    2016-04-01

    To reduce the amount of petroleum-derived fuel used in vehicles and vessels powered by internal combustion engines, the addition of bio-derived fuel extenders is a common practice. Ethanol is perhaps the most common bio-derived fuel used for blending, and butanol is being evaluated as a promising alternative. The present study determined the fuel dilution rate of three lubricating oils (E0, E10, and i-B16) in a marine engine operating in on-water conditions with a start-and-stop cycle protocol. The level of fuel dilution increased with the number of cycles for all three fuels. The most dilution was observed with i-B16 fuel, and the least with E10 fuel. In all cases, fuel dilution substantially reduced the oil viscosity. The impacts of fuel dilution and the consequent viscosity reduction on the lubricating capability of the engine oil in terms of friction, wear, and scuffing prevention were evaluated by four different tests protocols. Although the fuel dilution of the engine oil had minimal effect on friction, because the test conditions were under the boundary lubrication regime, significant effects were observed on wear in many cases. Fuel dilution also was observed to reduce the load-carrying capacity of the engine oils in terms of scuffing load reduction.

  6. Deposit information in gasoline engines: Part I. Base oil effects in sequence VE deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Supp, J.A.; Kornbrekke, R.E.; Roby, S.H.

    1994-12-01

    Base oil effects on sludge and deposit formation in the ASTM Sequence VE were studied with blends made using the same American Petroleum Institute (API) SG performance package and the same viscosity improver. One percent of the dispersant was removed from the formulation to accentuate base oil effects. Nine tests on six different 100N base oils were run. Sequence VE test lubricant drain analyses show differences in insolubles, viscosity, and particle size with base stock variations. The most significant base oil factors which can be used to predict Sequence VE sludge ratings are the base oil saturate content, polar content, and volatility. While all oils studied passed the Sequence VE API SG engine varnish and piston varnish requirements, higher levels of poly-nuclear aromatics (PNA`s) are shown to increase the severity of these ratings.

  7. Overview of liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    An overall status report on liquid lubricants for use in high-performance turbojet engines is presented. Emphasis is placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is iven of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some nine candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Also, alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of of continuing work on improving high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of fluid base stocks is discussed.

  8. Determination of calcium, magnesium and zinc in unused lubricating oils by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Udoh, A P

    1995-12-01

    Varying concentrations of lanthanum and strontium were added to solutions of ashed unused lubricating oils for the determination of calcium, magnesium and zinc content using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. At least 3000 mug g(-1) of lanthanum or strontium was required to completely overcome the interference of the phosphate ion, PO(3-)(4), and give peak values for calcium. The presence of lanthanum or strontium did not cause an appreciable increase in the amount of magnesium and zinc obtained from the analyses. The method is fast and reproducible, and the coefficients of variation calculated for the elements using one of the samples were 1.6% for calcium, 3.5% for magnesium and 0.2% for zinc. Results obtained by this method were better than those obtained by other methods for the same samples.

  9. Biosurfactant Production by Bacillus salmalaya for Lubricating Oil Solubilization and Biodegradation

    PubMed Central

    Dadrasnia, Arezoo; Ismail, Salmah

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the capability of a biosurfactant produced by a novel strain of Bacillus salmalaya to enhance the biodegradation rates and bioavailability of organic contaminants. The biosurfactant produced by cultured strain 139SI showed high physicochemical properties and surface activity in the selected medium. The biosurfactant exhibited a high emulsification index and a positive result in the drop collapse test, with the results demonstrating the wetting activity of the biosurfactant and its potential to produce surface-active molecules. Strain 139SI can significantly reduce the surface tension (ST) from 70.5 to 27 mN/m, with a critical micelle concentration of 0.4%. Moreover, lubricating oil at 2% (v/v) was degraded on Day 20 (71.5). Furthermore, the biosurfactant demonstrated high stability at different ranges of salinity, pH, and temperature. Overall, the results indicated the potential use of B. salmalaya 139SI in environmental remediation processes. PMID:26295402

  10. Biosurfactant Production by Bacillus salmalaya for Lubricating Oil Solubilization and Biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Dadrasnia, Arezoo; Ismail, Salmah

    2015-08-19

    This study investigated the capability of a biosurfactant produced by a novel strain of Bacillus salmalaya to enhance the biodegradation rates and bioavailability of organic contaminants. The biosurfactant produced by cultured strain 139SI showed high physicochemical properties and surface activity in the selected medium. The biosurfactant exhibited a high emulsification index and a positive result in the drop collapse test, with the results demonstrating the wetting activity of the biosurfactant and its potential to produce surface-active molecules. Strain 139SI can significantly reduce the surface tension (ST) from 70.5 to 27 mN/m, with a critical micelle concentration of 0.4%. Moreover, lubricating oil at 2% (v/v) was degraded on Day 20 (71.5). Furthermore, the biosurfactant demonstrated high stability at different ranges of salinity, pH, and temperature. Overall, the results indicated the potential use of B. salmalaya 139SI in environmental remediation processes.

  11. Variable resistance constant tension and lubrication device. [using oil-saturated leather wiper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A variable resistance device is described which includes a cylindrical housing having elongated resistance wires. A movable arm having a supporting block carried on the outer end is rotatably carried by the cylindrical housing. An arcuate steel spring member is pivotally supported by the movable arm. A leather wiper member is carried adjacent to one end of the spring steel member, and an electrically conductive surface is carried adjacent to the other end. The supporting block maintains the spring steel member in compression so that a constant pressure is applied to the conductive end of the spring steel member and the leather wiper. The leather wiper is saturated with a lubricating oil for maintaining the resistance wire clean as the movable arm is manipulated.

  12. Applications of Electrostatic Sensor for Wear Debris Detecting in the Lubricating Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Z.; Yin, X.; Jiang, Z.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, an advanced monitoring technology has been presented based on the electrostatic induction principle to monitor timely wear fault on-line. The paper begins with the principle of the electrostatic monitoring technology, then we focus on the electrostatic sensor, the most important component in the electrostatic monitoring system, establish a measurement model for an electrostatic sensor with the given structure parameters. Based on the measurement model, we use the finite element method to analyze the characteristics of an electrostatic sensor for wear debris detecting in lubricating oil. Lastly we build an experiment platform to validate the feasibility of the electrostatic monitoring method. The experiment results show, to some extent, that the electrostatic signal can reflect the relative density of wear debris, and the sensor proposed can satisfy the primary demand of wear debris on-line monitoring.

  13. Bioremediation of diesel and lubricant oil-contaminated soils using enhanced landfarming system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sih-Yu; Kuo, Yu-Chia; Hong, Andy; Chang, Yu-Min; Kao, Chih-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Lubricant and diesel oil-polluted sites are difficult to remediate because they have less volatile and biodegradable characteristics. The goal of this research was to evaluate the potential of applying an enhanced landfarming to bioremediate soils polluted by lubricant and diesel. Microcosm study was performed to evaluate the optimal treatment conditions with the addition of different additives (nutrients, addition of activated sludge from oil-refining wastewater facility, compost, TPH-degrading bacteria, and fern chips) to enhance total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal. To simulate the aerobic landfarming biosystem, air in the microcosm headspace was replaced once a week. Results demonstrate that the additives of activated sludge and compost could result in the increase in soil microbial populations and raise TPH degradation efficiency (up to 83% of TPH removal with 175 days of incubation) with initial (TPH = 4100 mg/kg). The first-order TPH degradation rate reached 0.01 1/d in microcosms with additive of activated sludge (mass ratio of soil to inocula = 50:1). The soil microbial communities were determined by nucleotide sequence analyses and 16S rRNA-based denatured gradient gel electrophoresis. Thirty-four specific TPH-degrading bacteria were detected in microcosm soils. Chromatograph analyses demonstrate that resolved peaks were more biodegradable than unresolved complex mixture. Results indicate that more aggressive remedial measures are required to enhance the TPH biodegradation, which included the increase of (1) microbial population or TPH-degrading bacteria, (2) biodegradable carbon sources, (3) nutrient content, and (4) soil permeability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute, subchronic, and developmental toxicological properties of lubricating oil base stocks.

    PubMed

    Dalbey, Walden E; McKee, Richard H; Goyak, Katy Olsavsky; Biles, Robert W; Murray, Jay; White, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Lubricating oil base stocks (LOBs) are substances used in the manufacture of finished lubricants and greases. They are produced from residue remaining after atmospheric distillation of crude oil that is subsequently fractionated by vacuum distillation and additional refining steps. Initial LOB streams that have been produced by vacuum distillation but not further refined may contain polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and may present carcinogenic hazards. In modern refineries, LOBs are further refined by multistep processes including solvent extraction and/or hydrogen treatment to reduce the levels of PACs and other undesirable constituents. Thus, mildly (insufficiently) refined LOBs are potentially more hazardous than more severely (sufficiently) refined LOBs. This article discusses the evaluation of LOBs using statistical models based on content of PACs; these models indicate that insufficiently refined LOBs (potentially carcinogenic LOBs) can also produce systemic and developmental effects with repeated dermal exposure. Experimental data were also obtained in ten 13-week dermal studies in rats, eight 4-week dermal studies in rabbits, and seven dermal developmental toxicity studies with sufficiently refined LOBs (noncarcinogenic and commonly marketed) in which no observed adverse effect levels for systemic toxicity and developmental toxicity were 1000 to 2000 mg/kg/d with dermal exposures, typically the highest dose tested. Results in both oral and inhalation developmental toxicity studies were similar. This absence of toxicologically relevant findings was consistent with lower PAC content of sufficiently refined LOBs. Based on data on reproductive organs with repeated dosing and parameters in developmental toxicity studies, sufficiently refined LOBs are likely to have little, if any, effect on reproductive parameters.

  15. Cost-Cutting Powdered Lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at NASA's Glenn Research Center developed a high-temperature, solid lubricant coating material that is saving the manufacturing industry millions of dollars. The material came out of 3 decades of tribological research, work studying high-temperature friction, lubrication, and the wearing of interacting surfaces that are in relative motion. It was developed as a shaft coating deposited by thermal spraying to protect foil air bearings used in oil-free turbomachinery, like gas turbines, and is meant to be part of a larger project: an oil-free aircraft engine capable of operating at high temperatures with increased reliability, lowered weight, reduced maintenance requirements, and increased power. This advanced coating, PS300, is a self-lubricating bearing material containing chromium oxide, with additions of a low-temperature start up lubricant (silver) and a high-temperature lubricant, making it remarkably stable at high temperatures, and better suited than previously available materials for high-stress conditions. It improves efficiency, lowers friction, reduces emissions, and has been used by NASA in advanced aeropropulsion engines, refrigeration compressors, turbochargers, and hybrid electrical turbogenerators. PS300 is ideal in any application where lowered weight and reduced maintenance are desired, and high-temperature uses and heavy operating speeds are expected. It has notable uses for the Space Agency, but it has even further-reaching potential for the industrial realm.

  16. Surface Design and Engineering Toward Wear-Resistant, Self-Lubricating Diamond Films and Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    The tribological properties of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films vary with the environment, possessing a Jekyll-and-Hyde character. CVD diamond has low coefficient of friction and high wear resistance in air but high coefficient of friction and low wear resistance in vacuum. Improving the tribological functionality of materials (such as achieving low friction and good wear resistance) was an aim of this investigation. Three studies on the surface design, surface engineering, and tribology of CVD diamond have shown that its friction and wear are significantly reduced in ultrahigh vacuum. The main criteria for judging whether diamond films are an effective wear-resistant, self-lubricating material were coefficient of friction and wear rate, which must be less than 0.1 and on the order of 10(exp 6) cu mm/N(dot)m, respectively. In the first study the presence of a thin film (less than 1 micron thick) of amorphous, nondiamond carbon (hydrogenated carbon, also called diamondlike carbon or DLC) on CVD diamond greatly decreased the coefficient of friction and the wear rate. Therefore, a thin DLC film on CVD diamond can be an effective wear-resistant, lubricating coating in ultrahigh vacuum. In the second study the presence of an amorphous, nondiamond carbon surface layer formed on CVD diamond by ion implantation significantly reduced the coefficient of friction and the wear rate in ultrahigh vacuum. Therefore, such surface layers are acceptable for effective self-lubricating, wear-resistant applications of CVD diamond. In the third study CVD diamond in contact with cubic boron nitride exhibited low coefficient of friction in ultra high vacuum. Therefore, this materials combination can provide an effective self-lubricating, wear-resistant couple in ultrahigh vacuum.

  17. [Simultaneous determination of three inorganic anions in food-grade lubricating oils by chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyuan; Fei, Xudong; Qiu, Feng; Lin, Miao

    2015-02-01

    An ion chromatographic (IC) method with suppressed conductivity detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of Cl-, NO3(-), SO(2-)(4) in food-grade lubricating oils. After ultrasonic extraction with 50% (v/v) methanol aqueous solution and centrifugation, the sample in aqueous phase was purified with 0. 22 µm hybrid fiber membranes, then analyzed by IC using 15 mmol/L KOH solution as eluent, and detected by a suppressed conductivity detector. Effects of the concentration and flow rate of the eluent, and the concentration of the methanol aqueous solution on the detection of the three anions were investigated. Under the optimized separation conditions, the three anions were separated completely and the system peaks didn't interfere with the determination. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R2> 0. 999) in the range of 0. 10-20. 00 mg/L. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N= 3) were 0. 01 - 0. 03 mg/kg. The average recoveries of Cl-, NO(-)3, SO(2-)4 anions were 90. 0% - 103. 6% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2. 8% - 5. 7%. This method avoids the time-consuming pretreatment process to burn or ash the oil phase matrix, and can determine the amounts of three inorganic anions (Cl-, NO(-)3, SO(2-)(4)) in food-grade lubricating oils fast and accurately. It is suitable for simultaneously separating and detecting trace inorganic anions in lubricating oils or other oil products.

  18. Fuel Lubricity Impact on Shipboard Engine and Fuel Systems and Sensitivity of U.S. Navy Diesel Engines to Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-30

    sensitivity to contamination than the other fuels. Due to the re-circulating nature of the fuel loop in the injection rig, the accumulation of lube oil ...contents of the lube oil and fuel samples are shown in Table 12. This UNCLASSIFIED 27 UNCLASSIFIED level of contamination had been shown by Lacey (Ref...1 ) to alter the scuffing wear results of low lubricity fuels. It is believed that this lube oil contamination is built into the design of the

  19. Poly(alkyl methacrylate) Brush-Grafted Silica Nanoparticles as Oil Lubricant Additives: Effects of Alkyl Pendant Groups on Oil Dispersibility, Stability, and Lubrication Property

    DOE PAGES

    Seymour, Bryan T.; Wright, Roger A. E.; Parrott, Alexander C.; ...

    2017-07-03

    This paper reports on the synthesis of a series of poly(alkyl methacrylate) brush-grafted, 23 nm silica nanoparticles (hairy NPs) and the study of the effect of alkyl pendant length on their use as oil lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. The hairy NPs were prepared by surface-initiated reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization from trithiocarbonate chain transfer agent (CTA)-functionalized silica NPs in the presence of a free CTA. We found that hairy NPs with sufficiently long alkyl pendant groups (containing >8 carbon atoms, such as 12, 13, 16, and 18 in this study) could be readily dispersed in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO),more » forming clear, homogeneous dispersions, and exhibited excellent stability at low and high temperatures as revealed by visual inspection and dynamic light scattering studies. Whereas poly(n-hexyl methacrylate) hairy NPs cannot be dispersed in PAO under ambient conditions or at 80 °C, interestingly, poly(2-ethylhexyl methacrylate) hairy NPs can be dispersed in PAO at 80 °C but not at room temperature, with a reversible clear-to-cloudy transition observed upon cooling. High-contact-stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100 °C showed significant reductions in both the coefficient of friction (up to 38%) and wear volume (up to 90% for iron flat) for transparent, homogeneous dispersions of hairy NPs in PAO at a concentration of 1.0 wt % compared with neat PAO. Finally, the formation of a load-bearing tribofilm at the rubbing interface was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.« less

  20. Poly(alkyl methacrylate) Brush-Grafted Silica Nanoparticles as Oil Lubricant Additives: Effects of Alkyl Pendant Groups on Oil Dispersibility, Stability, and Lubrication Property.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Bryan T; Wright, Roger A E; Parrott, Alexander C; Gao, Hongyu; Martini, Ashlie; Qu, Jun; Dai, Sheng; Zhao, Bin

    2017-07-26

    This article reports on the synthesis of a series of poly(alkyl methacrylate) brush-grafted, 23 nm silica nanoparticles (hairy NPs) and the study of the effect of alkyl pendant length on their use as oil lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. The hairy NPs were prepared by surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization from trithiocarbonate chain transfer agent (CTA)-functionalized silica NPs in the presence of a free CTA. We found that hairy NPs with sufficiently long alkyl pendant groups (containing >8 carbon atoms, such as 12, 13, 16, and 18 in this study) could be readily dispersed in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO), forming clear, homogeneous dispersions, and exhibited excellent stability at low and high temperatures as revealed by visual inspection and dynamic light scattering studies. Whereas poly(n-hexyl methacrylate) hairy NPs cannot be dispersed in PAO under ambient conditions or at 80 °C, interestingly, poly(2-ethylhexyl methacrylate) hairy NPs can be dispersed in PAO at 80 °C but not at room temperature, with a reversible clear-to-cloudy transition observed upon cooling. High-contact-stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100 °C showed significant reductions in both the coefficient of friction (up to 38%) and wear volume (up to 90% for iron flat) for transparent, homogeneous dispersions of hairy NPs in PAO at a concentration of 1.0 wt % compared with neat PAO. The formation of a load-bearing tribofilm at the rubbing interface was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  1. Lubricating compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.J.; Campbell, C.B.

    1993-08-03

    A lubricating composition is described comprising a major amount of oil of lubricating viscosity and a minor amount of an oil-soluble composition selected from the group consisting of: (A) an alkali metal salt of a polyalkenyl succinimide which is the reaction product of (a) a polyalkenyl succinic acid or polyalkenyl succinic anhydride, with (b) an amine selected from the group consisting of polyamines and hydroxy-substituted polyamines; and (B) a mixture comprising: (1) an oil-soluble alkali metal compound; and (2) a polyalkenyl succinimide which is the reaction product of (a) a polyalkenyl succinic acid or polyalkenyl succinic anhydride, with (b) an amine selected from the group consisting of polyamines and hydroxy-substituted polyamines; wherein the polyalkenyl succinic acid and polyalkenyl succinic anhydride are prepared by a thermal reaction, and the lubricating composition has a sufficient amount of basic nitrogen content so that the use of from 7.91 to about 50 mmoles of alkali metal/kg lubricant composition provides for reductions in the lower piston deposits as compared to the lubricant composition not containing alkali.

  2. Development of narrow width type oil control ring for motorcycle engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tateishi, Yukio; Fujimura, Kazuhiro; Ishihara, Katsushi; Watanabe, Masanor

    1995-12-31

    The reduction of piston ring friction forces, which account for high percentages of the total engine friction loss, is vital for the simultaneous attainments of lower fuel consumption, higher engine power and speed. The authors et al. noted a three-piece type oil control ring in this study, and strived for the development of an oil control ring with a narrow width and a low tangential force. A new three-piece, type oil control ring with a small tolerance on tangential force and a width of 1.2 to 1.5 mm has been successfully developed by studying the effect of such a ring on the lubricating oil consumption, while providing a spring function by press-forming a wire rod having a particular sectional shape.

  3. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXVI, I--CATERPILLAR LUBRICATION SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS, II--LEARNING ABOUT BRAKES (PART I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTIONS OF DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS AND THE PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION OF BRAKE SYSTEMS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) THE NEED FOR OIL, (2) SERVICE CLASSIFICATION OF OILS, (3) CATERPILLAR LUBRICATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS (4)…

  4. Bio-lubricants derived from waste cooking oil with improved oxidation stability and low-temperature properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Weimin; Wang, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) was chemically modified via epoxidation using H2O2 followed by transesterification with methanol and branched alcohols (isooctanol, isotridecanol and isooctadecanol) to produce bio-lubricants with improved oxidative stability and low temperature properties. Physicochemical properties of synthesized bio-lubricants such as pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), viscosity, viscosity index (VI), oxidative stability, and corrosion resistant property were determined according to standard methods. The synthesized bio-lubricants showed improved low temperature flow performances compared with WCO, which can be attributing to the introduction of branched chains in their molecular structures. What's more, the oxidation stability of the WCO showed more than 10 folds improvement due to the elimination of -C=C-bonds in the WCO molecule. Tribological performances of these bio-lubricants were also investigated using four-ball friction and wear tester. Experimental results showed that derivatives of WCO exhibited favorable physicochemical properties and tribological performances which making them good candidates in formulating eco-friendly lubricants.

  5. Effect of ventilation and lubricants on sludge formation in passenger car gasoline engines

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, K.; Matsumoto, E.; Kurosaka, S.; Murakami, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A bench test has been developed for the estimation of sludge formation. The bench test results along with engine test data reveal the following conclusions: The largest sludge formation occurs under the combination of low oil temperature/low engine speed and high oil temperature/moderate engine speed. Sludge formation is greatly influenced by the ventilation in the rocker chambers and crankcase. In addition to improvement in the ventilation system the use of phenol-type antioxidants, salicylate-type detergents and dispersant-type viscosity improvers was effective for sludge protection.

  6. [Non-invasive measurement of water content in engine lubricant using visible and near infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Lu-lu; Wu, Di; Tan, Li-hong; He, Yong

    2010-08-01

    Visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) was applied to non-invasively measurement of water content in engine lubricant. Based on measured spectra, several spectral calibration algorithms were adopted to improve accuracy and simply calculation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were separately used to reduce variables of spectral model. Nine effective variables, 476, 483, 544, 925, 933, 938, 952, 970 and 974 nm, were selected by SPA, and were inputted into partial least square regression (PLSR) and multivariable linear regression (MLR) models. Both the two models obtained better results than full-spectra-PLSR model and PCA-PLSR model. It shows that SPA does not select uninformative but effective variables from full-spectrum. Least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM) was operated to improve Vis-NIRS's ability based on full-spectrum and SPA, separately. High coefficients of determination for prediction set (Rp(2)) up to 0.9 were obtained by both full-spectrum-LS-SVM and SPA-LS-SVM models. SPA-LS-SVM is better than full-spectrum-LS-SVM. The value of Rp(2) of SPA-LS-SVM is 0.983 and residual predictive deviation (RPD) is 6.963. It is concluded that Vis-NIRS can be used in the non-invasive measurement of water content in engine lubricant, and SPA is a feasible and efficient algorithm for the spectral variable selection.

  7. Determination of micronucleus frequency by acridine orange fluorescent staining in peripheral blood reticulocytes of mice treated topically with different lubricant oils and cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Martins, C R; Grisolia, C K

    2007-09-30

    To ascertain whether used and re-refined lubricant oil absorbed through the skin can produce a genotoxic effect or cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells, we examined the induction of micronucleated erythrocytes of peripheral blood after cutaneous application. Both re-refined and used lubricant oils showed a weak but significant induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes compared with control, while virgin oil did not show micronucleus induction. Cyclophosphamide (CP) was used not only as positive control but also to compare the sensitivity between intraperitoneal and dermal routes of administration of the test compounds in mice. The efficacy of intraperitoneal injection of CP is well known. On the other hand, dermal exposure is not so common and when CP was diluted in glycerin statistically significant values (P = 0.0036) of micronuclei were also found. Topically applied lubricant oils (virgin, re-refined and used) have the capacity to interfere with mouse bone marrow hematopoiesis evidenced by a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of polychromatic erythrocytes in the peripheral blood. Physical and chemical analysis revealed that used oil is more viscous than other lubricants, suggesting the presence of insoluble compounds, oxidized products and water as well as aromatic hydrocarbons. Used oil differs from other lubricant oils in metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content. Re-refined oil revealed a neutral value typical of pure mineral oil. This assay is an important tool to evaluate environmental pollutants that cause genotoxicity and/or cytotoxicity through skin exposure.

  8. Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Pentaerythritol Hexanoate: Molecular Dynamics Simulation of a Refrigerant-Lubricant Oil System.

    PubMed

    Sugii, Taisuke; Ishii, Eiji; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2015-09-17

    We have investigated the solubility and the solvation structure between a refrigerant (carbon dioxide, CO2) and a lubricant oil (pentaerythritol hexanoate, PEC6) by molecular dynamics simulations. First, to investigate the solubility, we calculated the vapor-liquid equilibrium pressure. The chemical potential of the liquid phase and the gas phase were calculated, and the equilibrium state was obtained from the crossing point of these chemical potentials. The equilibrium pressures agreed well with experimental data over a wide range of temperatures and mole fractions of CO2. Second, the solvation structure was also investigated on a molecular scale. We found the following characteristics. First, the tails of the lubricant oil are relatively rigid inside the ester groups but flexible beyond. Second, CO2 molecules barely enter the lubricant core as delimited by the ester groups. Third, the double-bonded oxygen atoms of the ester groups are good sorption sites for CO2. Fourth, only a few CO2 molecules are attached to more than one carbonyl oxygen simultaneously. Finally, there is also significant unspecific sorption of CO2 in the alkane tail region. These results indicate that increasing the size of the rigid lubricant core would probably decrease the solubility, whereas increasing the number of polar groups would increase it.

  9. Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System

    DOEpatents

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin

    2000-05-09

    An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

  10. Isolation and application of Gordonia sp. JC11 for removal of boat lubricants.

    PubMed

    Chanthamalee, Jirapat; Luepromchai, Ekawan

    2012-01-01

    Boat lubricants are continuously released into the marine environment and thereby cause chronic oil pollution. This study aims to isolate lubricant-degrading microorganisms from Thai coastal areas as well as to apply a selected strain for removal of boat lubricants. Ten microorganisms in the genera of Gordonia, Microbacterium, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Brucella, Enterococcus and Candida were initially isolated by crude oil enrichment culture techniques. The lubricant-removal activity of these isolates was investigated with mineral-based lubricants that had been manufactured for the 4-stroke diesel engines of fishing boats. Gordonia sp. JC11, the most effective strain was able to degrade 25-55% of 1,000 mg L(-1) total hydrocarbons in six tested lubricants, while only 0-15% of the lubricants was abiotically removed. The bacterium had many characteristics that promoted lubricant degradation such as hydrocarbon utilization ability, emulsification activity and cell surface hydrophobicity. For bioaugmentation treatment of lubricant contaminated seawater, the inoculum of Gordonia sp. JC11 was prepared by immobilizing the bacterium on polyurethane foam (PUF). PUF-immobilized Gordonia sp. JC11 was able to remove 42-56% of 100-1,000 mg L(-1) waste lubricant No. 2 within 5 days. This lubricant removal efficiency was higher than those of free cells and PUF without bacterial cells. The bioaugmentation treatment significantly increased the number of lubricant-degrading microorganisms in the fishery port seawater microcosm and resulted in rapid removal of waste lubricant No. 2.

  11. Governor driven pump for an engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kronich, P.G.

    1987-05-05

    An oil pump is described for pumping engine lubricating oil in an internal combustion engine, the engine including a governor, the pump including: a support shaft adapted to be driven by the governor; a helical screw member supported on the support shaft; and a cylindrical chamber having a diameter slightly greater than the diameter of the helical screw member, the chamber having an inlet and an outlet for receiving and delivering engine lubricating oil, the helical screw member being disposed in the chamber.

  12. Valve operating device for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, M.; Kumagai, K.; Fukuo, K.; Hiro, T.; Matsumoto, M.

    1989-02-28

    A valve operating mechanism is described for intake or exhaust valves of an internal combustion engine having a low-speed cam formed on a camshaft and suited for an operation mode of the intake or exhaust valves during low-speed operation of the engine, a high-speed cam formed on the camshaft and suited for an operation mode of the intake or exhaust valves during high-speed operation of the engine, a cam follower held in slidable contact with the low-speed cam, a cam follower held in slidable contact with the high-speed cam, and a selective coupling mechanism disposed between the cam followers for selectively connecting and disconnecting the cam followers in order to open and close the intake or exhaust valves dependent on the operating speed of the engine. The improvement comprises a low-speed lubricating oil passage for supplying lubricating oil to sliding surfaces of the low-speed cam and the associated cam follower and a high-speed lubricating oil passage for supplying lubricating oil to sliding surfaces of the high-speed cam and the associate cam follower, the low-speed lubricating oil passage and the high-speed lubricating oil passage being separate of each other. It also includes a control valve connected between and oil supply source and the low-speed lubricating oil passage and the high-speed lubricating oil passage, the control valve being selectively operable for communicating the high-speed lubricating oil passage and the oil pressure supply source throughout a full operating range of the engine while restricting the rate of flow of oil during low-speed operation of the engine and for communicating the low-speed lubricating oil passage and the oil pressure supply source at least during low-speed operation of the engine.

  13. Lubrication of Nitinol 60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, Stephen V.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Glennon, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical properties of Nitinol 60, 60 wt% Ni, 40 wt% Ti (55 at.% Ni, 45 at.% Ti) are sufficiently attractive to warrant its consideration as a lubricated triboelement. Triboelements are always run lubricated. The ability to lubricate Nitinol 60 by the oils usually used on spacecraft mechanisms--Pennzane 2001A, Krytox 143AC and Castrol 815Z--was experimentally determined. These oils were run in the boundary lubrication regime for Nitinol 60 balls running against Nitinol 60 counterfaces in the vacuum spiral orbit tribometer. Test results consisting of the coefficient of friction versus time (friction traces) and relative degradation rates of the oils are presented. Contrary to the inability to successfully lubricate other metal alloys with high titanium content, it was found that Nitinol 60 is able to be lubricated by these oils. Overall, the results presented here indicate that Nitinol 60 is a credible candidate material for bearing applications.

  14. Diesel engine combustion of sunflower oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Zubik, J.; Sorenson, S.C.; Goering, C.E.

    1984-09-01

    The performance, combustion, and exhaust emissions of diesel fuel, a blend of 25% sunflower oil in diesel fuel, and sunflower oil methyl ester have been compared. All fuels performed satisfactorily in a direct injection diesel engine, with the fuels derived from sunflower oil giving somewhat higher cylinder pressures and rates of pressure rise due to a higher percentage of 'premixed' burning than the diesel fuel. General performance and emissions characteristics of the two fuels were comparable, with the oil based fuels giving lower smoke readings. 15 references.

  15. The Thin-Layer Microchromatography (μTLC) and TLC-FID Technique as a New Methodology in the Study of Lubricating Oils.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Paulina; Kosińska, Judyta; Glinka, Marta; Kamiński, Marian

    2017-07-01

    This paper concerns the possibility of using TLC coupled with a flame ionization detector (FID) and micro-TLC (μTLC) as precursors for microfluidized devices of analytical techniques to identify and determine the presence and content of the petroleum/vegetable oil base in the lubricating oils applied in cutting devices (chainsaws). This research is related to the problem of ensuring, in compliance with the requirements of environmental protection, a sufficient level of biodegradability of lubricating oils emitted to the environment during operation of equipment lubricated with these oils. Such oils include those mainly used in cutting devices and emitted in the form of a mist into the environment during the operation of those devices. When oil components are eco-toxic, contamination of the environment occurs. New methodologies for the identification and determination of the petroleum oil base, which is very difficult to biodegrade, as well as the easily biodegradable ingredients of vegetable origin in the lubricating oils, are presented. The described procedures indicate in an indisputable way whether the oil contains the oil base originating from crude oil and whether it contains adequate enriching additives. The procedures also allow the assessment of the content of particular groups of constituents (μTLC) or the determination of the group composition (TLC-FID).

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain Hex1T Isolated from Soils Contaminated with Used Lubricating Oil in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Luján, Adela M; Feliziani, Sofía; Smania, Andrea M

    2017-01-12

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa Hex1T was isolated from soils contaminated with used lubricating oil from a garage in Córdoba, Argentina. This strain is capable of utilizing this pollutant as the sole carbon and energy source. Here, we present the 6.9-Mb draft genome sequence of Hex1T, which contains many heavy metal-resistance genes. Copyright © 2017 Luján et al.

  17. Simulated aging of lubricant oils by chemometric treatment of infrared spectra: potential antioxidant properties of sulfur structures.

    PubMed

    Amat, Sandrine; Braham, Zeineb; Le Dréau, Yveline; Kister, Jacky; Dupuy, Nathalie

    2013-03-30

    Lubricant oils are complex mixtures of base oils and additives. The evolution of their performance over time strongly depends on its resistance to thermal oxidation. Sulfur compounds revealed interesting antioxidant properties. This study presents a method to evaluate the lubricant oil oxidation. Two samples, a synthetic and a paraffinic base oils, were tested pure and supplemented with seven different sulfur compounds. An aging cell adapted to a Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) spectrometer allows the continuous and direct analysis of the oxidative aging of base oils. Two approaches were applied to study the oxidation/anti-oxidation phenomena. The first one leads to define a new oxidative spectroscopic index based on a reduced spectral range where the modifications have been noticed (from 3050 to 2750 cm(-1)). The second method is based on chemometric treatments of whole spectra (from 4000 to 400 cm(-1)) to extract underlying information. A SIMPLe-to-use Interactive Self Modeling Analysis (SIMPLISMA) method has been used to identify more precisely the chemical species produced or degraded during the thermal treatment and to follow their evolution. Pure spectra of different species present in oil were obtained without prior information of their existence. The interest of this tool is to supply relative quantitative information reflecting evolution of the relative abundance of the different products over thermal aging. Results obtained by these two ways have been compared to estimate their concordance.

  18. Kinematic viscosity and density of engine oils

    SciTech Connect

    Porai-Koshits, A.B.; Penkina, N.V.; Ovchinnikova, R.A.; Ashkinazi, L.A.

    1987-08-10

    In order to determine the loss of engine power due to internal friction and to estimate the performance of engine oil it is necessary to know its kinematic viscosity and density in a wide temperature range. The authors studied experimentally these physicochemical properties of a number of engine oils at temperatures from 18 to 90/sup 0/ with the aid of VPZh-2 capillary viscosimeters and single-neck pycnometers; the average errors of the measurements were about 1.5% in the case of viscosity and below 0.5% in the case of density.

  19. Low-Friction Adsorbed Layers of a Triblock Copolymer Additive in Oil-Based Lubrication.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shinji; Fujihara, Ami; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Tanabe, Tadao; Kurihara, Kazue

    2015-11-10

    The tribological properties of the dilute solution of an ABA triblock copolymer, poly(11-acrylamidoundecanoic acid)-block-poly(stearyl methacrylate)-block-poly(11-acrylamidoundecanoic acid (A5S992A5), in poly(α-olefin) (PAO) confined between mica surfaces were investigated using the surface forces apparatus (SFA). Friction force was measured as a function of applied load and sliding velocity, and the film thickness and contact geometry during sliding were analyzed using the fringes of equal chromatic order (FECO) in the SFA. The results were contrasted with those of confined PAO films; the effects of the addition of A5S992A5 on the tribological properties were discussed. The thickness of the A5S992A5/PAO system varied with time after surface preparation and with repetitive sliding motions. The thickness was within the range from 40 to 70 nm 1 day after preparation (the Day1 film), and was about 20 nm on the following day (the Day2 film). The thickness of the confined PAO film was thinner than 1.4 nm, indicating that the A5S992A5/PAO system formed thick adsorbed layers on mica surfaces. The friction coefficient was about 0.03 to 0.04 for the Day1 film and well below 0.01 for the Day2 film, which were 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower than the values for the confined PAO films. The time dependent changes of the adsorbed layer thickness and friction properties should be caused by the relatively low solubility of A5S992A5 in PAO. The detailed analysis of the contact geometry and friction behaviors implies that the particularly low friction of the Day2 film originates from the following factors: (i) shrinkage of the A5S992A5 molecules (mainly the poly(stearyl methacrylate) blocks) that leads to a viscoelastic properties of the adsorbed layers; and (ii) the intervening PAO layer between the adsorbed polymer layers that constitutes a high-fluidity sliding interface. Our results suggest that the block copolymer having relatively low solubility in a lubricant base oil is

  20. Preparation of high thermal stability polysulfone microcapsules containing lubricant oil and its tribological properties of epoxy composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Wang, Qing; Li, Meiling; Cui, Yexiang; Zhu, Yanji; Wang, Baohui; Wang, Huaiyuan

    2016-05-01

    Polysulfone (PSF) microcapsules containing lubricant oil have been successfully prepared using solvent evaporation method. The results show that lubricant oil was successfully encapsulated and the encapsulation capacity of about 56.0 wt.% was achieved. The uniform microcapsules have nearly spherical shape and quite smooth outer surface. The mean diameter is approximately 156 and 169 μm by using different dispersant solutions. The wall material is porous in structure with wall thickness of about 20 μm. The initial decomposition temperature of PSF is 480 °C. It is higher than traditional poly(urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) and poly(melamine-formaldehyde) (PMF) wall materials with 245 °C and 260 °C initial decomposition temperature, respectively. High thermal stability of PSF microcapsules can be considered as additives in high temperature resistant polymer materials. The frictional coefficient and wear rate of epoxy composites decreased significantly by incorporating microcapsules containing lubricant oil into epoxy. When the concentration of microcapsules was 25 wt.%, the frictional coefficient and specific wear rate were reduced by 2.3 and 18.3 times, respectively, as compared to the neat epoxy.

  1. The basics of powder lubrication in high-temperature powder-lubricated dampers

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmat, H.; Walton, J.F. )

    1993-04-01

    The objective of this investigation is to develop a novel powder-lubricated rotor bearing system damper concept for use in high-temperature, high-speed rotating machinery such as advanced aircraft gas turbine engines. The approach discussed herein consists of replacing a conventional oil lubrication or frictional damper system with a powder lubrication system that uses the process particulates or externally fed powder lubricant. Unlike previous work in this field, this approach is based on the postulate of the quasi-hydrodynamic nature of powder lubrication. This postulate is deduced from past observation and present verification that there are a number of basic features of powder flow in narrow interfaces that have the characteristic behavior of fluid film lubrication. In addition to corroborating the basic mechanism of powder lubrication, the conceptual and experimental work performed in this program provides guidelines for selection of the proper geometries, materials, and powders suitable for this tribological process. The present investigation describes the fundamentals of quasi-hydrodynamic powder lubrication and defines the rationale underlying the design of the test facility. The performance and the results of the experimental program present conclusions reached regarding design requirements as well as the formulation of a proper model of quasi-hydrodynamic powder lubrication.

  2. Formulation and evaluation of C-Ether fluids as lubricants useful to 260 C. [air breathing engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, F. S.; Miller, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Three base stocks were evaluated in bench and bearing tests to determine their suitability for use at bulk oil temperatures (BOT) from -40 C to +260 C. A polyol ester gave good bearing tests at a bulk temperature of 218 C, but only a partially successful run at 274 C. These results bracket the fluid's maximum operating temperature between these values. An extensive screening program selected lubrication additives for a C-ether (modified polyphenyl ether) base stock. One formulation lubricated a bearing for 111 hours at 274 C (BOT), but this fluid gave many deposit related problems. Other C-ether blends produced cage wear or fatigue failures. Studies of a third fluid, a C-ether/disiloxane blend, consisted of bench oxidation and lubrication tests. These showed that some additives react differently in the blend than in pure C-ethers.

  3. Solid Lubricant For Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Pepper, Stephen V.; Honecy, Frank S.

    1993-01-01

    Outer layer of silver lubricates, while intermediate layer of titanium ensures adhesion. Lubricating outer films of silver deposited on thin intermediate films of titanium on alumina substrates found to reduce sliding friction and wear. Films provide effective lubrication for ceramic seals, bearings, and other hot sliding components in advanced high-temperature engines.

  4. Development of Gas-Lubricated Pistons for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, W.

    1984-01-01

    Static testing of a segmented, gas-lubricated, piston-ring was accomplished. The ring utilizes high-pressure gas generated during the diesel cycle to energize a hydrostatic gas film between the piston and cylinder liner. The configuration was deficient in overall performance, because all segments of a ring set failed to form a fluid-film simultaneously, when exposed to internal preload. The difficulty was traced to the moment balance required to prevent the segments from overturning and contacting the cylinder walls. Some individual sectors formed a film and performed well in every respect including load capability to 6,000 N. These results produce optimism as to the ultimate feasibility of hydrostatic, gas-lubricated piston rings. In addition to test results, the principles of operation, and theoretical developments are presented. Breathable liner concepts are suggested for future consideration. In these configurations, solid hydrostatic pistons are coupled with flexible liners that elastically deform to form a gas-film under hydrostatic pressurization. Breathable liners afford the mechanical simplicity required for mass produced engines, and initial examination indicates satisfactory operation.

  5. Lubricant additives, friend or foe: What the equipment design engineer needs to know

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, H.P.; Zantopulos, H.

    1995-10-01

    Lubricant formulations and lubricant additives have been slanted heavily toward protecting gear concentrated contacts from galling and wear. Much of the performance differentiation of these lubricants has been dependent on highly accelerated standardized laboratory testing. The area of contact fatigue has played a less important role in shaping lubricant formulations, but new test results for several commercially available gear lubricants suggest this area warrants a closer examination. The performance effects of fully and partially additized lubricants were studied using standard bearing industry rolling contact fatigue and wear testing procedures for tapered roller bearings. These test results indicate significant detrimental effects to wear, and fatigue life performance can occur with some additized lubricant formulations. Observations of functional surfaces, before and after testing, are made and examined for several lubricant formulations. The implications of these findings for equipment applications are discussed, and suggestions are made for ways to minimize or avoid potential detrimental performance effects. 10 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Emergency and microfog lubrication and cooling of bearings for Army helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis and system study was performed to provide design information regarding lubricant and coolant flow rates and flow paths for effective utilization of the lubricant and coolant in a once-through oil-mist (microfog) and coolant air system. A system was designed, manufactured, coupled with an existing rig and evaluation tests were performed using 46 mm bore split-inner angular-contact ball bearings under 1779N (400 lb.) thrust load. An emergency lubrication aspirator system was also manufactured and tested under lost lubricant conditions. The testing demonstrated the feasibility of using a mist oil and cooling air system to lubricate and cool a high speed helicopter engine mainshaft bearing. The testing also demonstrated the feasibility of using an emergency aspirator lubrication system as a viable survivability concept for helicopter mainshaft engine bearing for periods as long as 30 minutes.

  7. Separation of short-chain fatty acids on a gas chromatographic column coated with oxidized lubricating oil.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Nagy Emam

    2007-07-01

    The oxidized lubricating naphthenic base oil was used as a stationary phase for the separation of short-chain free fatty acids (SFFA) either as a pure sample or an aqueous solution containing 0.9-1.2 mg/L of each acid. It is found that the oil oxidation for 20 h improved the separation of SFFA in these two sample forms. This separation improvement represents not only the increase in retention volume intervals and peak symmetries in case of the pure sample but also in acid peak areas in case of the aqueous solution sample.

  8. Lubricant compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.L.; Lawson, R.D.; Root, J.C.

    1981-12-15

    Lubricant compositions adapted for use under extreme pressure conditions are disclosed. They comprise a major proportion of a lubricating grease, and a minor proportion of an additive consisting essentially of a solid, oil insoluble arylene sulfide polymer, and a metal salt, particularly an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal salt, particularly an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal salt of a phosphorus acid, for example, mono- or dicalcium phosphate, or an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonate exemplified by calcium carbonate, or a mixture of such a phosphate salt and carbonate.

  9. Contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles in Kansas City.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Bailey, Chad R; Fulper, Carl R; Baldauf, Richard W

    2012-04-03

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline using aerosol-phase chemical markers measured in PM samples obtained from 99 vehicles tested on the California Unified Driving Cycle. The oil contribution to fleet-weighted PM emission rates is estimated to be 25% of PM emission rates. Oil contributes primarily to the organic fraction of PM, with no detectable contribution to elemental carbon emissions. Vehicles are analyzed according to pre-1991 and 1991-2004 groups due to differences in properties of the fitting species between newer and older vehicles, and to account for the sampling design of the study. Pre-1991 vehicles contribute 13.5% of the KC vehicle population, 70% of oil-derived PM for the entire fleet, and 33% of the fuel-derived PM. The uncertainty of the contributions is calculated from a survey analysis resampling method, with 95% confidence intervals for the oil-derived PM fraction ranging from 13% to 37%. The PM is not completely apportioned to the gasoline and oil due to several contributing factors, including varied chemical composition of PM among vehicles, metal emissions, and PM measurement artifacts. Additional uncertainties include potential sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into the oil, contributions of semivolatile organic compounds from the oil to the PM measurements, and representing the in-use fleet with a limited number of vehicles.

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of novel acyl derivatives from jatropha oil as potential lubricant basestocks.

    PubMed

    Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara V; Prasad, Rachapudi B N

    2014-05-21

    A novel class of jatropha oil-based acylated derivatives from hydroxy alkyl esters of jatropha fatty acids (C1, C3, C4, and C8) and various anhydrides (C2, C3, C4, and C6) were synthesized and their physicochemical and lubricant properties reported. Jatropha fatty acid alkyl esters were dihydroxylated using the in situ performic acid method and further acylated with different anhydrides to produce acylated derivatives. Acylated derivatives of dihydroxy jatropha fatty acid alkyl esters were charaterized by NMR, FTIR, GC, and GC-MS analysis and were evaluated for their viscosity, viscosity index, pour and flash points, and oxidation stability. Most of the derivatives are either in ISO VG 22 or 32 viscosity grade with good viscosity index. It was observed that increase in acyl chain length and branching in the end-chain ester improved the pour point of the diacyl derivatives. All of the hexanoylated esters exhibited better oxidation stability compared to other acylated products, and their pour points are comparable to those of synthetic esters such as TMP trioleates. In general, isoalcohol esters with longer acyl chains showed promise as potential candidates for hydraulic fluids and metal-working fluids in ISO VG 22 and 32 viscosity range.

  11. Optofluidic multi-measurement system for the online monitoring of lubricant oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschooten, Tom; Callewaert, Manly; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Vervaeke, Michael; Van Erps, Jürgen; De Malsche, Wim; Grazia Mignani, Anna; Thienpont, Hugo; Ottevaere, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    We show a detection system that simultaneously allows absorbance (ABS), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and scattering detection excited by two different laser sources at 405 nm and 450 nm. The heart of the system consists of a mass manufacturable polymer optofluidic chip. The chip is mounted in an optical detection assembly that aligns the chip to the rest of the system, seals the chip from leakage, fixes the position and connects the channels to the rest of the fluidic system. The fluidics exhibit a reduced susceptibility to perturbations caused by air bubbles, this is accomplished by making use of a serpentine channel layout. For coumarin 480, detection limits of 100 nM and 10 pM are observed for ABS and LIF respectively. An effective detection range of 4000 down to 1 nephelometric turbidity units is shown for the detection of scattered light. The viscous behaviour of the sample is analysed by a secondary FFT processing step of which the result is further processed by multivariate data analysis. This allows the identification of samples and prediction of their quality parameters. We apply this system for the monitoring of lubricant oil, demonstrating its ability to compete with spectroscopic detection techniques. The low-cost approach and multi-measurement architecture shown in this paper pave the way for miniaturized on-line monitoring of liquids in an industrial environment.

  12. [Unequal interval jump grey modeling and its application to the spectral analysis of lubricating oil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Zhu-guo; Chen, Zhao-neng

    2004-05-01

    Unequal interval jump grey model was built for raw data series with unequal interval and jump trend in this paper. Levenberg-Marquardt arithmetic that belongs to non-linear least-square. estimation was used to recognize the parameters. The model built was used to fit spectrometric analysis values of diesel engine and the fitting precision is good. It is helpful to improve the accuracy and reliability of spectrometric analysis by revising test data after oil change with model parameter.

  13. Tribological Behavior of NiAl-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoplatelets as Oil-Based Lubricant Additives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongdong; Liu, Yuhong; Liu, Wenrui; Wang, Rong; Wen, Jianguo; Sheng, Huaping; Peng, Jinfang; Erdemir, Ali; Luo, Jianbin

    2017-09-13

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are a class of naturally occurring inorganic minerals that are composed of divalent and trivalent metal cations. In this study, three different sized NiAl-LDH nanoplatelets were synthesized by varying crystallization time during the microemulsification process. The layered structure and three-dimensional size of nanoplatelets were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). As lubricant additives, their tribological properties in base oil were evaluated by use of a ball-on-disk reciprocating tribometer under three different loads: 50, 100, and 150 N (which created peak Hertz pressures of 1.74, 2.16, and 2.47 GPa). Under contact pressures of up 2.16 GPa, not only did the coefficient of friction (COF) decrease by about 10% after nano-LDHs were added but also the wear performance improved substantially. These improvements resulted from a protective tribolayer formation on the contact interface, as revealed by detailed surface and structure analytical studies. In particular, cross-sectional TEM images revealed that the larger size nanoplatelets (NiAl-24h), rather than the smaller ones (NiAl-6h) showed the best and most stable tribological performance. This was mainly because of their higher degree of crystallinity, which in turn resulted in the formation of a tribofilm with far superior mechanical properties during sliding. Owing to the simple synthetic method and superior tribological properties as oil-based additives, nano-LDHs hold great potential for use in demanding industrial applications in the future.

  14. Changes in bacterial diversity associated with bioremediation of used lubricating oil in tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Meeboon, Naruemon; Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Kaewsuwan, Sireewan; Maneerat, Suppasil; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2017-08-01

    Used lubricating oil (ULO) is a widespread contaminant, particularly throughout tropical regions, and may be a candidate for bioremediation. However, little is known about the biodegradation potential or basic microbial ecology of ULO-contaminated soils. This study aims to determine the effects of used ULO on bacterial community structure and diversity. Using a combination of culture-based (agar plate counts) and molecular techniques (16S rRNA gene sequencing and DGGE), we investigated changes in soil bacterial communities from three different ULO-contaminated soils collected from motorcycle mechanical workshops (soil A, B, and C). We further explored the relationship between bacterial community structure, physiochemical soil parameters, and ULO composition in three ULO-contaminated soils. Results indicated that the three investigated soils had different community structures, which may be a result of the different ULO characteristics and physiochemical soil parameters of each site. Soil C had the highest ULO concentration and also the greatest diversity and richness of bacteria, which may be a result of higher nutrient retention, organic matter and cation exchange capacity, as well as freshness of oil compared to the other soils. In soils A and B, Proteobacteria (esp. Gammaproteobacteria) dominated the bacterial community, and in soil C, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes dominated. The genus Enterobacter, a member of the class Gammaproteobacteria, is known to include ULO-degraders, and this genus was the only one found in all three soils, suggesting that it could play a key role in the in situ degradation of ULO-contaminated tropical Thai soils. This study provides insights into our understanding of soil microbial richness, diversity, composition, and structure in tropical ULO-contaminated soils, and may be useful for the development of strategies to improve bioremediation.

  15. Lubrication Handbook For The Space Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, Ernest L.

    1988-01-01

    A 458-page handbook covers many of solid and liquid lubricants used in space industry. Also useful reference in industrial and military applications of lubricants. Part A of handbook compilation of data on chemical and physical properties of over 250 solid lubricants, including bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B covers over 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids.

  16. Influence of Cu, TiO2 Nanoparticles and Carbon Nano-Horns on Tribological Properties of Engine Oil.

    PubMed

    Zin, V; Agresti, F; Barison, S; Colla, L; Fabrizio, M

    2015-05-01

    The addition of nanoparticles in lubricating oils recently demonstrated to reduce the coefficient of friction and to increase the load-carrying capability of lubricant in coupled surfaces. In this work, different kinds of nanoparticles were tested as additives to engine oil to improve lubrication: copper and titanium oxide nanoparticles and single walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs). Two nanoparticle sizes were also tested in case of copper. The tribological properties of these nanofluids were evaluated by Stribeck tests, in order to compare the effect of nanoparticles on friction coefficient and electric contact resistance in different lubrication regimes. Stribeck curves showed that the coefficient of friction was reduced, compared to raw oil, by the action of Cu nanoparticles having 130 nm diameter, leading to a mean decrease of about 17%, and by SWCNHs, with a mean decrease of about 12%. Conversely, no significant changes were detected in presence of Cu nanoparticles having 50 nm diameter or of TiO2. The suspension viscosity and stability were also tested. Wear tests were also carried out, showing a reduction of wear rate up to nearly 50% for Cu nanoparticles (150 nm diameter) and around 30% for SWCNHs. The measurements showed that nanoparticles having size comparable to the mean roughness of coupled surfaces significantly improved the tribological properties of bare oil. An explanation of nanoparticle action is proposed.

  17. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part II: Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Kaijian

    2007-10-15

    The predictive ability of the available state-of-the-art heat transfer correlations of refrigerant-oil mixture is evaluated with the present experiment data of small tubes with inside diameter of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm. Most of these correlations can be used to predict the heat transfer coefficient of 6.34 mm tube, but none of them can predict heat transfer coefficient of 2.50 mm tube satisfactorily. A new correlation of two-phase heat transfer multiplier with local properties of refrigerant-oil mixture is developed. This correlation approaches the actual physical mechanism of flow boiling heat transfer of refrigerant-oil mixture and can reflect the actual co-existing conditions of refrigerant and lubricant oil. More than 90% of the experiment data of both test tubes have less than {+-}20% deviation from the prediction values of the new correlations. (author)

  18. European hazard classification advice for crude oil-derived lubricant base oils compared with the proposed mineral oil mist TLV.

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Jan H; Lobo, Rupert C; Riley, Anthony J

    2003-11-01

    The notice of intended change for the threshold limit value (TLV) for mineral oil mist contains a notation for human carcinogenicity. A description is provided of the current European regulatory approach used to distinguish between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic mineral base oils on the basis of oil refining process and chemical marker information. This approach has proven effective in creating a market situation in the countries of the European Union where many customers require severely refined, non-carcinogenic oils. It is recommended that ACGIH consolidate the distinction between poorly and severely refined base oils in the recommended TLV for mineral oil mist and use different toxicological considerations to derive exposure control guidelines.

  19. Oil separator for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kanoh, J.; Aoki, K.

    1986-08-26

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine including a crankcase ventilation system, an oil separator casing formed integrally with the cylinder-head over, a partition defining the lower end of the oil separator, a baffle member for intercepting oil drops contained in blow-by gas flowing into the oil separator from the upper chamber of the cylinder, and an outlet port formed in the wall of the oil separator casing to exhaust gas from the oil separator. The improvement described here consists of: the baffle member being arranged at the open lower end of the oil separator, a filter member made of foam metal and arranged so as to divide the inside of the oil separator into a gas-liquid separating chamber in the upperstream side where the baffle member is arranged and a downstream side chamber where the partition is arranged, the filter member functioning so as to absorb oil constituents contained in blow-by gas passing through the baffle member, a relief valve being arranged in the partition so as to be opened when the internal pressure of the upper chamber of the cylinder increases to a predetermined degree, to introduce the blow-by gas into the downstream-side chamber directly from the upper chamber of the cylinder.

  20. Dynamic Oil Consumption Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines using Laser Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sellmeier, Stefan; Alonso, Eduardo; Boesl, Ulrich

    2014-01-07

    A new approach has been developed to measure dynamic consumption of lubricant oil in an internal combustion engine. It is based on the already known technique where sulfur is used as a natural tracer of the engine oil. Since ejection of motor oil in gaseous form into the exhaust is by far the main source of engine oil consumption, detection of sulfur in the exhaust emission is a valuable way to measure engine oil consumption in a dynamic way. In earlier approaches, this is done by converting all sulfur containing chemical components into SO2 by thermal pyrolysis in a high temperature furnace at atmospheric pressure. The so-formed SO2 then is detected by broadband-UV-induced fluorescence or mass spectrometric methods. The challenge is to reach the necessary detection limit of 50 ppb. The new approach presented here includes sulfur conversion in a low-pressure discharge cell and laser-induced fluorescence with wavelength and fluorescence lifetime selection. A limit of detection down to 10 ppb at a temporal resolution in the time scale of few seconds is reached. Extensive, promising studies have been performed at a real engine test bench. Future developments of a compact, mobile device based on these improvements are discussed.