Science.gov

Sample records for engine noise

  1. Jet Engine Noise Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Aeropropulsion Division, NASA Glenn Professor Parviz Moin, Ph.D. Director, Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford University Executive Secretary Mr. William J...Supersonic Jet Noise Prof. Parviz Moin, Stanford University 59 Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engines (VAATE) Overview Dr. Larry Burns, AFRL...NASA Glenn Professor Parviz Moin, Ph.D. Director, Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford University Executive Secretary Mr. William J. Voorhees Head

  2. Airframe-Jet Engine Integration Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher; Antcliff, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    It has been found experimentally that the noise radiated by a jet mounted under the wing of an aircraft exceeds that of the same jet in a stand-alone environment. The increase in noise is referred to as jet engine airframe integration noise. The objectives of the present investigation are, (1) To obtain a better understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for jet engine airframe integration noise or installation noise. (2) To develop a prediction model for jet engine airframe integration noise. It is known that jet mixing noise consists of two principal components. They are the noise from the large turbulence structures of the jet flow and the noise from the fine scale turbulence. In this investigation, only the effect of jet engine airframe interaction on the fine scale turbulence noise of a jet is studied. The fine scale turbulence noise is the dominant noise component in the sideline direction. Thus we limit out consideration primarily to the sideline.

  3. Noise Reduction Technologies for Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2007-01-01

    Significant progress continues to be made with noise reduction for turbofan engines. NASA has conducted and sponsored research aimed at reducing noise from commercial aircraft. Since it takes many years for technologies to be developed and implemented, it is important to have aggressive technology goals that lead the target entry into service dates. Engine noise is one of the major contributors to the overall sound levels as aircraft operate near airports. Turbofan engines are commonly used on commercial transports due to their advantage for higher performance and lower noise. The noise reduction comes from combinations of changes to the engine cycle parameters and low noise design features. In this paper, an overview of major accomplishments from recent NASA research programs for engine noise will be given.

  4. UHB Engine Fan Broadband Noise Reduction Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, Philip R.; Ho, Patrick Y.; Mani, Ramani

    1995-01-01

    A study has been completed to quantify the contribution of fan broadband noise to advanced high bypass turbofan engine system noise levels. The result suggests that reducing fan broadband noise can produce 3 to 4 EPNdB in engine system noise reduction, once the fan tones are eliminated. Further, in conjunction with the elimination of fan tones and an increase in bypass ratio, a potential reduction of 7 to 10 EPNdB in system noise can be achieved. In addition, an initial assessment of engine broadband noise source mechanisms has been made, concluding that the dominant source of fan broadband noise is the interaction of incident inlet boundary layer turbulence with the fan rotor. This source has two contributors, i.e., unsteady life dipole response and steady loading quadrupole response. The quadrupole contribution was found to be the most important component, suggesting that broadband noise reduction can be achieved by the reduction of steady loading field-turbulence field quadrupole interaction. Finally, for a controlled experimental quantification and verification, the study recommends that further broadband noise tests be done on a simulated engine rig, such as the GE Aircraft Engine Universal Propulsion Simulator, rather than testing on an engine statically in an outdoor arena The rig should be capable of generating forward and aft propagating fan noise, and it needs to be tested in a large freejet or a wind tunnel.

  5. Combustion and Engine-Core Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihme, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of advanced low-emission aircraft engine technologies and the reduction of noise from airframe, fan, and jet exhaust have made noise contributions from an engine core increasingly important. Therefore, meeting future ambitious noise-reduction goals requires the consideration of engine-core noise. This article reviews progress on the fundamental understanding, experimental analysis, and modeling of engine-core noise; addresses limitations of current techniques; and identifies opportunities for future research. After identifying core-noise contributions from the combustor, turbomachinery, nozzles, and jet exhaust, they are examined in detail. Contributions from direct combustion noise, originating from unsteady combustion, and indirect combustion noise, resulting from the interaction of flow-field perturbations with mean-flow variations in turbine stages and nozzles, are analyzed. A new indirect noise-source contribution arising from mixture inhomogeneities is identified by extending the theory. Although typically omitted in core-noise analysis, the impact of mean-flow variations and nozzle-upstream perturbations on the jet-noise modulation is examined, providing potential avenues for future core-noise mitigation.

  6. Recent Progress in Engine Noise Reduction Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis; Gliebe, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Highlights from NASA-funded research over the past ten years for aircraft engine noise reduction are presented showing overall technical plans, accomplishments, and selected applications to turbofan engines. The work was sponsored by NASA's Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program. Emphasis is given to only the engine noise reduction research and significant accomplishments that were investigated at Technology Readiness Levels ranging from 4 to 6. The Engine Noise Reduction sub-element was divided into four work areas: source noise prediction, model scale tests, engine validation, and active noise control. Highlights from each area include technologies for higher bypass ratio turbofans, scarf inlets, forward-swept fans, swept and leaned stators, chevron/tabbed nozzles, advanced noise prediction analyses, and active noise control for fans. Finally, an industry perspective is given from General Electric Aircraft Engines showing how these technologies are being applied to commercial products. This publication contains only presentation vu-graphs from an invited lecture given at the 41st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, January 6-9, 2003.

  7. Effectiveness of combined aircraft engine noise suppressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaletskiy, Yu. D.

    2012-07-01

    We consider the design features of fan noise suppressors in application to air intakes and the bypass duct of a turbofan engine. A combined liner is developed that has increased acoustic efficiency in comparison to conventional honeycomb liner. We demonstrate the important role of the area of the sound-absorbing liner between fan Rotor and Stator ensuring significant noise reduction.

  8. Hybrid Analysis of Engine Core Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Jeffrey; Kim, Jeonglae; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Core noise, or the noise generated within an aircraft engine, is becoming an increasing concern for the aviation industry as other noise sources are progressively reduced. The prediction of core noise generation and propagation is especially challenging for computationalists since it involves extensive multiphysics including chemical reaction and moving blades in addition to the aerothermochemical effects of heated jets. In this work, a representative engine flow path is constructed using experimentally verified geometries to simulate the physics of core noise. A combustor, single-stage turbine, nozzle and jet are modeled in separate calculations using appropriate high fidelity techniques including LES, actuator disk theory and Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings surfaces. A one way coupling procedure is developed for passing fluctuations downstream through the flowpath. This method effectively isolates the core noise from other acoustic sources, enables straightforward study of the interaction between core noise and jet exhaust, and allows for simple distinction between direct and indirect noise. The impact of core noise on the farfield jet acoustics is studied extensively and the relative efficiency of different disturbance types and shapes is examined in detail.

  9. Enhanced Core Noise Modeling for Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Clark, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes work performed by MTC Technologies (MTCT) for NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) under Contract NAS3-00178, Task Order No. 15. MTCT previously developed a first-generation empirical model that correlates the core/combustion noise of four GE engines, the CF6, CF34, CFM56, and GE90 for General Electric (GE) under Contract No. 200-1X-14W53048, in support of GRC Contract NAS3-01135. MTCT has demonstrated in earlier noise modeling efforts that the improvement of predictive modeling is greatly enhanced by an iterative approach, so in support of NASA's Quiet Aircraft Technology Project, GRC sponsored this effort to improve the model. Since the noise data available for correlation are total engine noise spectra, it is total engine noise that must be predicted. Since the scope of this effort was not sufficient to explore fan and turbine noise, the most meaningful comparisons must be restricted to frequencies below the blade passage frequency. Below the blade passage frequency and at relatively high power settings jet noise is expected to be the dominant source, and comparisons are shown that demonstrate the accuracy of the jet noise model recently developed by MTCT for NASA under Contract NAS3-00178, Task Order No. 10. At lower power settings the core noise became most apparent, and these data corrected for the contribution of jet noise were then used to establish the characteristics of core noise. There is clearly more than one spectral range where core noise is evident, so the spectral approach developed by von Glahn and Krejsa in 1982 wherein four spectral regions overlap, was used in the GE effort. Further analysis indicates that the two higher frequency components, which are often somewhat masked by turbomachinery noise, can be treated as one component, and it is on that basis that the current model is formulated. The frequency scaling relationships are improved and are now based on combustor and core nozzle geometries. In conjunction with the Task

  10. Interim prediction method for low frequency core engine noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, R. G.; Clark, B. J.; Dorsch, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    A literature survey on low-frequency core engine noise is presented. Possible sources of low frequency internally generated noise in core engines are discussed with emphasis on combustion and component scrubbing noise. An interim method is recommended for predicting low frequency core engine noise that is dominant when jet velocities are low. Suggestions are made for future research on low frequency core engine noise that will aid in improving the prediction method and help define possible additional internal noise sources.

  11. NASA's Vision for Jet Noise Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin W.; Henderson, Brenda S.; Bridges, James E.

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, the design of jet engines for quiet operation was limited by engineers' ability to predict the jet noise generated by a nozzle exhaust system. More importantly, the 'intermediate steps' between nozzle design and noise had not been understood, limiting the design process to small variations around existing solutions. In recent years NASA's Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Program has advanced the understanding and modeling of jet noise to give engineers the tools they need to design quiet nozzle systems for subsonic exhaust systems. The presentation discusses the approach followed for QAT and argues that a similar effort aimed at supersonic jet exhaust systems will be needed to allow designs of quiet military aircraft in the future.

  12. Review of Aircraft Engine Fan Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft turbofan engines incorporate multiple technologies to enhance performance and durability while reducing noise emissions. Both careful aerodynamic design of the fan and proper installation of the fan into the system are requirements for achieving the performance and acoustic objectives. The design and installation characteristics of high performance aircraft engine fans will be discussed along with some lessons learned that may be applicable to spaceflight fan applications.

  13. Jet noise from ultrahigh bypass turbofan engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posey, Joe W.; Norum, Thomas D.; Brown, Martha C.; Bhat, Thonse R. S.

    2002-05-01

    Modern commercial jet transport aircraft are powered by turbofan engines. Thrust from a turbofan engine is derived in part from the exhaust of a ducted fan, which may or may not be mixed with the core exhaust before exiting the nacelle. The historical trend has been toward ever higher bypass ratios (BPRs). The BPR is the ratio of air mass passing through the fan to that going through the core. The higher BPR engines can be more efficient and quieter. In general, a higher BPR results in lower average exhaust velocities and less jet noise. In order to address a scarcity of noise data for BPRs greater than 6, an extensive database collection effort was undertaken using the Jet Engine Simulator in NASA Langley's Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel. Forward flight simulations of Mach 0.1, 0.2, and 0.28 were used with BPRs of 5, 8, 11, and 14. Data was taken over the entire operating line of the simulated engines along with parametric deviations to provide a complete set of sensitivity measurements. The results will be used to develop an empirical jet noise prediction capability for ultrahigh bypass engines.

  14. Noise suppressor for turbo fan jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A noise suppressor is disclosed for installation on the discharge or aft end of a turbo fan engine. Within the suppressor are fixed annular airfoils which are positioned to reduce the relative velocity between the high temperature fast moving jet exhaust and the low temperature slow moving air surrounding it. Within the suppressor nacelle is an exhaust jet nozzle which constrains the shape of the jet exhaust to a substantially uniform elongate shape irrespective of the power setting of the engine. Fixed ring airfoils within the suppressor nacelle therefore have the same salutary effects irrespective of the power setting at which the engine is operated.

  15. Comparison of predicted engine core noise with current and proposed aircraft noise certification requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.; Groesbeck, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    Predicted engine core noise levels are compared with measured total aircraft noise levels and with current and proposed federal noise certification requirements. Comparisons are made at the FAR-36 measuring stations and include consideration of both full- and cutback-power operation at takeoff. In general, core noise provides a barrier to achieving proposed EPA stage 5 noise levels for all types of aircraft. More specifically, core noise levels will limit further reductions in aircraft noise levels for current widebody commercial aircraft.

  16. Recent Progress in Engine Noise Reduction for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2003-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the past ten years developing technologies for reducing aircraft noise. Engine noise continues to be a dominate source, particularly for aircraft departing from airports. Research efforts have concentrated on developing noise prediction methods, experimental validation, and developing noise reduction concepts that have been verified through model scale and static engine tests. Most of the work has concentrated on fan and jet components for commercial turbofan engines. In this seminar, an overview of the engine noise reduction work that was sponsored by NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program will be given, along with background information on turbofan noise sources and certification procedures. Concepts like "chevron" nozzles for jet noise reduction and swept stators for fan noise reduction will be highlighted. A preliminary assessment on how the new technologies will impact future engines will be given.

  17. Engine Validation of Noise and Emission Reduction Technology Phase I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Don (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International, Inc., documenting work performed during the period December 2004 through August 2007 for the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Revolutionary Aero-Space Engine Research (RASER) Program, Contract No. NAS3-01136, Task Order 8, Engine Validation of Noise and Emission Reduction Technology Phase I. The NASA Task Manager was Dr. Joe Grady of the NASA Glenn Research Center. The NASA Contract Officer was Mr. Albert Spence of the NASA Glenn Research Center. This report is for a test program in which NASA funded engine validations of integrated technologies that reduce aircraft engine noise. These technologies address the reduction of engine fan and jet noise, and noise associated with propulsion/airframe integration. The results of these tests will be used by NASA to identify the engineering tradeoffs associated with the technologies that are needed to enable advanced engine systems to meet stringent goals for the reduction of noise. The objectives of this program are to (1) conduct system engineering and integration efforts to define the engine test-bed configuration; (2) develop selected noise reduction technologies to a technical maturity sufficient to enable engine testing and validation of those technologies in the FY06-07 time frame; (3) conduct engine tests designed to gain insight into the sources, mechanisms and characteristics of noise in the engines; and (4) establish baseline engine noise measurements for subsequent use in the evaluation of noise reduction.

  18. On the prediction of impact noise, part VIII: Diesel engine noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuschieri, J. M.; Richards, E. J.

    1985-09-01

    The noise energy radiated from a diesel engine due to combustion and piston slap excitation is investigated by considering single impacts. From the results obtained, possible methods of noise control are studied, and the expected results due to changes in the liner mounting to the engine frame, and the bearings of the camshaft for an injected engine, are compared to the measured noise levels. This proves to be very successful and radical modifications in the engine for noise control can be investigated in this way prior to full development of the prototype engine.

  19. Jet engine noise source and noise footprint computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, D. G.; Peart, N. A.; Miller, D. L.; Crowley, K. C.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation procedures are presented for predicting maximum passby noise levels and contours (footprints) of conventional jet aircraft with or without noise suppression devices. The procedures have been computerized and a user's guide is presented for the computer programs to be used in predicting the noise characteristics during aircraft takeoffs, fly-over, and/or landing operations.

  20. Core noise measurements on a YF-102 turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reshotko, M.; Karchmer, A. M.; Penko, P. F.; Mcardle, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Core noise from a YF-102 high bypass ratio turbofan engine was investigated through the use of simultaneous measurements of internal fluctuating pressures and far field noise. Acoustic waveguide probes, located in the engine at the compressor exit, in the combustor, at the turbine exit, and in the core nozzle, were employed to measure internal fluctuating pressures. Spectra showed that the internal signals were free of tones, except at high frequency where machinery noise was present. Data obtained over a wide range of engine conditions suggest that below 60% of maximum fan speed the low frequency core noise contributes significantly to the far field noise.

  1. Recent Developments in U.S. Engine Noise Reduction Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James; Envia, Edmane; Huff, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Aircraft engine noise research in the United States has made considerable progress over the past 10 years for both subsonic and supersonic flight applications. The Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program started in 1994 and will be completed in 2001 without major changes to program plans and funding levels. As a result, significant progress has been made toward the goal of reducing engine source noise by 6 EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise level in decibels). This paper will summarize some of the significant accomplishments from the subsonic engine noise research performed over the past 10 years. The review is by no means comprehensive and only represents a sample of major accomplishments.

  2. Jet engine noise and infrared plume correlation field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunio, Phillip M.; Weber, Reed A.; Knobel, Kimberly R.; Smith, Christine; Draudt, Andy

    2015-09-01

    Jet engine noise can be a health hazard and environmental pollutant, particularly affecting personnel working in close proximity to jet engines, such as airline mechanics. Mitigating noise could reduce the potential for hearing loss in runway workers; however, there exists a very complex relationship between jet engine design parameters, operating conditions, and resultant noise power levels, and understanding and characterizing this relationship is a key step in mitigating jet engine noise effects. We demonstrate initial results highlighting the utility of high-speed imaging (hypertemporal imaging) in correlating the infrared signatures of jet engines with acoustic noise. This paper builds on prior theoretical analysis of jet engine infrared signatures and their potential relationships to jet engine acoustic emissions. This previous work identified the region of the jet plume most likely to emit both in infrared and in acoustic domains, and it prompted the investigation of wave packets as a physical construct tying together acoustic and infrared energy emissions. As a means of verifying these assertions, a field campaign to collect relevant data was proposed, and data collection was carried out with a bank of infrared instruments imaging a T700 turboshaft engine undergoing routine operational testing. The detection of hypertemporal signatures in association with acoustic signatures of jet engines enables the use of a new domain in characterizing jet engine noise. This may in turn enable new methods of predicting or mitigating jet engine noise, which could lead to socioeconomic benefits for airlines and other operators of large numbers of jet engines.

  3. Re-engining - The sound case for aircraft noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, K.

    1991-06-01

    The paper reviews the history of legislation to reduce jet-powered aircraft noise, particularly in the U.S.A. Recently introduced legislation is discussed and the paper goes on to explain the fundamental advantage of re-engining as a means of reducing aircraft noise. Th Rolls-Royce Tay engine is introduced and the two re-engine programs already launched are described. The expected large reductions in noise level which result from re-engining are illustrated. The paper concludes with a discussion on new programs, on the current airline business scene and on some aspects of the economics of re-engining.

  4. Jet Engine Noise Generation, Prediction and Control. Chapter 86

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Envia, Edmane

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft noise has been a problem near airports for many years. It is a quality of life issue that impacts millions of people around the world. Solving this problem has been the principal goal of noise reduction research that began when commercial jet travel became a reality. While progress has been made in reducing both airframe and engine noise, historically, most of the aircraft noise reduction efforts have concentrated on the engines. This was most evident during the 1950 s and 1960 s when turbojet engines were in wide use. This type of engine produces high velocity hot exhaust jets during takeoff generating a great deal of noise. While there are fewer commercial aircraft flying today with turbojet engines, supersonic aircraft including high performance military aircraft use engines with similar exhaust flow characteristics. The Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229, pictured in Figure la, is an example of an engine that powers the F-15 and F-16 fighter jets. The turbofan engine was developed for subsonic transports, which in addition to better fuel efficiency also helped mitigate engine noise by reducing the jet exhaust velocity. These engines were introduced in the late 1960 s and power most of the commercial fleet today. Over the years, the bypass ratio (that is the ratio of the mass flow through the fan bypass duct to the mass flow through the engine core) has increased to values approaching 9 for modern turbofans such as the General Electric s GE-90 engine (Figure lb). The benefits to noise reduction for high bypass ratio (HPBR) engines are derived from lowering the core jet velocity and temperature, and lowering the tip speed and pressure ratio of the fan, both of which are the consequences of the increase in bypass ratio. The HBPR engines are typically very large in diameter and can produce over 100,000 pounds of thrust for the largest engines. A third type of engine flying today is the turbo-shaft which is mainly used to power turboprop aircraft and helicopters

  5. Swirling-flow jet noise suppressors for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the effects of swirling the jet exhausts of small turbofan and turbojet engines have indicated significant progress towards predicting and attaining substantial jet noise abatement with minimum thrust losses in large aircraft engines. Systematic variations of the important swirl vane and swirling flow parameters were conducted to determine their effects on jet noise reduction and engine performance. Since swirling flow becomes more effective in reducing jet noise as the density and temperature gradients increase, the significant trends in noise reduction and engine performance that were established by these parametric studies could be projected into potentially greater reductions of sound pressure levels with minimum thrust losses by controlled swirling of the jets of high thrust engines. The density and temperature gradients in the jet exhausts of high thrust engines are larger by comparison with gradients in small engines.

  6. Modular Engine Noise Component Prediction System (MCP) Program Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Robert A. (Technical Monitor); Herkes, William H.; Reed, David H.

    2004-01-01

    This is a user's manual for Modular Engine Noise Component Prediction System (MCP). This computer code allows the user to predict turbofan engine noise estimates. The program is based on an empirical procedure that has evolved over many years at The Boeing Company. The data used to develop the procedure include both full-scale engine data and small-scale model data, and include testing done by Boeing, by the engine manufacturers, and by NASA. In order to generate a noise estimate, the user specifies the appropriate engine properties (including both geometry and performance parameters), the microphone locations, the atmospheric conditions, and certain data processing options. The version of the program described here allows the user to predict three components: inlet-radiated fan noise, aft-radiated fan noise, and jet noise. MCP predicts one-third octave band noise levels over the frequency range of 50 to 10,000 Hertz. It also calculates overall sound pressure levels and certain subjective noise metrics (e.g., perceived noise levels).

  7. Enhanced Fan Noise Modeling for Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, Eugene A.; Stone, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes work by consultants to Diversitech Inc. for the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to revise the fan noise prediction procedure based on fan noise data obtained in the 9- by 15 Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at GRC. The purpose of this task is to begin development of an enhanced, analytical, more physics-based, fan noise prediction method applicable to commercial turbofan propulsion systems. The method is to be suitable for programming into a computational model for eventual incorporation into NASA's current aircraft system noise prediction computer codes. The scope of this task is in alignment with the mission of the Propulsion 21 research effort conducted by the coalition of NASA, state government, industry, and academia to develop aeropropulsion technologies. A model for fan noise prediction was developed based on measured noise levels for the R4 rotor with several outlet guide vane variations and three fan exhaust areas. The model predicts the complete fan noise spectrum, including broadband noise, tones, and for supersonic tip speeds, combination tones. Both spectra and directivity are predicted. Good agreement with data was achieved for all fan geometries. Comparisons with data from a second fan, the ADP fan, also showed good agreement.

  8. Further studies of methods for reducing community noise around airports. [aircraft noise - aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. H.; Barry, D. J.; Kline, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A simplified method of analysis was used in which all flights at a 'simulated' airport were assumed to operate from one runway in a single direction. For this simulated airport, contours of noise exposure forecast were obtained and evaluated. A flight schedule of the simulated airport which is representative of the 23 major U. S. airports was used. The effect of banning night-time operations by four-engine, narrow-body aircraft in combination with other noise reduction options was studied. The reductions in noise which would occur of two- and three-engine, narrow-body aircraft equipped with a refanned engine was examined. A detailed comparison of the effects of engine cutback on takeoff versus the effects of retrofitting quiet nacelles for narrow-body aircraft was also examined. A method of presenting the effects of various noise reduction options was treated.

  9. Combat aircraft jet engine noise studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewy, S.; Fournier, G.; Pianko, M.

    Methods of noise prediction and attenuation, based on results obtained in civil applications are presented. Input data for directivity and radiation forecasts are given by measurements of vane and blade pressure fluctuations, and by modal analysis of the spinning waves propagating in the inlet duct. Attention is given to sound generation mechanisms for subsonic and supersonic single jets and bypass jets. Prediction methods, based on Lighthill's equation (tensor due to the turbulence), are discussed, and the various means of jet noise reduction are reviewed. The CEPRA 19 anechoic wind tunnel, which is primarily designed for studying the jet noise radiated in the far field with flight effects is described.

  10. Cabin Noise Control for Twin Engine General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.; Slazak, M.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical model based on modal analysis was developed to predict the noise transmission into a twin-engine light aircraft. The model was applied to optimize the interior noise to an A-weighted level of 85 dBA. To achieve the required noise attenuation, add-on treatments in the form of honeycomb panels, damping tapes, acoustic blankets, septum barriers and limp trim panels were added to the existing structure. The added weight of the noise control treatment is about 1.1 percent of the total gross take-off weight of the aircraft.

  11. Procedure for Separating Noise Sources in Measurements of Turbofan Engine Core Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2006-01-01

    The study of core noise from turbofan engines has become more important as noise from other sources like the fan and jet have been reduced. A multiple microphone and acoustic source modeling method to separate correlated and uncorrelated sources has been developed. The auto and cross spectrum in the frequency range below 1000 Hz is fitted with a noise propagation model based on a source couplet consisting of a single incoherent source with a single coherent source or a source triplet consisting of a single incoherent source with two coherent point sources. Examples are presented using data from a Pratt & Whitney PW4098 turbofan engine. The method works well.

  12. Environmental noise-a challenge for an acoustical engineer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus

    2003-10-01

    People live in a landscape full of noises which are composed of both natural environmental noises and technically created sounds. Regarding environmental noise, more and more people feel heavily annoyed by noises. Noise is defined as an audible sound which either disturbs the silence or an intentional sound listening or leads to annoyance. Thus, it is clearly defined that the assignment of noise cannot be reduced to simple determining objective parameters such as the A-weighted sound pressure level or the equivalent continuous sound pressure level. The question of whether a sound is judged as noise can only be made after the transformation from the sound event into an auditory event has been accomplished. The evaluation of noise depends on the physical characteristics of the sound event, on the psycho-acoustical features of the human ear, as well as on the psychological aspects of man. For the acoustical design of environmental noise and in order to create a better soundscape the acoustical engineer has to consider these aspects. That means a specific challenge for the sound engineering.

  13. JT8D-100 turbofan engine, phase 1. [noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The JT8D turbofan engine, widely used in short and medium range transport aircraft, contributes substantially to airport community noise. The jet noise is predominant in the JT8D engine and may be reduced in a modified engine, without loss of thrust, by increasing the airflow to reduce jet velocity. A configuration study evaluated the effects of fan airflow, fan pressure ratio, and bypass ratio on noise, thrust, and fuel comsumption. The cycle selected for the modified engine was based upon an increased diameter, single-stage fan and two additional core engine compressor stages, which replace the existing two-stage fan. Modifications were also made to the low pressure turbine to provide the increased torque required by the larger diameter fan. The resultant JT8D-100 engine models have the following characteristics at take-off thrust, compared to the current JT8D engine: Airflow and bypass ratio are increased, and fan pressure ratio and engine speed are reduced. The resultant engine is also longer, larger in diameter, and heavier than the JT8D base model, but these latter changes are compensated by the increased thrust and decreased fuel comsumption of the modified engine, thus providing the capability for maintaining the performance of the current JT8D-powered aircraft.

  14. System Noise Prediction of the DGEN 380 Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    The DGEN 380 is a small, separate-flow, geared turbofan. Its manufacturer, Price Induction, is promoting it for a small twinjet application in the emerging personal light jet market. Smaller, and producing less thrust than other entries in the industry, Price Induction is seeking to apply the engine to a 4- to 5-place twinjet designed to compete in an area currently dominated by propeller-driven airplanes. NASA is considering purchasing a DGEN 380 turbofan to test new propulsion noise reduction technologies in a relevant engine environment. To explore this possibility, NASA and Price Induction have signed a Space Act Agreement and have agreed to cooperate on engine acoustic testing. Static acoustic measurements of the engine were made by NASA researchers during July, 2014 at the Glenn Research Center. In the event that a DGEN turbofan becomes a NASA noise technology research testbed, it is in the interest of NASA to develop procedures to evaluate engine system noise metrics. This report documents the procedures used to project the DGEN static noise measurements to flight conditions and the prediction of system noise of a notional airplane powered by twin DGEN engines.

  15. NASA Glenn's Contributions to Aircraft Engine Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews all engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 decibels (dB). Studies also show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15 to 17 dB reduction will be required to achieve NASA's long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport.

  16. NASA Glenn's Contributions to Aircraft Engine Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation reviews engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 decibels (dB). Studies also show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15 to 17 dB reduction will be required to achieve NASAs long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport.

  17. Towards noise engineering: Recent insights in low-frequency excess flux noise of superconducting quantum devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Sebastian; Ferring, Anna; Enss, Christian

    2016-10-01

    The comprehensive analysis of low-frequency excess flux noise both in terms of magnetic flux noise S Φ , 1 / f and energy sensitivity ɛ1/f of 84 superconducting quantum devices studied at temperatures below 1 K reveals a universal behavior. When analyzing data in terms of ɛ1/f, we find that noise spectra of independent devices cross each other all at certain crossing frequencies fc. Besides this main result of our paper, we further show that superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) arrays systematically feature higher noise exponents than single SQUIDs and give evidence for a material and device type dependence of low-frequency excess flux noise. The latter results facilitate to engineer the shape of magnetic flux noise spectra and thus to experimentally modify key properties such as coherence or measurement times of superconducting quantum devices.

  18. Noise control in jet engine test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    A discussion of Industrial Acoustics Company (IAC) ability to design test facilities is presented. This approach called for an advanced pre-rigging concept together with a fully electronic instrumentation system which aided by computers and extremely advanced equipment, measures, calculates and displays the numerous parameters required to test, pass off and rate the engine for flight, in the engineering units. Within IAC this total concept capability is known as the Turkey Facility. By this we mean we have the ability to design and manufacture every facet in connection with engine testing. This starts with the civil engineering requirements relative to the concrete foundations, follows through to the intake and exhaust silencing systems, and terminates with the automated power-plant test equipment which is capable of diagnosing all aspects of engine performance to determine an accept or reject situation.

  19. Survey of inlet noise reduction concepts for gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, D. L.; Chestnutt, D.

    1976-01-01

    An overview is given of advanced concepts for the suppression of noise in the inlets of gas turbine engines. Inlet geometric and operating parameters are presented and design criteria for suppression methods are discussed. Noise suppression concepts are described, the directions of current research are reviewed. Problem areas requiring further work are indicated. Well established approaches to inlet noise reduction - namely, acoustic liners and high subsonic Mach number inlets which are the focus of considerable current research activity are considered along with the acoustic absorption and watet vapor injection.

  20. Measurement and prediction of Energy Efficient Engine noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavin, S. P.; Ho, P. Y.; Chamberlin, R.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA/GE Energy Efficient Engine (E3) static noise levels were measured in an acoustic arena on the Integrated Core and Low Spool Test System. These measured levels were scaled to the appropriate size to power four study aircraft and were projected to flight for evaluation of noise levels relative to FAR36, Stage III limits. As a result of these evaluations, it is predicted that the NASA/GE E3 engine with a wide spacing cut-on blade/vane ratio fan and a forced mixer nozzle can meet FAR36 Stage III limits with sufficient design margin.

  1. Computation of Engine Noise Propagation and Scattering Off an Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, J.; Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a comparison of experimental noise data measured in flight on a two-engine business jet aircraft with Kulite microphones placed on the suction surface of the wing with computational results. Both a time-domain discontinuous Galerkin spectral method and a frequency-domain spectral element method are used to simulate the radiation of the dominant spinning mode from the engine and its reflection and scattering by the fuselage and the wing. Both methods are implemented in computer codes that use the distributed memory model to make use of large parallel architectures. The results show that trends of the noise field are well predicted by both methods.

  2. Sonic inlet noise attenuation and performance with a J-85 turbojet engine as a noise source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groth, H. W.

    1974-01-01

    A static test program was conducted to investigate aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a sonic inlet used as a noise suppressor. A translating centerbody type inlet with radial vanes was tested ahead of a J85-GE-13 turbojet engine. The inlet when fully choked, maintained high recovery with low distortions while dramatically reducing noise emanating from the compressor. Recoveries of 98.1% at simulated takeoff and 95% at approach were attained with associated sound attenuation of 40 db and 38 db respectively. Inlet lip shape was found to have significant effects on noise attenuation at these static conditions.

  3. QCGAT aircraft/engine design for reduced noise and emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanson, L.; Terrill, K. M.

    1980-01-01

    The high bypass ratio QCGAT engine played an important role in shaping the aircraft design. The aircraft which evolved is a sleek, advanced design, six-place aircraft with 3538 kg (7,800 lb) maximum gross weight. It offers a 2778 kilometer (1500 nautical mile) range with cruise speed of 0.5 Mach number and will take-off and land on the vast majority of general aviation airfields. Advanced features include broad application of composite materials and a supercritical wing design with winglets. Full-span fowler flaps were introduced to improve landing capability. Engines are fuselage-mounted with inlets over the wing to provide shielding of fan noise by the wing surfaces. The design objectives, noise, and emission considerations, engine cycle and engine description are discussed as well as specific design features.

  4. Modular Engine Noise Component Prediction System (MCP) Technical Description and Assessment Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herkes, William H.; Reed, David H.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes an empirical prediction procedure for turbofan engine noise. The procedure generates predicted noise levels for several noise components, including inlet- and aft-radiated fan noise, and jet-mixing noise. This report discusses the noise source mechanisms, the development of the prediction procedures, and the assessment of the accuracy of these predictions. Finally, some recommendations for future work are presented.

  5. Investigation of wing shielding effects on CTOL engine noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomer, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    A full scale engine wing shielding investigation was conducted at the Lewis Research Center using a 97,900-N (22,000 lb) thrust turbofan engine and a simulated wing section sized around a conventional-take-off type four-engine narrow body airplane. Sound data were obtained for the wing placed at seven positions in a plane parallel to the engine axis, and were compared to data obtained without the wing at both take off and approach power. In addition, the engine was operated with and without extensive acoustic treatment, including a sonic inlet in order to evaluate wing shielding effectiveness with a highly suppressed engine. The wing shielding effectiveness was also calibrated using a 3.8 cm diam air nozzle as a second source. Results indicated that even though about 10 dB broad band shielding was achieved, the equivalent flyover noise reduction was less than 3.0 EPNdB for most configurations.

  6. Applications of active adaptive noise control to jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoureshi, Rahmat; Brackney, Larry

    1993-01-01

    During phase 2 research on the application of active noise control to jet engines, the development of multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) active adaptive noise control algorithms and acoustic/controls models for turbofan engines were considered. Specific goals for this research phase included: (1) implementation of a MIMO adaptive minimum variance active noise controller; and (2) turbofan engine model development. A minimum variance control law for adaptive active noise control has been developed, simulated, and implemented for single-input/single-output (SISO) systems. Since acoustic systems tend to be distributed, multiple sensors, and actuators are more appropriate. As such, the SISO minimum variance controller was extended to the MIMO case. Simulation and experimental results are presented. A state-space model of a simplified gas turbine engine is developed using the bond graph technique. The model retains important system behavior, yet is of low enough order to be useful for controller design. Expansion of the model to include multiple stages and spools is also discussed.

  7. USAF bioenvironmental noise data handbook. Volume 172: Hush-noise suppressor (Aero Systems Engineering, Incorporated) far-field noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. A.; Rau, T. H.; Jones, C.

    1982-07-01

    The hush-house noise suppressor was made by Aero Systems Engineering of Texas, Inc. for acoustical suppression of various AF fighter/trainer aircraft during ground runup operations. This report provides measured and extrapolated data defining the bioacoustic environments produced by several aircraft/engines operating in the hush-house suppressor for various engine power configurations. Far-field data measured at 20 locations are normalized to standard meteorological conditions and extrapolated from 75-8000 meters to derive sets of equal-value contours for seven acoustic measures as function of angle and distance from the source. Refer to Volume 1 of this handbook, 'USAF Bioenvironmental Noise Data Handbook, Vol 1: Organization, Content and Application,' AMRL-TR-75(1) 1975, for discussion of the objective and design of the handbook, the types of data presented, measurement procedures, instrumentation, data processing, definitions of quantities, symbols, equations, applications, limitations, etc. Data are presented for the following aircraft/engines operating in the hush-house noise suppressor: F-4, F-15, F-16, F-105, F-106, F-111F and T-38 aircraft and the TF41-A-1, J79-GE-15, F100-PW-100, J75-P19, J-75-P-17 and TF30-P-100 engines.

  8. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 23 ANOPP Noise Prediction for Small Engines, Wing Reflection Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieber, Lysbeth; Brown, Daniel; Golub, Robert A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The work performed under Task 23 consisted of the development and demonstration of improvements for the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP), specifically targeted to the modeling of engine noise enhancement due to wing reflection. This report focuses on development of the model and procedure to predict the effects of wing reflection, and the demonstration of the procedure, using a representative wing/engine configuration.

  9. Noise Characteristics of a Four-Jet Impingement Device Inside a Broadband Engine Noise Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brehm, Christoph; Housman, Jeffrey A.; Kiris, Cetin C.; Hutcheson, Florence V.

    2015-01-01

    The noise generation mechanisms for four directly impinging supersonic jets are investigated employing implicit large eddy simulations with a higher-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory shock-capturing scheme. Impinging jet devices are often used as an experimental apparatus to emulate a broadband noise source. Although such devices have been used in many experiments, a detailed investigation of the noise generation mechanisms has not been conducted before. Thus, the underlying physical mechanisms that are responsible for the generation of sound waves are not well understood. The flow field is highly complex and contains a wide range of temporal and spatial scales relevant for noise generation. Proper orthogonal decomposition of the flow field is utilized to characterize the unsteady nature of the flow field involving unsteady shock oscillations, large coherent turbulent flow structures, and the sporadic appearance of vortex tubes in the center of the impingement region. The causality method based on Lighthill's acoustic analogy is applied to link fluctuations of flow quantities inside the source region to the acoustic pressure in the far field. It will be demonstrated that the entropy fluctuation term in the Lighthill's stress tensor plays a vital role in the noise generation process. Consequently, the understanding of the noise generation mechanisms is employed to develop a reduced-order linear acoustic model of the four-jet impingement device. Finally, three linear acoustic FJID models are used as broadband noise sources inside an engine nacelle and the acoustic scattering results are validated against far-field acoustic experimental data.

  10. Scope for active noise abatement in vehicle diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerauer, I.; Boesch, N.

    1984-04-01

    Noise reduction measures must be directed to the engine, the exhaust system, and the cooling system (fan) all of which contribute approximately 90% of the sound energy emitted from commercial diesel trucks. The noise generation processes were visualized and limiting conditions fixed by law were considered in establishing criteria for active solar noise abatement measures. A more effective silencer and better vibration damping on the surface of the silencer and exhaust pipes can reduce noise from the exhaust system. Acoustic emission generated by the fan and air flow can be reduced by decreasing flow velocity or by turning on the fan only when a full cooling output is required (10% of the time). Active measures are needed on the engine itself either at the point of the solid-borne sound transmission or at the point of the solid-borne vibrations. The predominant effect is on the engine casing; oil sump; air suction pipe or air charge line; the flywheel casing; and the clutch housing.

  11. Combustion generated noise in gas turbine combustors. [engine noise/noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.; Shivashankara, B. N.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the noise power and spectra emitted from a gas turbine combustor can exhausting to the atmosphere. Limited hot wire measurements were made of the cold flow turbulence level and spectra within the can. The fuels used were JP-4, acetone and methyl alcohol burning with air at atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show that for a fixed fuel the noise output is dominated by the airflow rate and not the fuel/air ratio. The spectra are dominated by the spectra of the cold flow turbulence spectra which were invariant with airflow rate in the experiments. The effect of fuel type on the noise power output was primarily through the heat of combustion and not the reactivity. A theory of combustion noise based upon the flame radiating to open surroundings is able to reasonably explain the observed results. A thermoacoustic efficiency for noise radiation as high as .00003 was observed in this program for JP-4 fuel. Scaling rules are presented for installed configurations.

  12. Structureborne noise measurements on a small twin-engine aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, J. E., III; Martini, K. F.

    1988-01-01

    Structureborne noise measurements performed on a twin-engine aircraft (Beechcraft Baron) are reported. There are two overall objectives of the test program. The first is to obtain data to support the development of analytical models of the wing and fuselage, while the second is to evaluate effects of structural parameters on cabin noise. Measurements performed include structural and acoustic responses to impact excitation, structural and acoustic loss factors, and modal parameters of the wing. Path alterations include added mass to simulate fuel, variations in torque of bolts joining wing and fuselage, and increased acoustic absorption. Conclusions drawn regarding these measurements are presented.

  13. Structureborne noise measurements on a small twin-engine aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. E., III; Martini, K. F.

    1988-06-01

    Structureborne noise measurements performed on a twin-engine aircraft (Beechcraft Baron) are reported. There are two overall objectives of the test program. The first is to obtain data to support the development of analytical models of the wing and fuselage, while the second is to evaluate effects of structural parameters on cabin noise. Measurements performed include structural and acoustic responses to impact excitation, structural and acoustic loss factors, and modal parameters of the wing. Path alterations include added mass to simulate fuel, variations in torque of bolts joining wing and fuselage, and increased acoustic absorption. Conclusions drawn regarding these measurements are presented.

  14. An Engineering Approach to Management of Occupational and Community Noise Exposure at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Beth A.

    1997-01-01

    Workplace and environmental noise issues at NASA Lewis Research Center are effectively managed via a three-part program that addresses hearing conservation, community noise control, and noise control engineering. The Lewis Research Center Noise Exposure Management Program seeks to limit employee noise exposure and maintain community acceptance for critical research while actively pursuing engineered controls for noise generated by more than 100 separate research facilities and the associated services required for their operation.

  15. Effects of Bifurcations on Aft-Fan Engine Nacelle Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Farassat, Fereidoun; Pope, D. Stuart; Vatsa, Veer N.

    2004-01-01

    Aft-fan engine nacelle noise is a significant factor in the increasingly important issue of aircraft community noise. The ability to predict such noise within complex duct geometries is a valuable tool in studying possible noise attenuation methods. A recent example of code development for such predictions is the ducted fan noise propagation and radiation code CDUCT-LaRC. This work focuses on predicting the effects of geometry changes (i.e. bifurcations, pylons) on aft fan noise propagation. Beginning with simplified geometries, calculations show that bifurcations lead to scattering of acoustic energy into higher order modes. In addition, when circumferential mode number and the number of bifurcations are properly commensurate, bifurcations increase the relative importance of the plane wave mode near the exhaust plane of the bypass duct. This is particularly evident when the bypass duct surfaces include acoustic treatment. Calculations involving more complex geometries further illustrate that bifurcations and pylons clearly affect modal content, in both propagation and radiation calculations. Additionally, results show that consideration of acoustic radiation results may provide further insight into acoustic treatment effectiveness for situations in which modal decomposition may not be straightforward. The ability of CDUCT-LaRC to handle complex (non-axisymmetric) multi-block geometries, as well as axially and circumferentially segmented liners, allows investigation into the effects of geometric elements (bifurcations, pylons).

  16. Core Noise Diagnostics of Turbofan Engine Noise Using Correlation and Coherence Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    Cross-correlation and coherence functions are used to look for periodic acoustic components in turbofan engine combustor time histories, to investigate direct and indirect combustion noise source separation based on signal propagation time delays, and to provide information on combustor acoustics. Using the cross-correlation function, time delays were identified in all cases, clearly indicating the combustor is the source of the noise. In addition, unfiltered and low-pass filtered at 400 Hz signals had a cross-correlation time delay near 90 ms, while the low-pass filtered at less than 400 Hz signals had a cross-correlation time delay longer than 90 ms. Low-pass filtering at frequencies less than 400 Hz partially removes the direct combustion noise signals. The remainder includes the indirect combustion noise signal, which travels more slowly because of the dependence on the entropy convection velocity in the combustor. Source separation of direct and indirect combustion noise is demonstrated by proper use of low-pass filters with the cross-correlation function for a range of operating conditions. The results may lead to a better idea about the acoustics in the combustor and may help develop and validate improved reduced-order physics-based methods for predicting direct and indirect combustion noise.

  17. Far Noise Field of Air Jets and Jet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, Edmund E; Coles, Willard D

    1957-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study and compare the acoustic radiation of air jets and jet engines. A number of different nozzle-exit shapes were studied with air jets to determine the effect of exit shape on noise generation. Circular, square, rectangular, and elliptical convergent nozzles and convergent-divergent and plug nozzles were investigated. The spectral distributions of the sound power for the engine and the air jet were in good agreement for the case where the engine data were not greatly affected by reflection or jet interference effects. Such power spectra for a subsonic or slightly choked engine or air jet show that the peaks of the spectra occur at a Strouhal number of 0.3.

  18. Ultra High Bypass Ratio Low Noise Engine Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, W. N., III

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify engine cycle and technologies needed for a regional aircraft which could be capable of achieving a 10 EPNdB reduction in community noise level relative to current FAR36 Stage 3 limits. The study was directed toward 100-passenger regional aircraft with engine configurations in the 15,000 pound thrust class. The study focused on Ultra High Bypass Ratio (UHBR) cycles due to low exhaust jet velocities and reduced fan tip speeds. The baseline engine for this study employed a gear-driven, 1000 ft/sec tip speed fan and had a cruise bypass ratio of 14:1. A revised engine configuration employing fan and turbine design improvements are predicted to be 9.2 dB below current takeoff limits and 12.8 dB below current approach limits. An economic analysis was also done by estimating Direct Operating Cost (DOC).

  19. Engineering to Control Noise, Loading, and Optimal Operating Points

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell R. Swartz

    2000-11-12

    Successful engineering of low-energy nuclear systems requires control of noise, loading, and optimum operating point (OOP) manifolds. The latter result from the biphasic system response of low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR)/cold fusion systems, and their ash production rate, to input electrical power. Knowledge of the optimal operating point manifold can improve the reproducibility and efficacy of these systems in several ways. Improved control of noise, loading, and peak production rates is available through the study, and use, of OOP manifolds. Engineering of systems toward the OOP-manifold drive-point peak may, with inclusion of geometric factors, permit more accurate uniform determinations of the calibrated activity of these materials/systems.

  20. DESI systems engineering: throughput and signal-to-noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besuner, Robert W.; Sholl, Michael J.

    2016-08-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is a fiber-fed multi-object spectroscopic instrument under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique. Management of light throughput and noise in all elements of the instrument is key to achieving the high-level DESI science requirements over the planned survey area and depth within the planned survey duration. The DESI high-level science requirements flow down to instrument performance requirements on system throughput and operational efficiency. Signal-to-noise requirements directly affect minimum required exposure time per field, which dictates the pace and duration of the entire survey. The need to maximize signal (light throughput) and to minimize noise contributions and time overhead due to reconfigurations between exposures drives the instrument subsystem requirements and technical implementation. Throughput losses, noise contributors, and interexposure reconfiguration time are budgeted, tracked, and managed as DESI Systems Engineering resources. Current best estimates of throughput losses and noise contributions from each individual element of the instrument are tracked together in a master budget to calculate overall margin on completing the survey within the allotted time. That budget is a spreadsheet accessible to the entire DESI project.

  1. Aero-acoustic performance comparison of core engine noise suppressors on NASA quiet engine C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomer, H. E.; Schaefer, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    The relative aero-acoustic effectiveness of two core engine suppressors, a contractor-designed suppressor delivered with the Quiet Engine, and a NASA-designed suppressor was evaluated. The NASA suppressor was tested with and without a splitter making a total of three configurations being reported in addition to the baseline hardwall case. The aerodynamic results are presented in terms of tailpipe pressure loss, corrected net thrust, and corrected specific fuel consumption as functions of engine power setting. The acoustic results are divided into duct and far-field acoustic data. The NASA-designed core suppressor did the better job of suppressing aft end noise, but the splitter associated with it caused a significant engine performance penality. The NASA core suppressor without the spltter suppressed most of the core noise without any engine performance penalty.

  2. Aero-acoustic performance comparison of core engine noise suppressors on NASA quiet engine 'C'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomer, H. E.; Schaefer, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the experimental program reported herein was to evaluate and compare the relative aero-acoustic effectiveness of two core engine suppressors, a contractor-designed suppressor delivered with the Quiet Engine, and a NASA-designed suppressor, designed and built subsequently. The NASA suppressor was tested with and without a splitter making a total of three configurations being reported in addition to the baseline hardwall case. The aerodynamic results are presented in terms of tailpipe pressure loss, corrected net thrust, and corrected specific fuel consumption as functions of engine power setting. The acoustic results are divided into duct and far-field acoustic data. The NASA-designed core suppressor did the better job of suppressing aft end noise, but the splitter associated with it caused a significant engine performance penalty. The NASA core suppressor without the splitter suppressed most of the core noise without any engine performance penalty.

  3. Data on the noise vibrations of modern traction locomotives. [auditory effects on diesel engine operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paslaru, V.; Popescu, A.; Vrasti, R.

    1974-01-01

    A survey is presented of data on noise and vibration sources in modern locomotives and their influence on engine drivers. An attempt is made hierarchize noise and vibration sources in terms of importance and to correlate the noise level with the influence of noise on the engine drivers' organ of hearing. Some possible recommendations are outlined for reducing the level of these noxae in order to improve the acoustic comfort of engine drivers.

  4. Duct liner optimization for turbomachinery noise sources. [aircraft noise/engine noise - numerical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, H. C.; Posey, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    An acoustical field theory for axisymmetric, multisectioned lined ducts with uniform flow profiles was combined with a numerical minimization algorithm to predict optimal liner configurations having one, two, and three sections. Source models studied include a point source located on the axis of the duct and rotor/outlet-stator viscous wake interaction effects for a typical research compressor operating at an axial flow Mach number of about 0.4. For this latter source, optimal liners for equipartition-of energy, zero-phase, and least-attenuated-mode source variations were also calculated and compared with exact results. It is found that the potential benefits of liner segmentation for the attenuation of turbomachinery noise is greater than would be predicted from point source results. Furthermore, effective liner design requires precise knowledge of the circumferential and radial modal distributions.

  5. Engine-induced structural-borne noise in a general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.; Pomerening, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Structural borne interior noise in a single engine general aviation aircraft was studied to determine the importance of engine induced structural borne noise and to determine the necessary modeling requirements for the prediction of structural borne interior noise. Engine attached/detached ground test data show that engine induced structural borne noise is a primary interior noise source for the single engine test aircraft, cabin noise is highly influenced by responses at the propeller tone, and cabin acoustic resonances can influence overall noise levels. Results from structural and acoustic finite element coupled models of the test aircraft show that wall flexibility has a strong influence on fundamental cabin acoustic resonances, the lightweight fuselage structure has a high modal density, and finite element analysis procedures are appropriate for the prediction of structural borne noise.

  6. Noise predictions of a high bypass turbofan engine using the Lockheed Near-Field Noise Prediction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawls, J. W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The prediction of engine noise during cruise using the Near-Field Noise Prediction Program developed by Lockheed is examined. Test conditions were established which simulate the operation of a high bypass turbofan engine under a wide range of operating conditions. These test conditions include variations in altitude, flight Mach number and thrust setting. Based on the results of noise prediction made using the Lockheed program, an evaluation of the impact of these test conditions on the overall sound pressure level(OASPL)and the one-third octave band spectra is made. An evaluation of the sensitivity of flight condition parameters is also made. The primary noise source from a high bypass turbofan was determined to be fan broadband shock noise. This noise source can be expected to be present during normal cruising conditions. When present, fan broadband shock noise usually dominates at all frequencies and all directivity angles. Other noise sources of importance are broadband shock noise from the primary jet, fan noise, fan mixing noise and turbine noise.

  7. Reduction of diesel engine exhaust noise in the petroleum mining industry. [by resonator type diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marinov, T.

    1974-01-01

    An important noise source in a drilling plant is Diesel engine exhaust. In order to reduce this noise, a reactive silencer of the derivative resonator type was proposed, calculated from the acoustic and design point of view and applied. As a result of applying such a silencer on the exhaust conduit of a Diesel engine the noise level dropped down to 18 db.

  8. A Model for Shear Layer Effects on Engine Noise Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Farassat, F.; Pope, D. Stuart; Vatsa, V.

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of aircraft engine noise is an important aspect of addressing the issues of community noise and cabin noise control. The development of physics based methodologies for performing such predictions has been a focus of Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA). A recent example of code development in this area is the ducted fan noise propagation and radiation code CDUCT-LaRC. Included within the code is a duct radiation model that is based on the solution of FfowcsWilliams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation with a penetrable data surface. Testing of this equation for many acoustic problems has shown it to provide generally better results than the Kirchhoff formula for moving surfaces. Currently, the data surface is taken to be the inlet or exhaust plane for inlet or aft-fan cases, respectively. While this provides reasonable results in many situations, these choices of data surface location lead to a few limitations. For example, the shear layer between the bypass ow and external stream can refract the sound waves radiated to the far field. Radiation results can be improved by including this effect, as well as the rejection of the sound in the bypass region from the solid surface external to the bypass duct surrounding the core ow. This work describes the implementation, and possible approximation, of a shear layer boundary condition within CDUCT-LaRC. An example application also illustrates the improvements that this extension offers for predicting noise radiation from complex inlet and bypass duct geometries, thereby providing a means to evaluate external treatments in the vicinity of the bypass duct exhaust plane.

  9. A jet engine noise measurement and prediction tool.

    PubMed

    Frendi, Abdelkader; Dorland, Wade D; Maung, Thein; Nesman, Tom; Wang, Ten-See

    2002-11-01

    In this paper, the authors describe an innovative jet engine noise measurement and prediction tool. The tool measures sound-pressure levels and frequency spectra in the far field. In addition, the tool provides predicted results while the measurements are being made. The predictions are based on an existing computational fluid dynamics database coupled to an empirical acoustic radiation model based on the far-field approximation to the Lighthill acoustic analogy. Preliminary tests of this acoustic measurement and prediction tool produced very encouraging results.

  10. Embedded Acoustic Sensor Array for Engine Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Feasibility of Noise Telemetry via Wireless Smart Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Afroz; Bauch, Matthew; Raible, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft engines have evolved into a highly complex system to meet ever-increasing demands. The evolution of engine technologies has primarily been driven by fuel efficiency, reliability, as well as engine noise concerns. One of the sources of engine noise is pressure fluctuations that are induced on the stator vanes. These local pressure fluctuations, once produced, propagate and coalesce with the pressure waves originating elsewhere on the stator to form a spinning pressure pattern. Depending on the duct geometry, air flow, and frequency of fluctuations, these spinning pressure patterns are self-sustaining and result in noise which eventually radiate to the far-field from engine. To investigate the nature of vane pressure fluctuations and the resulting engine noise, unsteady pressure signatures from an array of embedded acoustic sensors are recorded as a part of vane noise source diagnostics. Output time signatures from these sensors are routed to a control and data processing station adding complexity to the system and cable loss to the measured signal. "Smart" wireless sensors have data processing capability at the sensor locations which further increases the potential of wireless sensors. Smart sensors can process measured data locally and transmit only the important information through wireless communication. The aim of this wireless noise telemetry task was to demonstrate a single acoustic sensor wireless link for unsteady pressure measurement, and thus, establish the feasibility of distributed smart sensors scheme for aircraft engine vane surface unsteady pressure data transmission and characterization.

  11. Spectral Separation of the Turbofan Engine Coherent Combustion Noise Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2008-01-01

    The core noise components of a dual spool turbofan engine (Honeywell TECH977) were separated by the use of a coherence function. A source location technique based on adjusting the time delay between the combustor pressure sensor signal and the far-field microphone signal to maximize the coherence and remove as much variation of the phase angle with frequency as possible was used. While adjusting the time delay to maximize the coherence and minimize the cross spectrum phase angle variation with frequency, the discovery was made that for the 130 microphone a 90.027 ms time shift worked best for the frequency band from 0 to 200 Hz while a 86.975 ms time shift worked best for the frequency band from 200 to 400 Hz. Since the 0 to 200 Hz band signal took more time to travel the same distance, it is slower than the 200 to 400 Hz band signal. This suggests the 0 to 200 Hz coherent cross spectral density band is partly due to indirect combustion noise attributed to hot spots interacting with the turbine. The signal in the 200 to 400 Hz frequency band is attributed mostly to direct combustion noise.

  12. Hybrid Active/Passive Jet Engine Noise Suppression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parente, C. A.; Arcas, N.; Walker, B. E.; Hersh, A. S.; Rice, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    A novel adaptive segmented liner concept has been developed that employs active control elements to modify the in-duct sound field to enhance the tone-suppressing performance of passive liner elements. This could potentially allow engine designs that inherently produce more tone noise but less broadband noise, or could allow passive liner designs to more optimally address high frequency broadband noise. A proof-of-concept validation program was undertaken, consisting of the development of an adaptive segmented liner that would maximize attenuation of two radial modes in a circular or annular duct. The liner consisted of a leading active segment with dual annuli of axially spaced active Helmholtz resonators, followed by an optimized passive liner and then an array of sensing microphones. Three successively complex versions of the adaptive liner were constructed and their performances tested relative to the performance of optimized uniform passive and segmented passive liners. The salient results of the tests were: The adaptive segmented liner performed well in a high flow speed model fan inlet environment, was successfully scaled to a high sound frequency and successfully attenuated three radial modes using sensor and active resonator arrays that were designed for a two mode, lower frequency environment.

  13. Investigating potential correlations between jet engine noise and plume dynamics in the hypertemporal infrared domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunio, Phillip M.; Weber, Reed; Knobel, Kimberly; Wager, Jason; Lopez, Gerardo

    2014-09-01

    Jet engine noise can be a hazard and environmental pollutant, affecting personnel working in close proximity to jet engines. Mitigating the effects of jet engine noise could reduce the potential for hearing loss in runway workers, but engine noise is not yet sufficiently well-characterized that it can easily be mitigated for new engine designs. That is, there exists a very complex relationship between jet engine design parameters, operating conditions, and resultant noise power levels. In this paper, we propose to evaluate the utility of high-speed imaging (also called hypertemporal imaging) in correlating the infrared signatures of jet aircraft engines with acoustic noise from the jet engines. This paper will focus on a theoretical analysis of jet engine infrared signatures, and will define potentially-detectable characteristics of such signatures in the hypertemporal domain. A systematic test campaign to determine whether such signatures actually exist and can be correlated with acoustic jet engine characteristics will be proposed. The detection of any hypertemporal signatures in association with acoustic signatures of jet engines will enable the use of a new domain in characterizing jet engine noise. This may in turn enable new methods of predicting or mitigating jet engine noise, which could lead to benefits for operators of large numbers of jet engines.

  14. Modal analysis of an aircraft engine fan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodkova, Natalia; Chursin, Valeriy; Bersenev, Yuliy; Burdakov, Ruslan; Siner, Aleksandr; Viskova, Tatiana

    2016-10-01

    The fan is one of the main noise sources of an aircraft engine. To reduce fan noise and provide liner optimization in the inlet it is necessary to research modal structure of the fan noise. The present paper contains results of acoustic tests on installation for mode generation that consists of 34-channel generator and the inlet updated for mounting of 100 microphones, the experiments were provided in new anechoic chamber of Perm National Research Polytechnic University, the engine with the same inlet was also tested in the open test bench conditions, and results of the fan noise modal structure are presented. For modal structure educting, all 100 channels were synchronously registered in a given frequency range. The measured data were analyzed with PULSE analyzer using fast Fourier transform with a frequency resolution 8..16 Hz. Single modes with numbers from 0 to 35 at frequencies 500; 630; 800; 1000; 1250; 1600 Hz and different combinations of modes at frequencies 1000, 1600, 2000, 2500 Hz were set during tests. Modes with small enough numbers are generated well on the laboratory installation, high-number modes generate additional modes caused by a complicated interference pattern of sound field in the inlet. Open test bench results showed that there are also a lot of harmonic components at frequencies lower than fan BPF. Under 0.65 of cut off there is only one distinct mode, other modes with close and less numbers appear from 0.7 of cut off and above. At power regimes 0.76 and 0.94 of cut off the highest mode also changes from positive to negative mode number area. Numbers of the highest modes change smoothly enough with the growth of power regime. At power regimes with Mach>1 (0.7 of cut off and above) on circumference of blade wheel there is a well-defined noise of shock waves at rotor frequency harmonics that appears at the range between the first rotor frequency and fan blade passing frequency (BPF). It is planned to continue researching of sound field

  15. Noise control of a model scale jet engine component test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Simcox, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Noise control is a fundamental design requirement in a test facility used for research and development of noise suppression devices and test techniques for modern fan jet engines. For every type of test in the facility, three aspects of noise control must be considered: noise exchange between the community and the test chamber, the acoustic characteristics of the chamber, and the methodology of the experiment. Boeing has designed and built a large anechoic test chamber (LTC) for engine component noise tests, with special emphasis on these three areas of noise control. Primary design goals were established by a need for high quality model scale jet engine exhaust studies, with minimum noise interaction with nearby communities. This paper discusses the noise control aspects of the LTC for both jet exhaust and fan noise testing.

  16. Active control of fan noise from a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Fuller, Christopher R.; O'Brien, Walter F.

    1994-01-01

    A three-channel active control system is applied to an operational turbofan engine to reduce tonal noise produced by both the fan and the high-pressure compressor. The control approach is the feedforward filtered-x least-mean-square algorithm implemented on a digital signal processing board. Reference transducers mounted on the engine case provide blade passing and harmonics frequency information to the controller. Error information is provided by large area microphones placed in the acoustic far field. To minimize the error signal, the controller actuates loudspeakers mounted on the inlet to produce destructive interference. The sound pressure level of the fundamental tone of the fan was reduced using the three-channel controller by up to 16 dB over a +/- 30-deg angle about the engine axis. A single-channel controller could produce reduction over a +/- 15-deg angle. The experimental results show the control to be robust. Outside of the areas contolled, the levels of the tone actually increased due to the generation of radial modes by the control sources. Simultaneous control of two tones is achieved with parallel controllers. The fundamental and the first harmonic tones of the fan were controlled simultaneously with reductions of 12 and 5 dBA, respectively, measured on the engine axis. Simultaneous control was also demonstrated for the fan fundamental and the high-pressure compressor fundamental tones.

  17. Active control of fan noise from a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Fuller, Christopher R.; O'Brien, Walter F.

    1993-01-01

    A three channel active control system is applied to an operational turbofan engine in order to reduce tonal noise produced by both the fan and high pressure compressor. The control approach is the feedforward filtered-x least-mean-square algorithm implemented on a digital signal processing board. Reference transducers mounted on the engine case provides blade passing and harmonics frequency information to the controller. Error information is provided by large area microphones placed in the acoustic far field. In order to minimize the error signal, the controller actuates loudspeakers mounted on the inlet to produce destructive interference. The sound pressure level of the fundamental tone of the fan was reduced using the three channel controller by up to 16 dB over a 60 deg angle about the engine axis. A single channel controller could produce reduction over a 30 deg angle. The experimental results show the control to be robust. Simultaneous control of two tones is done with parallel controllers. The fundamental and the first harmonic tones of the fan were controlled simultaneously with reductions of 12 dBA and 5 dBA, respectively, measured on the engine axis. Simultaneous control was also demonstrated for the fan fundamental and the high pressure compressor fundamental tones.

  18. Flight effects on exhaust noise for turbojet and turbofan engines: Comparison of experimental data with prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    It was demonstrated that static and in flight jet engine exhaust noise can be predicted with reasonable accuracy when the multiple source nature of the problem is taken into account. Jet mixing noise was predicted from the interim prediction method. Provisional methods of estimating internally generated noise and shock noise flight effects were used, based partly on existing prediction methods and partly on recent reported engine data.

  19. The Reduction of Ducted Fan Engine Noise Via a Boundary Integral Equation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweed, John

    2000-01-01

    Engineering studies for reducing ducted fan engine noise were conducted using the noise prediction code TBIEM3D. To conduct parametric noise reduction calculations, it was necessary to advance certain theoretical and computational aspects of the boundary integral equation method (BIEM) described in and implemented in TBIEM3D. Also, enhancements and upgrades to TBIEM3D were made for facilitating the code's use in this research and by the aeroacoustics engineering community.

  20. Meeting 2006, outdoor noise directive (OND) noise levels for a diesel engine driven air compressor: A case study in noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, David F.

    2005-09-01

    In January 2006, the noise limits for many products in the European Union will drop by 2-3 dBA, as directed by 2000/14/EC ``Noise Emission in the Environment by Equipment Used Outdoors,'' commonly called the ``Outdoor Noise Directive,'' or ``OND.'' Air compressors are among the products addressed by this directive. At Ingersoll-Rand, significant effort has been directed at meeting the challenge of reducing noise on a variety of diesel engine driven air compressor platforms, ranging from 15 to 350 kW diesel engine power ratings. This paper presents a case study of the noise reduction on a 750 cfm (21 m3/min) air compressor operating at 300 psig (21 bar), to meet the 2006 OND noise limit of 100 LwA.

  1. Small Engine Technology (SET) - Task 13 ANOPP Noise Prediction for Small Engines: Jet Noise Prediction Module, Wing Shielding Module, and System Studies Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieber, Lysbeth; Golub, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Final Report has been prepared by AlliedSignal Engines and Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, documenting work performed during the period May 1997 through June 1999, under the Small Engines Technology Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 13, ANOPP Noise Prediction for Small Engines. The report specifically covers the work performed under Subtasks 4, 5 and 6. Subtask 4 describes the application of a semi-empirical procedure for jet noise prediction, subtask 5 describes the development of a procedure to predict the effects of wing shielding, and subtask 6 describes the results of system studies of the benefits of the new noise technology on business and regional aircraft.

  2. MPT Prediction of Aircraft-Engine Fan Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Stuart D.

    2004-01-01

    A collection of computer programs has been developed that implements a procedure for predicting multiple-pure-tone (MPT) noise generated by fan blades of an aircraft engine (e.g., a turbofan engine). MPT noise arises when the fan is operating with supersonic relative tip Mach No. Under this flow condition, there is a strong upstream running shock. The strength and position of this shock are very sensitive to blade geometry variations. For a fan where all the blades are identical, the primary tone observed upstream of the fan will be the blade passing frequency. If there are small variations in geometry between blades, then tones below the blade passing frequency arise MPTs. Stagger angle differences as small as 0.1 can give rise to significant MPT. It is also noted that MPT noise is more pronounced when the fan is operating in an unstarted mode. Computational results using a three-dimensional flow solver to compute the complete annulus flow with non-uniform fans indicate that MPT noise can be estimated in a relatively simple way. Hence, once the effect of a typical geometry variation of one blade in an otherwise uniform blade row is known, the effect of all the blades being different can be quickly computed via superposition. Two computer programs that were developed as part of this work are used in conjunction with a user s computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to predict MPT spectra for a fan with a specified set of geometric variations: (1) The first program ROTBLD reads the users CFD solution files for a single blade passage via an API (Application Program Interface). There are options to replicate and perturb the geometry with typical variations stagger, camber, thickness, and pitch. The multi-passage CFD solution files are then written in the user s file format using the API. (2) The second program SUPERPOSE requires two input files: the first is the circumferential upstream pressure distribution extracted from the CFD solution on the multi-passage mesh

  3. Prediction of unsuppressed jet engine exhaust noise in flight from static data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology developed for predicting in-flight exhaust noise from static data is presented and compared with experimental data for several unsuppressed turbojet engines. For each engine, static data over a range of jet velocities are compared with the predicted jet mixing noise and shock-cell noise. The static engine noise over and above the jet and shock noises is identified as excess noise. The excess noise data are then empirically correlated to smooth the spectral and directivity relations and account for variations in test conditions. This excess noise is then projected to flight based on the assumption that the only effects of flight are a Doppler frequency shift and a level change given by 40 log (1 - m sub 0 cos theta), where M sub 0 is the flight Mach number and theta is the observer angle relative to the jet axis.

  4. Large Engine Technology (LET) Task XXXVII Low-Bypass Ratio Mixed Turbofan Engine Subsonic Jet Noise Reduction Program Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Joseph R.; Zysman, Steven H.; Barber, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center supported a three year effort to develop the technology for reducing jet noise from low-bypass ratio engines. This effort concentrated on both analytical and experimental approaches using various mixer designs. CFD and MGB predictions are compared with LDV and noise data, respectively. While former predictions matched well with data, experiment shows a need for improving the latter predictions. Data also show that mixing noise can be sensitive to engine hardware upstream of the mixing exit plane.

  5. Small Engine Technology (SET). Task 33: Airframe, Integration, and Community Noise Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieber, Lys S.; Elkins, Daniel; Golub, Robert A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Task Order 33 had four primary objectives as follows: (1) Identify and prioritize the airframe noise reduction technologies needed to accomplish the NASA Pillar goals for business and regional aircraft. (2) Develop a model to estimate the effect of jet shear layer refraction and attenuation of internally generated source noise of a turbofan engine on the aircraft system noise. (3) Determine the effect on community noise of source noise changes of a generic turbofan engine operating from sea level to 15,000 feet. (4) Support lateral attenuation experiments conducted by NASA Langley at Wallops Island, VA, by coordinating opportunities for Contractor Aircraft to participate as a noise source during the noise measurements. Noise data and noise prediction tools, including airframe noise codes, from the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program were applied to assess the current status of noise reduction technologies relative to the NASA pillar goals for regional and small business jet aircraft. In addition, the noise prediction tools were applied to evaluate the effectiveness of airframe-related noise reduction concepts developed in the AST program on reducing the aircraft system noise. The AST noise data and acoustic prediction tools used in this study were furnished by NASA.

  6. Near Noise Field of a Jet-Engine Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, Walton L; Callaghan, Edmund E; Coles, Willard D; Mull, Harold R

    1957-01-01

    Aircraft structures located in the near noise field of a jet engine are subjected to extremely high fluctuating pressures that may cause structural fatigue. Studies of such structures have been limited by lack of knowledge of the loadings involved. The acoustic near field produced by the exhaust of a stationary turbojet engine having a high pressure ratio was measured for a single operating condition without burning. The maximum overall sound pressure without afterburning was found to be about 42 pounds per square foot along the jet boundary in the region immediately downstream of the jet-nozzle exit. With afterburning maximum sound pressure was increased by 50 percent. The sound pressures without afterburning were obtained on a constant percentage band width basis in the frequency range from 350 to 700 cps. Cross-correlation measurements with microphones were made for a range of jet velocities at locations along the jet and at a distance from the jet. In general, little change in the correlation curves was found as a function of jet velocity or frequency-band width.

  7. First Article Noise Survey of the A/F32T-9 Large Turbo Fan Engine Enclosed Noise Suppressor System, Far-Field Noise, McConnell AFB, Kansas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) ’FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP A/F32T-9 Jet Engine Noise Engine Test Cell Noise Suppressor Noise T-9...energy reflected off of the surrounding buildings and the spurious and transient nature of aircraft operations noise from the flight line . It is...interfering noise from highly active flight line operations. F-4s and KC-135 flyovers were routine, as were helicopters. Noise from ground support equipment

  8. Inter-Noise 86 - Progress in noise control; Proceedings of the International Conference on Noise Control Engineering, Cambridge, MA, July 21-23, 1986. Volumes 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotz, Robert

    The conference presents papers on legislative structure and engineering manpower in noise abatement legislation in Australia, fluid borne noise generation and transmission in hydraulic piping systems, and the application of the Fast Field Program to outdoor sound propagation. Other topics include a prediction model for airport ground noise propagation, diffraction by a barrier with finite acoustic impedance, sound propagation over curved barriers, the damping capacity of graphite epoxy composites in a vacuum, the realization of an airport noise monitoring system for determining the traffic flow in the surroundings of a military airbase, and the prediction of aircraft noise around airports by a simulation procedure. Papers are also presented on the effects of weather conditions on airport noise prediction, a prediction of the light aircraft interior sound pressure level from the measured sound pressure flowing into the cabin, and measurements with reference sources in the ISO 3740 series.

  9. New technique for the direct measurement of core noise from aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    A new technique is presented for directly measuring the core noise levels from gas turbine aircraft engines. The technique requires that fluctuating pressures be measured in the far-field and at two locations within the engine core. The cross-spectra of these measurements are used to determine the levels of the far-field noise that propagated from the engine core. The technique makes it possible to measure core noise levels even when other noise sources dominate. The technique was applied to signals measured from an AVCO Lycoming YF102 turbofan engine. Core noise levels as a function of frequency and radiation angle were measured and are presented over a range of power settings.

  10. Aircraft Engine Noise Research and Testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will begin with a brief introduction to the NASA Glenn Research Center as well as an overview of how aircraft engine noise research fits within the organization. Some of the NASA programs and projects with noise content will be covered along with the associated goals of aircraft noise reduction. Topics covered within the noise research being presented will include noise prediction versus experimental results, along with engine fan, jet, and core noise. Details of the acoustic research conducted at NASA Glenn will include the test facilities available, recent test hardware, and data acquisition and analysis methods. Lastly some of the actual noise reduction methods investigated along with their results will be shown.

  11. Design and test of aircraft engine isolators for reduced interior noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Improved engine vibration isolation was proposed to be the most weight and cost efficient retrofit structure-borne noise control measure for single engine general aviation aircraft. A study was carried out the objectives: (1) to develop an engine isolator design specification for reduced interior noise transmission, (2) select/design candidate isolators to meet a 15 dB noise reduction design goal, and (3) carry out a proof of concept evaluation test. Analytical model of the engine, vibration isolators and engine mount structure were coupled to an empirical model of the fuselage for noise transmission evaluation. The model was used to develop engine isolator dynamic properties design specification for reduced noise transmission. Candidate isolators ere chosen from available product literature and retrofit to a test aircraft. A laboratory based test procedure was then developed to simulate engine induced noise transmission in the aircraft for a proof of concept evaluation test. Three candidate isolator configurations were evaluated for reduced structure-borne noise transmission relative to the original equipment isolators.

  12. Phased Array Noise Source Localization Measurements Made on a Williams International FJ44 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary G.; Horvath, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    A 48-microphone planar phased array system was used to acquire noise source localization data on a full-scale Williams International FJ44 turbofan engine. Data were acquired with the array at three different locations relative to the engine, two on the side and one in front of the engine. At the two side locations the planar microphone array was parallel to the engine centerline; at the front location the array was perpendicular to the engine centerline. At each of the three locations, data were acquired at eleven different engine operating conditions ranging from engine idle to maximum (take off) speed. Data obtained with the array off to the side of the engine were spatially filtered to separate the inlet and nozzle noise. Tones occurring in the inlet and nozzle spectra were traced to the low and high speed spools within the engine. The phased array data indicate that the Inflow Control Device (ICD) used during this test was not acoustically transparent; instead, some of the noise emanating from the inlet reflected off of the inlet lip of the ICD. This reflection is a source of error for far field noise measurements made during the test. The data also indicate that a total temperature rake in the inlet of the engine is a source of fan noise.

  13. Noise generated by quiet engine fans. 2: Fan A. [measurement of power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montegani, F. J.; Schaefer, J. W.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1974-01-01

    A significant effort within the NASA Quiet Engine Program has been devoted to acoustical evaluation at the Lewis Research Center noise test facility of a family of full-scale fans. This report, documents the noise results obtained with fan A - a 1.5-pressure-ratio, 1160-ft/sec-tip-speed fan. The fan is described and some aerodynamic operating data are given. Far-field noise around the fan was measured for a variety of configurations pertaining to acoustical treatment and over a range of operating conditions. Complete results of 1/3-octave band analysis of the data are presented in tabular form. Included also are power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels. Some representative 1/3-octave band data are presented graphically, and sample graphs of continuous narrow-band spectra are also provided.

  14. Separating Turbofan Engine Noise Sources Using Auto and Cross Spectra from Four Microphones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2008-01-01

    The study of core noise from turbofan engines has become more important as noise from other sources such as the fan and jet were reduced. A multiple-microphone and acoustic-source modeling method to separate correlated and uncorrelated sources is discussed. The auto- and cross spectra in the frequency range below 1000 Hz are fitted with a noise propagation model based on a source couplet consisting of a single incoherent monopole source with a single coherent monopole source or a source triplet consisting of a single incoherent monopole source with two coherent monopole point sources. Examples are presented using data from a Pratt& Whitney PW4098 turbofan engine. The method separates the low-frequency jet noise from the core noise at the nozzle exit. It is shown that at low power settings, the core noise is a major contributor to the noise. Even at higher power settings, it can be more important than jet noise. However, at low frequencies, uncorrelated broadband noise and jet noise become the important factors as the engine power setting is increased.

  15. Experimental clean combustor program, phase 3: Noise measurement addendum. [CF6-50 high bypass turbofan engine noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, V. L.

    1978-01-01

    The acoustic characteristics of the double annular combustor in a CF6-50 high bypass turbofan engine were investigated. Internal fluctuating pressure measurements were made in the combustor region and in the core exhaust. The transmission loss across the turbine and nozzle was determined from the measurements and compared to previous component results and present theory. The primary noise source location in the combustor was investigated. Spectral comparisons of test rig results were made with the engine results. The measured overall power level was compared with component and engine correlating parameters.

  16. Enhancing Salt-and-Pepper Noise Removal in Binary Images of Engineering Drawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khaffaf, Hasan S. M.; Talib, Abdullah Z.; Salam, Rosalina Abdul

    Noise removal in engineering drawing is an important operation performed before other image analysis tasks. Many algorithms have been developed to remove salt-and-pepper noise from document images. Cleaning algorithms should remove noise while keeping the real part of the image unchanged. Some algorithms have disadvantages in cleaning operation that leads to removing of weak features such as short thin lines. Others leave the image with hairy noise attached to image objects. In this article a noise removal procedure called TrackAndMayDel (TAMD) is developed to enhance the noise removal of salt-and-pepper noise in binary images of engineering drawings. The procedure could be integrated with third party algorithms' logic to enhance their ability to remove noise by investigating the structure of pixels that are part of weak features. It can be integrated with other algorithms as a post-processing step to remove noise remaining in the image such as hairy noise attached with graphical elements. An algorithm is proposed by incorporating TAMD in a third party algorithm. Real scanned images from GREC'03 contest are used in the experiment. The images are corrupted by salt-and-pepper noise at 10%, 15%, and 20% levels. An objective performance measure that correlates with human vision as well as MSE and PSNR are used in this experiment. Performance evaluation of the introduced algorithm shows better-quality images compared to other algorithms.

  17. Measurements and predictions of flyover and static noise of a TF30 afterburning turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Lasagna, P. L.; Oas, S. C.

    1978-01-01

    The noise of the TF30 afterburning turbofan engine in an F-111 airplane was determined from static (ground) and flyover tests. A survey was made to measure the exhaust temperature and velocity profiles for a range of power settings. Comparisons were made between predicted and measured jet mixing, internal, and shock noise. It was found that the noise produced at static conditions was dominated by jet mixing noise, and was adequately predicted by current methods. The noise produced during flyovers exhibited large contributions from internally generated noise in the forward arc. For flyovers with the engine at nonafterburning power, the internal noise, shock noise, and jet mixing noise were accurately predicted. During flyovers with afterburning power settings, however, additional internal noise believed to be due to the afterburning process was evident; its level was as much as 8 decibels above the nonafterburning internal noise. Power settings that produced exhausts with inverted velocity profiles appeared to be slightly less noisy than power settings of equal thrust that produced uniform exhaust velocity profiles both in flight and in static testing.

  18. A First Look at the DGEN380 Engine Acoustic Data from a Core-Noise Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2015-01-01

    This work is a first look at acoustic data acquired in the NASA Glenn Research Center Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory using the Price Induction DGEN380 small turbofan engine, with particular emphasis on broadband combustor (core) noise. Combustor noise is detected by using a two-signal source separation technique employing one engine-internal sensor and one semi-far-field microphone. Combustor noise is an important core-noise component and is likely to become a more prominent contributor to overall airport community noise due to turbofan design trends, expected aircraft configuration changes, and advances in fan-noise-mitigation techniques. This work was carried out under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program, Fixed Wing Project, Quiet Performance Subproject

  19. Diesel engine noise source identification based on EEMD, coherent power spectrum analysis and improved AHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Jian; Lin, Jiewei; Bi, Fengrong; Guo, Qian; Chen, Kongwu; Ma, Liang

    2015-09-01

    As the essential foundation of noise reduction, many noise source identification methods have been developed and applied to engineering practice. To identify the noise source in the board-band frequency of different engine parts at various typical speeds, this paper presents an integrated noise source identification method based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), the coherent power spectrum analysis, and the improved analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The measured noise is decomposed into several IMFs with physical meaning, which ensures the coherence analysis of the IMFs and the vibration signals are meaningful. An improved AHP is developed by introducing an objective weighting function to replace the traditional subjective evaluation, which makes the results no longer dependent on the subject performances and provides a better consistency in the meantime. The proposed noise identification model is applied to identifying a diesel engine surface radiated noise. As a result, the frequency-dependent contributions of different engine parts to different test points at different speeds are obtained, and an overall weight order is obtained as oil pan  >  left body  >  valve chamber cover  >  gear chamber casing  >  right body  >  flywheel housing, which provides an effectual guidance for the noise reduction.

  20. USAF Bioenvironmental Noise Data Handbook. Volume 172. Hush-House Noise Suppressor (Aero Systems Engineering, Inc.) Far-Field Noise.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    G. E C AG E . *.: .0*C 180 f..............H..........A............6 III 11000:I DITAC FRO E~ cMTES FIGURE$ SOUND PRESSUtE LEVEL (SPL) )IOENTIFICATION...REL HUMID 78 FAR FIELD NOISE C TEXAS ASE HUSH HOUSE P ) @ AGE 2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- FREQ ANmLE...THE 3 REL HUMID - 5 I FAR FIELO NOISE I TEXAS ASE MUSH HOUSE I I - AGE 6

  1. Noise levels from a model turbofan engine with simulated noise control measures applied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David G.; Woodward, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    A study of estimated full-scale noise levels based on measured levels from the Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) sub-scale model is presented. Testing of this model was performed in the NASA Lewis Low Speed Anechoic Wind Tunnel at a simulated takeoff condition of Mach 0.2. Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) estimates for the baseline configuration are documented, and also used as the control case in a study of the potential benefits of two categories of noise control. The effect of active noise control is evaluated by artificially removing various rotor-stator interaction tones. Passive noise control is simulated by applying a notch filter to the wind tunnel data. Cases with both techniques are included to evaluate hybrid active-passive noise control. The results for EPNL values are approximate because the original source data was limited in bandwidth and in sideline angular coverage. The main emphasis is on comparisons between the baseline and configurations with simulated noise control measures.

  2. Noise generated by quiet engine fans. 3: Fan C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montegan, F. J.; Schaefer, J. W.; Schmiedlin, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    A family of fans designed with low noise features was acoustically evaluated, and noise results are documented for a 1.6-pressure-ratio, 472-m/sec (155-ft/sec) tip speed fan. The fan is described and some aerodynamic operating data are given. Far field noise around the fan was measured over a range of operating conditions for a variety of configurations having different arrangements of sound absorbing material in the flow ducts. Complete results of 1.3 octave band analysis of the data are presented in tabular form. Included also are acoustic power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels. Representative 1/3 octave band data are presented graphically, and sample graphs of continuous narrow band spectra are also provided.

  3. The effect of noise constraints on engine cycle optimization for long-haul transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antl, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Results are presented of NASA studies to determine optimum engine cycles for noise levels of 10, 15, and 20 EPNdb below current FAA regulations. The study aircraft were 200-passenger trijets flying over ranges of 5,556 and 10,200 km at cruise speeds of Mach 0.90 to 0.98. The economic impact of reducing noise, the identification of needed advanced technology and the effect of these advances are presented. The studies showed that the noise constraints imposed compromises on the optimum cycle with resulting economic penalties. The application of advanced engine technologies, however, could effectively offset these economic penalties.

  4. Aircraft Engine Exhaust Nozzle System for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J. (Inventor); Elkoby, Ronen (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft exhaust engine nozzle system includes a fan nozzle to receive a fan flow from a fan disposed adjacent to an engine disposed above an airframe surface of the aircraft, a core nozzle disposed within the fan nozzle and receiving an engine core flow, and a pylon structure connected to the core nozzle and structurally attached with the airframe surface to secure the engine to the aircraft.

  5. Full-scale experiments with an ejector to reduce jet engine exhaust noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments with a modified J65 turbojet engine and ejector resulted in noise power reductions as large as 13 decibels in the low-frequency range. High-frequency noise power, which appeared to originate mainly from the mixing processes within the ejector, increased. Peak velocities at the ejector exit were reduced by one-half to two-thirds, although survey rakes showed that mixing was not complete. Acoustical lining inside the ejector would reduce the perceived noise level (in PNdB) by removing much of the high-frequency noise.

  6. Noise of model target type thrust reversers for engine-over-the-wing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.; Gutierrez, O. A.

    1974-01-01

    The present work reports on experiments concerning the noise generated by V-gutter and semicylindrical target reversers with circular and short-aspect-ratio slot nozzles having equivalent diameters of about 5 cm. At subsonic jet velocities of interest for engine-over-the-wing (OTW) powered-lift aircraft, the reversers were noisier than the nozzles alone and had a more uniform directional distribution and more high-frequency noise. Reverser shape was more important than nozzle shape in determining the reverser noise characteristics. An estimate is made of perceived noise level along the 152-m sideline for a hypothetical OTW powered-lift airplane.

  7. Full-Scale Turbofan Engine Noise-Source Separation Using a Four-Signal Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Arechiga, Rene O.

    2016-01-01

    Contributions from the combustor to the overall propulsion noise of civilian transport aircraft are starting to become important due to turbofan design trends and expected advances in mitigation of other noise sources. During on-ground, static-engine acoustic tests, combustor noise is generally sub-dominant to other engine noise sources because of the absence of in-flight effects. Consequently, noise-source separation techniques are needed to extract combustor-noise information from the total noise signature in order to further progress. A novel four-signal source-separation method is applied to data from a static, full-scale engine test and compared to previous methods. The new method is, in a sense, a combination of two- and three-signal techniques and represents an attempt to alleviate some of the weaknesses of each of those approaches. This work is supported by the NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program, Advanced Air Transport Technology Project, Aircraft Noise Reduction Subproject and the NASA Glenn Faculty Fellowship Program.

  8. Noise Reduction Potential of Large, Over-the-Wing Mounted, Advanced Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    As we look to the future, increasingly stringent civilian aviation noise regulations will require the design and manufacture of extremely quiet commercial aircraft. Indeed, the noise goal for NASA's Aeronautics Enterprise calls for technologies that will help to provide a 20 EPNdB reduction relative to today's levels by the year 2022. Further, the large fan diameters of modem, increasingly higher bypass ratio engines pose a significant packaging and aircraft installation challenge. One design approach that addresses both of these challenges is to mount the engines above the wing. In addition to allowing the performance trend towards large, ultra high bypass ratio cycles to continue, this over-the-wing design is believed to offer noise shielding benefits to observers on the ground. This paper describes the analytical certification noise predictions of a notional, long haul, commercial quadjet transport with advanced, high bypass engines mounted above the wing.

  9. Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports: Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Cherie; Lierens, Abigail

    2003-01-01

    With the increasing trend of charging for externalities and the aim of encouraging the sustainable development of the air transport industry, there is a need to evaluate the social costs of these undesirable side effects, mainly aircraft noise and engine emissions, for different airports. The aircraft noise and engine emissions social costs are calculated in monetary terms for five different airports, ranging from hub airports to small regional airports. The number of residences within different levels of airport noise contours and the aircraft noise classifications are the main determinants for accessing aircraft noise social costs. Whist, based on the damages of different engine pollutants on the human health, vegetation, materials, aquatic ecosystem and climate, the aircraft engine emissions social costs vary from engine types to aircraft categories. The results indicate that the relationship appears to be curvilinear between environmental costs and the traffic volume of an airport. The results and methodology of environmental cost calculation could input for to the proposed European wide harmonized noise charges as well as the social cost benefit analysis of airports.

  10. Comparison of Predicted and Measured Attenuation of Turbine Noise from a Static Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Eugene W.; Ruiz, Marta; Yu, Jia; Morin, Bruce L.; Cicon, Dennis; Schwieger, Paul S.; Nark, Douglas M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft noise has become an increasing concern for commercial airlines. Worldwide demand for quieter aircraft is increasing, making the prediction of engine noise suppression one of the most important fields of research. The Low-Pressure Turbine (LPT) can be an important noise source during the approach condition for commercial aircraft. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pratt & Whitney (P&W), and Goodrich Aerostructures (Goodrich) conducted a joint program to validate a method for predicting turbine noise attenuation. The method includes noise-source estimation, acoustic treatment impedance prediction, and in-duct noise propagation analysis. Two noise propagation prediction codes, Eversman Finite Element Method (FEM) code [1] and the CDUCT-LaRC [2] code, were used in this study to compare the predicted and the measured turbine noise attenuation from a static engine test. In this paper, the test setup, test configurations and test results are detailed in Section II. A description of the input parameters, including estimated noise modal content (in terms of acoustic potential), and acoustic treatment impedance values are provided in Section III. The prediction-to-test correlation study results are illustrated and discussed in Section IV and V for the FEM and the CDUCT-LaRC codes, respectively, and a summary of the results is presented in Section VI.

  11. Methods for designing treatments to reduce interior noise of predominant sources and paths in a single engine light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Richard E.; Remington, Paul J.; Theobald, Mark A.; Wilby, John F.

    1985-01-01

    The sources and paths by which noise enters the cabin of a small single engine aircraft were determined through a combination of flight and laboratory tests. The primary sources of noise were found to be airborne noise from the propeller and engine casing, airborne noise from the engine exhaust, structureborne noise from the engine/propeller combination and noise associated with air flow over the fuselage. For the propeller, the primary airborne paths were through the firewall, windshield and roof. For the engine, the most important airborne path was through the firewall. Exhaust noise was found to enter the cabin primarily through the panels in the vicinity of the exhaust outlet although exhaust noise entering the cabin through the firewall is a distinct possibility. A number of noise control techniques were tried, including firewall stiffening to reduce engine and propeller airborne noise, to stage isolators and engine mounting spider stiffening to reduce structure-borne noise, and wheel well covers to reduce air flow noise.

  12. Methods for designing treatments to reduce interior noise of predominant sources and paths in a single engine light aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Richard E.; Remington, Paul J.; Theobald, Mark A.; Wilby, John F.

    1985-03-01

    The sources and paths by which noise enters the cabin of a small single engine aircraft were determined through a combination of flight and laboratory tests. The primary sources of noise were found to be airborne noise from the propeller and engine casing, airborne noise from the engine exhaust, structureborne noise from the engine/propeller combination and noise associated with air flow over the fuselage. For the propeller, the primary airborne paths were through the firewall, windshield and roof. For the engine, the most important airborne path was through the firewall. Exhaust noise was found to enter the cabin primarily through the panels in the vicinity of the exhaust outlet although exhaust noise entering the cabin through the firewall is a distinct possibility. A number of noise control techniques were tried, including firewall stiffening to reduce engine and propeller airborne noise, to stage isolators and engine mounting spider stiffening to reduce structure-borne noise, and wheel well covers to reduce air flow noise.

  13. Role of structural noise in aircraft pressure cockpit from vibration action of new-generation engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of new-generation aircraft engines is transitioning from a bypass ratio of 4-6 to an increased ratio of 8-12. This is leading to substantial broadening of the vibration spectrum of engines with a shift to the low-frequency range due to decreased rotation speed of the fan rotor, in turn requiring new solutions to decrease structural noise from engine vibrations to ensure comfort in the cockpits and cabins of aircraft.

  14. Estimation of the combustion-related noise transfer matrix of a multi-cylinder diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Moohyung; Bolton, J. Stuart; Suh, Sanghoon

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, a procedure for estimating an engine-platform-dependent transfer matrix that relates in-cylinder pressures to radiated noise resulting from processes associated with the combustion process is described. A knowledge of that transfer matrix allows the combustion-related component of the noise radiated by a diesel engine to be estimated from a knowledge of cylinder pressure signals. The procedure makes use of multi-input/multi-output (MIMO) system modeling concepts in conjunction with cross-spectral measurements. To date, the empirical prediction of diesel engine combustion noise has usually been achieved by combining a cylinder pressure with a single, smooth structural attenuation function (e.g., the Lucas combustion noise meter) regardless of the specifications of the engine. In comparison, the procedure described in the present work provides the structural attenuation characteristics of a particular engine in the form of a transfer matrix, thus allowing accurate prediction by accounting fully for inter-cylinder correlation, cylinder-to-cylinder variation and the detailed characteristics of an engine structure. The procedure was applied to a six-cylinder diesel engine, and the various aspects of the new procedure are described.

  15. Noise-Reduction Benefits Analyzed for Over-the-Wing-Mounted Advanced Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    As we look to the future, increasingly stringent civilian aviation noise regulations will require the design and manufacture of extremely quiet commercial aircraft. Also, the large fan diameters of modern engines with increasingly higher bypass ratios pose significant packaging and aircraft installation challenges. One design approach that addresses both of these challenges is to mount the engines above the wing. In addition to allowing the performance trend towards large diameters and high bypass ratio cycles to continue, this approach allows the wing to shield much of the engine noise from people on the ground. The Propulsion Systems Analysis Office at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field conducted independent analytical research to estimate the noise reduction potential of mounting advanced turbofan engines above the wing. Certification noise predictions were made for a notional long-haul commercial quadjet transport. A large quad was chosen because, even under current regulations, such aircraft sometimes experience difficulty in complying with certification noise requirements with a substantial margin. Also, because of its long wing chords, a large airplane would receive the greatest advantage of any noise-shielding benefit.

  16. Low Noise Catalytic Ignition I.C. Engine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    prototype was built using Inconel fasteners. These have proven durable at the engine’s operating temperatures. However, fastener clearance problems in the... CFR engine in which the piston crown had been coated with platinum. The durability of this coating was low but it was reported that the presence of

  17. A reflection mechanism for aft fan tone noise from turbofan engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topol, D. A.; Holhubner, S. C.; Mathews, D. C.

    1987-10-01

    A fan tone noise mechanism is proposed which results from reflections from the fan of forward propagating rotor wake/fan exit guide vane interaction tone noise. These fan noise tones are often more dominant out of the rear than out of the front of an engine. To simulate this effect a simple qualitative prediction model was formulated and a scaled model test program was conducted. Results from each of these investigations are compared with each other and with full-scale engine data. These comparisons substantiate the potential importance of this mechanism. Further support is provided by mode measurement data from full-scale testing. This study concluded that for certain vane/blade ratios and tip Mach numbers the contribution of the reflection noise mechanism is significant.

  18. Boundary conditions towards realistic simulation of jet engine noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhamankar, Nitin S.

    Strict noise regulations at major airports and increasing environmental concerns have made prediction and attenuation of jet noise an active research topic. Large eddy simulation coupled with computational aeroacoustics has the potential to be a significant research tool for this problem. With the emergence of petascale computer clusters, it is now computationally feasible to include the nozzle geometry in jet noise simulations. In high Reynolds number experiments on jet noise, the turbulent boundary layer on the inner surface of the nozzle separates into a turbulent free shear layer. Inclusion of a nozzle with turbulent inlet conditions is necessary to simulate this phenomenon realistically. This will allow a reasonable comparison of numerically computed noise levels with the experimental results. Two viscous wall boundary conditions are implemented for modeling the nozzle walls. A characteristic-based approach is compared with a computationally cheaper, extrapolation-based formulation. In viscous flow over a circular cylinder under two different regimes, excellent agreement is observed between the results of the two approaches. The results agree reasonably well with reference experimental and numerical results. Both the boundary conditions are thus found to be appropriate, the extrapolation-based formulation having an edge with its low cost. This is followed with the crucial step of generation of a turbulent boundary layer inside the nozzle. A digital filter-based turbulent inflow condition, extended in a new way to non-uniform curvilinear grids is implemented to achieve this. A zero pressure gradient flat plate turbulent boundary layer is simulated at a high Reynolds number to show that the method is capable of producing sustained turbulence. The length of the adjustment region necessary for synthetic inlet turbulence to recover from modeling errors is estimated. A low Reynolds number jet simulation including a round nozzle geometry is performed and the method

  19. Design of sidewall treatment of cabin noise control of a twin engine turboprop aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.; Slazak, M.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical procedure was used to predict the noise transmission into the cabin of a twin engine general aviation aircraft. This model was then used to optimize the interior A weighted noise levels to an average value of about 85 dBA. The surface pressure noise spectral levels were selected utilizing experimental flight data and empirical predictions. The add on treatments considered in this optimization study include aluminum honeycomb panels, constrained layer damping tape, porous acoustic blankets, acoustic foams, septum barriers and limp trim panels which are isolated from the vibration of the main sidewall structure. To reduce the average noise level in the cabin from about 102 kBA (baseline) to 85 dBA (optimized), the added weight of the noise control treatment is about 2% of the total gross takeoff weight of the aircraft.

  20. Combustion process in a spark ignition engine: dynamics and noise level estimation.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, T; Wendeker, M; Urbanowicz, K; Litak, G

    2004-06-01

    We analyze the experimental time series of internal pressure in a four cylinder spark ignition engine. In our experiment, performed for different spark advance angles, apart from the usual cyclic changes of engine pressure we observed additional oscillations. These oscillations are with longer time scales ranging from one to several hundred engine cycles depending on engine working conditions. Based on the pressure time dependence we have calculated the heat released per combustion cycle. Using the time series of heat release to calculate the correlation coarse-grained entropy we estimated the noise level for internal combustion process. Our results show that for a larger spark advance angle the system is more deterministic.

  1. Preliminary experiments on active control of fan noise from a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.; Burdisso, R. A.; Fuller, C. R.; O'Brien, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    In the preliminary experiments reported here, active acoustic sources positioned around the circumference of a turbofan engine were used to control the fan noise radiated forward through the inlet. The main objective was to demonstrate the potential of active techniques to alleviate the noise pollution that will be produced by the next generation of larger engines. A reduction of up to 19 dB in the radiation directivity was demonstrated in a zone that encompasses a 30-deg angle, near the error sensor, while spillover effects were observed toward the lateral direction. The simultaneous control of two tones was also demonstrated using two identical controllers in a parallel control configuration.

  2. First article noise survey of the A/F32T-9 large turbo fan engine enclosed noise suppressor system, far-field noise, McConnell AFB, Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairman, Terry M.

    1987-05-01

    This report presents the results of noise measurements made on the A/F32T-9 Large Turbo Fan Engine, Enclosed Noise Suppressor System, during First Article Tests at McConnell AFB, Kansas. Noise measurements obtained at 100 meters distance are summarized for the following engines: the J57-59W, TF33-P3, TF30-P7, F100, TF41-A1, J85-5, F101-GE-102, and the F109-CF-100.

  3. Investigation of Flow Conditioners for Compact Jet Engine Simulator Rig Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Michael J.; Haskin, Henry H.

    2011-01-01

    The design requirements for two new Compact Jet Engine Simulator (CJES) units for upcoming wind tunnel testing lead to the distinct possibility of rig noise contamination. The acoustic and aerodynamic properties of several flow conditioner devices are investigated over a range of operating conditions relevant to the CJES units to mitigate the risk of rig noise. An impinging jet broadband noise source is placed in the upstream plenum of the test facility permitting measurements of not only flow conditioner self-noise, but also noise attenuation characteristics. Several perforated plate and honeycomb samples of high porosity show minimal self-noise but also minimal attenuation capability. Conversely, low porosity perforated plate and sintered wire mesh conditioners exhibit noticeable attenuation but also unacceptable self-noise. One fine wire mesh sample (DP450661) shows minimal selfnoise and reasonable attenuation, particularly when combined in series with a 15.6 percent open area (POA) perforated plate upstream. This configuration is the preferred flow conditioner system for the CJES, providing up to 20 dB of broadband attenuation capability with minimal self-noise.

  4. Core noise investigation of the CF6-50 turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, V. L.; Moore, M. T.

    1980-01-01

    The contribution of the standard production annular combustor to the far-field noise signature of the CF6-50 engine was investigated. Internal source locations were studied. Transfer functions were determined for selected pairs of combustor sensors and from two internal sensors to the air field. The coherent output power was determined in the far-field measurements, and comparisons of measured overall power level were made with component and engine correlating parameters.

  5. A concept for jet noise suppression for an afterburning turbojet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambellan, R. E.; Turek, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual design of an afterburner system for turbojet engines which may reduce the jet exhaust noise by approximately 10 decibels is presented in this report. The proposed system consists of an array of swirl-can combustors and jet dividing nozzle tubes. The nozzle tubes translate axially upstream of the swirl cans when not in use. Results of preliminary design calculations and photographs of a kinematic model as applied to a hypothetical turbojet engine are presented.

  6. DC-9 flight demonstration program with refanned JT8D engines. Volume 4: Flyover noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Flyover noise tests were conducted to determine the noise reductions achievable by modifying the engines and nacelles of DC-9-30 airplanes. The two stage fan of the JT8D-9 engine was replaced with a larger diameter, single stage fan and sound absorbing materials were incorporated in the engines and nacelles. The noise levels were determined to be 95.3 EPNdB at the sideline, 96.2 EPNdB for a full thrust takeoff, 87.5 EPNdB for takeoff with thrust cutback, and 97.4 EPNdB for landing approach. The noise reductions relative to the hardwall JT8D-9 were 8.2 EPNdB for takeoff with cutback and 8.7 EPNdB for landing. The 90 EPNdB noise contour areas were reduced by 40% for missions requiring maximum design takeoff and landing weights. For typical mission weights, the reductions were 19% for full thrust takeoff and 34% for takeoff with cutback. The 95 EPNdB contour areas were reduced by 50% for takeoff and 30% for takeoff with cutback for both missions.

  7. Engine isolation for structural-borne interior noise reduction in a general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Engine vibration isolation for structural-borne interior noise reduction is investigated. A laboratory based test procedure to simulate engine induced structure-borne noise transmission, the testing of a range of candidate isolators for relative performance data, and the development of an analytical model of the transmission phenomena for isolator design evaluation are addressed. The isolator relative performance test data show that the elastomeric isolators do not appear to operate as single degree of freedom systems with respect to noise isolation. Noise isolation beyond 150 Hz levels off and begins to decrease somewhat above 600 Hz. Coupled analytical and empirical models were used to study the structure-borne noise transmission phenomena. Correlation of predicted results with measured data show that (1) the modeling procedures are reasonably accurate for isolator design evaluation, (2) the frequency dependent properties of the isolators must be included in the model if reasonably accurate noise prediction beyond 150 Hz is desired. The experimental and analytical studies were carried out in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 1000 Hz.

  8. Noise-Source Separation Using Internal and Far-Field Sensors for a Full-Scale Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Miles, Jeffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    Noise-source separation techniques for the extraction of the sub-dominant combustion noise from the total noise signatures obtained in static-engine tests are described. Three methods are applied to data from a static, full-scale engine test. Both 1/3-octave and narrow-band results are discussed. The results are used to assess the combustion-noise prediction capability of the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). A new additional phase-angle-based discriminator for the three-signal method is also introduced.

  9. Noise simulation of aircraft engine fans by the boundary element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyatunin, K. R.; Arkharova, N. V.; Remizov, A. E.

    2016-07-01

    Numerical simulation results of the civil aircraft engine fan stage noise in the far field are presented. Non-steady-state rotor-stator interaction is calculated the commercial software that solves the Navier-Stokes equations using differentturbulence models. Noise propagation to the far acoustic field is calculated by the boundary element method using acoustic Lighthill analogies without taking into account the mean current in the air inlet duct. The calculated sound pressure levels at points 50 m from the engine are presented, and the directional patterns of the acoustic radiation are shown. The use of the eddy resolving turbulence model to calculate rotor-stator interaction increases the accuracy in predicting fan stage noise.

  10. Noise and Outlier Removal from Jet Engine Health Signals Using Weighted FIR Median Hybrid Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, R.

    2002-11-01

    The removal of noise and outliers from measurement signals is a major problem in jet engine health monitoring. Typical measurement signals found in most jet engines include low rotor speed, high rotor speed, fuel flow and exhaust gas temperature. Deviations in these measurements from a baseline 'good' engine are often called measurement deltas and the health signals used for fault detection, isolation, trending and data mining. Linear filters such as the FIR moving average filter and IIR exponential average filter are used in the industry to remove noise and outliers from the jet engine measurement deltas. However, the use of linear filters can lead to loss of critical features in the signal that can contain information about maintenance and repair events that could be used by fault isolation algorithms to determine engine condition or by data mining algorithms to learn valuable patterns in the data. Non-linear filters such as the median and weighted median hybrid filters offer the opportunity to remove noise and gross outliers from signals while preserving features. In this study, a comparison of traditional linear filters popular in the jet engine industry is made with the median filter and the subfilter weighted FIR median hybrid (SWFMH) filter. Results using simulated data with implanted faults shows that the SWFMH filter results in a noise reduction of over 60 per cent compared to only 20 per cent for FIR filters and 30 per cent for IIR filters. Preprocessing jet engine health signals using the SWFMH filter would greatly improve the accuracy of diagnostic systems.

  11. Nozzle geometry and forward velocity effects on noise for CTOL engine-over-the-wing concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.; Goodykoontz, J. H.; Wagner, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Acoustic shielding benefits for jet noise of engine-over-the-wing for conventional aircraft (CTOL) application were studied with and without forward velocity for various small-scale nozzles. These latter included convergent, bypass and mixer, with and without forward ejector, nozzles. A 13-inch free jet was used to provide forward velocity. Farfield noise data were obtained for subsonic jet velocities from 650 to 980 ft/sec and forward velocities from zero to 360 ft/sec. The studies showed that although shielding benefits were obtained with all nozzles, the greatest benefits were obtained with mixer nozzles. The absolute magnitude of the jet noise shielding benefits with forward velocity was similar to the variation in nozzle-only noise with forward velocity.

  12. Noise of model target type thrust reversers for engine-over-the-wing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.; Gutierrez, O. A.

    1974-01-01

    The results of experiments on the noise generated by V-gutter and semicylindrical target reversers with circular and short-aspect-ratio slot nozzles having diameters of about 5 cm are presented. The experiments were conducted with cold-flow jets at velocities from 190-290 m/sec. The reversers at subsonic jet velocities had a more uniform noise distribution and higher frequency than the nozzles alone. The reverser shape was shown to be more important than the nozzle shape in determining the noise characteristics. The maximum sideline pressure level varied with the sixth power of the jet velocity, and the data were correlated for angles along the sideline. An estimate of the noise level along the 152 m sideline for an engine-over-the-wing powered-lift airplane was made.

  13. Spatial correlation in the ambient core noise field of a turbofan engine.

    PubMed

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2012-06-01

    An acoustic transfer function relating combustion noise and turbine exit noise in the presence of enclosed ambient core noise is investigated using a dynamic system model and an acoustic system model for the particular turbofan engine studied and for a range of operating conditions. Measurements of cross-spectra magnitude and phase between the combustor and turbine exit and auto-spectra at the turbine exit and combustor are used to show the presence of indirect and direct combustion noise over the frequency range of 0-400 Hz. The procedure used evaluates the ratio of direct to indirect combustion noise. The procedure used also evaluates the post-combustion residence time in the combustor which is a factor in the formation of thermal NO(x) and soot in this region. These measurements are masked by the ambient core noise sound field in this frequency range which is observable since the transducers are situated within an acoustic wavelength of one another. An ambient core noise field model based on one and two dimensional spatial correlation functions is used to replicate the spatially correlated response of the pair of transducers. The spatial correlation function increases measured attenuation due to destructive interference and masks the true attenuation of the turbine.

  14. Spatial Correlation in the Ambient Core Noise Field of a Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2012-01-01

    An acoustic transfer function relating combustion noise and turbine exit noise in the presence of enclosed ambient core noise is investigated using a dynamic system model and an acoustic system model for the particular turbofan engine studied and for a range of operating conditions. Measurements of cross-spectra magnitude and phase between the combustor and turbine exit and auto-spectra at the turbine exit and combustor are used to show the presence of indirect and direct combustion noise over the frequency range of 0 400 Hz. The procedure used evaluates the ratio of direct to indirect combustion noise. The procedure used also evaluates the post-combustion residence time in the combustor which is a factor in the formation of thermal NOx and soot in this region. These measurements are masked by the ambient core noise sound field in this frequency range which is observable since the transducers are situated within an acoustic wavelength of one another. An ambient core noise field model based on one and two dimensional spatial correlation functions is used to replicate the spatially correlated response of the pair of transducers. The spatial correlation function increases measured attenuation due to destructive interference and masks the true attenuation of the turbine.

  15. Quiet engine program: Turbine noise suppression. -Volume 1: General treatment evaluation and measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, A.; Hehmann, H.; Radecki, K.

    1973-01-01

    Acoustic treatment was developed for jet engine turbine noise suppression. Acoustic impedance and duct transmission loss measurements were made for various suppression systems. An environmental compatibility study on several material types having suppression characteristics is presented. Two sets of engine hardware were designed and are described along with engine test results which include probe, farfield, near field, and acoustic directional array data. Comparisons of the expected and the measured suppression levels are given as well as a discussion of test results and design techniques.

  16. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering - A Discontinuous Spectral Element Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far-field. The effects of nonuniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. Our approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the Discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Largescale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic con.guration, with and without a wing.

  17. Fundamental and applied research on core engine/combustion noise of aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plett, E. G.; Leshner, M. D.; Summerfield, M.

    1974-01-01

    Some results of a study of the importance of geometrical features of the combustor to combustion roughness and resulting noise are presented. Comparison is made among a perforated can flame holder, a plane slotted flame holder and a plane slotted flame holder which introduces two counter swirling streams. The latter is found to permit the most stable, quiet combustion. Crosscorrelations between the time derivative of chamber pressure fluctuations and far field noise are found to be stronger than between the far field noise and the direct chamber pressure signal. Temperature fluctuations in the combustor nozzle are also found to have a reasonably strong crosscorrelation with far field sound.

  18. Active control of aircraft engine inlet noise using compact sound sources and distributed error sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdisso, Ricardo (Inventor); Fuller, Chris R. (Inventor); O'Brien, Walter F. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Dungan, Mary E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An active noise control system using a compact sound source is effective to reduce aircraft engine duct noise. The fan noise from a turbofan engine is controlled using an adaptive filtered-x LMS algorithm. Single multi channel control systems are used to control the fan blade passage frequency (BPF) tone and the BPF tone and the first harmonic of the BPF tone for a plane wave excitation. A multi channel control system is used to control any spinning mode. The multi channel control system to control both fan tones and a high pressure compressor BPF tone simultaneously. In order to make active control of turbofan inlet noise a viable technology, a compact sound source is employed to generate the control field. This control field sound source consists of an array of identical thin, cylindrically curved panels with an inner radius of curvature corresponding to that of the engine inlet. These panels are flush mounted inside the inlet duct and sealed on all edges to prevent leakage around the panel and to minimize the aerodynamic losses created by the addition of the panels. Each panel is driven by one or more piezoelectric force transducers mounted on the surface of the panel. The response of the panel to excitation is maximized when it is driven at its resonance; therefore, the panel is designed such that its fundamental frequency is near the tone to be canceled, typically 2000-4000 Hz.

  19. Active control of aircraft engine inlet noise using compact sound sources and distributed error sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdisso, Ricardo (Inventor); Fuller, Chris R. (Inventor); O'Brien, Walter F. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Dungan, Mary E. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An active noise control system using a compact sound source is effective to reduce aircraft engine duct noise. The fan noise from a turbofan engine is controlled using an adaptive filtered-x LMS algorithm. Single multi channel control systems are used to control the fan blade passage frequency (BPF) tone and the BPF tone and the first harmonic of the BPF tone for a plane wave excitation. A multi channel control system is used to control any spinning mode. The multi channel control system to control both fan tones and a high pressure compressor BPF tone simultaneously. In order to make active control of turbofan inlet noise a viable technology, a compact sound source is employed to generate the control field. This control field sound source consists of an array of identical thin, cylindrically curved panels with an inner radius of curvature corresponding to that of the engine inlet. These panels are flush mounted inside the inlet duct and sealed on all edges to prevent leakage around the panel and to minimize the aerodynamic losses created by the addition of the panels. Each panel is driven by one or more piezoelectric force transducers mounted on the surface of the panel. The response of the panel to excitation is maximized when it is driven at its resonance; therefore, the panel is designed such that its fundamental frequency is near the tone to be canceled, typically 2000-4000 Hz.

  20. Sound Generation in the Presence of Moving Surfaces with Application to Internally Generated Aircraft Engine Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Marvin E.; Envia, E.

    2002-01-01

    In many cases of technological interest solid boundaries play a direct role in the aerodynamic sound generation process and their presence often results in a large increase in the acoustic radiation. A generalized treatment of the emission of sound from moving boundaries is presented. The approach is similar to that of Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (1969) but the effect of the surrounding mean flow is explicitly accounted for. The results are used to develop a rational framework for the prediction of internally generated aero-engine noise. The final formulas suggest some new noise sources that may be of practical significance.

  1. A Novel Approach for Reducing Rotor Tip-Clearance Induced Noise in Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan

    2001-01-01

    Rotor tip-clearance induced noise, both in the form of rotor self noise and rotor-stator interaction noise , constitutes a significant component of total fan noise. Innovative yet cost effective techniques to suppress rotor-generated noise are, therefore, of foremost importance for improving the noise signature of turbofan engines. To that end, the feasibility of a passive porous treatment strategy to positively modify the tip-clearance flow field is addressed. The present study is focused on accurate viscous flow calculations of the baseline and the treated rotor flow fields. Detailed comparison between the computed baseline solution and experimental measurements shows excellent agreement. Tip-vortex structure, trajectory, strength, and other relevant aerodynamic quantities are extracted from the computed database. Extensive comparison between the untreated and treated tip-clearance flow fields is performed. The effectiveness of the porous treatment for altering the rotor-tip vortex flow field in general and reducing the intensity of the tip vortex, in particular, is demonstrated. In addition, the simulated flow field for the treated tip clearly shows that substantial reduction in the intensity of both the shear layer roll-up and boundary layer separation on the wall is achieved.

  2. Full-Scale Investigation of Several Jet-Engine Noise-Reduction Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, Willard D; Callaghan, Edmund E

    1958-01-01

    A number of noise-suppression nozzles were tested on full-scale engines. In general, these nozzles achieved noise reduction by the mixing interference of adjacent jets, that is, by using multiple-slot-nozzles. Several of the nozzles achieved reductions in sound power of approximately 5 decibels (nearly 70 percent) with small thrust losses (approx. 1 percent). The maximum sound-pressure level was reduced by as much as 18 decibels in particular frequency bands. Some of the nozzles showed considerable spatial asymmetry; that is, the sound field was not rotationally symmetrical. A method of calculating the limiting frequency effected by such nozzles is presented. Furthermore data are shown that appear to indicate that further reductions in sound power will not be easily achieved from nozzles using mixing interference as a means of noise suppression

  3. On the use of relative velocity exponents for jet engine exhaust noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of flight on jet engine exhaust noise has often been presented in terms of a relative velocity exponent, n, as a function of radiation angle. The value of n is given by the OASPL reduction due to relative velocity divided by 10 times the logarithm of the ratio of relative jet velocity to absolute jet velocity. In such terms, classical subsonic jet noise theory would result in a value of n being approximately 7 at 90 degree angle to the jet axis with n decreasing, but remaining positive, as the inlet axis is approached and increasing as the jet axis is approached. However, flight tests have shown a wide range of results, including negative values of n in some cases. In this paper it is shown that the exponent n is positive for pure subsonic jet mixing noise and varies, in a systematic manner, as a function of flight conditions and jet velocity.

  4. Large-Eddy Simulations of Noise Generation in Supersonic Jets at Realistic Engine Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junhui; Corrigan, Andrew; Kailasanath, K.; Taylor, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Large-eddy simulations (LES) have been carried out to investigate the noise generation in highly heated supersonic jets at temperatures similar to those observed in high-performance jet engine exhausts. It is found that the exhaust temperature of high-performance jet engines can range from 1000K at an intermediate power to above 2000K at a maximum afterburning power. In low-temperature jets, the effects of the variation of the specific heat ratio as well as the radial temperature profile near the nozzle exit are small and are ignored, but it is not clear whether those effects can be also ignored in highly heated jets. The impact of the variation of the specific heat ratio is assessed by comparing LES results using a variable specific heat ratio with those using a constant specific heat ratio. The impact on both the flow field and the noise distributions are investigated. Because the total temperature near the nozzle wall can be substantially lower than the nozzle total temperature either due to the heating loss through the nozzle wall or due to the cooling applied near the wall, this lower wall temperature may impact the temperature in the shear layer, and thus impact the noise generation. The impact of the radial temperature profile on the jet noise generation is investigated by comparing results of lower nozzle wall temperatures with those of the adiabatic wall condition.

  5. Looking for Multiple Scattering Effects in Backscattered Ultrasonic Grain Noise from Jet-Engine Nickel Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margetan, F. J.; Haldipur, Pranaam; Yu, Linxiao; Thompson, R. B.

    2005-04-01

    For pulse/echo inspections of metals, models which predict backscattered noise characteristics often make a "single-scattering" assumption, i.e., multiple-scattering events in which sound is scattered from one grain to another before returning to the transducer are ignored. Models based on the single-scattering assumption have proven to be very useful in simulating inspections of engine-alloy billets and forgings. However, this assumption may not be accurate if grain scattering is too "strong" (e.g., if the mean grain diameter and/or the inspection frequency is too large). In this work, backscattered grain noise measurements and analyses were undertaken to search for evidence of significant multiple scattering in pulse/echo inspections of jet-engine Nickel alloys. At or above about 7 MHz frequency and 50 micron grain diameter, problems were seen with single-scattering noise models that are likely due to the neglect of multiple scattering by the models. The modeling errors were less severe for focused-probe measurements in the focal zone than for planar probe inspections. Single-scattering noise models are likely adequate for simulating current billet inspections which are carried out using 5-MHz focused transducers. However, multiple scattering effects should be taken into account in some fashion when simulating higher-frequency inspections of Nickel-alloy billets having large mean grain diameters (> 40 microns).

  6. Core noise investigation of the CF6-50 turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    Acoustic data obtained during the running of the CF6-50 turbofan engine on an outdoor test stand are presented. The test was conducted to acquire simultaneous internal and far-field measurements to determine the influence of internally generated noise on the far-field measurements. The data includes internal and far-field narrowband and one-third octave band pressure spectra.

  7. Determination of two-stroke engine exhaust noise by the method of characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. D.; Brown, G. L.

    1981-01-01

    A computational technique was developed for the method of characteristics solution of a one-dimensional flow in a duct as applied to the wave action in an engine exhaust system. By using the method, it was possible to compute the unsteady flow in both straight pipe and tuned expansion chamber exhaust systems as matched to the flow from the cylinder of a small two-stroke engine. The radiated exhaust noise was then determined by assuming monopole radiation from the tailpipe outlet. Very good agreement with experiment on an operation engine was achieved in the calculation of both the third octave radiated noise and the associated pressure cycles at several locations in the different exhaust systems. Of particular interest is the significance of nonlinear behavior which results in wave steepening and shock wave formation. The method computes the precise paths on the x-t plane of a finite number of C(sub +), C(sub -) and P characteristics, thereby obtaining high accuracy in determining the tailpipe outlet velocity and the radiated noise.

  8. Assessment of Soft Vane and Metal Foam Engine Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G.; Parrott, Tony L.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Hughes, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Two innovative fan-noise reduction concepts developed by NASA are presented - soft vanes and over-the-rotor metal foam liners. Design methodologies are described for each concept. Soft vanes are outlet guide vanes with internal, resonant chambers that communicate with the exterior aeroacoustic environment via a porous surface. They provide acoustic absorption via viscous losses generated by interaction of unsteady flows with the internal solid structure. Over-the-rotor metal foam liners installed at or near the fan rotor axial plane provide rotor noise absorption. Both concepts also provide pressure-release surfaces that potentially inhibit noise generation. Several configurations for both concepts are evaluated with a normal incidence tube, and the results are used to guide designs for implementation in two NASA fan rigs. For soft vanes, approximately 1 to 2 dB of broadband inlet and aft-radiated fan noise reduction is achieved. For over-the-rotor metal foam liners, up to 3 dB of fan noise reduction is measured in the low-speed fan rig, but minimal reduction is measured in the high-speed fan rig. These metal foam liner results are compared with a static engine test, in which inlet sound power level reductions up to 5 dB were measured. Brief plans for further development are also provided.

  9. The Reduction of Ducted Fan Engine Noise Via A Boundary Integral Equation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweed, J.; Dunn, M.

    1997-01-01

    The development of a Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM) for the prediction of ducted fan engine noise is discussed. The method is motivated by the need for an efficient and versatile computational tool to assist in parametric noise reduction studies. In this research, the work in reference 1 was extended to include passive noise control treatment on the duct interior. The BEM considers the scattering of incident sound generated by spinning point thrust dipoles in a uniform flow field by a thin cylindrical duct. The acoustic field is written as a superposition of spinning modes. Modal coefficients of acoustic pressure are calculated term by term. The BEM theoretical framework is based on Helmholtz potential theory. A boundary value problem is converted to a boundary integral equation formulation with unknown single and double layer densities on the duct wall. After solving for the unknown densities, the acoustic field is easily calculated. The main feature of the BIEM is the ability to compute any portion of the sound field without the need to compute the entire field. Other noise prediction methods such as CFD and Finite Element methods lack this property. Additional BIEM attributes include versatility, ease of use, rapid noise predictions, coupling of propagation and radiation both forward and aft, implementable on midrange personal computers, and valid over a wide range of frequencies.

  10. Source localization of turboshaft engine broadband noise using a three-sensor coherence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacodon, Daniel; Lewy, Serge

    2015-03-01

    Turboshaft engines can become the main source of helicopter noise at takeoff. Inlet radiation mainly comes from the compressor tones, but aft radiation is more intricate: turbine tones usually are above the audible frequency range and do not contribute to the weighted sound levels; jet is secondary and radiates low noise levels. A broadband component is the most annoying but its sources are not well known (it is called internal or core noise). Present study was made in the framework of the European project TEENI (Turboshaft Engine Exhaust Noise Identification). Its main objective was to localize the broadband sources in order to better reduce them. Several diagnostic techniques were implemented by the various TEENI partners. As regards ONERA, a first attempt at separating sources was made in the past with Turbomeca using a three-signal coherence method (TSM) to reject background non-acoustic noise. The main difficulty when using TSM is the assessment of the frequency range where the results are valid. This drawback has been circumvented in the TSM implemented in TEENI. Measurements were made on a highly instrumented Ardiden turboshaft engine in the Turbomeca open-air test bench. Two engine powers (approach and takeoff) were selected to apply TSM. Two internal pressure probes were located in various cross-sections, either behind the combustion chamber (CC), the high-pressure turbine (HPT), the free-turbine first stage (TL), or in four nozzle sections. The third transducer was a far-field microphone located around the maximum of radiation, at 120° from the intake centerline. The key result is that coherence increases from CC to HPT and TL, then decreases in the nozzle up to the exit. Pressure fluctuations from HPT and TL are very coherent with the far-field acoustic spectra up to 700 Hz. They are thus the main acoustic source and can be attributed to indirect combustion noise (accuracy decreases above 700 Hz because coherence is lower, but far-field sound spectra

  11. Influence of gate metal engineering on small-signal and noise behaviour of silicon nanowire MOSFET for low-noise amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Neha; Chaujar, Rishu

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the small-signal behaviour and RF noise performance of gate electrode workfunction engineered (GEWE) silicon nanowire (SiNW) MOSFET, and the results so obtained are simultaneously compared with SiNW and conventional MOSFET at THz frequency range. This work examines reflection and transmission coefficients, noise conductance, minimum noise figure and cross-correlation factor. Results reveal significant reduction in input/output reflection coefficient and an increase in forward/reverse transmission coefficient owing to improved transconductance in GEWE-SiNW in comparison with conventional counterparts. It is also observed that minimum noise figure and noise conductance of GEWE-SiNW is reduced by 17.4 and 31.2 %, respectively, in comparison with SiNW, thus fortifying its potential application for low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) at radio frequencies. Moreover, the efficacy of gate metal workfunction engineering is also studied and the results validate that tuning of workfunction difference results further improvement in device small-signal behaviour and noise performance.

  12. High-Temperature Smart Structures for Engine Noise Reduction and Performance Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; McKillip, Robert M., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    One of key NASA goals is to develop and integrate noise reduction technology to enable unrestricted air transportation service to all communities. One of the technical priorities of this activity has been to account for and reduce noise via propulsion/airframe interactions, identifying advanced concepts to be integrated with the airframe to mitigate these noise-producing mechanisms. An adaptive geometry chevron using embedded smart structures technology offers the possibility of maximizing engine performance while retaining and possibly enhancing the favorable noise characteristics of current designs. New high-temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) materials technology enables the devices to operate in both low-temperature (fan) and high-temperature (core) exhaust flows. Chevron-equipped engines have demonstrated reduced noise in testing and operational use. It is desirable to have the noise benefits of chevrons in takeoff/landing conditions, but have them deployed into a minimum drag position for cruise flight. The central feature of the innovation was building on rapidly maturing HTSMA technology to implement a next-generation aircraft noise mitigation system centered on adaptive chevron flow control surfaces. In general, SMA-actuated devices have the potential to enhance the demonstrated noise reduction effectiveness of chevron systems while eliminating the associated performance penalty. The use of structurally integrated smart devices will minimize the mechanical and subsystem complexity of this implementation. The central innovations of the effort entail the modification of prior chevron designs to include a small cut that relaxes structural stiffness without compromising the desired flow characteristics over the surface; the reorientation of SMA actuation devices to apply forces to deflect the chevron tip, exploiting this relaxed stiffness; and the use of high-temperature SMA (HTSMA) materials to enable operation in the demanding core chevron environment

  13. Active Control of Inlet Noise on the JT15D Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jerome P.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Fuller, Chris R.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the key results obtained by the Vibration and Acoustics Laboratories at Virginia Tech over the year from November 1997 to December 1998 on the Active Noise Control of Turbofan Engines research project funded by NASA Langley Research Center. The concept of implementing active noise control techniques with fuselage-mounted error sensors is investigated both analytically and experimentally. The analytical part of the project involves the continued development of an advanced modeling technique to provide prediction and design guidelines for application of active noise control techniques to large, realistic high bypass engines of the type on which active control methods are expected to be applied. Results from the advanced analytical model are presented that show the effectiveness of the control strategies, and the analytical results presented for fuselage error sensors show good agreement with the experimentally observed results and provide additional insight into the control phenomena. Additional analytical results are presented for active noise control used in conjunction with a wavenumber sensing technique. The experimental work is carried out on a running JT15D turbofan jet engine in a test stand at Virginia Tech. The control strategy used in these tests was the feedforward Filtered-X LMS algorithm. The control inputs were supplied by single and multiple circumferential arrays of acoustic sources equipped with neodymium iron cobalt magnets mounted upstream of the fan. The reference signal was obtained from an inlet mounted eddy current probe. The error signals were obtained from a number of pressure transducers flush-mounted in a simulated fuselage section mounted in the engine test cell. The active control methods are investigated when implemented with the control sources embedded within the acoustically absorptive material on a passively-lined inlet. The experimental results show that the combination of active control techniques with fuselage

  14. Separation of combustion noise in IC engines under cyclo-non-stationary regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoni, J.; Ducleaux, N.; NGhiem, G.; Wang, S.

    2013-07-01

    The separation and ranking of combustion and mechanical noise sources is of prime concern for the noise control of internal combustion (IC) engines. Signal processing techniques have been devised recently that can achieve such a separation using the cyclostationary property of IC engine signals. The object of this paper is to extend this framework to the situation where the engine undergoes a transient speed regime, for instance during a run-up. This raises some new and non-trivial questions. First, the assumption of cyclostationarity has to be relaxed and replaced by the vaguer notion of "cyclo-non-stationarity". Second - and related to the first point - the practice of cyclic averaging has to be revisited. Third, the design of the separation filter must explicitly incorporate speed dependence. This paper proposes simple but robust solutions to these issues, with a special effort to make them practicable from an industrial point of view. In particular, the cyclic difference operator is introduced in lieu of cyclic averaging, and speed-dependence is captured by use of a flexible basis of B-splines whose knots density is automatically selected from the data. Successful examples of separation are then demonstrated on actual data measured during an engine run-up.

  15. Noise control in aeroacoustics; Proceedings of the 1993 National Conference on Noise Control Engineering, NOISE-CON 93, Williamsburg, VA, May 2-5, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    In the conference over 100 papers were presented in eight sessions: (1) Emission: Noise Sources; (2) Physical Phenomena; (3) Noise ControlElements; (4) Vibration and Shock: Generation, Transmission, Isolation, and Reduction; (5) Immission: Physical Aspects of Environmental Noise; (6) Immission: Effects of Noise; (7) Analysis; and (8) Requirements. In addition, the distinguished lecture series included presentations on the High Speed Civil Transport and on research from the United Kingdom on aircraft noise effects.

  16. Turbomachinery noise studies of the AiResearch QCGAT engine with inflow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcardle, J. G.; Homyak, L.; Chrulski, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    The AiResearch Quiet Clean General Aviation Turbofan engine was tested on an outdoor test stand to compare the acoustic performance of two inflow control devices (ICD's) of similar design, and three inlet lips of different external shape. Only small performance differences were found. Far-field directivity patterns calculated by applicable existing analyses were compared with the measured tone and broadband patterns. For some of these comparisons, tests were made with an ICD to reduce rotor/inflow disturbance interaction noise, or with the acoustic suppression panels in the inlet or bypass duct covered with aluminum tape to determine hard wall acoustic performance. The comparisons showed that the analytical expressions used predict many directivity pattern features and trends, but can deviate in shape from the measured patterns under certain engine operating conditions. Some patterns showed lobes from modes attributable to rotor/engine strut interaction sources.

  17. Time Delay Analysis of Turbofan Engine Direct and Indirect Combustion Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2008-01-01

    The core noise components of a dual spool turbofan engine were separated by the use of a coherence function. A source location technique based on adjusting the time delay between the combustor pressure sensor signal and the far-field microphone signal to maximize the coherence and remove as much variation of the phase angle with frequency as possible was used. The discovery was made that for the 130o microphone a 90.027 ms time shift worked best for the frequency band from 0 to 200 Hz while a 86.975 ms time shift worked best for the frequency band from 200 to 400 Hz. Hence, the 0 to 200 Hz band signal took more time than the 200 to 400 Hz band signal to travel the same distance. This suggests the 0 to 200 Hz coherent cross spectral density band is partly due to indirect combustion noise attributed to entropy fluctuations, which travel at the flow velocity, interacting with the turbine. The signal in the 200 to 400 Hz frequency band is attributed mostly to direct combustion noise. Results are presented herein for engine power settings of 48, 54, and 60 percent of the maximum power setting

  18. Noise suppression by an acoustically treated three-ring inlet on a TF-34 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minner, G. L.; Goldman, R. G.; Heidelberg, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Acoustic performance tests were conducted with a three-ring inlet noise suppressor designed for a TF-34 engine. For all tests the aft noise sources were highly suppressed. The measured inlet suppression was large, reaching levels greater than 30 db at the peak. Comparisons of the data and the performance predictions were in reasonably good agreement. The frequency of peak attenuation was well predicted; the magnitude and spectral shape were reasonably well predicted. Agreement was best when the distribution of sound energy across the inlet was taken into account in the performance predictions. Tests in which the length of treatment was varied showed an orderly progression of attenuation with length; performance predictions for the different lengths also showed an orderly progression with length. At the highest speed of the engine, multiple pure tones were present throughout the spectrum in the source noise signature. These tones were effectively suppressed by the inlet liner, even at low frequencies, although the liner was designed to work best at the blade-passing frequency.

  19. Enhancing native defect sensitivity for EUV actinic blank inspection: optimized pupil engineering and photon noise study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yow-Gwo; Neureuther, Andrew; Naulleau, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss the impact of optimized pupil engineering and photon noise on native defect sensitivity in EUV actinic blank inspection. Native defects include phase-dominated defects, absorber defects, and defects with a combination of phase and absorption behavior. First, we extend the idea of the Zernike phase contrast (ZPC) method and study the impact of optimum phase shift in the pupil plane on native defect sensitivity, showing a 23% signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement compare to bright field (BF) for a phase defect with 20% absorption. We also describe the possibility to increase target defect SNR on target defect sizes at the price of losing the sensitivity on smaller (non-critical) defects. Moreover, we show the advantage of the optimized phase contrast (OZPC) method over BF EUV actinic blank inspection. A single focus scan from OZPC has better inspection efficiency over BF. Second, we make a detailed comparison between the phase contrast with apodization (AZPC) method and dark field (DF) method based on defect sensitivity in the presence of both photon shot noise and camera noise. Performance is compared for a variety of photon levels, mask roughness conditions, and combinations of defect phase and absorption.

  20. An objective method and measuring equipment for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcars. [acoustic diagnostics on automobile engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacprowski, J.; Motylewski, J.; Miazga, J.

    1974-01-01

    An objective method and apparatus for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcar engines are reported. The method and apparatus let us know whether the noisiness of the vehicle under test exceeds the admissible threshold levels given by appropriate standards and if so what is the main source of the excessive noise. The method consists in measuring both the overall noise level and the sound pressure levels in definite frequency bands while the engine speed is controlled as well and may be fixed at prescribed values. Whenever the individually adjusted threshold level has been exceeded in any frequency band, a self-sustaining control signal is sent.

  1. Analytical investigation of adaptive control of radiated inlet noise from turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risi, John D.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.

    1994-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed to predict the resulting far field radiation from a turbofan engine inlet. A feedforward control algorithm was simulated to predict the controlled far field radiation from the destructive combination of fan noise and secondary control sources. Numerical results were developed for two system configurations, with the resulting controlled far field radiation patterns showing varying degrees of attenuation and spillover. With one axial station of twelve control sources and error sensors with equal relative angular positions, nearly global attenuation is achieved. Shifting the angular position of one error sensor resulted in an increase of spillover to the extreme sidelines. The complex control inputs for each configuration was investigated to identify the structure of the wave pattern created by the control sources, giving an indication of performance of the system configuration. It is deduced that the locations of the error sensors and the control source configuration are equally critical to the operation of the active noise control system.

  2. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  3. Electrical Maxwell demon and Szilard engine utilizing Johnson noise, measurement, logic and control.

    PubMed

    Kish, Laszlo Bela; Granqvist, Claes-Göran

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a purely electrical version of Maxwell's demon which does not involve mechanically moving parts such as trapdoors, etc. It consists of a capacitor, resistors, amplifiers, logic circuitry and electronically controlled switches and uses thermal noise in resistors (Johnson noise) to pump heat. The only types of energy of importance in this demon are electrical energy and heat. We also demonstrate an entirely electrical version of Szilard's engine, i.e., an information-controlled device that can produce work by employing thermal fluctuations. The only moving part is a piston that executes work, and the engine has purely electronic controls and it is free of the major weakness of the original Szilard engine in not requiring removal and repositioning the piston at the end of the cycle. For both devices, the energy dissipation in the memory and other binary informatics components are insignificant compared to the exponentially large energy dissipation in the analog part responsible for creating new information by measurement and decision. This result contradicts the view that the energy dissipation in the memory during erasure is the most essential dissipation process in a demon. Nevertheless the dissipation in the memory and information processing parts is sufficient to secure the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

  4. Electrical Maxwell Demon and Szilard Engine Utilizing Johnson Noise, Measurement, Logic and Control

    PubMed Central

    Kish, Laszlo Bela; Granqvist, Claes-Göran

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a purely electrical version of Maxwell's demon which does not involve mechanically moving parts such as trapdoors, etc. It consists of a capacitor, resistors, amplifiers, logic circuitry and electronically controlled switches and uses thermal noise in resistors (Johnson noise) to pump heat. The only types of energy of importance in this demon are electrical energy and heat. We also demonstrate an entirely electrical version of Szilard's engine, i.e., an information-controlled device that can produce work by employing thermal fluctuations. The only moving part is a piston that executes work, and the engine has purely electronic controls and it is free of the major weakness of the original Szilard engine in not requiring removal and repositioning the piston at the end of the cycle. For both devices, the energy dissipation in the memory and other binary informatics components are insignificant compared to the exponentially large energy dissipation in the analog part responsible for creating new information by measurement and decision. This result contradicts the view that the energy dissipation in the memory during erasure is the most essential dissipation process in a demon. Nevertheless the dissipation in the memory and information processing parts is sufficient to secure the Second Law of Thermodynamics. PMID:23077525

  5. The Prediction of Ducted Fan Engine Noise Via a Boundary Integral Equation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Dunn, M. H.; Tweed, J.

    1996-01-01

    A computationally efficient Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM) for the prediction of ducted fan engine noise is presented. The key features of the BIEM are its versatility and the ability to compute rapidly any portion of the sound field without the need to compute the entire field. Governing equations for the BIEM are based on the assumptions that all acoustic processes are linear, generate spinning modes, and occur in a uniform flow field. An exterior boundary value problem (BVP) is defined that describes the scattering of incident sound by an engine duct with arbitrary profile. Boundary conditions on the duct walls are derived that allow for passive noise control treatment. The BVP is recast as a system of hypersingular boundary integral equations for the unknown duct surface quantities. BIEM solution methodology is demonstrated for the scattering of incident sound by a thin cylindrical duct with hard walls. Numerical studies are conducted for various engine parameters and continuous portions of the total pressure field are computed. Radiation and duct propagation results obtained are in agreement with the classical results of spinning mode theory for infinite ducts.

  6. Estimation of Signal Coherence Threshold and Concealed Spectral Lines Applied to Detection of Turbofan Engine Combustion Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2010-01-01

    Combustion noise from turbofan engines has become important, as the noise from sources like the fan and jet are reduced. An aligned and un-aligned coherence technique has been developed to determine a threshold level for the coherence and thereby help to separate the coherent combustion noise source from other noise sources measured with far-field microphones. This method is compared with a statistics based coherence threshold estimation method. In addition, the un-aligned coherence procedure at the same time also reveals periodicities, spectral lines, and undamped sinusoids hidden by broadband turbofan engine noise. In calculating the coherence threshold using a statistical method, one may use either the number of independent records or a larger number corresponding to the number of overlapped records used to create the average. Using data from a turbofan engine and a simulation this paper shows that applying the Fisher z-transform to the un-aligned coherence can aid in making the proper selection of samples and produce a reasonable statistics based coherence threshold. Examples are presented showing that the underlying tonal and coherent broad band structure which is buried under random broadband noise and jet noise can be determined. The method also shows the possible presence of indirect combustion noise. Copyright 2011 Acoustical Society of America. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the Acoustical Society of America.

  7. Estimation of signal coherence threshold and concealed spectral lines applied to detection of turbofan engine combustion noise.

    PubMed

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2011-05-01

    Combustion noise from turbofan engines has become important, as the noise from sources like the fan and jet are reduced. An aligned and un-aligned coherence technique has been developed to determine a threshold level for the coherence and thereby help to separate the coherent combustion noise source from other noise sources measured with far-field microphones. This method is compared with a statistics based coherence threshold estimation method. In addition, the un-aligned coherence procedure at the same time also reveals periodicities, spectral lines, and undamped sinusoids hidden by broadband turbofan engine noise. In calculating the coherence threshold using a statistical method, one may use either the number of independent records or a larger number corresponding to the number of overlapped records used to create the average. Using data from a turbofan engine and a simulation this paper shows that applying the Fisher z-transform to the un-aligned coherence can aid in making the proper selection of samples and produce a reasonable statistics based coherence threshold. Examples are presented showing that the underlying tonal and coherent broad band structure which is buried under random broadband noise and jet noise can be determined. The method also shows the possible presence of indirect combustion noise.

  8. Sample-based engine noise synthesis using an enhanced pitch-synchronous overlap-and-add method.

    PubMed

    Jagla, Jan; Maillard, Julien; Martin, Nadine

    2012-11-01

    An algorithm for the real time synthesis of internal combustion engine noise is presented. Through the analysis of a recorded engine noise signal of continuously varying engine speed, a dataset of sound samples is extracted allowing the real time synthesis of the noise induced by arbitrary evolutions of engine speed. The sound samples are extracted from a recording spanning the entire engine speed range. Each sample is delimitated such as to contain the sound emitted during one cycle of the engine plus the necessary overlap to ensure smooth transitions during the synthesis. The proposed approach, an extension of the PSOLA method introduced for speech processing, takes advantage of the specific periodicity of engine noise signals to locate the extraction instants of the sound samples. During the synthesis stage, the sound samples corresponding to the target engine speed evolution are concatenated with an overlap and add algorithm. It is shown that this method produces high quality audio restitution with a low computational load. It is therefore well suited for real time applications.

  9. Acoustic noise reduction for vehicle engines. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods, devices, and materials to reduce acoustic noise in vehicle engines. Vehicles covered include automobiles, railway locomotives, agricultural tractors, and aircraft. Internal combustion, diesel, and gas turbine engines are covered. (Contains a minimum of 188 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Fan noise reduction of an aircraft engine by inclining the outlet guide vanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaletskiy, Yu. D.; Pochkin, Ya. S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the acoustic characteristics of an aircraft engine fan in the design of which the outlet guide vanes are leaned in the circumferential direction. It was found that the configuration of the outlet guide with the vanes leaned along the rotation of the rotor leads to fan noise reduction with respect to the configuration with outlet guide vanes, and a configuration of the outlet guide with an lean of the vane counterrotation of the rotor wheel leads to its increase.

  11. Analytical modeling of the structureborne noise path on a small twin-engine aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, J. E., III; Stokes, A. Westagard; Garrelick, J. M.; Martini, K. F.

    1988-01-01

    The structureborne noise path of a six passenger twin-engine aircraft is analyzed. Models of the wing and fuselage structures as well as the interior acoustic space of the cabin are developed and used to evaluate sensitivity to structural and acoustic parameters. Different modeling approaches are used to examine aspects of the structureborne path. These approaches are guided by a number of considerations including the geometry of the structures, the frequency range of interest, and the tractability of the computations. Results of these approaches are compared with experimental data.

  12. Noise control in aeroacoustics; Proceedings of the 1993 National Conference on Noise Control Engineering, NOISE-CON 93, Williamsburg, VA, May 2-5, 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.

    In the conference over 100 papers were presented in eight sessions: (1) Emission: Noise Sources; (2) Physical Phenomena; (3) Noise ControlElements; (4) Vibration and Shock: Generation, Transmission, Isolation, and Reduction; (5) Immission: Physical Aspects of Environmental Noise; (6) Immission: Effects of Noise; (7) Analysis; and (8) Requirements. In addition, the distinguished lecture series included presentations on the High Speed Civil Transport and on research from the United Kingdom on aircraft noise effects. For individual titles, see A95-90089 through A95-90141.

  13. Predicting broadband noise from a stator vane of a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A computer-implemented model of fan section of a gas turbine engine accounts for the turbulence in the gas flow emanating from the rotor assembly and impinging upon an inlet to the stator vane cascade. The model allows for user-input variations in the sweep and/or lean angles for the stator vanes. The model determines the resulting acoustic response of the fan section as a function of the turbulence and the lean and/or sweep angles of the vanes. The model may be embodied in software that is rapidly executed in a computer. This way, an optimum arrangement in terms of fan noise reduction is quickly determined for the stator vane lean and sweep physical positioning in the fan section of a gas turbine engine.

  14. AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines: Separate-Flow Exhaust System Noise Reduction Concept Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Hoff, G. E.; Barter, J. W.; Martens, S.; Gliebe, P. R.; Mengle, V.; Dalton, W. N.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the work performed by General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) and Allison Engine Company (AEC) on NASA Contract NAS3-27720 AoI 14.3. The objective of this contract was to generate quality jet noise acoustic data for separate-flow nozzle models and to design and verify new jet-noise-reduction concepts over a range of simulated engine cycles and flight conditions. Five baseline axisymmetric separate-flow nozzle models having bypass ratios of five and eight with internal and external plugs and 11 different mixing-enhancer model nozzles (including chevrons, vortex-generator doublets, and a tongue mixer) were designed and tested in model scale. Using available core and fan nozzle hardware in various combinations, 28 GEAE/AEC separate-flow nozzle/mixing-enhancer configurations were acoustically evaluated in the NASA Glenn Research Center Aeroacoustic and Propulsion Laboratory. This report describes model nozzle features, facility and data acquisition/reduction procedures, the test matrix, and measured acoustic data analyses. A number of tested core and fan mixing enhancer devices and combinations of devices gave significant jet noise reduction relative to separate-flow baseline nozzles. Inward-flip and alternating-flip core chevrons combined with a straight-chevron fan nozzle exceeded the NASA stretch goal of 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction at typical sideline certification conditions.

  15. Aero-Propulsion Technology (APT) Task V Low Noise ADP Engine Definition Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcombe, V.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify and evaluate noise reduction technologies for advanced ducted prop propulsion systems that would allow increased capacity operation and result in an economically competitive commercial transport. The study investigated the aero/acoustic/structural advancements in fan and nacelle technology required to match or exceed the fuel burned and economic benefits of a constrained diameter large Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) compared to an unconstrained ADP propulsion system with a noise goal of 5 to 10 EPNDB reduction relative to FAR 36 Stage 3 at each of the three measuring stations namely, takeoff (cutback), approach and sideline. A second generation ADP was selected to operate within the maximum nacelle diameter constrain of 160 deg to allow installation under the wing. The impact of fan and nacelle technologies of the second generation ADP on fuel burn and direct operating costs for a typical 3000 nm mission was evaluated through use of a large, twin engine commercial airplane simulation model. The major emphasis of this study focused on fan blade aero/acoustic and structural technology evaluations and advanced nacelle designs. Results of this study have identified the testing required to verify the interactive performance of these components, along with noise characteristics, by wind tunnel testing utilizing and advanced interaction rig.

  16. The Application of a Boundary Integral Equation Method to the Prediction of Ducted Fan Engine Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.; Tweed, J.; Farassat, F.

    1999-01-01

    The prediction of ducted fan engine noise using a boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is considered. Governing equations for the BIEM are based on linearized acoustics and describe the scattering of incident sound by a thin, finite-length cylindrical duct in the presence of a uniform axial inflow. A classical boundary value problem (BVP) is derived that includes an axisymmetric, locally reacting liner on the duct interior. Using potential theory, the BVP is recast as a system of hypersingular boundary integral equations with subsidiary conditions. We describe the integral equation derivation and solution procedure in detail. The development of the computationally efficient ducted fan noise prediction program TBIEM3D, which implements the BIEM, and its utility in conducting parametric noise reduction studies are discussed. Unlike prediction methods based on spinning mode eigenfunction expansions, the BIEM does not require the decomposition of the interior acoustic field into its radial and axial components which, for the liner case, avoids the solution of a difficult complex eigenvalue problem. Numerical spectral studies are presented to illustrate the nexus between the eigenfunction expansion representation and BIEM results. We demonstrate BIEM liner capability by examining radiation patterns for several cases of practical interest.

  17. High-fidelity Simulation of Jet Noise from Rectangular Nozzles . [Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model for Noise Reduction in Advanced Jet Engines and Automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    This Phase II project validated a state-of-the-art LES model, coupled with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) far-field acoustic solver, to support the development of advanced engine concepts. These concepts include innovative flow control strategies to attenuate jet noise emissions. The end-to-end LES/ FW-H noise prediction model was demonstrated and validated by applying it to rectangular nozzle designs with a high aspect ratio. The model also was validated against acoustic and flow-field data from a realistic jet-pylon experiment, thereby significantly advancing the state of the art for LES.

  18. Assessment of Radiated Fan Noise Prediction Capabilities Using Static Engine Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes further assessment of the CDUCT-LaRC code via comparison with static engine test data. In an effort to improve confidence in the use of CDUCT-LaRC for liner optimization studies addressing realistic three-dimensional geometries, inlet radiated fan noise predictions were performed at 54% and 87% engine speed settings. Predictions were then compared with far-field measurements to assess the approach and implementation. The particular configurations were chosen to exercise the three-dimensional capability of CDUCT-LaRC and it s applicability to realistic configurations and conditions. At the 54% engine speed setting, the predictions capture the general directivity and acoustic treatment effects quite well. Comparisons of the predicted and measured directivity at the 87% power setting were more problematic. This was likely due in part to the difficulties in source specification and possibly the nonlinear nature of buzz-saw tones at this engine operating condition. Overall, the approach captured the basic trends and provided a conservative estimate of liner effects from which relative performance metrics could be inferred.

  19. Simulation of flight-type engine fan noise in the NASA-Lewis 9 x 15 anechoic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, M. F.; Dietrich, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    A major problem in the measurement of aircraft engine fan noise is the difficulty of simulating, in a ground-based facility, the noise that occurs during flight. Flight-type noise as contrasted to the usual ground-static test noise exhibits substantial reductions in both (1) the time unsteadiness of tone noise and (2) the mean level of tones calculated to be nonpropagating or cut-off. A model fan designed with cut-off of the fundamental tone was acoustically tested in the anechoic wind tunnel under both static and tunnel flow conditions. The properties that characterize flight-type noise were progressively simulated with increasing tunnel flow. The distinctly lobed directivity pattern of propagating rotor/stator interaction modes was also observed. The results imply that the excess noise attributed to the ingestion of the flow disturbances that prevail near most static test facilities was substantially reduced with tunnel flow. The anechoic wind tunnel appears to be a useful facility for applied research on aircraft engine fan noise under conditions of simulated flight.

  20. Novel Engineering and Fabrication Techniques Tested in Low-Noise- Research Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Cameron C.

    2003-01-01

    A major source of fan noise in commercial turbofan engines is the interaction of the wake from the fan blades with the stationary vanes (stators) directly behind them. The Trailing Edge Blowing (TEB) project team at the NASA Glenn Research Center designed and fabricated new fan blades to study the effects of fan trailing edge blowing as a potential noise-reduction concept. The intent is to fill the rotor wake by supplying air to the rotor blade trailing edge at the proper conditions to minimize the wake deficit, and thus generate less noise. The TEB hardware is designed for the Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF) test rig in Glenn's Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory. For this test, the air is fed from an external supply through the shaft of the rig. It is distributed to the base of each blade through an impeller, where it is forced into a plenum at the core of each blade. In actual engine configuration, air would most likely be bled from the compressor, but only at times when noise is an issue, such as takeoffs and landings. Glenn researchers designed and manufactured the blades in-house, using new techniques and concepts. The skins, which were designed for maximum strength in the directions of highest stress, were molded from multiple layers of carbon fiber. Considerable use was made of rapid prototyping techniques, such as laser sintering. The core was sintered from a lightweight polymer, and the retainer was CNC-machined (computer numerical control machined) from aluminum. All the components were joined with a cold-cure aerospace adhesive. These techniques and processes reduced the overall cost and allowed the new concept to be studied much sooner than would be possible using traditional fabrication methods. Since this test rig did not support the use of blade-monitoring techniques such as strain gauges, extensive bench testing was required to qualify the design. The blades were examined using a variety of methods including holography, pull tests (cyclic and

  1. Acoustic Database for Turbofan Engine Core-Noise Sources. I; Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Grant

    2015-01-01

    In this program, a database of dynamic temperature and dynamic pressure measurements were acquired inside the core of a TECH977 turbofan engine to support investigations of indirect combustion noise. Dynamic temperature and pressure measurements were recorded for engine gas dynamics up to temperatures of 3100 degrees Fahrenheit and transient responses as high as 1000 hertz. These measurements were made at the entrance of the high pressure turbine (HPT) and at the entrance and exit of the low pressure turbine (LPT). Measurements were made at two circumferential clocking positions. In the combustor and inter-turbine duct (ITD), measurements were made at two axial locations to enable the exploration of time delays. The dynamic temperature measurements were made using dual thin-wire thermocouple probes. The dynamic pressure measurements were made using semi-infinite probes. Prior to the engine test, a series of bench, oven, and combustor rig tests were conducted to characterize the performance of the dual wire temperature probes and to define and characterize the data acquisition systems. A measurement solution for acquiring dynamic temperature and pressure data on the engine was defined. A suite of hardware modifications were designed to incorporate the dynamic temperature and pressure instrumentation into the TECH977 engine. In particular, a probe actuation system was developed to protect the delicate temperature probes during engine startup and transients in order to maximize sensor life. A set of temperature probes was procured and the TECH977 engine was assembled with the suite of new and modified hardware. The engine was tested at four steady state operating speeds, with repeats. Dynamic pressure and temperature data were acquired at each condition for at least one minute. At the two highest power settings, temperature data could not be obtained at the forward probe locations since the mean temperatures exceeded the capability of the probes. The temperature data

  2. Inter-noise 89 - Engineering for environmental noise control; Proceedings of the International Conference on Noise Control Engineering, Newport Beach, CA, Dec. 4-6, 1989. Vols. 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maling, George C., Jr.

    Recent advances in noise analysis and control theory and technology are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include noise generation; sound-wave propagation; noise control by external treatments; vibration and shock generation, transmission, isolation, and reduction; multiple sources and paths of environmental noise; noise perception and the physiological and psychological effects of noise; instrumentation, signal processing, and analysis techniques; and noise standards and legal aspects. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  3. Pratt & Whitney/Boeing Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts Final Report for NASA Contract NAS3-97144, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, Larry A.; Hauser, Joseph E.; Mathews, Douglas C.; Topol, David A.; Bielak, Gerald W.; Lan, Justin H.; Premo, John W.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results of the work completed in Phase 2 of the Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts (EVNRC) contract. The purpose of the program is to validate, through engine testing, advanced noise reduction concepts aimed at reducing engine noise up to 6 EPNdB and improving nacelle suppression by 50 percent relative to 1992 technology. Phase 1 of the program is completed and is summarized in NASA/CR-2014-218088.

  4. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Morris H., III; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    2004-01-01

    In this project on the first stage (2000-Ol), we continued to develop the previous joint research between the Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) at Hampton University (HU) and the Jet Noise Team (JNT) at the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC). At the second stage (2001-03), FM&AL team concentrated its efforts on solving of problems of interest to Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC), especially in the field of propulsion system enhancement. The NASA GRC R&D Directorate and LaRC Hyper-X Program specialists in a hypersonic technology jointly with the FM&AL staff conducted research on a wide region of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. The last year the Hampton University School of Engineering & Technology was awarded the NASA grant, for creation of the Aeropropulsion Center, and the FM&AL is a key team of the project fulfillment responsible for research in Aeropropulsion and Acoustics (Pillar I). This work is supported by joint research between the NASA GRC/ FM&AL and the Institute of Mechanics at Moscow State University (IMMSU) in Russia under a CRDF grant. The main areas of current scientific interest of the FM&AL include an investigation of the proposed and patented advanced methods for aircraft engine thrust and noise benefits. This is the main subject of our other projects, of which one is presented. The last year we concentrated our efforts to analyze three main problems: (a) new effective methods fuel injection into the flow stream in air-breathing engines; (b) new re-circulation method for mixing, heat transfer and combustion enhancement in propulsion systems and domestic industry application; (c) covexity flow The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines (see, for

  5. Buzz-saw noise : propagation of shock waves in aero-engine inlet ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, Rasika; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François; Druon, Yann

    2008-06-01

    For supersonic flows relative to turbo-engine fan blades, measured acoustic spectra near the inlet present tones at fan blade passing frequency (BPF), engine shaft rotation frequency, or Engine Order (EO), and their respective harmonics. The latter are responsible for the Buzz-saw noise and are thus referred to as "Buzz-saw" or "multiple pure" tones. This work first attempts to reformulate McAlpine and Fisher's frequency domain model (2001) for the propagation of a unidimensional sawtooth waveform spiralling inside a hard-walled cylindrical duct in the presence of a uniform flow. The non-dissipative Burgers equation is solved using a shock fitting method, and modal attenuation and dispersion are added using a split-step computational method. In practice, shocks do not only occur at blade tips but on a significant portion of the blade span. The plane wave hypothesis being no longer valid, a new three dimensional model is required. This model is based on the computation of the axially varying amplitudes of the modal solutions, in order to take into account the nonlinear modal interactions.

  6. Noise abatement and traffic safety: The trade-off of quieter engines and pavements on vehicle detection.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, C; Freitas, E; Ferreira, J P; Raimundo, I D; Santos, J A

    2013-03-01

    Road traffic sounds are a major source of noise pollution in urban areas. But recent developments such as low noise pavements and hybrid/electric engine vehicles cast an optimistic outlook over such an environmental problem. However, it can be argued that engine, tire, and road noise could be relevant sources of information to avoid road traffic conflicts and accidents. In this paper, we analyze the potential trade-offs of traffic-noise abatement approaches in an experimental study, focusing for the first time on the impact and interaction of relevant factors such as pavement type, vehicle type, listener's age, and background noise, on vehicle detection levels. Results reveal that vehicle and pavement type significantly affect vehicle detection. Age is a significant factor, as both younger and older people exhibit lower detection levels of incoming vehicles. Low noise pavements combined with all-electric and hybrid vehicles might pose a severe threat to the safety of vulnerable road users. All factors interact simultaneously, and vehicle detection is best predicted by the loudness signal-to-noise ratio.

  7. Test-engine and inlet performance of an aircraft used for investigating flight effects on fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, R. A.; Preisser, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the NASA Flight Effects on Fan Noise Program, a Grumman OV-1B Mohawk aircraft was modified to carry a modified and instrumented Pratt & Whitney JT15D-1 turbofan engine. Onboard flight data, together with simultaneously measured farfield acoustic data, comprise a flight data base to which JT15D-1 static and wind-tunnel data are compared. The overall objective is to improve the ability to use ground-based facilities for the prediction of flight inlet radiated noise. This report describes the hardware and presents performance results for the research engine.

  8. Discrete-frequency and broadband noise radiation from diesel engine cooling fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Geon-Seok

    This effort focuses on measuring and predicting the discrete-frequency and broadband noise radiated by diesel engine cooling fans. Unsteady forces developed by the interaction of the fan blade with inlet flow are the dominant source for both discrete-frequency and broadband noise of the subject propeller fan. In many cases, a primary source of discrepancy between fan noise prediction and measurement is due to incomplete description of the fan inflow. Particularly, in such engine cooling systems where space is very limited, it would be very difficult, if not, impossible to measure the fan inflow velocity field using the conventional, stationary hot-wire method. Instead, the fan inflow was measured with two-component x-type hot-film probes attached very close to the leading edge of a rotating blade. One of the advantages of the blade-mounted-probe measurement technique is that it measures velocities relative to the rotating probe, which enables the acquired data to be applied directly in many aerodynamic theories that have been developed for the airfoil fixed-coordinate system. However, the velocity time data measured by this technique contains the spatially non-uniform mean velocity field along with the temporal fluctuations. A phase-locked averaging technique was successfully employed to decompose the velocity data into time-invariant flow distortions and fluctuations due to turbulence. The angles of attack of the fan blades, obtained from inlet flow measurements, indicate that the blades are stalled. The fan's radiated noise was measured without contamination from the engine noise by driving the fan with an electric motor. The motor operated at a constant speed while a pair of speed controllable pulleys controlled the fan speed. Narrowband and 1/3-octave band sound power of the cooling fan was measured by using the comparison method with a reference sound source in a reverberant room. The spatially non-uniform mean velocity field was used in axial-flow fan noise

  9. Airport noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendley, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of airport noise at several airports and air bases is detailed. Community reactions to the noise, steps taken to reduce jet engine noise, and the effect of airport use restrictions and curfews on air transportation are discussed. The adverse effect of changes in allowable operational noise on airport safety and altenative means for reducing noise pollution are considered. Community-airport relations and public relations are discussed.

  10. Communal Sensor Network for Adaptive Noise Reduction in Aircraft Engine Nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Emergent behavior, a subject of much research in biology, sociology, and economics, is a foundational element of Complex Systems Science and is apropos in the design of sensor network systems. To demonstrate engineering for emergent behavior, a novel approach in the design of a sensor/actuator network is presented maintaining optimal noise attenuation as an adaptation to changing acoustic conditions. Rather than use the conventional approach where sensors are managed by a central controller, this new paradigm uses a biomimetic model where sensor/actuators cooperate as a community of autonomous organisms, sharing with neighbors to control impedance based on local information. From the combination of all individual actions, an optimal attenuation emerges for the global system.

  11. J-85 jet engine noise measured in the ONERA S1 wind tunnel and extrapolated to far field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Julienne, Alain; Atencio, Adolph, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Noise from a J-85 turbojet with a conical, convergent nozzle was measured in simulated flight in the ONERA S1 Wind Tunnel. Data are presented for several flight speeds up to 130 m/sec and for radiation angles of 40 to 160 degrees relative to the upstream direction. The jet was operated with subsonic and sonic exhaust speeds. A moving microphone on a 2 m sideline was used to survey the radiated sound field in the acoustically treated, closed test section. The data were extrapolated to a 122 m sideline by means of a multiple-sideline source-location method, which was used to identify the acoustic source regions, directivity patterns, and near field effects. The source-location method is described along with its advantages and disadvantages. Results indicate that the effects of simulated flight on J-85 noise are significant. At the maximum forward speed of 130 m/sec, the peak overall sound levels in the aft quadrant were attentuated approximately 10 dB relative to sound levels of the engine operated statically. As expected, the simulated flight and static data tended to merge in the forward quadrant as the radiation angle approached 40 degrees. There is evidence that internal engine or shock noise was important in the forward quadrant. The data are compared with published predictions for flight effects on pure jet noise and internal engine noise. A new empirical prediction is presented that relates the variation of internally generated engine noise or broadband shock noise to forward speed. Measured near field noise extrapolated to far field agrees reasonably well with data from similar engines tested statically outdoors, in flyover, in a wind tunnel, and on the Bertin Aerotrain. Anomalies in the results for the forward quadrant and for angles above 140 degrees are discussed. The multiple-sideline method proved to be cumbersome in this application, and it did not resolve all of the uncertainties associated with measurements of jet noise close to the jet. The

  12. Lateral Attenuation of High-By-Pass Ratio Engined Aircraft Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, W. L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A flight experiment was conducted to investigate the lateral attenuation of high by pass ratio engined airplanes. A B-747 was flown at low altitudes over the ends of two microphone arrays. One array covering a lateral distance of 1600 m consisted of 14 microphones positioned over grass. The second array covered a lateral distance of 1200 m and consisted of 6 microphones positioned over a concrete runway. Sixteen runs were flown at altitudes ranging from 30 to 960 m. The acoustic information recorded in the field was reduced to one third octave band spectral time histories and synchronized with tracking and weather information. Lateral attenuation as a function of elevation angle was calculated in overall, A-weighted, tone-corrected perceived noise level, and effective perceived noise level units. The B-747 results are compared with similar results for a turbojet-powered T-38 airplane and the SAE recommended lateral attenuation prediction procedure. Less lateral attenuation was measured for the B-747 than for the T-38. The B-747 lateral attenuation values also fell below the SAE curve.

  13. Combustion noise level assessment in direct injection Diesel engines by means of in-cylinder pressure components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torregrosa, A. J.; Broatch, A.; Martín, J.; Monelletta, L.

    2007-07-01

    The low consumption achievable with Diesel engines and the subsequent reduction of CO2 emissions, together with the new technologies allowing to meet present and future legislation for pollutant emission reduction, make them attractive from an environmental viewpoint. However, current and future Diesel concepts are intrinsically noisy, and thus in the past few years, combustion noise was considered as an additional factor in engine development alongside performance, emissions and driveability. Otherwise, due to this negative issue intrinsic to Diesel combustion, end-users could be reluctant to drive Diesel-powered vehicles and their potential for environment preservation could thus be lost or underused. Evaluation procedures are then required, both for noise level and sound quality, that may be integrated into the global engine development process, avoiding the need to resort to long and expensive acoustic tests. In this paper, such a procedure, based on the noise source diagnostic through the definition of suitable components extracted from in-cylinder pressure, is proposed and validated. An innovative decomposition of the in-cylinder pressure signal is used to obtain such components, so that features associated with the excitation inside the cylinder may be properly identified. These combustion components, significant of the rate of heat release in the cylinder and the resonance in the combustion chamber, may be correlated with the overall noise level. A prediction of the radiated engine noise level more accurate than that obtained from the classical 'block attenuation' approach is achieved, while combustion process features related to the resulting noise level can be identified and thus corrective actions may be proposed.

  14. Advanced subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Element Separate Flow Nozzle Tests for Engine Noise Reduction Sub-Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saiyed, Naseem H.

    2000-01-01

    Contents of this presentation include: Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) goals and general information; Nozzle nomenclature; Nozzle schematics; Photograph of all baselines; Configurations tests and types of data acquired; and Engine cycle and plug geometry impact on EPNL.

  15. Noise reduction in digital lensless holographic microscopy by engineering the light from a light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    By engineering the light from a light-emitting diode (LED) the noises present in digital lensless holographic microscopy (DLHM) are reduced. The partially coherent light from an LED is tailored to produce a spherical wavefront with limited coherence time and the spatial coherence needed by DLHM to work. DLHM with this engineered light source is used to image biological samples that cover areas of the order of mm(2). The ratio between the diameter of the area that is almost coherently illuminated to the diameter of the illumination area is utilized as parameter to quantify the performance of the DLHM with the engineered LED light source. Experimental results show that while the noises can be reduced effectively the spatial resolution can be kept in the micrometer range.

  16. Identification of Noise Sources During Rocket Engine Test Firings and a Rocket Launch Using a Microphone Phased-Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta; Mosher, Robert N.; Porter, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    A 70 microphone, 10-foot by 10-foot, microphone phased array was built for use in the harsh environment of rocket launches. The array was setup at NASA Wallops launch pad 0A during a static test firing of Orbital Sciences' Antares engines, and again during the first launch of the Antares vehicle. It was placed 400 feet away from the pad, and was hoisted on a scissor lift 40 feet above ground. The data sets provided unprecedented insight into rocket noise sources. The duct exit was found to be the primary source during the static test firing; the large amount of water injected beneath the nozzle exit and inside the plume duct quenched all other sources. The maps of the noise sources during launch were found to be time-dependent. As the engines came to full power and became louder, the primary source switched from the duct inlet to the duct exit. Further elevation of the vehicle caused spilling of the hot plume, resulting in a distributed noise map covering most of the pad. As the entire plume emerged from the duct, and the ondeck water system came to full power, the plume itself became the loudest noise source. These maps of the noise sources provide vital insight for optimization of sound suppression systems for future Antares launches.

  17. Effects of Nozzle Scale, Total Temperature and an Afterburner on Jet Noise from a Pre-Cooled Turbojet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Mikiya; Sano, Takayuki; Fukuda, Masayuki; Kojima, Takayuki; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Nishida, Shunsuke; Imamura, Osamu; Shiga, Seiichi; Tsue, Mitsuhiro

    Effects of nozzle scale, total temperature, and an afterburner on jet noise characteristics from a pre-cooled turbojet engine are investigated experimentally. In JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), a pre-cooled turbojet engine for an HST (Hypersonic transport) is under development. In the present study, 1.0%- and 2.4%-scaled models of the rectangular plug nozzle (Nozzles I and II) are manufactured, and the jet noise characteristics are investigated under a wide range of total temperatures. For Nozzle I, no air-heater is utilized and the total temperature is 290K. For Nozzle II, a pebble heater and an afterburner (AB) are utilized upstream of the nozzle model, and the total temperature is varied from 520K (pebble heater) to 1540K (pebble heater + AB). The total pressure is set at 0.27 and 0.30MPa(a) for both nozzle models. Jet noise is measured using a high-frequency microphone set at 135 deg from the engine inlet, and normalized jet noise spectra are obtained based on AUjn law and Helmholtz number. For cases without afterburner, the normalized spectra agrees well regardless of the nozzle scale and total temperature where the velocity index lies from n = 7.7 to 9.2, and the correlation factor between the two facilities is shown to be about 1dB. For the case with afterburner, the normalized spectrum does not agree with other conditions where the velocity index n seems to be about 4.

  18. Community noise sources and noise control issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nihart, Gene L.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: community noise sources and noise control issues; noise components for turbine bypass turbojet engine (TBE) turbojet; engine cycle selection and noise; nozzle development schedule; NACA nozzle design; NACA nozzle test results; nearly fully mixed (NFM) nozzle design; noise versus aspiration rate; peak noise test results; nozzle test in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF); and Schlieren pictures of NACA nozzle.

  19. Acoustic theory of axisymmetric multisectioned ducts. [reduction of turbofan engine noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Equations are developed for the acoustic field in a duct system which is made up of a number of connected circular and annular ducts. These equations are suitable for finding the acoustic field inside of and radiated from an aircraft turbofan engine. Acoustic modes are used as generalized coordinates in order to develop a set of matrix equations for the acoustic field. Equations for these modes are given for circular and annular ducts with uniform flow. Modal source equations are derived for point acoustic sources. General equations for mode transmission and reflection are developed and detailed equations are derived for ducts with multiple sections of acoustic treatment and for ducts with circumferential splitter rings. The general theory is applied to the special case of a uniform area circular duct with multisection liners and it is shown that the mode reflection effects are proportional to differences of the acoustic admittances of adjacent liners. A numerical example is given which shows that multisection liners may provide greater noise suppression than uniform liners.

  20. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 2; BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the second volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the BFaNS computer program.

  1. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 1; Setup_BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the first volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User's Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running Setup_BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the Setup_BFaNS computer program.

  2. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, Mikhail; Morgan, Morris H.; Hardin, Jay C.; Mosiane, Lotlamoreng; Kaushal, Patel; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2000-01-01

    In this project, we continue to develop the previous joint research between the Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) at Hampton University (HU) and the Jet Noise Team (JNT) at the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC). The FM&AL was established at Hampton University in June of 1996 and has conducted research under two NASA grants: NAG-1-1835 (1996-99), and NAG-1-1936 (1997-00). In addition, the FM&AL has jointly conducted research with the Central AeroHydrodynamics Institute (TsAGI, Moscow) in Russia under a Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) grant #RE2-136 (1996-99). The goals of the FM&AL programs are twofold: (1) to improve the working efficiency of the FM&AUs team in generating new innovative ideas and in conducting research in the field of fluid dynamics and acoustics, basically for improvement of supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines, and (2) to attract promising minority students to this research and training and, in cooperation with other HU departments, to teach them basic knowledge in Aerodynamics, Gas Dynamics, and Theoretical and Experimental Methods in Aeroacoustics and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The research at the HU FM&AL supports reduction schemes associated with the emission of engine pollutants for commercial aircraft and concepts for reduction of observables for military aircraft. These research endeavors relate to the goals of the NASA Strategic Enterprise in Aeronautics concerning the development of environmentally acceptable aircraft. It is in this precise area, where the US aircraft industry, academia, and Government are in great need of trained professionals and which is a high priority goal of the Minority University Research and Education (MUREP) Program, that the HU FM&AL can make its most important contribution. The main achievements for the reporting period in the development of concepts for noise reduction and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles and inlets for aircraft engines

  3. Evaluation of an Aircraft Concept With Over-Wing, Hydrogen-Fueled Engines for Reduced Noise and Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Olson, Erik D.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the analytical modeling and evaluation of an unconventional commercial transport aircraft concept designed to address aircraft noise and emission issues. A strut-braced wing configuration with overwing, ultra-high bypass ratio, hydrogen fueled turbofan engines is considered. Estimated noise and emission characteristics are compared to a conventional configuration designed for the same mission and significant benefits are identified. The design challenges and technology issues which would have to be addressed to make the concept a viable alternative to current aircraft designs are discussed. This concept is one of the "Quiet Green Transport" aircraft concepts studied as part of NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) Program. The RASC Program seeks to develop revolutionary concepts that address strategic objectives of the NASA Enterprises, such as reducing aircraft noise and emissions, and to identify enabling advanced technology requirements for the concepts.

  4. Effects of forward velocity on noise for a J85 turbojet engine with multitube suppressor from wind tunnel and flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.; Miles, J. H.; Sargent, N. B.

    1976-01-01

    Flight tests and wind tunnel noise tests using a J85 engine with some representative jet exhaust noise suppressors are reported. Capabilities and limitations of the two types of experimental methods are evaluated with emphasis on investigation of forward velocity effects. The suppressor arrangement was a 104-elliptical-tube nozzle configuration, with or without an acoustically lined shroud. The suppressor noise levels are found not reduced as much by forward velocity as expected for unsuppressed jets. The directivity and forward velocity effects appear more similar to predicted trends for internally generated noise than for unsuppressed jet noise.

  5. Noise measurements for a twin-engine commercial jet aircraft during 3 deg approaches and level flyovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Shanks, R. E.; Mueller, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    Noise measurements have been made with a twin-engine commercial jet aircraft making 3 deg approaches and level flyovers. The flight-test data showed that, in the standard 3 deg approach configuration with 40 deg flaps, effective perceived noise level (EPNL) had a value of 109.5 effective perceived noise decibels (EPNdB). This result was in agreement with unpublished data obtained with the same type of aircraft during noise certification tests; the 3 deg approaches made with 30 deg flaps and slightly reduced thrust reduced the EPNL value by 1 EPNdB. Extended center-line noise determined during the 3 deg approaches with 40 deg flaps showed that the maximum reference A-weighted sound pressure level (LA,max)ref varied from 100.0 A-weighted decibels 2.01 km (108 n. mi.) from the threshold to 87.4 db(A) at 6.12 km (3.30 n. mi.) from the threshold. These test values were about 3 db(A) higher than estimates used for comparison. The test data along the extended center line during approaches with 30 deg flaps were 1 db(A) lower than those for approaches with 40 deg flaps. Flight-test data correlating (LA,max)ref with thrust at altitudes of 122 m (400 ft) and 610 m (2000 ft) were in agreement with reference data used for comparison.

  6. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Morris H.; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    2001-01-01

    Three connected sub-projects were conducted under reported project. Partially, these sub-projects are directed to solving the problems conducted by the HU/FM&AL under two other NASA grants. The fundamental idea uniting these projects is to use untraditional 3D corrugated nozzle designs and additional methods for exhaust jet noise reduction without essential thrust lost and even with thrust augmentation. Such additional approaches are: (1) to add some solid, fluid, or gas mass at discrete locations to the main supersonic gas stream to minimize the negative influence of strong shock waves forming in propulsion systems; this mass addition may be accompanied by heat addition to the main stream as a result of the fuel combustion or by cooling of this stream as a result of the liquid mass evaporation and boiling; (2) to use porous or permeable nozzles and additional shells at the nozzle exit for preliminary cooling of exhaust hot jet and pressure compensation for non-design conditions (so-called continuous ejector with small mass flow rate; and (3) to propose and analyze new effective methods fuel injection into flow stream in air-breathing engines. Note that all these problems were formulated based on detailed descriptions of the main experimental facts observed at NASA Glenn Research Center. Basically, the HU/FM&AL Team has been involved in joint research with the purpose of finding theoretical explanations for experimental facts and the creation of the accurate numerical simulation technique and prediction theory for solutions for current problems in propulsion systems solved by NASA and Navy agencies. The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analysis for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. The F&AL Team uses analytical methods, numerical simulations, and possible experimental tests at the Hampton University campus. We will present some management activity

  7. Effects of jet engine noise and performance feedback on perceived workload in a monitoring task.

    PubMed

    Becker, A B; Warm, J S; Dember, W N; Hancock, P A

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to intermittent jet aircraft noise (70 dBA or 95 dBA maximum intensity) and knowledge of results concerning signal detections (hit-KR) on performance efficiency and perceived workload in a 40-min visual vigilance task. The noise featured a Doppler-like quality in which planes seemed to approach from the monitor's left and recede to the right. Perceptual sensitivity (d') was poorer in the context of noise than in quiet but only in the presence of hit-KR. The lack of noise-related performance differences in the absence of hit-KR most likely reflected a "floor effect" rather than some special relation between noise and feedback. When compared to subjects performing in quiet, those who operated in noise were less able to profit from hit-KR, a result that may reflect the effects of noise on information processing. In addition to its negative effects on signal detectability, noise elevated the perceived workload, as measured by the NASA-TLX. This effect was robust; it was independent of the presence of hit-KR, even though hit-KR generally lowered the overall level of perceived workload. The results provide the initial experimental demonstration that perceived workload is a sensitive measure of the effects of aircraft noise in monitoring tasks.

  8. Effects of forward velocity on noise for a J85 turbojet engine with multitube suppressor from wind tunnel and flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.; Miles, J. H.; Sargent, N. B.

    1976-01-01

    Flight and wind tunnel noise tests were conducted using a J85 turbojet engine as a part of comprehensive programs to obtain an understanding of forward velocity effects on jet exhaust noise. Nozzle configurations of primary interest were a 104-tube suppressor with and without an acoustically-treated shroud. The installed configuration of the engine was as similar as possible in the flight and wind tunnel tests. Exact simultaneous matching of engine speed, exhaust velocity, and exhaust temperature was not possible, and the wind tunnel maximum Mach number was approximately 0.27, while the flight Mach number was approximately 0.37. The nominal jet velocity range was 450 to 640 m/sec. For both experiments, background noise limited the jet velocity range for which significant data could be obtained. In the present tests the observed directivity and forward velocity effects for the suppressor are more similar to predicted trends for internally-generated noise than unsuppressed jet noise.

  9. Engineering simulation evaluation of the two-segment noise abatement approach in the Douglas DC-8-61

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nylen, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    The development and operational evaluation are discussed of a noise abatement two-segment approach which is safe and operationally acceptable for routine use in air carrier service. An engineering simulation evaluation was conducted; it was found that the entry speed and initial configuration are more important in the DC-8-61 than in the 727 because of the DC-8's aerodynamic cleanliness and drag programming constraints. It was also found that the altitude required for the DC-8 upper and lower transitions is less than the 727 transitions principally due to the pitching moment from the underslung DC-8 engines as compared to the 727 engines which produce no pitching moment with a change in thrust. The 727 approach was a reduced flaps (30 degrees) procedure with a 10-knot airspeed bleed in the lower transition; the DC-8 approach is a full flaps (50 degrees) procedure with constant airspeed established as soon as possible after upper segment transition.

  10. Quantum heat engine power can be increased by noise-induced coherence.

    PubMed

    Scully, Marlan O; Chapin, Kimberly R; Dorfman, Konstantin E; Kim, Moochan Barnabas; Svidzinsky, Anatoly

    2011-09-13

    Laser and photocell quantum heat engines (QHEs) are powered by thermal light and governed by the laws of quantum thermodynamics. To appreciate the deep connection between quantum mechanics and thermodynamics we need only recall that in 1901 Planck introduced the quantum of action to calculate the entropy of thermal light, and in 1905 Einstein's studies of the entropy of thermal light led him to introduce the photon. Then in 1917, he discovered stimulated emission by using detailed balance arguments. Half a century later, Scovil and Schulz-DuBois applied detailed balance ideas to show that maser photons were produced with Carnot quantum efficiency (see Fig. 1A). Furthermore, Shockley and Quiesser invoked detailed balance to obtain the efficiency of a photocell illuminated by "hot" thermal light (see Fig. 2A). To understand this detailed balance limit, we note that in the QHE, the incident light excites electrons, which can then deliver useful work to a load. However, the efficiency is limited by radiative recombination in which the excited electrons are returned to the ground state. But it has been proven that radiatively induced quantum coherence can break detailed balance and yield lasing without inversion. Here we show that noise-induced coherence enables us to break detailed balance and get more power out of a laser or photocell QHE. Surprisingly, this coherence can be induced by the same noisy (thermal) emission and absorption processes that drive the QHE (see Fig. 3A). Furthermore, this noise-induced coherence can be robust against environmental decoherence.Fig. 1.(A) Schematic of a laser pumped by hot photons at temperature T(h) (energy source, blue) and by cold photons at temperature T(c) (entropy sink, red). The laser emits photons (green) such that at threshold the laser photon energy and pump photon energy is related by Carnot efficiency (4). (B) Schematic of atoms inside the cavity. Lower level b is coupled to the excited states a and β. The laser power

  11. Effects of airplane characteristics and takeoff noise and field length constraints on engine cycle selection for a Mach 2.32 cruise application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, J. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Sideline noise and takeoff field length were varied for two types of Mach 2.32 cruise airplane to determine their effect on engine cycle selection. One of these airplanes was the NASA/Langley-LTV arrow wing while the other was a Boeing modified delta-plus-tail derived from the earlier 2707-300 concept. Advanced variable cycle engines were considered. A more conventional advanced low bypass turbofan engine was used as a baseline for comparison. Appropriate exhaust nozzle modifications were assumed, where needed, to allow all engines to receive either an inherent co-annular or annular jet noise suppression benefit. All the VCE's out-performed the baseline engine by substantial margins in a design range comparison, regardless of airplane choice or takeoff restrictions. The choice among the three VCE's considered, however, depends on the field length, noise level, and airplane selected.

  12. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, Mikhail; Morgan, Morris H.; Povitsky, Alex; Schkolnikov, Natalia; Njoroge, Norman; Coston, Calvin; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2001-01-01

    The Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory at Hampton University (HU/FM&AL) jointly with the NASA Glenn Research Center has conducted four connected subprojects under the reporting project. Basically, the HU/FM&AL Team has been involved in joint research with the purpose of theoretical explanation of experimental facts and creation of accurate numerical simulation techniques and prediction theory for solution of current problems in propulsion systems of interest to the NAVY and NASA agencies. This work is also supported by joint research between the NASA GRC and the Institute of Mechanics at Moscow State University (IM/MSU) in Russia under a CRDF grant. The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. The FM&AL Team uses analytical methods, numerical simulations and possible experimental tests at the Hampton University campus. The fundamental idea uniting these subprojects is to use nontraditional 3D corrugated and composite nozzle and inlet designs and additional methods for exhaust jet noise reduction without essential thrust loss and even with thrust augmentation. These subprojects are: (1) Aeroperformance and acoustics of Bluebell-shaped and Telescope-shaped designs; (2) An analysis of sharp-edged nozzle exit designs for effective fuel injection into the flow stream in air-breathing engines: triangular-round, diamond-round and other nozzles; (3) Measurement technique improvement for the HU Low Speed Wind Tunnel; a new course in the field of aerodynamics, teaching and training of HU students; experimental tests of Mobius-shaped screws: research and training; (4) Supersonic inlet shape optimization. The main outcomes during this reporting period are: (l) Publications: The AIAA Paper #00-3170 was presented at the 36th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, 17-19 June, 2000, Huntsville, AL. The AIAA

  13. William W. Lang's contributions to the development of the International Institute of Noise Control Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihlman, Tor

    2005-09-01

    Bill Lang has been a member of the Board of I-INCE since its first meeting in 1975 in Sendai, Japan. From 1988 to 1999 he served as the President, and to this day remains a very active member of the Board. The INTER-NOISE congress series has been the core activity of I-INCE, and in every case Bill has contributed very actively to secure an excellent congress. He has also taken a number of initiatives both to improve the organization itself and to develop new activities, especially the Technical Study Groups that have prepared consensus reports on important issues such as noise barrier effectiveness and industrial noise hearing conservation policy. At present, he is very active in attempting to develop a global noise control policy.

  14. Acoustic evaluation of a novel swept-rotor fan. [noise reduction in turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. G.; Woodward, R. P.; Mackinnon, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Inlet noise and aerodynamic performance are presented for a high tip speed fan designed with rotor blade leading edge sweep that gives a subsonic component of inlet Mach number normal to the edge at all radii. The intent of the design was to minimize the generation of rotor leading edge shock waves thereby minimizing multiple pure tone noise. Sound power level and spectral comparisons are made with several high-speed fans of conventional design. Results show multiple pure tone noise at levels below those of some of the other fans and this noise was initiated at a higher tip speed. Aerodynamic performance of the fan did not meet design goals for this first build which applied conventional design procedures to the swept fan geometry.

  15. Effects of acoustic treatment on the interior noise levels of a twin-engine propeller aircraft - Experimental flight results and theoretical predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, T. B.; Powell, C. A.; Daniels, E. F.; Pope, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    In-flight noise level measurements were made within two cabin configurations of a general aviation business aircraft. The Fairchild Merlin IVC twin-engine aircraft was tested with bare walls and fiberglass insulation and in an executive trim configuration. Narrow-band and octave format data were subjected to analyses which permitted identification of the blade passage harmonics (BPH). Cabin noise level reductions (insertion losses) due to added insulation varied with position in the cabin, the BPH number, cabin pressure, and engine torque. The measurements were closely predicted using the propeller aircraft interior noise (PAIN) mode.

  16. Review of Turbofan-Engine Combustion and Jet-Noise Research and Related Topics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    prediction equation for sound power level. A transmission-loss model was derived to relate the combustion noise produced by a combustor rig to that...modeled by the pre-merged part of inverted-profile jet is also shown in Figure 22. Prediction equations for the level and spectrum of the sound pressure... equation but does not introduce a special model for jet turbulence. Their procedure starts with wideband noise measurements made under static conditions at

  17. Critical Propulsion and Noise reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines. Area of Interest 14.3: Separate Flow Exhaust System Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Hoff, G. E.; Barter, J. W.; Brausch, J. F.; Gliebe, P. R.; Coffin, R. S.; Martens, S.; Delaney, B. R.; Dalton, W. N.; Mengle, V. G.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation discusses: Project Objectives, Approach and Goal; Baseline Nozzles and Test Cycle Definition; Repeatability and Baseline Nozzle Results; Noise Reduction Concepts; Noise Reduction Tests Configurations of BPR=5 Internal Plug Nozzle adn Acoustic Results; Noise Reduction Test Configurations of BPR=5 External Plug Nozzle and Acoustic Results; and Noise Reduction Tests Configurations of BPR=8 External Plug Nozzle and Acoustic Results.

  18. Pratt and Whitney/Boeing Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts: Final Report for NASA Contract NAS3-97144, Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, Douglas; Bock, Larry A.; Bielak, Gerald W.; Dougherty, R. P.; Premo, John W.; Scharpf, Dan F.; Yu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Major airports in the world's air transportation systems face a serious problem in providing greater capacity to meet the ever increasing demands of air travel. This problem could be relieved if airports are allowed to increase their operating time, now restricted by curfews and by relaxing present limits on takeoffs and landings. The key operational issue in extending the present curfews is noise. In response to these increasing restrictive noise regulations, NASA has launched a program to validate through engine testing, noise reduction concepts and technologies that have evolved from the Advanced Subsonic Technologies (AST) Noise Reduction Program. The goal of this AST program was to develop and validate technology that reduces engine noise and improves nacelle suppression effectiveness relative to 1992 technology. Contract NAS3-97144 titled "Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts" (EVNRC) was awarded to P&W on August 12, 1997 to conduct full scale noise reduction tests in two Phases on a PW4098 engine. The following Section 1.2 provides a brief description of the overall program. The remainder of this report provides a detailed documentation of Phase I of the program.

  19. Comparison of several inflow control devices for flight simulation of fan tone noise using a JT15D-1 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcardle, J. G.; Jones, W. L.; Heidelberg, L. J.; Homyak, L.

    1980-01-01

    To enable accurate simulation of in-flight fan tone noise during ground static tests, four devices intended to reduce inflow disturbances and turbulence were tested with a JT15D-1 turbofan engine. These inflow control devices (ICD's) consisted of honeycomb/screen structures mounted over the engine inlet. The ICD's ranged from 1.6 to 4 fan diameters in size, and differed in shape and fabrication method. All the ICD's significantly reduced the BPF tone in the far-field directivity patterns, but the smallest ICD's apparently introduced propagating modes which could be recognized by additional lobes in the speeds; at supersonic fan tip speed the smallest ICD's had some measurable loss, but the largest had no loss. Data from a typical transducer show that the unsteady inflow distortion modes (turbulence) were eliminated or significantly reduced when either of the ICD's was installed. However, some steady inflow distortion modes remained.

  20. Relative effectiveness of several simulated jet engine noise spectral treatments in reducing annoyance in a TV-viewing situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, W. J.; Shigehisa, T.; Shepherd, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in order to determine the relative effectiveness of several hypothetical jet engine noise treatments and to test hypothesis that speech interference, at least in part, mediates annoyance in a TV-viewing situation. Twenty-four subjects watched television in a simulated living room. Recorded jet flyover noises were presented in such a way as to create the illusion that aircraft were actually flying overhead. There were 27 stimuli (nine spectra at three overall levels) presented at an average rate of approximately one flight every 2 minutes. Subjects judged the annoyance value of individual stimuli using either a category rating method or magnitude estimation method in each of two 1-hour sessions. The spectral treatments most effective in reducing annoyance were at 1.6 Khz and 800 Hz, in that order. The degree of annoyance reduction resulting from all treatments was affected by the overall sound level of the stimuli, with the greatest reduction at the intermediate overall sound level, about 88 to 89 db(A), peak value. The results are interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that speech interference, at least in part, mediates annoyance with aircraft noise in a TV-viewing situation.

  1. The Potential Benefits of Advanced Casing Treatment for Noise Attenuation in Utra-High Bypass Ratio Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David

    2007-01-01

    In order to increase stall margin in a high-bypass ratio turbofan engine, an advanced casing treatment was developed that extracted a small amount of flow from the casing behind the fan and injected it back in front of the fan. Several different configurations of this casing treatment were designed by varying the distance of the extraction and injection points, as well as varying the amount of flow. These casing treatments were tested on a 55.9 cm (22 in.) scale model of the Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor in the NASA Glenn 9 by 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel. While all of the casing treatment configurations showed the expected increase in stall margin, a few of the designs showed a potential noise benefit for certain engine speeds. This paper will show the casing treatments and the results of the testing as well as propose further research in this area. With better prediction and design techniques, future casing treatment configurations could be developed that may result in an optimized casing treatment that could conceivably reduce the noise further.

  2. Engineered Solutions to Reduce Occupational Noise Exposure at the NASA Glenn Research Center: A Five-Year Progress Summary (1994-1999)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Beth A.; Hange, Donald W.; Mikulic, John J.

    1999-01-01

    At the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (formerly the Lewis Research Center), experimental research in aircraft and space propulsion systems is conducted in more than 100 test cells and laboratories. These facilities are supported by a central process air system that supplies high-volume, high-pressure compressed air and vacuum at various conditions that simulate altitude flight. Nearly 100,000 square feet of metalworking and specialized fabrication shops located on-site produce prototypes, models, and test hardware in support of experimental research operations. These activities, comprising numerous individual noise sources and operational scenarios, result in a varied and complex noise exposure environment, which is the responsibility of the Glenn Research Center Noise Exposure Management Program. Hearing conservation, community noise complaint response and noise control engineering services are included under the umbrella of this Program, which encompasses the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard on occupational noise exposure, Sec. 29CFR 1910.95, as well as the more stringent NASA Health Standard on Hearing Conservation. Prior to 1994, in the absence of feasible engineering controls, strong emphasis had been placed on personal hearing protection as the primary mechanism for assuring compliance with Sec. 29CFR 1910.95 as well as NASA's more conservative policy, which prohibits unprotected exposure to noise levels above 85 dB(A). Center policy and prudent engineering practice required, however, that these efforts be extended to engineered noise controls in order to bring existing work areas into compliance with Sec. 29CFR 1910.95 and NASA's own policies and to ensure compliance for new installations. Coincident with the establishment in 1995 of a NASA wide multi-year commitment of funding for environmental abatement projects, the Noise Exposure Management Program was established, with its focus on engineering approaches

  3. Some comparisons of the flyover noise characteristics of DC-9 aircraft having refanned and hardwalled JT8D engines, with special reference to measurement and analysis procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosier, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    Flyover noise measurements were made (using Federal Aviation Regulations, part 36 procedures) of two DC-9 aircraft, one equipped with refanned JT8D-109 engines and the other equipped with hardwalled JT8D-9 engines. NASA analyses show a refan centerline noise reduction of about 9.1 EPNdB and 10.0 EPNdB for takeoff with cutback and 50 deg. flap landing approach, respectively. A comparison of refan and hardwall PNLTM spectra shows that the refan noise reduction may be attributed to lower jet noise levels on takeoff and reduced high-frequency tonal content on landing approach. A general description of the test procedures and results are included along with detailed descriptions of the measurement and analysis systems.

  4. Predictive Acoustic Modelling Applied to the Control of Intake/exhaust Noise of Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. O. A. L.; Harrison, M. F.

    1997-05-01

    The application of validated acoustic models to intake/exhaust system acoustic design is described with reference to a sequence of specific practical examples. These include large turbocharged diesel generating sets, truck engines and high performance petrol engines. The discussion includes a comparison of frequency domain, time domain and hybrid modelling approaches to design methodology. The calculation of sound emission from open terminations is summarized in an appendix.

  5. Full-scale Investigation of Several Jet-engine Noise-reduction Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, Willard D; Callaghan, Edmund E

    1957-01-01

    A number of nozzles which use the mixing interference of adjacent jets for noise suppression were investigated. Reductions in sound power of nearly 70 percent (5 db) with thrust losses of 1 percent were achieved. A method of calculating the limiting frequency affected by this type of suppression nozzle, that is , multiple-slot nozzles, is presented. Data are shown which indicate that further large reductions in sound power are not likely with mixing-interference nozzles.

  6. TBIEM3D: A Computer Program for Predicting Ducted Fan Engine Noise. Version 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes the usage of the ducted fan noise prediction program TBIEM3D (Thin duct - Boundary Integral Equation Method - 3 Dimensional). A scattering approach is adopted in which the acoustic pressure field is split into known incident and unknown scattered parts. The scattering of fan-generated noise by a finite length circular cylinder in a uniform flow field is considered. The fan noise is modeled by a collection of spinning point thrust dipoles. The program, based on a Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM), calculates circumferential modal coefficients of the acoustic pressure at user-specified field locations. The duct interior can be of the hard wall type or lined. The duct liner is axisymmetric, locally reactive, and can be uniform or axially segmented. TBIEM3D is written in the FORTRAN programming language. Input to TBIEM3D is minimal and consists of geometric and kinematic parameters. Discretization and numerical parameters are determined automatically by the code. Several examples are presented to demonstrate TBIEM3D capabilities.

  7. Noise reduction as affected by the extent and distribution of acoustic treatment in a turbofan engine inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minner, G. L.; Homyak, L.

    1976-01-01

    An inlet noise suppressor for a TF-34 engine designed to have three acoustically treated rings was tested with several different ring arrangements. The configurations included: all three rings; two outer rings; single outer ring; single intermediate ring, and finally no rings. It was expected that as rings were removed, the acoustic performance would be degraded considerably. While a degradation occurred, it was not as large as predictions indicated. In fact, the prediction showed good agreement with the data only for the full-ring inlet configuration. The under-predictions which occurred with ring removal were believed a result of ignoring the presence of spinning modes which are known to damp more rapidly in cylindrical ducts than would be predicted by least attenuated mode or plane wave analysis.

  8. Noise reduction as affected by the extent and distribution of acoustic treatment in a turbofan engine inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minner, G. L.; Homyak, L.

    1976-01-01

    An inlet noise suppressor for a TF-34 engine designed to have three acoustically treated rings was tested with several different ring arrangements. The configurations included: all three rings; two outer rings; single outer ring; single intermediate ring, and finally no rings. It was expected that as rings were removed, the acoustic performance would be degraded considerably. While a degradation occurred, it was not as large as predictions indicated. The prediction showed good agreement with the data only for the full-ring inlet configuration. The underpredictions which occurred with ring removal were believed a result of ignoring the presence of spinning modes which are known to damp more rapidly in cylindrical ducts than would be predicted by least attenuated mode or plane wave analysis.

  9. Separating Direct and Indirect Turbofan Engine Combustion Noise While Estimating Post-Combustion (Post-Flame) Residence Time Using the Correlation Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2011-01-01

    A previous investigation on the presence of direct and indirect combustion noise for a full-scale turbofan engine using a far-field microphone at 130 is extended by also examining signals obtained at two additional downstream directions using far-field microphones at 110 deg and 160 deg. A generalized cross-correlation function technique is used to study the change in propagation time to the far field of the combined direct and indirect combustion noise signal as a sequence of low-pass filters are applied. The filtering procedure used produces no phase distortion. As the low-pass filter frequency is decreased, the travel time increases because the relative amount of direct combustion noise is reduced. The indirect combustion noise signal travels more slowly because in the combustor entropy fluctuations move with the flow velocity, which is slow compared to the local speed of sound. The indirect combustion noise signal travels at acoustic velocities after reaching the turbine and being converted into an acoustic signal. The direct combustion noise is always propagating at acoustic velocities. The results show that the estimated indirect combustion noise time delay values (post-combustion residence times) measured at each angle are fairly consistent with one another for a relevant range of operating conditions and demonstrate source separation of a mixture of direct and indirect combustion noise. The results may lead to a better idea about the acoustics in the combustor and may help develop and validate improved reduced-order physics-based methods for predicting turbofan engine core noise.

  10. Ultra High Bypass Ratio Engine Research for Reducing Noise, Emissions, and Fuel Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Schweitzer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A pictorial history of NASA development of advanced engine technologies for reducing environmental emissions and increasing performance from the 1970s to 2000s is presented. The goals of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Program portion of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program are discussed, along with the areas of investigation currently being pursued by the Ultra High Bypass Partnership Element of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Program.

  11. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Morris H.; Gilinsky, Mikhail; Patel, Kaushal; Coston, Calvin; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2003-01-01

    The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. Results obtained are based on analytical methods, numerical simulations and experimental tests at the NASA LaRC and Hampton University computer complexes and experimental facilities. The main objective of this research is injection, mixing and combustion enhancement in propulsion systems. The sub-projects in the reporting period are: (A) Aero-performance and acoustics of Telescope-shaped designs. The work included a pylon set application for SCRAMJET. (B) An analysis of sharp-edged nozzle exit designs for effective fuel injection into the flow stream in air-breathing engines: triangular-round and diamond-round nozzles. (C) Measurement technique improvements for the HU Low Speed Wind Tunnel (HU LSWT) including an automatic data acquisition system and a two component (drag-lift) balance system. In addition, a course in the field of aerodynamics was developed for the teaching and training of HU students.

  12. Computer Programs for Producing Single-Event Aircraft Noise Data for Specific Engine Power and Meteorological Conditions for Use with USAF (United States Air Force) Community Noise Model (NOISEMAP).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    34 " AFAMRL-TR-83-020 COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR PRODUCING SINGLE-EVENT AIRCRAFT NOISE DATA FOR SPECIFIC ENGINE POWER * AND... any purpose other than a i4" padon#1th Goveremagn thereby incurs no responsibility ** tevewauIwt may have formulated, furnishe, or ore data, is, not...to be- regarded by ’thew holder or Aany other prson or corporation, or Usae, or sell any patented invention that may in any Akv twt. Amxopace Medical

  13. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering By Fuselage and Wings: A Computational Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far-field. The effects of nonuniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. The approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the Discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Large-scale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic configuration, with and without a wing.

  14. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering by Fuselage and Wings: A Computational Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far-field. The effects of nonuniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. The approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the Discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Large-scale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic configuration, with and without a wing.

  15. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering by Fuselage and Wings: A Computational Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far field. The effects of non-uniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. The approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Large-scale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic configuration, with and without a wing. 0 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Calibration of catalyst temperature in automotive engines over coldstart operation in the presence of different random noises and uncertainty: Implementation of generalized Gaussian process regression machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, Nasser L.; Mozaffari, Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    The main scope of the current study is to develop a systematic stochastic model to capture the undesired uncertainty and random noises on the key parameters affecting the catalyst temperature over the coldstart operation of automotive engine systems. In the recent years, a number of articles have been published which aim at the modeling and analysis of automotive engines' behavior during coldstart operations by using regression modeling methods. Regarding highly nonlinear and uncertain nature of the coldstart operation, calibration of the engine system's variables, for instance the catalyst temperature, is deemed to be an intricate task, and it is unlikely to develop an exact physics-based nonlinear model. This encourages automotive engineers to take advantage of knowledge-based modeling tools and regression approaches. However, there exist rare reports which propose an efficient tool for coping with the uncertainty associated with the collected database. Here, the authors introduce a random noise to experimentally derived data and simulate an uncertain database as a representative of the engine system's behavior over coldstart operations. Then, by using a Gaussian process regression machine (GPRM), a reliable model is used for the sake of analysis of the engine's behavior. The simulation results attest the efficacy of GPRM for the considered case study. The research outcomes confirm that it is possible to develop a practical calibration tool which can be reliably used for modeling the catalyst temperature.

  17. Use of cross-correlation measurements to investigate noise generating regions of a real jet engine and a model jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meecham, W. C.; Hurdle, P. M.

    1974-01-01

    Cross-correlations are reported of the jet static pressure fluctuations (as measured with a B and K microphone fitted with a nose cone), with the far-field radiated sound pressure. These measurements were made for various probe positions and a large number of far-field positions (at various angles). In addition, the tests were run for a number of different jet exit velocities. The measured, normalized cross-correlation functions vary between 0.004 and 0.155. These values depend upon the angular position of the far-field microphone, the jet exit Mach number, and the position of the probe. In addition, the cross-correlation technique was employed to study the symmetry of the far-field radiated sound about the jet axis. Third-octave analyses of both the probe signal and the far-field radiated sound were made. This is the first time correlation measurements have been made on a jet engine. In addition, a report is given on an extensive noise survey of a model jet. The correlations are related to sound source functions and jet source regions are discussed.

  18. The effect of forward speed on J85 engine noise from suppressor nozzles as measured in the NASA-Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation to determine the effect of forward speed on the exhaust noise from a conical ejector nozzle and three suppressor nozzles mounted behind a J85 engine was performed in a 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel. The nozzles were tested at three engine power settings and at wind tunnel forward speeds up to 91 m/sec (300 ft/sec). In addition, outdoor static tests were conducted to determine (1) the differences between near field and far field measurements, (2) the effect of an airframe on the far field directivity of each nozzle, and (3) the relative suppression of each nozzle with respect to the baseline conical ejector nozzle. It was found that corrections to near field data are necessary to extrapolate to far field data and that the presence of the airframe changed the far field directivity as measured statically. The results show that the effect of forward speed was to reduce the noise from each nozzle more in the area of peak noise, but the change in forward quadrant noise was small or negligible. A comparison of wind tunnel data with available flight test data shows good agreement.

  19. Noise tests of a model engine-over-the-wing STOL configuration using a multijet nozzle with deflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W. A.; Friedman, R.

    1973-01-01

    Noise data were obtained with a small scale model stationary STOL configuration that used an eight lobe mixer nozzle with deflector mounted above a 32-cm-chord wing section. The factors varied to determine their effect upon the noise were wing flap angle, nozzle shape, nozzle location, deflector configuration, and jet velocity. The noise from the mixer nozzle model was compared to the noise from a model using a circular nozzle of the same area. The mixer nozzle model was quieter at the low to middle frequencies, while the circular nozzle was quieter at high frequencies. The perceived noise level (PNL) was calculated for an aircraft 10 times larger than the model. The PNL at 500 feet for the mixer nozzle turned out to be within 1 db of the PNL for the circular nozzle. For some configurations at highly directional broadband noise, which could be eliminated by changes in nozzle and/or deflector location, occurred below the wing.

  20. Simulation of Flight-Type Engine Fan Noise in the NASA-Lewis 9X15 Anechoic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, M. F.; Dietrich, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Flight type noise as contrasted to the usual ground static test noise exhibits substantial reductions in the time unsteadiness of tone noise, and in the mean level of tones calculated to be nonpropagating or cut-off. A model fan designed with cuttoff of the fundamental tone was acoustically tested in the anechoic wind tunnel under both static and tunnel flow conditions. The properties that characterize flight type noise were progressively simulated with increasing tunnel flow. The distinctly lobed directivity pattern of propagating rotor/stator interaction modes was also observed. Excess noise attributed to the ingestion of the flow disturbances that prevail near most static test facilities is substantially reduced with tunnel flow.

  1. Noise reduction experience at Hughes Helicopter, Inc.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janakiram, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    Noise reduction is mostly limited to light helicopters whose noise signature is dominated by their tail rotors. It is primarily hardware oriented. Well known noise reduction techniques such as reduction of rotor speeds with an accompanying increase in solidity to maintain performance, engine noise reduction with the use of exhaust mufflers, and acoustic blanketing of transmission and engine compartment are used. The concept of blade phasing as a means of reducing tail rotor noise is also used. Engine noise (exhaust noise), power train noise and airframe noise becomes important at low rotor tip speeds and means must be found to reduce these noise sources if further noise reductions are desired. The use of a special test rig aids in isolating the various noise sources and arriving at the penalties (performance or payload) involved in quieting them. Significant noise reduction are achieved for the light helicopter with minimum performance or weight penalties because of the dominance of a single noise source (the tail rotor).

  2. Core Noise - Increasing Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-noise prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-noise prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-noise-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor

  3. Combat aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.

    1992-04-01

    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  4. Interpreting Transistor Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospieszalski, M. W.

    2010-10-01

    The simple noise models of field effect and bipolar transistors reviewed in this article are quite useful in engineering practice, as illustrated by measured and modeled results. The exact and approximate expressions for the noise parameters of FETs and bipolar transistors reveal certain common noise properties and some general noise properties of both devices. The usefulness of these expressions in interpreting the dependence of measured noise parameters on frequency, bias, and temperature and, consequently, in checking of consistency of measured data has been demonstrated.

  5. Noise Hazard Evaluation Sound Level Data on Noise Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    AD-A021 465 NOISE HAZARD EfALUATION SOUND LEVEL DATA ON NOISE SOURCES Jeffrey Goldstein Army Environmental Hygiene Agency Prepared for: Army Health ...A. Noise Hazard Evaluation. B. Engineering Noise Control. C. Health Education. D. Audiometry. E. Hearing Protection. This technical guide concerns the...SOUND LEVEL DATA OF NOISE SOURCES Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. jGI4A C4C SENTINEL HEALTH I 5 US ARMY ENVIROIN.MENTAL HYGIENE

  6. Parametric study of STOL short-haul transport engine cycles and operational techniques to minimize community noise impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The effect of aircraft operational techniques in the terminal area on community noise impact of future short haul aircraft was investigated. Aircraft equipped with mechanical flap (MF) and aircraft with externally blown flap (EBF) were used to study the noise impact at four U.S. airports. The four airports were: (1) Hanscom Field (Boston), (2) Washington National (D.C.), (3) Midway (Chicago) and (4) Orange County (California). With the exception of Washington National (D.C.), the study showed that a reduction of approximately 40 percent in the number of people highly annoyed can be obtained by using the recommended operational techniques. The evaluation procedures and methodology developed in the study represent an advance in acoustical state-of-the-art and provide an effective and useful tool for determining aircraft noise impact on the airport community.

  7. Reduction of propeller noise by active noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bschorr, O.; Kubanke, D.

    1992-04-01

    Active noise control, a method of cancelling noise by means of interference with a secondary anti-noise source, is now in full development. The first commercial application of this technique is in the case of active electronically controlled head sets. The next step will be the active noise cancellation in air ducts and in passenger cabins. The aim of this paper is to assess the possibilities of the anti-noise technique for reducing propeller noise. First, by a mathematical simulation the theoretical noise reduction on the ground was calculated and found to be promising for further investigations. In the case of the periodic engine and propeller noise, for example, with only a single anti-noise source, the noise foot prints of the lower propeller harmonics can be reduced by up to 10 dB. In laboratory tests the theoretical values will be confirmed experimentally. For cancellation of the periodic noise one can use synchronous anti-noise generators. Compared with the engine and propeller noise the reduction of jet noise by the anti-noise technique is much more difficult. Therefore a sensor and controlling unit are necessary because of the stochastic nature of jet noise. Since aircraft noise is a severe problem, all methods are to be considered.

  8. Rational function representation of flap noise spectra including correction for reflection effects. [acoustic properties of engine exhaust jets deflected for externally blown flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    A rational function is presented for the acoustic spectra generated by deflection of engine exhaust jets for under-the-wing and over-the-wing versions of externally blown flaps. The functional representation is intended to provide a means for compact storage of data and for data analysis. The expressions are based on Fourier transform functions for the Strouhal normalized pressure spectral density, and on a correction for reflection effects based on the N-independent-source model of P. Thomas extended by use of a reflected ray transfer function. Curve fit comparisons are presented for blown flap data taken from turbofan engine tests and from large scale cold-flow model tests. Application of the rational function to scrubbing noise theory is also indicated.

  9. Aircraft community noise impact studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) conduct a program to determine the community noise impact of advanced technology engines when installed in a supersonic aircraft, (2) determine the potential reduction of community noise by flight operational techniques for the study aircraft, (3) estimate the community noise impact of the study aircraft powered by suppressed turbojet engines and by advanced duct heating turbofan engines, and (4) compare the impact of the two supersonic designs with that of conventional commercial DC-8 aircraft.

  10. Noise and Hearing Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... when using power tools, noisy yard equipment, or firearms, or riding a motorcycle or snowmobile. Hearing protectors ... Sandblasting, loud rock concert, auto horn: – 115 dB Gun muzzle blast, jet engine (such noise can cause ...

  11. Quantification of Inlet Impedance Concept and a Study of the Rayleigh Formula for Noise Radiation from Ducted Fan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posey, Joe W.; Dunn, M. H.; Farassat, F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses two aspects of duct propagation and radiation which can contribute to more efficient fan noise predictions. First, we assess the effectiveness of Rayleigh's formula as a ducted fan noise prediction tool. This classical result which predicts the sound produced by a piston in a flanged duct is expanded to include the uniform axial inflow case. Radiation patterns using Rayleigh's formula with single radial mode input are compared to those obtained from the more precise ducted fan noise prediction code TBIEM3D. Agreement between the two methods is excellent in the peak noise regions both forward and aft. Next, we use TBIEM3D to calculate generalized radiation impedances and power transmission coefficients. These quantities are computed for a wide range of operating parameters. Results were obtained for higher Mach numbers, frequencies, and circumferential mode orders than have been previously published. Viewed as functions of frequency, calculated trends in lower order inlet impedances and power transmission coefficients are in agreement with known results. The relationships are more oscillatory for higher order modes and higher Mach numbers.

  12. Evaluation of two inflow control devices for flight simulation of fan noise using a JT15D engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. L.; Mcardle, J. G.; Homyak, L.

    1979-01-01

    The program was developed to accurately simulate flight fan noise on ground static test stands. The results generally indicated that both the induct and external ICD's were effective in reducing the inflow turbulence and the fan blade passing frequency tone generated by the turbulence. The external ICD was essentially transparent to the propagating fan tone but the induct ICD caused attenuation under most conditions.

  13. Quiet engine program flight engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klapproth, J. F.; Neitzel, R. E.; Seeley, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a preliminary flight engine design study based on the Quiet Engine Program high-bypass, low-noise turbofan engines. Engine configurations, weight, noise characteristics, and performance over a range of flight conditions typical of a subsonic transport aircraft were considered. High and low tip speed engines in various acoustically treated nacelle configurations were included.

  14. Dragline noise survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Bauer, Eric R.

    2002-05-01

    It is estimated that 70%-90% of miners have enough noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) to be classified as a disability (NIOSH, Publication No. 76-172, 1976; Franks, NIOSH Internal Report, 1996). In response, NIOSH is conducting a cross-sectional survey of the mining industry in order to determine the sources of mining noise and offer recommendations on how to mitigate high noise levels, and bring mining operations into compliance with the recent mining noise regulation: 30CFR, Part 62. This paper will outline the results from noise surveys of eight draglines which operate in above-ground coal mining operations. The data recorded include noise dosimetry in conjunction with time-at-task studies and 1/3-octave sound level (Leq, Lmin, and Lmax) measurements. The 1/3-octave band readings were used to create noise contour maps which allowed the spatial and frequency information of the noise to be considered. Comparison of Lmin and Lmax levels offer insight into the variability of the noise levels inside the dragline. The potential for administrative controls is limited due to consistently high noise levels throughout the deck. Implementation of engineering controls is also hindered by the size and number of the noise sources and the frequency content of the noise.

  15. Development and experimental verification of a robust active noise control system for a diesel engine in submarines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachau, D.; Jukkert, S.; Hövelmann, N.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the development and experimental validation of an ANC (active noise control)-system designed for a particular application in the exhaust line of a submarine. Thereby, tonal components of the exhaust noise in the frequency band from 75 Hz to 120 Hz are reduced by more than 30 dB. The ANC-system is based on the feedforward leaky FxLMS-algorithm. The observability of the sound pressure in standing wave field is ensured by using two error microphones. The noninvasive online plant identification method is used to increase the robustness of the controller. Online plant identification is extended by a time-varying convergence gain to improve the performance in the presence of slight error in the frequency of the reference signal.

  16. NASA Collaborative Research on the Ultra High Bypass Engine Cycle and Potential Benefits for Noise, Performance, and Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has taken an active role in collaborative research with the U.S. aerospace industry to investigate technologies to minimize the impact of aviation on the environment. In December 2006, a new program, called the Fundamental Aeronautics Program, was established to enhance U.S. aeronautics technology and conduct research on energy, efficiency and the environment. A project within the overall program, the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, was formed to focus on research related to subsonic aircraft with specific goals and time based milestones to reduce aircraft noise, emissions and fuel burn. This paper will present an overview of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project environmental goals and describe a segment of the current research within NASA and also were worked collaboratively with partners from the U.S. aerospace industry related to the next generation of aircraft that will have lower noise, emissions and fuel burn.

  17. Parametric study of STOL short-haul engine cycles and operational techniques to minimize community noise impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The effect of aircraft operational techniques in the terminal area on community noise impact of future short-haul aircraft was investigated. These operational techniques affected altitude, flap retraction rate, thrust cutback altitude, amount of thrust cutback, and amount of turning. During landing the parameters varied were glide slope angle, change in slope angle (two segment approach), and flap extension rate. One mechanical-flap (MF) aircraft and one externally-blown-flap (EBF) aircraft were used to study by noise impact at four U.S. airports, Hanscom Field (Boston); Washington National; Midway (Chicago); and Orange County (California). With the exception of Washington National (DCA), the study showed that a reduction of approximately 40 percent in the number of people highly annoyed (as defined in the study) can be obtained by using these operational techniques. At DCA the number of people highly annoyed using the standard procedure was quite low, but it is significant that the minimumimpact case for Runway 36 reduced the number of people highly annoyed to zero using a power cutback and a turning departure path. The evaluation procedures and methodology developed in this study represents an advance in acoustical state-of-the-art and should provide an effective and useful tool for determining aircraft noise impact upon the airport community.

  18. Technologies for Turbofan Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    An overview presentation of NASA's engine noise research since 1992 is given for subsonic commercial aircraft applications. Highlights are included from the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project with emphasis on engine source noise reduction. Noise reduction goals for 10 EPNdB by 207 and 20 EPNdB by 2022 are reviewed. Fan and jet noise technologies are highlighted from the AST program including higher bypass ratio propulsion, scarf inlets, forward-swept fans, swept/leaned stators, chevron nozzles, noise prediction methods, and active noise control for fans. Source diagnostic tests for fans and jets that have been completed over the past few years are presented showing how new flow measurement methods such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) have played a key role in understanding turbulence, the noise generation process, and how to improve noise prediction methods. Tests focused on source decomposition have helped identify which engine components need further noise reduction. The role of Computational AeroAcoustics (CAA) for fan noise prediction is presented. Advanced noise reduction methods such as Hershel-Quincke tubes and trailing edge blowing for fan noise that are currently being pursued n the QAT program are also presented. Highlights are shown form engine validation and flight demonstrations that were done in the late 1990's with Pratt & Whitney on their PW4098 engine and Honeywell on their TFE-731-60 engine. Finally, future propulsion configurations currently being studied that show promise towards meeting NASA's long term goal of 20 dB noise reduction are shown including a Dual Fan Engine concept on a Blended Wing Body aircraft.

  19. Development of acoustically lined ejector technology for multitube jet noise suppressor nozzles by model and engine tests over a wide range of jet pressure ratios and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atvars, J.; Paynter, G. C.; Walker, D. Q.; Wintermeyer, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental program comprising model nozzle and full-scale engine tests was undertaken to acquire parametric data for acoustically lined ejectors applied to primary jet noise suppression. Ejector lining design technology and acoustical scaling of lined ejector configurations were the major objectives. Ground static tests were run with a J-75 turbojet engine fitted with a 37-tube, area ratio 3.3 suppressor nozzle and two lengths of ejector shroud (L/D = 1 and 2). Seven ejector lining configurations were tested over the engine pressure ratio range of 1.40 to 2.40 with corresponding jet velocities between 305 and 610 M/sec. One-fourth scale model nozzles were tested over a pressure ratio range of 1.40 to 4.0 with jet total temperatures between ambient and 1088 K. Scaling of multielement nozzle ejector configurations was also studied using a single element of the nozzle array with identical ejector lengths and lining materials. Acoustic far field and near field data together with nozzle thrust performance and jet aerodynamic flow profiles are presented.

  20. Structureborne noise in aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Metcalf, V. L.

    1987-01-01

    The amount of noise reaching an aircraft's interior by structureborne paths, when high levels of other noises are present, involves the measurement of transfer functions between vibrating levels on the wing and interior noise. The magnitude of the structureborne noise transfer function is established by exciting the aircraft with an electrodynamic shaker; a second transfer function is measured using the same sensor locations with the aircraft engines operating. Attention is given to the case of a twin-turboprop OV-10A aircraft; the resulting transfer function values at the discrete frequencies corresponding to the propeller blade passage frequency and its first four harmonics are tabulated and illustrated.

  1. Attenuation of FJ44 Turbofan Engine Noise with a Foam-Metal Liner Installed Over-the-Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Elliott, Dave M.; Jones, Michael G.; Hartley, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    A Williams International FJ44-3A 3000-lb thrust class turbofan engine was used as a demonstrator for a Foam-Metal Liner (FML) installed in close proximity to the fan. Two FML designs were tested and compared to the hardwall baseline. Traditional single degree-of-freedom liner designs were also evaluated to provide a comparison. Farfield acoustic levels and limited engine performance results are presented in this paper. The results show that the FML achieved up to 5 dB Acoustic Power Level (PWL) overall attenuation in the forward quadrant, equivalent to the traditional liner design. An earlier report presented the test set-up and conditions.

  2. Externally blown flap impingement noise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, T. W.; Lasagna, P. L.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation of externally blown flap impingement noise was conducted using a full-scale turbofan engine and aircraft wing. The noise produced with a daisy nozzle installed on the engine exhaust system was greater than that produced by a conical nozzle at the same thrust. The daisy nozzle caused the jet velocity to decay about 35 percent at the flap. The presence of the wing next to the conical nozzle increased the noise, as did increasing the flap deflection. Compared with the conical nozzle, the daisy nozzle produced slightly less noise at a flap deflection of 60 deg but produced more noise at the lower flap deflections tested.

  3. The commercial aircraft noise problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J. T.

    1989-01-01

    The history and future developments of commercial aircraft noise are discussed. The use of the turbofan engine to replace the louder turbojet engine is identified as a step forward in reducing noise. The increasing use of two engine planes for medium and even long hauls is seen as a positive trend. An increase in the number of aircraft movements is predicted. An upturn in noise exposure around the end of the century is predicted. The development goals of Rolls Royce in meeting the noise reduction challenges of the next decades are discussed.

  4. Identification and measurement of combustion noise from a turbofan engine using correlation and coherence techniques. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karchmer, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Fluctuating pressure measurements within the combustor and tailpipe of a turbofan engine are made simultaneously with far field acoustic measurements. The pressure measurements within the engine are accomplished with cooled semi-infinite waveguide probes utilizing conventional condenser microphones as the transducers. The measurements are taken over a broad range of engine operating conditions and for 16 far field microphone positions between 10 deg and 160 deg relative to the engine inlet axis. Correlation and coherence techniques are used to determine the relative phase and amplitude relationships between the internal pressures and far field acoustic pressures. The results indicate that the combustor is a low frequency source region for acoustic propagation through the tailpipe and out to the far field. Specifically, it is found that the relation between source pressure and the resulting sound pressure involves a 180 deg phase shift. The latter result is obtained by Fourier transforming the cross correlation function between the source pressure and acoustic pressure after removing the propagation delay time. Further, it is found that the transfer function between the source pressure and acoustic pressure has a magnitude approximately proportional to frequency squared. These results are shown to be consistent with a model using a modified source term in Lighthill's turbulence stress tensor, wherein the fluctuating Reynolds stresses are replaced with the pressure fluctuations due to fluctuating entropy.

  5. Commercial aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J.

    The history of aircraft noise control development is traced with an eye to forecasting the future. Noise control became imperative with the advent of the first generation of commercial jet aircraft, which were extremely loud. The steady increases in the size of turbofans have nearly matched the progress in noise reduction capabilities in recent years. Only 5 dB of reduction in fleet noise has been achieved since early standards were met. Current engine design is concentrated on increasing fuel efficiency rather than lowering noise emissions. Further difficulties exist because of continued flights with older aircraft. Gains in noise reduction have been made mainly by decreasing exhaust velocities from 600-700 m/sec to 300-400 m/sec. New techniques being explored comprise mixing the core and bypass flows, interaction tone control, reduction of broadband sources, development of acoustic liner technology and alterations in the number of fan blades and stage spacing.

  6. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  7. Rotorcraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. J. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    The establishment of a realistic plan for NASA and the U.S. helicopter industry to develop a design-for-noise methodology, including plans for the identification and development of promising noise reduction technology was discussed. Topics included: noise reduction techniques, scaling laws, empirical noise prediction, psychoacoustics, and methods of developing and validing noise prediction methods.

  8. Applications of finite element and wave envelope element approximations to turbofan engine noise radiation including flight effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrett, A. V.; Eversman, W.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of acoustic radiation from turbofan engine inlets in flow has not lent itself fully to analysis by numerical means because of the large domains and high frequencies involved. The current work has extended the use of finite elements and wave envelope elements, elements which simulate decay and wavelike behaviour in their interpolation functions, from the no-flow case in which they have been proven, to cases incorporating mean flow. By employing an irrotational mean flow assumption, the acoustics problem has been posed in an axisymmetric formulation in terms of acoustic velocity potential, thus minimizing computer solution storage requirements. The results obtained from the numerical procedures agree well with known analytical solutions, static experimental jet engines inflow data, and also with flight test results.

  9. Altitude performance of a low-noise-technology fan in a turbofan engine with and without a sound suppressing nacelle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, T. J.; Grey, R. E.; Abdelwahah, M.

    1976-01-01

    Test variables were inlet Reynolds number index (0.2 to 0.5), flight Mach number (0.2 to 0.8), and flow distortion (tip radial and combined circumferential - tip radial patterns). Results are limited to fan bypass and overall engine performance. There were no discernible effects of Reynolds number on fan performance. Increasing flight Mach number shifted the fan operating line such that pressure ratio decreased and airflow increased. Inlet flow distortion lowered stall margin. For a Reynolds number index of 0.2 and flight Mach number of 0.54, the sound suppressing nacelle lowered fan efficiency three points and increased specific fuel consumption about 10 percent.

  10. Externally blown flap impingement noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasagna, P. L.; Putnam, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    Tests of the noise produced by the impingement of the jet exhaust on the wing and flap for an externally blown flap system were conducted with a CF700 turbofan engine and an F-111B wing panel. The noise produced with a daisy nozzle installed on the engine was greater than that produced by a conical nozzle at the same thrust. The presence of the wing next to the test nozzles increased the noise, as did increasing the flap deflection angle. Compared with the conical nozzle, the daisy nozzle produced slightly less noise at a flap deflection of 60 deg but produced more noise at the lower flap deflections tested. Tests showed that the single-slotted flap deflected 60 deg, produced less noise than the double-slotted flaps. Also, maintaining the maximum distance between the exit nozzle and flap system resulted in a minor reduction in noise.

  11. Turbomachinery noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Sofrin, Thomas G.; Rice, Edward J.; Gliebe, Phillip R.

    1991-08-01

    Summarized here are key advances in experimental techniques and theoretical applications which point the way to a broad understanding and control of turbomachinery noise. On the experimental side, the development of effective inflow control techniques makes it possible to conduct, in ground based facilities, definitive experiments in internally controlled blade row interactions. Results can now be valid indicators of flight behavior and can provide a firm base for comparison with analytical results. Inflow control coupled with detailed diagnostic tools such as blade pressure measurements can be used to uncover the more subtle mechanisms such as rotor strut interaction, which can set tone levels for some engine configurations. Initial mappings of rotor wake-vortex flow fields have provided a data base for a first generation semiempirical flow disturbance model. Laser velocimetry offers a nonintrusive method for validating and improving the model. Digital data systems and signal processing algorithms are bringing mode measurement closer to a working tool that can be frequently applied to a real machine such as a turbofan engine. On the analytical side, models of most of the links in the chain from turbomachine blade source to far field observation point have been formulated. Three dimensional lifting surface theory for blade rows, including source noncompactness and cascade effects, blade row transmission models incorporating mode and frequency scattering, and modal radiation calculations, including hybrid numerical-analytical approaches, are tools which await further application.

  12. Turbomachinery noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Sofrin, Thomas G.; Rice, Edward J.; Gliebe, Phillip R.

    1991-01-01

    Summarized here are key advances in experimental techniques and theoretical applications which point the way to a broad understanding and control of turbomachinery noise. On the experimental side, the development of effective inflow control techniques makes it possible to conduct, in ground based facilities, definitive experiments in internally controlled blade row interactions. Results can now be valid indicators of flight behavior and can provide a firm base for comparison with analytical results. Inflow control coupled with detailed diagnostic tools such as blade pressure measurements can be used to uncover the more subtle mechanisms such as rotor strut interaction, which can set tone levels for some engine configurations. Initial mappings of rotor wake-vortex flow fields have provided a data base for a first generation semiempirical flow disturbance model. Laser velocimetry offers a nonintrusive method for validating and improving the model. Digital data systems and signal processing algorithms are bringing mode measurement closer to a working tool that can be frequently applied to a real machine such as a turbofan engine. On the analytical side, models of most of the links in the chain from turbomachine blade source to far field observation point have been formulated. Three dimensional lifting surface theory for blade rows, including source noncompactness and cascade effects, blade row transmission models incorporating mode and frequency scattering, and modal radiation calculations, including hybrid numerical-analytical approaches, are tools which await further application.

  13. Fan Noise Reduction: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2001-01-01

    Fan noise reduction technologies developed as part of the engine noise reduction element of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program are reviewed. Developments in low-noise fan stage design, swept and leaned outlet guide vanes, active noise control, fan flow management, and scarfed inlet are discussed. In each case, a description of the method is presented and, where available, representative results and general conclusions are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of the accomplishments of the AST-sponsored fan noise reduction research and a few thoughts on future work.

  14. Technologies for Aircraft Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    Technologies for aircraft noise reduction have been developed by NASA over the past 15 years through the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project. This presentation summarizes highlights from these programs and anticipated noise reduction benefits for communities surrounding airports. Historical progress in noise reduction and technologies available for future aircraft/engine development are identified. Technologies address aircraft/engine components including fans, exhaust nozzles, landing gear, and flap systems. New "chevron" nozzles have been developed and implemented on several aircraft in production today that provide significant jet noise reduction. New engines using Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) ratios are projected to provide about 10 EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise Level in decibels) engine noise reduction relative to the average fleet that was flying in 1997. Audio files are embedded in the presentation that estimate the sound levels for a 35,000 pound thrust engine for takeoff and approach power conditions. The predictions are based on actual model scale data that was obtained by NASA. Finally, conceptual pictures are shown that look toward future aircraft/propulsion systems that might be used to obtain further noise reduction.

  15. Bill Lang's contributions to acoustics at International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), signal processing, international standards, and professionalism in noise control engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maling, George C.

    2005-09-01

    Bill Lang joined IBM in the late 1950s with a mandate from Thomas Watson Jr. himself to establish an acoustics program at IBM. Bill created the facilities in Poughkeepsie, developed the local program, and was the leader in having other IBM locations with development and manufacturing responsibilities construct facilities and hire staff under the Interdivisional Liaison Program. He also directed IBMs acoustics technology program. In the mid-1960s, he led an IEEE standards group in Audio and Electroacoustics, and, with the help of James Cooley, Peter Welch, and others, introduced the fast Fourier transform to the acoustics community. He was the convenor of ISO TC 43 SC1 WG6 that began writing the 3740 series of standards in the 1970s. It was his suggestion to promote professionalism in noise control engineering, and, through meetings with Leo Beranek and others, led the founding of INCE/USA in 1971. He was also a leader of the team that founded International INCE in 1974, and he served as president from 1988 until 1999.

  16. Fan Noise Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    1994-01-01

    Results of recent NASA research to reduce aircraft turbofan noise are described. As the bypass ratio of a turbofan engine increases from five to as much as 20, the dominant source of engine noise is the fan. A primary mechanism of tone noise generation is the rotor blade wakes interacting with downstream stator vanes. Methods of analyzing rotor stator tone noise generation are described and sample results are given. The role of an acoustic modal description is emphasized. Wind tunnel tests of model fans and nacelles are described including a novel rotating microphone technique for modal measurement. Sample far field results are given showing the effects of inlet length, and modal measurements are shown which point to a new generation mechanism. Concepts for active fan noise control at the source are addressed. Implications of the research which have general relevance to fan noise generation and control are discussed.

  17. Fan noise research at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    Results of recent NASA research to reduce aircraft turbofan noise are described. As the bypass ratio of a turbofan engine increases from 5 to as much as 20, the dominant source of engine noise is the fan. A primary mechanism of tone noise generation is the rotor blade wakes interacting with downstream stator vanes. Methods of analyzing rotor-stator tone noise generation are described and sample results are given. The role of an acoustic modal description is emphasized. Wind tunnel tests of model fans and nacelles are described including a novel rotating microphone technique for modal measurement. Sample far field results are given showing the effects of inlet length, and modal measurements are shown which point to a new generation mechanism. Concepts for active fan noise control at the source are addressed. Implications of the research which have general relevance to fan noise generation and control are discussed.

  18. Community noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragdon, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Airport and community land use planning as they relate to airport noise reduction are discussed. Legislation, community relations, and the physiological effect of airport noise are considered. Noise at the Logan, Los Angeles, and Minneapolis/St. Paul airports is discussed.

  19. Flight effects on noise by the JT8D engine with inverted primary/fan flow as measured in the NASA-Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strout, F. G.

    1978-01-01

    A JT8D-17R engine with inverted primary and fan flows was tested under static conditions as well as in the NASA Ames 40 by 80 Foot Wind Tunnel to determine static and flight noise characteristics, and flow profile of a large scale engine. Test and analysis techniques developed by a previous model and JT8D engine test program were used to determine the in-flight noise. The engine with inverted flow was tested with a conical nozzle and with a plug nozzle, 20 lobe nozzle, and an acoustic shield. Wind tunnel results show that forward velocity causes significant reduction in peak PNL suppression relative to uninverted flow. The loss of EPNL suppression is relatively modest. The in-flight peak PNL suppression of the inverter with conical nozzle was 2.5 PNdb relative to a static value of 5.5 PNdb. The corresponding EPNL suppression was 4.0 EPNdb for flight and 5.0 EPNdb for static operation. The highest in-flight EPNL suppression was 7.5 EPNdb obtained by the inverter with 20 lobe nozzle and acoustic shield. When compared with the JT8D engine with internal mixer, the inverted flow configuration provides more EPNL suppression under both static and flight conditions.

  20. Interim prediction method for jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A method is provided for predicting jet noise for a wide range of nozzle geometries and operating conditions of interest for aircraft engines. Jet noise theory, data and existing prediction methods was reviewed, and based on this information a interim method of jet noise prediction is proposed. Problem areas are idenified where further research is needed to improve the prediction method. This method predicts only the noise generated by the exhaust jets mixing with the surrounding air and does not include other noises emanating from the engine exhaust, such as combustion and machinery noise generated inside the engine (i.e., core noise). It does, however, include thrust reverser noise. Prediction relations are provided for conical nozzles, plug nozzles, coaxial nozzles and slot nozzles.

  1. Emissions and Noise Pervasive Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda; Lee, Chi

    2008-01-01

    Objectives include: Provide interagency coordination of technology development, aimed at engine noise reduction. a) Provide recommendations to the Steering Committee on potential areas of interagency technology collaboration to maximize the use of government investments in noise reduction. b) Serve as a forum for information and technology exchange in order to coordinate gas turbine engine environmental strategies and policies among the member agencies and industry; c) Coordinate activities across panel representatives; and d) Communicate progress to VAATE steering committee.

  2. Acoustic analysis of aft noise reduction techniques measured on a subsonic tip speed 50.8 cm (twenty inch) diameter fan. [quiet engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.; Clemons, A.

    1977-01-01

    Sound data which were obtained during tests of a 50.8 cm diameter, subsonic tip speed, low pressure ratio fan were analyzed. The test matrix was divided into two major investigations: (1) source noise reduction techniques; and (2) aft duct noise reduction with acoustic treatment. Source noise reduction techniques were investigated which include minimizing second harmonic noise by varying vane/blade ratio, variation in spacing, and lowering the Mach number through the vane row to lower fan broadband noise. Treatment in the aft duct which includes flow noise effects, faceplate porosity, rotor OGV treatment, slant cell treatment, and splitter simulation with variable depth on the outer wall and constant thickness treatment on the inner wall was investigated. Variable boundary conditions such as variation in treatment panel thickness and orientation, and mixed porosity combined with variable thickness were examined. Significant results are reported.

  3. General Aviation Interior Noise. Part 3; Noise Control Measure Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, James F.; Till, Paul D.; Palumbo, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The work reported herein is an extension to the work accomplished under NASA Grant NAG1-2091 on the development of noise/source/path identification techniques for single engine propeller driven General Aviation aircraft. The previous work developed a Conditioned Response Analysis (CRA) technique to identify potential noise sources that contributed to the dominating tonal responses within the aircraft cabin. The objective of the present effort was to improve and verify the findings of the CRA and develop and demonstrate noise control measures for single engine propeller driven General Aviation aircraft.

  4. Advanced subsonic transport approach noise: The relative contribution of airframe noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, William L., Jr.; Garber, Donald P.

    1992-01-01

    With current engine technology, airframe noise is a contributing source for large commercial aircraft on approach, but not the major contributor. With the promise of much quieter jet engines with the planned new generation of high-by-pass turbofan engines, airframe noise has become a topic of interest in the advanced subsonic transport research program. The objective of this paper is to assess the contribution of airframe noise relative to the other aircraft noise sources on approach. The assessment will be made for a current technology large commercial transport aircraft and for an envisioned advanced technology aircraft. NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) will be used to make total aircraft noise predictions for these two aircraft types. Predicted noise levels and areas of noise contours will be used to determine the relative importance of the contributing approach noise sources. The actual set-up decks used to make the ANOPP runs for the two aircraft types are included in appendixes.

  5. Silence Amenity Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hajime

    Engineering civilization brought convenient and comfortable life to us. However, some environmental problems such as various pollutions have also been developed with it. Acoustical noise is one of the major problems in modern life. Noise is generated from a noise source and propagates through transmitting medium such as the air and eventually reaches a receiver, usually a human being. The noise problem can be avoided, therefore, if one of those three elements in the noise problem is removed completely. In actual case, engineers are looking for most efficient way combining the controls for these three elements. In this article, basic characteristics of noise is reviewed briefly at first, then sound field analysis to predict sound transmission is discussed Aerodynamic noise is one of the major problems in silence amenity engineering today. Basic concept of the aerodynamic noise generation mechanism is discussed in detail with applications to turbo-machinery and high speed train noise control technology.

  6. Silence amenity engineering: Past and present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hajime; Yokono, Yasuyuki

    1993-09-01

    Recent historical development of the noise control engineering, from mere noise reduction to silence amenity engineering, is reviewed, with social and psychological backgrounds behind it. Philosophical view points for fundamental approach to the silence amenity engineering and examples of noise source control in vibration and aerodynamic noises are described.

  7. Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, John S.; Wilby, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The generation and control of flight vehicle interior noise is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of transmission through airborne and structure-borne paths and the control of cabin noise by path modification. Techniques for identifying the relative contributions of the various source-path combinations are also discussed along with methods for the prediction of aircraft interior noise such as those based on the general modal theory and statistical energy analysis.

  8. Noise policy: Past and present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, William W.

    2004-05-01

    Leo Beranek and the firm Bolt Beranek and Newman have played a defining role in the formulation of noise policy in America. The firm that he and Richard Bolt founded in 1948 with fewer than a half-dozen others grew to become the world's largest acoustical consulting firm with more than 2000 employees. Two decades later in 1971, Leo Beranek was a key founder of the Institute of Noise Control Engineering of the U.S.A. The Institute, which inaugurated the INTER-NOISE series of annual noise congresses in 1972 under Beranek's direction, played a major role in the enactment by the Congress of the Noise Control Act of 1972. NCA-72 identified the Environmental Protection Agency as the leading Federal agency with oversight responsibilities responsible for implementing the noise policies defined by the Congress. In 1981, funding for EPA's noise program was withdrawn. Since then, leadership at the Federal level for implementing a coordinated national noise policy has been absent, but a dozen Federal agencies remain active in the noise field. With the exception of aircraft, no product emission regulations on major sources of noise are enforced today. To rectify this situation, Leo Beranek has recently been playing a leadership role in a concerted effort to rejuvenate America's national noise policy.

  9. Rocket Noise Prediction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margasahayam, Ravi; Caimi, Raoul

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive, automated, and user-friendly software program was developed to predict the noise and ignition over-pressure environment generated during the launch of a rocket. The software allows for interactive modification of various parameters affecting the generated noise environment. Predictions can be made for different launch scenarios and a variety of vehicle and launch mount configurations. Moreover, predictions can be made for both near-field and far-field locations on the ground and any position on the vehicle. Multiple engine and fuel combinations can be addressed, and duct geometry can be incorporated efficiently. Applications in structural design are addressed.

  10. Noise Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  11. An experimental assessment of the use of ground-level microphones to measure the fly-over noise of jet-engined aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    During aircraft flight trials to measure the noise levels of six different military jet aircraft types in low altitude high speed operations, noise measurements were performed using microphones at ground level and at a height of 1.2 m. The program provided reliable data on the difference between sound pressure levels from the two microphone arrangements, for sound incident over a range of angles, from 0 deg (aircraft overhead) to approximately 80 deg. Substantial differences from ground level to 1.2 m were observed in measurements of maximum perceived noise level, effective perceived noise level and maximum A-weighted sound pressure level. For sound waves incident to the ground at angles less than approximately 60 deg from vertical, these differences were found to be independent of angle of incidence for all the six aircraft and all flight procedures. Within this range of sound incidence angles the ground plane arrangement produced data that closely approximated pressure doubled values. The conventional 1.2 m high microphone gave rise to noise levels approximately 4 dB lower. For sound incident at angles greater than 60 deg from vertical, the difference between noise levels measured using the two microphone configurations was found to depend on angle of incidence, reducing to zero at approximately 75 deg. When noise measurements are made using the ground plane arrangement, the effects of meteorological conditions must be considered in relation to sound incident at angles greater than approximately 60 deg.

  12. Interior noise prediction methodology: ATDAC theory and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Gopal P.; Gardner, Bryce K.

    1992-01-01

    The Acoustical Theory for Design of Aircraft Cabins (ATDAC) is a computer program developed to predict interior noise levels inside aircraft and to evaluate the effects of different aircraft configurations on the aircraft acoustical environment. The primary motivation for development of this program is the special interior noise problems associated with advanced turboprop (ATP) aircraft where there is a tonal, low frequency noise problem. Prediction of interior noise levels requires knowledge of the energy sources, the transmission paths, and the relationship between the energy variable and the sound pressure level. The energy sources include engine noise, both airborne and structure-borne; turbulent boundary layer noise; and interior noise sources such as air conditioner noise and auxiliary power unit noise. Since propeller and engine noise prediction programs are widely available, they are not included in ATDAC. Airborne engine noise from any prediction or measurement may be input to this program. This report describes the theory and equations implemented in the ATDAC program.

  13. Small Vessel Contribution to Underwater Noise

    SciTech Connect

    Matzner, Shari; Maxwell, Adam R.; Myers, Joshua R.; Caviggia, Kurt A.; Elster, Jennifer L.; Foley, Michael G.; Jones, Mark E.; Ogden, George L.; Sorensen, Eric L.; Zurk, Lisa M.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Stephan, Alex J.; Peterson, Mary E.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2010-12-10

    Understanding the types of noise generated by a small boat is important for ensuring that marine ecosystems are protected from detrimental anthropogenic noise. Here we present the results of a field test conducted to examine the effects of engine RPM, number of engines and number of propeller blades on the broadband and narrowband noise produced by a small boat. The test boat was a 23-foot aluminum-hulled boat with dual 100 hp engines. The broadband noise and narrowband peak levels were observed using two hydrophones in different locations. The broadband noise levels were affected by both the number of engines and the RPM; the narrowband peaks showed a greater increase in amplitude with an increase in RPM than the broadband noise levels.

  14. Noise and vibration control for HVAC and piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yerges, J.F.; Yerges, J.R.

    1997-10-01

    This article offers engineering advice on how to avoid noise and vibration problems through good mechanical engineering design and strategic communication with other members of the construction team. The design of ducted HVAC systems must address six distinct but related issues--airborne equipment noise, equipment vibration, ductborne fan noise, duct breakout noise, flow generated noise, and ductborne crosstalk. Each and every one of these issues must be addressed, or the design will fail.

  15. Studies of the acoustic transmission characteristics of coaxial nozzles with inverted velocity profiles, volume 1. [jet engine noise radiation through coannular exhaust nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, P. D.; Salikuddin, M.; Ahuja, K. K.; Plumblee, H. E.; Mungur, P.

    1979-01-01

    The efficiency of internal noise radiation through coannular exhaust nozzle with an inverted velocity profile was studied. A preliminary investigation was first undertaken to: (1) define the test parameters which influence the internal noise radiation; (2) develop a test methodology which could realistically be used to examine the effects of the test parameters; (3) and to validate this methodology. The result was the choice of an acoustic impulse as the internal noise source in the in the jet nozzles. Noise transmission characteristics of a nozzle system were then investigated. In particular, the effects of fan nozzle convergence angle, core extention length to annulus height ratio, and flow Mach number and temperatures were studied. The results are presented as normalized directivity plots.

  16. Aircraft noise prediction program theoretical manual: Rotorcraft System Noise Prediction System (ROTONET), part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Donald S.; Jumper, Stephen J.; Burley, Casey L.; Golub, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the theoretical methods used in the rotorcraft noise prediction system (ROTONET), which is a part of the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). The ANOPP code consists of an executive, database manager, and prediction modules for jet engine, propeller, and rotor noise. The ROTONET subsystem contains modules for the prediction of rotor airloads and performance with momentum theory and prescribed wake aerodynamics, rotor tone noise with compact chordwise and full-surface solutions to the Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings equations, semiempirical airfoil broadband noise, and turbulence ingestion broadband noise. Flight dynamics, atmosphere propagation, and noise metric calculations are covered in NASA TM-83199, Parts 1, 2, and 3.

  17. En route noise of two turboprop aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrzynski, Werner

    1990-01-01

    In order to weigh en route noise emissions originating from future propfan powered aircraft, a data base of emission levels from conventional turboprop aircraft is needed. For this reason flyover noise measurements on two twin-engine turboprop aircraft were conducted at flight heights between 17,000 and 21,000 ft. Acoustic data are presented together with propeller operational parameters and environmental meteorological data. Narrowband spectral analyses demonstrate the characteristic features of the measured propeller noise signatures: Noise spectra are dominated by the propeller rotational noise fundamental frequency and pronounced noise beats occur as a consequence of different rotational speeds of the propellers.

  18. Non-propulsive aerodynamic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willshire, William L., Jr.; Tracy, Maureen B.

    1992-04-01

    In the first part of the paper, the contribution of airframe noise to total aircraft noise on approach is assessed for a large current technology transport and for the same airframe powered with bypass ratio 10 engines with an additional 5 dB noise suppression applied to the fan and turbine noise sources. The airframe noise of the envisioned advanced subsonic transport is 2 EPNdB less than the largest contributor to the total aircraft noise, the fan inlet. The noise impact of the airframe noise, as measured by noise contour area, is 1/4 that of fan noise. Further fan noise reduction efforts should not view airframe noise as an absolute noise floor. In the second part of the paper, the results from one recent cavity noise wind tunnel experiment is reported. A cavity of dimensions 11.25 in. (28.58 cm) long, 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) wide, and variable depth was tested in the Mach number range of .20 through .90. Reynolds number varied from 5 to 100 million per foot (16 to 328 million per meter). The 1/d ratio was varied from 4.4 to 20.0. The model was tested at yaw angles from 0 to 15 degrees. In general, the deeper the cavity, the greater the amplitude of the acoustic tones. Reynolds number appeared to have little effect on acoustic tone amplitudes. Tone amplitude and bandwidth changed with Mach number. The effect of yaw on acoustic tones varied with Reynolds number, Mach number, 1/h, and mode number. At Mach number 0.90, increased yaw shifted the tone frequencies of the higher modal frequencies to lower frequencies. As cavity depth decreased, the effect of yaw decreased.

  19. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Area requiring further research are discussed and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installations is addressed.

  20. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  1. Aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  2. New developments in blown flap noise technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    The noise technology relating to blown-flap systems is reviewed. There are three general sources of noise: turbomachinery, airframe, and the interaction noise of the jet blowing on the flaps. The latter noise-source area is the most critical and the main subject dicussed. Characteristics of lower surface blown and upper surface blown systems are described, including noise spectra, directivity, jet velocity characteristics, aircraft geometric variation effects, and aircraft forward speed effects. Noise reduction concepts are described, including slowing down the jet flow field by devices and engine cycle modifications, structural geometry and shielding modifications, local flow field modifications of the passive and active type, and the absorption of noise. It is concluded that, while there has been considerable progress in the past several years, low noise characteristics in blown flap aircraft must be largely built in by better application of low noise principles during the design.

  3. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  4. Noise-induced hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Catlin, F.I.

    1986-03-01

    Hearing loss affects 30 million people in the United States; of these, 21 million are over the age of 65 years. This disorder may have several causes: heredity, noise, aging, and disease. Hearing loss from noise has been recognized for centuries but was generally ignored until some time after the Industrial Revolution. Hearing loss from occupational exposure to hazardous noise was identified as a compensable disability by the United States courts in 1948 to 1959. Development of noisy jet engines and supersonic aircraft created additional claims for personal and property damage in the 1950s and 1960s. These conditions led to legislation for noise control in the form of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Noise Control Act of 1972. Protection of the noise-exposed employee was also an objective of the Hearing Conservation Act of 1971. Subsequent studies have confirmed the benefits of periodic hearing tests for workers exposed to hazardous noise and of otologic evaluation as part of the hearing conservation process. Research studies in laboratory animals, using scanning electron microscopical techniques, have demonstrated that damage to the inner ear and organ of hearing can occur even though subjective (conditioned) response to sound stimuli remains unaffected. Some investigators have employed an epidemiologic approach to identify risk factors and to develop profiles to susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss. The need for joint involvement of workers and employers in the reduction and control of occupational noise hazards is evident. 19 references.

  5. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  6. Computer programs for handling propulsion system noise data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montegani, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    Computer programs have been developed for efficient handling of one-third-octave band noise data originating from outdoor full-scale fan noise facility and engine acoustic facility at Lewis Research Center.

  7. MD-80 aft cabin noise control: A case history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, M. A.; Lorch, D. R.; May, D. N.; Simpson, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The interior noise technology program to improve the noise environment in the aft cabin of the MD-80 twin jet aircraft is discussed. Two potential noise control treatments were identified: vibration absorber devices for the airframe and for the engine. A series of ground and flight tests using in-service aircraft was then conducted. These tests showed that the vibration absorbers for the airframe and engine decreased aircraft noise significantly.

  8. MD-80 aft cabin noise control: A case history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, M. A.; Lorch, D. R.; May, D. N.; Simpson, M. A.

    1992-07-01

    The interior noise technology program to improve the noise environment in the aft cabin of the MD-80 twin jet aircraft is discussed. Two potential noise control treatments were identified: vibration absorber devices for the airframe and for the engine. A series of ground and flight tests using in-service aircraft was then conducted. These tests showed that the vibration absorbers for the airframe and engine decreased aircraft noise significantly.

  9. Acoustic testing of a 1.5 pressure ratio low tip speed fan with a serrated rotor (QEP fan B scale model). [reduction of engine noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazin, S. B.; Paas, J. E.; Minzner, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    A scale model of the bypass flow region of a 1.5 pressure ratio, single stage, low tip speed fan was tested with a serrated rotor leading edge to determine its effects on noise generation. The serrated rotor was produced by cutting teeth into the leading edge of the nominal rotor blades. The effects of speed and exhaust nozzle area on the scale models noise characteristics were investigated with both the nominal rotor and serrated rotor. Acoustic results indicate the serrations reduced front quadrant PNL's at takeoff power. In particular, the 200 foot (61.0 m) sideline noise was reduced from 3 to 4 PNdb at 40 deg for nominal and large nozzle operation. However, the rear quadrant maximum sideline PNL's were increased 1.5 to 3 PNdb at approach thust and up to 2 PNdb at takeoff thust with these serrated rotor blades. The configuration with the serrated rotor produced the lowest maximum 200 foot (61.0 m) sideline PNL for any given thust when the large nozzle (116% of design area) was employed.

  10. Noise Pollution in Irbid City — Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odat, Sana'A.

    2015-09-01

    Noise defined as any sound that annoys or disturbs humans or that causes or tends to cause an adverse psychological and physiological effect on humans. Irbid is one of the most populated cities in Jordan. It is environmentally noise polluted due to the rapid and widespread introduction of mechanical methods for production and for their transportation. L10, L50, L90 and LAeq noise levels were measured during the day time and night time to assess and evaluate the noise levels from mosques, schools, celebration halls, streets, building works, industrial areas and commercial areas. The results of the investigation showed that the measured noise levels from all the selected sources were high during the day time and the noise problem is not only limited to day time, but continues in night time in this city. These noise levels were higher than those set by Jordanian limits during day time and night time. A significant correlation between the measured statistical noise levels L10, L50 and L90 and equivalent continuous noise level LAeq were also detected. The mean value of industrial noise source was motors of large vehicles and engines. Whereas the presence of slow moving vehicles, low speed and honking of horns during traffic ingestion periods lead to an increase in noise levels in commercial areas. The noise from building machines and equipment (dredges, concrete mixers, concrete pumps and jackhammers) is quite different from that of traditional equipment. The construction machines have engines that produce a loud, fluctuating noise with varying frequencies that can propagate the sound for a long distance. The noise produced by these engines is particularly disturbing due to the wide variations in frequency and volume.

  11. Supersonics--Airport Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2007-01-01

    At this, the first year-end meeting of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program, an overview of the Airport Noise discipline of the Supersonics Project leads the presentation of technical plans and achievements in this area of the Project. The overview starts by defining the Technical Challenges targeted by Airport Noise efforts, and the Approaches planned to meet these challenges. These are fleshed out in Elements, namely Prediction, Diagnostics, and Engineering, and broken down into Tasks. The Tasks level is where individual researchers' work is defined and from whence the technical presentations to follow this presentation come. This overview also presents the Milestones accomplished to date and to be completed in the next year. Finally, the NASA Research Announcement cooperative agreement activities are covered and tied to the Tasks and Milestones.

  12. Fan noise prediction assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bent, Paul H.

    1995-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of two techniques for predicting the fan noise radiation from engine nacelles. The first is a relatively computational intensive finite element technique. The code is named ARC, an abbreviation of Acoustic Radiation Code, and was developed by Eversman. This is actually a suite of software that first generates a grid around the nacelle, then solves for the potential flowfield, and finally solves the acoustic radiation problem. The second approach is an analytical technique requiring minimal computational effort. This is termed the cutoff ratio technique and was developed by Rice. Details of the duct geometry, such as the hub-to-tip ratio and Mach number of the flow in the duct, and modal content of the duct noise are required for proper prediction.

  13. Experimental clean combustor program: Noise study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofrin, T. G.; Riloff, N., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Under a Noise Addendum to the NASA Experimental Clean Combustor Program (ECCP) internal pressure fluctuations were measured during tests of JT9D combustor designs conducted in a burner test rig. Measurements were correlated with burner operating parameters using an expression relating farfield noise to these parameters. For a given combustor, variation of internal noise with operating parameters was reasonably well predicted by this expression but the levels were higher than farfield predictions and differed significantly among several combustors. For two burners, discharge stream temperature fluctuations were obtained with fast-response thermocouples to allow calculation of indirect combustion noise which would be generated by passage of the temperature inhomogeneities through the high pressure turbine stages of a JT9D turbofan engine. Using a previously developed analysis, the computed indirect combustion noise was significantly lower than total low frequency core noise observed on this and several other engines.

  14. AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines Area of Interest 1.0: Reliable and Affordable Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William; Winter, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The General Electric Reliable and Affordable Controls effort under the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program has designed, fabricated, and tested advanced controls hardware and software to reduce emissions and improve engine safety and reliability. The original effort consisted of four elements: 1) a Hydraulic Multiplexer; 2) Active Combustor Control; 3) a Variable Displacement Vane Pump (VDVP); and 4) Intelligent Engine Control. The VDVP and Intelligent Engine Control elements were cancelled due to funding constraints and are reported here only to the state they progressed. The Hydraulic Multiplexing element developed and tested a prototype which improves reliability by combining the functionality of up to 16 solenoids and servo-valves into one component with a single electrically powered force motor. The Active Combustor Control element developed intelligent staging and control strategies for low emission combustors. This included development and tests of a Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle for fuel sequencing, a Fuel Multiplexer for individual fuel cup metering, and model-based control logic. Both the Hydraulic Multiplexer and Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle system were cleared for engine test. The Fuel Multiplexer was cleared for combustor rig test which must be followed by an engine test to achieve full maturation.

  15. Multiple pure tone noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fei; Sharma, Anupam; Paliath, Umesh; Shieh, Chingwei

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a fully numerical method for predicting multiple pure tones, also known as “Buzzsaw” noise. It consists of three steps that account for noise source generation, nonlinear acoustic propagation with hard as well as lined walls inside the nacelle, and linear acoustic propagation outside the engine. Noise generation is modeled by steady, part-annulus computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. A linear superposition algorithm is used to construct full-annulus shock/pressure pattern just upstream of the fan from part-annulus CFD results. Nonlinear wave propagation is carried out inside the duct using a pseudo-two-dimensional solution of Burgers' equation. Scattering from nacelle lip as well as radiation to farfield is performed using the commercial solver ACTRAN/TM. The proposed prediction process is verified by comparing against full-annulus CFD simulations as well as against static engine test data for a typical high bypass ratio aircraft engine with hardwall as well as lined inlets. Comparisons are drawn against nacelle unsteady pressure transducer measurements at two axial locations as well as against near- and far-field microphone array measurements outside the duct. This is the first fully numerical approach (no experimental or empirical input is required) to predict multiple pure tone noise generation, in-duct propagation and far-field radiation. It uses measured blade coordinates to calculate MPT noise.

  16. Improving Gabor noise.

    PubMed

    Lagae, Ares; Lefebvre, Sylvain; Dutré, Philip

    2011-08-01

    We have recently proposed a new procedural noise function, Gabor noise, which offers a combination of properties not found in the existing noise functions. In this paper, we present three significant improvements to Gabor noise: 1) an isotropic kernel for Gabor noise, which speeds up isotropic Gabor noise with a factor of roughly two, 2) an error analysis of Gabor noise, which relates the kernel truncation radius to the relative error of the noise, and 3) spatially varying Gabor noise, which enables spatial variation of all noise parameters. These improvements make Gabor noise an even more attractive alternative for the existing noise functions.

  17. Deep Water Ambient Noise and Mode Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Deep Water Ambient Noise and Mode Processing Kathleen E. Wage George Mason University Electrical and Computer Engineering Department 4400...specific objectives of the project are: 1) to characterize the ambient noise in the PhilSea data set using spectral analysis and to compare the results...to those for other deep water data sets; 2) to analyze the acoustic modes in the ambient noise and moored source data sets acquired in the PhilSea

  18. Control of Environmental Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Paul

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the physical properties, sources, physiological effects, and legislation pertaining to noise, especially noise characteristics in the community. Indicates that noise reduction steps can be taken more intelligently after determination of the true noise sources and paths. (CC)

  19. A concept for a counterrotating fan with reduced tone noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.

    1992-01-01

    As subsonic jet engine designs incorporate higher bypass ratios to reduce jet noise and increase engine cycle efficiency, the fan noise becomes a significant part of the perceived total noise. The conventional method of reducing fan tone noise is to design a low tip-speed device. An alternative approach of using a counterrotating fan with a high number of rotor blades is investigated in this report. The source of noise at the blade passing frequency of this device is the rotor-only mechanism, which is cut off for a subsonic tip speed rotor. The interaction noise occurs at twice the blade passing frequency, which, for this fan, was shifted high enough in frequency to be above the perceived noise rating range. The result was a counterrotating fan which had more potential for tone noise reduction than does the conventional fan. A potential broadband noise reduction was also indicated.

  20. Engineering simulation development and evaluation of the two-segment noise abatement approach conducted in the B-727-222 flight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nylen, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Profile modification as a means of reducing ground level noise from jet aircraft in the landing approach is evaluated. A flight simulator was modified to incorporate the cockpit hardware which would be in the prototype airplane installation. The two-segment system operational and aircraft interface logic was accurately emulated in software. Programs were developed to permit data to be recorded in real time on the line printer, a 14-channel oscillograph, and an x-y plotter. The two-segment profile and procedures which were developed are described with emphasis on operational concepts and constraints. The two-segment system operational logic and the flight simulator capabilities are described. The findings influenced the ultimate system design and aircraft interface.

  1. Low Frequency Noise Contamination in Fan Model Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clifford A.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft engine noise research and development depends on the ability to study and predict the noise created by each engine component in isolation. The presence of a downstream pylon for a model fan test, however, may result in noise contamination through pylon interactions with the free stream and model exhaust airflows. Additionally, there is the problem of separating the fan and jet noise components generated by the model fan. A methodology was therefore developed to improve the data quality for the 9 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center that identifies three noise sources: fan noise, jet noise, and rig noise. The jet noise and rig noise were then measured by mounting a scale model of the 9 15 LSWT model fan installation in a jet rig to simulate everything except the rotating machinery and in duct components of fan noise. The data showed that the spectra measured in the LSWT has a strong rig noise component at frequencies as high as 3 kHz depending on the fan and airflow fan exit velocity. The jet noise was determined to be significantly lower than the rig noise (i.e., noise generated by flow interaction with the downstream support pylon). A mathematical model for the rig noise was then developed using a multi-dimensional least squares fit to the rig noise data. This allows the rig noise to be subtracted or removed, depending on the amplitude of the rig noise relative to the fan noise, at any given frequency, observer angle, or nozzle pressure ratio. The impact of isolating the fan noise with this method on spectra, overall power level (OAPWL), and Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) is studied.

  2. Noise pollution resources compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Abstracts of reports concerning noise pollution are presented. The abstracts are grouped in the following areas of activity: (1) sources of noise, (2) noise detection and measurement, (3) noise abatement and control, (4) physical effects of noise and (5) social effects of noise.

  3. Noise Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

  4. Helicopter internal noise control: Three case histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, B. D.; Cox, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    Case histories are described in which measurable improvements in the cabin noise environments of the Bell 214B, 206B, and 222 were realized. These case histories trace the noise control efforts followed in each vehicle. Among the design approaches considered, the addition of a fluid pulsation damper in a hydraulic system and the installation of elastomeric engine mounts are highlighted. It is concluded that substantial weight savings result when the major interior noise sources are controlled by design, both in altering the noise producing mechanism and interrupting the sound transmission paths.

  5. Fan Noise Prediction: Status and Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    1997-01-01

    The prediction of fan noise is an important part to the prediction of overall turbofan engine noise. Advances in computers and better understanding of the flow physics have allowed researchers to compute sound generation from first principles and rely less on empirical correlations. While progress has been made, there are still many aspects of the problem that need to be explored. This paper presents some recent advances in fan noise prediction and suggests areas that still need further development. Fan noise predictions that support the recommendations are taken from existing publications.

  6. Definition of 1992 Technology Aircraft Noise Levels and the Methodology for Assessing Airplane Noise Impact of Component Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumasaka, Henry A.; Martinez, Michael M.; Weir, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the methodology for assessing the impact of component noise reduction on total airplane system noise. The methodology is intended to be applied to the results of individual study elements of the NASA-Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program, which will address the development of noise reduction concepts for specific components. Program progress will be assessed in terms of noise reduction achieved, relative to baseline levels representative of 1992 technology airplane/engine design and performance. In this report, the 1992 technology reference levels are defined for assessment models based on four airplane sizes - an average business jet and three commercial transports: a small twin, a medium sized twin, and a large quad. Study results indicate that component changes defined as program final goals for nacelle treatment and engine/airframe source noise reduction would achieve from 6-7 EPNdB reduction of total airplane noise at FAR 36 Stage 3 noise certification conditions for all of the airplane noise assessment models.

  7. On the use of co-ordinate stretching in the numeral computation of high frequency scattering. [of jet engine noise by fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayliss, A.

    1978-01-01

    The scattering of the sound of a jet engine by an airplane fuselage is modeled by solving the axially symmetric Helmholtz equation exterior to a long thin ellipsoid. The integral equation method based on the single layer potential formulation is used. A family of coordinate systems on the body is introduced and an algorithm is presented to determine the optimal coordinate system. Numerical results verify that the optimal choice enables the solution to be computed with a grid that is coarse relative to the wavelength.

  8. Prediction of noise constrained optimum takeoff procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    An optimization method is used to predict safe, maximum-performance takeoff procedures which satisfy noise constraints at multiple observer locations. The takeoff flight is represented by two-degree-of-freedom dynamical equations with aircraft angle-of-attack and engine power setting as control functions. The engine thrust, mass flow and noise source parameters are assumed to be given functions of the engine power setting and aircraft Mach number. Effective Perceived Noise Levels at the observers are treated as functionals of the control functions. The method is demonstrated by applying it to an Advanced Supersonic Transport aircraft design. The results indicate that automated takeoff procedures (continuously varying controls) can be used to significantly reduce community and certification noise without jeopardizing safety or degrading performance.

  9. Active noise control using noise source having adaptive resonant frequency tuning through stiffness variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of a noise radiating element is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating element is tuned by a plurality of force transmitting mechanisms which contact the noise radiating element. Each one of the force transmitting mechanisms includes an expandable element and a spring in contact with the noise radiating element so that excitation of the element varies the spring force applied to the noise radiating element. The elements are actuated by a controller which receives input of a signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the elements and causes the spring force applied to the noise radiating element to be varied. The force transmitting mechanisms can be arranged to either produce bending or linear stiffness variations in the noise radiating element.

  10. A Comparison of Combustor-Noise Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2012-01-01

    The present status of combustor-noise prediction in the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP)1 for current-generation (N) turbofan engines is summarized. Several semi-empirical models for turbofan combustor noise are discussed, including best methods for near-term updates to ANOPP. An alternate turbine-transmission factor2 will appear as a user selectable option in the combustor-noise module GECOR in the next release. The three-spectrum model proposed by Stone et al.3 for GE turbofan-engine combustor noise is discussed and compared with ANOPP predictions for several relevant cases. Based on the results presented herein and in their report,3 it is recommended that the application of this fully empirical combustor-noise prediction method be limited to situations involving only General-Electric turbofan engines. Long-term needs and challenges for the N+1 through N+3 time frame are discussed. Because the impact of other propulsion-noise sources continues to be reduced due to turbofan design trends, advances in noise-mitigation techniques, and expected aircraft configuration changes, the relative importance of core noise is expected to greatly increase in the future. The noise-source structure in the combustor, including the indirect one, and the effects of the propagation path through the engine and exhaust nozzle need to be better understood. In particular, the acoustic consequences of the expected trends toward smaller, highly efficient gas-generator cores and low-emission fuel-flexible combustors need to be fully investigated since future designs are quite likely to fall outside of the parameter space of existing (semi-empirical) prediction tools.

  11. Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    The Acoustics Branch is responsible for reducing noise levels for jet and fan components on aircraft engines. To do this, data must be measured and calibrated accurately to ensure validity of test results. This noise reduction is accomplished by modifications to hardware such as jet nozzles, and by the use of other experimental hardware such as fluidic chevrons, elliptic cores, and fluidic shields. To insure validity of data calibration, a variety of software is used. This software adjusts the sound amplitude and frequency to be consistent with data taken on another day. Both the software and the hardware help make noise reduction possible. work properly. These software programs were designed to make corrections for atmosphere, shear, attenuation, electronic, and background noise. All data can be converted to a one-foot lossless condition, using the proper software corrections, making a reading independent of weather and distance. Also, data can be transformed from model scale to full scale for noise predictions of a real flight. Other programs included calculations of Over All Sound Pressure Level (OASPL), Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL). OASPL is the integration of sound with respect to frequency, and EPNL is weighted for a human s response to different sound frequencies and integrated with respect to time. With the proper software correction, data taken in the NATR are useful in determining ways to reduce noise. display any difference between two or more data files. Using this program and graphs of the data, the actual and predicted data can be compared. This software was tested on data collected at the Aero Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) using a variety of window types and overlaps. Similarly, short scripts were written to test each individual program in the software suite for verification. Each graph displays both the original points and the adjusted points connected with lines. During this summer, data points were taken during a live experiment

  12. Evaluation of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program Noise Reduction Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Robert A.; Rawls, John W., Jr.; Russell, James W.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a detailed evaluation of the aircraft noise reduction technology concepts developed during the course of the NASA/FAA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program. In 1992, NASA and the FAA initiated a cosponsored, multi-year program with the U.S. aircraft industry focused on achieving significant advances in aircraft noise reduction. The program achieved success through a systematic development and validation of noise reduction technology. Using the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program, the noise reduction benefit of the technologies that reached a NASA technology readiness level of 5 or 6 were applied to each of four classes of aircraft which included a large four engine aircraft, a large twin engine aircraft, a small twin engine aircraft and a business jet. Total aircraft noise reductions resulting from the implementation of the appropriate technologies for each class of aircraft are presented and compared to the AST program goals.

  13. A study of interior noise levels, noise sources and transmission paths in light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, R. E.; Murray, B. S.; Theobald, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The interior noise levels and spectral characteristics of 18 single-and twin-engine propeller-driven light aircraft, and source-path diagnosis of a single-engine aircraft which was considered representative of a large part of the fleet were studied. The purpose of the flight surveys was to measure internal noise levels and identify principal noise sources and paths under a carefully controlled and standardized set of flight procedures. The diagnostic tests consisted of flights and ground tests in which various parts of the aircraft, such as engine mounts, the engine compartment, exhaust pipe, individual panels, and the wing strut were instrumented to determine source levels and transmission path strengths using the transfer function technique. Predominant source and path combinations are identified. Experimental techniques are described. Data, transfer function calculations to derive source-path contributions to the cabin acoustic environment, and implications of the findings for noise control design are analyzed.

  14. A Comprehensive Approach to Management of Workplace and Environmental Noise at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Beth A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is home to more than 100 experimental research testing facilities and laboratories, including large wind tunnels and engine test cells, which in combination create a varied and complex noise environment. Much of the equipment was manufactured prior to the enactment of legislation limiting product noise emissions or occupational noise exposure. Routine facility maintenance and associated construction also contributes to a noise exposure management responsibility which is equal in magnitude and scope to that of several small industrial companies. The Noise Program, centrally managed within the Office of Environmental Programs at LRC, maintains overall responsibility for hearing conservation, community noise control, and acoustical and noise control engineering. Centralized management of the LRC Noise Program facilitates the timely development and implementation of engineered noise control solutions for problems identified via either the Hearing Conservation of Community Noise Program. The key element of the Lewis Research Center Noise Program, Acoustical and Noise Control Engineering Services, is focused on developing solutions that permanently reduce employee and community noise exposure and maximize research productivity by reducing or eliminating administrative and operational controls and by improving the safety and comfort of the work environment. The Hearing Conservation Program provides noise exposure assessment, medical monitoring, and training for civil servant and contractor employees. The Community Noise Program aims to maintain the support of LRC's neighboring communities while enabling necessary research operations to accomplish their programmatic goals. Noise control engineering capability resides within the Noise Program. The noise control engineering, based on specific exposure limits, is a fundamental consideration throughout the design phase of new test facilities, labs, and office buildings. In summary, the Noise Program

  15. Active noise control using noise source having adaptive resonant frequency tuning through variable ring loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of noise radiating structure is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating structure is tuned by a plurality of drivers arranged to contact the noise radiating structure. Excitation of the drivers causes expansion or contraction of the drivers, thereby varying the edge loading applied to the noise radiating structure. The drivers are actuated by a controller which receives input of a feedback signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the drivers, causing them to expand or contract. The noise radiating structure may be either the outer shroud of the engine or a ring mounted flush with an inner wall of the shroud or disposed in the interior of the shroud.

  16. Noise-induced annoyance from transportation noise: short-term responses to a single noise source in a laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaehwan; Lim, Changwoo; Hong, Jiyoung; Lee, Soogab

    2010-02-01

    An experimental study was performed to compare the annoyances from civil-aircraft noise, military-aircraft noise, railway noise, and road-traffic noise. Two-way within-subjects designs were applied in this research. Fifty-two subjects, who were naive listeners, were given various stimuli with varying levels through a headphone in an anechoic chamber. Regardless of the frequency weighting network, even under the same average energy level, civil-aircraft noise was the most annoying, followed by military-aircraft noise, railway noise, and road-traffic noise. In particular, penalties in the time-averaged, A-weighted sound level (TAL) of about 8, 5, and 5 dB, respectively, were found in the civil-aircraft, military-aircraft, and railway noises. The reason could be clarified through the high-frequency component and the variability in the level. When people were exposed to sounds with the same maximum A-weighted level, a railway bonus of about 3 dB was found. However, transportation noise has been evaluated by the time-averaged A-weighted level in most countries. Therefore, in the present situation, the railway bonus is not acceptable for railway vehicles with diesel-electric engines.

  17. Community Response to Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidell, Sandy

    The primary effects of community noise on residential populations are speech interference, sleep disturbance, and annoyance. This chapter focuses on transportation noise in general and on aircraft noise in particular because aircraft noise is one of the most prominent community noise sources, because airport/community controversies are often the most contentious and widespread, and because industrial and other specialized formsofcommunitynoise generally posemorelocalized problems.

  18. 75 FR 77798 - Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of Occupational Noise AGENCY: Occupational Safety... Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of Occupational Noise... Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of Occupational...

  19. Low vibration polymeric composite engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimond, David P.; Muench, Rolf K.

    1994-12-01

    An internal combustion engine is constructed with metallic parts in its regions which are subjected to high stress (temperature, pressure) during combustion and polymeric materials in its regions which are subjected to relatively lower stresses. The integrated construction helps realize increased power densities and reductions on engine noise without compromising engine performance. V-configuration Diesel engines particularly benefit from this construction.

  20. Noise control using a plate radiator and an acoustic resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An active noise control subassembly for reducing noise caused by a source (such as an aircraft engine) independent of the subassembly. A noise radiating panel is bendably vibratable to generate a panel noise canceling at least a portion of the source noise. A piezoceramic actuator plate is connected to the panel. A front plate is spaced apart from the panel and the first plate, is positioned generally between the source noise and the panel, and has a sound exit port. A first pair of spaced-apart side walls each generally abut the panel and the front plate so as to generally enclose a front cavity to define a resonator.

  1. Active noise control using noise source having adaptive resonant frequency tuning through stress variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of a noise radiating element is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating element is tuned by an expandable ring embedded in the noise radiating element. Excitation of the ring causes expansion or contraction of the ring, thereby varying the stress in the noise radiating element. The ring is actuated by a controller which receives input of a feedback signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the ring, causing the ring to expand or contract. Instead of a single ring embedded in the noise radiating panel, a first expandable ring can be bonded to one side of the noise radiating element, and a second expandable ring can be bonded to the other side.

  2. Noise: how can the nuisance be controlled?

    PubMed

    Ollerhead, J B

    1973-09-01

    Aircraft noise is a major nuisance in residential communities around airports. If the air transport industries are to meet the ever increasing demand for air travel, determined efforts are required now to reduce the burden of noise upon these communities. Significant engine noise reductions have already been achieved in the latest generation of wide-bodied aircraft, and further reductions are being forecast by the engine manufacturers. Regardless of whether there are justifiable grounds for this optimism there are alternative steps to be taken. But the problem is basically an economic rather than a technological one - how much does noise reduction cost and how much can we afford to pay? The various costs of aircraft noise, both monetary and social, are discussed in relation to its effects upon people. Although an economic analysis of the problem is feasible, it is doubtful whether our understanding of the relationships between physical noise levels and human reaction is yet adequate for such purposes. Planning methods for estimating the extent of community noise nuisance are presented, and it is shown that consideration should be given to outlying regions exposed to relatively little aircraft noise.

  3. Psychoacoustic Analysis of Synthesized Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okcu, Selen; Rathsam, Jonathan; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    An aircraft noise synthesis capability is being developed so the annoyance caused by proposed aircraft can be assessed during the design stage. To make synthesized signals as realistic as possible, high fidelity simulation is required for source (e.g., engine noise, airframe noise), propagation and receiver effects. This psychoacoustic study tests whether the jet noise component of synthesized aircraft engine noise can be made more realistic using a low frequency oscillator (LFO) technique to simulate fluctuations in level observed in recordings. Jet noise predictions are commonly made in the frequency domain based on models of time-averaged empirical data. The synthesis process involves conversion of the frequency domain prediction into an audible pressure time history. However, because the predictions are time-invariant, the synthesized sound lacks fluctuations observed in recordings. Such fluctuations are hypothesized to be perceptually important. To introduce time-varying characteristics into jet noise synthesis, a method has been developed that modulates measured or predicted 1/3-octave band levels with a (<20Hz) LFO. The LFO characteristics are determined through analysis of laboratory jet noise recordings. For the aft emission angle, results indicate that signals synthesized using a generic LFO are perceived as more similar to recordings than those using no LFO, and signals synthesized with an angle-specific LFO are more similar to recordings than those synthesized with a generic LFO.

  4. Reduced-Noise Gas Flow Design Guide Developed as a Noise-Control Design Tool for Meeting Glenn's Hearing Conservation and Community Noise Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Beth A.

    2000-01-01

    A Reduced-Noise Gas Flow Design Guide has been developed for the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field by Nelson Acoustical Engineering of Elgin, Texas. Gas flow systems are a significant contributor to t he noise exposure landscape at Glenn. Because of the power of many of these systems, hearing conservation and community noise are importan t issues. The purpose of the Guide is to allow Glenn engineers and de signers to address noise emission and control at the design stage by using readily available system parameters. Although the Guide was deve loped with Glenn equipment and systems in mind, it is expected to hav e wide application in industry.

  5. FET Noise Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    The predominant sources of nonlinearity in the FET, relevant to oscillator analysis, are the transconductance gm and the source-gate capacitance C sg...two general categories of noise mechanisms in an FET: intrinsic sources, i.e., noise associated with the FET operation itself, and extrinsic noise...very high drain voltages, also produces white noise. Noise produced by para- sitic resistance, one of the extrinsic noise sources, is also flat. These

  6. Noise and blast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, D. C.; Garinther, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Noise and blast environments are described, providing a definition of units and techniques of noise measurement and giving representative booster-launch and spacecraft noise data. The effects of noise on hearing sensitivity and performance are reviewed, and community response to noise exposure is discussed. Physiological, or nonauditory, effects of noise exposure are also treated, as are design criteria and methods for minimizing the noise effects of hearing sensitivity and communications. The low level sound detection and speech reception are included, along with subjective and behavioral responses to noise.

  7. On Noise Assessment for Blended Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yueping; Burley, Casey L; Thomas, Russell H.

    2014-01-01

    A system noise study is presented for the blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft configured with advanced technologies that are projected to be available in the 2025 timeframe of the NASA N+2 definition. This system noise assessment shows that the noise levels of the baseline configuration, measured by the cumulative Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL), have a large margin of 34 dB to the aircraft noise regulation of Stage 4. This confirms the acoustic benefits of the BWB shielding of engine noise, as well as other projected noise reduction technologies, but the noise margins are less than previously published assessments and are short of meeting the NASA N+2 noise goal. In establishing the relevance of the acoustic assessment framework, the design of the BWB configuration, the technical approach of the noise analysis, the databases and prediction tools used in the assessment are first described and discussed. The predicted noise levels and the component decomposition are then analyzed to identify the ranking order of importance of various noise components, revealing the prominence of airframe noise, which holds up the levels at all three noise certification locations and renders engine noise reduction technologies less effective. When projected airframe component noise reduction is added to the HWB configuration, it is shown that the cumulative noise margin to Stage 4 can reach 41.6 dB, nearly at the NASA goal. These results are compared with a previous NASA assessment with a different study framework. The approaches that yield projections of such low noise levels are discussed including aggressive assumptions on future technologies, assumptions on flight profile management, engine installation, and component noise reduction technologies. It is shown that reliable predictions of component noise also play an important role in the system noise assessment. The comparisons and discussions illustrate the importance of practical feasibilities and constraints in aircraft

  8. Fluidic Injection for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Investigations into fluidic injection for jet noise reduction began over 50 years ago. Studies have included water and air injection for the reduction of noise in scale model jets and jet engines and water injection for the reduction of excess overpressures on the Space Shuttle at lift-off. Injection systems have included high pressure microjets as well as larger scale injectors operating at pressures that can be achieved in real jet engines. An historical perspective highlighting noise reduction potential is presented for injection concepts investigated over the last 50 years. Results from recent investigations conducted at NASA are presented for supersonic and subsonic dual-stream jets. The noise reduction benefits achieved through fluidic contouring using an azimuthally controlled nozzle will be discussed.

  9. Noise control of radiological monitoring equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Rubick, R.D.; Stevens, W.W.; Burke, L.L.

    1998-12-31

    Although vacuum pumps on continuous air monitors (CAMs) do not produce noise levels above regulatory limits, engineering controls were used to establish a safer work environment. Operations performed in areas where CAMs are located are highly specialized and require precision work when handling nuclear materials, heavy metals, and inert gases. Traditional methods for controlling noise such as enclosing or isolating the source and the use of personal protection equipment were evaluated. An innovative solution was found by retrofitting CAMs with air powered multistage ejectors pumps. By allowing the air to expand in several chambers to create a vacuum, one can eliminate the noise hazard altogether. In facilities with adequate pressurized air, use of these improved ejector pumps may be a cost-effective replacement for noisy vacuum pumps. A workplace designed or engineered with noise levels as low as possible or as close to background adds to increased concentration, attention to detail, and increased production.

  10. UHB demonstrator interior noise control flight tests and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, M. A.; Druez, P. M.; Kimbrough, A. J.; Brock, M. P.; Burge, P. L.; Mathur, G. P.; Cannon, M. R.; Tran, B. N.

    1989-01-01

    The measurement and analysis of MD-UHB (McDonnell Douglas Ultra High Bypass) Demonstrator noise and vibration flight test data are described as they relate to passenger cabin noise. The analyses were done to investigate the interior noise characteristics of advanced turboprop aircraft with aft-mounted engines, and to study the effectiveness of selected noise control treatments in reducing passenger cabin noise. The UHB Demonstrator is an MD-80 test aircraft with the left JT8D engine replaced with a prototype UHB engine. For these tests, the UHB engine was a General Electric Unducted Fan, with either 8x8 or 10x8 counter-rotating propeller configurations. Interior noise level characteristics were studied for several altitudes and speeds, with emphasis on high altitude (35,000 ft), high speed (0.75 Mach) cruise conditions. The effectiveness of several noise control treatments was evaluated based on cabin noise measurements. The important airborne and structureborne transmission paths were identified for both tonal and broadband sources using the results of a sound intensity survey, exterior and interior noise and vibration data, and partial coherence analysis techniques. Estimates of the turbulent boundary layer pressure wavenumber-frequency spectrum were made, based on measured fuselage noise levels.

  11. Computer program to predict noise of general aviation aircraft: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. A.; Barton, C. K.; Kisner, L. S.; Lyon, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Program NOISE predicts General Aviation Aircraft far-field noise levels at FAA FAR Part 36 certification conditions. It will also predict near-field and cabin noise levels for turboprop aircraft and static engine component far-field noise levels.

  12. Aircraft noise propagation. [sound diffraction by wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, W. J.; Pierce, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    Sound diffraction experiments conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to study the acoustical implications of the engine over wing configuration (noise-shielding by wing) and to provide a data base for assessing various theoretical approaches to the problem of aircraft noise reduction are described. Topics explored include the theory of sound diffraction around screens and wedges; the scattering of spherical waves by rectangular patches; plane wave diffraction by a wedge with finite impedence; and the effects of ambient flow and distribution sources.

  13. Noise Prediction for Hydrophone/Preamplifier Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-03

    NUWC-NPT Technical Report 10,369 AD-A265 915 ’---:3 June 1993 Noise Prediction for Hydrophone/Preamplifier Systems T. B. Straw Engineering and...COVERED 3 June 1993 Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Noise Prediction for Hydrophone Preamplifier Systems PR B65766 6. AUTHOR(S) T. B. Straw...FUNCTION ................. .B-1 DERIVATION APPENDIX C. MATLAB LISTINGS ................................................................. C-I i LIST OF

  14. NASA's Subsonic Jet Transport Noise Reduction Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Preisser, John S.

    2000-01-01

    Although new jet transport airplanes in today s fleet are considerably quieter than the first jet transports introduced about 40 years ago, airport community noise continues to be an important environmental issue. NASA s Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction program was begun in 1994 as a seven-year effort to develop technology to reduce jet transport noise 10 dB relative to 1992 technology. This program provides for reductions in engine source noise, improvements in nacelle acoustic treatments, reductions in the noise generated by the airframe, and improvements in the way airplanes are operated in the airport environs. These noise reduction efforts will terminate at the end of 2001 and it appears that the objective will be met. However, because of an anticipated 3-8% growth in passenger and cargo operations well into the 21st Century and the slow introduction of new the noise reduction technology into the fleet, world aircraft noise impact will remain essentially constant until about 2020 to 2030 and thereafter begin to rise. Therefore NASA has begun planning with the Federal Aviation Administration, industry, universities and environmental interest groups in the USA for a new noise reduction initiative to provide technology for significant further reductions.

  15. Noise, Health, and Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beranek, Leo L.

    There is reasonable agreement that hearing impairment is related to noise exposure. This hearing loss due to noise is considered a serious health injury, but there is still difficulty in delineating the importance of noise related to people's general non-auditory well-being and health. Beside hearing loss, noise inhibits satisfactory speech…

  16. Full scale upper surface blown flap noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, L. J.; Homyak, L.; Jones, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A highly noise suppressed TF 34 engine was used to investigate the noise of several powered lift configurations involving upper surface blown (USB) flaps. The configuration variables were nozzle type (i.e. slot and circular with deflector), flap chord length, and flap angle. The results of velocity surveys at both the nozzle exit and the flap trailing edge are also presented and used for correlation of the noise data. Configurations using a long flap design were 4 db quieter than a short flap typical of current trends in USB flap design. The lower noise for the long flap is attributed primarily to the greater velocity decay of the jet at the flap trailing edge. The full-scale data revealed substantially more quadrupole noise in the region near the deflected jet than observed in previous sub-scale tests.

  17. Aircraft and airport noise control prospective outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, N.

    1982-01-01

    In a perspective look at aircraft and airport noise control over the past ten years or more - or more is added here because the Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 of 1969 is a more significant milestone for the air transportation system than is the Noise Control Act of 1972 - we see an appreciable reduction in the noise emitted by newly designed and newly produced airplanes, particularly those powered by the new high bypass engines, but only, at best, a moderate alleviation of airport noise. The change in airport noise exposure was the consequence of the introduction of some new, quieter airplanes into the airlines fleets and some operational modifications or restrictions at the airports.

  18. Active Noise Control for Dishwasher noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nokhaeng; Park, Youngjin

    2016-09-01

    The dishwasher is a useful home appliance and continually used for automatically washing dishes. It's commonly placed in the kitchen with built-in style for practicality and better use of space. In this environment, people are easily exposed to dishwasher noise, so it is an important issue for the consumers, especially for the people living in open and narrow space. Recently, the sound power levels of the noise are about 40 - 50 dBA. It could be achieved by removal of noise sources and passive means of insulating acoustical path. For more reduction, such a quiet mode with the lower speed of cycle has been introduced, but this deteriorates the washing capacity. Under this background, we propose active noise control for dishwasher noise. It is observed that the noise is propagating mainly from the lower part of the front side. Control speakers are placed in the part for the collocation. Observation part of estimating sound field distribution and control part of generating the anti-noise are designed for active noise control. Simulation result shows proposed active noise control scheme could have a potential application for dishwasher noise reduction.

  19. En route noise annoyance laboratory test: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Until recently concerns about the impact of aircraft noise on people have centered around the takeoff and landing operations of aircraft in the vicinity of airport terminals. The development of the advanced turboprop (propfan) engine, modifications to air corridors, and the desire to maintain a natural environment in national parks and recreation areas have now focused attention on the impact at ground level of the en route noise produced by aircraft at cruise conditions and altitudes. Compared to terminal area noise, en route noise is characterized by relatively low noise levels, lack of high frequency spectral content, and long durations. Much research has been directed towards understanding and quantifying the annoyance caused by terminal area aircraft noise, but relatively little research has been conducted for en route noise. To address this need, a laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the annoyance of people on the ground to en route noise generated by aircraft at cruise conditions. The objectives of the experiment are to determine the annoyance prediction ability of noise measurement procedures and corrections when applied to en route noise; to determine differences in annoyance response to en route noise and takeoff/landing noise; and to determine differences in annoyance response to advanced turboprop en route noise and conventional jet en route noise.

  20. Airport Noise Tech Challenge Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, operating under NASA Aeronautics Mission Directorate#s Fundamental Aero Program, has been organized around the Technical Challenges that have historically precluded commercial supersonic flight. One of these Challenges is making aircraft that are capable of such high aerodynamic performance quiet enough around airports that they will not be objectionable. It is recognized that a successful civilian supersonic aircraft will be a system where many new technologies will come together, and for this to happen not only will new low noise propulsion concepts be required, but new engineering tools that predict the noise of the aircraft as these technologies are combined and compromised with the rest of the aircraft design. These are the two main objectives of the Airport Noise Tech Challenge. " ! As a Project in the Fundamental Aero Program, we work at a relatively low level of technology readiness. However, we have high level milestones which force us to integrate our efforts to impact systems-level activities. To keep the low-level work tied to delivering engineering tools and low-noise concepts, we have structured our milestones around development of the concepts and organized our activities around developing and applying our engineering tools to these concepts. The final deliverables in these milestones are noise prediction modules validated against the best embodiment of each concept. These will then be used in cross-disciplinary exercises to demonstrate the viability of aircraft designs to meet all the Technical Challenges. Some of the concepts being developed are shown: Fan Flow Diverters, Multi-jet Shielding, High-Aspect Ratio Embedded Nozzles, Plasma Actuated Instability Manipulation, Highly Variable Cycle Mixer- Ejectors, and Inverted Velocity Profiles. These concepts are being developed for reduced jet noise along with the design tools which describe how they perform when used in various aircraft configurations. Several key upcoming

  1. Exo-Skeletal Engine: Novel Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Cristos C.; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2004-01-01

    The exo-skeletal engine concept represents a new radical engine technology with the potential to substantially revolutionize engine design. It is an all-composite drum-rotor engine in which conventionally heavy shafts and discs are eliminated and are replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in spanwise compression. Thus the rotating blades are in compression rather than tension. The resulting open channel at the engine centerline has immense potential for jet noise reduction and can also accommodate an inner combined-cycle thruster such as a ramjet. The exo-skeletal engine is described in some detail with respect to geometry, components, and potential benefits. Initial evaluations and results for drum rotors, bearings, and weights are summarized. Component configuration, assembly plan, and potential fabrication processes are also identified. A finite element model of the assembled engine and its major components is described. Preliminary results obtained thus far show at least a 30-percent reduction of engine weight and about a 10-dB noise reduction, compared with a baseline conventional high-bypass-ratio engine. Potential benefits in all aspects of this engine technology are identified and tabulated. Quantitative assessments of potential benefits are in progress.

  2. High-Speed Jet Noise Reduction NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Handy, J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    History shows that the problem of high-speed jet noise reduction is difficult to solve. the good news is that high performance military aircraft noise is dominated by a single source called 'jet noise' (commercial aircraft have several sources). The bad news is that this source has been the subject of research for the past 50 years and progress has been incremental. Major jet noise reduction has been achieved through changing the cycle of the engine to reduce the jet exit velocity. Smaller reductions have been achieved using suppression devices like mixing enhancement and acoustic liners. Significant jet noise reduction without any performance loss is probably not possible! Recent NASA Noise Reduction Research Programs include the High Speed Research Program, Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program, Aerospace Propulsion and Power Program - Fundamental Noise, and Quiet Aircraft Technology Program.

  3. Generation of indirect combustion noise by compositional inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Luca; O'Brien, Jeff; Ihme, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    The generation of indirect combustion noise in nozzles and turbine stages is commonly attributed to temperature inhomogeneities and vorticity fluctuations. Here, compositional inhomogeneities in a multi-component gas mixture are shown to produce indirect noise both theoretically and numerically. The chemical potential function is introduced as an additional acoustic source mechanism. The contribution of the compositional noise is compared to the entropy noise and direct noise by considering subsonic, supersonic and shocked nozzles downstream of the combustor exit. It is shown that the compositional noise is dependent on the local mixture composition and can exceed entropy noise for fuel-lean conditions and supersonic/shocked nozzle flows. This suggests that compositional indirect combustion noise may require consideration with the implementation of advanced combustion concepts in gas turbines, including low-emissions combustors, high-power-density engine cores, or compact burners.

  4. NASA Open Rotor Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel burn efficiency advantage compared with the current generation high bypass ratio turbofan engines, there is resurgent interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems for powering the next generation commercial aircraft. However, to make open rotor systems truly competitive, they must be made to be acoustically acceptable too. To address this challenge, NASA in collaboration with industry is exploring the design space for low-noise open rotor propulsion systems. The focus is on the system level assessment of the open rotors compared with other candidate concepts like the ultra high bypass ratio cycle engines. To that end there is an extensive research effort at NASA focused on component testing and diagnostics of the open rotor acoustic performance as well as assessment and improvement of open rotor noise prediction tools. In this presentation and overview of the current NASA research on open rotor noise will be provided. Two NASA projects, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project and the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, have been funding this research effort.

  5. Aviation noise effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

  6. Noise Scaling and Community Noise Metrics for the Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Doty, Michael J.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Nickol, Craig L.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Pope, D. Stuart

    2014-01-01

    An aircraft system noise assessment was performed for the hybrid wing body aircraft concept, known as the N2A-EXTE. This assessment is a result of an effort by NASA to explore a realistic HWB design that has the potential to substantially reduce noise and fuel burn. Under contract to NASA, Boeing designed the aircraft using practical aircraft design princip0les with incorporation of noise technologies projected to be available in the 2020 timeframe. NASA tested 5.8% scale-mode of the design in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to provide source noise directivity and installation effects for aircraft engine and airframe configurations. Analysis permitted direct scaling of the model-scale jet, airframe, and engine shielding effect measurements to full-scale. Use of these in combination with ANOPP predictions enabled computations of the cumulative (CUM) noise margins relative to FAA Stage 4 limits. The CUM margins were computed for a baseline N2A-EXTE configuration and for configurations with added noise reduction strategies. The strategies include reduced approach speed, over-the-rotor line and soft-vane fan technologies, vertical tail placement and orientation, and modified landing gear designs with fairings. Combining the inherent HWB engine shielding by the airframe with added noise technologies, the cumulative noise was assessed at 38.7 dB below FAA Stage 4 certification level, just 3.3 dB short of the NASA N+2 goal of 42 dB. This new result shows that the NASA N+2 goal is approachable and that significant reduction in overall aircraft noise is possible through configurations with noise reduction technologies and operational changes.

  7. An assessment of propeller aircraft noise reduction technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, F. Bruce

    1995-01-01

    This report is a review of the literature regarding propeller airplane far-field noise reduction. Near-field and cabin noise reduction are not specifically addressed. However, some of the approaches used to reduce far-field noise produce beneficial effects in the near-field and in the cabin. The emphasis is on propeller noise reduction but engine exhaust noise reduction by muffling is also addressed since the engine noise becomes a significant part of the aircraft noise signature when propeller noise is reduced. It is concluded that there is a substantial body of information available that can be used as the basis to reduce propeller airplane noise. The reason that this information is not often used in airplane design is the associated weight, cost, and performance penalties. It is recommended that the highest priority be given to research for reducing the penalties associated with lower operating RPM and propeller diameter while increasing the number of blades. Research to reduce engine noise and explore innovative propeller concepts is also recommended.

  8. Noise characteristics research of Overhauser magnetometer sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tala; Gu, Lingjia; Zhang, Shuang; Fu, Haoyang

    2015-09-01

    Overhauser magnetometer, a kind of weak-magnetic measurement system based on the Overhauser effect, has been widely used in satellite magnetic survey, aeromagnetic survey and other engineering and environmental applications. Overhauser magnetometer plays an important role in the application of magnetic field measurement for its advantages of low power consumption and high accuracy. Weak field magnetic resonance is usually limited by the signal to noise ratio (SNR). In order to improve the SNR of Overhauser magnetometer, noise characteristics of Overhauser magnetometer sensor are investigated in this paper. A background noise model of Overhauser magnetometer sensor is presented. The calculated results indicate that the noise power spectral density shows a band-limited white noise characteristic. The maximum value of the noise power spectral density observed at the resonant frequency. The measured results coincide with the calculated results. The correlation between the SNR and the matched resistance is investigated by using the noise model. The calculated results demonstrate that large matched resistance is beneficial to improve the SNR of the sensor. When matched resistance is larger than 100kΩ, the SNR tends to be a constant. On the premise of stability, the sensor will achieve the optimal SNR when the matched resistance is around 100kΩ. This investigation is beneficial to improve noise performance of Overhauser magnetometer sensor.

  9. [Subjective sensitivity to noise].

    PubMed

    Belojević, G

    1991-01-01

    It is likely that individual variations in subjectively estimated noise sensitivity influence different social and psychophysiological reactions of people exposed to noise. Subjective noise sensitivity might be a relatively stable personal characteristic. A correlation have been found between high sensitiveness to noise and some medical symptoms (sleep disturbance, nervousness, depression), and worse work performance in noisy environments. An introvert person with neurotic symptoms is more frequently found in people highly sensitive to noise. Testing for subjective sensitivity to noise might be helpful in professional selection and orientation for noisy work-places as well as in housing advising.

  10. Program on ground test of modified quiet, clean, JT3D and JT8D turbofan engines in their respective nacelles. [modification of Boeing 707, 727, and 737 aircraft for aircraft noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A program to reduce the community noise levels of commercial jet aircraft is summarized. The program objective is the development of three acoustically treated nacelle configurations for the 707, 727, and 737 series aircraft to provide maximum noise reduction with minimum performance loss, modification requirements, and economic impact. The preliminary design, model testing, data analyses, and economic studies of proposed nacelle configurations are discussed.

  11. NASA/GE quiet engine C acoustic test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazin, S. B.; Pass, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    The acoustic investigation and evaluation of the C propulsion turbofan engine are discussed. The engine was built as a part of the Quiet Engine Program. The objectives of the program are as follows: (1) to determine the noise levels produced turbofan bypass engines, (2) to demonstrate the technology and innovations which will reduce the production and radiation of noise in turbofan engines, and (3) to acquire experimental acoustic and aerodynamic data for high bypass turbofan engines to provide a better understanding of noise production mechanisms. The goals of the program called for a turbofan engine 15 to 20 PNdB quieter than currently available engines in the same thrust class.

  12. Microphone Boom for Aircraft-Engine Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, R.; Economu, M.; Albrecht, W.

    1986-01-01

    Microphone for measuring aircraft engine noise mounted on lengthwise boom supported away from fuselage and engine. This configuration minimizes boundary-layer effects and pressure doubling that is present if microphone were mounted in aircraft fuselage.

  13. Interior noise considerations for powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, C. K.

    1975-01-01

    Powered-lift configurations which are currently under development for future use on STOL aircraft involve impingement of the jet engine exhaust onto wing and flap surfaces. Previous studies have suggested that the impinging jet produces higher noise levels at lower frequencies than does the jet alone. These higher levels, together with the close proximity of the engine and flap noise sources to the fuselage sidewall, suggest that the noise levels in these aircraft may be high enough to interfere with passenger comfort. To investigate this possibility, interior noise levels were estimated for both an upper surface blown (USB) and an externally blown flap (EBF) configuration. This paper describes the procedure used to estimate the interior noise levels and compares these levels with levels on existing jet aircraft and on ground transportation vehicles. These estimates indicate high levels in the STOL aircraft; therefore, areas of possible improvements in technology for control of STOL interior noise are also discussed.

  14. Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board: Aeronautics Assessment Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    High temperature engine materials, fatigue and fracture life prediction, composite materials, propulsion noise pollution, propulsion components, full-scale engine research, V/STOL propulsion, advanced engine concepts, and advanced general aviation propulsion research were discussed.

  15. Noise Considerations for Manned Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, David A.; Mayes, William H.; Hubbard, Harvey H.

    1960-01-01

    Noise measurements pertaining mainly to the static firing, launch, 0 and exit flight phases are presented for three rocket-powered vehicles 4 in the Project Mercury test program. Both internal and external data 4 from onboard recordings are presented for a range of Mach numbers and dynamic pressures and for different external vehicle shapes. The main sources of noise are noted to be the rocket engines during static firing and launch and the aerodynamic boundary layer during the high-dynamic-pressure portions of the flight. Rocket-engine noise measurements along the surface of the Mercury Big Joe vehicle were noted to correlate well with data from small models and available data for other large rockets. Measurements have indicated that the aerodynamic noise pressures increase approximately as the dynamic pressure increases and may vary according to the external shape of the vehicle, the highest noise levels being associated with conditions of flow separation. There is also a trend for the aerodynamic noise spectra to peak at higher frequencies as the flight Mach number increases.

  16. Temporal Characterization of Aircraft Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2004-01-01

    Current aircraft source noise prediction tools yield time-independent frequency spectra as functions of directivity angle. Realistic evaluation and human assessment of aircraft fly-over noise require the temporal characteristics of the noise signature. The purpose of the current study is to analyze empirical data from broadband jet and tonal fan noise sources and to provide the temporal information required for prediction-based synthesis. Noise sources included a one-tenth-scale engine exhaust nozzle and a one-fifth scale scale turbofan engine. A methodology was developed to characterize the low frequency fluctuations employing the Short Time Fourier Transform in a MATLAB computing environment. It was shown that a trade-off is necessary between frequency and time resolution in the acoustic spectrogram. The procedure requires careful evaluation and selection of the data analysis parameters, including the data sampling frequency, Fourier Transform window size, associated time period and frequency resolution, and time period window overlap. Low frequency fluctuations were applied to the synthesis of broadband noise with the resulting records sounding virtually indistinguishable from the measured data in initial subjective evaluations. Amplitude fluctuations of blade passage frequency (BPF) harmonics were successfully characterized for conditions equivalent to take-off and approach. Data demonstrated that the fifth harmonic of the BPF varied more in frequency than the BPF itself and exhibited larger amplitude fluctuations over the duration of the time record. Frequency fluctuations were found to be not perceptible in the current characterization of tonal components.

  17. Propagation of Environmental Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Solutions for environmental noise pollution lie in systematic study of many basic processes such as reflection, scattering, and spreading. Noise propagation processes should be identified in different situations and assessed for their relative importance. (PS)

  18. Workshop on Jet Exhaust Noise Reduction for Tactical Aircraft - NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Henderson, Brenda S.

    2007-01-01

    Jet noise from supersonic, high performance aircraft is a significant problem for takeoff and landing operations near air bases and aircraft carriers. As newer aircraft with higher thrust and performance are introduced, the noise tends to increase due to higher jet exhaust velocities. Jet noise has been a subject of research for over 55 years. Commercial subsonic aircraft benefit from changes to the engine cycle that reduce the exhaust velocities and result in significant noise reduction. Most of the research programs over the past few decades have concentrated on commercial aircraft. Progress has been made by introducing new engines with design features that reduce the noise. NASA has recently started a new program called "Fundamental Aeronautics" where three projects (subsonic fixed wing, subsonic rotary wing, and supersonics) address aircraft noise. For the supersonics project, a primary goal is to understand the underlying physics associated with jet noise so that improved noise prediction tools and noise reduction methods can be developed for a wide range of applications. Highlights from the supersonics project are presented including prediction methods for broadband shock noise, flow measurement methods, and noise reduction methods. Realistic expectations are presented based on past history that indicates significant jet noise reduction cannot be achieved without major changes to the engine cycle. NASA s past experience shows a few EPNdB (effective perceived noise level in decibels) can be achieved using low noise design features such as chevron nozzles. Minimal thrust loss can be expected with these nozzles (< 0.5%) and they may be retrofitted on existing engines. In the long term, it is desirable to use variable cycle engines that can be optimized for lower jet noise during takeoff operations and higher thrust for operational performance. It is also suggested that noise experts be included early in the design process for engine nozzle systems to participate

  19. Noise Reduction Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallas, Tony

    There are two distinct kinds of noise - structural and color. Each requires a specific method of attack to minimize. The great challenge is to reduce the noise without reducing the faint and delicate detail in the image. My most-used and favorite noise suppression is found in Photoshop CS 5 Camera Raw. If I cannot get the desired results with the first choice, I will use Noise Ninja, which has certain advantages in some situations that we will cover.

  20. Industrial noise control: Some case histories, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, F. D.; Neal, C. L.; Smetana, F. O.

    1974-01-01

    A collection of solutions to industrial noise problems is presented. Each problem is described in simple terms, with noise measurements where available, and the solution is given, often with explanatory figures. Where the solution rationale is not obvious, an explanatory paragraph is usually appended. As a preface to these solutions, a short exposition is provided of some of the guiding concepts used by noise control engineers in devising their solutions.

  1. Handbook of noise ratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearsons, K. S.; Bennett, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The handbook was compiled to provide information in a concise form, describing the multitude of noise rating schemes. It is hoped that by describing the noise rating methods in a single volume the user will have better access to the definitions, application and calculation procedures of the current noise rating methods.

  2. Characteristics of USB noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.; Searle, N.

    1976-01-01

    An extensive series of noise measurements, for a variety of geometric and operational parameters, was made on models of upper surface blowing (USB) powered lift systems. The data obtained were analyzed and the effects and trends of parametric variation defined. The behavior and nature of USB noise and the design of USB systems with low noise characteristics is examined.

  3. Improved NASA-ANOPP Noise Prediction Computer Code for Advanced Subsonic Propulsion Systems. Volume 2; Fan Suppression Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontos, Karen B.; Kraft, Robert E.; Gliebe, Philip R.

    1996-01-01

    The Aircraft Noise Predication Program (ANOPP) is an industry-wide tool used to predict turbofan engine flyover noise in system noise optimization studies. Its goal is to provide the best currently available methods for source noise prediction. As part of a program to improve the Heidmann fan noise model, models for fan inlet and fan exhaust noise suppression estimation that are based on simple engine and acoustic geometry inputs have been developed. The models can be used to predict sound power level suppression and sound pressure level suppression at a position specified relative to the engine inlet.

  4. Effects of propeller rotation direction on airplane interior noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, C. M.; Mayes, W. H.; Daniels, E. F.

    1985-01-01

    Interior noise measurements for upsweeping and downsweeping movement of the propeller blade tips past the fuselage were made on a twin-engine airplane and on two simplified fuselage models. Changes in interior noise levels of as much as 8 dB reversal of propeller rotation direction were measured for some configurations and test conditions.

  5. Noise addendum experimental clean combustor program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofrin, T. G.; Ross, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The development of advanced CTOL aircraft engines with reduced exhaust emissions is discussed. Combustor noise information provided during the basic emissions program and used to advantage in securing reduced levels of combustion noise is included. Results are presented of internal pressure transducer measurements made during the scheduled emissions test program on ten configurations involving variations of three basic combustor designs.

  6. Practical application of noise diffusion in U-70 synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, S. V.; Lebedev, O. P.

    2016-12-01

    This paper briefly outlines the physical substantiation and the engineering implementation of technological systems in the U-70 synchrotron based on controllable noise diffusion of the beam. They include two systems of stochastic slow beam extraction (for high and intermediate energy) and the system of longitudinal noise RF gymnastics designated for flattening the bunch distribution over the azimuth.

  7. A Strategy for Understanding Noise-Induced Annoyance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    Estimation by Sequential Testing (PEST) (Taylor and Creelman , 1967) can be used to efficiently establish the indifference point for each such pair of...population on applicability of noise rating procedures". Noise Control Engineering, 4, 65-70. Taylor, M. M. & Creelman , C. D. "PEST: Efficient

  8. Rocket noise - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInerny, S. A.

    1990-10-01

    This paper reviews what is known about far-field rocket noise from the controlled studies of the late 1950s and 1960s and from launch data. The peak dimensionless frequency, the dependence of overall sound power on exhaust parameters, and the directivity of the overall sound power of rockets are compared to those of subsonic jets and turbo-jets. The location of the dominant sound source in the rocket exhaust plume and the mean flow velocity in this region are discussed and shown to provide a qualitative explanation for the low peak Strouhal number, fD(e)/V(e), and large angle of maximum directivity. Lastly, two empirical prediction methods are compared with data from launches of a Titan family vehicle (two, solid rocket motors of 5.7 x 10 to the 6th N thrust each) and the Saturn V (five, liquid oxygen/rocket propellant engines of 6.7 x 10 to the 6th N thrust, each). The agreement is favorable. In contrast, these methods appear to overpredict the far-field sound pressure levels generated by the Space Shuttle.

  9. Classical noise, quantum noise and secure communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannous, C.; Langlois, J.

    2016-01-01

    Secure communication based on message encryption might be performed by combining the message with controlled noise (called pseudo-noise) as performed in spread-spectrum communication used presently in Wi-Fi and smartphone telecommunication systems. Quantum communication based on entanglement is another route for securing communications as demonstrated by several important experiments described in this work. The central role played by the photon in unifying the description of classical and quantum noise as major ingredients of secure communication systems is highlighted and described on the basis of the classical and quantum fluctuation dissipation theorems.

  10. System Noise Assessment and the Potential for a Low Noise Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burley, Casey L.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Gern, Frank H.; VanZante, Dale E.

    2014-01-01

    An aircraft system noise assessment was conducted for a hybrid wing body freighter aircraft concept configured with three open rotor engines. The primary objective of the study was to determine the aircraft system level noise given the significant impact of installation effects including shielding the open rotor noise by the airframe. The aircraft was designed to carry a payload of 100,000 lbs on a 6,500 nautical mile mission. An experimental database was used to establish the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic installation effects including those from shielding by the airframe planform, interactions with the control surfaces, and additional noise reduction technologies. A second objective of the study applied the impacts of projected low noise airframe technology and a projection of advanced low noise rotors appropriate for the NASA N+2 2025 timeframe. With the projection of low noise rotors and installation effects, the aircraft system level was 26.0 EPNLdB below Stage 4 level with the engine installed at 1.0 rotor diameters upstream of the trailing edge. Moving the engine to 1.5 rotor diameters brought the system level noise to 30.8 EPNLdB below Stage 4. At these locations on the airframe, the integrated level of installation effects including shielding can be as much as 20 EPNLdB cumulative in addition to lower engine source noise from advanced low noise rotors. And finally, an additional set of technology effects were identified and the potential impact at the system level was estimated for noise only without assessing the impact on aircraft performance. If these additional effects were to be included it is estimated that the potential aircraft system noise could reach as low as 38.0 EPNLdB cumulative below Stage 4.

  11. Annoyance caused by propeller airplane flyover noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, D. A.; Powell, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide information on quantifying the annoyance response of people to propeller airplane noise. The items of interest were current noise metrics, tone corrections, duration corrections, critical band corrections, and the effects of engine type, operation type, maximum takeoff weight, blade passage frequency, and blade tip speed. In each experiment, 64 subjects judged the annoyance of recordings of propeller and jet airplane operations presented at d-weighted sound pressure levels of 70, 80, and 90 dB in a testing room which simulates the outdoor acoustic environment. The first experiment examined 11 propeller airplanes with maximum takeoff weights greater than or equal to 5700 kg. The second experiment examined 14 propeller airplanes weighting 5700 kg or less. Five jet airplanes were included in each experiment. For both the heavy and light propeller airplanes, perceived noise level and perceived level (Stevens Mark VII procedure) predicted annoyance better than other current noise metrics.

  12. Aircraft propeller induced structure-borne noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, James F.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory-based test apparatus employing components typical of aircraft construction was developed that would allow the study of structure-borne noise transmission due to propeller induced wake/vortex excitation of in-wake structural appendages. The test apparatus was employed to evaluate several aircraft installation effects (power plant placement, engine/nacelle mass loading, and wing/fuselage attachment methods) and several structural response modifications for structure-borne noise control (the use of wing blocking mass/fuel, wing damping treaments, and tuned mechanical dampers). Most important was the development of in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection techniques using a combination of ground-based frequency response function testing and in-flight structural response measurement. Propeller wake/vortex excitation simulation techniques for improved ground-based testing were also developed to support the in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection development.

  13. [Cardiovascular effects of noise].

    PubMed

    Vacheron, A

    1992-03-01

    The circulatory response to noise is dominated by a peripheral blood vessels vasoconstriction, of greater magnitude when asleep than awake. Noise of lower frequency seems more able to produce this response. With repetition of the noise, adaptation and tolerance to it quickly appears. Meanwhile prolonged high level noise exposition induces an increasing prevalence of arterial hypertension among industrial workers. This increase is also clearly found in residential communities living near airports. Long-term exposure to noise is a dangerous nuisance, that can lead to an increase in arterial blood pressure and favour coronary artery disease development.

  14. Optical Johnson noise thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, R. L.; Blalock, T. V.; Maxey, L. C.; Roberts, M. J.; Simpson, M. L.

    1989-01-01

    A concept is being explored that an optical analog of the electrical Johnson noise may be used to measure temperature independently of emissivity. The concept is that a laser beam may be modulated on reflection from a hot surface by interaction of the laser photons with the thermally agitated conduction electrons or the lattice phonons, thereby adding noise to the reflected laser beam. If the reflectance noise can be detected and quantified in a background of other noise in the optical and signal processing systems, the reflectance noise may provide a noncontact measurement of the absolute surface temperature and may be independent of the surface's emissivity.

  15. Assessment of NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    A goal of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is the improvement of aircraft noise prediction. This document provides an assessment, conducted from 2006 to 2009, on the current state of the art for aircraft noise prediction by carefully analyzing the results from prediction tools and from the experimental databases to determine errors and uncertainties and compare results to validate the predictions. The error analysis is included for both the predictions and the experimental data and helps identify where improvements are required. This study is restricted to prediction methods and databases developed or sponsored by NASA, although in many cases they represent the current state of the art for industry. The present document begins with an introduction giving a general background for and a discussion on the process of this assessment followed by eight chapters covering topics at both the system and the component levels. The topic areas, each with multiple contributors, are aircraft system noise, engine system noise, airframe noise, fan noise, liner physics, duct acoustics, jet noise, and propulsion airframe aeroacoustics.

  16. Supersonics Project - Airport Noise Tech Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2010-01-01

    The Airport Noise Tech Challenge research effort under the Supersonics Project is reviewed. While the goal of "Improved supersonic jet noise models validated on innovative nozzle concepts" remains the same, the success of the research effort has caused the thrust of the research to be modified going forward in time. The main activities from FY06-10 focused on development and validation of jet noise prediction codes. This required innovative diagnostic techniques to be developed and deployed, extensive jet noise and flow databases to be created, and computational tools to be developed and validated. Furthermore, in FY09-10 systems studies commissioned by the Supersonics Project showed that viable supersonic aircraft were within reach using variable cycle engine architectures if exhaust nozzle technology could provide 3-5dB of suppression. The Project then began to focus on integrating the technologies being developed in its Tech Challenge areas to bring about successful system designs. Consequently, the Airport Noise Tech Challenge area has shifted efforts from developing jet noise prediction codes to using them to develop low-noise nozzle concepts for integration into supersonic aircraft. The new plan of research is briefly presented by technology and timelines.

  17. Perceived Noise Analysis for Offset Jets Applied to Commercial Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Henderson, Brenda S.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Seidel, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    A systems analysis was performed with experimental jet noise data, engine/aircraft performance codes and aircraft noise prediction codes to assess takeoff noise levels and mission range for conceptual supersonic commercial aircraft. A parametric study was done to identify viable engine cycles that meet NASA's N+2 goals for noise and performance. Model scale data from offset jets were used as input to the aircraft noise prediction code to determine the expected sound levels for the lateral certification point where jet noise dominates over all other noise sources. The noise predictions were used to determine the optimal orientation of the offset nozzles to minimize the noise at the lateral microphone location. An alternative takeoff procedure called "programmed lapse rate" was evaluated for noise reduction benefits. Results show there are two types of engines that provide acceptable mission range performance; one is a conventional mixed-flow turbofan and the other is a three-stream variable-cycle engine. Separate flow offset nozzles reduce the noise directed toward the thicker side of the outer flow stream, but have less benefit as the core nozzle pressure ratio is reduced. At the systems level for a three-engine N+2 aircraft with full throttle takeoff, there is a 1.4 EPNdB margin to Chapter 3 noise regulations predicted for the lateral certification point (assuming jet noise dominates). With a 10% reduction in thrust just after clearing the runway, the margin increases to 5.5 EPNdB. Margins to Chapter 4 and Chapter 14 levels will depend on the cumulative split between the three certification points, but it appears that low specific thrust engines with a 10% reduction in thrust (programmed lapse rate) can come close to meeting Chapter 14 noise levels. Further noise reduction is possible with engine oversizing and derated takeoff, but more detailed mission studies are needed to investigate the range impacts as well as the practical limits for safety and takeoff

  18. Core Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core noise area. Recent work1 on the turbine-transmission loss of combustor noise is briefly described, two2,3 new NRA efforts in the core-noise area are outlined, and an effort to develop CMC-based acoustic liners for broadband noise reduction suitable for turbofan-core application is delineated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project's Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries.

  19. Recent advances in active control of aircraft cabin noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Gopal; Fuller, Christopher

    2002-11-01

    Active noise control techniques can provide significant reductions in aircraft interior noise levels without the structural modifications or weight penalties usually associated with passive techniques, particularly for low frequency noise. Our main objective in this presentation is to give a review of active control methods and their applications to aircraft cabin noise reduction with an emphasis on recent advances and challenges facing the noise control engineer in the practical application of these techniques. The active noise control method using secondary acoustic sources, e.g., loudspeakers, as control sources for tonal noise reduction is first discussed with results from an active noise control flight test demonstration. An innovative approach of applying control forces directly to the fuselage structure using piezoelectric actuators, known as active structural acoustic control (ASAC), to control cabin noise is then presented. Experimental results from laboratory ASAC tests conducted on a full-scale fuselage and from flight tests on a helicopter will be discussed. Finally, a hybrid active/passive noise control approach for achieving significant broadband noise reduction will be discussed. Experimental results of control of broadband noise transmission through an aircraft structure will be presented.

  20. Reductions in Multi-Component Jet Noise by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norum, Thomas D.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustics Wind Tunnel to determine the extent of jet exhaust noise reduction that can be obtained using water injection in a hot jet environment. The effects of water parameters such as mass flow rate, injection location, and spray patterns on suppression of dominant noise sources in both subsonic and supersonic jets were determined, and extrapolations to full-scale engine noise reduction were made. Water jets and sprays were injected in to the shear layers of cold and hot circular jets operating at both subsonic and supersonic exhaust conditions. Use of convergent-divergent and convergent nozzles (2.7in. D) allowed for simulations of all major jet noise sources. The experimental results show that water injection clearly disrupts shock noise sources within the jet plume, with large reductions in radiated shock noise. There are smaller reductions in jet mixing noise, resulting in only a small decrease in effective perceived noise level when projections are made to full scale. The fact that the measured noise reduction in the direction upstream of the nozzle was consistently larger than in the noisier downstream direction contributed to keeping effective perceived noise reductions small. Variations in the operation of the water injection system clearly show that injection at the nozzle exit rather than further downstream is required for the largest noise reduction. Noise reduction increased with water pressure as well as with its mass flow, although the type of injector had little effect.

  1. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic...

  2. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic...

  3. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section 205.153 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section 205.153 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Engine displacement. 205.153 Section 205.153 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a)...

  6. Quarterly Bulletin of the Division of Mechanical Engineering and the National Aeronautical Establishment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PHYSICS LABORATORIES, REPORTS), (*SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, CANADA), ACOUSTICS, WIND TUNNEL MODELS, TURBULENCE, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING , TURBOJET ENGINES, BUILDINGS, GUST LOADS, NOISE, STRESS(PHYSIOLOGY), RADIOBIOLOGY, AIR POLLUTION

  7. Jet Noise Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    A presentation outlining current jet noise work at NASA was given at the NAVAIR Noise Workshop. Jet noise tasks in the Supersonics project of the Fundamental Aeronautics program were highlighted. The presentation gave an overview of developing jet noise reduction technologies and noise prediction capabilities. Advanced flow and noise diagnostic tools were also presented.

  8. Judgments of aircraft noise in a traffic noise background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C. A.; Rice, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine subjective response to aircraft noise in different road traffic backgrounds. In addition, two laboratory techniques for presenting the aircraft noise with the background noise were evaluated. For one technique, the background noise was continuous over an entire test session; for the other, the background noise level was changed with each aircraft noise during a session. Subjective response to aircraft noise was found to decrease with increasing background noise level, for a range of typical indoor noise levels. Subjective response was found to be highly correlated with the Noise Pollution Level (NPL) measurement scale.

  9. Hot topics in noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinson, Michael R.

    2003-10-01

    Our world continues to be a noisy place and the challenge to ``increase and diffuse knowledge of noise propagation, passive and active noise control, and the effects of noise'' remains. In the last several years, noise in the classroom has emerged as one of the hotter topics: Considerable progress has been made in the underpinning research, the formulation of recommendations, and the process of educating society on the social and personal impact of inadequate acoustical conditions in classrooms. The establishment of the ANSI S12.60-2002 standard for classroom acoustics was a milestone event. Noise in cities and the understanding of our soundscapes are subjects of ongoing significance. The development of standards and regulations is a continuing process, with urban community noise regulations, aviation noise, and the preservation of natural quiet in national parks being of current concern. New methods to reduce noise are under development and include passive and active methods of noise control, techniques for modeling the performance of noise barriers, and approaches for designing product sound quality.

  10. Noise Mapping and Annoyance.

    PubMed

    Knauss, D.

    2002-01-01

    The EC has published a Green Paper on noise policy in the EU and has issued a directive on the assessment and reduction of environmental noise. This directive will make noise mapping mandatory for cities with at least 250.000 inhabitants. Due to the development in computer technology it is possible to calculate noise maps for large urban areas using the available data on buildings, ground profile, road and rail traffic. Examples for noise mapping are Birmingham (GB), Linz (A) and various German cities. Based on noise maps and empirical data on the correlation between annoyance and noise levels annoyance maps for different sources (rail, road, aircraft) can be calculated. Under the assumption that the annoyance for the different sources are only weakly correlated, a combined annoyance map can be calculated. In a second step using the distribution of the population the actual number of annoyed people can be evaluated. This analysis can be used, for example, to identify noise hot spots and to assess the impact of major traffic projects - roads, airports- on the noise situation as well as the impact on the population. Furthermore, the combined annoyance maps can be used to investigate on health effects and to check whether or not empirical correlations between annoyance and noise levels are sufficiently correct.

  11. Distortion-rotor interaction noise produced by a drooped inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. B.; Moore, M. T.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    The 'drooped' inlet used on most wing mounted engines produces a wall static pressure distortion at the fan face of about plus or minus 2%. The interaction of the fan rotor with this fixed distortion pattern produces blade passing frequency and harmonic tone levels in flight which contribute to forward radiated engine noise spectra. Data from a wind tunnel test, using both a drooped inlet and an inlet with no droop, show large changes in forward radiated noise levels over a limited fan speed range. An analytical model of this fan noise mechanism is developed and is used to account for the major features of the measured results.

  12. Noise impact of advanced high lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmer, Kevin R.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of advanced high lift systems on aircraft size, performance, direct operating cost and noise were evaluated for short-to-medium and medium-to-long range aircraft with high bypass ratio and very high bypass ratio engines. The benefit of advanced high lift systems in reducing noise was found to be less than 1 effective-perceived-noise decibel level (EPNdB) when the aircraft were sized to minimize takeoff gross weight. These aircraft did, however, have smaller wings and lower engine thrusts for the same mission than aircraft with conventional high lift systems. When the advanced high lift system was implemented without reducing wing size and simultaneously using lower flap angles that provide higher L/D at approach a cumulative noise reduction of as much as 4 EPNdB was obtained. Comparison of aircraft configurations that have similar approach speeds showed cumulative noise reduction of 2.6 EPNdB that is purely the result of incorporating advanced high lift system in the aircraft design.

  13. Effects of rotating flows on combustion and jet noise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental investigations of combustion in rotating (swirling) flow have shown that the mixing and combustion processes were accelerated, flame length and noise levels significantly decreased, and flame stability increased relative to that obtained without rotation. Unsteady burning accompanied by a pulsating flame, violent fluctuating jet, and intense noise present in straight flow burning were not present in rotating flow burning. Correlations between theory and experiment show good agreement. Such effects due to rotating flows could lead to suppressing jet noise, improving combustion, reducing pollution, and decreasing aircraft engine size. Quantitative analysis of the aero-acoustic relationship and noise source characteristics are needed.-

  14. Active Control of Fan Noise-Feasibility Study. Volume 1; Flyover System Noise Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Robert E.; Janardan, B. A.; Kontos, G. C.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been completed to examine the potential reduction of aircraft flyover noise by the method of active noise control (ANC). It is assumed that the ANC system will be designed such that it cancels discrete tones radiating from the engine fan inlet or fan exhaust duct. Thus, without considering the engineering details of the ANC system design, tone levels are arbitrarily removed from the engine component noise spectrum and the flyover noise EPNL levels are compared with and without the presence of tones. The study was conducted for a range of engine cycles, corresponding to fan pressure ratios from 1.3 to 1.75. The major conclusions that can be drawn are that, for a fan pressure ratio of 1.75, ANC of tones gives about the same suppression as acoustic treatment without ANC, and for a fan pressure ratio of 1.45, ANC appears to offer less effectiveness than passive treatment. Additionally, ANC appears to be more effective at sideline and cutback conditions than at approach. Overall EPNL suppressions due to tone removal range from about 1 to 3 dB at takeoff engine speeds and from 1 to 5 db at approach speeds. Studies of economic impact of the installation of an ANC system for the four engine cases indicate increases of DOC ranging from 1 to 2 percent, favoring the lower fan pressure ratio engines. Further study is needed to confirm the results by examining additional engine data, particularly at low fan pressure ratios, and studying the details of the current results to obtain a more complete understanding. Further studies should also include determining the effects of combining passive and active treatment.

  15. Interior noise levels of two propeller-driven light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catherines, J. J.; Mayes, W. H.

    1975-01-01

    The relationships between aircraft operating conditions and interior noise and the degree to which ground testing can be used in lieu of flight testing for performing interior noise research were studied. The results show that the noise inside light aircraft is strongly influenced by the rotational speed of the engine and propeller. Both the overall noise and low frequency spectra levels were observed to decrease with increasing high speed rpm operations during flight. This phenomenon and its significance is not presently understood. Comparison of spectra obtained in flight with spectra obtained on the ground suggests that identification of frequency components and relative amplitude of propeller and engine noise sources may be evaluated on stationary aircraft.

  16. Fan Rig Noise Spectral Correction for NASA 9'x 15' Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schifer, Nick; Brown, Cliff

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft engine noise research and development depends on the ability to study and predict the noise created by each engine component in isolation. Fan noise testing, however, requires a significant support system including a drive mechanism to turn the fan, a device to smooth the flow into the fan, and a stand to raise the fan off the ground each of which has the potential to create its own noise. A methodology was therefore developed to improve the data quality for the 9x15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center that identifies three noise sources: fan noise, jet noise, and rig noise. The jet noise and rig noise was then measured by mounting a scale model of the 9x15 LSWT setup in a jet rig to simulate everything except the rotating machinery that characterizes fan noise. The data showed that the spectra measured in the LSWT has a strong rig noise component at frequencies as high as 3 kHz depending on the fan and speed. The jet noise was determined to be significantly lower than the rig noise. A mathematical model for the rig noise was then developed using a multi-dimensional least squares fit to the rig noise data. This allows the rig noise to be subtracted or removed, depending on the amplitude of the rig noise relative to the fan noise, at any given frequency, observer angle, or nozzle pressure ratio. The impact of isolating the fan noise with this method on spectra, overall power level (OAPWL), and Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) is studied.

  17. Aviation Noise Effects,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    demonstrated little tolerance of aircraft noise and have shown few signs of adapting to it. Since no well-established guidelines concerning noise and animals ...vary from almost no reaction to virtually no tolerance of the sound. The question of how adaptable animals are remains largely unanswered. Both wild...report include"the-folowing:- Annoyance, --Effects of Noise on Wild and Domesticated Animal Hearing and Hearing Loss) Low .Fequency Pcoustical oEhergy

  18. Aircraft cabin noise prediction and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies were conducted to determine the noise transmission into acoustic enclosures ranging from simple rectangular box models to full scale light aircraft in flight. The structural models include simple, stiffened, curved stiffened, and orthotropic panels and double wall windows. The theoretical solutions were obtained by model analysis. Transfer matrix and finite element procedures were utilized. Good agreement between theory and experiment has been achieved. An efficient acoustic add-on treatment was developed for interior noise control in a twin engine light aircraft.

  19. Landing gear noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  20. Understanding jet noise.

    PubMed

    Karabasov, S A

    2010-08-13

    Jets are one of the most fascinating topics in fluid mechanics. For aeronautics, turbulent jet-noise modelling is particularly challenging, not only because of the poor understanding of high Reynolds number turbulence, but also because of the extremely low acoustic efficiency of high-speed jets. Turbulent jet-noise models starting from the classical Lighthill acoustic analogy to state-of-the art models were considered. No attempt was made to present any complete overview of jet-noise theories. Instead, the aim was to emphasize the importance of sound generation and mean-flow propagation effects, as well as their interference, for the understanding and prediction of jet noise.

  1. The stirling engine for vehicle propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, P.

    1978-01-01

    The performance data of experimental Stirling engines are considered along with questions of exhaust-gas composition, engine noise, engine volume and weight, engine control, and the engine-starting process. The Stirling engine can use practically any liquid or gaseous fuel for its operation. It is found that technically a use of the Stirling engine in motor vehicles is feasible. Economic questions related to an introduction of the Stirling engine are discussed along with possible new developments which could improve the economic situation in favor of a use of Stirling engine.

  2. Nonlinear biochemical signal processing via noise propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Hyuk; Qian, Hong; Sauro, Herbert M.

    2013-10-01

    Single-cell studies often show significant phenotypic variability due to the stochastic nature of intra-cellular biochemical reactions. When the numbers of molecules, e.g., transcription factors and regulatory enzymes, are in low abundance, fluctuations in biochemical activities become significant and such "noise" can propagate through regulatory cascades in terms of biochemical reaction networks. Here we develop an intuitive, yet fully quantitative method for analyzing how noise affects cellular phenotypes based on identifying a system's nonlinearities and noise propagations. We observe that such noise can simultaneously enhance sensitivities in one behavioral region while reducing sensitivities in another. Employing this novel phenomenon we designed three biochemical signal processing modules: (a) A gene regulatory network that acts as a concentration detector with both enhanced amplitude and sensitivity. (b) A non-cooperative positive feedback system, with a graded dose-response in the deterministic case, that serves as a bistable switch due to noise-induced ultra-sensitivity. (c) A noise-induced linear amplifier for gene regulation that requires no feedback. The methods developed in the present work allow one to understand and engineer nonlinear biochemical signal processors based on fluctuation-induced phenotypes.

  3. Combat aircraft noise: The operator's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogg, R.

    1992-04-01

    Combat aircraft are not subject to the same noise reduction regulations as civil aircraft. Additionally, combat aircraft are operated closer to their performance limits and at high power settings for extended periods. There is general pressure to reduce noise of all kinds, but particularly noise from low flying aircraft. Although there is little that can be done to quiet in-service engines, operational palliatives, such as noise abatement procedures and restrictions on low flying, have been introduced. Moreover, there has been a concerted education and public relations campaign, and numerous airspace management changes have been introduced to reduce the impact of low flying on the population. These subjects were considered during a Pilot Study into aircraft noise under the auspices of the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society; the findings of the Study are discussed, giving both the international viewpoint and the UK perspective in particular. Some options for the reduction of low flying are also considered, but so long as military aircraft need to fly low to evade enemy air defences, low flying will remain a principal tactic of NATO air forces, and peacetime training will remain an essential military requirement. Thus, noise from low flying combat aircraft will remain a sensitive issue, and ways of reducing it will continue to be of importance for many years to come.

  4. Large eddy simulation of trailing edge noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Jacob; Nitzkorski, Zane; Mahesh, Krishnan

    2015-11-01

    Noise generation is an important engineering constraint to many marine vehicles. A significant portion of the noise comes from propellers and rotors, specifically due to flow interactions at the trailing edge. Large eddy simulation is used to investigate the noise produced by a turbulent 45 degree beveled trailing edge and a NACA 0012 airfoil. A porous surface Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy is combined with a dynamic endcapping method to compute the sound. This methodology allows for the impact of incident flow noise versus the total noise to be assessed. LES results for the 45 degree beveled trailing edge are compared to experiment at M = 0 . 1 and Rec = 1 . 9 e 6 . The effect of boundary layer thickness on sound production is investigated by computing using both the experimental boundary layer thickness and a thinner boundary layer. Direct numerical simulation results of the NACA 0012 are compared to available data at M = 0 . 4 and Rec = 5 . 0 e 4 for both the hydrodynamic field and the acoustic field. Sound intensities and directivities are investigated and compared. Finally, some of the physical mechanisms of far-field noise generation, common to the two configurations, are discussed. Supported by Office of Naval research.

  5. Twin jet shielding. [for aircraft noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P.; Cuffel, R. F.; Massier, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    For an over-the-wing/under-the-wing engine configuration on an airplane, the noise produced by the upper jet flow is partially reflected by the lower jet. An analysis has been performed which can be used to predict the distribution of perceived noise levels along the ground plane at take-off for an airplane which is designed to take advantage of the over/under shielding concept. Typical contours of PNL, the shielding benefit in the shadow zone, and the EPNL values at 3.5 nautical miles from brake release as well as EPNL values at sideline at 0.35 nautical miles have been calculated. This has been done for a range of flow parameters characteristic of engines producing inverted velocity profile jets suitable for use in a supersonic cruise vehicle. Reductions up to 6.0 EPNdB in community noise levels can be realized when the over engines are operated at higher thrust and the lower engines simultaneously operated with reduced thrust keeping the total thrust constant.

  6. Sounds and Noises. A Position Paper on Noise Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Thomas L.

    This position paper focuses on noise pollution and the problems and solutions associated with this form of pollution. The paper is divided into the following five sections: Noise and the Ear, Noise Measurement, III Effects of Noise, Acoustics and Action, and Programs and Activities. The first section identifies noise and sound, the beginnings of…

  7. Problems associated with noise measurements in the mining industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Eric R.; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.

    2002-05-01

    In response to the continuing problem of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among mine workers, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been conducting numerous noise- and hearing-loss research efforts in the mining industry. Research is underway to determine worker noise exposure, equipment noise, hearing loss and hearing protection use, and to evaluate engineering controls. Issues that are peculiar to the mining industry have complicated these efforts. A few of the issues that must be overcome to conduct meaningful research include constantly moving equipment, changing work environments, confined space, varying production rates, multiple noise sources, and electronic permissibility of instrumentation. This presentation will address the factors that affect the measurement and analysis of noise in the mining industry and how these factors are managed. In addition, some examples of research results will be included.

  8. A method for calculating externally blown flap noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    Several basic noise components were described. These components are: (1) compact lift dipoles associated with the wing and flaps; (2) trailing edge noise associated with the last trailing edge; and (3) quadrupole noise associated with the undeflected exhaust jet and the free jet located downstream of the trailing edge. These noise components were combined to allow prediction of directivity and spectra for under the wing (UTW) slotted flaps with conventional or mixer nozzles, UTW slotless flaps, upper surface blowing (USB) slotless flaps, and engine in front of the wing slotted flaps. A digital computer program listing was given for this calculation method. Directivities and spectra calculated by this method were compared with free field data for UTW and USB configurations. The UTRC method best predicted the details of the measured noise emission, but the ANOP method best estimated the noise levels directly below these configurations.

  9. Radially leaned outlet guide vanes for fan source noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazin, S. B.

    1973-01-01

    Two quiet engine program half scale fans one with a subsonic and the other with a supersonic fan tip speed at takeoff were run with 30 degree leaned and radial outlet guide vanes. Acoustic data at takeoff fan speed on the subsonic tip speed fan showed decreases in 200-foot sideline noise of from 1 to 2 PNdb. The supersonic tip speed fan a takeoff fan speed, however, showed noise increases of up 3 PNdb and a decrease in fan efficiency. At approach fan speed, the subsonic tip speed fan showed a noise decrease of 2.3 PNdb at the 200-foot sideline maximum angle and an increase in efficiency. The supersonic tip speed fan showed noise increase of 3.5 PNdb and no change in efficiency. The decrease in fan efficiency and the nature of the noise increase largely high frequency broadband noise lead to the speculation that an aerodynamic problem occurred.

  10. The cost of applying current helicopter external noise reduction methods while maintaining realistic vehicle performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowes, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical methods were developed and/or adopted for calculating helicopter component noise, and these methods were incorporated into a unified total vehicle noise calculation model. Analytical methods were also developed for calculating the effects of noise reduction methodology on helicopter design, performance, and cost. These methods were used to calculate changes in noise, design, performance, and cost due to the incorporation of engine and main rotor noise reduction methods. All noise reduction techniques were evaluated in the context of an established mission performance criterion which included consideration of hovering ceiling, forward flight range/speed/payload, and rotor stall margin. The results indicate that small, but meaningful, reductions in helicopter noise can be obtained by treating the turbine engine exhaust duct. Furthermore, these reductions do not result in excessive life cycle cost penalties. Currently available main rotor noise reduction methodology, however, is shown to be inadequate and excessively costly.

  11. Application of the Bernoulli enthalpy concept to the study of vortex noise and jet impingement noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    A complete theory of aeroacoustics of homentropic fluid media is developed and compared with previous theories. The theory is applied to study the interaction of sound with vortex flows, for the DC-9 in a standard take-off configuration. The maximum engine-wake interference noise is estimated to be 3 or 4 db in the ground plane. It is shown that the noise produced by a corotating vortex pair departs significantly from the compact M scaling law for eddy Mach numbers (M) greater than 0.1. An estimate of jet impingement noise is given that is in qualitative agreement with experimental results. The increased noise results primarily from the nonuniform acceleration of turbulent eddies through the stagnation point flow. It is shown that the corotating vortex pair can be excited or de-excited by an externally applied sound field. The model is used to qualitatively explain experimental results on excited jets.

  12. Sounding Off about Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumpton, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Noise in a community college library can be part of the nature of the environment. It can also become a huge distraction for those who see the library as their sanctuary for quiet study and review of resources. This article describes the steps that should be taken by library staff in order to be proactive about noise and the library environment,…

  13. Speech communications in noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of speech, the methods of speech masking measurement, and the effects of noise on speech communication are investigated. Topics include the speech signal and intelligibility, the effects of noise on intelligibility, the articulation index, and various devices for evaluating speech systems.

  14. Speech communications in noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-07-01

    The physical characteristics of speech, the methods of speech masking measurement, and the effects of noise on speech communication are investigated. Topics include the speech signal and intelligibility, the effects of noise on intelligibility, the articulation index, and various devices for evaluating speech systems.

  15. Noise Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Lavaroni, Charles W.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on noise pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of noise pollution and involves students in processes of…

  16. Jet Noise Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P. R.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.; Lee, R.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this chapter are to review and summarize the jet noise suppression technology, to provide a physical and theoretical model to explain the measured jet noise suppression characteristics of different concepts, and to provide a set of guidelines for evolving jet noise suppression designs. The underlying principle for all jet noise suppression devices is to enhance rapid mixing (i.e., diffusion) of the jet plume by geometric and aerothermodynamic means. In the case of supersonic jets, the shock-cell broadband noise reduction is effectively accomplished by the elimination or mitigation of the shock-cell structure. So far, the diffusion concepts have predominantly concentrated on jet momentum and energy (kinetic and thermal) diffusion, in that order, and have yielded better noise reduction than the simple conical nozzles. A critical technology issue that needs resolution is the effect of flight on the noise suppression potential of mechanical suppressor nozzles. A more thorough investigation of this mechanism is necessary for the successful development and design of an acceptable noise suppression device for future high-speed civil transports.

  17. AiResearch QCGAT engine, airplane, and nacelle design features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan engine and nacelle system was designed and tested. The engine utilized the core of the AiResearch model TFE731-3 engine and incorporated several unique noise- and emissions-reduction features. Components that were successfully adapted to this core include the fan, gearbox, combustor, low-pressure turbine, and associated structure. A highly versatile workhorse nacelle incorporating interchangeable acoustic and hardwall duct liners, showed that large-engine attenuation technology could be applied to small propulsion engines. The application of the mixer compound nozzle demonstrated both performance and noise advantages on the engine. Major performance, emissions, and noise goals were demonstrated.

  18. Noise in coevolving networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diakonova, Marina; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-09-01

    Coupling dynamics of the states of the nodes of a network to the dynamics of the network topology leads to generic absorbing and fragmentation transitions. The coevolving voter model is a typical system that exhibits such transitions at some critical rewiring. We study the robustness of these transitions under two distinct ways of introducing noise. Noise affecting all the nodes destroys the absorbing-fragmentation transition, giving rise in finite-size systems to two regimes: bimodal magnetization and dynamic fragmentation. Noise targeting a fraction of nodes preserves the transitions but introduces shattered fragmentation with its characteristic fraction of isolated nodes and one or two giant components. Both the lack of absorbing state for homogeneous noise and the shift in the absorbing transition to higher rewiring for targeted noise are supported by analytical approximations.

  19. Jet Noise Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Huff,Dennis

    2009-01-01

    A presentation outlining current jet noise work at NASA was given to the Naval Research Advisory Committee. Jet noise tasks in the Supersonics project of the Fundamental Aeronautics program were highlighted. The presentation gave an overview of developing jet noise reduction technologies and noise prediction capabilities. Advanced flow and noise diagnostic tools were also presented.

  20. Prediction of Landing Gear Noise Reduction and Comparison to Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes, Leonard V.

    2010-01-01

    Noise continues to be an ongoing problem for existing aircraft in flight and is projected to be a concern for next generation designs. During landing, when the engines are operating at reduced power, the noise from the airframe, of which landing gear noise is an important part, is equal to the engine noise. There are several methods of predicting landing gear noise, but none have been applied to predict the change in noise due to a change in landing gear design. The current effort uses the Landing Gear Model and Acoustic Prediction (LGMAP) code, developed at The Pennsylvania State University to predict the noise from landing gear. These predictions include the influence of noise reduction concepts on the landing gear noise. LGMAP is compared to wind tunnel experiments of a 6.3%-scale Boeing 777 main gear performed in the Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley. The geometries tested in the QFF include the landing gear with and without a toboggan fairing and the door. It is shown that LGMAP is able to predict the noise directives and spectra from the model-scale test for the baseline configuration as accurately as current gear prediction methods. However, LGMAP is also able to predict the difference in noise caused by the toboggan fairing and by removing the landing gear door. LGMAP is also compared to far-field ground-based flush-mounted microphone measurements from the 2005 Quiet Technology Demonstrator 2 (QTD 2) flight test. These comparisons include a Boeing 777-300ER with and without a toboggan fairing that demonstrate that LGMAP can be applied to full-scale flyover measurements. LGMAP predictions of the noise generated by the nose gear on the main gear measurements are also shown.

  1. System Noise Assessment of Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft With Open Rotor Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yueping; Thomas, Russell H.

    2015-01-01

    An aircraft system noise study is presented for the Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) aircraft concept with three open rotor engines mounted on the upper surface of the airframe. It is shown that for such an aircraft, the cumulative Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) is about 24 dB below the current aircraft noise regulations of Stage 4. While this makes the design acoustically viable in meeting the regulatory requirements, even with the consideration of more stringent noise regulations of a possible Stage 5 in the next decade or so, the design will likely meet stiff competitions from aircraft with turbofan engines. It is shown that the noise levels of the BWB design are held up by the inherently high noise levels of the open rotor engines and the limitation on the shielding benefit due to the practical design constraint on the engine location. Furthermore, it is shown that the BWB design has high levels of noise from the main landing gear, due to their exposure to high speed flow at the junction between the center body and outer wing. These are also the reasons why this baseline BWB design does not meet the NASA N+2 noise goal of 42 dB below Stage 4. To identify approaches that may further reduce noise, parametric studies are also presented, including variations in engine location, vertical tail and elevon variations, and airframe surface acoustic liner treatment effect. These have the potential to further reduce noise but they are only at the conceptual stage.

  2. Sound-Level Measurements of a Light Airplane Modified to Reduce Noise Reaching the Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogeley, A W

    1949-01-01

    An Army liaison-type airplane, representative of personal airplanes in the 150 to 200 horsepower class, has been modified to reduce propeller and engine noise according to known principles of airplane-noise reduction. Noise-level measurements demonstrate that, with reference to an observer on the ground, a noisy airplane of this class can be made quiet -- perhaps more quiet than necessary. In order to avoid extreme and unnecessary modifications, acceptable noise levels must be determined.

  3. Noise control considerations for patient rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenny, Benjamin

    2005-09-01

    The patient room envelope is a path between outside noise sources and the patient receiver. Within the patient room there are several sources including televisions, clinical monitor alarms, medical pumps, etc. Noise control in patient rooms relies on a combination of the sound transmission loss of the patient room envelope and the level of background sound at the patient's head. Guidelines published by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), American Institute of Architects (AIA), and the U.S. Department of Defense for background noise and sound transmission loss in patient rooms will be discussed. Appropriate levels, spectra, and temporal characteristics of background sound at the patient head location may be helpful in raising the threshold of annoying sounds. Various means of personal hearing protection for patients will be discussed. Sound-pressure levels in patient rooms reported in previous literature will also be discussed.

  4. Firefighter noise exposure during training activities and general equipment use.

    PubMed

    Root, Kyle S; Schwennker, Catherine; Autenrieth, Daniel; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

    2013-01-01

    Multiple noise measurements were taken on 6 types of fire station equipment and 15 types of emergency response vehicle-related equipment used by firefighters during routine and emergency operations at 10 fire stations. Five of the six types of fire station equipment, when measured at a distance of one meter and ear level, emitted noise equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including lawn maintenance equipment, snow blowers, compressors, and emergency alarms. Thirteen of 15 types of equipment located on the fire engines emitted noise levels equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including fans, saws, alarms, and extrication equipment. In addition, noise measurements were taken during fire engine operations, including the idling vehicle, vehicle sirens, and water pumps. Results indicated that idling fire-engine noise levels were below 85 dBA; however, during water pump and siren use, noise levels exceeded 85 dBA, in some instances, at different locations around the trucks where firefighters would be stationed during emergency operations. To determine if the duration and use of fire fighting equipment was sufficient to result in overexposures to noise during routine training activities, 93 firefighter personal noise dosimetry samples were taken during 10 firefighter training activities. Two training activities per sampling day were monitored during each sampling event, for a mean exposure time of 70 min per day. The noise dosimetry samples were grouped based on job description to compare noise exposures between the different categories of job tasks commonly associated with fire fighting. The three job categories were interior, exterior, and engineering. Mean personal dosimetry results indicated that the average noise exposure was 78 dBA during the training activities that lasted 70 min on average. There was no significant difference in noise exposure between each of the three job categories. Although firefighters routinely use equipment and emergency response vehicles that

  5. Effects of background noise on total noise annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, K. F.

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of combined community noise sources on annoyance. The first experiment baseline relationships between annoyance and noise level for three community noise sources (jet aircraft flyovers, traffic and air conditioners) presented individually. Forty eight subjects evaluated the annoyance of each noise source presented at four different noise levels. Results indicated the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for the traffic noise was significantly different from that of aircraft and of air conditioner noise, which had equal slopes. The second experiment investigated annoyance response to combined noise sources, with aircraft noise defined as the major noise source and traffic and air conditioner noise as background noise sources. Effects on annoyance of noise level differences between aircraft and background noise for three total noise levels and for both background noise sources were determined. A total of 216 subjects were required to make either total or source specific annoyance judgements, or a combination of the two, for a wide range of combined noise conditions.

  6. Improved NASA-ANOPP Noise Prediction Computer Code for Advanced Subsonic Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontos, K. B.; Janardan, B. A.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1996-01-01

    Recent experience using ANOPP to predict turbofan engine flyover noise suggests that it over-predicts overall EPNL by a significant amount. An improvement in this prediction method is desired for system optimization and assessment studies of advanced UHB engines. An assessment of the ANOPP fan inlet, fan exhaust, jet, combustor, and turbine noise prediction methods is made using static engine component noise data from the CF6-8OC2, E(3), and QCSEE turbofan engines. It is shown that the ANOPP prediction results are generally higher than the measured GE data, and that the inlet noise prediction method (Heidmann method) is the most significant source of this overprediction. Fan noise spectral comparisons show that improvements to the fan tone, broadband, and combination tone noise models are required to yield results that more closely simulate the GE data. Suggested changes that yield improved fan noise predictions but preserve the Heidmann model structure are identified and described. These changes are based on the sets of engine data mentioned, as well as some CFM56 engine data that was used to expand the combination tone noise database. It should be noted that the recommended changes are based on an analysis of engines that are limited to single stage fans with design tip relative Mach numbers greater than one.

  7. Noise and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Clare C.

    2006-03-01

    Noise is present in many physical systems and is often viewed as a nuisance. Yet it can also be a probe of microscopic fluctuations. There have been indications recently that the noise in the resistivity increases in the vicinity of the metal-insulator transition. But what are the characteristics of the noise associated with well-understood first and second order phase transitions? It is well known that critical fluctuations are associated with second order phase transitions, but do these fluctuations lead to enhanced noise? We have addressed these questions using Monte Carlo simulations to study the noise in the 2D Ising model which undergoes a second order phase transition, and in the 5-state Potts model which undergoes a first order phase transition. We monitor these systems as the temperature drops below the critical temperature. At each temperature, after equilibration is established, we obtain the time series of quantities characterizing the properties of the system, i.e., the energy and magnetization per site. We apply different methods, such as the noise power spectrum, the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and the second spectrum of the noise, to analyze the fluctuations in these quantities.

  8. Analyzing nocturnal noise stratification.

    PubMed

    Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Gómez Escobar, Valentín

    2014-05-01

    Pollution associated to traffic can be considered as one of the most relevant pollution sources in our cities; noise is one of the major components of traffic pollution; thus, efforts are necessary to search adequate noise assessment methods and low pollution city designs. Different methods have been proposed for the evaluation of noise in cities, including the categorization method, which is based on the functionality concept. Until now, this method has only been studied (with encouraging results) for short-term, diurnal measurements, but nocturnal noise presents a behavior clearly different on respect to the diurnal one. In this work 45 continuous measurements of approximately one week each in duration are statistically analyzed to identify differences between the proposed categories. The results show that the five proposed categories highlight the noise stratification of the studied city in each period of the day (day, evening, and night). A comparison of the continuous measurements with previous short-term measurements indicates that the latter can be a good approximation of the former in diurnal period, reducing the resource expenditure for noise evaluation. Annoyance estimated from the measured noise levels was compared with the response of population obtained from a questionnaire with good agreement. The categorization method can yield good information about the distribution of a pollutant associated to traffic in our cities in each period of the day and, therefore, is a powerful tool for town planning and the design of pollution prevention policies.

  9. Nature of orchestral noise.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Ian; Wilson, Wayne; Bradley, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    Professional orchestral musicians are at risk of exposure to excessive noise when at work. This is an industry-wide problem that threatens not only the hearing of orchestral musicians but also the way orchestras operate. The research described in this paper recorded noise levels within a professional orchestra over three years in order to provide greater insight to the orchestral noise environment; to guide future research into orchestral noise management and hearing conservation strategies; and to provide a basis for the future education of musicians and their managers. Every rehearsal, performance, and recording from May 2004 to May 2007 was monitored, with the woodwind, brass, and percussion sections monitored in greatest detail. The study recorded dBALEQ and dBC peak data, which are presented in graphical form with accompanying summarized data tables. The findings indicate that the principal trumpet, first and third horns, and principal trombone are at greatest risk of exposure to excessive sustained noise levels and that the percussion and timpani are at greatest risk of exposure to excessive peak noise levels. However, the findings also strongly support the notion that the true nature of orchestral noise is a great deal more complex than this simple statement would imply.

  10. Noise contaminated transmittance

    SciTech Connect

    Zardecki, A.; McVey, B.D.; Nelson, D.H.

    1997-09-01

    The authors compare the efficiency of a classifier based on probabilistic neural networks and the general least squares method. Both methods must accommodate noise due to uncertainty in the measured spectrum at each wavelength. The evaluation of both methods is based on a simulated transmittance spectrum, in which the received signal is supplemented by an additive admixture of noise. To obtain a realistic description of the noise model, they generate several hundred laser pulses for each wavelength under consideration. These pulses have a predetermined correlation matrix for different wavelengths; furthermore, they are composed of three components accounting for the randomness of the observed spectrum. The first component is the correlated 1/f noise; the second component is due to uncorrelated 1/f noise; the third one is the uncorrelated white noise. The probabilistic neural network fails to retrieve the species concentration correctly for large noise levels; on the other hand, its predictions being confined to a fixed number of concentration bins, the network produces relatively small variances. To a large extent, the general least square method avoids the false alarms. It reproduces the average concentrations correctly; however, the concentration variances can be large.

  11. Identification of the noise using mathematical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobeš, Josef; Kozubková, Milada; Mahdal, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    In engineering applications the noisiness of a component or the whole device is a common problem. Currently, a lot of effort is put to eliminate noise of the already produced devices, to prevent generation of acoustic waves during the design of new components, or to specify the operating problems based on noisiness change. The experimental method and the mathematical modelling method belong to these identification methods. With the power of today's computers the ability to identify the sources of the noise on the mathematical modelling level is a very appreciated tool for engineers. For example, the noise itself may be generated by the vibration of the solid object, combustion, shock, fluid flow around an object or cavitation at the fluid flow in an object. For the given task generating the noise using fluid flow on the selected geometry and propagation of the acoustic waves and their subsequent identification are solved and evaluated. In this paper the principle of measurement of variables describing the fluid flow field and acoustic field are described. For the solution of fluid flow a mathematical model implemented into the CFD code is used. The mathematical modelling evaluation of the flow field is compared to the experimental data.

  12. Tail Rotor Airfoils Stabilize Helicopters, Reduce Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Founded by former Ames Research Center engineer Jim Van Horn, Van Horn Aviation of Tempe, Arizona, built upon a Langley Research Center airfoil design to create a high performance aftermarket tail rotor for the popular Bell 206 helicopter. The highly durable rotor has a lifetime twice that of the original equipment manufacturer blade, reduces noise by 40 percent, and displays enhanced performance at high altitudes. These improvements benefit helicopter performance for law enforcement, military training, wildfire and pipeline patrols, and emergency medical services.

  13. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  14. Propfan noise propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Albert R.; Sim, Ben WEL-C.

    1993-01-01

    The unconventional supersonic tip speed of advanced propellers has led to uncertainties about Propfan's noise acceptability and compliance with Federal Aviation Noise Regulation (FAR 36). Overhead flight testing of the Propfan with an SR-7L blade during 1989's Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) Program have shown unexpectedly high far-field sound pressure levels. This study here attempts to provide insights into the acoustics of a single-rotating propeller (SRP) with supersonic tip speed. At the same time, the role of the atmosphere in shaping the far-field noise characteristics is investigated.

  15. Quantum phase slip noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Andrew G.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum phase slips (QPSs) generate voltage fluctuations in superconducting nanowires. Employing the Keldysh technique and making use of the phase-charge duality arguments, we develop a theory of QPS-induced voltage noise in such nanowires. We demonstrate that quantum tunneling of the magnetic flux quanta across the wire yields quantum shot noise which obeys Poisson statistics and is characterized by a power-law dependence of its spectrum SΩ on the external bias. In long wires, SΩ decreases with increasing frequency Ω and vanishes beyond a threshold value of Ω at T →0 . The quantum coherent nature of QPS noise yields nonmonotonous dependence of SΩ on T at small Ω .

  16. Blown flap noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, N. N.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental developments of flow-surface interaction noise with a particular emphasis on blown-flap noise were reviewed. Several blown-flap noise prediction methods were evaluated by comparing predicted acoustic levels, directivity, and spectra with a recently obtained data base. A prediction method was selected and a detailed step-by-step description of this method was provided to develop a computer module to calculate one-third octave band frequency spectra at any given location in the far-field for under-the-wing and upper surface blown configurations as a function of geometric and operational parameters.

  17. Hypermedicalization in White Noise.

    PubMed

    Benson, Josef

    2015-09-01

    The Nazis hijacked Germany's medical establishment and appropriated medical language to hegemonize their ideology. In White Noise, shifting medical information stifles the public into docility. In Nazi Germany the primacy of language and medical authority magnified the importance of academic doctors. The muddling of identities caused complex insecurities and the need for psychological doubles. In White Noise, Professor Gladney is driven by professional insecurities to enact a double in Murray. Through the manipulation of language and medical overreach the U.S., exemplified in the novel White Noise, has become a hypermedicalized society where the spirit of the Hippocratic Oath has eroded.

  18. General Aviation Interior Noise. Part 1; Source/Path Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, James F.; Till, Paul D.; Palumbo, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There were two primary objectives of the research effort reported herein. The first objective was to identify and evaluate noise source/path identification technology applicable to single engine propeller driven aircraft that can be used to identify interior noise sources originating from structure-borne engine/propeller vibration, airborne propeller transmission, airborne engine exhaust noise, and engine case radiation. The approach taken to identify the contributions of each of these possible sources was first to conduct a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of an in-flight noise and vibration database acquired on a Cessna Model 182E aircraft. The second objective was to develop and evaluate advanced technology for noise source ranking of interior panel groups such as the aircraft windshield, instrument panel, firewall, and door/window panels within the cabin of a single engine propeller driven aircraft. The technology employed was that of Acoustic Holography (AH). AH was applied to the test aircraft by acquiring a series of in-flight microphone array measurements within the aircraft cabin and correlating the measurements via PCA. The source contributions of the various panel groups leading to the array measurements were then synthesized by solving the inverse problem using the boundary element model.

  19. Cochlear implant optimized noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Stefan J; Arora, Komal; Dawson, Pam W

    2012-12-01

    Noise-reduction methods have provided significant improvements in speech perception for cochlear implant recipients, where only quality improvements have been found in hearing aid recipients. Recent psychoacoustic studies have suggested changes to noise-reduction techniques specifically for cochlear implants, due to differences between hearing aid recipient and cochlear implant recipient hearing. An optimized noise-reduction method was developed with significantly increased temporal smoothing of the signal-to-noise ratio estimate and a more aggressive gain function compared to current noise-reduction methods. This optimized noise-reduction algorithm was tested with 12 cochlear implant recipients over four test sessions. Speech perception was assessed through speech in noise tests with three noise types; speech-weighted noise, 20-talker babble and 4-talker babble. A significant speech perception improvement using optimized noise reduction over standard processing was found in babble noise and speech-weighted noise and over a current noise-reduction method in speech-weighted noise. Speech perception in quiet was not degraded. Listening quality testing for noise annoyance and overall preference found significant improvements over the standard processing and over a current noise-reduction method in speech-weighted and babble noise types. This optimized method has shown significant speech perception and quality improvements compared to the standard processing and a current noise-reduction method.

  20. Experimental and analytical separation of hydrodynamic, entropy and combustion noise in a gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muthukrishnan, M.; Strahle, W. C.; Neale, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper deals with noise sources which are central to the problem of core engine noise in turbopropulsion systems. The sources dealt with are entropy noise and direct combustion noise, as well as a non-propagating psuedosound which is hydrodynamic noise. It is shown analytically and experimentally that a transition can occur from a combustion noise dominant situation to an entropy noise dominant case if the contraction of a terminating nozzle to the combustor is high enough. In the combustor tested, entropy noise is the dominant source for propagational noise if the combustor is choked at the exit. Analysis techniques include spectral, cross spectral, cross correlation, and ordinary and partial coherence analysis. Measurements include exterior and interior fluctuating and mean pressures and temperatures.

  1. Fluidic Chevrons for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin; Henderson, Brenda; Whitmire, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Chevron mixing devices are used to reduce noise from commercial separate-flow turbofan engines. Mechanical chevron serrations at the nozzle trailing edge generate axial vorticity that enhances jet plume mixing and consequently reduces far-field noise. Fluidic chevrons generated with air injected near the nozzle trailing edge create a vorticity field similar to that of the mechanical chevrons and allow more flexibility in controlling acoustic and thrust performance than a passive mechanical design. In addition, the design of such a system has the future potential for actively controlling jet noise by pulsing or otherwise optimally distributing the injected air. Scale model jet noise experiments have been performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel to investigate the fluidic chevron concept. Acoustic data from different fluidic chevron designs are shown. Varying degrees of noise reduction are achieved depending on the injection pattern and injection flow conditions. CFD results were used to select design concepts that displayed axial vorticity growth similar to that associated with mechanical chevrons and qualitatively describe the air injection flow and the impact on acoustic performance.

  2. Low Noise Exhaust Nozzle Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majjigi, R. K.; Balan, C.; Mengle, V.; Brausch, J. F.; Shin, H.; Askew, J. W.

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry have been assessing the economic viability and environmental acceptability of a second-generation supersonic civil transport, or High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Development of a propulsion system that satisfies strict airport noise regulations and provides high levels of cruise and transonic performance with adequate takeoff performance, at an acceptable weight, is critical to the success of any HSCT program. The principal objectives were to: 1. Develop a preliminary design of an innovative 2-D exhaust nozzle with the goal of meeting FAR36 Stage III noise levels and providing high levels of cruise performance with a high specific thrust for Mach 2.4 HSCT with a range of 5000 nmi and a payload of 51,900 lbm, 2. Employ advanced acoustic and aerodynamic codes during preliminary design, 3. Develop a comprehensive acoustic and aerodynamic database through scale-model testing of low-noise, high-performance, 2-D nozzle configurations, based on the preliminary design, and 4. Verify acoustic and aerodynamic predictions by means of scale-model testing. The results were: 1. The preliminary design of a 2-D, convergent/divergent suppressor ejector nozzle for a variable-cycle engine powered, Mach 2.4 HSCT was evolved, 2. Noise goals were predicted to be achievable for three takeoff scenarios, and 3. Impact of noise suppression, nozzle aerodynamic performance, and nozzle weight on HSCT takeoff gross weight were assessed.

  3. Evaluation of exposure to noise in seafarers on several types of vessels in Polish Merchant Navy.

    PubMed

    Szczepański, C; Otto, B

    1995-01-01

    Noise was measured on merchant ships of 3 types, during routine sea voyages. It was found that the equivalent noise levels calculated for engine crew members exceeded the accepted hygienic norm by 1-2 dB. Also audiometric examinations at the beginning and on completion of a voyage were performed, enrolling seamen from the engine room and from the deck crews. They showed statistically significant differences of temporary shift of the hearing threshold, more pronounced in the engine room crew.

  4. Environmental, safety, and health engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Woodside, G.; Kocurek, D.

    1997-12-31

    A complete guide to environmental, safety, and health engineering, including an overview of EPA and OSHA regulations; principles of environmental engineering, including pollution prevention, waste and wastewater treatment and disposal, environmental statistics, air emissions and abatement engineering, and hazardous waste storage and containment; principles of safety engineering, including safety management, equipment safety, fire and life safety, process and system safety, confined space safety, and construction safety; and principles of industrial hygiene/occupational health engineering including chemical hazard assessment, personal protective equipment, industrial ventilation, ionizing and nonionizing radiation, noise, and ergonomics.

  5. Airframe noise prediction evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Kingo J.; Donelson, Michael J.; Huang, Shumei C.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and adequacy of current airframe noise prediction methods using available airframe noise measurements from tests of a narrow body transport (DC-9) and a wide body transport (DC-10) in addition to scale model test data. General features of the airframe noise from these aircraft and models are outlined. The results of the assessment of two airframe prediction methods, Fink's and Munson's methods, against flight test data of these aircraft and scale model wind tunnel test data are presented. These methods were extensively evaluated against measured data from several configurations including clean, slat deployed, landing gear-deployed, flap deployed, and landing configurations of both DC-9 and DC-10. They were also assessed against a limited number of configurations of scale models. The evaluation was conducted in terms of overall sound pressure level (OASPL), tone corrected perceived noise level (PNLT), and one-third-octave band sound pressure level (SPL).

  6. Occupational Noise Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... is pervasive. It is also preventable. More Exposure & Controls Exposure to loud noise kills the nerve endings ... endorse, takes no responsibility for, and exercises no control over the linked organization or its views, or ...

  7. JPL noise control program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klascius, A. F.

    1975-01-01

    Exposures of personnel to noise pollution at the Jet Propulsion Laboratories, Pasadena, California, were investigated. As a result of the study several protective measures were taken: (1) employees exposed to noise hazards were required to wear ear-protection devices, (2) mufflers and air diversion devices were installed around the wind tunnels; and (3) all personnel that are required to wear ear protection are given annual audimeter tests.

  8. Noise Abatement Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A former NASA employee who discovered a kind of plastic that soaked up energy, dampened vibrations, and was a good noise abatement material, founded a company to market noise deadening adhesives, sheets, panels and enclosures. Known as SMART products, they are 75-80% lighter than ordinary soundproofing material and have demonstrated a high degree of effectiveness. The company, Varian Associates, makes enclosures for high voltage terminals and other electronic system components, and easily transportable audiometric test booths.

  9. Television noise reduction device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, B. L.; Stamps, J. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A noise reduction system that divides the color video signal into its luminance and chrominance components is reported. The luminance component of a given frame is summed with the luminance component of at least one preceding frame which was stored on a disc recorder. The summation is carried out so as to achieve a signal amplitude equivalent to that of the original signal. The averaged luminance signal is then recombined with the chrominance signal to achieve a noise-reduced television signal.

  10. Comments on the use of structureborne noise analysis for large commercial airplanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Steven E.; Butzel, Leo M.

    In a business climate of continuous cost reduction, noise control engineers are ever more dependent on computer simulation in lieu of testing. Several analytical methodologies have been applied to predicting structureborne transmission, fuselage response, and passenger cabin noise. In order to facilitate problem solution, simplifying assumptions are typically made related to the structural configurations or boundary conditions. Yet, results from the same prediction schemes demonstrate significant cabin noise sensitivity to the simplifications themselves. This paper is submitted in support of the objectives and activities of the Institute of Noise Control Engineers (INCE) Structureborne Noise Technical Subcommittee. The characteristic dynamic behavior of commercial transport fuselage structure as related to geometry-frequency scales and to engineering/customer issues are briefly described. Then, recommendations are extended with regard to concerns and interests associated with cabin noise within Boeing airplanes.

  11. High Speed Research Noise Prediction Code (HSRNOISE) User's and Theoretical Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Robert (Technical Monitor); Rawls, John W., Jr.; Yeager, Jessie C.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a computer program, HSRNOISE, that predicts noise levels for a supersonic aircraft powered by mixed flow turbofan engines with rectangular mixer-ejector nozzles. It fully documents the noise prediction algorithms, provides instructions for executing the HSRNOISE code, and provides predicted noise levels for the High Speed Research (HSR) program Technology Concept (TC) aircraft. The component source noise prediction algorithms were developed jointly by Boeing, General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE), NASA and Pratt & Whitney during the course of the NASA HSR program. Modern Technologies Corporation developed an alternative mixer ejector jet noise prediction method under contract to GEAE that has also been incorporated into the HSRNOISE prediction code. Algorithms for determining propagation effects and calculating noise metrics were taken from the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program.

  12. 75 FR 64216 - Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of Occupational Noise AGENCY: Occupational Safety... OSHA's official interpretation of the term feasible administrative or engineering controls as used in... standards. Under the standard, employers must use administrative or engineering controls rather...

  13. Empennage Noise Shielding Benefits for an Open Rotor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA sets aggressive, strategic, civil aircraft performance and environmental goals and develops ambitious technology roadmaps to guide its research efforts. NASA has adopted a phased approach for community noise reduction of civil aircraft. While the goal of the near-term first phase focuses primarily on source noise reduction, the goal of the second phase relies heavily on presumed architecture changes of future aircraft. The departure from conventional airplane configurations to designs that incorporate some type of propulsion noise shielding is anticipated to provide an additional 10 cumulative EPNdB of noise reduction. One candidate propulsion system for these advanced aircraft is the open rotor engine. In some planned applications, twin open rotor propulsors are located on the aft fuselage, with the vehicle s empennage shielding some of their acoustic signature from observers on the ground. This study focuses on predicting the noise certification benefits of a notional open rotor aircraft with tail structures shielding a portion of the rotor noise. The measured noise of an open rotor test article--collected with and without an acoustic barrier wall--is the basis of the prediction. The results are used to help validate NASA s reliance on acoustic shielding to achieve the second phase of its community noise reduction goals. The noise measurements are also compared to a popular empirical diffraction correlation often used at NASA to predict acoustic shielding.

  14. Noise reduction in supersonic jets by nozzle fluidic inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Philip J.; McLaughlin, Dennis K.; Kuo, Ching-Wen

    2013-08-01

    Professor Philip Doak spent a very productive time as a consultant to the Lockheed-Georgia Company in the early 1970s. The focus of the overall research project was the prediction and reduction of noise from supersonic jets. Now, 40 years on, the present paper describes an innovative methodology and device for the reduction of supersonic jet noise. The goal is the development of a practical active noise reduction technique for low bypass ratio turbofan engines. This method introduces fluidic inserts installed in the divergent wall of a CD nozzle to replace hard-wall corrugation seals, which have been demonstrated to be effective by Seiner (2005) [1]. By altering the configuration and operating conditions of the fluidic inserts, active noise reduction for both mixing and shock noise has been obtained. Substantial noise reductions have been achieved for mixing noise in the maximum noise emission direction and in the forward arc for broadband shock-associated noise. To achieve these reductions (on the order of greater than 4 and 2 dB for the two main components respectively), practically achievable levels of injection mass flow rates have been used. The total injected mass flow rates are less than 4% of the core mass flow rate and the effective operating injection pressure ratio has been maintained at or below the same level as the nozzle pressure ratio of the core flow.

  15. Environmental issues: noise, rail noise, and high-speed rail

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.L.; Welland, J.D.; Bragdon, C.R.; Houtman, J.W.; Immers, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    The six papers in the report deal with the following areas: the effect of noise barriers on the market value of adjacent residential properties; control of airport- and aircraft-related noise in the United States; a traffic-assignment model to reduce noise annoyance in urban networks; a survey of railroad occupational noise sources; a prediction procedure for rail transportation ground-borne noise and vibration; and high-speed rail in California: the dream, the process, and the reality.

  16. Airesearch QCGAT program. [quiet clean general aviation turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.; Norgren, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    A model TFE731-1 engine was used as a baseline for the NASA quiet clean general aviation turbofan engine and engine/nacelle program designed to demonstrate the applicability of large turbofan engine technology to small general aviation turbofan engines, and to obtain significant reductions in noise and pollutant emissions while reducing or maintaining fuel consumption levels. All new technology design for rotating parts and all items in the engine and nacelle that contributed to the acoustic and pollution characteristics of the engine system were of flight design, weight, and construction. The major noise, emissions, and performance goals were met. Noise levels estimated for the three FAR Part 36 conditions, are 10 t0 15 ENPdB below FAA requirements; emission values are considerably reduced below that of current technology engines; and the engine performance represents a TSFC improvement of approximately 9 percent over other turbofan engines.

  17. Disturbance caused by aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josse, R.

    1980-01-01

    Noise pollution caused by the presence of airfields adjacent to residential areas is studied. Noise effects on the sleep of residents near airports and the degree of the residents noise tolerance are evaluated. What aircraft noises are annoying and to what extent the annoyance varies with sound level are discussed.

  18. Prediction of jet exhaust noise on airframe surfaces during flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butzel, L. M.

    1981-01-01

    The behavior of pressure fluctuations measured on the airframe of a prototype high lift jet transport (YC-14) is presented. The data are characterized in terms of a particular jet exhaust flow field idealization, jet mixing noise, and exhaust shock noise. Generalized spectrum shapes and scaling relations for peak level and frequency of peak level are developed, and the frequency is found to depend on jet exhaust velocity and aircraft velocity. Comparisons are made with near-field engine exhaust noise of a conventional jet, and results suggest that the same two exhaust noises are important for both aircraft types. Surface fluctuating pressure data are assessed, and results suggest that the jet mixing and exhaust shock noise source characterizations for the YC-14 have useful applicability to conventionally configured jets.

  19. A practical approach to helicopter internal noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, L. S.; Defelice, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    A practical and well correlated procedure for predicting helicopter internal noise is presented. It accounts for the propagation of noise along multiple paths on an octave by octave basis. The method is sufficiently general to be applicable to conventional helicopters as well as other aircraft types, when the appropriate structural geometry, noise source strengths, and material acoustic properties are defined. A guide is provided for the prediction of various helicopter noise sources over a wide range of horsepower for use when measured data are not available. The method is applied to the prediction of the interior levels of the Civil Helicopter Research Aircraft (CHRA), both with and without soundproofing installed. Results include good correlation with measured levels and prediction of the speech interference level within 1.5 db at all conditions. A sample problem is also shown illustrating the use of the procedure. This example calculates the engine casing noise observed in the passenger cabin of the CHRA.

  20. Status of noise technology for advanced supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.; Gutierrez, O. A.

    1980-01-01

    Developments in acoustic technology applicable to advanced supersonic cruise aircraft, particularly those which relate to jet noise and its suppression are reviewed. The noise reducing potential of high radius ratio, inverted velocity profile coannular jets is demonstrated by model scale results from a wide range of nozzle geometries, including some simulated flight cases. These results were verified statistically at large scale on a variable cycle engine (VCE) testbed. A preliminary assessment of potential VCE noise sources such as fan and core noise is made, based on the testbed data. Recent advances in the understanding of flight effects are reviewed. The status of component noise prediction methods is assessed on the basis of recent test data, and the remaining problem areas are outlined.

  1. An improved source model for aircraft interior noise studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.; Fuller, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    There is concern that advanced turboprop engines currently being developed may produce excessive aircraft cabin noise level. This concern has stimulated renewed interest in developing aircraft interior noise reduction methods that do not significnatly increase take off weight. An existing analytical model for noise transmission into aircraft cabins was utilized to investigate the behavior of an improved propeller source model for use in aircraft interior noise studies. The new source model, a virtually rotating dipole, is shown to adequately match measured fuselage sound pressure distributions, including the correct phase relationships, for published data. The virtually rotating dipole is used to study the sensitivity of synchrophasing effectiveness to the fuselage sound pressure trace velocity distribution. Results of calculations are presented which reveal the importance of correctly modeling the surface pressure phase relations in synchrophasing and other aircraft interior noise studies.

  2. An improved source model for aircraft interior noise studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.; Fuller, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    There is concern that advanced turboprop engines currently being developed may produce excessive aircraft cabin noise levels. This concern has stimulated renewed interest in developing aircraft interior noise reduction methods that do not significantly increase take off weight. An existing analytical model for noise transmission into aircraft cabins was utilized to investigate the behavior of an improved propeller source model for use in aircraft interior noise studies. The new source model, a virtually rotating dipole, is shown to adequately match measured fuselage sound pressure distributions, including the correct phase relationships, for published data. The virtually rotating dipole is used to study the sensitivity of synchrophasing effectiveness to the fuselage sound pressure trace velocity distribution. Results of calculations are presented which reveal the importance of correctly modeling the surface pressure phase relations in synchrophasing and other aircraft interior noise studies.

  3. A Fan Concept to Meet the 2017 Noise Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has established a goal of a 20 EPNdB reduction of aircraft noise by the year 2017. This paper proposes a fan concept for an engine that may meet this noise goal. The concept builds upon technology established during the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program which should show a 10 dB reduction potential. The new concept uses a two stage fan which allows low tip speed while still maintaining a reasonable total pressure rise across the two stages. The concept also incorporates many other noise reduction techniques in addition to low tip speed including a low number of exit guide vanes, swept and leaned guide vanes, a high subsonic Mach number inlet and syncrophased rotors to obtain active noise cancellation. The fan proposed in this paper is calculated to be able to achieve the 2017 noise goal.

  4. Investigation of the Jet Noise Prediction Theory and Application Utilizing the PAO Formulation. [mathematical model for calculating noise radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Application of the Phillips theory to engineering calculations of rocket and high speed jet noise radiation is reported. Presented are a detailed derivation of the theory, the composition of the numerical scheme, and discussions of the practical problems arising in the application of the present noise prediction method. The present method still contains some empirical elements, yet it provides a unified approach in the prediction of sound power, spectrum, and directivity.

  5. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  6. [Current aspects of the noise problem in aviation medicine].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, O A; Krylov, Iu V; Zaritskiĭ, V V; Skrebnev, S V

    1996-02-01

    The authors discuss the problem of improvement the noise factor prevention in aviation medicine. The analysis of the real acoustic load on aviation engineer specialists, performing maintenance of the modern military aircraft have been given. The authors show the importance of the approach to the aviation noise as an ecological significant factor, that means taking into account the acoustic load during work time as well as during rest-sleep periods. The authors suggested the advanced complex of the preventive measures for the purpose of optimization of the noise exposure on the aviation specialists.

  7. Active Noise Control Experiments using Sound Energy Flu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Uli

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the latest results concerning the active noise control approach using net flow of acoustic energy. The test set-up consists of two loudspeakers simulating the engine noise and two smaller loudspeakers which belong to the active noise system. The system is completed by two acceleration sensors and one microphone per loudspeaker. The microphones are located in the near sound field of the loudspeakers. The control algorithm including the update equation of the feed-forward controller is introduced. Numerical simulations are performed with a comparison to a state of the art method minimising the radiated sound power. The proposed approach is experimentally validated.

  8. Advanced supersonic propulsion study. [with emphasis on noise level reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatella, J. A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the promising propulsion systems for advanced supersonic transport application, and to identify the critical propulsion technology requirements. It is shown that noise constraints have a major effect on the selection of the various engine types and cycle parameters. Several promising advanced propulsion systems were identified which show the potential of achieving lower levels of sideline jet noise than the first generation supersonic transport systems. The non-afterburning turbojet engine, utilizing a very high level of jet suppression, shows the potential to achieve FAR 36 noise level. The duct-heating turbofan with a low level of jet suppression is the most attractive engine for noise levels from FAR 36 to FAR 36 minus 5 EPNdb, and some series/parallel variable cycle engines show the potential of achieving noise levels down to FAR 36 minus 10 EPNdb with moderate additional penalty. The study also shows that an advanced supersonic commercial transport would benefit appreciably from advanced propulsion technology. The critical propulsion technology needed for a viable supersonic propulsion system, and the required specific propulsion technology programs are outlined.

  9. Progress with variable cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westmoreland, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    The evaluation of components of an advanced propulsion system for a future supersonic cruise vehicle is discussed. These components, a high performance duct burner for thrust augmentation and a low jet noise coannular exhaust nozzle, are part of the variable stream control engine. An experimental test program involving both isolated component and complete engine tests was conducted for the high performance, low emissions duct burner with excellent results. Nozzle model tests were completed which substantiate the inherent jet noise benefit associated with the unique velocity profile possible of a coannular exhaust nozzle system on a variable stream control engine. Additional nozzle model performance tests have established high thrust efficiency levels at takeoff and supersonic cruise for this nozzle system. Large scale testing of these two critical components is conducted using an F100 engine as the testbed for simulating the variable stream control engine.

  10. The Impact of Subsonic Twin Jets on Airport Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Subsonic and supersonic aircraft concepts proposed through NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program have multiple engines mounted near one another. Engine configurations with multiple jets introduce an asymmetry to the azimuthal directivity of the jet noise. Current system noise predictions add the jet noise from each jet incoherently, therefore, twin jets are estimated by adding 3 EPNdB to the far-field noise radiated from a single jet. Twin jet effects have the ability to increase or decrease the radiated noise to different azimuthal observation locations. Experiments have shown that twin jet effects are reduced with forward flight and increasing spacings. The current experiment investigates the impact of spacing, and flight effects on airport noise for twin jets. Estimating the jet noise radiated from twin jets as that of a single jet plus 3 EPNdB may be sufficient for horizontal twin jets with an s/d of 4.4 and 5.5, where s is the center-to-center spacing and d is the jet diameter. However, up to a 3 EPNdB error could be present for jet spacings with an s/d of 2.6 and 3.2.

  11. Recent results about fan noise: Its generation, radiation and suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiler, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Fan noise including its generation, radiation characteristics, and suppression by acoustic treatment is studied. In fan noise generation, results from engine and fan experiments, using inflow control measures to suppress noise sources related to inflow distortion and turbulence, are described. The suppression of sources related to inflow allows the experiments to focus on the fan or engine internal sources. Some of the experiments incorporated pressure sensors on the fan blades to sample the flow disturbances encountered by the blades. From these data some inferences can be drawn about the origins of the disturbances. Also, hot wire measurements of a fan rotor wake field are presented and related to the fan's noise signature. The radiation and the suppression of fan noise are dependent on the acoustic modes generated by the fan. Fan noise suppression and radiation is described by relating these phenomena to the mode cutoff ratio parameter. In addition to its utility in acoustic treatment design and performance prediction, cutoff ratio was useful in developing a simple description of the radiation pattern for broadband fan noise. Some of the findings using the cutoff ratio parameter are presented.

  12. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-02-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  13. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  14. Train noise reduction scenarios for compliance with future noise legislation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leth, S.

    2003-10-01

    The Technical Specification for Interoperability (TSI) for high-speed trains on the European market includes limits on noise emission. These and other future restrictions on exterior noise of high-speed and intercity trains will require that train manufacturers implement noise control measures early in the design phase. A fundamental problem faced by manufacturers during the design process is determining how much noise reduction is required for each of the various noise sources on the train in order to achieve an optimal balance. To illustrate this process, estimates are presented of the contributions from different sources on existing Bombardier trains, based on measured data, numerical calculations and empirical formulae. In addition, methods of achieving the required noise reductions for different sources are briefly discussed along with targets for future exterior noise emission. Measurement results presented demonstrate the importance of track quality in noise emission. Noise restrictions, including future legislation, must give proper recognition to this important parameter.

  15. Video noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewery, J. O.; Storey, R.; Tanton, N. E.

    1984-07-01

    A video noise and film grain reducer is described which is based on a first-order recursive temporal filter. Filtering of moving detail is avoided by inhibiting recursion in response to the amount of motion in a picture. Motion detection is based on the point-by-point power of the picture difference signal coupled with a knowledge of the noise statistics. A control system measures the noise power and adjusts the working point of the motion detector accordingly. A field trial of a manual version of the equipment at Television Center indicated that a worthwhile improvement in the quality of noisy or grainy pictures received by the viewer could be obtained. Subsequent trials of the automated version confirmed that the improvement could be maintained. Commercial equipment based on the design is being manufactured and marketed by Pye T.V.T. under license. It is in regular use on both the BBC1 and BBC2 networks.

  16. Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  17. Genetic noise control via protein oligomerization

    SciTech Connect

    Ghim, C; Almaas, E

    2008-06-12

    general, is of direct implications to organism fitness. Finally, noise control through oligomerization suggests avenues for the design of robust synthetic gene circuits for engineering purposes.

  18. Jet Noise Diagnostics Supporting Statistical Noise Prediction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2006-01-01

    The primary focus of my presentation is the development of the jet noise prediction code JeNo with most examples coming from the experimental work that drove the theoretical development and validation. JeNo is a statistical jet noise prediction code, based upon the Lilley acoustic analogy. Our approach uses time-average 2-D or 3-D mean and turbulent statistics of the flow as input. The output is source distributions and spectral directivity. NASA has been investing in development of statistical jet noise prediction tools because these seem to fit the middle ground that allows enough flexibility and fidelity for jet noise source diagnostics while having reasonable computational requirements. These tools rely on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions as input for computing far-field spectral directivity using an acoustic analogy. There are many ways acoustic analogies can be created, each with a series of assumptions and models, many often taken unknowingly. And the resulting prediction can be easily reverse-engineered by altering the models contained within. However, only an approach which is mathematically sound, with assumptions validated and modeled quantities checked against direct measurement will give consistently correct answers. Many quantities are modeled in acoustic analogies precisely because they have been impossible to measure or calculate, making this requirement a difficult task. The NASA team has spent considerable effort identifying all the assumptions and models used to take the Navier-Stokes equations to the point of a statistical calculation via an acoustic analogy very similar to that proposed by Lilley. Assumptions have been identified and experiments have been developed to test these assumptions. In some cases this has resulted in assumptions being changed. Beginning with the CFD used as input to the acoustic analogy, models for turbulence closure used in RANS CFD codes have been explored and

  19. Heavy-tailed prediction error: a difficulty in predicting biomedical signals of 1/f noise type.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Biao

    2012-01-01

    A fractal signal x(t) in biomedical engineering may be characterized by 1/f noise, that is, the power spectrum density (PSD) divergences at f = 0. According the Taqqu's law, 1/f noise has the properties of long-range dependence and heavy-tailed probability density function (PDF). The contribution of this paper is to exhibit that the prediction error of a biomedical signal of 1/f noise type is long-range dependent (LRD). Thus, it is heavy-tailed and of 1/f noise. Consequently, the variance of the prediction error is usually large or may not exist, making predicting biomedical signals of 1/f noise type difficult.

  20. Neuromorphic learning of continuous-valued mappings from noise-corrupted data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troudet, T.; Merrill, W.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of noise on the learning performance of the backpropagation algorithm is analyzed. A selective sampling of the training set is proposed to maximize the learning of control laws by backpropagation, when the data have been corrupted by noise. The training scheme is applied to the nonlinear control of a cart-pole system in the presence of noise. The neural computation provides the neurocontroller with good noise-filtering properties. In the presence of plant noise, the neurocontroller is found to be more stable than the teacher. A novel perspective on the application of neural network technology to control engineering is presented.