Science.gov

Sample records for engine oil viscosity

  1. Viscosity of diesel engine fuel oil under pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, Mayo D

    1929-01-01

    In the development of Diesel engine fuel injection systems it is necessary to have an approximate knowledge of the absolute viscosity of the fuel oil under high hydrostatic pressures. This report presents the results of experimental tests conducted by Mr. Jackson Newton Shore, utilizing the A.S.M.E. high pressure equipment.

  2. Effects of engine oil viscosity and composition on fuel efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Clevenger, J.E.; Carlson, D.C.; Kleiser, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    A 2.3l engine dynamometer test procedure that measures the effects of engine oils on fuel efficiency has been developed that a) generally agrees with the ASTM five-car test, b) has good test repeatability and c) is capable of detecting small differences among test oils with high statistical confidence. Factors in a lubricant affecting fuel efficiency such as SAE viscosity grade, VI improver, detergent-inhibitor (DI) package and friction modifier selection were investigated in the 2.3l engine dynamometer test. A general trend of improved fuel efficiency was found with reduction in single-grade and multigrade oil viscosity. VI improver selection was found to have a significant effect on the fuel efficiency of multigrade oils. In some cases the difference in fuel efficiency among multigrade oils containing different VI improvers was about the same as the gain in fuel efficiency from reducing SAE grade from an SAE 10w-40 to an SAE 5w-30. Results show that by careful selection of the VI improver and DI package it is possible to formulate multigrade oils that exceed the requirements of the current ASTM energy-conserving engine oil classification.

  3. Distinguishing Gasoline Engine Oils of Different Viscosities Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adbul-Munaim, Ali Mazin; Reuter, Marco; Koch, Martin; Watson, Dennis G.

    2015-07-01

    Terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the range of 0.5-2.0 THz was evaluated for distinguishing among gasoline engine oils of three different grades (SAE 5W-20, 10W-40, and 20W-50) from the same manufacturer. Absorption coefficient showed limited potential and only distinguished ( p < 0.05) the 20W-50 grade from the other two grades in the 1.7-2.0-THz range. Refractive index data demonstrated relatively flat and consistently spaced curves for the three oil grades. ANOVA results confirmed a highly significant difference ( p < 0.0001) in refractive index among each of the three oils across the 0.5-2.0-THz range. Linear regression was applied to refractive index data at 0.25-THz intervals from 0.5 to 2.0 THz to predict kinematic viscosity. All seven linear regression models, intercepts, and refractive index coefficients were highly significant ( p < 0.0001). All models had a similar fit with R 2 ranging from 0.9773 to 0.9827 and RMSE ranging from 6.33 to 7.75. The refractive indices at 1.25 THz produced the best fit. The refractive indices of these oil samples were promising for identification and distinction of oil grades.

  4. Pressure viscosity coefficient of vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) pressure viscosity coefficient (PVC) of ten vegetable oils from commodity and new crops, and two petroleum-based oils, polyalphaolefin (PAO) and hexadecane, were investigated. PVC was measured using three different methods: the So and Klaus (S-K) procedure from oil visco...

  5. Viscosity of Common Seed and Vegetable Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wes Fountain, C.; Jennings, Jeanne; McKie, Cheryl K.; Oakman, Patrice; Fetterolf, Monty L.

    1997-02-01

    Viscosity experiments using Ostwald-type gravity flow viscometers are not new to the physical chemistry laboratory. Several physical chemistry laboratory texts (1 - 3) contain at least one experiment studying polymer solutions or other well-defined systems. Several recently published articles (4 - 8) indicated the continued interest in using viscosity measurements in the teaching lab to illustrate molecular interpretation of bulk phenomena. Most of these discussions and teaching experiments are designed around an extensive theory of viscous flow and models of molecular shape that allow a full data interpretation to be attempted. This approach to viscosity experiments may not be appropriate for all teaching situations (e.g., high schools, general chemistry labs, and nonmajor physical chemistry labs). A viscosity experiment is presented here that is designed around common seed and vegetable oils. With the importance of viscosity to foodstuffs (9) and the importance of fatty acids to nutrition (10), an experiment using these common, recognizable oils has broad appeal.

  6. Metabolic engineering of oilseed crops to produce high levels of novel acetyl glyceride oils with reduced viscosity, freezing point and calorific value.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinjie; Rice, Adam; McGlew, Kathleen; Shaw, Vincent; Park, Hyunwoo; Clemente, Tom; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John; Durrett, Timothy P

    2015-08-01

    Seed oils have proved recalcitrant to modification for the production of industrially useful lipids. Here, we demonstrate the successful metabolic engineering and subsequent field production of an oilseed crop with the highest accumulation of unusual oil achieved so far in transgenic plants. Previously, expression of the Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) gene in wild-type Arabidopsis seeds resulted in the accumulation of 45 mol% of unusual 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acetyl-TAGs) in the seed oil (Durrett et al., 2010 PNAS 107:9464). Expression of EaDAcT in dgat1 mutants compromised in their ability to synthesize regular triacylglycerols increased acetyl-TAGs to 65 mol%. Camelina and soybean transformed with the EaDAcT gene accumulate acetyl-triacylglycerols (acetyl-TAGs) at up to 70 mol% of seed oil. A similar strategy of coexpression of EaDAcT together with RNAi suppression of DGAT1 increased acetyl-TAG levels to up to 85 mol% in field-grown transgenic Camelina. Additionally, total moles of triacylglycerol (TAG) per seed increased 20%. Analysis of the acetyl-TAG fraction revealed a twofold reduction in very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), consistent with their displacement from the sn-3 position by acetate. Seed germination remained high, and seedlings were able to metabolize the stored acetyl-TAGs as rapidly as regular triacylglycerols. Viscosity, freezing point and caloric content of the Camelina acetyl-TAG oils were reduced, enabling use of this oil in several nonfood and food applications. PMID:25756355

  7. Metabolic engineering of oilseed crops to produce high levels of novel acetyl glyceride oils with reduced viscosity, freezing point and calorific value.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinjie; Rice, Adam; McGlew, Kathleen; Shaw, Vincent; Park, Hyunwoo; Clemente, Tom; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John; Durrett, Timothy P

    2015-08-01

    Seed oils have proved recalcitrant to modification for the production of industrially useful lipids. Here, we demonstrate the successful metabolic engineering and subsequent field production of an oilseed crop with the highest accumulation of unusual oil achieved so far in transgenic plants. Previously, expression of the Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) gene in wild-type Arabidopsis seeds resulted in the accumulation of 45 mol% of unusual 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acetyl-TAGs) in the seed oil (Durrett et al., 2010 PNAS 107:9464). Expression of EaDAcT in dgat1 mutants compromised in their ability to synthesize regular triacylglycerols increased acetyl-TAGs to 65 mol%. Camelina and soybean transformed with the EaDAcT gene accumulate acetyl-triacylglycerols (acetyl-TAGs) at up to 70 mol% of seed oil. A similar strategy of coexpression of EaDAcT together with RNAi suppression of DGAT1 increased acetyl-TAG levels to up to 85 mol% in field-grown transgenic Camelina. Additionally, total moles of triacylglycerol (TAG) per seed increased 20%. Analysis of the acetyl-TAG fraction revealed a twofold reduction in very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), consistent with their displacement from the sn-3 position by acetate. Seed germination remained high, and seedlings were able to metabolize the stored acetyl-TAGs as rapidly as regular triacylglycerols. Viscosity, freezing point and caloric content of the Camelina acetyl-TAG oils were reduced, enabling use of this oil in several nonfood and food applications.

  8. Enhancement of Hydrodynamic Processes in Oil Pipelines Considering Rheologically Complex High-Viscosity Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konakhina, I. A.; Khusnutdinova, E. M.; Khamidullina, G. R.; Khamidullina, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of flow-related hydrodynamic processes for rheologically complex high-viscosity bitumen oil and oil-water suspensions and presents methods to improve the design and performance of oil pipelines.

  9. Interrelationship between viscosity and electrical properties for edible oils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dilip; Singh, Amarjit; Tarsikka, Paramjit Singh

    2013-06-01

    Electrical properties of edible oil depend upon its total polar component, temperature and the frequency of the applied voltage. Dielectric constant, dielectric loss tangent and electrical conductivity were measured for cottonseed (Gossypium sp.), ground nut (Apios americana), mustard (Brasicca compestriss) and sun flower (Helianthus annuus) oils in the temperature range of 20 to 100°C so as to assess the potential of their applicability for assessing the quality of oils. Viscosity of the oils is an other important physical property associated with their processing and quality control. Viscosity of these oils was experimentally measured. The correlation of viscosity with dielectric loss tangent and viscosity with electrical conductivity were tested. The best correlating relations along with correlation constants, valid for the temperature range of 20-100°C are presented. The regression equation developed relating viscosity with loss tangent and electrical conductivity had high correlation coefficient (R(2) > 0.96) for all the four oils within temperature range of 20-100°C.

  10. Tribological bench and engine dynamometer tests of a low viscosity SAE 0W-16 engine oil using a combination of ionic liquid and ZDDP as anti-wear additives

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, William C.; Gao, Hong; Kheireddin, Bassem; Papke, Brian L.; Luo, Huimin; West, Brian H.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-29

    We have previously reported an oil-miscible phosphonium-organophosphate ionic liquid (IL) with an effective anti-wear (AW) functionality when added to a base oil by itself or combined with a conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) for a synergistic effect. In this research, we investigated whether this synergy manifests in formulated engine oils. An experimental SAE 0W-16 engine oil was generated containing a combination of IL and ZDDP with equal phosphorus contribution. The prototype engine oil was first evaluated using tribological bench tests: AW performance in boundary lubrication (BL) and friction behavior (Stribeck curves) in elastohydrodynamic, mixed, and BL. In addition, the forthcoming standard Sequence VIE engine dynamometer test was then conducted to demonstrate improved fuel economy. Results were benchmarked against those of another experimental engine oil with almost the same formulation except using ZDDP only without the IL (similar total phosphorus content). The IL-ZDDP formulation consistently outperforms the ZDDP-only formulation in friction reduction and wear protection, and results from the bench and engine tests are well correlated.

  11. Tribological bench and engine dynamometer tests of a low viscosity SAE 0W-16 engine oil using a combination of ionic liquid and ZDDP as anti-wear additives

    DOE PAGES

    Barnhill, William C.; Gao, Hong; Kheireddin, Bassem; Papke, Brian L.; Luo, Huimin; West, Brian H.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-29

    We have previously reported an oil-miscible phosphonium-organophosphate ionic liquid (IL) with an effective anti-wear (AW) functionality when added to a base oil by itself or combined with a conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) for a synergistic effect. In this research, we investigated whether this synergy manifests in formulated engine oils. An experimental SAE 0W-16 engine oil was generated containing a combination of IL and ZDDP with equal phosphorus contribution. The prototype engine oil was first evaluated using tribological bench tests: AW performance in boundary lubrication (BL) and friction behavior (Stribeck curves) in elastohydrodynamic, mixed, and BL. In addition, the forthcoming standardmore » Sequence VIE engine dynamometer test was then conducted to demonstrate improved fuel economy. Results were benchmarked against those of another experimental engine oil with almost the same formulation except using ZDDP only without the IL (similar total phosphorus content). The IL-ZDDP formulation consistently outperforms the ZDDP-only formulation in friction reduction and wear protection, and results from the bench and engine tests are well correlated.« less

  12. Volatility and oil consumption of SAE 5W-30 engine oil

    SciTech Connect

    Didot, F.E.; Green, E.; Johnson, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Experience has shown oil economy, or conversely, oil consumption, to be a significant factor in the consumer's perception of engine oil quality. Recent changes in the primary viscosity grade recommendations by the major automotive manufacturers have made the consumer even more sensitive to real, and/or perceived, changes in engine oil performance. This paper examines the effect of volatility characteristics on engine oil consumption, in both laboratory test engines and vehicle fleet testing. Special attention is given to the SAE 5W-30 viscosity grade in comparison to the widely marketed SAE 10W-40 grade product.

  13. Terahertz spectroscopy properties of the selected engine oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shouming; Zhao, Kun; Lu, Tian; Zhao, Songqing; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei; Zhao, Dongmei; Zhang, Cunlin

    2010-11-01

    Engine oil, most of which is extracted from petroleum, consist of complex mixtures of hydrocarbons of molecular weights in the range of 250-1000. Variable amounts of different additives are put into them to inhibit oxidation, improve the viscosity index, decrease the fluidity point and avoid foaming or settling of solid particles among others. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy contains rich physical, chemical, and structural information of the materials. Most low-frequency vibrational and rotational spectra of many petrochemicals lie in this frequency range. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the THz spectroscopic studies of petroleum products. In this paper, the optical properties and spectroscopy of selected kinds of engine oil consisting of shell HELIX 10W-40, Mobilube GX 80W-90, GEELY ENGINE OIL SG 10W-30, SMA engine oil SG 5W-30, SMA engine oil SG 10W-30, SMA engine oil SG 75W-90 have been studied by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the spectral range of 0.6-2.5 THz. Engine oil with different viscosities in the terahertz spectrum has certain regularity. In the THz-TDS, with the increase of viscosity, time delay is greater and with the increase of viscosity, refractive indexes also grow and their rank is extremely regular. The specific kinds of engine oil can be identified according to their different spectral features in the THz range. The THz-TDS technology has potentially significant impact on the engine oil analysis.

  14. Viscosity modification of high-oleic sunflower oil with polymeric additives for the design of new biolubricant formulations.

    PubMed

    Quinchia, L A; Delgado, M A; Valencia, C; Franco, J M; Gallegos, C

    2009-03-15

    Although most common lubricants contain mineral or synthetic oils as basestocks, new environmental regulations are demanding environmentally friendly lubricants. In this sense, vegetable oils represent promising alternatives to mineral-based lubricants because of their high biodegradability, good lubricity, and low volatility. However, their poor thermooxidative stability and the small range of viscosity represent a clear disadvantage to be used as suitable biolubricants. The main objective of this work was to develop new environmentally friendly lubricant formulations with improved kinematic viscosity values and viscosity thermal susceptibility. With this aim, a high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) was blended with polymeric additives, such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymers, at different concentrations (0.5-5% w/w). Dynamic viscosity and density measurements were performed in a rotational rheometer and capillary densimeter, respectively, in a temperature range between 25 and 120 degrees C. An Arrhenius-like equation fits the evolution of viscosity with temperature fairly well. Both EVA and SBS copolymers may be satisfactorily used as additives to increase the viscosity of HOSO, thus improving the low viscosity values of this oil. HOSO viscosity increases with polymer concentration. Specifically, EVA/HOSO blends exhibit higher viscosity values, which are needed for applications such as lubrication of bearings and four-stroke engines. On the other hand, viscositythermal susceptibility of HOSO samples increases with EVA or SBS concentration.

  15. Viscosity of alumina nanoparticles dispersed in car engine coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Kole, Madhusree; Dey, T.K.

    2010-09-15

    The present paper, describes our experimental results on the viscosity of the nanofluid prepared by dispersing alumina nanoparticles (<50 nm) in commercial car coolant. The nanofluid prepared with calculated amount of oleic acid (surfactant) was tested to be stable for more than 80 days. The viscosity of the nanofluids is measured both as a function of alumina volume fraction and temperature between 10 and 50 C. While the pure base fluid display Newtonian behavior over the measured temperature, it transforms to a non-Newtonian fluid with addition of a small amount of alumina nanoparticles. Our results show that viscosity of the nanofluid increases with increasing nanoparticle concentration and decreases with increase in temperature. Most of the frequently used classical models severely under predict the measured viscosity. Volume fraction dependence of the nanofluid viscosity, however, is predicted fairly well on the basis of a recently reported theoretical model for nanofluids that takes into account the effect of Brownian motion of nanoparticles in the nanofluid. The temperature dependence of the viscosity of engine coolant based alumina nanofluids obeys the empirical correlation of the type: log ({mu}{sub nf}) = A exp(BT), proposed earlier by Namburu et al. (author)

  16. Long term testing of peanut oil in engines

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Durability tests of engines using crude peanut oil blended with no. 2 diesel were conducted, using the E.M.A. screening procedure. Direct and indirect injection designs were operated on 20:80 and 80:28 fuel blends. Time-dependent exhaust temperature changes, mechanical wear, and crank-case oil viscosity changes were evaluated.

  17. Use of organic fluorochemical compounds with oleophobic and hydrophobic groups in asphaltenic crude oils as viscosity reducing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Karydas, A.

    1988-09-06

    This patent describes a method of reducing the viscosity of asphaltenic crude oils comprising incorporating into the crude oil an effective viscosity reducing amount of an oil soluble organic compound and about 1 to about 80 weight percent based on the weight of the total composition of an asphaltenic oil compatible low viscosity diluent.

  18. Use of Kinematic Viscosity Data for the Evaluation of the Molecular Weight of Petroleum Oils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroto, J. A.; Quesada-Perez, M.; Ortiz-Hernandez, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    A new laboratory procedure for the evaluation of the mean molecular weight (mean relative molecular mass) of petroleum oils with high accuracy is described. The density and dynamic viscosity of three commercial petroleum oils are measured at different temperatures. These experimental data are used to calculate the kinematic viscosity as a function…

  19. Viscosity index improver-dispersant additive useful in oil compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, J.B.; Dick, M.N.

    1988-10-25

    A process comprising grafting in the substantial absence of solvent a hydrocarbon polymer of C/sub 2/ to C/sub 28/ olefin, the polymer having a number average molecular weight in the range of about 5,000 to 500,000 with an unsaturated material selected from the group consisting of: (A) ethylenically unsaturated C/sub 3/ to C/sub 10/ carboxylic acid having 1 to 2 carboxylic acid groups or an anhydride group, and (B) nitrogen-containing ethylenically unsaturated monomers containing 6 to 30 carbon atoms and 1 to 4 nitrogen atoms, in the presence of a free radical initiator and a chain stopping agent comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of alphatic mercaptans having 4 to 24 carbon atoms, deithyl hydroxyl amine cumene and phenols, the grafting being conducted in a manner and under conditions sufficient to form a substantially oil soluble graft copolymer useful as a viscosity index improver-dispersant additive for lubricating oil compositions.

  20. A technique for evaluating the oil/heavy-oil viscosity changes under ultrasound in a simulated porous medium.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Hossein; Mohammadian, Erfan; Junin, Radzuan; Rafati, Roozbeh; Manan, Mohammad; Azdarpour, Amin; Junid, Mundzir

    2014-02-01

    Theoretically, Ultrasound method is an economical and environmentally friendly or "green" technology, which has been of interest for more than six decades for the purpose of enhancement of oil/heavy-oil production. However, in spite of many studies, questions about the effective mechanisms causing increase in oil recovery still existed. In addition, the majority of the mechanisms mentioned in the previous studies are theoretical or speculative. One of the changes that could be recognized in the fluid properties is viscosity reduction due to radiation of ultrasound waves. In this study, a technique was developed to investigate directly the effect of ultrasonic waves (different frequencies of 25, 40, 68 kHz and powers of 100, 250, 500 W) on viscosity changes of three types of oil (Paraffin oil, Synthetic oil, and Kerosene) and a Brine sample. The viscosity calculations in the smooth capillary tube were based on the mathematical models developed from the Poiseuille's equation. The experiments were carried out for uncontrolled and controlled temperature conditions. It was observed that the viscosity of all the liquids was decreased under ultrasound in all the experiments. This reduction was more significant for uncontrolled temperature condition cases. However, the reduction in viscosity under ultrasound was higher for lighter liquids compare to heavier ones. Pressure difference was diminished by decreasing in the fluid viscosity in all the cases which increases fluid flow ability, which in turn aids to higher oil recovery in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. Higher ultrasound power showed higher liquid viscosity reduction in all the cases. Higher ultrasound frequency revealed higher and lower viscosity reduction for uncontrolled and controlled temperature condition experiments, respectively. In other words, the reduction in viscosity was inversely proportional to increasing the frequency in temperature controlled experiments. It was concluded that cavitation

  1. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2003-05-01

    The USA deposits of heavy oils and tar sands contain significant energy reserves. Thermal methods, particularly steam drive and steam soak, are used to recover heavy oils and bitumen. Thermal methods rely on several displacement mechanisms to recover oil, but the most important is the reduction of crude viscosity with increasing temperature. The main objective of this research is to propose a simple procedure to predict heavy oil viscosity at reservoir conditions as a function of easily determined physical properties. This procedure will avoid costly experimental testing and reduce uncertainty in designing thermal recovery processes. First, we reviewed critically the existing literature choosing the most promising models for viscosity determination. Then, we modified an existing viscosity correlation, based on the corresponding states principle in order to fit more than two thousand commercial viscosity data. We collected data for compositional and black oil samples (absence of compositional data). The data were screened for inconsistencies resulting from experimental error. A procedure based on the monotonic increase or decrease of key variables was implemented to carry out the screening process. The modified equation was used to calculate the viscosity of several oil samples where compositional data were available. Finally, a simple procedure was proposed to calculate black oil viscosity from common experimental information such as, boiling point, API gravity and molecular weight.

  2. Effect of emulsifier and viscosity on oil separation in ready-to-use therapeutic food.

    PubMed

    Ordiz, M Isabel; Ryan, Kelsey N; Cimo, Elizabeth D; Stoner, Margo E; Loehnig, Margaret E; Manary, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Oil separation is a common food quality problem in ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), the shelf-stable, peanut-based food used to treat severe acute malnutrition in home settings. Our objective was to evaluate the effect on oil separation of three emulsifiers at different concentrations in RUTF. We also assessed two viscosity measurements. A scale-up experiment was carried out during full-scale RUTF production in Malawi. Results indicate that viscosity is inversely correlated with oil separation, and that the Bostwick consistometer is a simple, useful tool to predict viscosity. Oil separation in RUTF may be mitigated by use of an emulsifier, which increases the viscosity of the product. The emulsifier that reduced oil separation to the greatest extent was a mixture of high and low monoacylglycerol (MAG) emulsifiers. Proper raw material quality control to achieve consistent ingredient fat level and fat type, and production temperature and shearing control should be a focus in RUTF manufacturing.

  3. Inverse gas chromatography and other chromatographic techniques in the examination of engine oils.

    PubMed

    Fall, Jacek; Voelkel, Adam

    2002-09-01

    The emerging market of engine oils consists of a number of products from different viscosity and quality classes. Determination of the base oil used in manufacturing of the final product (engine oil) as well as estimation of mutual miscibility of oils and their solubility could be crucial problems. Inverse gas chromatography and other chromatographic techniques are presented as an interesting and fruitful extension of normalised standard analytical methods used in the oil industry. PMID:12385390

  4. Highly recyclable superhydrophobic sponge suitable for the selective sorption of high viscosity oil from water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jintao; Geng, Guihong

    2015-08-15

    Inspired by the adhesion of marine mussels, a kind of superhydrophobic oil sorbent was successfully fabricated by robustly immobilizing the micro/nanostructure layer onto the sponge skeleton. The as-prepared sponges possess excellent hydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 154°, which enables the sponge to selectively absorb various oils floating on water surface. The oil sorption capacities of as-prepared sponge for a series of oils can reach 18.3-46.8g/g. The absorbed oil can be recovered by mechanical squeezing and the resulting sponge can be recycled more than 70 cycles while still keeping high oil sorption capability. More importantly, the obtained sponge has excellent affinity to the high viscosity oils. Therefore, the as-prepared sponge might find practical applications in the large-scale removal of oils especially high viscosity oils from water surface.

  5. Experimental evaluation of low-viscosity fluorosilicone oil as a temporary vitreous substitute.

    PubMed

    Liu, K R; Peyman, G A; Miceli, M V

    1989-10-01

    Fluorosilicone oil, a high specific gravity fluorinated silicone oil, has been recently reevaluated for temporary use in surgery to repair complicated retinal detachments. We evaluated the toxicity of a low-viscosity (300 centistokes) fluorosilicone oil as a vitreous substitute in vitrectomized eyes of albino rabbits. No toxicities could be demonstrated by histopathologic and electroretinographic examinations 6 weeks following surgery. In vitro experiments also showed no toxic effects on cultured retinoblastoma cells. When fluorosilicone oil was injected into the anterior chamber, endothelial cell damage could be seen 2 weeks following injection. Low-viscosity fluorosilicone oil appears to be a safe vitreous substitute for temporary use; it is easily injected and removed, and it maintains adequate surface tension for intraocular tamponade. Because of its relative low viscosity, 300-cst fluorosilicone oil (FS) may be a better vitreous substitute than perfluorocarbon liquids for both intraoperative manipulation of the retina and short-term intraocular tamponade for complicated retinal detachments.

  6. The influence of grinding oil viscosity on grinding heat and burn damage in creep-feed grinding{copyright}

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen-Change Liu; Abe, Satoshi; Noda, Masahiro

    1995-08-01

    Grinding oils are widely used in precision grinding, such as tool grinding, thread grinding and gear grinding, during which processes grinding burn is the most prevalent damage affecting the integrity of ground surface. This paper discusses the influence of oil viscosity on grinding heat and burn damage in creep-feed-grinding. Experimental results indicated that, under lighter grinding conditions, the effects of oil viscosity was not observed, but under heavy grinding conditions grinding burn occurred when using low viscosity oil. When the viscosity of the oil was increased, grinding heat and burn damage tended to be reduced. As the viscosity was increased to a certain level, grinding burn reduction, by further increasing the viscosity, became less while other problems such as much higher oil pump noise and reduced oil flow occurred. It is clear that a viscosity limit exists for given grinding conditions. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. The pressure viscosity coefficient of polar and non-polar oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pressure viscosity coefficient (PVC) of several vegetable, polyalphaolefin (PAO), and hexadecane oils were investigated. Vegetable oils are polar because they have multiple ester functional groups in their structure. On the other hand, the petroleum based PAO and hexadecane have no functional g...

  8. A technique to measure fuel oil viscosity in a fuel power plant.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, Miguel Angel; Ibargüengoytia, Pablo H; García, Uriel A

    2016-01-01

    The viscosity measurement and control of fuel oil in power plants is very important for a proper combustion. However, the conventional viscometers are only reliable for a short period of time. This paper proposes an on-line analytic viscosity evaluation based on energy balance applied to a piece of tube entering the fuel oil main heater and a new control strategy for temperature control. This analytic evaluation utilizes a set of temperature versus viscosity graphs were defined during years of analysis of fuel oil in Mexican power plants. Also the temperature set-point for the fuel oil main heater output is obtained by interpolating in the corresponding graph. Validation tests of the proposed analytic equations were carried out in the Tuxpan power plant in Veracruz, Mexico.

  9. High pressure changes of the castor oil viscosity by ultrasonic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostocki, A. J.; Siegoczyński, R. M.; Kielczyński, P.; Szalewski, M.

    2008-07-01

    The pressure change of viscosity of castor oil have been measured by ultrasonic method within the range of pressure up to 0.9 GPa. For the measurement, the authors have applied a new ultrasonic method based on Bleustein-Gulyaev (B-G) waves. For the lower pressures (up to 0.3 GPa) the results have been compared with earlier results obtained by falling body method, whereas for the higher pressure range results were compared with those obtained by the flow type viscometer. The measurements have shown: 1. Exponential rise of viscosity with pressure up to 0.4 GPa according to the Barus formula. 2. Extraordinary increment of viscosity at constant pressure during phase transition. 3. The decomposition of the high pressure phase during the decompression process have shown very large hysteresis of viscosity on pressure. 4. After the decompression process the viscosity lasts higher then a initial value for several hours.

  10. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  11. An empirical method to estimate the viscosity of mineral oil by means of ultrasonic attenuation.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyeong; Gottlieb, Emanuel; Augenstein, Donald; Brown, Gregor; Tittmann, Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an empirical method for measuring the viscosity of mineral oil. In a built-in pipeline application, conventional ultrasonic methods using shear reflectance or rheological and acoustical phenomena may fail because of attenuated shear wave propagation and an unpredictable spreading loss caused by protective housings and comparable main flows. The empirical method utilizing longitudinal waves eliminates the unknown spreading loss from attenuation measurements on the object fluid by removing the normalized spreading loss per focal length with the measurement of a reference fluid of a known acoustic absorption coefficient. The ultrasonic attenuation of fresh water as the reference fluid and mineral oil as the object fluid were measured along with the sound speed and effective frequency. The empirical equation for the spreading loss in the reference fluid is determined by high-order polynomial fitting. To estimate the shear viscosity of the mineral oil, a linear fit is applied to the total loss difference between the two fluids, whose slope (the absorption coefficient) is combined with an assumed shear-to-volume viscosity relation. The empirical method predicted the viscosities of two types of the mineral oil with a maximum statistical uncertainty of 8.8% and a maximum systematic error of 12.5% compared with directly measured viscosity using a glass-type viscometer. The validity of this method was examined by comparison with the results from theoretical far-field spreading.

  12. Development of the ASTM sequence IIIE engine oil oxidation and wear test

    SciTech Connect

    Smolenski, D.J.; Bergin, S.P

    1988-01-01

    The ASTM Sequence IIID engine-dynamometer test has been used to evaluate the high-temperature protection provided by engine oils with respect to valve train wear, viscosity increase (oil thickening), deposits, and oil consumption. The obsolescence of the engine used in this test along with the need to define even higher levels of performance associated with a new oil category (SG) prompted efforts at developing a replacement test. This paper describes the hardware and procedure development of this replacement test, the ASTM Sequence IIIE test. Test precision and correlation with field and Sequence IIID results on a series of reference oils is also discussed.

  13. Effect of emulsifier and viscosity on oil separation in ready-to-use therapeutic food.

    PubMed

    Ordiz, M Isabel; Ryan, Kelsey N; Cimo, Elizabeth D; Stoner, Margo E; Loehnig, Margaret E; Manary, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Oil separation is a common food quality problem in ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), the shelf-stable, peanut-based food used to treat severe acute malnutrition in home settings. Our objective was to evaluate the effect on oil separation of three emulsifiers at different concentrations in RUTF. We also assessed two viscosity measurements. A scale-up experiment was carried out during full-scale RUTF production in Malawi. Results indicate that viscosity is inversely correlated with oil separation, and that the Bostwick consistometer is a simple, useful tool to predict viscosity. Oil separation in RUTF may be mitigated by use of an emulsifier, which increases the viscosity of the product. The emulsifier that reduced oil separation to the greatest extent was a mixture of high and low monoacylglycerol (MAG) emulsifiers. Proper raw material quality control to achieve consistent ingredient fat level and fat type, and production temperature and shearing control should be a focus in RUTF manufacturing. PMID:26299733

  14. Effect of EGR contamination of diesel engine oil on wear.

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O. O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.; Aldajah, S.; Goldblatt, I. L.; Energy Systems; United Arab Emirates Univ.; BP-Global Lubricants Technology

    2007-09-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the effective means to reduce the NO{sub X} emission from diesel engines. Returning exhaust product to the diesel engine combustion chamber accelerated the degradation of the lubricant engine oil, primarily by increasing the total acid number (TAN) as well as the soot content and, consequently, the viscosity. These oil degradation mechanisms were observed in engine oil exposed to EGR during a standard Cummins M-l 1 diesel engine test. Four-ball wear tests with M-50 balls showed that, although the used oils slightly decrease the friction coefficients, they increased the ball wear by two orders of magnitude when compared to tests with clean oil. Wear occurred primarily by an abrasive mechanism, but in oil with the highest soot loading of 12%, scuffing and soot particle embedment were also observed. Laboratory wear tests showed a linear correlation with the TAN, while the crosshead wear during the engine test was proportional to the soot content.

  15. Viscosity of the oil-in-water Pickering emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer and nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Tushar; Kumar, G. Suresh; Chon, Bo Hyun; Sangwai, Jitendra S.

    2014-11-01

    Information on the viscosity of Pickering emulsion is required for their successful application in upstream oil and gas industry to understand their stability at extreme environment. In this work, a novel formulation of oil-in-water (o/w) Pickering emulsion stabilized using nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer (polyacrylamide) system as formulated in our earlier work (Sharma et al., Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2014) is investigated for rheological stability at high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) conditions using a controlled-strain rheometer. The nanoparticle (SiO2 and clay) concentration is varied from 1.0 to 5.0 wt%. The results are compared with the rheological behavior of simple o/w emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer system. Both the emulsions exhibit non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. A positive shift in this behavior is observed for surfactant-polymer stabilized emulsion at high pressure conditions. Yield stress is observed to increase with pressure for surfactant-polymer emulsion. In addition, increase in temperature has an adverse effect on the viscosity of emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer system. In case of nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer stabilized o/w emulsion system, the viscosity and yield stress are predominantly constant for varying pressure and temperature conditions. The viscosity data for both o/w emulsion systems are fitted by the Herschel-Bulkley model and found to be satisfactory. In general, the study indicates that the Pickering emulsion stabilized by nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer system shows improved and stable rheological properties as compared to conventional emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer system indicating their successful application for HPHT environment in upstream oil and gas industry.

  16. Experimental and Theoretical Determination of Heavy Oil Viscosity Under Reservoir Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gabitto, Jorge; Barrufet, Maria

    2002-03-11

    The main objective of this research was to propose a simple procedure to predict heavy oil viscosity at reservoir conditions as a function of easily determined physical properties. This procedure will avoid costly experimental testing and reduce uncertainty in designing thermal recovery processes.

  17. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  18. Engine wear and lubricating oil contamination from plant oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Darcey, C.L.; LePori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1982-12-01

    Engine disassembly with wear measurements, and lubricating oil analysis were used to determine wear rates on a one cylinder diesel engine. Results are reported from short duration tests on the wear rates of various levels of processed sunflower oil, a 25% blend with diesel fuel, and processed cottonseed oil.

  19. Neutron scattering studies of crude oil viscosity reduction with electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Enpeng

    data that contains information on the properties of a sample. We can analyze the data acquisition from the detectors and get the information on size, shape, etc. This is why we choose SANS as our research tool. The world's top energy problems are security concerns, climate concerns and environmental concerns. So far, oil (37%) is still the No.1 fuel in world energy consumption (Oil 37%, Coal 25%, Bio-fuels 0.2%, Gas 23%, Nuclear 6%, Biomass 4%, Hydro 3%, Solar heat 0.5%, Wind 0.3%, Geothermal 0.2% and Solar photovoltaic 0.04%). Even more and more alternative energy: bio-fuels, nuclear and solar energy will be used in the future, but nuclear energy has a major safety issue after the Japanese Fukushima I nuclear accidents, and other energies contribute only a small percent. Thus, it is very important to improve the efficiency and reduce the population of petroleum products. There is probably one thing that we can all agree on: the world's energy reserves are not unlimited. Even though it is limited, only 30% of the oil reserves is conventional oil, so in order to produce, transport, and refine of heavy crude oil without wasting huge amounts of energy, we need to reduce the viscosity without using high temperature stream heating or diluent; As more and more off-shore oil is exploited at that we need reduce the viscosity without increasing temperature. The whole petroleum consumed in U.S. in 2009 was 18.7 million barrels per day and 35% of all the energy we consumed. Diesel is one of the very important fossil fuel which is about 20% of petroleum consumed. Most of the world's oils are non-conventional, 15 % of heavy oil, 25 % of extra heavy oil, 30 % of the oil sands and bitumen, and the conventional oil reserves is only 30%. The oil sand is closely related to the heavy crude oil, the main difference being that oil sands generally do not flow at all. For efficient energy production and conservation, how to lower the liquated fuel and crude oil viscosity is a very important

  20. Volatility of synthetic oils in engines

    SciTech Connect

    Nepogod'ev, A.V.; Mitin, I.V.; Vipper, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    This article compares the volatilities of mineral and synthetic oils in automotive and tractor engines, and defines the conditions under which synthetic oils have substantial advantages in volatility over the polymer-compounded mineral oils. The oil vaporization rates in a Petter W-1 single-cylinder carburetor engine is measured by means of a specially developed procedure. The oils used to lubricate automotive and tractor engines in the northern and arctic regions consist of a lowviscosity mineral oil base stock compounded with a polymeric additive. It is determined that the main factor influencing the vaporization of oils in the engine is the distillation range of the oil; that synthetic and mineral oils that are similar in distillation range will vaporize at approximately the same rate; that the rate of oil vaporization depends to a considerable degree on the cylinder temperature; that the advantages of synthetic and semisynthetic oils in volatility in comparison with polymer-compounded mineral oils, will be greater for higher cylinder temperatures; and that the use of synthetic components is advisable in 5W/30 and 10W/30 oils intended for use in engines with upper cylinder temperatures above 150/sup 0/C and in 5W/30, 10W/30, and 15W/30 oils intended for use in engines with upper cylinder temperatures of 180-190/sup 0/C.

  1. Bare Shear Viscosity and Anomalous Fall Rate of Oil Droplets in Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varley, Rodney

    2011-11-01

    Experimental evidence of Kim and Fedele (1982) indicates a breakdown of the Millikan Law for the fall rate of oil droplets in Nitrogen gas over a pressure range of 1-15 atm. The discrepancy is most pronounced for smallest, 0.1 micron radius droplets for which the fall rate increases with pressure. The opposite behavior was observed by Millikan with larger drops in air of pressure at most one atm. We explain these results by arguing that the particle's motion, in particular Stokes' drag formula, is determined by the so-called bare shear viscosity which applies to micro fluid flows. This is in contrast with the usual theory which uses a renormalized shear viscosity and which is well approximated by the Enskog value. A mode coupling formula for the bare shear viscosity is discussed and a graphical comparison is made with the experimental results. Basically an increase in gas pressure produces a decrease in the bare shear viscosity and thus the fall rate increases. The idea that the shear viscosity is smaller for micro flows is consistent with the intuitive belief that on small enough spatial and time scales, fluid flows are conservative without dissipation.

  2. A comprehensive viscosity model for micro magnetic particle dispersed in silicone oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Im Doo; Kim, Moobum; Park, Seong Jin

    2016-04-01

    Magnetorheological behavior of micro magnetic particle dispersed in silicone oil has been characterized by a multiplied form of phenomenological models taking the effect of shear rate, powder volume fraction, temperature and magnetic flux density. Magnetorheological fluid samples with seven different particle volume fraction were prepared by adding ferrite particles in silicone base oil and their shear viscosity of fluid samples were measured under three different temperatures (40 °C, 70 °C, and 110 °C) and ten different magnetic flux density (0-100 mT). The fluid had an upper limit to the increase of viscosity under the effect of external magnetic field and the saturation values were dependent on the operating temperature, shear rate and volume fraction of magnetic powder. The rheological behaviors have been characterized by our developed model which can be very useful for the precise control of the magnetorheological fluid.

  3. Biodegradation of asphalt by Garciaella petrolearia TERIG02 for viscosity reduction of heavy oil.

    PubMed

    Lavania, Meeta; Cheema, Simrita; Sarma, Priyangshu Manab; Mandal, Ajoy Kumar; Lal, Banwari

    2012-02-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon is an important energy resource, but it is difficult to exploit due to the presence of dominated heavy constituents such as asphaltenes. In this study, viscosity reduction of Jodhpur heavy oil (2,637 cP at 50°C) has been carried out by the biodegradation of asphalt using a bacterial strain TERIG02. TERIG02 was isolated from sea buried oil pipeline known as Mumbai Uran trunk line (MUT) located on western coast of India and identified as Garciaella petrolearia by 16S rRNA full gene sequencing. TERIG02 showed 42% viscosity reduction when asphalt along with molasses was used as a sole carbon source compared to only asphalt (37%). The viscosity reduction by asphaltene degradation has been structurally characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). This strain also shows an additional preference to degrade toxic asphalt and aromatics compounds first unlike the other known strains. All these characteristics makes TERIG02 a potential candidate for enhanced oil recovery and a solution to degrading toxic aromatic compounds.

  4. A modified approach to actively remove high viscosity silicone oil through 23-gauge cannula

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zong-Ming; Hu, Xu-Ting; Wang, Lei; Hu, Zhi-Xiang; Zhao, Pei-Quan; Chen, Ding

    2016-01-01

    AIM To report a simple approach to actively remove high viscosity silicone oil through a 23-gauge cannula via pars plana. METHODS Forty-eight eyes of 48 patients underwent silicone oil (5700 centistokes) removal (SOR) were enrolled. A section of blood transfusion set was prepared to connect a standard 23-gauge cannula and vitrectomy machine. Silicone oil was removed with suction of 500-mm Hg vacuum through the cannula. Main outcome measures were SOR duration, number of sutured sites, intraocular pressure (IOP), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and complications. RESULTS Silicone oil was successfully removed in all cases. The mean SOR time was 5.70±0.85min. Nine eyes (18.75%) needed suture partial sclerotomies. No intraoperative complications were noted. Transient hypotony (≤8 mm Hg) was seen in 3 eyes (6.25%) on postoperative day 1, but all resolved within 1wk. Retinal reattachment was achieved in all cases and no other postoperative complications were noted during 3-month following-up. BCVA at the final visit improved or stabilized in all patients comparing to the preoperative level. CONCLUSION Active removal of high viscosity silicone oil through a 23-gauge instrument cannula jointed with blood transfusion set is a practical and reliable technique when considering two sides of efficacy and safety.

  5. A modified approach to actively remove high viscosity silicone oil through 23-gauge cannula

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zong-Ming; Hu, Xu-Ting; Wang, Lei; Hu, Zhi-Xiang; Zhao, Pei-Quan; Chen, Ding

    2016-01-01

    AIM To report a simple approach to actively remove high viscosity silicone oil through a 23-gauge cannula via pars plana. METHODS Forty-eight eyes of 48 patients underwent silicone oil (5700 centistokes) removal (SOR) were enrolled. A section of blood transfusion set was prepared to connect a standard 23-gauge cannula and vitrectomy machine. Silicone oil was removed with suction of 500-mm Hg vacuum through the cannula. Main outcome measures were SOR duration, number of sutured sites, intraocular pressure (IOP), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and complications. RESULTS Silicone oil was successfully removed in all cases. The mean SOR time was 5.70±0.85min. Nine eyes (18.75%) needed suture partial sclerotomies. No intraoperative complications were noted. Transient hypotony (≤8 mm Hg) was seen in 3 eyes (6.25%) on postoperative day 1, but all resolved within 1wk. Retinal reattachment was achieved in all cases and no other postoperative complications were noted during 3-month following-up. BCVA at the final visit improved or stabilized in all patients comparing to the preoperative level. CONCLUSION Active removal of high viscosity silicone oil through a 23-gauge instrument cannula jointed with blood transfusion set is a practical and reliable technique when considering two sides of efficacy and safety. PMID:27672594

  6. Measurement of temperature-dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity of alumina and titania thermal oil nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieśliński, Janusz T.; Ronewicz, Katarzyna; Smoleń, Sławomir

    2015-12-01

    In this study the results of simultaneous measurements of dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and pH of two nanofluids, i.e., thermal oil/Al2O3 and thermal oil/TiO2 are presented. Thermal oil is selected as a base liquid because of possible application in ORC systems as an intermediate heating agent. Nanoparticles were tested at the concentration of 0.1%, 1%, and 5% by weight within temperature range from 20 °C to 60 °C. Measurement devices were carefully calibrated by comparison obtained results for pure base liquid (thermal oil) with manufacturer's data. The results obtained for tested nanofluids were compared with predictions made by use of existing models for liquid/solid particles mixtures.

  7. Chemical and Microbial Characterization of North Slope Viscous Oils to Assess Viscosity Reduction and Enhanced Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Mary Beth Leigh

    2008-12-31

    A large proportion of Alaska North Slope (ANS) oil exists in the form of viscous deposits, which cannot be produced entirely using conventional methods. Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a promising approach for improving oil recovery for viscous deposits. MEOR can be achieved using either ex situ approaches such as flooding with microbial biosurfactants or injection of exogenous surfactant-producing microbes into the reservoir, or by in situ approaches such as biostimulation of indigenous surfactant-producing microbes in the oil. Experimental work was performed to analyze the potential application of MEOR to the ANS oil fields through both ex situ and in situ approaches. A microbial formulation containing a known biosurfactant-producing strain of Bacillus licheniformis was developed in order to simulate MEOR. Coreflooding experiments were performed to simulate MEOR and quantify the incremental oil recovery. Properties like viscosity, density, and chemical composition of oil were monitored to propose a mechanism for oil recovery. The microbial formulation significantly increased incremental oil recovery, and molecular biological analyses indicated that the strain survived during the shut-in period. The indigenous microflora of ANS heavy oils was investigated to characterize the microbial communities and test for surfactant producers that are potentially useful for biostimulation. Bacteria that reduce the surface tension of aqueous media were isolated from one of the five ANS oils (Milne Point) and from rock oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), and may prove valuable for ex situ MEOR strategies. The total bacterial community composition of the six different oils was evaluated using molecular genetic tools, which revealed that each oil tested possessed a unique fingerprint indicating a diverse bacterial community and varied assemblages. Collectively we have demonstrated that there is potential for in situ and ex situ MEOR of ANS oils. Future work

  8. Preparation and Viscosity of Biodiesel from New and Used Vegetable Oil: An Inquiry-Based Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Nathan R.; Casey, John Patrick; Brown, Earlene D.; Oneyma, Ezenwa; Donaghy, Kelley J.

    2006-01-01

    A synthesis is developed to make biodiesel from vegetable oils such as soybean, sunflower, and corn oil, as an exercise in the laboratory. Viscosity measurements were used to gain an understanding of an intermolecular property of the biodiesel and that has limited the implementation of biodiesel on a wide scale basis, solidification at low…

  9. Clerget 100 hp heavy-oil engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leglise, Pierre

    1931-01-01

    A complete technical description of the Clerget heavy-oil engine is presented along with the general characteristics. The general characteristics are: 9 cylinders, bore 120 mm, stroke 130 mm, four-stroke cycle engine, rated power limited to 100 hp at 1800 rpm; weight 228 kg; propeller with direct drive and air cooling. Moving parts, engine block, and lubrication are all presented.

  10. Skin friction measurements by a new nonintrusive double-laser-beam oil viscosity balance technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, D. J.; Higuchi, H.

    1980-01-01

    A portable dual-laser-beam interferometer that nonintrusively measures skin friction by monitoring the thickness change of an oil film subject to shear stress is described. The method is an advance over past versions in that the troublesome and error-introducing need to measure the distance to the oil leading edge and the starting time for the oil flow has been eliminated. The validity of the method was verified by measuring oil viscosity in the laboratory, and then using those results to measure skin friction beneath the turbulent boundary layer in a low-speed wind tunnel. The dual-laser-beam skin friction measurements are compared with Preston tube measurements, with mean velocity profile data in a 'law-of-the-wall' coordinate system, and with computations based on turbulent boundary-layer theory. Excellent agreement is found in all cases. This validation and the aforementioned improvements appear to make the present form of the instrument usable to measure skin friction reliably and nonintrusively in a wide range of flow situations in which previous methods are not practical.

  11. Neutron scattering studies of crude oil viscosity reduction with electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Enpeng

    data that contains information on the properties of a sample. We can analyze the data acquisition from the detectors and get the information on size, shape, etc. This is why we choose SANS as our research tool. The world's top energy problems are security concerns, climate concerns and environmental concerns. So far, oil (37%) is still the No.1 fuel in world energy consumption (Oil 37%, Coal 25%, Bio-fuels 0.2%, Gas 23%, Nuclear 6%, Biomass 4%, Hydro 3%, Solar heat 0.5%, Wind 0.3%, Geothermal 0.2% and Solar photovoltaic 0.04%). Even more and more alternative energy: bio-fuels, nuclear and solar energy will be used in the future, but nuclear energy has a major safety issue after the Japanese Fukushima I nuclear accidents, and other energies contribute only a small percent. Thus, it is very important to improve the efficiency and reduce the population of petroleum products. There is probably one thing that we can all agree on: the world's energy reserves are not unlimited. Even though it is limited, only 30% of the oil reserves is conventional oil, so in order to produce, transport, and refine of heavy crude oil without wasting huge amounts of energy, we need to reduce the viscosity without using high temperature stream heating or diluent; As more and more off-shore oil is exploited at that we need reduce the viscosity without increasing temperature. The whole petroleum consumed in U.S. in 2009 was 18.7 million barrels per day and 35% of all the energy we consumed. Diesel is one of the very important fossil fuel which is about 20% of petroleum consumed. Most of the world's oils are non-conventional, 15 % of heavy oil, 25 % of extra heavy oil, 30 % of the oil sands and bitumen, and the conventional oil reserves is only 30%. The oil sand is closely related to the heavy crude oil, the main difference being that oil sands generally do not flow at all. For efficient energy production and conservation, how to lower the liquated fuel and crude oil viscosity is a very important

  12. The role of viscosity estimation for oil-in-gelatin phantom in shear wave based ultrasound elastography.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Dong, Changfeng; Yin, Yin; Chen, Xin; Guo, Yanrong; Zheng, Yi; Shen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Tianfu; Zhang, Xinyu; Chen, Siping

    2015-02-01

    Shear wave based ultrasound elastography utilizes mechanical excitation or acoustic radiation force to induce shear waves in deep tissue. The tissue response is monitored to obtain elasticity information about the tissue. During the past two decades, tissue elasticity has been extensively studied and has been used in clinical disease diagnosis. However, biological soft tissues are viscoelastic in nature. Therefore, they should be simultaneously characterized in terms of elasticity and viscosity. In this study, two shear wave-based elasticity imaging methods, shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) and acoustic radiation force impulsive (ARFI) imaging, were compared. The discrepancy between the measurements obtained by the two methods was analyzed, and the role of viscosity was investigated. To this end, four types of gelatin phantoms containing 0%, 20%, 30% and 40% castor oil were fabricated to mimic different viscosities of soft tissue. For the SDUV method, the shear elasticity μ1 was 3.90 ± 0.27 kPa, 4.49 ± 0.16 kPa, 2.41 ± 0.33 kPa and 1.31 ± 0.09 kPa; and the shear viscosity μ2 was 1.82 ± 0.31 Pa•s, 2.41 ± 0.35 Pa•s, 2.65 ± 0.13 Pa•s and 2.89 ± 0.14 Pa•s for 0%, 20%, 30% and 40% oil, respectively in both cases. For the ARFI measurements, the shear elasticity μ was 7.30 ± 0.20 kPa, 8.20 ± 0.31 kPa, 7.42 ± 0.21 kPa and 5.90 ± 0.36 kPa for 0%, 20%, 30% and 40% oil, respectively. The SDUV results demonstrated that the elasticity first increased from 0% to 20% oil and then decreased for the 30% and 40% oil. The viscosity decreased consistently as the concentration of castor oil increased from 0% to 40%. The elasticity measured by ARFI showed the same trend as that of the SDUV but exceeded the results measured by SDUV. To clearly validate the impact of viscosity on the elasticity estimation, an independent measurement of the elasticity and viscosity by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was conducted on these four types of gelatin

  13. Effect of the Viscosity of Silicone Oil on the Aggregation Behavior of C:F Clusters on a Silicone Oil Liquid Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yan-Hong; Ye, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Hui-Min; Cui, Jin

    2011-04-01

    We investigate the effect of silicone oil viscosity on the aggregation behavior of C:F clusters deposited on silicone oil liquid substrates with viscous coefficients of 100, 350 and 500mm2/s by C4F8 dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasma. The aggregated C:F clusters all exhibit a branch-like fractal structure. However, the fractal dimension decreases from 1.67 to 1.45 with the silicone oil viscous coefficient increasing from 100mm2/s to 500 mm2/s. Owing to the fractal dimension of 1.67 and 1.45, corresponding to the diffusion-limited-aggregation (DLA) model and the cluster-cluster-aggregation (CCA) model respectively, the results show that the increase of silicone oil viscosity can lead to the change of C:F clusters aggregating on a silicone oil liquid substrate from DLA to CCA growth.

  14. Ethylene copolymer viscosity index improver dispersant additive useful in oil compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.Y.

    1989-02-07

    A composition useful as an oil additive is described comprising reaction product of: (i) reaction product of (a) oil soluble ethylene copolymer comprising from about 15 to 90 wt. % ethylene and about 10 to 85 wt. % of at least one C/sub 3/ to C/sub 28/ alpha-olefin, the copolymer having a number average molecular weight within a range of about 10,000 to 500,000, grafted with ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid material having 1 to 2 carboxylic acid groups or anhydride group, (b) at least one polyamine selected from the group consisting of poly(alkylene amines) and poly(oxyalkylene amines) having at least two primary amine groups, and (c) at least one carboxylic acid material selected from long chain hydrocarbyl substituted succinic anhydride or acid having about 50 to 400 carbons in the hydrocarbyl; and (ii) a viscosity stabilizing effective amount of at least one C/sub 12/ to about C/sub 16/ aliphatic hydrocarbyl substituted succinic anhydride.

  15. Out-of-plane piezoelectric microresonator and oscillator circuit for monitoring engine oil contamination with diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, J.; Manzaneque, T.; Ruiz-Díez, V.; Jiménez-Márquez, F.; Kucera, M.; Pfusterschmied, G.; Wistrela, E.; Schmid, U.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    Real-time monitoring of the physical properties of liquids is an important subject in the automotive industry. Contamination of lubricating oil by diesel soot has a significant impact on engine wear. Resonant microstructures are regarded to be a precise and compact solution for tracking the viscosity and density of lubricant oils. Since the measurement of pure shear forces do not allow an independent determination of the density and viscosity, two out-of-plane modes for the monitoring of oil dilution with diesel have been selected. The first one (12-mode) is working at 51 kHz and the second mode (14-mode) at 340 kHz. Two parameters were measured: the quality factor and the resonance frequency from which the viscosity and density of the fluids under test can be determined, requiring only a small amount of test liquid. A PLL-based oscillator circuit was implemented based on each resonator. Our results demonstrate the performance of the resonator in oils with viscosity up to 90 mPa·s. The quality factor measured at 25°C was 7 for the 12-mode and 19 for the 14-mode. A better resolution in density and viscosity was obtained for the 14-mode, showing a resolution of 3.92·10-5 g/ml for the density and 1.27·10-1 mPa·s for the viscosity, in pure lubricant oil SAE 0W30. An alternative tracking system, based on a discrete oscillator circuit, was tested with the same resonator, showing a comparable stability and supporting our approach.

  16. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    DOE PAGES

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are usedmore » as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.« less

  17. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    SciTech Connect

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are used as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.

  18. Relationships among flash point, carbon residue, viscosity and some impurities in biodiesel after ethanolysis of rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Cernoch, Michal; Hájek, Martin; Skopal, Frantisek

    2010-10-01

    Many samples of rapeseed oil ethyl ester were prepared by alkaline-catalyzed transesterification at various conditions (reaction time, temperature, amount of catalyst, the molar ratio of ethanol to oil, the rotations of a disperser and the purification by water). The concentrations of the key impurities for biodiesel quality (the concentrations of monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerol, ethanol, free fatty acids, water) and some qualitative parameters (flash point, carbon residue, kinematics viscosity at 40 degrees C) were determined and then the relationships among them were found out. The relationships were characterized by the linear or non-linear statistical models. The found models enable the better understanding of the significance of the qualitative parameters and estimate them from the concentrations of impurities. The temperature dependence was also measured in the case of the viscosity of ethyl ester and used rapeseed oil. PMID:20537532

  19. Carboxymethylated lignins with low surface tension toward low viscosity and highly stable emulsions of crude bitumen and refined oils.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Ogunkoya, Dolanimi; Fang, Tiegang; Willoughby, Julie; Rojas, Orlando J

    2016-11-15

    Kraft and organosolv lignins were subjected to carboxymethylation to produce fractions that were soluble in water, displayed a minimum surface tension as low as 34mN/m (25°C) and a critical aggregation concentration of ∼1.5wt%. The carboxymethylated lignins (CML), which were characterized in terms of their degree of substitution ((31)P NMR), elemental composition, and molecular weight (GPC), were found suitable in the formulation of emulsions with bitumens of ultra-high viscosity, such as those from the Canadian oil sands. Remarkably, the interfacial features of the CML enabled fuel emulsions that were synthesized in a very broad range of internal phase content (30-70%). Cryo-replica transmission electron microscopy, which was used here the first time to assess the morphology of the lignin-based emulsions, revealed the droplets of the emulsion stabilized with the modified lignin. The observed drop size (diameters<2μm) was confirmed by light scattering, which revealed a normal size distribution. Such characteristics led to stable emulsified systems that are amenable for a wide range of applications. Emulsification with CML afforded bitumen emulsions with very high colloidal stability (no change was noted for over one month) and with a strong shear thinning behavior. Both features indicate excellent prospects for storage, transport and spraying, which are relevant in operations for power generation, which also take advantage of the high heating value of the emulsion components. The ability of CML to stabilize emulsions and to contribute in their combustion was tested with light fuels (kerosene, diesel, and jet fuel) after formulation of high internal phase systems (70% oil) that enabled operation of a fuel engine. A significant finding is that under certain conditions and compared to the respective pure fuel, combustion of the O/W emulsions stabilized by CML presented lower NOx and CO emissions and maintained a relatively high combustion efficiency. The results

  20. Carboxymethylated lignins with low surface tension toward low viscosity and highly stable emulsions of crude bitumen and refined oils.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Ogunkoya, Dolanimi; Fang, Tiegang; Willoughby, Julie; Rojas, Orlando J

    2016-11-15

    Kraft and organosolv lignins were subjected to carboxymethylation to produce fractions that were soluble in water, displayed a minimum surface tension as low as 34mN/m (25°C) and a critical aggregation concentration of ∼1.5wt%. The carboxymethylated lignins (CML), which were characterized in terms of their degree of substitution ((31)P NMR), elemental composition, and molecular weight (GPC), were found suitable in the formulation of emulsions with bitumens of ultra-high viscosity, such as those from the Canadian oil sands. Remarkably, the interfacial features of the CML enabled fuel emulsions that were synthesized in a very broad range of internal phase content (30-70%). Cryo-replica transmission electron microscopy, which was used here the first time to assess the morphology of the lignin-based emulsions, revealed the droplets of the emulsion stabilized with the modified lignin. The observed drop size (diameters<2μm) was confirmed by light scattering, which revealed a normal size distribution. Such characteristics led to stable emulsified systems that are amenable for a wide range of applications. Emulsification with CML afforded bitumen emulsions with very high colloidal stability (no change was noted for over one month) and with a strong shear thinning behavior. Both features indicate excellent prospects for storage, transport and spraying, which are relevant in operations for power generation, which also take advantage of the high heating value of the emulsion components. The ability of CML to stabilize emulsions and to contribute in their combustion was tested with light fuels (kerosene, diesel, and jet fuel) after formulation of high internal phase systems (70% oil) that enabled operation of a fuel engine. A significant finding is that under certain conditions and compared to the respective pure fuel, combustion of the O/W emulsions stabilized by CML presented lower NOx and CO emissions and maintained a relatively high combustion efficiency. The results

  1. Carcinogenic potential of gasoline and diesel engine oils.

    PubMed

    McKee, R H; Plutnick, R T

    1989-10-01

    Used gasoline engine oils are carcinogenic in mouse skin and mutagenic in Salmonella. The toxicity of fresh gasoline engine oils and that of fresh and used diesel engine oils are less well defined. The present studies examined the dermal carcinogenic potential of a series of fresh and used oils from both gasoline and diesel engines. The used oils represented a variety of operating conditions. The objective of the study was to assess the potential carcinogenic hazards associated with exposure to these materials. The majority of the used gasoline engine oils tested were carcinogenic although one oil, collected after a relatively short drainage interval, was inactive in the dermal carcinogenesis bioassay. Additionally, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were elevated in the used oils in comparison to the fresh oils. The fresh gasoline engine oils and both the fresh and used diesel engine oil samples were noncarcinogenic, and there was little evidence of elevated PAH levels in the used diesel engine oils. The carcinogenic potency of used oils from gasoline engines was related to drainage interval, but other factors such as contribution of the fuel due to blowby and driving cycle may also have been important. The used diesel engine oils were not carcinogenic even after extended use.

  2. Viscosity Index Improvers and Thickeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, R. L.; Kinker, B. G.

    The viscosity index of an oil or an oil formulation is an important physical parameter. Viscosity index improvers, VIIs, are comprised of five main classes of polymers: polymethylmethacrylates (PMAs), olefin copolymers (OCPs), hydrogenated poly(styrene-co-butadiene or isoprene) (HSD/SIP/HRIs), esterified polystyrene-co-maleic anhydride (SPEs) and a combination of PMA/OCP systems. The chemistry, manufacture, dispersancy and utility of each class are described. The comparative functions, properties, thickening ability, dispersancy and degradation of VIIs are discussed. Permanent and temporary shear thinning of VII-thickened formulations are described and compared. The end-use performance and choice of VI improvers is discussed in terms of low- and high-temperature viscosities, journal bearing oil film thickness, fuel economy, oil consumption, high-temperature pumping efficiency and deposit control. Discussion of future developments concludes that VI improvers will evolve to meet new challenges of increased thermal-oxidative degradation from increased engine operating temperatures, different base stocks of either synthetic base oils or vegetable oil-based, together with alcohol- or vegetable oil-based fuels. VI improvers must also evolve to deal with higher levels of fuel dilution and new types of sludge and also enhanced low-temperature requirements.

  3. Study on production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil and the performance and emission of a diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, N. F. M.; Hafidzal, M. H. M.; Shamsuddin, S. A.; Ismail, M. S.; Hashim, A. H.

    2015-05-01

    The use of nonedible oil as a feedstock is needed to replace edible oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. This nonedible oils in diesel engine however leads to low performance and higher emission due to its high viscosity. The characteristics of the fuel can be improved through transesterification process. The yield of biodiesel from Jatropha oil using potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration of 1%, reaction temperature 60°C, reaction time 40 minutes and molar ratio methanol to oil 6:1 was 70.1% from the lab scale. The experimental study on the performances and emissions of a diesel engine is carried out using the Jatropha biodiesel produced from the transesterification process and compared with pure diesel. Results show that B20 has closer performance to diesel and lower emission compared to B5 and diesel in terms of CO2 and HC.

  4. Real-time measurement of engine oil economy

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.W.; Korniski, T.; Calvin, A.D.; Jary, E.H.

    1987-01-01

    A coulometric SO/sub 2/ monitor has been developed to measure SO/sub 2/ generated from combustion of S in oil to determine engine oil consumption. Sulfur-free fuel is used to eliminate background levels of SO/sub 2/. Addition of an SO/sub 2/ standard gas to the engine during test insures accurate normalization of sampling system flows and quantitative measurement of engine oil economy. Precision of the SO/sub 2/ microcoulometer technique was better than +-8%. The SO/sub 2/ microcoulometer is used during steady state engine operation, and may be used in determining oil consumption from individual cylinders. Existence of engine oil consumption via an aerosol mechanism is investigated and measured. Effects of engine operating temperature and positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) on engine oil economy are given.

  5. Viscosity measurements of CO2-in-water foam with dodecyl polypropoxy sulfate surfactants for enhanced oil recovery application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramudita, Ria Ayu; Ryoo, Won Sun

    2016-08-01

    Apparent viscosities of CO2-in-water foams were measured in a wide range of shear rate from 50 to 105 inverse second for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) application. The CO2-in-water dispersions, made of 50:50 weight proportions of CO2 and water with 1 wt.% surfactant concentration, were prepared in high-pressure recirculation apparatus under pressure where CO2 density becomes 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9 g/mL at each temperature of 35, 45, and 55°C. The surfactants used for the foam generation were sodium dodecyl polypropoxy sulfates with average propoxylation degrees of 4.7 and 6.2. The foam viscosity showed shear thinning behaviors with power-law indices ranging from 0.80 to 0.85, and approached a Newtonian regime in the lower shear rate range at several tens of inverse second. Zero-shear viscosity values projected from experimental data based on Ellis model were as high as 57.4 mPa·s and enough to control the mobility of water and CO2 in oil reservoirs.

  6. 7 CFR 3201.102 - Engine crankcase oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Designated Items § 3201.102 Engine crankcase oils. (a) Definition. Lubricating products formulated to provide lubrication and wear protection for four-cycle gasoline or diesel engines. (b) Minimum biobased content. The... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine crankcase oils. 3201.102 Section...

  7. 7 CFR 2902.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 2902.25 Section 2902.25... Items § 2902.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle engines to... least 34 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as...

  8. 7 CFR 2902.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 2902.25 Section 2902.25... Items § 2902.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle engines to... least 34 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as...

  9. Characterization of lubrication oil emissions from aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhong; Liscinsky, David S; Winstead, Edward L; True, Bruce S; Timko, Michael T; Bhargava, Anuj; Herndon, Scott C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Anderson, Bruce E

    2010-12-15

    In this first ever study, particulate matter (PM) emitted from the lubrication system overboard breather vent for two different models of aircraft engines has been systematically characterized. Lubrication oil was confirmed as the predominant component of the emitted particulate matter based upon the characteristic mass spectrum of the pure oil. Total particulate mass and size distributions of the emitted oil are also investigated by several high-sensitivity aerosol characterization instruments. The emission index (EI) of lubrication oil at engine idle is in the range of 2-12 mg kg(-1) and increases with engine power. The chemical composition of the oil droplets is essentially independent of engine thrust, suggesting that engine oil does not undergo thermally driven chemical transformations during the ∼4 h test window. Volumetric mean diameter is around 250-350 nm for all engine power conditions with a slight power dependence.

  10. Results of the IEA Round Robin on Viscosity and Aging of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils: Long-Term Tests and Repeatability

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Oasmaa, Anja; Meier, Dietrich; Preto, Fernando; Bridgwater, Anthony V.

    2012-11-06

    An international round robin study of the viscosity and aging of fast pyrolysis bio-oil has been undertaken recently and this work is an outgrowth from that effort. Two bio-oil samples were distributed to the laboratories for aging tests and extended viscosity studies. The accelerated aging test was defined as the change in viscosity of a sealed sample of bio-oil held for 24 h at 80 °C. The test was repeated 10 times over consecutive days to determine the repeatability of the method. Other bio-oil samples were placed in storage at three temperatures, 21 °C, 4 °C and -17 °C for a period up to a year to evaluate the change in viscosity. The variation in the results of the aging test was shown to be low within a given laboratory. Storage of bio-oil under refrigeration can minimize the amount of change in viscosity. The accelerated aging test gives a measure of change similar to that of 6-12 months of storage at room temperature. These results can be helpful in setting standards for use of bio-oil, which is just coming into the marketplace.

  11. Quality control of automotive engine oils with mass-sensitive chemical sensors--QCMs and molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Dickert, F L; Forth, P; Lieberzeit, P A; Voigt, G

    2000-04-01

    Molecularly imprinted polyurethanes were used as sensor materials for monitoring the degradation of automotive engine oils. Imprinting with characteristic oils permits the analysis of these complex mixtures without accurately knowing their composition. Mass-sensitive quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) coated with such layers exhibit mass effects in addition to frequency shifts caused by viscosity, which can be compensated by an uncoated quartz or a non-imprint layer. Incorporation of degradation products into the imprinted coatings is a bulk phenomenon, which is proven by variation of the sensor layer height. Therefore, the resulting sensor effects are determined by the degradation products in the oil. PMID:11227411

  12. Quality control of automotive engine oils with mass-sensitive chemical sensors--QCMs and molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Dickert, F L; Forth, P; Lieberzeit, P A; Voigt, G

    2000-04-01

    Molecularly imprinted polyurethanes were used as sensor materials for monitoring the degradation of automotive engine oils. Imprinting with characteristic oils permits the analysis of these complex mixtures without accurately knowing their composition. Mass-sensitive quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) coated with such layers exhibit mass effects in addition to frequency shifts caused by viscosity, which can be compensated by an uncoated quartz or a non-imprint layer. Incorporation of degradation products into the imprinted coatings is a bulk phenomenon, which is proven by variation of the sensor layer height. Therefore, the resulting sensor effects are determined by the degradation products in the oil.

  13. Comparison of quartz tuning forks and AlN-based extensional microresonators for viscosity measurements in oil/fuel mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, J.; Manzaneque, T.; Hernando-García, J.; Vazquez, J.; Ababneh, A.; Seidel, H.; Lapuerta, M.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2013-05-01

    In-situ monitoring of the physical properties of liquids is of great interest in the automotive industry. For example, lubricants are subject to dilution with diesel fuel as a consequence of late-injection processes, which are necessary for regenerating diesel particulate filters. This dilution can be determined by tracking the viscosity and the density of the lubricant. Here we report the test of two in-plane movement based resonators to explore their capability to monitor oil dilution with diesel and biodiesel. One of the resonators is the commercially available millimeter-sized quartz tuning fork, working at 32.7 kHz. The second resonator is a state-of-the-art micron-sized AlN-based rectangular plate, actuated in the first extensional mode in the MHz range. Electrical impedance measurements were carried out to characterize the performance of the structures in various liquid media in a wide range of viscosities. These measurements were completed with the development of low-cost electronic circuits to track the resonance frequency and the quality factor automatically, these two parameters allow to obtain the viscosity of various fluids under investigation, as in the case of dilution of lubricant SAE 15W40 and biodiesel.

  14. Extended service 5w-40 motor oil

    SciTech Connect

    Schiemen, R.D.

    1983-09-06

    An extended drain 5W-40 motor oil composition for internal combustion engines comprises a base oil component of one or more solvent extracted mineral oils and a high refractory mineral oil, a V.I. improver, and preferably other suitable lube oil additives. The finished oil formulation has characteristics of minimal viscosity at low temperatures, low volatility at higher temperatures, and stable viscosity over extended use.

  15. Recycled waste oil: A fuel for medium speed diesel engines?

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A.B.L.; Poynton, W.A.; Howard, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the exploratory engine trials that Mirrlees Blackstone has undertaken to investigate the effect of fueling an engine using waste oil derived from used lubricants. The effect on the engine`s mechanical components, and thermal performance are examined, and the steps taken to overcome problems are discussed. The proposed engine is sited within the Research and Development facilities, housed separately from the manufacturing plant. The unit is already capable of operating on two different types of fuel with single engine set up. It is a 3 cylinder, 4-stroke turbocharged direct injection engine mounted on an underbase and it operates at 600 rpm, 15.0 bar B.M.E.P. (Brake Mean Effective Pressure). It is a mature engine, built {approximately} 20 years previously, and used for emergency stand-by duties in the company`s powerhouse. The test engine is coupled to an alternator and the electricity generated is fed to the national grid. Initial samples of treated fuel oil, analyzed by an independent oil analysis consultant, indicated that the fuel oil does not correspond to a normal fuel oil. They contained high concentrations of trace elements (i.e. calcium, phosphorus, lead, aluminum and silicon) which was consistent with sourcing from waste lubricating oils. The fuel oil was considered to be too severe for use in an engine.

  16. Therapeutic Antibody Engineering To Improve Viscosity and Phase Separation Guided by Crystal Structure.

    PubMed

    Chow, Chi-Kin; Allan, Barrett W; Chai, Qing; Atwell, Shane; Lu, Jirong

    2016-03-01

    Antibodies at high concentrations often reveal unanticipated biophysical properties suboptimal for therapeutic development. The purpose of this work was to explore the use of point mutations based on crystal structure information to improve antibody physical properties such as viscosity and phase separation (LLPS) at high concentrations. An IgG4 monoclonal antibody (Mab4) that exhibited high viscosity and phase separation at high concentration was used as a model system. Guided by the crystal structure, four CDR point mutants were made to evaluate the role of hydrophobic and charge interactions on solution behavior. Surprisingly and unpredictably, two of the charge mutants, R33G and N35E, showed a reduction in viscosity and a lower propensity to form LLPS at high concentration compared to the wild-type (WT), while a third charge mutant S28K showed an increased propensity to form LLPS compared to the WT. A fourth mutant, F102H, had reduced hydrophobicity, but unchanged viscosity and phase separation behavior. We further evaluated the correlation of various biophysical measurements including second virial coefficient (A2), interaction parameter (kD), weight-average molecular weight (WAMW), and hydrodynamic diameters (DH), at relatively low protein concentration (4 to 15 mg/mL) to physical properties, such as viscosity and liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), at high concentration. Surprisingly, kD measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS) at low antibody concentration correlated better with viscosity and phase separation than did A2 for Mab4. Our results suggest that the high viscosity and phase separation observed at high concentration for Mab4 are mainly driven by charge and not hydrophobicity.

  17. Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average emissions of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.

  18. Plant oils as applied to spark ignition engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hoki, M.; Liljedahl, J.B.; Takeda, S.

    1983-12-01

    Eucalyptus and orange oil blended with gasoline were used to find their burning characteristics and the effect upon engine performance. The appropriate ignition timing for the eucalyptus oil blend fuel for optimum engine performance was investigated as well as the antiknock quality of the fuel.

  19. 7 CFR 3201.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 3201.25 Section 3201.25... Designated Items § 3201.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle... of at least 34 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in...

  20. 7 CFR 3201.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 3201.25 Section 3201.25... Designated Items § 3201.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle... of at least 34 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in...

  1. 7 CFR 3201.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 3201.25 Section 3201.25... Designated Items § 3201.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle... of at least 34 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in...

  2. Monitoring of the Physical and Chemical Properties of a Gasoline Engine Oil during Its Usage

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Behnam; Semnani, Abolfazl; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza; Shakoori Langeroodi, Hamid; Hakim Davood, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of a mineral-based gasoline engine oil have been monitored at 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 3500, 6000, 8500, and 11500 kilometer of operation. Tracing has been performed by inductively coupled plasma and some other techniques. At each series of measurements, the concentrations of twenty four elements as well as physical properties such as: viscosity at 40 and 100°C; viscosity index; flash point; pour point; specific gravity; color; total acid and base numbers; water content have been determined. The results are indicative of the decreasing trend in concentration of additive elements and increasing in concentration for wear elements. Different trends have been observed for various physical properties. The possible reasons for variations in physical and chemical properties have been discussed. PMID:22567569

  3. Monitoring of the Physical and Chemical Properties of a Gasoline Engine Oil during Its Usage.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Behnam; Semnani, Abolfazl; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza; Shakoori Langeroodi, Hamid; Hakim Davood, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of a mineral-based gasoline engine oil have been monitored at 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 3500, 6000, 8500, and 11500 kilometer of operation. Tracing has been performed by inductively coupled plasma and some other techniques. At each series of measurements, the concentrations of twenty four elements as well as physical properties such as: viscosity at 40 and 100°C; viscosity index; flash point; pour point; specific gravity; color; total acid and base numbers; water content have been determined. The results are indicative of the decreasing trend in concentration of additive elements and increasing in concentration for wear elements. Different trends have been observed for various physical properties. The possible reasons for variations in physical and chemical properties have been discussed.

  4. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2016-07-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  5. Orange oil and its application to spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, S.

    1982-12-01

    Orange oil can be extracted from the peel of citrus. In Japan the production of orange oil is about 2000 tons per year. No orange oil has been however used for any specific purpose. The main ingredient of orange oil consists of d-limonen. About 0.6-1.0% oil can be extracted from the peel of ''Unshu orange'', which is a kind of typical Japanese tangerine. Orange oil has 106-140 research octane number which is good for running the CFR engine. The flash point of orange oil measured by Pensky-Martens method was at 56/sup 0/C. For the use of orange oil only as fuel without blending, there was found to be some difficulty in engine startability under cold conditions.

  6. Effect of emulsifier and viscosity on oil separation in ready-to-use therapeutic food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil separation is a common food quality problem in ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), the shelf-stable, peanut-based food used to treat severe acute malnutrition in home settings. Our objective was to evaluate the effect on oil separation of three emulsifiers at different concentrations in RUTF. ...

  7. Evaluation of passenger car gasoline engine oils by JASO test procedures - Report by JASO engine oil subcommittee

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, T.; Nakamura, K.; Sakamoto, K.

    1987-01-01

    Japan Automobile Standards Organization (JASO) Engine Oil Sub-committee have been working on the unification of the engine oil evaluation test procedures in Japan. The Engine Oil Sub-committee participated in the recent activity of the worldwide engine oil standardization of SAE and ISO. As one of the chain of activities, JASO tests M328, M331, and M333 (valve train wear, detergency and high temperature oxidation respectively) were conducted on the REOs of ASTM and CEC to find the correlation. The detergency tests (varnish and sludge) showed good correlation with the ASTM REOs. CEC good and poor reference oils seemed to give good results in JASO valve train wear test, while ASTM reference oils unexpectedly gave opposite results in Japanese valve train wear tests.

  8. Exploratory Characterization of a Perfluoropolyether Oil as a Possible Viscosity Standard at Deepwater Production Conditions of 533 K and 241 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    Baled, Hseen O.; Tapriyal, Deepak; Morreale, Bryan D.; Soong, Yee; Gamwo, Isaac; Krukonis, Val; Bamgbade, Babatunde A.; Wu, Yue; McHugh, Mark A.; Burgess, Ward A.; Enick, Robert M.

    2013-08-29

    DuPont’s perfluoropolyether oil Krytox® GPL 102 is a promising candidate for the high-temperature, high-pressure Deepwater viscosity standard (DVS). The preferred DVS is a thermally stable liquid that exhibits a viscosity of roughly 20 mPa∙s at 533 K and 241 MPa; a viscosity value representative of light oils found in ultra-deep formations beneath the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico. A windowed rolling-ball viscometer designed by our team is used to determine the Krytox® GPL 102 viscosity at pressures to 245 MPa and temperatures of 311 K, 372 K, and 533 K. At 533 K and 243 MPa, the Krytox® GPL 102 viscosity is (27.2±1.3)mPa∙s. The rolling-ball viscometer viscosity results for Krytox® GPL 102 are correlated with an empirical 10-parameter surface fitting function that yields an MAPD of 3.9 %. A Couette rheometer is also used to measure the Krytox® GPL 102 viscosity, yielding a value of (26.2±1)mPa∙s at 533 K and 241 MPa. The results of this exploratory study suggest that Krytox®GPL 102 is a promising candidate for the DVS, primarily because this fluoroether oil is thermally stable and exhibits a viscosity closer to the targeted value of 20 mPa ∙ s at 533 K and 241 MPa than any other fluid reported to date. Finally and nonetheless, further studies must be conducted by other researcher groups using various types of viscometers and rheometers on samples of Krytox GPL® 102 from the same lot to further establish the properties of Krytox GPL® 102.

  9. The detection of lubricating oil viscosity changes in gearbox transmission systems driven by sensorless variable speed drives using electrical supply parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abusaad, S.; Brethee, K.; Assaeh, M.; Zhang, R.; Gu, F.; Ball, A. D.

    2015-07-01

    Lubrication oil plays a decisive role to maintain a reliable and efficient operation of gear transmissions. Many offline methods have been developed to monitor the quality of lubricating oils. This work focus on developing a novel online method to diagnose oil degradation based on the measurements from power supply system to the gearbox. Experimental studies based on an 10kW industrial gearbox fed by a sensorless variable speed drive (VSD) shows that measurable changes in both static power and dynamic behaviour are different with lube oils tested. Therefore, it is feasible to use the static power feature to indicate viscosity changes at low and moderate operating speeds. In the meantime, the dynamic feature can separate viscosity changes for all different tested cases.

  10. FTIR analysis and monitoring of synthetic aviation engine oils.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mike J; Romeo, Melissa J; Rawson, Paul

    2007-10-15

    Synthetic turbine oils from military aircraft engines were analysed for antioxidant content and total acid number using infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Two-dimensional IR correlation analysis was employed to investigate and interpret observed trends in the spectra, as acid was formed and antioxidant species were depleted in the oils, as a function of aging and engine wear. Principal components and partial least squares algorithms were used and compared for the development of calibration and prediction models. Transmission IR spectrometry is demonstrated to be effective for the analysis and monitoring of synthetic aviation turbine engine oils and shown to provide rapid and accurate information as compared with traditional analytical techniques and methods.

  11. Method and apparatus for reduced oil consumption and oil deterioration in reciprocating engines

    SciTech Connect

    Beaty, K.D.

    1989-06-26

    This patent describes a method for reducing oil consumption and oil deterioration in a reciprocating engine. It comprises: providing the engine with ceramic rings and ceramic cylinder linings the rings and the linings being in direct sliding contact; providing a means for the minimal adsorption of an oil lubricant on the rings and the linings to form a lubricating boundary-film on the rings and linings; and providing a means for restriction of an excess of the oil lubricant from entering the piston ring/cylinder liner region of the engine precluding a hydrodynamic, full film lubricant layer between the rings and linings.

  12. Oil cooling system for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.; Kast, H. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A gas turbine engine fuel delivery and control system is provided with means to recirculate all fuel in excess of fuel control requirements back to aircraft fuel tank, thereby increasing the fuel pump heat sink and decreasing the pump temperature rise without the addition of valving other than that normally employed. A fuel/oil heat exchanger and associated circuitry is provided to maintain the hot engine oil in heat exchange relationship with the cool engine fuel. Where anti-icing of the fuel filter is required, means are provided to maintain the fuel temperature entering the filter at or above a minimum level to prevent freezing thereof. Fluid circuitry is provided to route hot engine oil through a plurality of heat exchangers disposed within the system to provide for selective cooling of the oil.

  13. 21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  14. Advanced airbreathing engine lubricants study with a tetraester fluid and a synthetic paraffinic oil at 492 K (425 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, E. V.; Bamberger, E. N.

    1972-01-01

    Groups of 120-mm-bore angular-contact ball bearings made from AISI M-50 steel were fatigue tested with a tetraester and a synthetic paraffinic oil at a bearing temperature of 492 K (425 F) in an air environment. Bearing life exceeded AFBMA-predicted (catalog) life by factors in excess of 4 and 10 for the tetraester and synthetic paraffinic fluids, respectively. The final viscosities after 500 hours of operation were 14 and 6 times the initial values, respectively. During the same time period, when the test oil is replaced at a rate approximating the replenishment rate in actual commerical engine usage, no significant increase in lubricant viscosity with time was observed.

  15. Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-er...

  16. Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bernd Markus; Mahmoud, Soheil Seyed; Wildung, Mark R; Turner, Glenn W; Davis, Edward M; Lange, Iris; Baker, Raymond C; Boydston, Rick A; Croteau, Rodney B

    2011-10-11

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Two-gene combinations to enhance both oil yield and composition in a single transgenic line were assessed as well. The most promising results were obtained by transforming plants expressing an antisense version of (+)-menthofuran synthase, which is critical for adjusting the levels of specific undesirable oil constituents, with a construct for the overexpression of the MEP pathway gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (up to 61% oil yield increase over wild-type controls with low levels of the undesirable side-product (+)-menthofuran and its intermediate (+)-pulegone). Elite transgenic lines were advanced to multiyear field trials, which demonstrated consistent oil yield increases of up to 78% over wild-type controls and desirable effects on oil composition under commercial growth conditions. The transgenic expression of a gene encoding (+)-limonene synthase was used to accumulate elevated levels of (+)-limonene, which allows oil derived from transgenic plants to be recognized during the processing of commercial formulations containing peppermint oil. Our study illustrates the utility of metabolic engineering for the sustainable agricultural production of high quality essential oils at a competitive cost. PMID:21963983

  17. Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bernd Markus; Mahmoud, Soheil Seyed; Wildung, Mark R; Turner, Glenn W; Davis, Edward M; Lange, Iris; Baker, Raymond C; Boydston, Rick A; Croteau, Rodney B

    2011-10-11

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Two-gene combinations to enhance both oil yield and composition in a single transgenic line were assessed as well. The most promising results were obtained by transforming plants expressing an antisense version of (+)-menthofuran synthase, which is critical for adjusting the levels of specific undesirable oil constituents, with a construct for the overexpression of the MEP pathway gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (up to 61% oil yield increase over wild-type controls with low levels of the undesirable side-product (+)-menthofuran and its intermediate (+)-pulegone). Elite transgenic lines were advanced to multiyear field trials, which demonstrated consistent oil yield increases of up to 78% over wild-type controls and desirable effects on oil composition under commercial growth conditions. The transgenic expression of a gene encoding (+)-limonene synthase was used to accumulate elevated levels of (+)-limonene, which allows oil derived from transgenic plants to be recognized during the processing of commercial formulations containing peppermint oil. Our study illustrates the utility of metabolic engineering for the sustainable agricultural production of high quality essential oils at a competitive cost.

  18. Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production

    DOEpatents

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Tai, Mitchell; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2015-02-10

    Some aspects of this invention provide engineered microbes for oil production. Methods for microbe engineering and for use of engineered microbes are also provided herein. In some embodiments, microbes are provided that are engineered to modulate a combination of rate-controlling steps of lipid synthesis, for example, a combination of a step generating metabolites, acetyl-CoA, ATP or NADPH for lipid synthesis (a push step), and a step sequestering a product or an intermediate of a lipid synthesis pathway that mediates feedback inhibition of lipid synthesis (a pull step). Such push-and-pull engineered microbes exhibit greatly enhanced conversion yields and TAG synthesis and storage properties.

  19. Vegetable oil fuel standards

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested standards for vegetable oils and ester fuels, as well as ASTM specifications for No. 2 diesel oil are given. The following physical properties were discussed: cetane number, cloud point, distillation temperatures, flash point, pour point, turbidity, viscosity, free fatty acids, iodine value, phosphorus, and wax. It was apparent that vegetable oils and their esters cannot meet ASTM specifications D975 for No. 2 diesel oil for use in the diesel engine. Vegetable oil modification or engine design modification may make it possible eventually for vegetable oils to become suitable alternative fuels. Vegetable oils must be recognized as experimental fuels until modifications have been tested thoroughly and generally accepted. 1 table. (DP)

  20. Experimental study of the effect of noncondensables on buoyancy-thermocapillary convection in a volatile low-viscosity silicone oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Grigoriev, R.; Yoda, M.

    2014-12-01

    The convective flow in a layer of volatile silicone oil with a kinematic viscosity of 0.65 cSt confined to a sealed cavity with a transverse aspect ratio of 3.2 was visualized using particle pathlines and quantified by particle-image velocimetry at dynamic Bond numbers estimated to be of order unity and laboratory Marangoni numbers as great as 3600. The effect of noncondensables (i.e., air) was studied by comparing convection in the liquid layer below a vapor space at pressures ranging from 4.8 kPa to 101 kPa, corresponding to air molar fractions ranging from 14% to 96%, respectively, and silicone-oil vapor, under otherwise identical conditions. The results for convection at 101 kPa are in qualitative agreement with previous studies, and clarify the time-dependent flow observed at high Marangoni numbers. The results show that decreasing the relative air concentration increases the critical Marangoni numbers for transition between different flow states, even though the air concentration does not appear to affect the speeds near the interface. Linear stability analysis shows that transitions are suppressed due to the latent heat generated or absorbed at the interface due to the enhancement of phase change. Furthermore, the experimental results suggest that air, even at relative concentrations as small as 14%, or partial pressures of O(102 Pa), has a significant effect on the vapor flow, and that the fluid in the vapor space should be modeled as a binary mixture in many cases of practical interest.

  1. Morphological engineering of Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. geldanus: regulation of pellet morphology through manipulation of broth viscosity.

    PubMed

    O'Cleirigh, C; Casey, J T; Walsh, P K; O'Shea, D G

    2005-08-01

    Actinomycetes, especially members of the genus Streptomyces, are responsible for producing the majority of known antibiotics. The production of antibiotics by filamentous organisms is often dependent on the morphology and size distribution of the pellet population within the culture. Particle interaction and subsequent pellet formation are primarily dependent on the rate of collision of particles in culture, which is in turn, a function of fluid turbulence. The microbial polysaccharide xanthan gum was used to artificially regulate the apparent viscosity (mu(a)) of S. hygroscopicus fermentation broths with the aim of controlling particle interaction, aggregation and hence pellet formation. An increase in both pellet count and biomass concentration from approximately 2,000 to 8,000 pellets ml(-1) and 0.9-2.1 g l(-1) dry weight of biomass, as well a decrease in the mean pellet volume from 0.014 to 0.004 mm(3) was observed in cultures supplemented with 3 g l(-1) xanthan gum. The addition of xanthan gum significantly alters fluid rheology by increasing the mu(a). Counter-intuitively, an increase in the mu(a) within the experimental range examined resulted in an increase in the rate of gas-liquid mass transfer. This was attributed to the predominantly diffusive nature of oxygen transfer in shake flask cultures.

  2. Short-term performance of diesel oil and sunflower oil mixtures in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, K.R.; Ziejewski, M.; Marohl, M.; Kucera, H.L.

    1982-05-01

    A series of short tests were run on two different makes of diesel tractor. The fuel used in addition to the No. 2 diesel fuel were refined sunflower oil, crude sunflower oil and five blends of each of these fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel. Engine performance parameters measured include: engine power, volumetric fuel efficiency, thermal efficiency, exhaust temperature, Bosch smoke number and fuel flow. (Refs. 3).

  3. Effect of trans, trans CLA egg enrichment from CLA-rich soy oil on yolk fatty acid composition, viscosity and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Sara E; Gilley, Alex D; Proctor, Andrew; Anthony, Nicolas B

    2015-03-11

    CLA egg accumulation studies using cis, trans (c,t) isomers have been effective, but they reported adverse egg quality. trans, trans (t,t) CLA isomers have shown superior nutritional effects in rodent studies, but reports of t,t CLA-rich yolks are limited. The objectives were to determine the effect of t,t CLA-rich soy oil in feed on egg yolk viscosity, and yolk quality during refrigerated storage. Yolk fatty acids, viscosity, weight, index, moisture, pH, and vitelline membrane strength (VMS) were determined at 0, 20, and 30 storage days. CLA had minimal effect on fatty acid profiles, relative to c,t reports. CLA-rich yolk viscosity was greater than controls, and CLA yolks maintained higher viscosities during storage. Yolk weight and index were not affected by t,t CLA-rich soy oil. Yolks with the greatest CLA concentrations had the greatest VMS after 20 days of storage, and yolks containing lower CLA levels maintained greater VMS throughout 30 days of storage, relative to controls.

  4. Rheology and tribology of lubricants with polymeric viscosity modifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babak, LotfizadehDehkordi

    Elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) theory has been used to model the lubrication state of antifriction machine elements, where initial viscosity and pressure viscosity coefficients are essential parameters in film thickness modeling. Since the pressures of lubricants in the contact zone can be very high, it is important to know the rheological properties of lubricants in these pressure and temperature regimes. The characteristics of viscosity behavior as a function of pressure are also essential for a universal definition of the pressure viscosity coefficient in order to estimate film thickness in an EHL regime. In this study, viscosities and pressure-viscosity coefficients of ten commercial engine and gear oils and seventeen laboratory-produced oil/polymer viscosity modifiers (VM) additives are measured up to 1.3 GPa at 40, 75 and 100 °C. For the first time, a sharp increase in the viscosity and piezoviscous factor is observed in both mineral-based and synthetic-based oils with different VMs. Analysis of the experimental results indicates that sharp increase in viscosity observed in these experiments are believed to arise from physical changes in the VMs, that is liquid-solid phase transition. Evidence is offered that polymer properties such as molecular weight, concentration and structure influence the onset of the phase transitions. A modified Yasutomi model, which normally describes the pressure dependence of the viscosity of lubricants very well, fails to predict the viscosity of the specimens above the onset of sharp increase in viscosity. A design of experiment (DOE) analysis using Design-Expert software indicates that pressure and temperature are the most critical parameters in the viscosity variation. Tribological tests demonstrate that wear in the contact, zone occurs at temperatures and stresses that coincides with the VM phase transitions in both commercial and laboratory synthesized oil/VMs. Tribological results also indicate that the onset of the

  5. Comparative toxicokinetics of low-viscosity mineral oil in Fischer 344 rats, Sprague-Dawley rats, and humans--implications for an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI).

    PubMed

    Boogaard, Peter J; Goyak, Katy O; Biles, Robert W; van Stee, Leo L P; Miller, Matthew S; Miller, Mary Jo

    2012-06-01

    Oral repeated-dose studies with low-viscosity mineral oils showed distinct species and strain differences, which are hypothesized to be due to differences in bioavailability, with Fischer 344 rats being more susceptible than Sprague-Dawley rats or dogs. Sensitive analytical methodology was developed for accurate measurement of low levels of mineral hydrocarbons and applied in single-dose toxicokinetics studies in rats and humans. Fischer 344 rats showed a 4-fold higher AUC(0-∞) and consistently higher blood and liver concentrations were found than Sprague-Dawley rats. Hepatic mineral hydrocarbon concentration tracked the blood concentration in both strains, indicating that blood concentrations can serve as functional surrogate measure for hepatic concentrations. In human volunteers receiving 1mg/kg body weight of low-viscosity white oil, all blood concentrations of mineral hydrocarbons were below the detection limit. Comparison with threshold blood concentrations associated with NOAELs in both rat strains, indicate that the margin-of-exposure is at least 37-fold. Using an internal dose metric rather than applied dose reduces the uncertainty around the temporary ADI considerably since it intrinsically accounts for intra- and inter-species differences. The current data support replacement of the temporary ADI of 0.01 mg/kg/day by a (permanent) ADI of at least 1.0mg/kg/day for low- and medium-viscosity mineral oils.

  6. Analysis of the piston ring/liner oil film development during warm-up for an SI-engine

    SciTech Connect

    Froelund, K.; Schramm, J.; Tian, T.; Wong, V.; Hochgreb, S.

    1996-12-31

    A one-dimensional ring-pack lubrication model developed at MIT is applied to simulate the oil film behavior during the warm-up period of a Kohler spark ignition engine. This is done by making assumptions for the evolution of the oil temperatures during warm-up and that the oil control ring during downstrokes is fully flooded. The ring-pack lubrication model includes features such as three different lubrication regimes, i.e. pure hydrodynamic lubrication, boundary lubrication and pure asperity contact, nonsteady wetting of both inlet and outlet of the piston ring, capability to use all ring face profiles that can be approximated by piece-wise polynomials and, finally, the ability to model the rheology of multi-grade oils. Not surprisingly, the simulations show that by far the most important parameter is the temperature dependence of the oil viscosity. This dependence is subsequently examined further by choosing different oils. The baseline oil is SAE 10W30 and results are compared to those using the SAE 30 and the SAE 10W50 oils.

  7. The impact of graphene oxide particles on viscosity stabilization for diluted polymer solutions using in enhanced oil recovery at HTHP offshore reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung Nguyen, Ba; Kien Ngo, Trung; Bui, Truong Han; Khanh Pham, Duy; Loc Dinh, Xuan; Nguyen, Phuong Tung

    2015-03-01

    Over 60% of the original oil in a place (OOIP) is retained in a reservoir after conventional methods have been exploited. Application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technology gives an additional chance to get out possibly about 20% more oil from the reservoir. The use of water-soluble polymers improves the water-oil mobility ratio, therefore, the displacement efficiency increased, and leads to enhanced oil recovery. High-molecular-weight polyacrylamide group is widely and successfully used in EOR. But no commercial polymer composition can be used in conditions of high temperature and hardness brine offshore reservoirs yet. To avoid the time consumption and high expense for selection and synthesis of the appropriate-structural polymer for EOR application, we attempt to find additives to enhance the thermal stability of polymer solutions. In this paper, we report the results of improved viscosity stability of diluted polymer/seawater solutions aged at reservoir conditions for 31days by adding graphite-oxide particles (GOs). In the presence of 300 ppm of GOs, the viscosity stability of 1700 ppm acrylamide-based polymer in sea water solution increases from 92 °C to 135 °C. FESEM pictures show good distribution of GOs in polymer network, which is a result of integration of functional groups in GOs surfaces and hydrophilic polymer chains.

  8. Conductometric sensors for monitoring degradation of automotive engine oil.

    PubMed

    Latif, Usman; Dickert, Franz L

    2011-01-01

    Conductometric sensors have been fabricated by applying imprinted polymers as receptors for monitoring engine oil quality. Titania and silica layers are synthesized via the sol-gel technique and used as recognition materials for acidic components present in used lubricating oil. Thin-film gold electrodes forming an interdigitated structure are used as transducers to measure the conductance of polymer coatings. Optimization of layer composition is carried out by varying the precursors, e.g., dimethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (DMAPTMS), and aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES). Characterization of these sensitive materials is performed by testing against oil oxidation products, e.g., carbonic acids. The results depict that imprinted aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) polymer is a promising candidate for detecting the age of used lubricating oil. In the next strategy, polyurethane-nanotubes composite as sensitive material is synthesized, producing appreciable differentiation pattern between fresh and used oils at elevated temperature with enhanced sensitivity. PMID:22164094

  9. Single-cylinder diesel engine study of four vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.; Geyer, S.M.; Lestz, S.S.; Risby, T.M.; Taylor, W.D.

    1983-10-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36l, D.I. Diesel engine was operated on Diesel fuel, sunflowerseed oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed comparison of performance and emissions data and to characterize the biological activity of the particulate soluble organic fraction for each fuel using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. In addition, exhaust gas aldehyde samples were collected using the DNPH method. These samples were analyzed gravimetrically and separated into components from formaldehyde to heptaldehyde with a gas chromatograph. Results comparing the vegetable oils to Diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and indicated specific energy consumption; equal or higher gas-phase emissions; lower indicated specific revertant emissions; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde.

  10. Conductometric sensors for monitoring degradation of automotive engine oil.

    PubMed

    Latif, Usman; Dickert, Franz L

    2011-01-01

    Conductometric sensors have been fabricated by applying imprinted polymers as receptors for monitoring engine oil quality. Titania and silica layers are synthesized via the sol-gel technique and used as recognition materials for acidic components present in used lubricating oil. Thin-film gold electrodes forming an interdigitated structure are used as transducers to measure the conductance of polymer coatings. Optimization of layer composition is carried out by varying the precursors, e.g., dimethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (DMAPTMS), and aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES). Characterization of these sensitive materials is performed by testing against oil oxidation products, e.g., carbonic acids. The results depict that imprinted aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) polymer is a promising candidate for detecting the age of used lubricating oil. In the next strategy, polyurethane-nanotubes composite as sensitive material is synthesized, producing appreciable differentiation pattern between fresh and used oils at elevated temperature with enhanced sensitivity.

  11. The effect of temperature dependence of viscosity on a Brownian heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taye, Mesfin Asfaw; Duki, Solomon Fekade

    2015-12-01

    We modeled a Brownian heat engine as a Brownian particle that hops in a periodic ratchet potential where the ratchet potential is coupled with a spatially varying temperature. The strength for the viscous friction γ( x) is considered to decrease exponentially when the temperature T( x) of the medium increases ( γ( x) = B e - AT( x)) as proposed originally by Reynolds [O. Reynolds, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 177, 157 (1886)]. Our result depicts that the velocity of the motor is considerably higher when the viscous friction is temperature dependent than that of the case where the viscous friction is temperature independent. The dependence of the efficiency η as well as the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator P ref on model parameters is also explored. If the motor designed to achieve a high velocity against a frictional drag, in the absence of external load f, we show that Carnot efficiency or Carnot refrigerator is unattainable even at quasistatic limit as long as the viscous friction is temperature dependent A ≠ 0. On the contrary, in the limit A → 0 or in general in the presence of an external load (for any A) f ≠ 0, at quasistatic limit, Carnot efficiency or Carnot refrigerator is attainable as long as the heat exchange via kinetic energy is omitted. For all cases, far from quasistatic limit, the efficiency and the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator are higher for constant γ case than the case where γ is temperature dependent. On the other hand, if one includes the heat exchange at the boundary of the heat baths, Carnot efficiency or Carnot refrigerator is unattainable even at quasistatic limit. Moreover, the dependence for the optimized and maximum power efficiencies on the determinant model parameters is explored.

  12. The effect of temperature dependence of viscosity on a Brownian heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw Taye, Mesfin; Fekade Duki, Solomon

    2015-12-01

    We modeled a Brownian heat engine as a Brownian particle that hops in a periodic ratchet potential where the ratchet potential is coupled with a spatially varying temperature. The strength for the viscous friction γ(x) is considered to decrease exponentially when the temperature T(x) of the medium increases (γ(x) = Be- AT(x)) as proposed originally by Reynolds [O. Reynolds, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 177, 157 (1886)]. Our result depicts that the velocity of the motor is considerably higher when the viscous friction is temperature dependent than that of the case where the viscous friction is temperature independent. The dependence of the efficiency η as well as the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator Pref on model parameters is also explored. If the motor designed to achieve a high velocity against a frictional drag, in the absence of external load f, we show that Carnot efficiency or Carnot refrigerator is unattainable even at quasistatic limit as long as the viscous friction is temperature dependent A ≠ 0. On the contrary, in the limit A → 0 or in general in the presence of an external load (for any A) f ≠ 0, at quasistatic limit, Carnot efficiency or Carnot refrigerator is attainable as long as the heat exchange via kinetic energy is omitted. For all cases, far from quasistatic limit, the efficiency and the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator are higher for constant γ case than the case where γ is temperature dependent. On the other hand, if one includes the heat exchange at the boundary of the heat baths, Carnot efficiency or Carnot refrigerator is unattainable even at quasistatic limit. Moreover, the dependence for the optimized and maximum power efficiencies on the determinant model parameters is explored.

  13. Performance and emission characteristics of a low heat rejection engine with different air gap thicknesses with Jatropha oil based bio-diesel.

    PubMed

    Murali Krishna, M V S; Sarita, G; Seshagiri Rao, V V R; Chowdary, R P; Ramana Reddy, Ch V

    2010-04-01

    The research work on alternate fuels has been the topic of wider interest in the context of depletion of fossil fuels and increasing of pollution levels of the engines with conventional fossil fuels. Alcohols and vegetable oils are considered to replace diesel fuels as they are renewable in nature. However, use of alcohols in internal combustion engines is limited in India, as these fuels are diverted to PetroChemical industries and hence much emphasis is given to the non-edible vegetable oils as alternate fuels in internal combustion engines. However, the drawbacks of low volatility and high viscosity associated with non-edible vegetable oils call for hot combustion chamber, provided by low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine. Investigations are carried out on a LHR diesel engine with varied air gap thicknesses and injection pressures with jatropha oil based bio-diesel at normal temperature. Performance is improved with high degree of insulation with LHR engine with vegetable oil in comparison with conventional engine (CE) with pure diesel operation. PMID:21114115

  14. Performance and emission characteristics of a low heat rejection engine with different air gap thicknesses with Jatropha oil based bio-diesel.

    PubMed

    Murali Krishna, M V S; Sarita, G; Seshagiri Rao, V V R; Chowdary, R P; Ramana Reddy, Ch V

    2010-04-01

    The research work on alternate fuels has been the topic of wider interest in the context of depletion of fossil fuels and increasing of pollution levels of the engines with conventional fossil fuels. Alcohols and vegetable oils are considered to replace diesel fuels as they are renewable in nature. However, use of alcohols in internal combustion engines is limited in India, as these fuels are diverted to PetroChemical industries and hence much emphasis is given to the non-edible vegetable oils as alternate fuels in internal combustion engines. However, the drawbacks of low volatility and high viscosity associated with non-edible vegetable oils call for hot combustion chamber, provided by low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine. Investigations are carried out on a LHR diesel engine with varied air gap thicknesses and injection pressures with jatropha oil based bio-diesel at normal temperature. Performance is improved with high degree of insulation with LHR engine with vegetable oil in comparison with conventional engine (CE) with pure diesel operation.

  15. Oil cooling system for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.; Kast, H. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A gas turbine engine fuel delivery and control system is provided with means to recirculate all fuel in excess fuel control requirements back to the aircraft fuel tank. This increases the fuel pump heat sink and decreases the pump temperature rise without the addition of valving other than normally employed. A fuel/oil heat exchanger and associated circuitry is provided to maintain the hot engine oil in heat exchange relationship with the cool engine fuel. Where anti-icing of the fuel filter is required, means are provided to maintain the fuel temperature entering the filter at or above a minimum level to prevent freezing thereof. In one embodiment, a divider valve is provided to take all excess fuel from either upstream or downstream of the fuel filter and route it back to the tanks, the ratio of upstream to downstream extraction being a function of fuel pump discharge pressure.

  16. The use of tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Murugan, S; Ramaswamy, M C; Nagarajan, G

    2008-12-01

    Tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled with 10%, 30%, and 50% of tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blended with diesel fuel (DF). The TPO was derived from waste automobile tyres through vacuum pyrolysis. The combustion parameters such as heat release rate, cylinder peak pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise also analysed. Results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine fueled with TPO-DF blends increased with an increase in blend concentration and reduction of DF concentration. NO(x), HC, CO, and smoke emissions were found to be higher at higher loads due to the high aromatic content and longer ignition delay. The cylinder peak pressure increased from 71 bars to 74 bars. The ignition delays were longer than with DF. It is concluded that it is possible to use tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future.

  17. System for removing lubricating oil from an internal combustion engine oil pan

    SciTech Connect

    Sendak, R.M.

    1992-09-22

    This patent describes a portable system for removing lubricating oil from an internal combustion engine oil pan through an associated dip stick tube. It comprises: an electric pump adapted to be driven by means connected to the electric pump and including means first and second conduit means connected to the pump, a flexible hand siphon vacuum pump in the second conduit means downstream of the pump, a 12 volt electric drive motor, and switch means.

  18. An Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Jatropha Oil Blends with Diesel in a Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, B.; Bose, P. K.; Panua, R. S.

    2012-07-01

    Continuous effort to reducing pollutant emissions, especially smoke and nitrogen oxides from internal combustion engines, have promoted research for alternative fuels. Vegetable oils, because of their agricultural origin and due to less carbon content compared to mineral diesel are producing less CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. It also reduces import of petroleum products. In the present contribution, experiments were conducted using Jatropha oil blends with diesel to study the effect on performance and emissions characteristics of a existing diesel engine. In this study viscosity of Jatropha oil was reduced by blending with diesel. A single cylinder, four stroke, constant speed, water cooled, diesel engine was used. The results show that for lower blend concentrations various parameters such as thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, smoke opacity, CO2, and NO x emissions are acceptable compared to that of mineral diesel. But, it was observed that for higher blend concentrations, performance and emissions were much inferior compared to diesel.

  19. Engineered soy oils for new value added applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Phuong T.

    Soybean oil is an abundant annually renewable resource. It is composed of triglycerides with long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The presence of unsaturated fatty acids allows for chemical modification to introduce new functionalities to soybean oil. A portfolio of chemically modified soy oil with suitable functional groups has been designed and engineered to serve as the starting material in applications such as polyamides, polyesters, polyurethanes, composites, and lubricants. Anhydride, hydroxyl, and silicone functionalities were introduced to soy oil. Anhydride functionality was introduced using a single-step free radical initiated process, and the chemically modified soy oils were evaluated for potential applications as a composite and lubricant. Hydroxyl functionalities were introduced in a single-step catalytic ozonolysis process recently developed in our labs, which proceeds rapidly and efficiently at room temperature without solvent. The transformed soy oil was used to successfully prepare bio-lubricants with good thermal/oxidative stability and bio-plastics such as polyamides, polyesters, and polyurethanes. A new class of organic-inorganic hybrid materials was prepared by curing vinyltrimethoxysilane functionalized soy oil. This hybrid material could have potential as biobased sealant through a moisture initiated room temperature cure. These new classes of soy-based materials are competitive both in cost and performance to petroleum based materials, but offer the advantage of being biobased.

  20. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Zeolite nanocomposites synthesized by microwave assisted coprecipitation and its performance in reducing viscosity of heavy oil

    SciTech Connect

    Iskandar, Ferry; Fitriani, Pipit; Merissa, Shanty; Khairurrijal,; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Mukti, Rino R.

    2014-02-24

    Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Zeolite nanocomposites have been synthesized via microwave assisted coprecipitation method and show to be efficient in reducing viscosity of heavy oil compared to other Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Zeolite nanocomposites prepared by conventional method. The following precursors such as FeCl{sub 3}⋅6H{sub 2}O, FeSO{sub 4}⋅7H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 4}OH, and natural zeolite of heulandite type were used in the sample preparation. In this study, the effect of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composition in the composite and microwave time heating were investigated. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Zeolite nanocomposites were then characterized to study the influence on crystal structures, morphology and physicochemical properties. The characterization techniques include X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen physisorption. The results show that by increasing the microwave heating time, the degree of nanocomposite intergrowth can be enhanced. The nanocomposite was tested in catalytic aquathermolysis of heavy oil at 200°C for 6 h and the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/zeolite of 1 to 4 ratios performed the highest viscosity reduction of heavy oil reaching 92%.

  1. Effect of morphology of aluminium oxide nanoparticles on viscosity and interfacial tension (IFT) and the recovery efficiency in enhanced oil recovery (EOR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, Hasnah Mohd; Radzi, Nur Shahbinar Ahmad; Latiff, Noor Rasyada Ahmad; Shafie, Afza

    2014-10-01

    Conventional enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods failed to extract the remaining oil from unconventional, high salinity and high temperature high pressure (HTHP) oil reservoirs. In surfactant flooding method, surfactants are injected to reduce the interfacial tension between oil and water hence sufficiently displaces oil from the reservoir. In steam flooding, high temperature steam is injected into a reservoir to heat oil to make it less viscous, making it easier to move to the production wells. However these methods fail to failed to perform because injection agents start to change its properties under the extreme condition. Therefore, nanoparticles are introduced to mitigate these challenges because of its ability to change certain factor in certain condition. Previous studies had shown that increments in the oil recovery were observed when core-flooding experiments using Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) nanofluid were conducted. In this research, the effect of morphology of Al2O3 nanoparticles on viscosity and interfacial tension (IFT) and the recovery efficiency in EOR was studied. Al2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized and the morphology was altered by hydrothermal treatment using different concentration of NaOH. After being treated, the morphology of Al2O3 changed from hexagonal to thin lath. The IFT between crude oil and the nanofluids of the treated Al2O3 showed lower values compared to the untreated ones. It was also observed from core-flooding experiment that the Al2O3 nanofluid which had undergone treatment with 10 M NaOH gave the highest recovery of 52.50% of residual oil in place (ROIP). The change in morphology could have resulted in better dispersion and thus lead to higher recovery.

  2. Esterified sago waste for engine oil removal in aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Ngaini, Zainab; Noh, Farid; Wahi, Rafeah

    2014-01-01

    Agro-waste from the bark of Metroxylon sagu (sago) was studied as a low cost and effective oil sorbent in dry and aqueous environments. Sorption study was conducted using untreated sago bark (SB) and esterified sago bark (ESB) in used engine oil. Characterization study showed that esterification has successfully improved the hydrophobicity, buoyancy, surface roughness and oil sorption capacity of ESB. Sorption study revealed that water uptake of SB is higher (30 min static: 2.46 g/g, dynamic: 2.67 g/g) compared with ESB (30 min static: 0.18 g/g, dynamic: 0.14 g/g). ESB, however, showed higher oil sorption capacity in aqueous environment (30 min static: 2.30 g/g, dynamic: 2.14) compared with SB (30 min static: 0 g/g, dynamic: 0 g/g). ESB has shown great poTENTial as effective oil sorbent in aqueous environment due to its high oil sorption capacity, low water uptake and high buoyancy. PMID:25176478

  3. Gas Turbine Engine Carbon Oil Seals Computerized Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In a bearing compartment there are a series of parts when assembled determine the location of the bearing and seal as related to the centerline of rotation. We see part datums that do not establish A coincident path from the bearing to the seal. High engine vibration can cause severe oil leakage. The inability of the seal to respond fast enough to the rotating element Radial Seal: Sensitive to housing air pressure Sensitive to seal runout ? Axial Seal: Very sensitive to seal perpendicularity to shaft. Goals include: 1) Repeatable assembly process; 2) Accurate assembly process; 3) Minimize seal runout; 4) Design to engine centerline of rotation, i.e. bearings.

  4. Performance and emissions characteristics of a naturally aspirated diesel engine with vegetable oil fuels - 2

    SciTech Connect

    Humke, A.L.; Barsic, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    A naturally aspirated, direct injected diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance and emissions characteristics of a crude soybean oil, a 50 percent (by volume) mixture of crude soybean oil and no. 2 diesel fuel, and a degummed soybean oil. The data were compared with previous tests conducted on the same engine using diesel fuel, crude sunflower oil and a 50 percent mixture of crude sunflower oil and diesel fuel. 18 refs.

  5. Biodegradation of engine oil by fungi from mangrove habitat.

    PubMed

    Ameen, Fuad; Hadi, Sarfaraz; Moslem, Mohamed; Al-Sabri, Ahmed; Yassin, Mohamed A

    2015-01-01

    The pollution of land and water by petroleum compounds is a matter of growing concern necessitating the development of methodologies, including microbial biodegradation, to minimize the impending impacts. It has been extensively reported that fungi from polluted habitats have the potential to degrade pollutants, including petroleum compounds. The Red Sea is used extensively for the transport of oil and is substantially polluted, due to leaks, spills, and occasional accidents. Tidal water, floating debris, and soil sediment were collected from mangrove stands on three polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia and forty-five fungal isolates belonging to 13 genera were recovered from these samples. The isolates were identified on the basis of a sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene fragment. Nine of these isolates were found to be able to grow in association with engine oil, as the sole carbon source, under in vitro conditions. These selected isolates and their consortium accumulated greater biomass, liberated more CO2, and produced higher levels of extracellular enzymes, during cultivation with engine oil as compared with the controls. These observations were authenticated by gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis, which indicated that many high mass compounds present in the oil before treatment either disappeared or showed diminished levels.

  6. Biodegradation of engine oil by fungi from mangrove habitat.

    PubMed

    Ameen, Fuad; Hadi, Sarfaraz; Moslem, Mohamed; Al-Sabri, Ahmed; Yassin, Mohamed A

    2015-01-01

    The pollution of land and water by petroleum compounds is a matter of growing concern necessitating the development of methodologies, including microbial biodegradation, to minimize the impending impacts. It has been extensively reported that fungi from polluted habitats have the potential to degrade pollutants, including petroleum compounds. The Red Sea is used extensively for the transport of oil and is substantially polluted, due to leaks, spills, and occasional accidents. Tidal water, floating debris, and soil sediment were collected from mangrove stands on three polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia and forty-five fungal isolates belonging to 13 genera were recovered from these samples. The isolates were identified on the basis of a sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene fragment. Nine of these isolates were found to be able to grow in association with engine oil, as the sole carbon source, under in vitro conditions. These selected isolates and their consortium accumulated greater biomass, liberated more CO2, and produced higher levels of extracellular enzymes, during cultivation with engine oil as compared with the controls. These observations were authenticated by gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis, which indicated that many high mass compounds present in the oil before treatment either disappeared or showed diminished levels. PMID:26582288

  7. Influence of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Ali; Gürü, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate influences of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission. Tall oil resinic acids were reacted with MgO and MoO(2) stoichiometrically for the production of metal-based fuel additives (combustion catalysts). The metal-based additives were added into tall oil biodiesel (B60) at the rate of 4 micromol/l, 8 micromol/l and 12 micromol/l for preparing test fuels. In general, both of the metal-based additives improved flash point, pour point and viscosity of the biodiesel fuel, depending on the rate of additives. A single cylinder DI diesel engine was used in the tests. Engine performance values did not change significantly with biodiesel fuels, but exhaust emission profile was improved. CO emissions and smoke opacity decreased by 56.42% and by 30.43%, respectively. In general, low NO(x) and CO(2) emissions were measured with the biodiesel fuels.

  8. Application of the ultra-thin elastohydrodynamic oil film thickness technique to the study of automotive engine oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, D.; Moore, A. J.

    1994-06-01

    Recent advances in the measurement of elastohydrodynamic (EHD) oil film thickness have enabled films of only a few molecules width to be measured with good accuracy. As a result, the range of temperature and viscosity that may be permitted in EHD experiments has been significantly extended and the practical value of the information obtained correspondingly increased. This paper explores the potential value of such techniques for investigating the viscometric behavior of lubricants at high pressure and shear rate. It is shown that the film-forming behavior of a viscometrically well-characterized Newtonian lubricant continues to obey classical EHD theory at film thicknesses as low as 10 nm. The level of agreement is close enough for pressure-viscosity characteristics to be deduced directly from film thickness information through the application of EHD theory. For polymer-containing, non-Newtonian lubricants, a high shear viscosity can be determined from film thickness data if pressure-viscosity characteristics are first established. A suitably structured sequence of experiments is described which yield estimates of both properties. To help interpret the viscometric information thus obtained, inlet zone viscosities are compared both with conventionally determined high shear viscosities and with the values predicted by a model of polymer solution behavior.

  9. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOEpatents

    Boggs, D.L.; Baraszu, D.J.; Foulkes, D.M.; Gomes, E.G.

    1998-12-29

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine`s crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages. 4 figs.

  10. High Thermal Conductivity Carbon Foam used for the Thermal Management of Engine Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, R.D.; McMillan, A.D.; Choudhury, A.

    2006-02-02

    The need for maintaining a lower specific engine oil temperature is essential in enhancing the longevity of the oil and of the engine and its components. By decreasing the engine oil temperature the oil is able to perform its job more efficiently. It is proposed to use the carbon foam, with its exceptional thermal management capabilities, to aid in reducing and stabilizing the engine oil temperature during steady state operation. Also, it is possible to use the carbon foam to heat the engine oil during startup to reduce emissions and possibly engine wear. The mesophase pitch derived carbon foam, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is a material that offers excellent thermal management capability. The foam has an open cell structure (0.98 fraction open porosity) with graphitic ligaments aligned parallel to the cell walls. The alignment of the graphitic ligaments in a three dimensional array gives the foam homogeneous thermal properties, unlike graphite fibers. The bulk thermal conductivity of the foam has been measured to be 175 W/m{center_dot}K, placing it on the level of 6061 aluminum, which has a bulk thermal conductivity of 180 W/m{center_dot}K. Copper has a bulk thermal conductivity over two times higher, at 400 W/m{center_dot}K. The proposed research will entail using the carbon foam, with its excellent thermal management capabilities, as a cooling and heating medium for engine oil, or in other words an oil temperature regulator. The foam will aid in maintaining a specific oil temperature during steady state operation and in heating of the engine oil at startup. Being able to maintain a consistent oil temperature will ensure better operation of engine oil, by extending the life of the oil and engine. All Parties will conduct research efforts in order to determine the best utilization of the carbon foam in managing engine oil temperatures.

  11. Characterization of asphaltene molecular structures by cracking under hydrogenation conditions and prediction of the viscosity reduction from visbreaking of heavy oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda Velasquez, Rosa Imelda

    architectures, but suggested that dendritic molecules would experience slower reaction rates as they required more breakages to reach a given yield of distillates. Thermal cracking of asphaltenes in heavy oils and bitumens can dramatically reduce viscosity, enabling pipeline transportation with less solvent addition. The viscosities of the products from visbreaking reactions of two different heavy oils were modeled with lumped kinetics based on boiling point pseudo-components, and with the estimation of their individual fluid properties. The model was tuned with experimental viscosity data, and provided estimations of viscosities at different temperatures with absolute average deviations lower than 31%.

  12. Testing and preformance measurement of straight vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam

    Rising fuel prices, growing energy demand, concerns over domestic energy security and global warming from greenhouse gas emissions have triggered the global interest in bio-energy and bio-fuel crop development. Backlash from these concerns can result in supply shocks of traditional fossil fuels and create immense economic pressure. It is thus widely argued that bio-fuels would particularly benefit developing countries by off-setting their dependencies on imported petroleum. Domestically, the transportation sector accounts for almost 40% of liquid fuel consumption, while on-farm application like tractors and combines for agricultural purposes uses close to an additional 18%. It is estimated that 40% of the farm budget can be attributed to the fuel costs. With the cost of diesel continuously rising, farmers are now looking at using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as an alternative fuel by producing their own fuel crops. This study evaluates conventional diesel compared to the use of SVO like Camelina, Canola and Juncea grown on local farms in Colorado for their performance and emissions on a John Deere 4045 Tier-II engine. Additionally, physical properties like density and viscosity, metal/mineral content, and cold flow properties like CFPP and CP of these oils were measured using ASTM standards and compared to diesel. It was found that SVOs did not show significant differences compared to diesel fuel with regards to engine emissions, but did show an increase in thermal efficiency. Therefore, this study supports the continued development of SVO production as a viable alternative to diesel fuels, particularly for on-farm applications. The need for providing and developing a sustainable, economic and environmental friendly fuel alternative has taken an aggressive push which will require a strong multidisciplinary education in the field of bio-energy. Commercial bio-energy development has the potential to not only alleviate the energy concerns, but also to give renewed

  13. Density and viscosity of lipids under pressure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a lack of data for the viscosity of lipids under pressure. The current report is a part of the effort to fill this gap. The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic film thicknesses of vegetable oil (HOSuO) were investigated. Pressure–viscosity coefficients (PVC) of HOSuO at different tem...

  14. A mathematical model for analyzing the elasticity, viscosity, and failure of soft tissue: comparison of native and decellularized porcine cardiac extracellular matrix for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bronshtein, Tomer; Au-Yeung, Gigi Chi Ting; Sarig, Udi; Nguyen, Evelyne Bao-Vi; Mhaisalkar, Priyadarshini S; Boey, Freddy Yin Chiang; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Machluf, Marcelle

    2013-08-01

    The clinical success of tissue-engineered constructs commonly requires mechanical properties that closely mimic those of the human tissue. Determining the viscoelastic properties of such biomaterials and the factors governing their failure profiles, however, has proven challenging, although collecting extensive data regarding their tensile behavior is straightforward. The easily calculated Young's modulus remains the most reported mechanical measure, regardless of its limitations, even though single-relaxation-time (SRT) models can provide much more information, which remain scarce due to a lack of manageable tools for implementing these models. We developed an easy-to-use algorithm for applying the Zener SRT model and determining the elastic moduli, viscosity, and failure profiles of materials under different mechanical tests in a user-independent manner. The algorithm was validated on the data resulting from tensile tests on native and decellularized porcine cardiac tissue, previously suggested as a promising scaffold material for cardiac tissue engineering. This analysis yields new and more accurate measurements such as the elastic moduli and viscosity, the model's relaxation time, and information on the factors governing the materials' failure profiles. These measurements indicate that the viscoelasticity and strength of the decellularized acellular extracellular matrix (ECM) are similar to those of native tissue, although its elasticity and apparent viscosity are higher. Nonetheless, reseeding and culturing the ECM with mesenchymal stem cells was shown to partially restore the mechanical properties lost after decellularization. We propose this algorithm as a platform for soft-tissue analysis that can provide comparable and unbiased measures for characterizing viscoelastic biomaterials commonly used in tissue engineering.

  15. Rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Jaiduk, J.; Peterson, C.L.

    1985-11-01

    Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable oil blends developed power similar to diesel fueled engines with a 6 to 8% greater fuel consumption. 8 references.

  16. EXPLORING LOW EMISSION DIESEL ENGINE OILS WORKSHOP - A SUMMARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Joseph

    2000-08-20

    This paper discusses and summarizes some of the results of the title workshop. The workshop was held January 31-February 2, 2000 in Phoenix, Arizona. The purpose of the workshop was ''To craft a shared vision for Industry-Government (DOE) research and development collaboration in Diesel Engine Oils to minimize emissions while maintaining or enhancing engine performance''. The final report of the workshop (NREL/SR-570-28521) was issued in June 2000 by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393. There were some 95 participants at the workshop representing industry, government and academia, Figure 1. The format for the workshop is described in Figure 2. This format allowed for considerable discussion of the various issues prior to deliberations in breakout groups. This process resulted in recommendations to solve the issues related to the next generation of diesel engine oils. Keynote addresses by SAE President Rodica Baranescu (International Truck and Engine Corporation), James Eberhardt of DOE and Paul Machiele of EPA focused on diesel progress, workshop issues and regulatory fuel issues. A panel of experts further defined the issues of interest, presenting snapshots of the current status in their areas of expertise. A Q&A session was followed by a series of technical presentations discussing the various areas. Some two dozen presentations covered the technical issues, Figure 3. An open forum was held to allow any participant to present related studies or comment on any of the technical issues. The participants broke into work groups addressing the various areas found on Figure 2. A group leader was appointed and reported on their findings, recommendations, suggested participants for projects and on related items.

  17. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOEpatents

    Boggs, David Lee; Baraszu, Daniel James; Foulkes, David Mark; Gomes, Enio Goyannes

    1998-01-01

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine's crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages.

  18. Engineered silica nanoparticles as additives in lubricant oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Faes López, Teresa; Fernández González, Alfonso; Del Reguero, Ángel; Matos, María; Díaz-García, Marta E.; Badía-Laíño, Rosana

    2015-10-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) synthesized by the sol-gel approach were engineered for size and surface properties by grafting hydrophobic chains to prevent their aggregation and facilitate their contact with the phase boundary, thus improving their dispersibility in lubricant base oils. The surface modification was performed by covalent binding of long chain alkyl functionalities using lauric acid and decanoyl chloride to the SiO2 NP surface. The hybrid SiO2 NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, simultaneous differential thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and dynamic light scattering, while their dispersion in two base oils was studied by static multiple light scattering at low (0.01% w/v) and high (0.50%w/v) concentrations. The nature of the functional layer and the functionalization degree seemed to be directly involved in the stability of the suspensions. The potential use of the functional SiO2 NPs as lubricant additives in base oils, specially designed for being used in hydraulic circuits, has been outlined by analyzing the tribological properties of the dispersions. The dendritic structure of the external layer played a key role in the tribological characteristics of the material by reducing the friction coefficient and wear. These nanoparticles reduce drastically the waste of energy in friction processes and are more environmentally friendly than other additives.

  19. Oil-Free Turbomachinery Team Passed Milestone on Path to the First Oil-Free Turbine Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bream, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    The Oil-Free Turbine Engine Technology Project team successfully demonstrated a foil-air bearing designed for the core rotor shaft of a turbine engine. The bearings were subjected to test conditions representative of the engine core environment through a combination of high speeds, sustained loads, and elevated temperatures. The operational test envelope was defined during conceptual design studies completed earlier this year by bearing manufacturer Mohawk Innovative Technologies and the turbine engine company Williams International. The prototype journal foil-air bearings were tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Glenn is working with Williams and Mohawk to create a revolution in turbomachinery by developing the world's first Oil-Free turbine aircraft engine. NASA's General Aviation Propulsion project and Williams International recently developed the FJX-2 turbofan engine that is being commercialized as the EJ-22. This core bearing milestone is a first step toward a future version of the EJ-22 that will take advantage of recent advances in foil-air bearings by eliminating the need for oil lubrication systems and rolling element bearings. Oil-Free technology can reduce engine weight by 15 percent and let engines operate at very high speeds, yielding power density improvements of 20 percent, and reducing engine maintenance costs. In addition, with NASA coating technology, engines can operate at temperatures up to 1200 F. Although the project is still a couple of years from a full engine test of the bearings, this milestone shows that the bearing design exceeds the expected environment, thus providing confidence that an Oil-Free turbine aircraft engine will be attained. The Oil-Free Turbomachinery Project is supported through the Aeropropulsion Base Research Program.

  20. Rheological Properties of Vegetable Oil-Diesel Fuel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Z.; Nguyen, Q. D.

    2008-07-01

    Straight vegetable oils provide cleaner burning and renewable alternatives to diesel fuels, but their inherently high viscosities compared to diesel are undesirable for diesel engines. Lowering the viscosity can be achieved by either increasing the temperature of the oil or by blending it with diesel fuel, or both. In this work the viscosity of diesel fuel and vegetable oil mixtures at differing compositions is measured as a function of temperature to determine a viscosity-temperature-composition relationship for use in design and optimization of heating and fuel injection systems. The oils used are olive, soybean, canola and peanut oils which are commercially available. All samples tested between 20°C and 80°C exhibit time-independent Newtonian behaviour. A modified Arrhenius relationship has been developed to predict the viscosity of the mixtures as functions of temperature and composition.

  1. Hall viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Viscosity is a transport coefficient relating to transport of momentum, and usually thought of as the analog of friction that occurs in fluids and solids. More formally, it is the response of the stress to the gradients of the fluid velocity field, or to the rate of change of strain (derivatives of displacement from a reference state). In general, viscosity is described by a fourth-rank tensor. Invoking rotation invariance, it reduces to familiar shear and bulk viscosity parts, which describe dissipation, but it can also contain an antisymmetric part, analogous to the Hall conductivity part of the conductivity tensor. In two dimensions this part is a single number, the Hall viscosity. Symmetry of the system under time reversal (or, in two dimensions, reflections) forces it to vanish. In quantum fluids with a gap in the bulk energy spectrum and which lack both time reversal and reflection symmetries the Hall viscosity can be nonzero even at zero temperature. For integer quantum Hall states, it was first calculated by Avron, Seiler, and Zograf, using a Berry curvature approach, analogous to the Chern number for Hall conductivity. In 2008 this was extended by the present author to fractional quantum Hall states and to BCS states in two dimensions. I found that the general result is given by a simple formula ns / 2 , where n is the particle number density, and s is the ``orbital spin'' per particle. The spin s is also related to the shift S, which enters the relation between particle number and magnetic flux needed to put the ground state on a surface of non-trivial topology with introducing defect excitations, by S = 2 s ; the connection was made by Wen and Zee. The values of s and S are rational numbers, and are robust--unchanged under perturbations that do not cause the bulk energy gap to collapse--provided rotation as well as translation symmetry are maintained. Hall viscosity can be measured in principle, though a simple way to do so is lacking. It enters various

  2. Performance of Several Combustion Chambers Designed for Aircraft Oil Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, William F; Kemper, Carlton

    1928-01-01

    Several investigations have been made on single-cylinder test engines to determine the performance characteristics of four types of combustion chambers designed for aircraft oil engines. Two of the combustion chambers studied were bulb-type precombustion chambers, the connecting orifice of one having been designed to produce high turbulence by tangential air flow in both the precombustion chamber and the cylinder. The other two were integral combustion chambers, one being dome-shaped and the other pent-roof shaped. The injection systems used included cam and eccentric driven fuel pumps, and diaphragm and spring-loaded fuel-injection valves. A diaphragm type maximum cylinder pressure indicator was used in part of these investigations with which the cylinder pressures were controlled to definite valves. The performance of the engines when equipped with each of the combustion chambers is discussed. The best performance for the tests reported was obtained with a bulb-type combustion chamber designed to give a high degree of turbulence within the bulb and cylinder. (author)

  3. Comparing biofuels obtained from pyrolysis, of soybean oil or soapstock, with traditional soybean biodiesel: Density, kinematic viscosity, and surface tensions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A product with diesel like properties was synthesized by a pyrolysis method, from either edible soybean oil, or an inedible soybean soapstock starting material (PD and SD, respectively). Some physical properties of the material were studied, neat, and in blends; with both high sulfur and low sulfur...

  4. CFD analysis of turboprop engine oil cooler duct for best rate of climb condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalia, Saurabh; CA, Vinay; Hegde, Suresh M.

    2016-09-01

    Turboprop engines are widely used in commuter category airplanes. Aircraft Design bureaus routinely conduct the flight tests to confirm the performance of the system. The lubrication system of the engine is designed to provide a constant supply of clean lubrication oil to the engine bearings, the reduction gears, the torque-meter, the propeller and the accessory gearbox. The oil lubricates, cools and also conducts foreign material to the oil filter where it is removed from further circulation. Thus a means of cooling the engine oil must be provided and a suitable oil cooler (OC) and ducting system was selected and designed for this purpose. In this context, it is relevant to study and analyse behaviour of the engine oil cooler system before commencing actual flight tests. In this paper, the performance of the oil cooler duct with twin flush NACA inlet housed inside the nacelle has been studied for aircraft best rate of climb (ROC) condition using RANS based SST K-omega model by commercial software ANSYS Fluent 13.0. From the CFD analysis results, it is found that the mass flow rate captured and pressure drop across the oil cooler for the best ROC condition is meeting the oil cooler manufacturer requirements thus, the engine oil temperature is maintained within prescribed limits.

  5. TOF-SIMS analysis of friction surfaces of hard coatings tested in engine oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Atsushi; Mori, Hiroyuki; Ohmori, Toshihide

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the results of TOF-SIMS analysis of friction surfaces of hard coatings such as CrN and TiN tested in model engine oil containing typical engine oil additives, i.e., polyisobutenyl succinimide, Ca-sulfonate, Zn-dithiophosphate, and Mo-dithiocarbamate, as a real-world lubrication system used in the automobile industry. As model engine oils, two types of lubrication systems containing the above additives were prepared. For the aim of analysis of friction surfaces of engine oil lubrication systems, the friction surfaces tested with each additive were analyzed before the analysis for the engine oil systems. By TOF-SIMS analysis of friction surfaces tested in each additive, secondary ions originating from adsorbed components were detected for each additive. From this result, the friction surfaces for model engine oil were analyzed by TOF-SIMS. The differences in adsorbing behavior of additives between different engine oil components and between different substrates were clarified, and the causes of difference in friction coefficient among the engine oil lubrication systems were partly explained with the adsorbing behavior of Mo-dithiocarbamate. These results demonstrate that TOF-SIMS analysis of friction surfaces is useful for the analysis of real-world lubrication phenomena.

  6. Study on the engine oil's wear based on the flash point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, R.; Iorga-Simăn, V.; Trică, A.; Clenci, A.

    2016-08-01

    Increasing energy performance of internal combustion engines is largely influenced by frictional forces that arise between moving parts. Thus, in this respect, the nature and quality of the engine oil used is an important factor. Equally important is the effect of various engine injection strategies upon the oil quality. In other words, it's of utmost importance to maintain the quality of engine oil during engine's operation. Oil dilution is one of the most common causes that lead to its wear, creating lubrication problems. Moreover, at low temperatures operating conditions, the oil dilution with diesel fuel produces wax. When starting the engine, this may lead to lubrication deficiencies and even oil starvation with negative consequences on the engine mechanism parts wear (piston, rings and cylinders) but also crankcase bearings wear.Engine oil dilution with diesel fuel have several causes: wear of rings and/or injectors, late post-injection strategy for the sake of particulate filter regeneration, etc.This paper presents a study on the degree of deterioration of engine oils as a result of dilution with diesel fuel. The analysed oils used for this study were taken from various models of engines equipped with diesel particulate filter. The assessment is based on the determination of oil flash point and dilution degree using the apparatus Eraflash produced by Eralytics, Austria. Eraflash measurement is directly under the latest and safest standards ASTM D6450 & D7094), which are in excellent correlation with ASTM D93 Pensky - Martens ASTM D56 TAG methods; it uses the Continuous Closed Cup method for finding the Flash Point (CCCFP).

  7. Comparison of diesel engine performance and emissions from neat and transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, S.M.; Jacobus, M.J.; Lestz, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36 L, D1 diesel engine was operated on a certified No. 2 diesel fuel, cottonseed oil, sunflowerseed oil, methyl ester of cottonseed oil, and methyl ester of sunflowerseed oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a comparison of performance and emission data when operating on net vegetable oils, transesterified vegetable oils, and diesel fuel. Results comparing the various vegetable oil fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and higher exhaust gas temperatures when operating on vegetable oils; equal or higher gas-phase emissions with vegetable oils; lower indicated specific revertant emissions with vegetable oils; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde. (Refs. 14).

  8. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Shear thirning will cause a normally viscous fluid -- such as pie filling or whipped cream -- to deform and flow more readily under high shear conditions. In shear thinning, a pocket of fluid will deform and move one edge forward, as depicted here.

  9. Lubrication System 1. Check and Change the Engine Oil. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on checking and changing the engine oil is the second of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

  10. Acoustic scaling of anisotropic flow in shape-engineered events: implications for extraction of the specific shear viscosity of the quark gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Roy A.; Reynolds, D.; Taranenko, A.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Alexander, J. M.; Liu, Fu-Hu; Gu, Yi; Mwai, A.

    2016-10-01

    It is shown that the acoustic scaling patterns of anisotropic flow for different event shapes at a fixed collision centrality (shape-engineered events), provide robust constraints for the event-by-event fluctuations in the initial-state density distribution from ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. The empirical scaling parameters also provide a dual-path method for extracting the specific shear viscosity {(η /s)}{QGP} of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) produced in these collisions. A calibration of these scaling parameters via detailed viscous hydrodynamical model calculations, gives {(η /s)}{QGP} estimates for the plasma produced in collisions of Au + Au (\\sqrt{{s}{NN}}=0.2 {TeV}) and Pb + Pb (\\sqrt{{s}{NN}}=2.76 {TeV}). The estimates are insensitive to the initial-state geometry models considered.

  11. Compression-ignition engine performance with undoped and doped fuel oils and alcohol mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Foster, Hampton H

    1939-01-01

    Several fuel oils, doped fuel oils, and mixtures of alcohol and fuel oil were tested in a high-speed, single-cylinder, compression-ignition engine to determine power output, fuel consumption, and ignition and combustion characteristics. Fuel oils or doped fuel oils of high octane number had shorter ignition lags, lower rates of pressure rise, and gave smoother engine operation than fuel oils or doped fuel oils of low octane number. Higher engine rotative speeds and boost pressures resulted in smoother engine operation and permitted the use of fuel oils of relatively low octane number. Although the addition of a dope to a fuel oil decreased the ignition lag and the rate of pressure rise, the ensuing rate of combustion was somewhat slower than for the undoped fuel oil so that the effectiveness of combustion was practically unchanged. Alcohol used as an auxiliary fuel, either as a mixture or by separate injection, increased the rates of pressure rise and induced roughness. In general, the power output decreased as the proportion of alcohol increased and, below maximum power, varied with the heating value of the total fuel charge.

  12. Microemulsions from vegetable oil and aqueous alcohol with trialkylamine surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.W.; Pryde, E.H.

    1984-05-29

    Hybrid fuel microemulsions are prepared from vegetable oil, a C/sub 1/-C/sub 3/ alcohol, water, and a surfactant comprising a lower trialkylamine. For enhanced water tolerance by the fuel, the amine is reacted with a longchain fatty acid for conversion to the corresponding trialkylammonium soap. Optionally, 1-butanol is incorporated into the system as a cosurfactant for the purpose of lowering both the viscosity and the solidification temperature.

  13. Critical Viscosity of Xenon investigators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Dr. Robert F. Berg (right), principal investigator and Dr. Micheal R. Moldover (left), co-investigator, for the Critical Viscosity of Xenon (CVX/CVX-2) experiment. They are with the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Although it does not easily combine with other chemicals, its viscosity at the critical point can be used as a model for a range of chemicals.

  14. Improving magnetic properties of MgB2 bulk superconductors by synthetic engine oil treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylan Koparan, E.; Savaskan, B.; Yanmaz, E.

    2016-08-01

    The present study focuses on the effects of standby time of the MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil on the critical current density (Jc(H)), magnetic field dependence of the pinning force density fp(b) and Tc performances of MgB2 bulk superconductors. Synthetic engine oil was used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source. Manufactured MgB2 pellet samples were immersed at different standby time of 30 min, 120 min, 300 min and 1440 min in synthetic engine oil after the first heating process. Finally, MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil were sintered at 1000 °C and kept for 15 min in Ar atmosphere. The critical current density of all of MgB2 samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range was better than that of the pure MgB2 sample because of the number of the pinning centers. The MgB2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. The Jc value for the pure sample is 2.0 × 103 A/cm2, whereas for the MgB2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in engine oil the Jc is enhanced to 4.8 × 103A/cm2 at 5 K and 3 T. The superconducting transition temperature (Tc) did not change with the increasing standby time of the samples in synthetic engine oil at all. The best diamagnetic property was obtained from the sample which kept in synthetic engine oil for 300 min. Synthetic engine oil treatment results in remarkable improvement of the critical current density and pinning force performances of MgB2 superconductors. It was found that all MgB2 samples have a different pinning property at different measuring temperatures. Using synthetic engine oil as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source in MgB2 bulk superconductors makes MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil a good candidate for industrial applications.

  15. Failure Analysis and Regeneration Performances Evaluation on Engine Lubricating Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. L.; Zhang, G. N.; Zhang, J. Y.; Yin, Y. L.; Xu, Y.

    To investigate the behavior of failure and recycling of lubricating oils, three sorts of typical 10w-40 lubricating oils used in heavy-load vehicle including the new oil, waste oil and regeneration oil regenerated by self-researched green regeneration technology were selected. The tribology properties were tested by four-ball friction wear tester as well. The results indicated that the performance of anti-extreme pressure of regeneration oil increase by 34.1% compared with the waste one and its load- carrying ability is close to the new oil; the feature of wear spot are better than those of the waste oil and frictional coefficient almost reach the level of the new oil's. As a result, the performance of anti-wear and friction reducing are getting better obviously.

  16. A new nano-engineered hierarchical membrane for concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from oil-in-water nanoemulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Detao; Liu, Zhaoyang; Bai, Hongwei; Sun, Darren Delai; Song, Xiaoxiao

    2016-04-01

    Surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsions pose a severe threat to both the environment and human health. Recent development of membrane filtration technology has enabled efficient oil removal from oil/water nanoemulsion, however, the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil remains unsolved because the existing filtration membranes still suffer from low surfactant removal rate and serious surfactant-induced fouling issue. In this study, to realize the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from nanoemulsion, a novel hierarchically-structured membrane is designed with a nanostructured selective layer on top of a microstructured support layer. The physical and chemical properties of the overall membrane, including wettability, surface roughness, electric charge, thickness and structures, are delicately tailored through a nano-engineered fabrication process, that is, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet assisted phase inversion coupled with surface functionalization. Compared with the membrane fabricated by conventional phase inversion, this novel membrane has four times higher water flux, significantly higher rejections of both oil (~99.9%) and surfactant (as high as 93.5%), and two thirds lower fouling ratio when treating surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsion. Due to its excellent performances and facile fabrication process, this nano-engineered membrane is expected to have wide practical applications in the oil/water separation fields of environmental protection and water purification.

  17. A new nano-engineered hierarchical membrane for concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from oil-in-water nanoemulsion.

    PubMed

    Qin, Detao; Liu, Zhaoyang; Bai, Hongwei; Sun, Darren Delai; Song, Xiaoxiao

    2016-01-01

    Surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsions pose a severe threat to both the environment and human health. Recent development of membrane filtration technology has enabled efficient oil removal from oil/water nanoemulsion, however, the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil remains unsolved because the existing filtration membranes still suffer from low surfactant removal rate and serious surfactant-induced fouling issue. In this study, to realize the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from nanoemulsion, a novel hierarchically-structured membrane is designed with a nanostructured selective layer on top of a microstructured support layer. The physical and chemical properties of the overall membrane, including wettability, surface roughness, electric charge, thickness and structures, are delicately tailored through a nano-engineered fabrication process, that is, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet assisted phase inversion coupled with surface functionalization. Compared with the membrane fabricated by conventional phase inversion, this novel membrane has four times higher water flux, significantly higher rejections of both oil (~99.9%) and surfactant (as high as 93.5%), and two thirds lower fouling ratio when treating surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsion. Due to its excellent performances and facile fabrication process, this nano-engineered membrane is expected to have wide practical applications in the oil/water separation fields of environmental protection and water purification. PMID:27087362

  18. A new nano-engineered hierarchical membrane for concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from oil-in-water nanoemulsion

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Detao; Liu, Zhaoyang; Bai, Hongwei; Sun, Darren Delai; Song, Xiaoxiao

    2016-01-01

    Surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsions pose a severe threat to both the environment and human health. Recent development of membrane filtration technology has enabled efficient oil removal from oil/water nanoemulsion, however, the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil remains unsolved because the existing filtration membranes still suffer from low surfactant removal rate and serious surfactant-induced fouling issue. In this study, to realize the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from nanoemulsion, a novel hierarchically-structured membrane is designed with a nanostructured selective layer on top of a microstructured support layer. The physical and chemical properties of the overall membrane, including wettability, surface roughness, electric charge, thickness and structures, are delicately tailored through a nano-engineered fabrication process, that is, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet assisted phase inversion coupled with surface functionalization. Compared with the membrane fabricated by conventional phase inversion, this novel membrane has four times higher water flux, significantly higher rejections of both oil (~99.9%) and surfactant (as high as 93.5%), and two thirds lower fouling ratio when treating surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsion. Due to its excellent performances and facile fabrication process, this nano-engineered membrane is expected to have wide practical applications in the oil/water separation fields of environmental protection and water purification. PMID:27087362

  19. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of...

  20. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of...

  1. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of...

  2. Experimental investigation of the physical properties of medium and heavy oils, their vaporization and use in explosion engines. Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinlein, Fritz

    1926-01-01

    While little has been accomplished in obtaining an abundant supply of light oils from coal and heavy oils, progress has been made on engine design to make use of the heavier oils. Progress has been made in two different directions which are outlined in this paper: the group of engines with medium and high-pressure carburetion in the cylinder; and the group of engines with low-pressure carburetion of the heavy oils before reaching the cylinder.

  3. First results with Mercedes-Benz DI diesel engines running on monoesters of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Ventura, L.M.; Nascimento, A.C.; Bandel, W.

    1982-01-01

    In their pure form the vegetable oils are not suitable for the use in modern DI diesel engines, due to the excessive carbon deposit on the injection nozzles and in the combustion chamber. Nevertheless, these oils are promising candidates as raw materials for alternative diesel fuels. Processes are being developed to transform the long vegetable oil molecules into smaller molecules in order to fulfill the fuel requirements of DI diesel engines. Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids e.g. obtained by transesterification of vegetable oils through their catalytic reaction with methanol and ethanol, have shown a typical diesel fuel behaviour in conventional DI engines without excessive deposit formation. Problems concerning lubricating oil contamiation, and possibile remedial measures to avoid it, are being examined. There are also problems to be solved in relation to white smoke formation and the odor of exhaust gases. 10 figures.

  4. Utilization of sunflower seed oil as a renewable fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Bruwer, J.J.; van der Boshoff, B.; Hugo, F.J.C.; Fuls, J.; Hawkins, C.; van der Walt, A.N.; Engelbrecht, A.; du Plessis, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Research, using several makes of diesel engine, showed that sunflower seed oil, and particularly an ethyl ester mixture, has the potential to extend diesel fuel provided solutions are found for injector coking problems. (MHR)

  5. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  6. Engineering evaluation of plant oils as diesel fuel. Final report. Vol. I

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; Johnson, L.A.; Lepori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1983-09-13

    This project includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil ethyl esters in both direct injection and precombustion chamber design diesel engines. It is one part of a major research program at Texas A and M University to study the technical feasibility of using plant oils or animal fats as alternative diesel fuels. Goals for the overall program are to define physical and chemical characteristics and optimum processing methods required for high quality alternative diesel fuels from plant or animal oils and to investigate effects of engine design on alternative fuel performance. This report describes work done under the current contract which includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil interesterified with ethanol as alternative diesel fuels. 15 figures, 18 tables.

  7. Fuel properties and engine performance of biodiesel from waste cooking oil collected in Dhaka city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, R. B.; Islam, R.; Uddin, M. N.; Ehsan, Md.

    2016-07-01

    Waste cooking oil can be a potential source of biodiesel that has least effect on the edible oil consumption. Increasing number of hotel-restaurants and more active monitoring by health authorities have increased the generation of waste cooking oil significantly in densely populated cities like Dhaka. If not used or disposed properly, waste cooking oil itself may generate lot of environmental issues. In this work, waste cooking oils from different restaurants within Dhaka City were collected and some relevant properties of these waste oils were measured. Based on the samples studied one with the highest potential as biodiesel feed was identified and processed for engine performance. Standard trans-esterification process was used to produce biodiesel from the selected waste cooking oil. Biodiesel blends of B20 and B40 category were made and tested on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance parameters included - bhp, bsfc and exhaust emission for rated and part load conditions. Results give a quantitative assessment of the potential of using biodiesel from waste cooking oil as fuel for diesel engines in Bangladesh.

  8. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The sample cell at the heart of CVX-2 will sit inside a thermostat providing three layers of insulation. The cell itself comprises a copper body that conducts heat efficiently and smoothes out thermal variations that that would destroy the xenon's uniformity. Inside the cell, the oscillating screen viscometer element is supported between two pairs of electrodes that deflect the screen and then measure screen motion.

  9. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Because xenon near the critical point will collapse under its own weight, experiments on Earth (green line) are limited as they get closer (toward the left) to the critical point. CVX in the microgravity of space (red line) moved into unmeasured territory that scientists had not been able to reach.

  10. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2001 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The thermostat for CVX sits inside the white cylinder on a support structure that is placed inside a pressure canister. A similar canister holds the electronics and control systems. The CVX-2 arrangement is identical. The principal investigator is Dr. Robert F. Berg (not shown) of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. This is a detail view of MSFC 0100143.

  11. Analysis of oil consumption in cylinder of diesel engine for optimization of piston rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junhong; Zhang, Guichang; He, Zhenpeng; Lin, Jiewei; Liu, Hai

    2013-01-01

    The performance and particulate emission of a diesel engine are affected by the consumption of lubricating oil. Most studies on oil consumption mechanism of the cylinder have been done by using the experimental method, however they are very costly. Therefore, it is very necessary to study oil consumption mechanism of the cylinder and obtain the accurate results by the calculation method. Firstly, four main modes of lubricating oil consumption in cylinder are analyzed and then the oil consumption rate under common working conditions are calculated for the four modes based on an engine. Then, the factors that affect the lubricating oil consumption such as working conditions, the second ring closed gap, the elastic force of the piston rings are also investigated for the four modes. The calculation results show that most of the lubricating oil is consumed by evaporation on the liner surface. Besides, there are three other findings: (1) The oil evaporation from the liner is determined by the working condition of an engine; (2) The increase of the ring closed gap reduces the oil blow through the top ring end gap but increases blow-by; (3) With the increase of the elastic force of the ring, both the left oil film thickness and the oil throw-off at the top ring decrease. The oil scraping of the piston top edge is consequently reduced while the friction loss between the rings and the liner increases. A neural network prediction model of the lubricating oil consumption in cylinder is established based on the BP neural network theory, and then the model is trained and validated. The main piston rings parameters which affect the oil consumption are optimized by using the BP neural network prediction model and the prediction accuracy of this BP neural network is within 8%, which is acceptable for normal engineering applications. The oil consumption is also measured experimentally. The relative errors of the calculated and experimental values are less than 10%, verifying the

  12. Performance of an IDI Engine Fueled with Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Formulated from Cotton Seeds Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates the performance of an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine fueled with cottonseed biodiesel while assessing the IDI engine multi-fuel capability. Millions of tons of cotton seeds are available in the southeast of the USA every year and they contain oils that can be transesteri...

  13. Long-term operation of a turbocharged diesel engine on soybean oil fuel blends

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemke, M.C.; Peters, J.F.; Schroer, B.

    1983-08-01

    It has been known for more than 50 years that some diesel engines could be fueled for short periods with vegetable oils, either neat or with hydrocarbon fuel additives. World overproduction of soybean oil is increasing its potential as an economical diesel fuel extender. The subject test program was undertaken to determine long-term effects of this alternate fuel on a modern, high-speed diesel engine. The choice of a vegetable oil (soybean oil) as an alternative diesel engine fuel or fuel extender rather than the other major biomass motor fuel (ethanol) is related to the relative properties of these fuels. The common U.S. vegetable oils are much closer to hydrocarbon (No. 2D) diesel fuel than is ethanol in both cetane rating and volumetric energy content. Unlike ethanol, the vegetable oils can be blended 1:1 with No. 2D fuel to produce engine power and volumetric fuel consumption levels practically identical to those obtained with 100% No. 2D fuel. However, engine operation and laboratory bench tests demonstrated that some fuel blends were unsatisfactory for continuous use. The reasons for these difficulties were determined and a satisfactory fuel blend was proven through prolonged testing.

  14. Compression ignition engine fuel properties of a used sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend

    SciTech Connect

    Oezaktas, T.

    2000-05-01

    Vegetable oils may be used with dilution modification technique as an alternative diesel fuel. In this study, a used sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend (20:80 {nu}/{nu}%) was investigated in a Pancar Motor E-108-type diesel engine to observe engine characteristics and exhaust emission. The effect of the compression ratio on ignition delay characteristics and smoke emissions of blend fuel was determined in this CFR engine. The results of fuel blends were compared with the reference grade No. 2-D diesel fuel.

  15. Metabolic engineering of cottonseed oil biosynthesis pathway via RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongping; Li, Jingwen; Guo, Xiaoping; Jin, Shuangxia; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed oil is recognized as an important oil in food industry for its unique characters: low flavor reversion and the high level of antioxidants (VitaminE) as well as unsaturated fatty acid. However, the cottonseed oil content of cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is only around 20%. In this study, we modified the accumulation of oils by the down-regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase 1 (GhPEPC1) via RNA interference in transgenic cotton plants. The qRT-PCR and enzyme activity assay revealed that the transcription and expression of GhPEPC1 was dramatically down-regulated in transgenic lines. Consequently, the cottonseed oil content in several transgenic lines showed a significant (P < 0.01) increase (up to 16.7%) without obvious phenotypic changes under filed condition when compared to the control plants. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of GhPEPC1 in the regulation of seed oil content, we quantified the expression of the carbon metabolism related genes of transgenic GhPEPC1 RNAi lines by transcriptome analysis. This analysis revealed the decrease of GhPEPC1 expression led to the increase expression of triacylglycerol biosynthesis-related genes, which eventually contributed to the lipid biosynthesis in cotton. This result provides a valuable information for cottonseed oil biosynthesis pathway and shows the potential of creating high cottonseed oil germplasm by RNAi strategy for cotton breeding. PMID:27620452

  16. Metabolic engineering of cottonseed oil biosynthesis pathway via RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhongping; Li, Jingwen; Guo, Xiaoping; Jin, Shuangxia; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed oil is recognized as an important oil in food industry for its unique characters: low flavor reversion and the high level of antioxidants (VitaminE) as well as unsaturated fatty acid. However, the cottonseed oil content of cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is only around 20%. In this study, we modified the accumulation of oils by the down-regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase 1 (GhPEPC1) via RNA interference in transgenic cotton plants. The qRT-PCR and enzyme activity assay revealed that the transcription and expression of GhPEPC1 was dramatically down-regulated in transgenic lines. Consequently, the cottonseed oil content in several transgenic lines showed a significant (P < 0.01) increase (up to 16.7%) without obvious phenotypic changes under filed condition when compared to the control plants. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of GhPEPC1 in the regulation of seed oil content, we quantified the expression of the carbon metabolism related genes of transgenic GhPEPC1 RNAi lines by transcriptome analysis. This analysis revealed the decrease of GhPEPC1 expression led to the increase expression of triacylglycerol biosynthesis-related genes, which eventually contributed to the lipid biosynthesis in cotton. This result provides a valuable information for cottonseed oil biosynthesis pathway and shows the potential of creating high cottonseed oil germplasm by RNAi strategy for cotton breeding. PMID:27620452

  17. Ferrographic and spectrometer oil analysis from a failed gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental gas turbine engine was destroyed as a result of the combustion of its titanium components. It was concluded that a severe surge may have caused interference between rotating and stationary compressor that either directly or indirectly ignited the titanium components. Several engine oil samples (before and after the failure) were analyzed with a Ferrograph, a plasma, an atomic absorption, and an emission spectrometer to see if this information would aid in the engine failure diagnosis. The analyses indicated that a lubrication system failure was not a causative factor in the engine failure. Neither an abnormal wear mechanism nor a high level of wear debris was detected in the engine oil sample taken just prior to the test in which the failure occurred. However, low concentrations (0.2 to 0.5 ppm) of titanium were evident in this sample and samples taken earlier. After the failure, higher titanium concentrations ( 2 ppm) were detected in oil samples taken from different engine locations. Ferrographic analysis indicated that most of the titanium was contained in spherical metallic debris after the failure. The oil analyses eliminated a lubrication system bearing or shaft seal failure as the cause of the engine failure.

  18. Ferrographic and spectrometer oil analysis from a failed gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental gas turbine engine was destroyed as a result of the combustion of its titanium components. It was concluded that a severe surge may have caused interference between rotating and stationary compressor parts that either directly or indirectly ignited the titanium components. Several engine oil samples (before and after the failure) were analyzed with a Ferrograph, and with plasma, atomic absorption, and emission spectrometers to see if this information would aid in the engine failure diagnosis. The analyses indicated that a lubrication system failure was not a causative factor in the engine failure. Neither an abnormal wear mechanism nor a high level of wear debris was detected in the engine oil sample taken just prior to the test in which the failure occurred. However, low concentrations (0.2 to 0.5 ppm) of titanium were evident in this sample and samples taken earlier. After the failure, higher titanium concentrations (2 ppm) were detected in oil samples taken from different engine locations. Ferrographic analysis indicated that most of the titanium was contained in spherical metallic debris after the failure. The oil analyses eliminated a lubrication system bearing or shaft seal failure as the cause of the engine failure. Previously announced in STAR as N83-12433

  19. Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales, engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.; Riley, R.H.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes a beneficiation facility designed to process 1620 tons per day of run-of-mine Alabama oil shale containing 12.7 gallons of kerogen per ton of ore (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay) suitable for feed to a hydroretort oil extraction facility of nominally 20,000 barrels per day capacity. The beneficiation plant design prepared includes the operations of crushing, grinding, flotation, thickening, filtering, drying, briquetting, conveying and tailings empoundment. A complete oil shale beneficiation plant is described including all anticipated ancillary facilities. For purposes of determining capital and operating costs, the beneficiation facility is assumed to be located on a generic site in the state of Alabama. The facility is described in terms of the individual unit operations with the capital costs being itemized in a similar manner. Additionally, the beneficiation facility estimated operating costs are presented to show operating costs per ton of concentrate produced, cost per barrel of oil contained in concentrate and beneficiation cost per barrel of oil extracted from concentrate by hydroretorting. All costs are presented in fourth quarter of 1988 dollars.

  20. Diesel engine endurance tests using JP-8 fuel blended with used engine oil. Interim report November 1996--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, E.A.; Yost, D.M.; Palacios, C.F.

    1998-07-01

    Tests were done to examine the feasibility of disposing of used engine oil from military vehicles by blending it with JP-8 engine fuel to be used in diesel vehicles. Two Army diesel engines were evaluated in cyclic endurance dynamometer test procedures using JP-8 fuel blended with 7.5% vol used oil. Results were compared to baseline performance using neat JP-8 fuel. The following major differences were observed when using blended fuel: Significant ashy deposits were found in the pre-combustion chamber of the 4-cycle diesel engine; indications of imminent exhaust valve burning (streaking) were found on the exhaust valves in the 2-cycle diesel engine. For both engines, condition was such that continuous use of 7.5 %vol blend would not be recommended. Considering it would take between 19--68 years for an Army engine to reach the end of endurance test condition, use of blended fuel 1 or 2 times per year is judged acceptable from an endurance standpoint.

  1. Experimental study on the performance characteristics and emission analysis of a diesel engine using vegetable oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Anup; Ehite, Ekramul Haque; Alam, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this research, Vegetable oils derived from Sesame Seed and Rice Bran were used and experimented upon. Using Kerosene as the solvent in varying proportions (30%, 50%, 70% by volume) with the vegetables oils, different blends of Sesame and Rice Bran Oils were produced. The important characteristic properties were found by experimentation and compared with those of Straight Run Diesel. Subsequently, Straight Run Diesel, vegetable oils and their blends were used to run a diesel engine one-by-one and the performance analysis was conducted, followed by an investigation of the exhaust emissions. From the comparative performance analysis, it was found that Rice Bran oil showed better performance as a fuel than Sesame with regards to power production and specific fuel consumption and also resulted in less Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission than Sesame oil blends.

  2. Classification and individualization of used engine oils using elemental composition and discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yuna; Kim, Nam Yee; Park, Seh Youn; Lee, Dong-Kye; Lee, Jin Hoon

    2013-07-10

    The six most common commercial automotive gasoline and diesel engine oils in the Republic of Korea, ZIC A, ZIC XQ RV/SUV, Kixx G1, Kixx RV, and the brand name products HD Premium gasoline and HD Premium diesel, were randomly used in nineteen different vehicles. Samples of seventy-six used engine oils, which were withdrawn from the sumps of those vehicles at different intervals, were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and statistically compared. Two data analysis strategies were used to interpret and understand the elemental profiles in the multi-dimensional data. Macro (additive elements of Ca, Zn and P) and trace (wear metal elements of Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb and Sn) elements were used as potential markers to determine the brand of oil used and the engine type in which the oil was used, and to trace the individual vehicle for forensic purposes. The discriminant analysis statistical technique was applied, and its prediction ability was assessed. In this study, 92.1%, 82.9% and 92.1% of the cross-validated grouped cases correctly predicted the brand of oil, the engine type and the vehicle that was the source of the oil, respectively. PMID:23806831

  3. Dynamic Oil Consumption Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines using Laser Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sellmeier, Stefan; Alonso, Eduardo; Boesl, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    A new approach has been developed to measure dynamic consumption of lubricant oil in an internal combustion engine. It is based on the already known technique where sulfur is used as a natural tracer of the engine oil. Since ejection of motor oil in gaseous form into the exhaust is by far the main source of engine oil consumption, detection of sulfur in the exhaust emission is a valuable way to measure engine oil consumption in a dynamic way. In earlier approaches, this is done by converting all sulfur containing chemical components into SO2 by thermal pyrolysis in a high temperature furnace at atmospheric pressure. The so-formed SO2 then is detected by broadband-UV-induced fluorescence or mass spectrometric methods. The challenge is to reach the necessary detection limit of 50 ppb. The new approach presented here includes sulfur conversion in a low-pressure discharge cell and laser-induced fluorescence with wavelength and fluorescence lifetime selection. A limit of detection down to 10 ppb at a temporal resolution in the time scale of few seconds is reached. Extensive, promising studies have been performed at a real engine test bench. Future developments of a compact, mobile device based on these improvements are discussed. PMID:24279690

  4. Dynamic Oil Consumption Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines using Laser Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sellmeier, Stefan; Alonso, Eduardo; Boesl, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    A new approach has been developed to measure dynamic consumption of lubricant oil in an internal combustion engine. It is based on the already known technique where sulfur is used as a natural tracer of the engine oil. Since ejection of motor oil in gaseous form into the exhaust is by far the main source of engine oil consumption, detection of sulfur in the exhaust emission is a valuable way to measure engine oil consumption in a dynamic way. In earlier approaches, this is done by converting all sulfur containing chemical components into SO2 by thermal pyrolysis in a high temperature furnace at atmospheric pressure. The so-formed SO2 then is detected by broadband-UV-induced fluorescence or mass spectrometric methods. The challenge is to reach the necessary detection limit of 50 ppb. The new approach presented here includes sulfur conversion in a low-pressure discharge cell and laser-induced fluorescence with wavelength and fluorescence lifetime selection. A limit of detection down to 10 ppb at a temporal resolution in the time scale of few seconds is reached. Extensive, promising studies have been performed at a real engine test bench. Future developments of a compact, mobile device based on these improvements are discussed.

  5. University of Idaho tests engines with biodiesel from waste oil

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.; Fleischman, G.

    1995-12-31

    This article reports on preliminary work at the University of Idaho that investigates the possibilities of capitalizing on Idaho`s large volumes of waste oil and potatoes-generated ethanol to produce biodiesel fuel. This fuel would be hydrogenated soy ethyl ester, MySEE for short, made through a reaction between waste oil and ethanol made from potato waste. Address for full report is given.

  6. Development of narrow width type oil control ring for motorcycle engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tateishi, Yukio; Fujimura, Kazuhiro; Ishihara, Katsushi; Watanabe, Masanor

    1995-12-31

    The reduction of piston ring friction forces, which account for high percentages of the total engine friction loss, is vital for the simultaneous attainments of lower fuel consumption, higher engine power and speed. The authors et al. noted a three-piece type oil control ring in this study, and strived for the development of an oil control ring with a narrow width and a low tangential force. A new three-piece, type oil control ring with a small tolerance on tangential force and a width of 1.2 to 1.5 mm has been successfully developed by studying the effect of such a ring on the lubricating oil consumption, while providing a spring function by press-forming a wire rod having a particular sectional shape.

  7. Viscosities of aqueous blended amines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.H.; Li, M.H.

    1997-07-01

    Solutions of alkanolamines are an industrially important class of compounds used in the natural gas, oil refineries, petroleum chemical plants, and synthetic ammonia industries for the removal of acidic components like CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from gas streams. The viscosities of aqueous mixtures of diethanolamine (DEA) + N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), DEA + 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP), and monoethanolamine (MEA) + 2-piperidineethanol (2-PE) were measured from 30 C to 80 C. A Redlich-Kister equation for the viscosity deviation was applied to represent the viscosity. On the basis of the available viscosity data for five ternary systems, MEA + MDEA + H{sub 2}O, MEA + AMP + H{sub 2}O, DEA + MDEA + H{sub 2}O, DEA + AMP + H{sub 2}O, and MEA + 2-PE + H{sub 2}O, a generalized set of binary parameters were determined. For the viscosity calculation of the systems tested, the overall average absolute percent deviation is about 1.0% for a total of 499 data points.

  8. Diesel fuels from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.W.; Bagby, M.O.; Freedman, B.

    1986-03-01

    Vegetable oils have heat contents approximately 90% that of diesel fuel and are potential alternate fuel candidates. A major obstacle deterring their use in the direct-injection diesel engine is their inherent high viscosities which are nearly 10 times that of diesel fuel. Solution to the viscosity problem has been approached in three ways: 1) microemulsification, 2) pyrolysis, and 3) transesterification. Microemulsification with short chain alcohols such as methanol and ethanol yields fuels that are clear, thermodynamically stable liquid systems with viscosities near the ASTM specified range for number2 diesel fuel. These micellar systems may be formulated ionically or nonionically. The alcohols are attractive from an economic as well as a renewable resource viewpoint. Methanol has an economic advantage over ethanol, and it can be derived from a large variety of base stocks. These include biomass, municipal waste, natural gas being flared at refineries and from coal. Pyrolysis of vegetable oils is another approach to lowering their viscosity. Soybean and safflower oils were thermally decomposed in both air and nitrogen to obtain fuels for the diesel engine. Using standard ASTM distillation conditions, yields of pyrolysis products were about 75%. GS-MS analysis of the distillates showed the presence of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, and carboxylic acids with carbon numbers ranging from 4 to more than 20. Fuel properties of the thermal decomposition products were substantially improved as evaluated by lower viscosities and higher cetane numbers compared to the unpyrrolyzed vegetable oils. Simple esters from transesterification of vegetable oils perform well in engine tests, and thus show good promise as an alternative or emergency fuel for diesel engines.

  9. Comparison of the constituents of two jet engine lubricating oils and their volatile pyrolytic degradation products.

    PubMed

    van Netten, C; Leung, V

    2000-03-01

    Leaking oil seals in jet engines, at locations prior to the compressor stage, can be a cause of smoke in the cabins of BAe-146 aircraft. Compressed combustion air is bled off to pressurize the cabin and to provide a source of fresh air. Bleed air is diverted from a location just prior to the combustion chamber at a temperature around 500 degrees C. To prevent oil breakdown products from entering the cabin air, catalytic converters have been used to clean the air. During an oil seal failure this device becomes overloaded and smoke is observed in the cabin. Some aircraft companies have removed the catalytic converters and claim an improvement in air quality. During an oil seal failure, however, the flight crew is potentially exposed to the thermal breakdown products of the engine oils. Because very little is known regarding the thermal breakdown products of jet engine lubrication oils, two commercially available oils were investigated under laboratory conditions at 525 degrees C to measure the release of CO, CO2,NO2, and HCN as well as volatiles which were analyzed using GC-Mass spectrometry in an attempt to see if the neurotoxic agents tricresyl phosphates (TCPs) and trimethyl propane phosphate (TMPP) would be present or formed. TMPP was not found in these experiments. Some CO2 was generated along with CO which reached levels in excess of 100 ppm. HCN and NO2 were not detected. GC compositions of the two bulk oils and their breakdown products were almost identical. The presence of TCPs was confirmed in the bulk oils and in the volatiles. Localized condensation in the ventilation ducts and filters in the air conditioning packs are likely the reason why the presence of TCPs has not been demonstrated in cabin air. It was recommended that this needed to be verified in aircraft.

  10. Comparison of the constituents of two jet engine lubricating oils and their volatile pyrolytic degradation products.

    PubMed

    van Netten, C; Leung, V

    2000-03-01

    Leaking oil seals in jet engines, at locations prior to the compressor stage, can be a cause of smoke in the cabins of BAe-146 aircraft. Compressed combustion air is bled off to pressurize the cabin and to provide a source of fresh air. Bleed air is diverted from a location just prior to the combustion chamber at a temperature around 500 degrees C. To prevent oil breakdown products from entering the cabin air, catalytic converters have been used to clean the air. During an oil seal failure this device becomes overloaded and smoke is observed in the cabin. Some aircraft companies have removed the catalytic converters and claim an improvement in air quality. During an oil seal failure, however, the flight crew is potentially exposed to the thermal breakdown products of the engine oils. Because very little is known regarding the thermal breakdown products of jet engine lubrication oils, two commercially available oils were investigated under laboratory conditions at 525 degrees C to measure the release of CO, CO2,NO2, and HCN as well as volatiles which were analyzed using GC-Mass spectrometry in an attempt to see if the neurotoxic agents tricresyl phosphates (TCPs) and trimethyl propane phosphate (TMPP) would be present or formed. TMPP was not found in these experiments. Some CO2 was generated along with CO which reached levels in excess of 100 ppm. HCN and NO2 were not detected. GC compositions of the two bulk oils and their breakdown products were almost identical. The presence of TCPs was confirmed in the bulk oils and in the volatiles. Localized condensation in the ventilation ducts and filters in the air conditioning packs are likely the reason why the presence of TCPs has not been demonstrated in cabin air. It was recommended that this needed to be verified in aircraft. PMID:10701290

  11. Confirmation of heavy metal ions in used lubricating oil from a passenger car using chelating self-assembled monolayer.

    PubMed

    Ko, Young Gun; Kim, Choong Hyun

    2006-09-01

    In order to prevent engine failure, the oil must be changed before it loses its protective properties. It is necessary to monitor the actual physical and chemical condition of the oil to reliably determine the optimum oil-change interval. Our study focuses on the condition of the lubricating oil in an operated car engine. Shear stress curves and viscosity curves as a function of the shear rate for fresh and used lubricating oil were examined. Metal nitrate was detected in the lubricating oil from the operated car engine through the use of a chelating self-assembled monolayer.

  12. Usability of food industry waste oils as fuel for diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Winfried, Russ; Roland, Meyer-Pittroff; Alexander, Dobiasch; Jürgen, Lachenmaier-Kölch

    2008-02-01

    Two cogeneration units were each fitted with a prechamber (IDI) diesel engine in order to test the feasibility of using waste oils from the food industry as a fuel source, and additionally to test emissions generated by the combustion of these fuels. Esterified waste oils and animal fats as well as mustard oil were tested and compared to the more or less "common" fuels: diesel, rapeseed oil and rapeseed methyl ester. The results show that, in principle, each of these fuels is suitable for use in a prechamber diesel engine. Engine performance can be maintained at a constant level. Without catalytic conversion, the nitrogen oxides emissions were comparable. A significant reduction in NO(x) was achieved through the injection of urea. Combining a urea injection with the SCR catalytic converter reduced NO(x) emissions between 53% and 67%. The carbon monoxide emissions from waste oils are not significantly different from those of "common" fuels and can be reduced the same way as of hydrocarbon emissions, through utilization of a catalytic converter. The rate of carbon monoxide reduction by catalytic conversion was 84-86%. A lower hydrocarbon concentration was associated with fuels of agricultural origin. With the catalytic converter a reduction of 29-42% achieved. Each prechamber diesel engine exhibited its own characteristic exhaust, which was independent of fuel type. The selective catalytic reduction of the exhaust emissions can be realized without restriction using fuels of agricultural origin.

  13. Fuels Coming from Locals Vegetables Oils for Operating of Thermals Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboue, Akichi; Yobou, Bokra

    The energy crisis born from the oil problem determined a renewal of attention on the possible possibilities of production of substitute fuels for the operation of the machines and the thermal engines. The fuel`s production based on vegetable oils require a renewal attention about the research of replacement fuel for the opeating of machines and thermal engines. Actually, the scientific world takes an interest in the research of others liquids fuel obtained with renewables energy sources whose vegetables have a good place. So, for helping to solve the fuel problem and particularly in third world countries without petroleum resources but producing fruits and oils seed, this research was about search of fuel from vegetables oils. Extraction and physico-chemical analysis performed on various vegetables plants show an interesting energy aspect. Evaluation of actually energy parameters will permit to do a comparison with classics fuel like gas-oil and petrol. Finally, analysis of thermal engines show that fuels coming from biomass like jatropha, ricinodendron and pistacia can to use for operating of those thermal engines.

  14. Characterization of vegetable oils for use as fuels in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.W. III.; Callahan, T.J.; Dodge, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    The current specifications for petroleum fuels have evolved over the history of the petroleum industry and the development of the internal combustion engine. Present day fuel specifications are based on a wealth of empirical data and practical experience. A similar data base is only now being developed for the specification of vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. Four different types of vegetable oil (soy, sunflower, cottonseed and peanut) have been obtained, each in at least three different stages of processing. All of the oils (14) have been characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties. The spray characteristics of five of the oils have been determined at a variety of fuel temperatures using a high-pressure, high-temperature injection bomb and high-speed motion picture camera. These same oils have been tested in a direct injection farm tractor engine. The engine data consists of the normal performance measurements as well as the determination of heat release rates from cylinder pressure data. 3 figures, 7 tables.

  15. Supercritical Fluid Synthesis and Tribological Applications of Silver Nanoparticle-decorated Graphene in Engine Oil Nanofluid.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yuan; Su, Fenghua; Chen, Yangzhi

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene nanocomposites were synthesized by a facile chemical reduction approach with the assistance of supercritical CO2 (ScCO2). The silver nanoparticles with diameters of 2-16 nm are uniformly distributed and firmly anchored on graphene nanosheets. The tribological properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposites as lubricant additives in engine oil were investigated by a four-ball tribometer. The engine oil with 0.06~0.10 wt.% Sc-Ag/GN nanocomposites displays remarkable lubricating performance, superior than the pure engine oil, the engine oil containing zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP), as well as the oil dispersed with the single nanomaterial of graphene oxides (GOs) and nano-Ag particles alone. The remarkable lubricating behaviors of Sc-Ag/GN probably derive from the synergistic interactions of nano-Ag and graphene in the nanocomposite and the action of the formed protective film on the contact balls. The anchored nano-Ag particles on graphene expand the interlamination spaces of graphene nanosheets and can prevent them from restacking during the rubbing process, resulting in the full play of lubricating activity of graphene. The formed protective film on the friction pairs significantly reduces the surface roughness of the sliding balls and hence preventing them from direct interaction during the sliding process. PMID:27488733

  16. Supercritical Fluid Synthesis and Tribological Applications of Silver Nanoparticle-decorated Graphene in Engine Oil Nanofluid

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yuan; Su, Fenghua; Chen, Yangzhi

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene nanocomposites were synthesized by a facile chemical reduction approach with the assistance of supercritical CO2 (ScCO2). The silver nanoparticles with diameters of 2–16 nm are uniformly distributed and firmly anchored on graphene nanosheets. The tribological properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposites as lubricant additives in engine oil were investigated by a four-ball tribometer. The engine oil with 0.06~0.10 wt.% Sc-Ag/GN nanocomposites displays remarkable lubricating performance, superior than the pure engine oil, the engine oil containing zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP), as well as the oil dispersed with the single nanomaterial of graphene oxides (GOs) and nano-Ag particles alone. The remarkable lubricating behaviors of Sc-Ag/GN probably derive from the synergistic interactions of nano-Ag and graphene in the nanocomposite and the action of the formed protective film on the contact balls. The anchored nano-Ag particles on graphene expand the interlamination spaces of graphene nanosheets and can prevent them from restacking during the rubbing process, resulting in the full play of lubricating activity of graphene. The formed protective film on the friction pairs significantly reduces the surface roughness of the sliding balls and hence preventing them from direct interaction during the sliding process. PMID:27488733

  17. Supercritical Fluid Synthesis and Tribological Applications of Silver Nanoparticle-decorated Graphene in Engine Oil Nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yuan; Su, Fenghua; Chen, Yangzhi

    2016-08-01

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene nanocomposites were synthesized by a facile chemical reduction approach with the assistance of supercritical CO2 (ScCO2). The silver nanoparticles with diameters of 2–16 nm are uniformly distributed and firmly anchored on graphene nanosheets. The tribological properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposites as lubricant additives in engine oil were investigated by a four-ball tribometer. The engine oil with 0.06~0.10 wt.% Sc-Ag/GN nanocomposites displays remarkable lubricating performance, superior than the pure engine oil, the engine oil containing zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP), as well as the oil dispersed with the single nanomaterial of graphene oxides (GOs) and nano-Ag particles alone. The remarkable lubricating behaviors of Sc-Ag/GN probably derive from the synergistic interactions of nano-Ag and graphene in the nanocomposite and the action of the formed protective film on the contact balls. The anchored nano-Ag particles on graphene expand the interlamination spaces of graphene nanosheets and can prevent them from restacking during the rubbing process, resulting in the full play of lubricating activity of graphene. The formed protective film on the friction pairs significantly reduces the surface roughness of the sliding balls and hence preventing them from direct interaction during the sliding process.

  18. Combustion Performance and Exhaust Emission of DI Diesel Engine Using Various Sources of Waste Cooking Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiq, Mohd; Azuhairi, Mohd; Jazair, Wira

    2010-06-01

    In Malaysia, more than 200-tone of cooking oil are used by domestic users everyday. After frying process, about a quarter of these cooking oil was remained and drained into sewage system. This will pollutes waterways and affects the ecosystem. The use of waste cooking oil (WCO) for producing bio-diesel was considered in economical factor which current production cost of bio-diesel production is higher in Malaysia due to higher price of palm oil. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the most suitable source of WCO to become a main source of bio-diesel for bio-diesel production in this country. To perform this research, three type of WCO were obtained from house's kitchen, cafeteria and mamak's restaurant. In this study, prospect of these bio-diesel source was evaluated based on its combustion performance and exhaust emissions operated in diesel engine in the form of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) and have been compared with pure diesel fuel. A 0.6 liter, single-cylinder, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine was used to perform this experiment. Experiment was done at variable engine loads and constant engine speed. As the result, among three stated WCOMEs, the one collected from house's kitchen gives the best performance in term of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (BP) with lowest soot emission.

  19. Supercritical Fluid Synthesis and Tribological Applications of Silver Nanoparticle-decorated Graphene in Engine Oil Nanofluid.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yuan; Su, Fenghua; Chen, Yangzhi

    2016-08-04

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene nanocomposites were synthesized by a facile chemical reduction approach with the assistance of supercritical CO2 (ScCO2). The silver nanoparticles with diameters of 2-16 nm are uniformly distributed and firmly anchored on graphene nanosheets. The tribological properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposites as lubricant additives in engine oil were investigated by a four-ball tribometer. The engine oil with 0.06~0.10 wt.% Sc-Ag/GN nanocomposites displays remarkable lubricating performance, superior than the pure engine oil, the engine oil containing zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP), as well as the oil dispersed with the single nanomaterial of graphene oxides (GOs) and nano-Ag particles alone. The remarkable lubricating behaviors of Sc-Ag/GN probably derive from the synergistic interactions of nano-Ag and graphene in the nanocomposite and the action of the formed protective film on the contact balls. The anchored nano-Ag particles on graphene expand the interlamination spaces of graphene nanosheets and can prevent them from restacking during the rubbing process, resulting in the full play of lubricating activity of graphene. The formed protective film on the friction pairs significantly reduces the surface roughness of the sliding balls and hence preventing them from direct interaction during the sliding process.

  20. Automated small scale oil seed processing plant for production of fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.C.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    University of Idaho seed processing research is centered about a CeCoCo oil expeller. A seed preheater-auger, seed bin, meal auger, and oil pump have been constructed to complete the system, which is automated and instrumented. The press, preheater, cake removal auger, and oil transfer pump are tied into a central panel where energy use is measured and the process controlled. Extracted oil weight, meal weight, process temperature, and input energy are all recorded during operation. The oil is transferred to tanks where it settles for 48 hours or more. It is then pumped through a filtering system and stored ready to be used as an engine fuel. The plant has processed over 11,000 kg of seed with an average extraction efficiency of 78 percent. 5 tables.

  1. Development of micro engine oil condition sensor using multi-wall carbon nanotube films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Dae Seok; Jung-Ho Pak, James; Kyeong Kim, Jai

    2007-03-01

    A new interdigit-type micro oil condition sensor was designed and fabricated for monitoring the deterioration of lubricating and insulating oils. The designed sensor operates based on the change of the dielectric constant and electrical conductivity. In order to improve sensor performance, an oil condition sensor was fabricated using MEMS technology and multi-wall carbon nanotube film. The experiment was performed with automobile engine oils with the same brand and quality so as to ensure measurement reliability. Capacitance changes were measured according to increasing mileage and the sensors' performance was improved. These results show that the proposed sensor could measure the degree of oil deterioration with a high sensitivity and it is applicable to other lubricating systems as well as insulating systems.

  2. Soy-Based, Water-Cooled, TC W-III Two Cycle Engine Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, Curtis R.; Miller, Mark E.

    2003-08-30

    The objective of this project was to achieve technical approval and commercial launch for a biodegradable soy oil-based, environmentally safe, TC W-III performance, water-cooled, two cycle engine oil. To do so would: (1) develop a new use for RBD soybean oil; (2) increase soybean utilization in North America in the range of 500 K-3.0 MM bushels; and (3) open up supply opportunities of 1.5-5.0 MM bushels worldwide. These goals have been successfully obtained.

  3. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of liquid xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Resembling a tiny bit of window screen, the oscillator at the heart of CVX-2 will vibrate between two pairs of paddle-like electrodes. The slight bend in the shape of the mesh has no effect on the data. What counts are the mesh's displacement in the xenon fluid and the rate at which the displacement dampens. The unit shown here is encased in a small test cell and capped with a sapphire windown to contain the xenon at high pressure.

  4. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine. PMID:24350455

  5. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine.

  6. Experimental investigation of engine emissions with marine gas oil-oxygenate blends.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2010-07-15

    This paper investigates the diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil-alternative fuel additive. Marine gas oil (MGO) was selected as base fuel for the engine experiments. An oxygenate, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DGM), and a biodiesel (BD) jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME) with a volume of 10% were blended with the MGO fuel. JOME was derived from inedible jatropha oil. Lower emissions with diesel-BD blends (soybean methyl ester, rapeseed methyl ester etc.) have been established so far, but the effect of MGO-BD (JOME) blends on engine performance and emissions has been a growing interest as JOME (BD) is derived from inedible oil and MGO is frequently used in maritime transports. No phase separation between MGO-DGM and MGO-JOME blends was found. The neat MGO, MGO-DGM and MGO-JOME blends are termed as MGO, Ox10 and B10 respectively. The experiments were conducted with a six-cylinder, four-stroke, turbocharged, direct-injection Scania DC 1102 (DI) diesel engine. The experimental results showed significant reductions in fine particle number and mass emissions, PM and smoke emissions with Ox10 and B10 fuels compared to the MGO fuel. Other emissions including total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and engine noise were also reduced with the Ox10 and B10 fuels, while maintaining similar brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and thermal efficiency with MGO fuel. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, on the other hand, were slightly higher with the Ox10 and B10 fuels at high engine load conditions. PMID:20452651

  7. Experimental investigation of engine emissions with marine gas oil-oxygenate blends.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2010-07-15

    This paper investigates the diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil-alternative fuel additive. Marine gas oil (MGO) was selected as base fuel for the engine experiments. An oxygenate, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DGM), and a biodiesel (BD) jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME) with a volume of 10% were blended with the MGO fuel. JOME was derived from inedible jatropha oil. Lower emissions with diesel-BD blends (soybean methyl ester, rapeseed methyl ester etc.) have been established so far, but the effect of MGO-BD (JOME) blends on engine performance and emissions has been a growing interest as JOME (BD) is derived from inedible oil and MGO is frequently used in maritime transports. No phase separation between MGO-DGM and MGO-JOME blends was found. The neat MGO, MGO-DGM and MGO-JOME blends are termed as MGO, Ox10 and B10 respectively. The experiments were conducted with a six-cylinder, four-stroke, turbocharged, direct-injection Scania DC 1102 (DI) diesel engine. The experimental results showed significant reductions in fine particle number and mass emissions, PM and smoke emissions with Ox10 and B10 fuels compared to the MGO fuel. Other emissions including total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and engine noise were also reduced with the Ox10 and B10 fuels, while maintaining similar brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and thermal efficiency with MGO fuel. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, on the other hand, were slightly higher with the Ox10 and B10 fuels at high engine load conditions.

  8. Engineering industrial oil biosynthesis: cloning and characterization of Kennedy pathway acyltransferases from novel oilseed species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than twenty years, various industrial, governmental, and academic laboratories have developed and refined genetic engineering strategies aimed at manipulating lipid metabolism in plants and microbes. The goal of these projects is to produce renewable specialized oils that can effectively c...

  9. The pipeline oil pumping engineering based on the Plant Wide Control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikov, D. P.; Rybakov, E. A.; Gromakov, E. I.

    2015-04-01

    This article provides recommendations for the use technology Plant Wide Control to control the pumping of oil through the pipeline. The proposed engineering using pipeline management in general (Pipe Wide Control) will reduce the loss of electric power at the expense of the balance of pumping stations located along the pipeline route.

  10. Quantifying the Contribution of Lubrication Oil Carbon to Particulate Emissions from a Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W; Rich, D; Cheng, A S

    2003-01-31

    The contribution of lubrication oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions from a Cummins B5.9 Diesel engine was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to trace carbon isotope concentrations. The engine operated at fixed medium load (285 N-m (210 ft.lbs.) at 1600 rpm) used 100% biodiesel fuel (8100) with a contemporary carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) concentration of 103 amol {sup 14}C mg C. The {sup 14}C concentration of the exhaust CO{sub 2} and PM were 102 and 99 amol {sup 14}C/mg C, respectively. The decrease in {sup 14}C content in the CO, and PM are due to the consumption of lubrication oil which is {sup 14}C-free. Approximately 4% of the carbon in PM came from lubrication oil under these operating conditions.

  11. Quantifying the Contribution of Lubrication Oil to Particulate Emissions from a Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A S; Rich, D; Dibble, R W; Buchholz, B A

    2002-12-06

    The contribution of lubrication oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions from a Cummins B5.9 Diesel engine was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to trace carbon isotope concentrations. The engine operated at fixed medium load (285 N-m (210 ft.lbs.) 1600 m) used 100% biodiesel fuel (B100) with a contemporary carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) concentration of 103 amol {sup 14}C/ mg C. The C concentration of the exhaust C02 and PM were 102 and 99 amol {sup 14}C/mg C, respectively. The decrease in I4C content in the PM is due to the consumption of lubrication oil which is {sup 14}C-free. Approximately 4% of the carbon in PM came from lubrication oil under these operating conditions. The slight depression in CO{sub 2} isotope content could be attributed to ambient CO{sub 2} levels and measurement uncertainty.

  12. Microbial desalination cell for enhanced biodegradation of waste engine oil using a novel bacterial strain Bacillus subtilis moh3.

    PubMed

    Sabina, K; Fayidh, Mohammed A; Archana, G; Sivarajan, M; Babuskin, S; Babu, P Azhagu Saravana; Radha, K Krishnan; Sukumar, M

    2014-01-01

    Microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a bioelectrochemical system developed recently from microbial fuel cells (MFCs), for producing green energy from organic wastes along with desalination of saltwater. MDC is proved to be a better performer than MFC in terms of power output and chemical oxygen demand removal, with desalination as an additional feature. This study investigates the application potential of MDC for integrated biodegradation of waste engine oil. This study showed, for the first time, that waste engine oil could be used as an organic substrate in MDC, achieving biodegradation of engine oil along with considerable desalination and power production. Utilization of these wastes in MDC can protect the environment from waste engine oil contamination. Indigenous oil-degrading bacteria were isolated and identified from engine oil contaminated sludge. Degradation of waste engine oil by these novel isolates was studied in batch cultures and optimized the growth conditions. The same cultures when used in MDC, gave enhanced biodegradation (70.1 +/- 0.5%) along with desalination (68.3 +/- 0.6%) and power production (3.1 +/- 0.3 mW/m2). Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses were performed to characterize the degradation metabolites in the anolyte of MDC which clearly indicated the biodegradation of long chain, branched and cyclic hydrocarbons present in waste engine oil.

  13. Role of lubrication oil in particulate emissions from a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Arthur L; Stipe, Christopher B; Habjan, Matthew C; Ahlstrand, Gilbert G

    2007-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that trace metals emitted by internal combustion engines are derived mainly from combustion of lubrication oil. This hypothesis was examined by investigation of the formation of particulate matter emitted from an internal combustion engine in the absence of fuel-derived soot. Emissions from a modified CAT 3304 diesel engine fueled with hydrogen gas were characterized. The role of organic carbon and metals from lubrication oil on particle formation was investigated under selected engine conditions. The engine produced exhaust aerosol with log normal-size distributions and particle concentrations between 10(5) and 10(7) cm(-3) with geometric mean diameters from 18 to 31 nm. The particles contained organic carbon, little or no elemental carbon, and a much larger percentage of metals than particles from diesel engines. The maximum total carbon emission rate was estimated at 1.08 g h(-1), which is much lower than the emission rate of the original diesel engine. There was also evidence that less volatile elements, such as iron, self-nucleated to form nanoparticles, some of which survive the coagulation process. PMID:17969702

  14. Role of lubrication oil in particulate emissions from a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Arthur L; Stipe, Christopher B; Habjan, Matthew C; Ahlstrand, Gilbert G

    2007-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that trace metals emitted by internal combustion engines are derived mainly from combustion of lubrication oil. This hypothesis was examined by investigation of the formation of particulate matter emitted from an internal combustion engine in the absence of fuel-derived soot. Emissions from a modified CAT 3304 diesel engine fueled with hydrogen gas were characterized. The role of organic carbon and metals from lubrication oil on particle formation was investigated under selected engine conditions. The engine produced exhaust aerosol with log normal-size distributions and particle concentrations between 10(5) and 10(7) cm(-3) with geometric mean diameters from 18 to 31 nm. The particles contained organic carbon, little or no elemental carbon, and a much larger percentage of metals than particles from diesel engines. The maximum total carbon emission rate was estimated at 1.08 g h(-1), which is much lower than the emission rate of the original diesel engine. There was also evidence that less volatile elements, such as iron, self-nucleated to form nanoparticles, some of which survive the coagulation process.

  15. Anisotropic eddy viscosity models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carati, D.; Cabot, W.

    1996-01-01

    A general discussion on the structure of the eddy viscosity tensor in anisotropic flows is presented. The systematic use of tensor symmetries and flow symmetries is shown to reduce drastically the number of independent parameters needed to describe the rank 4 eddy viscosity tensor. The possibility of using Onsager symmetries for simplifying further the eddy viscosity is discussed explicitly for the axisymmetric geometry.

  16. Amine bearing polymeric particles as acid neutralizers for engine oils

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore, A.N.; Chattha, M.S.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a lubricating oil composition consisting of a major proportion of a lubricating base oil and about 0.1 to 15 weight percent of an acid neutralizing additive which consists of polymer particles (a) bearing pendant amine groups, and (b) having a diameter of about 500 A and 10,000 A. The amine functional particles are formed by reacting polymer particles bearing pendant epoxide groups with a secondary amine in an amount so as to react essentially all of the epoxide groups on the epoxide bearing polymer particles with the secondary amine. The polymer particles bearing pendant epoxide groups are formed by the free radical addition polymerization of: (a) between about 50 and about 100 weight percent of an ethylenically unsaturated monomers bearing an epoxide group, and (b) 0 up to about 50 weight percent of other monoethylenically unsaturated monomers; in the presence of: (I) a non-polar organic liquid which is a solvent for the polymerizable monomers, but a non-solvent for the resultant polymer, and (II) polymeric dispersion stabilizer containing at least two segments, with one segment being solvated by the non-polar organic liquid and the second segment being of different polarity than the first segment and relatively insoluble in the non-polar organic liquid. The second segment of the stabilizer is chemically attached to the polymerized particle.

  17. The use of surface layer with boron in friction pairs lubricated by engine oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczypiński-Sala, W.; Lubas, J.

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to determine the influence of surface layers with boron and engine oil on the processes of friction and wear in friction pairs. The ring samples with borided surface layer cooperated under test conditions with counterparts made with CuPb30 and AlSn20 bearing alloys. During the tests, the friction pairs were lubricated with 15W/40 Lotos mineral oil and 5W/40 Lotos synthetic oil. The lubrication of friction area with Lotos mineral oil causes the reduction of the friction force, the temperature in the friction area and the wear of the bearing alloys under study, whereas the lubrication with Lotos synthetic oil reduces the changes in the geometrical structure of the cooperating friction pair elements. Lubrication of the friction area in the start-up phase of the friction pair by mineral oil causes faster stabilization of the friction conditions in the contact area than in the cause of lubrication of the friction pair by synthetic oil. The intensity of wear of the AlSn20 bearing alloy cooperating with the borided surface layer is three times smaller than the intensity of use of the CuPb30 alloy bearing.

  18. On-farm production of soybean oil and its properties as a fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    This study presents the design of a system for on-farm production of soybean oil for use as a fuel in compression ignition engines. The soybean oil production system consists of a heat exchanger to heat the beans with the exhaust gas of an engine, a screw press and a system for water degumming and drying the expressed crude oil. Optimum parameters of the oil production system were found. The rheological properties of soybean oil, ester of soybean oil and blends of the above with diesel fuel and diesel fuel additives are given. Data on soybean temperature, outlet gas temperature and thermal efficiency were obtained from a developed mathematical model of the heat exchanger. Chemical analyses show that crude oil from the press is similar to that of commercially degummed oil. The degumming process is not needed for the crude oil to be used as a fuel in compression ignition engines. Rheological properties of the soybean oil and soybean oil diesel fuel mixture show that the fluids have viscosities of time independent characteristics and are Newtonian fluids. Diesel fuel additives having low viscosities can be used to lower the viscosity of soybean oil and blends with diesel fuel but the effect is insignificant.

  19. High-speed Oil Engines for Vehicles. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausfelder, Ludwig

    1927-01-01

    Further progress toward the satisfactory solution of the difficult problem of the distribution and atomization of the injected fuel was made by extensive experimentation with various fuel valves, nozzles, and atomizing devices. Valuable information was also obtained through numerous experimental researches on the combustion of oils and the manner of introducing the combustion air into the cylinder, as well as on the physical processes of atomization, the determination of the size of drops, etc. These researches led to the conclusion that it is possible, even without producing great turbulence in the combustion chamber and at moderate pump pressure, if the degree of atomization and the penetrative power of the fuel jet are adapted to the shape of the combustion chamber and to the dimensions of the cylinder.

  20. Metabolic engineering of plant oils and waxes for use as industrial feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Vanhercke, Thomas; Wood, Craig C; Stymne, Sten; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2013-02-01

    Society has come to rely heavily on mineral oil for both energy and petrochemical needs. Plant lipids are uniquely suited to serve as a renewable source of high-value fatty acids for use as chemical feedstocks and as a substitute for current petrochemicals. Despite the broad variety of acyl structures encountered in nature and the cloning of many genes involved in their biosynthesis, attempts at engineering economic levels of specialty industrial fatty acids in major oilseed crops have so far met with only limited success. Much of the progress has been hampered by an incomplete knowledge of the fatty acid biosynthesis and accumulation pathways. This review covers new insights based on metabolic flux and reverse engineering studies that have changed our view of plant oil synthesis from a mostly linear process to instead an intricate network with acyl fluxes differing between plant species. These insights are leading to new strategies for high-level production of industrial fatty acids and waxes. Furthermore, progress in increasing the levels of oil and wax structures in storage and vegetative tissues has the potential to yield novel lipid production platforms. The challenge and opportunity for the next decade will be to marry these technologies when engineering current and new crops for the sustainable production of oil and wax feedstocks.

  1. The potential of Chromolaena odorata (L) to decontaminate used engine oil impacted soil under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Atagana, Harrison Ifeanyichukwu

    2011-08-01

    This study reports on the use of Chromolaena odorata (L) R.M. King and H. Robinson, an Asteraceae (compositae) and an invasive alien weed in Africa for the remediation of soil contaminated with used engine oil. Used engine oilfrom a motor service garage was used to artificially contaminate soil taken from a garden to give total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) of between 1 and 40 g kg(-1). Chromolaena odorata (L), propagated by stem cuttings were transplanted into the contaminated soil and watered just enough to keep the soil at about 70% water holding capacity for 90 day. A set of control experiments containing 40 g kg(-1) used engine oil but without plants was set up. All experiments were set up in triplicates. Although the plants in the experiments containing higher than 30 g kg(-1) used engine oil showed relatively slower growth (fewer branches and leaves, and shorter in height) compared to those containing lower concentrations, the plants in all the experiments continued to grow until the end of the 90 day period. Residual TPH after 90 days showed that between 21 and 100% of oil was lost from the planted soil while only 11.5% was lost in the control, which did not contain plants during the same period. Analysis of plant tissues showed that both shoot and root tissues contained detectable levels of TPH and selected PAHs were also detectable. Biomass accumulation by Chromolaena odorata was affected adversely by concentrations of oil higher than 20 g kg(-1). Results of germination rates and germination energy measurements showed that Chromolaena odorata was able to reduce the toxicity of the contaminated soil after 90 days as compared to soils containing freshly contaminated soiL

  2. Preliminary Analysis for an Optimized Oil-Free Rotorcraft Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Bruckner, Robert J.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Radil, Kevin C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in gas foil bearing technology have led to numerous advanced high-speed rotating system concepts, many of which have become either commercial products or experimental test articles. Examples include Oil-Free microturbines, motors, generators and turbochargers. The driving forces for integrating gas foil bearings into these high-speed systems are the benefits promised by removing the oil lubrication system. Elimination of the oil system leads to reduced emissions, increased reliability, and decreased maintenance costs. Another benefit is reduced power plant weight. For rotorcraft applications, this would be a major advantage, as every pound removed from the propulsion system results in a payload benefit. Implementing foil gas bearings throughout a rotorcraft gas turbine engine is an important long-term goal that requires overcoming numerous technological hurdles. Adequate thrust bearing load capacity and potentially large gearbox applied radial loads are among them. However, by replacing the turbine end, or hot section, rolling element bearing with a gas foil bearing many of the above benefits can be realized. To this end, engine manufacturers are beginning to explore the possibilities of hot section gas foil bearings in propulsion engines. This paper presents a logical follow-on activity by analyzing a conceptual rotorcraft engine to determine the feasibility of a foil bearing supported core. Using a combination of rotordynamic analyses and a load capacity model, it is shown to be reasonable to consider a gas foil bearing core section.

  3. Attempts to prevent injector coking with sunflower oil by engine modifications and fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    van der Walt, A.N.; Hugo, F.J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of injector tip temperature on coking propencity when sunflower oil is used as a fuel for direct injection engines, was tested. Partial retraction of the injector, the addition of a heat shield to the injector and cooling the injector with water was tried. Also, injector temperature was increased by reducing heat transferred to the cylinder head and preheating the sunflower oil. None of these measures could prevent coking of the injector tip. Coating the injector tip with Teflon and increasing the back leakage rate was also tried without success. Only a few of many additives tested, showed some promise of being able to prevent coking. 5 figures, 1 table.

  4. Combination counterbalance and oil slinger for horizontal shaft engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kronich, P.G.

    1988-05-03

    In an internal combustion engine including a crankcase having moving parts therein including a piston, a connecting rod pivotally connected to the piston, a substantially horizontally disposed rotatable crankshaft pivotally connected to the connecting rod, and a crankshaft counterweight connected to the crankshaft, and a lubricating fluid sump below the moving parts, a counterbalancing and lubricating mechanism is described comprising: lubricating fluid in the sump; an eccentric member rotatably mounted substantially parallel to the crankshaft in the sump and substantially vertically in line below the piston and the crankshaft; drive means coupling together the crankshaft and the eccentric member for rotatably driving the eccentric member in counterrotation to the crankshaft to balance forces created by the moving parts; deflector means extending at least partially above the level of the lubricating fluid and being at least partially positioned above the eccentric member for directing thrown lubricating fluid towards the moving parts.

  5. A study on the performance and emission characteristics of esterified pinnai oil tested in VCR engine.

    PubMed

    Ashok Kumar, T; Chandramouli, R; Mohanraj, T

    2015-11-01

    Biodiesel is a clean renewable fuel derived from vegetable oils and animal fats. It is biodegradable, oxygenated, non toxic and free from sulfur and aromatics. The biodiesel prepared from pinnai oil undergoes acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification process. The fatty acid methyl esters components were identified using gas chromatography and compared with the standard properties. The properties of biodiesel are comparable with diesel. The yield of the biodiesel production depends upon the process parameters such as reaction temperature, pH, time duration and amount of catalyst. The yield of biodiesel by transesterification process was 73% at 55°C. This fuel was tested in a variable compression ratio engine with blend ratios of B10 and B20. During the test runs the compression ratio of the engine was varied from 15:1 to 18:1 and the torque is adjusted from zero to maximum value of 22Nm. The performance characteristics such as the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption and exhaust gas temperature of the engine are analyzed. The combustion characteristics of biodiesel like ignition delay, combustion duration and maximum gas temperature and the emission characteristics are also analyzed. The performance characteristics, combustion characteristics and engine emission are effective in the variable compression ratio engine with biodiesel and it is compared with diesel.

  6. Oil consumption measurements of a production engine using the sulfur-trace method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Verlyn Royal

    Controlling the oil consumption of diesel engines is important for customer satisfaction. Existing oil consumption measurement methods are adequate; however, improved methods offer the possibility of faster and more comprehensive results. The sulfur-trace method is an example. Major objectives of this investigation were to adopt a sulfur-trace analyzer for oil consumption measurements, to improve the oil consumption measurement process, and to demonstrate application of the sulfur-trace instrument to individual cylinder sampling. To achieve these objectives, four research questions were applied: (1) What procedures and attention to detail are required? (2) how can results be reported to maximize data interpretation? (3) how do the advantages of the sulfur-trace method compare with the drain-and-weigh method? and (4) what is recommended as an optimized test method? Addressing Research Question 1 required careful attention to numerous parts of the sulfur-trace instrument. These parts included: (a) insulating and heating the exhaust sample lines, (b) ensuring continuous and proper operation of the ozone generator, (c) controlling the precise flow rate of the sample, and (d) removing excess water from the sample. Addressing Research Question 2 required a strip chart recorder, a spreadsheet template, and a chart template to organize, record, and report data. The strip chart recorder provided a backup analog record and a means to document daily activity. Raw data were entered into a spreadsheet for subsequent analyses required for chart reporting. Addressing Research Question 3 included a comparison of sulfur-trace vs. drain-and-weigh method durations and capabilities. After optimization, the same oil consumption results were collected in 10 minutes using the sulfur-trace method as compared with the 100 hours required for the drain-and-weigh method. More importantly, the sulfur-trace method may be used to collect oil consumption data from each individual cylinder, which

  7. Effect of temperature on the lubrication characteristics between the piston ring and the cylinder liner of internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Harigaya, Yasuo; Ichinose, Minoru; Suzuki, Michiyoshi

    1996-12-31

    One technology for the advancement of efficiency of an internal combustion engine is to reduce the mechanical friction power loss on lubricated surfaces of the engine. For the attainment of higher efficiency of the engine, the minute investigation of lubrication characteristics and the various improvements are indispensable. The effect of temperature on the lubrication characteristics between a piston ring and a cylinder liner is studied by using Reynolds equation and energy equation in which the heat generated from the viscous dissipation. The oil film temperature between the ring and the liner is affected by the ring and the liner temperatures and viscous dissipation. Viscous dissipation is affected by the viscosity of oil film, the velocity of ring and the oil film thickness between the ring and the liner. The viscosity of the oil film between the ring and the liner is evaluated by the oil film temperature and it decreases with the increase of the oil film temperature for the viscous dissipation. The lubrication characteristics, that is the oil film thickness and the friction force, are affected largely by the viscosity of the oil film. Under the condition of viscosity varied with temperature, the oil film thickness and the friction force are lower than those under the condition of constant viscosity except the position near TDC in a cycle, because the oil film viscosity decreases with the increase of piston speed and the oil film temperature rise. It is very important to consider the thermohydrodynamic lubrication for the analysis of the lubrication characteristics between the piston ring and the cylinder liner in the internal combustion engine.

  8. Viscosity and compressibility of diacylglycerol under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malanowski, Aleksander; Rostocki, A. J.; Kiełczyński, P.; Szalewski, M.; Balcerzak, A.; Kościesza, R.; Tarakowski, R.; Ptasznik, S.; Siegoczyński, R. M.

    2013-03-01

    The influence of high pressure on viscosity and compressibility of diacylglycerol (DAG) oil has been presented in this paper. The investigated DAG oil was composed of 82% of DAGs and 18% TAGs (triacylglycerols). The dynamic viscosity of DAG was investigated as a function of the pressure up to 400 MPa. The viscosity was measured by means of the surface acoustic wave method, where the acoustic waveguides were used as sensing elements. As the pressure was rising, the larger ultrasonic wave attenuation was observed, whereas amplitude decreased with the liquid viscosity augmentation. Measured changes of physical properties were most significant in the pressure range near the phase transition. Deeper understanding of DAG viscosity and compressibility changes versus pressure could shed more light on thermodynamic properties of edible oils.

  9. Sensitivity and Antioxidant Response of Chlorella sp. MM3 to Used Engine Oil and Its Water Accommodated Fraction.

    PubMed

    Ramadass, Kavitha; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-07-01

    We exposed the microalgal strain, Chlorella sp. MM3, to unused or used engine oil, or their water accommodated fractions (WAFs) to determine growth inhibition and response of antioxidant enzymes. Oil type and oil concentration greatly affected the microalgal growth. Used oil at 0.04 % (0.4 g L(-1)) resulted in 50 % inhibition in algal growth, measured in terms of chlorophyll-a, while the corresponding concentration of unused oil was nontoxic. Similarly, used oil WAF showed significant toxicity to the algal growth at 10 % level, whereas WAF from unused oil was nontoxic even at 100 % concentration. Peroxidase enzyme in the microalga significantly increased with used oil at concentrations above 0.04 g L(-1) whereas the induction of superoxide dismutase and catalase was apparent only at 0.06 g L(-1). Activities of the antioxidant enzymes increased significantly when the microalga was exposed to 75 and 100 % WAF obtained from used oil. The used oil toxicity on microalga could be due to the presence of toxic soluble mono- and polyaromatic compounds, heavy metals, and other compounds attained by the oil during its use in the motor engines.

  10. Direct observation of oil consumption mechanisms in a production spark ignition engine using fluorescence techniques. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lusted, R.M.

    1994-05-01

    The oil consumption characteristics of a four cylinder, normally aspirated spark-ignition engine were investigated for different piston ring end-gap configurations. A radiotracer was used to perform direct measurement of the oil consumption while Laser-induced Fluorescence (LIF) was used to perform the oil film thickness measurements for consumption predictions using the 'Puddle Theory of Oil Consumption,' which relates oil consumption to second land film thickness and reverse flow through top ring gap. The consumption data was evaluated to determine the impact of top ring end-gap azimuthal location on oil consumption. The film thickness data was used to evaluate the extent to which the oil Puddle Theory predicts variations seen in the actual oil consumption. A tritium radiotracer oil consumption measurement system with an accuracy of 94.6% was designed and constructed. This was used to perform direct measurements of the test engine oil consumption in two different test matrices. The first evaluated a piston ring configuration with the rings free to rotate. The second evaluated configurations with the top ring and second piston rings pinned to fix the azimuthal location of the end-gap; the azimuth of the top ring was varied. In the second test matrix, the oil film thickness on the piston's second land was measured, and predictions were made on the basis of that measurement.

  11. Engineering plant oils as high-value industrial feedstocks for biorefining: the need for underpinning cell biology research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant oils represent renewable sources of long-chain hydrocarbons that can be used as both fuel and chemical feedstocks, and genetic engineering offers an opportunity to create further high-value specialty oils for specific industrial uses. While many genes have been identified for the production of...

  12. Identification of lubrication oil in the particulate matter emissions from engine exhaust of in-service commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhong; Herndon, Scott C; Ziemba, Luke D; Timko, Michael T; Liscinsky, David S; Anderson, Bruce E; Miake-Lye, Richard C

    2012-09-01

    Lubrication oil was identified in the organic particulate matter (PM) emissions of engine exhaust plumes from in-service commercial aircraft at Chicago Midway Airport (MDW) and O'Hare International Airport (ORD). This is the first field study focused on aircraft lubrication oil emissions, and all of the observed plumes described in this work were due to near-idle engine operations. The identification was carried out with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS) via a collaborative laboratory and field investigation. A characteristic mass marker of lubrication oil, I(85)/I(71), the ratio of ion fragment intensity between m/z = 85 and 71, was used to distinguish lubrication oil from jet engine combustion products. This AMS marker was based on ion fragmentation patterns measured using electron impact ionization for two brands of widely used lubrication oil in a laboratory study. The AMS measurements of exhaust plumes from commercial aircraft in this airport field study reveal that lubrication oil is commonly present in organic PM emissions that are associated with emitted soot particles, unlike the purely oil droplets observed at the lubrication system vent. The characteristic oil marker, I(85)/I(71), was applied to quantitatively determine the contribution from lubrication oil in measured aircraft plumes, which ranges from 5% to 100%.

  13. Viscosity and Solvation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses theories underlying the phenomena of solution viscosities, involving the Jones and Dole equation, B-coefficient determination, and flickering cluster model. Indicates that viscosity measurements provide a basis for the study of the structural effects of ions in aqueous solutions and are applicable in teaching high school chemistry. (CC)

  14. Viscosity measuring using microcantilevers

    DOEpatents

    Oden, Patrick Ian

    2001-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the viscosity of a fluid uses a micromachined cantilever mounted on a moveable base. As the base is rastered while in contact with the fluid, the deflection of the cantilever is measured and the viscosity determined by comparison with standards.

  15. Viscosity of pure hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Knapstad, B.; Skjolsvik, P.A.; Oye, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate viscosity measurements have been performed on eight pure hydrocarbons at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range 20-150/sup 0/C, or up to approximately 20/sup 0/C below the boiling point of the hydrocarbon, by use of an absolute oscillating viscometer. The hydrocarbons are cyclohexane and benzene and the n-alkanes of hexane, heptane, octane, decane, dodecane, and tetradecane. The viscosities are described with a modified Arrhenius equation, and the deviation in fit is 0.12% or less. The accuracy is estimated to be 0.33-0.56%. The lowest viscosities are assumed to have the highest deviation. Literature data reported by Dymond and Young normally fit our viscosities within our estimated accuracy. Other literature viscosities tend to be higher than our results, especially for the n-alkanes.

  16. Development of Viscosity Model for Petroleum Industry Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motahhari, Hamed reza

    Heavy oil and bitumen are challenging to produce and process due to their very high viscosity, but their viscosity can be reduced either by heating or dilution with a solvent. Given the key role of viscosity, an accurate viscosity model suitable for use with reservoir and process simulators is essential. While there are several viscosity models for natural gases and conventional oils, a compositional model applicable to heavy petroleum and diluents is lacking. The objective of this thesis is to develop a general compositional viscosity model that is applicable to natural gas mixtures, conventional crudes oils, heavy petroleum fluids, and their mixtures with solvents and other crudes. The recently developed Expanded Fluid (EF) viscosity correlation was selected as a suitable compositional viscosity model for petroleum applications. The correlation relates the viscosity of the fluid to its density over a broad range of pressures and temperatures. The other inputs are pressure and the dilute gas viscosity. Each fluid is characterized for the correlation by a set of fluid-specific parameters which are tuned to fit data. First, the applicability of the EF correlation was extended to asymmetric mixtures and liquid mixtures containing dissolved gas components. A new set of mass-fraction based mixing rules was developed to calculate the fluid-specific parameters for mixtures. The EF correlation with the new set of mixing rules predicted the viscosity of over 100 mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds and carbon dioxide with overall average absolute relative deviations (AARD) of less than 10% either with measured densities or densities estimated by Advanced Peng-Robinson equation of state (APR EoS). To improve the viscosity predictions with APR EoS-estimated densities, general correlations were developed for non-zero viscosity binary interaction parameters. The EF correlation was extended to non-hydrocarbon compounds typically encountered in natural gas industry. It was

  17. Measurement of viscosity, density and gas solubility of refrigerant blends

    SciTech Connect

    Cavestri, R.C.; Munk, J. )

    1993-04-01

    Liquid/liquid miscibilities of four different 32 ISO VG polyolesters and one alkylbenzene at three concentrations were determined. Also a full vapor lubricant equilibrium (VLE) viscosity reduction of a 32 ISO VG mineral oil with HCFC-22 is complete. Partial viscosity reduction information by the fractionate components from R-502 in 32 ISO VG mineral oil is presented from 40C (104C) and 70C (158F) isotherms.

  18. Critical Viscosity of Xenon team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The thermostat for CVX sits inside the white cylinder on a support structure (at left) that is placed inside a pressure canister. A similar canister (right) holds the electronics and control systems. The CVX-2 arrangement is identical. The principal investigator is Dr. Robert F. Berg (not shown) of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

  19. Critical Viscosity of Xenon team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The thermostat for CVX sits inside the white cylinder on a support structure (at left) that is placed inside a pressure canister. A similar canister (right) holds the electronics and control systems. The CVX-2 arrangement is identical. The principal investigator is Dr. Robert F. Berg (left) of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

  20. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

    2010-04-01

    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

  1. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    PubMed Central

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7–33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6–52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10–39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  2. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    PubMed

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine).

  3. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    PubMed

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  4. SG oils

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlin, W.

    1988-01-01

    Automobile manufacturers worldwide have targeted improved vehicle quality as a major goal. Engine oil quality is one component in the quest for an improved quality image. Engine design changes have imposed increased stresses on engine oils. API SG oils will provide a margin of protection to the engine against sludge and varnish deposit formation and valve train wear.

  5. Sunflower oil methyl ester as diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, D.J.; Hasan, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methyl ester formation represents one approach to overcome the problems associated with the relatively high viscosity of sunflower oil when used as a diesel fuel replacement. Sunflower oil methyl ester is being prepared at the University of North Dakota Engieering Experiment Station. Physical and chemical properties of this material at varying levels of refinement and purity will be used to define fuel properties. Engine testing is being carried out to determine if the fouling characteristics of methyl ester are significantly less than those of sunflower oil. 1 figure, 1 table.

  6. Human factors engineering in oil and gas--a review of industry guidance.

    PubMed

    Robb, Martin; Miller, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production activities are carried out in hazardous environments in many parts of the world. Recent events in the Gulf of Mexico highlight those risks and underline the importance of considering human factors during facility design. Ergonomic factors such as machinery design, facility and accommodation layout and the organization of work activities have been systematically considered over the past twenty years on a limited number of offshore facility design projects to a) minimize the occupational risks to personnel, b) support operations and maintenance tasks and c) improve personnel wellbeing. During this period, several regulators and industry bodies such as the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Oil and Gas Producers (OGP), and Norway's Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) have developed specific HFE design standards and guidance documents for the application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) to the design and operation of Oil and Gas projects. However, despite the existence of these guidance and recommended design practise documents, and documented proof of their value in enhancing crew safety and efficiency, HFE is still not well understood across the industry and application across projects is inconsistent. This paper summarizes the key Oil and Gas industry bodies' HFE guidance documents, identifies recurring themes and current trends in the use of these standards, provides examples of where and how these HFE standards have been used on past major offshore facility design projects, and suggests criteria for selecting the appropriate HFE strategy and tasks for future major oil and gas projects. It also provides a short history of the application of HFE to the offshore industry, beginning with the use of ASTM F 1166 to a major operator's Deepwater Gulf of Mexico facility in 1990 and the application of HFE to diverse world regions. This

  7. Laboratory endurance test of a sunflower oil blend in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper compares the effects of using a 25 to 75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel in a diesel engine as compared to a baseline test on diesel fuel. There were no significant problems with engine operation during the baseline test. However, problems were experienced while using the blended fuel. The major problems were (1) abnormal buildup on the injection nozzle tips, (2) injector needle sticking, (3) secondary injection, (4) carbon buildup in the intake ports, (5) carbon deposits on the exhaust valve stems, (6) carbon filling of the compression ring grooves, and (7) abnormal lacquer and varnish buildup on the third piston land. 6 figures, 4 tables.

  8. Influence of vegetable oil based alternate fuels on residue deposits and components wear in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.; Pratt, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend (v/v) of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a non-ionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil were evaluated as fuels in a direct injected, turbocharged, intercooled, 4-cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during a 200-hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance test. Engine performance on Phillips 2-D reference fuel served as baseline for the experimental fuels. This investigation employed an analysis of variance to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings and wear of engine parts for all tested fuels. The paper deals with carbon and lacquer formation and its effect on long-term engine performance as experienced during the operation with the alternate fuels. Significantly heavier deposits than for the diesel fuel were observed for the microemulsion and 25-75 sunflower oil blend. particularly on the exhaust and intake valve stems, on the piston lands, and in the piston grooves. In all tests engine wear was not significant. The final dimensions of the measured elements did not exceed the manufacturer's initial parts specifications.

  9. Determining the optimal number and position of damping viscose (MR) in seismic vibration control of buildings to use genetic algorithms (fuzzy engineering application)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatami, Farzad; Karimi, Esmail

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, study optimization performance of damping semi-active viscose MR in order to reduce the seismic vibrations of a building with 12 floors. For this purpose, we used genetic algorithms to obtain optimal number and optimal situation in 15 major earthquakes with different frequency content through which final status damping are determined. Investigating the influence of this type of damper on the construct dynamic response, the construct equation has been written regarding dampers .Then, the aforesaid equation has been transmitted to the situational setting ,the optimum quantity of each damper in the form of time function has been computed using optimization algorithm genetic and, the construct response has been determined. The results show that different positions of optimal in the structure height can have different effects on different responses. In a way that aligned damping in the upper parts of structures although much reduced Roof floor shift but are less than the rate of decline in shear force base. It also aligned damping in the bottom parts of structures are less than the rate of decline in base shear force roof and floor shift. Therefore, by determining optimized position of optimal by genetic algorithms that can simultaneously optimize the rate of reduction in the structure response.

  10. Engineering and Economics of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal (CARA) Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; White, Loring P.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    This Open-File report contains illustrative materials, in the form of PowerPoint slides, used for an oral presentation given at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth of petroleum resources held on March 10-11, 2008. The presentation focused on engineering and economic aspects of the Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal (CARA) project, with a special emphasis on the costs related to the development of hypothetical oil and gas fields of different sizes and reservoir characteristics in the North Danmarkshavn Basin off the northeast coast of Greenland. The individual PowerPoint slides highlight the topics being addressed in an abbreviated format; they are discussed below, and are amplified with additional text as appropriate. Also included in this report are the summary results of a typical ?run? to generate the necessary capital and operating costs for the development of an offshore oil field off the northeast coast of Greenland; the data are displayed in MS Excel format generated using Questor software (IHS Energy, Inc.). U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acknowledges that this report includes data supplied by IHS Energy, Inc.; Copyright (2008) all rights reserved. IHS Energy has granted USGS the permission to publish this report.

  11. Nuclear viscosity and viscosity to entropy ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dani; Mekjian, Aram

    2010-11-01

    Both a classical and a quantum mechanical evaluation of the shear viscosity of hadronic matter is developed and compared. The classical evaluation involves the scattering angle produced by a potential while a quantum description is based on phase shifts from this potential. A hard sphere potential and an attractive square well potential are considered. The classical evaluation of the scattering angle can be cast into a form that has the structure of Snell's refraction law for an attractive potential. The limit of a large index of refraction gives the hard sphere result. The high wave number limit of the quantum result for a hard sphere has a scaling law associated with it. This scaling law is similar to a result which gives a factor of two increase of the hard sphere geometric scattering cross section. This increase is associated with diffraction of the wave around the sphere. The quantum mechanical evaluation is discussed in the unitary limit of infinite scattering length. In the limit of large scattering length the effective range to quantum thermal wavelength appears as a limiting scale. The viscosity to entropy density ratio is developed. Results are compared with the string theory limit for this ratio involving Planck's constant.

  12. Strong mutagenic effects of diesel engine emissions using vegetable oil as fuel.

    PubMed

    Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Emmert, Birgit; Westphal, Götz; Müller, Michael; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Diesel engine emissions (DEE) are classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. In recent years every effort was made to reduce DEE and their content of carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic compounds. Since 1995 we observed an appreciable reduction of mutagenicity of DEE driven by reformulated or newly designed fuels in several studies. Recently, the use of rapeseed oil as fuel for diesel engines is rapidly growing among German transportation businesses and agriculture due to economic reasons. We compared the mutagenic effects of DEE from two different batches of rapeseed oil (RSO) with rapeseed methyl ester (RME, biodiesel), natural gas derived synthetic fuel (gas-to-liquid, GTL), and a reference diesel fuel (DF). The test engine was a heavy-duty truck diesel running the European Stationary Cycle. Particulate matter from the exhaust was sampled onto PTFE-coated glass fibre filters and extracted with dichloromethane in a soxhlet apparatus. The gas phase constituents were sampled as condensates. The mutagenicity of the particle extracts and the condensates was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Compared to DF the two RSO qualities significantly increased the mutagenic effects of the particle extracts by factors of 9.7 up to 59 in tester strain TA98 and of 5.4 up to 22.3 in tester strain TA100, respectively. The condensates of the RSO fuels caused an up to factor 13.5 stronger mutagenicity than the reference fuel. RME extracts had a moderate but significant higher mutagenic response in assays of TA98 with metabolic activation and TA100 without metabolic activation. GTL samples did not differ significantly from DF. In conclusion, the strong increase of mutagenicity using RSO as diesel fuel compared to the reference DF and other fuels causes deep concern on future usage of this biologic resource as a replacement of established diesel fuels.

  13. Biodegradation of complex hydrocarbons in spent engine oil by novel bacterial consortium isolated from deep sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Ganesh Kumar, A; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Joshi, Gajendra; Magesh Peter, D; Dharani, G; Kirubagaran, R

    2014-10-01

    Complex hydrocarbon and aromatic compounds degrading marine bacterial strains were isolated from deep sea sediment after enrichment on spent engine (SE) oil. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the isolates were related to members of the Pseudoalteromonas sp., Ruegeria sp., Exiguobacterium sp. and Acinetobacter sp. Biodegradation using 1% (v/v) SE oil with individual and mixed strains showed the efficacy of SE oil utilization within a short retention time. The addition of non-ionic surfactant 0.05% (v/v) Tween 80 as emulsifying agent enhanced the solubility of hydrocarbons and renders them more accessible for biodegradation. The degradation of several compounds and the metabolites formed during the microbial oxidation process were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The potential of this consortium to biodegrade SE oil with and without emulsifying agent provides possible application in bioremediation of oil contaminated marine environment.

  14. Study on Apparent Viscosity and Structure of Foaming Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsson, Johan; Glaser, Björn; Sichen, Du

    2016-07-01

    Foaming slag was generated using induction heating. The foam was found non-Newtonian having much higher apparent viscosity compared to the dynamic viscosity of pure slag. Quenched foam was examined. The appearance of the foaming slag was very different from silicone oil-gas foam. The size of gas bubbles ranged from 0.1 to 4 mm (while in the case of silicone oil, 1 to 2 mm). The gas fraction in the foam was considerably lower than in the case of silicone oil.

  15. Study on Apparent Viscosity and Structure of Foaming Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsson, Johan; Glaser, Björn; Sichen, Du

    2016-10-01

    Foaming slag was generated using induction heating. The foam was found non-Newtonian having much higher apparent viscosity compared to the dynamic viscosity of pure slag. Quenched foam was examined. The appearance of the foaming slag was very different from silicone oil-gas foam. The size of gas bubbles ranged from 0.1 to 4 mm (while in the case of silicone oil, 1 to 2 mm). The gas fraction in the foam was considerably lower than in the case of silicone oil.

  16. Comparative analysis of the long-term performance of a diesel engine on vegetable oil based alternate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.; Pratt, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend (v/v) of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a non-ionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil were evaluated as fuels in a direct injected, turbo-charged, intercooled, 4-cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during 200-hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance tests. Engine performance on Phillips 2-D reference fuel served as baseline for the experimental fuels. The experiment was conducted to develop prediction equations to determine the effects of alternate fuels on long-term engine performance. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze long-term effects the test fuels had on engine performance and to simultaneously compare the test fuels. Several variables were used to measure engine performance. These response variables were volumetric fuel flow, energy input, power output, brake specific energy consumption, exhaust temperature and exhaust smoke. The predictor variables were time of the EMA cycle and fuel type. Two multivariate tests were performed in this analysis. The first tested the significance of time on the response variable. The second tested the fuel effect. Both tests were significant. The results of the univariate regressions indicated that time had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. In all other cases, time was not a factor. However, significant difference in the intercepts of the prediction equations were found between tested fuels.

  17. Acute toxicity of virgin and used engine oil enriched with copper nano particles in the earthworm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodabandeh, M.; Koohi, M. K.; Roshani, A.; Shahroziyan, E.; Badri, B.; Pourfallah, A.; Shams, Gh; Hobbenaghi, R.; Sadeghi-Hashjin, G.

    2011-07-01

    In spite of development of nanotechnology and creation of new opportunities for industry, new applications and products initiated by this technology may cause harmful effects on human health and environment. Unfortunately, there is no sufficient information on the harmful effects caused by application of some nano materials; the current knowledge in this field is limited solely to the nano particles but not the final products. Nano cupper particles, as one of the common materials produced in industrial scale is widely used as additives into engine oil to reduce friction and improve lubrication. However, the difference between the effects of virgin and used conventional engine oil (CEO) and the engine oil containing cupper nano particles (NEO) on the environment is not known. Earthworm, as a one of the species which could live and survive in different sorts of earth and has a certain role in protecting the soil structure and fertility, was used in this experiment. In accordance with the recommended method of OECD.1984, Filter Paper test in 24 and 48 h based on 8 concentrations in the range of 3×10-3 - 24×10-3 ml/cm2 and Artificial Soil test in 7 and 14 days based on 7 concentrations in the range of 0.1 mg/kg - 100 g/kg were carried out to study earthworms in terms of lifetime (LC50), morphology and pathology. It was shown that the 48 h LC50 for virgin CEO, virgin NEO, used CEO(8000 km) and used NEO (8000 km) were 6×10-3, 23×10-3, 24×10-3 and 16×10-3 ml/cm2 respectively. Furthermore, 14-day LC50 in artificial soil for all cases were above 100 g/kg. It is concluded that virgin CEO is more toxic than virgin NEO. Meanwhile, the CEO shows significant reduction in toxicity after consumption and the used NEO shows more toxicity in comparison to virgin product. It seems that more investigations on the effects of final products specifically after consumption is necessary because the products after consumption have the most contact with environment and subsequently

  18. Effect of cylinder distortions and piston ring design on oil consumption and friction losses in automobile engines

    SciTech Connect

    Brombolich, L.J.

    1988-07-01

    Much analysis has been done on piston ring design in circular cylinder bores; however, engine bores are never perfectly circular. Mechanical loads, from machining operations and assembling the engine, and thermal loads cause distortion of the engine bores. Engine bore distortions are important in predicting the effectiveness of piston rings to control oil consumption, yet minimize friction in spark ignited engines. Only recently has the effect of these bore distortions been investigated. The RING program has been developed to analyze ring conformability in distorted cylinder bores. In particular, oil transport and friction are predicted for the engine cycle. The finite element technique was used in a non-linear contact solution for the piston ring pack in a distorted bore. The inter-ring gas pressure loads and piston and ring dynamic loads are computed for the ring pack. The Reynolds' equation is solved for lubricant film thickness. Hydrodynamic or boundary friction power losses are calculated based on the lubricant film thickness between the ring and bore. During development of the program, correlation of results were made with experimental measurements. Oil consumption and friction measurements of operating production engines with measured bore distortions were compared with results from the RING program. Predicted gaps between the piston ring and distorted bore were verified with measurements of gaps for a ring in a ring gage. Results from the RING program and the correlation analysis confirm the importance of distortions in predicting engine performance. Bore distortions should also be considered in predicting emission and wear in reciprocating engine designs to improve engine performance and life. 106 refs., 70 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. A Study on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine Using Fish Oil Biodiesel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesha, D. K.; Thimmannachar, Rajiv K.; Simhasan, R.; Nagappa, Manjunath; Gowda, P. M.

    2012-07-01

    Bio-fuel is a clean burning fuel made from natural renewable energy resource; it operates in C. I. engine similar to the petroleum diesel. The rising cost of diesel and the danger caused to the environment has led to an intensive and desperate search for alternative fuels. Among them, animal fats like the fish oil have proven to be a promising substitute to diesel. In this experimental study, A computerized 4-stroke, single cylinder, constant speed, direct injection diesel engine was operated on fish oil-biodiesel of different blends. Three different blends of 10, 20, and 30 % by volume were used for this study. Various engine performance, combustion and emission parameters such as Brake Thermal Efficiency, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, Heat Release Rate, Peak Pressure, Exhaust Gas Temperature, etc. were recorded from the acquired data. The data was recorded with the help of an engine analysis software. The recorded parameters were studied for varying loads and their corresponding graphs have been plotted for comparison purposes. Petroleum Diesel has been used as the reference. From the properties and engine test results it has been established that fish oil biodiesel is a better replacement for diesel without any engine modification.

  20. Performance and emission of generator Diesel engine using methyl esters of palm oil and diesel blends at different compression ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldhaidhawi, M.; Chiriac, R.; Bădescu, V.; Pop, H.; Apostol, V.; Dobrovicescu, A.; Prisecaru, M.; Alfaryjat, A. A.; Ghilvacs, M.; Alexandru, A.

    2016-08-01

    This study proposes engine model to predicate the performance and exhaust gas emissions of a single cylinder four stroke direct injection engine which was fuelled with diesel and palm oil methyl ester of B7 (blends 7% palm oil methyl ester with 93% diesel by volume) and B10. The experiment was conducted at constant engine speed of 3000 rpm and different engine loads operations with compression ratios of 18:1, 20:1 and 22:1. The influence of the compression ratio and fuel typeson specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency has been investigated and presented. The optimum compression ratio which yields better performance has been identified. The result from the present work confirms that biodiesel resulting from palm oil methyl ester could represent a superior alternative to diesel fuel when the engine operates with variable compression ratios. The blends, when used as fuel, result in a reduction of the brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, while NOx emissions was increased when the engine is operated with biodiesel blends.

  1. Viscosity of colloidal suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, E.G.D.; Schepper, I.M. de

    1995-12-31

    Simple expressions are given for the effective Newtonian viscosity as a function of concentration as well as for the effective visco-elastic response as a function of concentration and imposed frequency, of monodisperse neutral colloidal suspensions over the entire fluid range. The basic physical mechanisms underlying these formulae are discussed. The agreement with existing experiments is very good.

  2. A study of oil lubrication in a rotating engine using stroboscopic neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillinger, Burkhard; Brunner, Johannes; Calzada, Elbio

    2006-11-01

    Even at modern high-flux neutron sources, the required exposure time for one neutron radiography image with high counting statistics is in the order of 1 s. Continuous time-resolved imaging of objects in motion is thus very limited in time resolution and signal dynamics. However, repetitive motions can be recorded with a stroboscopic technique: A triggerable accumulating detector is triggered for many identical time windows of the cyclic motion until sufficient fluence is accumulated for one image. The image is read out, the delay for the time window is shifted and the recording repeated until a complete movie of the cyclic motion can be put together. We report about a study of oil flux in a running, electrically driven BMW engine out of current production.

  3. Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes: application to oil-film measurements in an internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Ghandhi, J B

    2000-10-20

    Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes have been utilized to study oil-film behavior in a firing Diesel engine. A detailed analysis of the response characteristics of these probes was performed, and universal response curves have been generated through identification of the appropriate nondimensional parameters. For single-fiber probes a single curve was obtained, and for dual-fiber probes families of curves were identified based on three geometric dimensionless parameters. The complementary response characteristics of the single- and dual-fiber probes allows determination of the oil distribution within the piston-liner gap. The dual-fiber probe is not sensitive at small distances. Thus its signal originates solely from the piston surface, whereas the single-fiber probe is most sensitive at small distances and hence to the wall oil film. The engine data from the dual-fiber probe confirmed the presence of an oil film on the piston and provided a means of quantifying the transport of this oil within the engine. PMID:18354541

  4. Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes: application to oil-film measurements in an internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Ghandhi, J B

    2000-10-20

    Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes have been utilized to study oil-film behavior in a firing Diesel engine. A detailed analysis of the response characteristics of these probes was performed, and universal response curves have been generated through identification of the appropriate nondimensional parameters. For single-fiber probes a single curve was obtained, and for dual-fiber probes families of curves were identified based on three geometric dimensionless parameters. The complementary response characteristics of the single- and dual-fiber probes allows determination of the oil distribution within the piston-liner gap. The dual-fiber probe is not sensitive at small distances. Thus its signal originates solely from the piston surface, whereas the single-fiber probe is most sensitive at small distances and hence to the wall oil film. The engine data from the dual-fiber probe confirmed the presence of an oil film on the piston and provided a means of quantifying the transport of this oil within the engine.

  5. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Conformity under 40 CFR part 86, 40 CFR part 89, or 40 CFR part 1039 and the certification of the vehicle or... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of...

  6. Application of a Combustion Model to a Diesel Engine Fueled with Vegetable Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Rosca; Edward, Rakosi; Comsa, Iulian-Agape; Radu, Gaiginschi

    The paper presents the application of a three component model to the theoretical study of the combustion process of a Diesel engine fueled with sunflower oil and sunflower oil-Diesel fuel mixtures. The model assumes that the working fluid consists of three components: the fresh air, the flame and the burned gases. The combustion model uses the energy conservation equation: vc·Qc·dξα=dUα+dLα+dQwα, [1] where vc is the fuel cyclic dose, Qc is the fuel heating value, ξα=vcα/vc, vcα is the quantity of burned fuel up to the moment α, Uα is the internal energy of the working fluid, Qwα is the heat exchanged through the cylinder walls and Lα is the mechanical work. The heat release law was assumed to be a Vibe type one: ξα=Rc·[1-exp(-6.9·AmPp+1)]+(1-Rc)·[1-exp(-6.9·Amd+1)], [2] where: ·Ap=(α-αd)/(αP-αd) and A=(α-αd)/(αF-αd) ·αd-start of combustion angle ·αf-end of combustion angle ·αP-end of rapid combustion angle. Using Eqs. [1] and [2] we have obtained the cylinder pressure during combustion, for the vegetable fuels taken into account; the peak values were confirmed during the experiments.

  7. Highly branched polyethylenes as lubricant viscosity and friction modifiers

    DOE PAGES

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Zhou, Yan; Qu, Jun; Bays, J. Timothy; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-10-08

    A series of highly branched polyethylene (BPE) were prepared and evaluated in a Group I base oil as potential viscosity and friction modifiers. The performance of these BPEs supports the expected dual functionality. Changes in polarity, topology, and molecular weight of the BPEs showed significant effects on the lubricants' performance with respect to viscosity index and friction reduction. In conclusion, this study provides scientific insights into polymer design for future lubricant development activities.

  8. Application of microwave irradiation for the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls from siloxane transformer and hydrocarbon engine oils.

    PubMed

    Antonetti, Claudia; Licursi, Domenico; Raspolli Galletti, Anna Maria; Martinelli, Marco; Tellini, Filippo; Valentini, Giorgio; Gambineri, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    The removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) both from siloxane transformer oil and hydrocarbon engine oil was investigated through the application of microwave (MW) irradiation and a reaction system based on polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and potassium hydroxide. The influence of the main reaction parameters (MW irradiation time, molecular weight of PEG, amount of added reactants and temperature) on the dechlorination behavior was studied. Promising performances were reached, allowing about 50% of dechlorination under the best experimental conditions, together time and energy saving compared to conventional heating systems. Moreover, an interesting dechlorination degree (up to 32%) was achieved for siloxane transformer oil when MW irradiation was employed as the unique driving force. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time in which MW irradiation is tested as the single driving force for the dechlorination of these two types of PCB-contaminated oils.

  9. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for Forty Global Oilfields Using a Detailed Engineering-Based Model of Oil Production.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Adam R; Sun, Yuchi; Bharadwaj, Sharad; Livingston, David; Tan, Eugene; Gordon, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the energy return on investment (EROI) for oil production generally rely on aggregated statistics for large regions or countries. In order to better understand the drivers of the energy productivity of oil production, we use a novel approach that applies a detailed field-level engineering model of oil and gas production to estimate energy requirements of drilling, producing, processing, and transporting crude oil. We examine 40 global oilfields, utilizing detailed data for each field from hundreds of technical and scientific data sources. Resulting net energy return (NER) ratios for studied oil fields range from ≈2 to ≈100 MJ crude oil produced per MJ of total fuels consumed. External energy return (EER) ratios, which compare energy produced to energy consumed from external sources, exceed 1000:1 for fields that are largely self-sufficient. The lowest energy returns are found to come from thermally-enhanced oil recovery technologies. Results are generally insensitive to reasonable ranges of assumptions explored in sensitivity analysis. Fields with very large associated gas production are sensitive to assumptions about surface fluids processing due to the shifts in energy consumed under different gas treatment configurations. This model does not currently include energy invested in building oilfield capital equipment (e.g., drilling rigs), nor does it include other indirect energy uses such as labor or services. PMID:26695068

  10. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for Forty Global Oilfields Using a Detailed Engineering-Based Model of Oil Production

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Adam R.; Sun, Yuchi; Bharadwaj, Sharad; Livingston, David; Tan, Eugene; Gordon, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the energy return on investment (EROI) for oil production generally rely on aggregated statistics for large regions or countries. In order to better understand the drivers of the energy productivity of oil production, we use a novel approach that applies a detailed field-level engineering model of oil and gas production to estimate energy requirements of drilling, producing, processing, and transporting crude oil. We examine 40 global oilfields, utilizing detailed data for each field from hundreds of technical and scientific data sources. Resulting net energy return (NER) ratios for studied oil fields range from ≈2 to ≈100 MJ crude oil produced per MJ of total fuels consumed. External energy return (EER) ratios, which compare energy produced to energy consumed from external sources, exceed 1000:1 for fields that are largely self-sufficient. The lowest energy returns are found to come from thermally-enhanced oil recovery technologies. Results are generally insensitive to reasonable ranges of assumptions explored in sensitivity analysis. Fields with very large associated gas production are sensitive to assumptions about surface fluids processing due to the shifts in energy consumed under different gas treatment configurations. This model does not currently include energy invested in building oilfield capital equipment (e.g., drilling rigs), nor does it include other indirect energy uses such as labor or services. PMID:26695068

  11. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for Forty Global Oilfields Using a Detailed Engineering-Based Model of Oil Production.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Adam R; Sun, Yuchi; Bharadwaj, Sharad; Livingston, David; Tan, Eugene; Gordon, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the energy return on investment (EROI) for oil production generally rely on aggregated statistics for large regions or countries. In order to better understand the drivers of the energy productivity of oil production, we use a novel approach that applies a detailed field-level engineering model of oil and gas production to estimate energy requirements of drilling, producing, processing, and transporting crude oil. We examine 40 global oilfields, utilizing detailed data for each field from hundreds of technical and scientific data sources. Resulting net energy return (NER) ratios for studied oil fields range from ≈2 to ≈100 MJ crude oil produced per MJ of total fuels consumed. External energy return (EER) ratios, which compare energy produced to energy consumed from external sources, exceed 1000:1 for fields that are largely self-sufficient. The lowest energy returns are found to come from thermally-enhanced oil recovery technologies. Results are generally insensitive to reasonable ranges of assumptions explored in sensitivity analysis. Fields with very large associated gas production are sensitive to assumptions about surface fluids processing due to the shifts in energy consumed under different gas treatment configurations. This model does not currently include energy invested in building oilfield capital equipment (e.g., drilling rigs), nor does it include other indirect energy uses such as labor or services.

  12. Comparison of High-Speed Operating Characteristics of Size 215 Cylindrical-Roller Bearings as Determined in Turbojet Engine and in Laboratory Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E Fred; Nemeth, Zolton N

    1951-01-01

    A comparison of the operating characteristics of 75-millimeter-bore (size 215) cylindrical-roller one-piece inner-race-riding cage-type bearings was made using a laboratory test rig and a turbojet engine. Cooling correlation parameters were determined by means of dimensional analysis, and the generalized results for both the inner- and outer-race bearing operating temperatures are compared for the laboratory test rig and the turbojet engine. Inner- and outer-race cooling-correlation curves were obtained for the turbojet-engine turbine-roller bearing with the same inner- and outer-race correlation parameters and exponents as those determined for the laboratory test-rig bearing. The inner- and outer-race turbine roller-bearing temperatures may be predicted from a single curve, regardless of variations in speed, load, oil flow, oil inlet temperature, oil inlet viscosity, oil-jet diameter or any combination of these parameters. The turbojet-engine turbine-roller-bearing inner-race temperatures were 30 to 60 F greater than the outer-race-maximum temperatures, the exact values depending on the operating condition and oil viscosity; these results are in contrast to the laboratory test-rig results where the inner-race temperatures were less than the outer-race-maximum temperatures. The turbojet-engine turbine-roller bearing, maximum outer-race circumferential temperature variation was approximately 30 F for each of the oils used. The effect of oil viscosity on inner- and outer-race turbojet-engine turbine-roller-bearing temperatures was found to be significant. With the lower viscosity oil (6x10(exp -7) reyns (4.9 centistokes) at 100 F; viscosity index, 83), the inner-race temperature was approximately 30 to 35 F less than with the higher viscosity oil (53x10(exp -7) reyns (42.8 centistokes) at 100 F; viscosity index, 150); whereas the outer-race-maximum temperatures were 12 to 28 F lower with the lower viscosity oil over the DN range investigated.

  13. A new approach involving a multi transducer ultrasonic system for cleaning turbine engines' oil filters under practical conditions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Ngo, Huu Hao; Yoon, Yong Soo; Chang, Soon Woong; Bui, Hong Ha

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a green technology that can clean turbine engine oil filters effectively in ships using ultrasound, with ultrasonic devices having a frequency of 25kHz and different powers of 300W and 600W, respectively. The effects of temperature, ultrasonic cleaning times, pressure losses through the oil filter, solvent washing, and ultrasonic power devices were investigated. In addition, the cleaning efficiency of three modes (hand washing, preliminary washing and ultrasonic washing) were compared to assess their relative effectiveness. Experimental results revealed that the necessary ultrasonic time varied significantly depending on which solvent was used for washing. For instance, the optimum ultrasonic cleaning time was 50-60min when the oil filter was cleaned in a solvent of kerosene oil (KO) and over 80min when in a solvent of diesel oil (DO) using the same ultrasonic generator device (25kHz, 600W) and experimental conditions. Furthermore, microscopic examination did not reveal any damage or breakdown on or within the structure of the filter after ultrasonic cleaning, even in the filter's surfaces at a constantly low frequency of 25kHz and power specific capacity (100W/gal). Overall, it may be concluded that ultrasound-assisted oil filter washing is effective, requiring a significantly shorter time than manual washing. This ultrasonic method also shows promise as a green technology for washing oil filters in turbine engines in general and Vietnamese navy ships in particular, because of its high cleaning efficiency, operational simplicity and savings. PMID:27423027

  14. A new approach involving a multi transducer ultrasonic system for cleaning turbine engines' oil filters under practical conditions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Ngo, Huu Hao; Yoon, Yong Soo; Chang, Soon Woong; Bui, Hong Ha

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a green technology that can clean turbine engine oil filters effectively in ships using ultrasound, with ultrasonic devices having a frequency of 25kHz and different powers of 300W and 600W, respectively. The effects of temperature, ultrasonic cleaning times, pressure losses through the oil filter, solvent washing, and ultrasonic power devices were investigated. In addition, the cleaning efficiency of three modes (hand washing, preliminary washing and ultrasonic washing) were compared to assess their relative effectiveness. Experimental results revealed that the necessary ultrasonic time varied significantly depending on which solvent was used for washing. For instance, the optimum ultrasonic cleaning time was 50-60min when the oil filter was cleaned in a solvent of kerosene oil (KO) and over 80min when in a solvent of diesel oil (DO) using the same ultrasonic generator device (25kHz, 600W) and experimental conditions. Furthermore, microscopic examination did not reveal any damage or breakdown on or within the structure of the filter after ultrasonic cleaning, even in the filter's surfaces at a constantly low frequency of 25kHz and power specific capacity (100W/gal). Overall, it may be concluded that ultrasound-assisted oil filter washing is effective, requiring a significantly shorter time than manual washing. This ultrasonic method also shows promise as a green technology for washing oil filters in turbine engines in general and Vietnamese navy ships in particular, because of its high cleaning efficiency, operational simplicity and savings.

  15. Hall Viscosity I: Linear Response Theory for Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradlyn, Barry; Goldstein, Moshe; Read, Nicholas

    2012-02-01

    In two dimensional systems with broken time-reversal symmetry, there can exist a non-dissipative viscosity coefficient [1,2,3]. This Hall viscosity is similar in nature to the non-dissipative Hall conductivity. In order to investigate this phenomenon further, we develop a linear response formalism for viscosity. We derive a Kubo formula for the frequency dependent viscosity tensor in the long wavelength limit. We compute the viscosity tensor for the free electron gas, integer quantum Hall systems, and two-dimensional paired superfluids. In the zero frequency limit, we show how the known results [3,4] for the Hall viscosity are recovered.[4pt] [1] J. Avron, R. Seiler, and P. Zograf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 697 (1995).[0pt] [2] P. Levay, J. Math. Phys. 36, 2792 (1995).[0pt] [3] N. Read, Phys. Rev. B 79, 045308 (2009).[0pt] [4] N. Read and E. Rezayi, Phys. Rev. B 84, 085316 (2011).

  16. Canola engineered with a microalgal polyketide synthase-like system produces oil enriched in docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Terence A; Bevan, Scott A; Gachotte, Daniel J; Larsen, Cory M; Moskal, William A; Merlo, P A Owens; Sidorenko, Lyudmila V; Hampton, Ronnie E; Stoltz, Virginia; Pareddy, Dayakar; Anthony, Geny I; Bhaskar, Pudota B; Marri, Pradeep R; Clark, Lauren M; Chen, Wei; Adu-Peasah, Patrick S; Wensing, Steven T; Zirkle, Ross; Metz, James G

    2016-08-01

    Dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) are usually derived from marine fish. Although production of both EPA and DHA has been engineered into land plants, including Arabidopsis, Camelina sativa and Brassica juncea, neither has been produced in commercially relevant amounts in a widely grown crop. We report expression of a microalgal polyketide synthase-like PUFA synthase system, comprising three multidomain polypeptides and an accessory enzyme, in canola (Brassica napus) seeds. This transgenic enzyme system is expressed in the cytoplasm, and synthesizes DHA and EPA de novo from malonyl-CoA without substantially altering plastidial fatty acid production. Furthermore, there is no significant impact of DHA and EPA production on seed yield in either the greenhouse or the field. Canola oil processed from field-grown grain contains 3.7% DHA and 0.7% EPA, and can provide more than 600 mg of omega-3 LC-PUFAs in a 14 g serving. PMID:27398790

  17. Factors in the Design of Centrifugal Type Injection Valves for Oil Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, W F; Beardsley, E G

    1928-01-01

    This research was undertaken in connection with a general study of the application of the fuel injection engine to aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effect of four important factors in the design of a centrifugal type automatic injection valve on the penetration, general shape, and distribution of oil sprays. The general method employed was to record the development of single sprays by means of special high-speed photographic apparatus capable of taking 25 consecutive pictures of the moving spray at a rate of 4,000 per second. Investigations were made concerning the effects on spray characteristics, of the helix angle of helical grooves, the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the orifice to that of the grooves, the ratio of orifice length to diameter, and the position of the seat. Maximum spray penetration was obtained with a ratio of orifice length to diameter of about 1.5. Slightly greater penetration was obtained with the seat directly before the orifice.

  18. Phosphatidic acid phosphatase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase: potential targets for metabolic engineering of microorganism oil.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Hao; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-04-01

    Oleaginous microorganism is becoming one of the most promising oil feedstocks for biodiesel production due to its great advantages in triglyceride (TAG) accumulation. Previous studies have shown that de novo TAG biosynthesis can be divided into two parts: the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (the upstream part which generates acyl-CoAs) and the glycerol-3-phosphate acylation pathway (the downstream part in which three acyl groups are sequentially added onto a glycerol backbone). This review mainly focuses on two enzymes in the G3P pathway, phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT). The former catalyzes a dephosphorylation reaction, and the latter catalyzes a subsequent acylation reaction. Genes, functional motifs, transmembrane domains, action mechanism, and new studies of the two enzymes are discussed in detail. Furthermore, this review also covers diacylglycerol kinase, an enzyme that catalyzes the reverse reaction of diacylglycerol formation. In addition, PAP and DGAT are the conjunction points of the G3P pathway, the Kennedy pathway, and the CDP-diacylglycerol pathway (CDP-DAG pathway), and the mutual transformation between TAGs and phospholipids is discussed as well. Given that both the Kennedy and CDP-diacylglycerol pathways are in metabolic interlock (MI) with the G3P pathway, it is suggested that, via metabolic engineering, TAG accumulation can be improved by the two pathways based on the pivotal function of PAP and DGAT.

  19. Elastohydrodynamic properties of biobased heat-bodied oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat-bodied oils were prepared by thermal treatment of soybean oil under inert atmosphere. Different viscosity grades of heat-bodied oils synthesized by varying the reaction time were investigated for various properties including viscosity, viscosity index, elastohydrodynamic film thickness, and pre...

  20. Demonstration and Assessment of a Simple Viscosity Experiment for High School Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd­-Smith, T. M.; Kwon, K. C.; Burmester, J. A.; Dale, F. F.; Vahdat, N.; Jones, P.

    2006-01-01

    The demonstration of a simple viscosity experiment for high school classes was conducted and assessed. The purpose of the demonstration was to elicit the interest of high school juniors and seniors in the field of chemical engineering. The demonstration consisted of a discussion on both engineering and the concept of viscosity as well as a…

  1. Comparative combustion studies on various plant oil esters and the long term effects of an ethyl ester on a compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, C.S.; Fuls, J.

    1982-01-01

    Combustion studies on both ethyl and methyl esters of various plant oils were carried out using the same engine for all the tests so that comparative studies could be achieved. Twelve esters were tested and the pertinent data was recorded. Some of the more important results are published in this paper to serve as a comparative guide to the study of plant oil esters as fuel. Bruwer et. al. (1980) suggested the use of plant oil esters to prevent injector coking in modern compression ignition engines. Very little information is available on the long term effects of such ester use. Cyclic endurance tests have been carried out on Perkins engines running on ethyl esters of sunflower oil. The exciting results of this work are reported, with specific reference to one tractor engine which has recorded more than 1 300 trouble free hours. 3 tables.

  2. Classification of energy-conserving engine oil for passenger cars, vans, sport utility vehicles, and light-duty trucks (revised May 97). (SAE standard)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This SAE Standard was developed cooperatively by SAE, ASTM, and API to define and identify energy conserving engine oils for passenger cars, vans, and light-duty (3856 kg (8500 lb) GVW or less) trucks.

  3. The organic composition of diesel particulate matter, diesel fuel and engine oil of a non-road diesel generator.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fuyan; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Liu, Zifei; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2005-10-01

    Diesel-powered equipment is known to emit significant quantities of fine particulate matter to the atmosphere. Numerous organic compounds can be adsorbed onto the surfaces of these inhalable particles, among which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered potential occupational carcinogens. Guidelines have been established by various agencies regarding diesel emissions and various control technologies are under development. The purpose of this study is to identify, quantify and compare the organic compounds in diesel particulate matter (DPM) with the diesel fuel and engine oil used in a non-road diesel generator. Approximately 90 organic compounds were quantified (with molecular weight ranging from 120 to 350), which include alkanes, PAHs, alkylated PAHs, alkylbenzenes and alkanoic acids. The low sulfur diesel fuel contains 61% alkanes and 7.1% of PAHs. The identifiable portion of the engine oil contains mainly the alkanoic and benzoic acids. The composition of DPM suggests that they may be originated from unburned diesel fuel, engine oil evaporation and combustion generated products. Compared with diesel fuel, DPM contains fewer fractions of alkanes and more PAH compounds, with the shift toward higher molecular weight ones. The enrichment of compounds with higher molecular weight in DPM may be combustion related (pyrogenic).

  4. The Larger the Viscosity, the Higher the Bounce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Menachem; Klein Schaarsberg, Martin; Peters, Ivo; Dodge, Kevin; Zhang, Wendy; Jaeger, Heinrich

    A low-viscosity liquid drop can bounce upon impact onto a solid. A high-viscosity drop typically just flattens, i.e., it splats. Surprisingly, our experiments with a droplet made of densely packed glass beads in silicone oil display the opposite behavior: the low-viscosity oil suspension drop splats. The high-viscosity oil suspension bounces. Increasing solvent viscosity increases the rebound energy. To gain insight into the underlying mechanism, we model the suspension as densely packed elastic spheres experiencing viscous lubrication drag between neighbors. The model reproduces the observed trends. Plots of elastic compression and drag experienced by the particles show that rebounds are made possible by (1) a fraction of the impact energy being stored during initial contact via elastic compression, (2) a rapid broadening of local lubrication drag interactions at the initial impact site into a spatially uniform upward force throughout the drop. Including finite wall drag due to the presence of ambient air into the numerical model diminishes and eventually cuts off the rebound.

  5. Some physiochemical tests of sunflower oil and no. 2 diesel oil as fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ramdeen, P.; Backer, L.F.; Kaufman, K.R.; Kucera, H.L.; Moilanen, C.W.

    1982-05-01

    The suitability of sunflower oil as a fuel for diesel engines was evaluated by determining the physiochemical properties of sunflower oil, No. 2 diesel and blends of both. This evaluation was accomplished by determining the American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity, cetane rating, heat of combustion, kinematic viscosity, pour point, cloud point, and water content of these fuels using methods specified by the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) for diesel fuels. These tests for petroleum products are designed to standardize results so comparisons can be made from one laboratory to another.

  6. Dynamical behavior of rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambuleac, Dumitru

    2012-04-01

    Fuels' physical properties such as density, viscosity, speed of sound and bulk modulus have and important influence on the engine performance. This work will study the behavior of the rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection. Several aspects of the injection and combustion process will be analyzed in order to try to find out in what manner these aspects are influenced by the above-mentioned fuels' characteristics and also by different operating regimes. In such a way, some features of the technical efficiency of the two non-conventional diesel fuels will be determined. As a reference, it will serve the results from testing classical diesel.

  7. Viscosity of the earth's core.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gans, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation of the viscosity of the core at the boundary of the inner and outer core. It is assumed that this boundary is a melting transition and the viscosity limits of the Andrade (1934,1952) hypothesis (3.7 to 18.5 cp) are adopted. The corresponding kinematic viscosities are such that the precessional system explored by Malkus (1968) would be unstable. Whether it would be sufficiently unstable to overcome a severely subadiabatic temperature gradient cannot be determined.

  8. Installation and testing of a cummins Qsk19 lean burn natural gas engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutley, Franklin H.

    The goal for a more efficient engine will never disappear. Over the years many different techniques have been explored within the common goal of higher efficiency. Lean combustion has proven to be effective at increasing efficiencies as well as reducing emissions. The purpose of this thesis is to install a modern Cummins QSK19G and perform certain test that will explore the lean combustion limits and other methods that could possibly increase efficiency even more. The entire installation and instrumentation process is documented within this thesis. The engine was installed in the Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory at Colorado State University. The engine was installed with the hopes of instilling the desire for endless future tests from Cummins as well as other companies seeking this type of research engine. The lean limit was explored in the most detail. Cummins supplied a test plan that satisfied their desired stopping at a lean limit when the coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure reached 5%. For the curiosity of others involved and this thesis, the lean limit was explored further until the engine could no longer ignite the ultra-lean combustion mixture. Friction accounts for a significant loss in a modern internal combustion engine. One role of the engine oil is to reduce these frictional losses as much as possible without causing increased wear. A test was conducted on the QSK19G to explore the effects of varying the engine oil viscosity. Frictional losses of two different viscosity oils were compared to the stock engine oil losses. The fact that reducing oil viscosity reduces frictional losses was proven in the test.

  9. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels. PMID:22519083

  10. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels.

  11. Development of Viscosity Model for Petroleum Industry Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motahhari, Hamed reza

    Heavy oil and bitumen are challenging to produce and process due to their very high viscosity, but their viscosity can be reduced either by heating or dilution with a solvent. Given the key role of viscosity, an accurate viscosity model suitable for use with reservoir and process simulators is essential. While there are several viscosity models for natural gases and conventional oils, a compositional model applicable to heavy petroleum and diluents is lacking. The objective of this thesis is to develop a general compositional viscosity model that is applicable to natural gas mixtures, conventional crudes oils, heavy petroleum fluids, and their mixtures with solvents and other crudes. The recently developed Expanded Fluid (EF) viscosity correlation was selected as a suitable compositional viscosity model for petroleum applications. The correlation relates the viscosity of the fluid to its density over a broad range of pressures and temperatures. The other inputs are pressure and the dilute gas viscosity. Each fluid is characterized for the correlation by a set of fluid-specific parameters which are tuned to fit data. First, the applicability of the EF correlation was extended to asymmetric mixtures and liquid mixtures containing dissolved gas components. A new set of mass-fraction based mixing rules was developed to calculate the fluid-specific parameters for mixtures. The EF correlation with the new set of mixing rules predicted the viscosity of over 100 mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds and carbon dioxide with overall average absolute relative deviations (AARD) of less than 10% either with measured densities or densities estimated by Advanced Peng-Robinson equation of state (APR EoS). To improve the viscosity predictions with APR EoS-estimated densities, general correlations were developed for non-zero viscosity binary interaction parameters. The EF correlation was extended to non-hydrocarbon compounds typically encountered in natural gas industry. It was

  12. Integration of geoscience and engineering in the oil industry - just a dream?

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, B Artur

    2003-11-20

    The past two decades of the twentieth century have been very 'rocky' for the oil industry, as shown by the overall negative perception of the oil companies by the general public. Fluctuating oil prices, many rounds of staff redundancies, environmental disasters and budget cuts supported the overall image of the oil industry as being 'the technology impaired and environmentally insensible giant'. But advances and positive changes have been quietly happening in most of the oil companies. In the twenty-first century, we will witness the metamorphosis of the oil and gas companies into energy businesses - the era of cleaner and safer oil and gas production, and alternative energy resources such as wind, solar and hydrogen is already underway.

  13. Vegetable oils: Precombustion characteristics and performance as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1986-03-01

    Vegetable oils show technical promise as alternative fuels for diesel engines and have good potential as emergency fuels. Realistically, vegetable oils cause a number of problems when used in direct-injection diesel engines, generally attributable to inefficient combustion. At least partially responsible for poor combustion of neat vegetable oils are their high viscosity and non-volatility. To improve combustion several somewhat empirical approaches involving both chemical and physical modifications have been investigated by endurance tests in a variety of engines. Using the EMA 200 h engine screening test, several fuels show technical promise. These include methyl, ethyl, and butyl esters; high-oleic oils:diesel blend (1:3); diesel:soybean oil:butanol:cetane improver (33:33:33:1); and microemulsion fuels (diesel:soybean oil:190 proff ethanol:butanol, 50:25:5:20) and (soybean oil:methanol:2-octanol:cetane improver, 53:13:33:1). Using a pressure vessel, fuel injection system, and high speed motion picture camera, fuel injection characteristics of vegetable oils, e.g., soybean, sunflower, cottonseed, and peanut, have been observed in a quiescent nitrogen atmosphere at 480/sup 0/C and 4.1MPa. Their injection and atomization characteristics are markedly different from those of petroleum derived diesel fuels. Heating the vegetable oils to lower their viscosities increased spray penetration rate, reduced spray cone angles, and resulted in spray characteristics resembling those of diesel fuel. Significant chemical changes occurred following injection. Samples collected at about 400 microseconds after the injection event consisted of appreciable quantities of C/sub 4/-C/sub 16/ hydrocarbons, and free carboxyl groups were present.

  14. Effect of the level of unsaturation and of alcohol modifications of plant oil fuels on the long-term performance of a direct injected diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.

    1985-01-01

    A 200-hour durability screening test recommended by the Engine Manufacturers Association was adopted to study the effects of four alternate fuels on the long-term performance of a four cylinder, direct injected diesel engine. Tested fuels included diesel fuel (control), a 25-75 blend by volume of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend by volume of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze the long term effects of the test fuels on engine performance and to compare the test fuels. Time of the engine operation had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. For all other response variables, time was not a factor. However, significant differences between tested fuels were observed. An analysis of variance was employed to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings, as well as wear of engine parts. The carbon deposits produced by the microemulsion and the 25-75 sunflower oil blend were significantly heavier than those generated by the other tested fuels. None of the fuels produced excessive engine wear. The 25-75 sunflower oil blend and the microemulsion caused problems with the fuel injection system.

  15. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.

    2012-05-01

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  16. Some Adverse Effects of Used Engine Oil (Common Waste Pollutant) On Reproduction of Male Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akintunde, Wasiu Olalekan; Olugbenga, Ojo A.; Olufemi, Ogundipe O.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Used oil is contaminated not only with heavy metals but also with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are insignificant in the unused oil. In our study we determined possible reproductive effects of used engine oil on male rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty eight male Wistar rats were used for the study. The rats had average weight of 181.5 ± 10 g, animal feeds and portable water was provided ad-libitum. The rats were assigned to 4 groups (n = 7) including control. The treated groups orally received 0.1 ml/rat, 0.2 ml/rat and 0.4 ml/rat of the used engine oil every other day for 28 days using oral canulla. The spermatozoa were collected from epididymis for sperm analysis and testes were removed and preserved in Bouin’s fluid for routine histological analysis. RESULTS: Our results showed that there was progressive weight increase among the control group of rats that received distilled water. Meanwhile, rats that received 0.4 ml/rat of the used engine oil showed significant (P < 0.05) weight loss in second and third week of administration while rats that received 0.2 ml/rat and 0.1 ml/rat of the used engine oil showed non-significant (P > 0.05) weight reduction. The spermatozoa number was decreased with significance (P < 0.05) at 0.2 ml/rat (2.38 ± 0.29) and 0.4 ml/rat (1.98 ± 0.08) when compared with the control (5.00 ± 0.89). However, the percentage of motile sperms was reduced significantly (P <0.05) at 0.2 ml/rat (52.86 ± 3.59) and 0.4 ml/rat (45.71 ± 2.94) except at 0.1 ml/rat where the reduction (64.00 ± 7.5) was not significant (P> 0.05). The percentage of head deformity been 41.43 ± 2.61 and 42.00 ± 3.74 at 0.2 ml/rat and 0.4 ml/rat respectively, also significant increase of middle piece deformity was observed only at 0.1 ml/rat (45.71 ± 2.02) while tail deformity significantly decreased (15.71 ± 2.02, 20.00 ± 4.36 and 20.00 ± 4.47) when compared with the control (30.00 ± 1.29). The testicular seminiferous tubules were slightly

  17. Oil-Free Rotor Support Technologies for an Optimized Helicopter Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Bruckner, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    An optimized rotorcraft propulsion system incorporating a foil air bearing supported Oil-Free engine coupled to a high power density gearbox using high viscosity gear oil is explored. Foil air bearings have adequate load capacity and temperature capability for the highspeed gas generator shaft of a rotorcraft engine. Managing the axial loads of the power turbine shaft (low speed spool) will likely require thrust load support from the gearbox through a suitable coupling or other design. Employing specially formulated, high viscosity gear oil for the transmission can yield significant improvements (approx. 2X) in allowable gear loading. Though a completely new propulsion system design is needed to implement such a system, improved performance is possible.

  18. Production of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate-co-3-Hydroxyhexanoate) from Plant Oil by Engineered Ralstonia eutropha Strains▿†

    PubMed Central

    Budde, Charles F.; Riedel, Sebastian L.; Willis, Laura B.; Rha, ChoKyun; Sinskey, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(HB-co-HHx)] has been shown to have potential to serve as a commercial bioplastic. Synthesis of P(HB-co-HHx) from plant oil has been demonstrated with recombinant Ralstonia eutropha strains expressing heterologous PHA synthases capable of incorporating HB and HHx into the polymer. With these strains, however, short-chain-length fatty acids had to be included in the medium to generate PHA with high HHx content. Our group has engineered two R. eutropha strains that accumulate high levels of P(HB-co-HHx) with significant HHx content directly from palm oil, one of the world's most abundant plant oils. The strains express a newly characterized PHA synthase gene from the bacterium Rhodococcus aetherivorans I24. Expression of an enoyl coenzyme A (enoyl-CoA) hydratase gene (phaJ) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to increase PHA accumulation. Furthermore, varying the activity of acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (encoded by phaB) altered the level of HHx in the polymer. The strains with the highest PHA titers utilized plasmids for recombinant gene expression, so an R. eutropha plasmid stability system was developed. In this system, the essential pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase gene proC was deleted from strain genomes and expressed from a plasmid, making the plasmid necessary for growth in minimal media. This study resulted in two engineered strains for production of P(HB-co-HHx) from palm oil. In palm oil fermentations, one strain accumulated 71% of its cell dry weight as PHA with 17 mol% HHx, while the other strain accumulated 66% of its cell dry weight as PHA with 30 mol% HHx. PMID:21398488

  19. Effective Viscosity Coefficient of Nanosuspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.; Egorov, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    Systematic calculations of the effective viscosity coefficient of nanosuspensions have been performed using the molecular dynamics method. It is established that the viscosity of a nanosuspension depends not only on the volume concentration of the nanoparticles but also on their mass and diameter. Differences from Einstein's relation are found even for nanosuspensions with a low particle concentration.

  20. Volatiles Which Increase Magma Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S.

    2015-12-01

    The standard model of an erupting volcano is one in which the viscosity of a decompressing magma increases as the volatiles leave the melt structure to form bubbles. It has now been observed that the addition of the "volatiles" P, Cl and F result in an increase in silicate melt viscosity. This observation would mean that the viscosity of selected degassing magmas would decrease rather than increase. Here we look at P, Cl and F as three volatiles which increase viscosity through different structural mechanisms. In all three cases the volatiles increase the viscosity of peralkaline composition melts, but appear to always decrease the viscosity of peraluminous melts. Phosphorus causes the melt to unmix into a Na-P rich phase and a Na-poor silicate phase. Thus as the network modifying Na (or Ca) are removed to the phosphorus-rich melt, the matrix melt viscosity increases. With increasing amounts of added phosphorus (at network modifying Na ~ P) the addition of further phosphorus causes a decrease in viscosity. The addition of chlorine to Fe-free aluminosilicate melts results in an increase in viscosity. NMR data on these glass indicates that the chlorine sits in salt-like structures surrounded by Na and/or Ca. Such structures would remove network-modifying atoms from the melt structure and thus result in an increase in viscosity. The NMR spectra of fluorine-bearing glasses shows that F takes up at least 5 different structural positions in peralkaline composition melts. Three of these positions should result in a decrease in viscosity due to the removal of bridging oxygens. Two of the structural positons of F, however, should result in an increase in viscosity as they require the removal of network-modifying atoms from the melt structure (with one of the structures being that observed for Cl). This would imply that increasing amounts of F might result in an increase in viscosity. This proposed increase in viscosity with increasing F has now been experimentally confirmed.

  1. Conservative smoothing versus artificial viscosity

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, C.; Hicks, D.L.; Swegle, J.W.

    1994-08-01

    This report was stimulated by some recent investigations of S.P.H. (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method). Solid dynamics computations with S.P.H. show symptoms of instabilities which are not eliminated by artificial viscosities. Both analysis and experiment indicate that conservative smoothing eliminates the instabilities in S.P.H. computations which artificial viscosities cannot. Questions were raised as to whether conservative smoothing might smear solutions more than artificial viscosity. Conservative smoothing, properly used, can produce more accurate solutions than the von Neumann-Richtmyer-Landshoff artificial viscosity which has been the standard for many years. The authors illustrate this using the vNR scheme on a test problem with known exact solution involving a shock collision in an ideal gas. They show that the norms of the errors with conservative smoothing are significantly smaller than the norms of the errors with artificial viscosity.

  2. Gas chromatographic determination of some phenolic compounds in fuels and engine oil after simultaneous derivatization and microextraction.

    PubMed

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Yadeghari, Adeleh; Khoshmaram, Leila; Ghorbanpour, Houshang

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a simultaneous derivatization/air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction method has been developed for sample preparation of some phenolic compounds in fuels and engine oil. Analytes are transferred by back liquid-liquid extraction into NaOH solution and then are derivatized with butyl chloroformate and extracted simultaneously into carbon tetrachloride. The extracted derivatized analytes are analyzed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The effect of extracting solvent type, derivatization agent and extraction solvent volumes, ionic strength of the aqueous solution, number of extraction cycles, etc., on the extraction efficiency is investigated. The calibration graphs are linear in the range of 3-10,000 μg/L. Enhancement factors, enrichment factors, and extraction recoveries are in the ranges of 497 to 1471, 571 to 991, and 60 to 109%, respectively. Detection limits are obtained in the range of 0.8 to 2.0 μg/L. Relative standard deviations for the extraction of each selected phenols are in the ranges of 2-4% for intraday (n = 6) and 3-6% (n = 5) for interday precisions for 200 μg/L. This technique is successfully applied for the extraction, preconcentration, and determination of the selected phenols in gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, and engine oil. PMID:25082460

  3. Gas chromatographic determination of some phenolic compounds in fuels and engine oil after simultaneous derivatization and microextraction.

    PubMed

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Yadeghari, Adeleh; Khoshmaram, Leila; Ghorbanpour, Houshang

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a simultaneous derivatization/air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction method has been developed for sample preparation of some phenolic compounds in fuels and engine oil. Analytes are transferred by back liquid-liquid extraction into NaOH solution and then are derivatized with butyl chloroformate and extracted simultaneously into carbon tetrachloride. The extracted derivatized analytes are analyzed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The effect of extracting solvent type, derivatization agent and extraction solvent volumes, ionic strength of the aqueous solution, number of extraction cycles, etc., on the extraction efficiency is investigated. The calibration graphs are linear in the range of 3-10,000 μg/L. Enhancement factors, enrichment factors, and extraction recoveries are in the ranges of 497 to 1471, 571 to 991, and 60 to 109%, respectively. Detection limits are obtained in the range of 0.8 to 2.0 μg/L. Relative standard deviations for the extraction of each selected phenols are in the ranges of 2-4% for intraday (n = 6) and 3-6% (n = 5) for interday precisions for 200 μg/L. This technique is successfully applied for the extraction, preconcentration, and determination of the selected phenols in gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, and engine oil.

  4. Anomalous - viscosity current drive

    DOEpatents

    Stix, Thomas H.; Ono, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus and method for maintaining a steady-state current in a toroidal magnetically confined plasma. An electric current is generated in an edge region at or near the outermost good magnetic surface of the toroidal plasma. The edge current is generated in a direction parallel to the flow of current in the main plasma and such that its current density is greater than the average density of the main plasma current. The current flow in the edge region is maintained in a direction parallel to the main current for a period of one or two of its characteristic decay times. Current from the edge region will penetrate radially into the plasma and augment the main plasma current through the mechanism of anomalous viscosity. In another aspect of the invention, current flow driven between a cathode and an anode is used to establish a start-up plasma current. The plasma-current channel is magnetically detached from the electrodes, leaving a plasma magnetically insulated from contact with any material obstructions including the cathode and anode.

  5. Current progress towards the metabolic engineering of plant oil for hydroxy fatty acids production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oil is not only edible but also can be used for industrial purposes. The industrial demand for vegetable oil will increase with the future depletion of fossil fuels and environmental problems such as climate change, caused by increased carbon dioxide in the air. Some plants accumulate high...

  6. Combusting vegetable oils in diesel engines: the impact of unsaturated fatty acids on particle emissions and mutagenic effects of the exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bünger, Jürgen; Bünger, Jörn F; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Schröder, Olaf; Brüning, Thomas; Hallier, Ernst; Westphal, Götz A

    2016-06-01

    High particle emissions and strong mutagenic effects were observed after combustion of vegetable oil in diesel engines. This study tested the hypothesis that these results are affected by the amount of unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils. Four different vegetable oils (coconut oil, CO; linseed oil, LO; palm tree oil, PO; and rapeseed oil, RO) and common diesel fuel (DF) were combusted in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The exhausts were investigated for particle emissions and mutagenic effects in direct comparison with emissions of DF. The engine was operated using the European Stationary Cycle. Particle masses were measured gravimetrically while mutagenicity was determined using the bacterial reverse mutation assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Combustion of LO caused the largest amount of total particulate matter (TPM). In comparison with DF, it particularly raised the soluble organic fraction (SOF). RO presented second highest TPM and SOF, followed by CO and PO, which were scarcely above DF. RO revealed the highest number of mutations of the vegetable oils closely followed by LO. PO was less mutagenic, but still induced stronger effects than DF. While TPM and SOF were strongly correlated with the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the vegetable oils, mutagenicity had a significant correlation with the amount of total unsaturated fatty acids. This study supports the hypothesis that numbers of double bounds in unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils combusted in diesel engines influence the amount of emitted particles and the mutagenicity of the exhaust. Further investigations have to elucidate the causal relationship.

  7. Combusting vegetable oils in diesel engines: the impact of unsaturated fatty acids on particle emissions and mutagenic effects of the exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bünger, Jürgen; Bünger, Jörn F; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Schröder, Olaf; Brüning, Thomas; Hallier, Ernst; Westphal, Götz A

    2016-06-01

    High particle emissions and strong mutagenic effects were observed after combustion of vegetable oil in diesel engines. This study tested the hypothesis that these results are affected by the amount of unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils. Four different vegetable oils (coconut oil, CO; linseed oil, LO; palm tree oil, PO; and rapeseed oil, RO) and common diesel fuel (DF) were combusted in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The exhausts were investigated for particle emissions and mutagenic effects in direct comparison with emissions of DF. The engine was operated using the European Stationary Cycle. Particle masses were measured gravimetrically while mutagenicity was determined using the bacterial reverse mutation assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Combustion of LO caused the largest amount of total particulate matter (TPM). In comparison with DF, it particularly raised the soluble organic fraction (SOF). RO presented second highest TPM and SOF, followed by CO and PO, which were scarcely above DF. RO revealed the highest number of mutations of the vegetable oils closely followed by LO. PO was less mutagenic, but still induced stronger effects than DF. While TPM and SOF were strongly correlated with the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the vegetable oils, mutagenicity had a significant correlation with the amount of total unsaturated fatty acids. This study supports the hypothesis that numbers of double bounds in unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils combusted in diesel engines influence the amount of emitted particles and the mutagenicity of the exhaust. Further investigations have to elucidate the causal relationship. PMID:26126632

  8. Soil stabilization using oil shale solid wastes: Laboratory evaluation of engineering properties

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale solid wastes were evaluated for possible use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study was conducted and consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern shale can be used for soil stabilization if limestone is added during combustion. Without limestone, eastern oil shale waste exhibits little or no cementation. The testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented. 11 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Evaluating oil quality and monitoring production from heavy oil reservoirs using geochemical methods: Application to the Boscan Field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, R.L.; Noguera, V.H.; Bantz, D.M.; Rodriguez, R.

    1996-08-01

    Many oil fields worldwide contain heavy oil in one or more reservoir units. The low gravity of these oils is most frequently due to biodegradation and/or low maturity. The challenge is to find ways to economically recover this oil. Methods which reduce the operating costs of producing heavy oil add significant value to such projects. Geochemical techniques which use the composition of the reservoir fluids as natural tracers offer cost effective methods to assist with reservoir management. The low viscosity and gravity of heavy oil, combined with frequent high water cuts, low flow rates, and the presence of downhole artificial lift equipment, make many conventional production logging methods difficult to apply. Therefore, monitoring production, especially if the produced oil is commingled from multiple reservoirs, can be difficult. Geochemical methods can be used to identify oil/water contacts, tubing string leaks and to allocate production to individual zones from commingled production. An example of a giant heavy oil field where geochemical methods may be applicable is the Boscan Field in Venezuela. Low maturity oil, averaging 10{degrees} API gravity, is produced from the Eocene Upper and Lower Boscan (Miosa) Sands. Geochemical, stratigraphic and engineering data have helped to better define the controls on oil quality within the field, identified new reservoir compartments and defined unique characteristics of the Upper and Lower Boscan oils. This information can be used to identify existing wells in need of workovers due to mechanical problems and to monitor production from new infill wells.

  10. Evaluation of Oil-Industry Stimulation Practices for Engineered Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Van Dyke; Leen Weijers; Ann Robertson-Tait; Norm Warpinski; Mike Mayerhofer; Bill Minner; Craig Cipolla

    2007-10-17

    Geothermal energy extraction is typically achieved by use of long open-hole intervals in an attempt to connect the well with the greatest possible rock mass. This presents a problem for the development of Enhanced (Engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS), owing to the challenge of obtaining uniform stimulation throughout the open-hole interval. Fluids are often injected in only a fraction of that interval, reducing heat transfer efficiency and increasing energy cost. Pinnacle Technologies, Inc. and GeothermEx, Inc. evaluated a variety of techniques and methods that are commonly used for hydraulic fracturing of oil and gas wells to increase and evaluate stimulation effectiveness in EGS wells. Headed by Leen Weijers, formerly Manager of Technical Development at Pinnacle Technologies, Inc., the project ran from August 1, 2004 to July 31, 2006 in two one-year periods to address the following tasks and milestones: 1) Analyze stimulation results from the closest oil-field equivalents for EGS applications in the United States (e.g., the Barnett Shale in North Texas) (section 3 on page 8). Pinnacle Technologies, Inc. has collected fracture growth data from thousands of stimulations (section 3.1 on page 12). This data was further evaluated in the context of: a) Identifying techniques best suited to developing a stimulated EGS fracture network (section 3.2 on page 29), and b) quantifying the growth of the network under various conditions to develop a calibrated model for fracture network growth (section 3.3 on page 30). The developed model can be used to design optimized EGS fracture networks that maximize contact with the heat source and minimize short-circuiting (section 3.4 on page 38). 2) Evaluate methods used in oil field applications to improve fluid diversion and penetration and determine their applicability to EGS (section 4 on page 50). These methods include, but are not limited to: a) Stimulation strategies (propped fracturing versus water fracturing versus injecting

  11. 32P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducts in the skin of mice treated with petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils and exhaust condensates.

    PubMed

    Schoket, B; Hewer, A; Grover, P L; Phillips, D H

    1989-08-01

    Samples of unused or used petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils were applied to the shaved dorsal skin of 4- to 6-week-old male Parkes mice, either as a single treatment (50 microliters/mouse) or as four consecutive daily treatments (50 microliters/application). DNA isolated from the skin 24 h after the final treatment was digested to 3'-mononucleotides and analysed by 32P-postlabelling for the presence of aromatic adducts. Enhancement of sensitivity using butanol extraction or nuclease P1 digestion of the DNA hydrolysates led to the detection of up to eight adduct spots on polyethyleneimine-cellulose thin-layer chromatograms with samples of DNA from skin treated with used engine oils, at levels of 40-150 amol total adducts/micrograms DNA. Multiple treatments with the used oils gave rise to similar patterns of adducts in lung DNA. A single treatment of mouse skin with petrol engine exhaust condensate (50 microliters), or diesel engine exhaust condensate (50 microliters), containing 20 and 46 micrograms benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)/g respectively, gave rise to approximately 75 amol total adducts/micrograms DNA in skin. A significant proportion, 31 and 48% respectively, of the adducts formed by the petrol and diesel engine exhaust condensates co-chromatographed with the major BaP-DNA adduct, but with the used engine oils, only petrol engine oil, and not diesel engine oil, produced significant amounts of an adduct (22% of total) that corresponded to the BaP-DNA adduct.

  12. ZBLAN Viscosity Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William

    2001-01-01

    The past year's contribution from Dr. Kaukler's experimental effort consists of these 5 parts: a) Construction and proof-of-concept testing of a novel shearing plate viscometer designed to produce small shear rates and operate at elevated temperatures; b) Preparing nonlinear polymeric materials to serve as standards of nonlinear Theological behavior; c) Measurements and evaluation of above materials for nonlinear rheometric behavior at room temperature using commercial spinning cone and plate viscometers available in the lab; d) Preparing specimens from various forms of pitch for quantitative comparative testing in a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer, Thermal Mechanical Analyzer; and Archeological Analyzer; e) Arranging to have sets of pitch specimens tested using the various instruments listed above, from different manufacturers, to form a baseline of the viscosity variation with temperature using the different test modes offered by these instruments by compiling the data collected from the various test results. Our focus in this project is the shear thinning behavior of ZBLAN glass over a wide range of temperature. Experimentally, there are no standard techniques to perform such measurements on glasses, particularly at elevated temperatures. Literature reviews to date have shown that shear thinning in certain glasses appears to occur, but no data is available for ZBLAN glass. The best techniques to find shear thinning behavior require the application of very low rates of shear. In addition, because the onset of the thinning behavior occurs at an unknown elevated temperature, the instruments used in this study must provide controlled low rates of shear and do so for temperatures approaching 600 C. In this regard, a novel shearing parallel plate viscometer was designed and a prototype built and tested.

  13. Viscosity effects on hydrodynamic drainage force measurements involving deformable bodies.

    PubMed

    Dagastine, Raymond R; Webber, Grant B; Manica, Rogerio; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Grieser, Franz; Chan, Derek Y C

    2010-07-20

    Dynamic force measurements have been made between an oil drop and a silica particle in surfactant and sucrose solutions with viscosities that range up to 50 times that of water. These conditions provide variations in the shear rate and the relative time scales of droplet deformation and hydrodynamic drainage in a soft matter system. The results obtained indicate that soft deformable boundaries have a natural response that limits the maximum shear rate that can be sustained in thin films compared to shear rates that can be attained in films bounded by rigid boundaries. In addition, to extend boundary slip studies on rigid surfaces, we use a smooth deformable droplet surface to probe the dependence of the boundary slip on fluid viscosity without the added complications of surface roughness or heterogeneity. Imposing a Navier slip model to characterize possible slip at the deformable oil-sucrose solution interface gives results that are consistent with a slip length of no larger than 10 nm over the range of solution viscosity studied, although an immobile (zero slip length) condition at the oil-sucrose solution interface is perfectly adequate. In high viscosity solutions, cantilever motion at high scan rates induces a significant cantilever deflection. A method has been developed to account for this effect in order to extract the correct dynamic force between the deformable drop and the particle. PMID:20578751

  14. Viscosity Measurement for Tellurium Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bochuan; Li, Chao; Ban, Heng; Scripa, Rosalia N.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    2006-01-01

    The viscosity of high temperature Te melt was measured using a new technique in which a rotating magnetic field was applied to the melt sealed in a suspended ampoule, and the torque exerted by rotating melt flow on the ampoule wall was measured. Governing equations for the coupled melt flow and ampoule torsional oscillation were solved, and the viscosity was extracted from the experimental data by numerical fitting. The computational result showed good agreement with experimental data. The melt velocity transient initiated by the rotating magnetic field reached a stable condition quickly, allowing the viscosity and electrical conductivity of the melt to be determined in a short period.

  15. Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut Mike Fincke places droplets of honey onto the strings for the Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM) investigation onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The FMVM experiment measures the time it takes for two individual highly viscous fluid droplets to coalesce or merge into one droplet. Different fluids and droplet size combinations were tested in the series of experiments. By using the microgravity environment, researchers can measure the viscosity or 'thickness' of fluids without the influence of containers and gravity using this new technique. Understanding viscosity could help scientists understand industrially important materials such as paints, emulsions, polymer melts and even foams used to produce pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic products.

  16. Experimental and Analytical Determination of the Motion of Hydraulically Operated Valve Stems in Oil Engine Injection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G; Rothrock, A M

    1930-01-01

    This research on the pressure variations in the injection system of the N.A.C.A. Spray Photography Equipment and on the effects of these variations on the motion of the timing valve stem was undertaken in connection with the study of fuel injection systems for high-speed oil engines. The methods of analysis of the pressure variations and the general equation for the motion of the spring-loaded stem for the timing valve are applicable to a spring-loaded automatic injection valve, and in general to all hydraulically operated valves. A sample calculation for a spring-loaded automatic injection valve is included.

  17. Combustion and heat transfer in a high speed diesel engine operating with rape seed oil methyl ester fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, R.

    The properties of RME (rape seed oil methyl ester) as a fuel for a diesel engine have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The experiments were made with a turbocharged high-speed DI engine. During experiments the specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas emissions, heat release rate, flame temperature and the temperatures of the combustion chamber walls were measured. A test was also made using the measured flame temperature as an initial value for a two-zone combustion model. The theoretical investigations show that it is possible to achieve with RME approximately the same power as with ordinary diesel fuel from the same cylinder volume. The fuels give very similar theoretical (ideal) working cycles and also the efficiencies of the cycles are very near to each other.

  18. Photo-effects on the viscosity of titania nanoparticle suspensions in conducting and insulating medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, York R.; Heermance, David; Smith, Ryan N.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of illumination on the viscosity of titania suspensions in silicone oil (insulating medium) and an aqueous buffer (conducting medium) was investigated. Commercially available P25 anatase titania was suspended at a volume fraction of 0.5%. A 12.3% increase in viscosity was observed when silicone oil suspension was used as the medium, while a 2.47% decrease in viscosity was observed for the aqueous buffer suspension after exposure to UV-vis irradiation. The capability of the suspension medium to scavenge photoinduced charges results in the observed photorheological effects. The results presented here demonstrate a new method for influencing the rheological properties of nanoparticle suspensions.

  19. A New Fluorinated Tyrosinase Inhibitor from a Chemically Engineered Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    García, Paula; Salazar, Mario O; Ramallo, I Ayelen; Furlan, Ricardo L E

    2016-06-13

    The generation of fluorinated essential oils as a source of bioactive compounds is described. Most of the components of the natural mixtures were altered, leading to the discovery of a new fluorinated tyrosinase inhibitor. PMID:27144399

  20. A New Fluorinated Tyrosinase Inhibitor from a Chemically Engineered Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    García, Paula; Salazar, Mario O; Ramallo, I Ayelen; Furlan, Ricardo L E

    2016-06-13

    The generation of fluorinated essential oils as a source of bioactive compounds is described. Most of the components of the natural mixtures were altered, leading to the discovery of a new fluorinated tyrosinase inhibitor.

  1. Viscosity Depressants for Coal Liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed process modification incorporates viscosity depressants to prevent coal from solidifying during liquefaction. Depressants reduce amount of heat needed to liquefy coal. Possible depressants are metallic soaps, such as stearate, and amides, such as stearamide and dimer acid amides.

  2. Economic and engineering evaluation of plant oils as a diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; LePori, W.A.; Johnson, L.A.; Griffin, R.C.; Diehl, K.C.; Moore, D.S.; Lacewell, R.D.; Coble, C.G.; Lusas, E.W.; Hiler, E.A.

    1982-04-15

    The annual total yield of plant oils in the US is about 3.7 billion gallons. Diesel use by agriculture is about 2.0 billion gallons annually and is growing rapidly relative to gasoline use. Based on these amounts, plant oils could satisfy agriculture's diesel fuel requirements during the near future. However, diversion of large quantities of plant oils for such purposes would have dramatic impacts on plant oil prices and be reflected in numerous adjustments throughout agriculture and other sectors of the economy. The competitive position of sunflowers for plant oil production in Texas was analyzed. In those regions with a cotton alternative, sunflowers were not, for the most part, economically competitive. However, sunflower production is competitive with grain sorghum in certain cases. To develop a meaningful production base for oilseed crops in Texas, yields need to be improved or increases in oilseed prices relative to cotton must take place. This implies some limitations for the potential of Texas to produce large quantities of plant oils.

  3. The Effects of Fuel and Cylinder Gas Densities on the Characteristics of Fuel Sprays for Oil Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, W F; Beardsley, Edward G

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was conducted as a part of a general research on fuel-injection engines for aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effects of fuel and cylinder gas densities with several characteristics of fuel sprays for oil engines. The start, growth, and cut-off of single fuel sprays produced by automatic injection valves were recorded on photographic film by means of special high-speed motion-picture apparatus. This equipment, which has been described in previous reports, is capable of taking twenty-five consecutive pictures of the moving spray at the rate of 4,000 per second. The penetrations of the fuel sprays increased and the cone angles and relative distributions decreased with increase in the specific gravity of the fuel. The density of the gas into which the fuel sprays were injected controlled their penetration. This was the only characteristic of the chamber gas that had a measurable effect upon the fuel sprays. Application of fuel-spray penetration data to the case of an engine, in which the pressure is rising during injection, indicated that fuel sprays may penetrate considerably farther than when injected into a gas at a density equal to that of the gas in an engine cylinder at top center.

  4. Study of Miller timing on exhaust emissions of a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Juha; Happonen, Matti; Murtonen, Timo; Lehto, Kalle; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Larmi, Martti; Keskinen, Jorma; Virtanen, Annele

    2012-11-01

    The effect of intake valve closure (IVC) timing by utilizing Miller cycle and start of injection (SOI) on particulate matter (PM), particle number and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions was studied with a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled nonroad diesel engine. HVO-fueled engine emissions, including aldehyde and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions, were also compared with those emitted with fossil EN590 diesel fuel. At the engine standard settings, particle number and NOx emissions decreased at all the studied load points (50%, 75%, and 100%) when the fuel was changed from EN590 to HVO. Adjusting IVC timing enabled a substantial decrease in NOx emission and combined with SOI timing adjustment somewhat smaller decrease in both NOx and particle emissions at IVC -50 and -70 degrees CA points. The HVO fuel decreased PAH emissions mainly due to the absence of aromatics. Aldehyde emissions were lower with the HVO fuel with medium (50%) load. At higher loads (75% and 100%), aldehyde emissions were slightly higher with the HVO fuel. However, the aldehyde emission levels were quite low, so no clear conclusions on the effect of fuel can be made. Overall, the study indicates that paraffinic HVO fuels are suitable for emission reduction with valve and injection timing adjustment and thus provide possibilities for engine manufacturers to meet the strictening emission limits.

  5. The role of fat in flavor perception: effect of partition and viscosity in model emulsions.

    PubMed

    Bayarri, Sara; Taylor, Andrew J; Hort, Joanne

    2006-11-15

    Decreasing the fat content of a food, while maintaining the same aroma content, changes both aroma release (due to partition effects) and the viscosity of the food. To understand the relative contribution of these two factors on flavor perception, a series of flavored emulsions were prepared to control aroma release and viscosity using different aroma, oil, and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) contents. Samples were formulated to deliver the same aroma-release in vitro and in vivo, and their viscosity was measured using the Kokini oral shear stress parameter. Despite the in vivo aroma release being constant, there were perceptual differences between the samples, and the flavor intensity decreased as in-mouth viscosity increased. For these iso release samples, the Kokini oral shear stress parameter correlated well with the decrease in perception, suggesting that there may be a viscosity stimulus or that the viscosity affects release of tastant and hinders aroma-taste interactions. PMID:17090135

  6. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with esters of crude rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Mohit; Sharma, Sumeet; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    As a substitute to petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel has high potential as a renewable and environment friendly energy source. For petroleum importing countries the choice of feedstock for biodiesel production within the geographical region is a major influential factor. Crude rice bran oil is found to be good and viable feedstock for biodiesel production. A two step esterification is carried out for higher free fatty acid crude rice bran oil. Blends of 10, 20 and 40 % by vol. crude rice bran biodiesel are tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at compression ratio 15, 16, 17 and 18. Engine performance and exhaust emission parameters are examined. Cylinder pressure-crank angle variation is also plotted. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 18 resulted in 18.6 % decrease in brake specific fuel consumption and 14.66 % increase in brake thermal efficiency on an average. Cylinder pressure increases by 15 % when compression ratio is increased. Carbon monoxide emission decreased by 22.27 %, hydrocarbon decreased by 38.4 %, carbon dioxide increased by 17.43 % and oxides of nitrogen as NOx emission increased by 22.76 % on an average when compression ratio is increased from 15 to 18. The blends of crude rice bran biodiesel show better results than diesel with increase in compression ratio.

  7. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with esters of crude rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Mohit; Sharma, Sumeet; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    As a substitute to petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel has high potential as a renewable and environment friendly energy source. For petroleum importing countries the choice of feedstock for biodiesel production within the geographical region is a major influential factor. Crude rice bran oil is found to be good and viable feedstock for biodiesel production. A two step esterification is carried out for higher free fatty acid crude rice bran oil. Blends of 10, 20 and 40 % by vol. crude rice bran biodiesel are tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at compression ratio 15, 16, 17 and 18. Engine performance and exhaust emission parameters are examined. Cylinder pressure-crank angle variation is also plotted. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 18 resulted in 18.6 % decrease in brake specific fuel consumption and 14.66 % increase in brake thermal efficiency on an average. Cylinder pressure increases by 15 % when compression ratio is increased. Carbon monoxide emission decreased by 22.27 %, hydrocarbon decreased by 38.4 %, carbon dioxide increased by 17.43 % and oxides of nitrogen as NOx emission increased by 22.76 % on an average when compression ratio is increased from 15 to 18. The blends of crude rice bran biodiesel show better results than diesel with increase in compression ratio. PMID:27066330

  8. Temperature-Dependent Conformations of Model Viscosity Index Improvers

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Uma Shantini; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Martini, Ashlie

    2015-05-01

    Lubricants are comprised of base oils and additives where additives are chemicals that are deliberately added to the oil to enhance properties and inhibit degradation of the base oils. Viscosity index (VI) improvers are an important class of additives that reduce the decline of fluid viscosity with temperature [1], enabling optimum lubricant performance over a wider range of operating temperatures. These additives are typically high molecular weight polymers, such as, but not limited to, polyisobutylenes, olefin copolymer, and polyalkylmethacrylates, that are added in concentrations of 2-5% (w/w). Appropriate polymers, when dissolved in base oil, expand from a coiled to an uncoiled state with increasing temperature [2]. The ability of VI additives to increase their molar volume and improve the temperature-viscosity dependence of lubricants suggests there is a strong relationship between molecular structure and additive functionality [3]. In this work, we aim to quantify the changes in polymer size with temperature for four polyisobutylene (PIB) based molecular structures at the nano-scale using molecular simulation tools. As expected, the results show that the polymers adopt more conformations at higher temperatures, and there is a clear indication that the expandability of a polymer is strongly influenced by molecular structure.

  9. The influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolek, R. J.; Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased.

  10. Rheological properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Law, S.E.

    1982-07-01

    Basic physical properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends were experimentally determined to help establish suitability for use in compression-ignition engines. For volumetric proportions of peanut oil ranging in 20 percent increments from 0 percent to 100 percent, the continuously varying properties at 21/sup 0/C were found to range as follows: heating value - 45.8 to 40.3 MJ/kg; specific gravity - 0.848 to 0.915; surface tension - 28.3 to 35.6 mN/m; and kinematic viscosity - 3.8 to 7.0 cSt. Dynamic viscosity measured as a function of shear rate over a 0/sup 0/C to 80/sup 0/C temperature range indicated nonNewtonian flow properties at shear rates less than 3/s.

  11. Natural Oil Production from Microorganisms: Bioprocess and Microbe Engineering for Total Carbon Utilization in Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-15

    Electrofuels Project: MIT is using carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen generated from electricity to produce natural oils that can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels. MIT has designed a 2-stage biofuel production system. In the first stage, hydrogen and CO2 are fed to a microorganism capable of converting these feedstocks to a 2-carbon compound called acetate. In the second stage, acetate is delivered to a different microorganism that can use the acetate to grow and produce oil. The oil can be removed from the reactor tank and chemically converted to various hydrocarbons. The electricity for the process could be supplied from novel means currently in development, or more proven methods such as the combustion of municipal waste, which would also generate the required CO2 and enhance the overall efficiency of MIT’s biofuel-production system.

  12. Multigene Engineering of Triacylglycerol Metabolism Boosts Seed Oil Content in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    van Erp, Harrie; Kelly, Amélie A.; Menard, Guillaume; Eastmond, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the yield of oilseed crops is an important objective for biotechnologists. A number of individual genes involved in triacylglycerol metabolism have previously been reported to enhance the oil content of seeds when their expression is altered. However, it has yet to be established whether specific combinations of these genes can be used to achieve an additive effect and whether this leads to enhanced yield. Using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as an experimental system, we show that seed-specific overexpression of WRINKLED1 (a transcriptional regulator of glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis) and DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (a triacylglycerol biosynthetic enzyme) combined with suppression of the triacylglycerol lipase SUGAR-DEPENDENT1 results in a higher percentage seed oil content and greater seed mass than manipulation of each gene individually. Analysis of total seed yield per plant suggests that, despite a reduction in seed number, the total yield of oil is also increased. PMID:24696520

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  14. Development and validation of an environmentally friendly attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region method for the determination of ethanol content in used engine lubrication oil.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Rafael Rodrigues; Sequinel, Rodrigo; Gualtieri, Carlos Eduardo; Tercini, Antônio Carlos Bergamaschi; Flumignan, Danilo Luiz; de Oliveira, José Eduardo

    2013-05-15

    Lubricating oils are crucial in the operation of automotive engines because they both reduce friction between moving parts and protect against corrosion. However, the performance of lubricant oil may be affected by contaminants, such as gasoline, diesel, ethanol, water and ethylene glycol. Although there are many standard methods and studies related to the quantification of contaminants in lubricant oil, such as gasoline and diesel oil, to the best of our knowledge, no methods have been reported for the quantification of ethanol in used Otto cycle engine lubrication oils. Therefore, this work aimed at the development and validation of a routine method based on partial least-squares multivariate analysis combined with attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region to quantify ethanol content in used lubrication oil. The method was validated based on its figures of merit (using the net analyte signal) as follows: limit of detection (0.049%), limit of quantification (0.16%), accuracy (root mean square error of prediction=0.089% w/w), repeatability (0.05% w/w), fit (R(2)=0.9997), mean selectivity (0.047), sensitivity (0.011), inverse analytical sensitivity (0.016% w/w(-1)) and signal-to-noise ratio (max: 812.4 and min: 200.9). The results show that the proposed method can be routinely implemented for the quality control of lubricant oils.

  15. Development and validation of an environmentally friendly attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region method for the determination of ethanol content in used engine lubrication oil.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Rafael Rodrigues; Sequinel, Rodrigo; Gualtieri, Carlos Eduardo; Tercini, Antônio Carlos Bergamaschi; Flumignan, Danilo Luiz; de Oliveira, José Eduardo

    2013-05-15

    Lubricating oils are crucial in the operation of automotive engines because they both reduce friction between moving parts and protect against corrosion. However, the performance of lubricant oil may be affected by contaminants, such as gasoline, diesel, ethanol, water and ethylene glycol. Although there are many standard methods and studies related to the quantification of contaminants in lubricant oil, such as gasoline and diesel oil, to the best of our knowledge, no methods have been reported for the quantification of ethanol in used Otto cycle engine lubrication oils. Therefore, this work aimed at the development and validation of a routine method based on partial least-squares multivariate analysis combined with attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region to quantify ethanol content in used lubrication oil. The method was validated based on its figures of merit (using the net analyte signal) as follows: limit of detection (0.049%), limit of quantification (0.16%), accuracy (root mean square error of prediction=0.089% w/w), repeatability (0.05% w/w), fit (R(2)=0.9997), mean selectivity (0.047), sensitivity (0.011), inverse analytical sensitivity (0.016% w/w(-1)) and signal-to-noise ratio (max: 812.4 and min: 200.9). The results show that the proposed method can be routinely implemented for the quality control of lubricant oils. PMID:23618159

  16. Effect of Narrow Cut Oil Shale Distillates on HCCI Engine Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, Scott J; Bunting, Bruce G; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Fairbridge, Craig

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation, oil shale crude obtained from the Green River Formation in Colorado using Paraho Direct retorting was mildly hydrotreated and distilled to produce 7 narrow boiling point fuels of equal volumes. The resulting derived cetane numbers ranged between 38.3 and 43.9. Fuel chemistry and bulk properties strongly correlated with boiling point.

  17. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex (Fluid Engineering Abstracts) database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Theory of viscosity as a criterion for detection of onset of asphaltene flocculation

    SciTech Connect

    Escobedo, J.; Mansoori, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    Recently, the authors proposed a new technique for the determination of the onset of asphaltene flocculation. This method is based on viscosity measurements of a crude oil being diluted with a precipitating solvent (i.e., n-pentane, n-heptane, etc.). The onset of asphaltene flocculation is detected by a sharp increase in the relative viscosity of the suspension in which asphaltene particle aggregation occurs. The key point in this development is the changes which occur in the relative viscosity of the mixture and its relationship to the phenomenon of flocculation of asphaltene particles induced by the addition of a low-molecular-weight n-paraffin to crude oil. In this paper, they present a theoretical analysis of the proposed new technique for the onset of asphaltene flocculation and to estimate the background viscosity of the crude oil-precipitating solvent mixture. This in turn has allowed them to perform analyses of the trends of specific and relative viscosities as a function of precipitating solvent concentration, and hence particle concentration. These analyses have provided them information regarding the effect of the suspended asphaltene particles on the viscosity of the mixture. This effect becomes remarkable at a point which coincides with the previously predicted onset of asphaltene flocculation. The increase in the specific (or relative) viscosity after this point is very rapid.

  19. Vegetable oils and animal fats for diesel fuels: a systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Appelbaum, H.R.; McClure, T.A.; Otis, J.L.; Trayser, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper provided some information on the possible use of vegetable oils and animal fats as substitute fuels and as emergency diesel fuels in the United States. This paper is confined to using triglyceride fuels in agricultural, automotive, and highway transportation applications. Satisfactory substitution of petroleum-based diesel fuels with triglyceride-based fuels requires the development of an integrated system for the production, processing, and end use of the new fuels on a basis that is both technically attractive and economically rewarding to all of the elements of the system. The three subsystems, the farms that produce oilseed crops, the production of triglycerides and protein, and the manufacturers of the diesel engines and the owners of the present stock of auto-ignition engines, are discussed. It was concluded that vegetable oils and animal fats have substantial prospects as long-term substitutes for diesel fuels. If special auto-ignition engines were developed to handle vegetable oils, on-farm production and use might succeed. In the absence of such engine development, it is likely that large, centralized facilities to manufacture vegetable oils and their methylesters will be the successful processing route. Vegetable oils are likely to succeed first in geographical areas with benign climates. Vegetable oils and animal fats have limited prospects as diesel fuels for acute emergencies. The high viscosity of vegetable oils and the necessity to make substantial capital investments to obtain oils from oilseeds render the system relatively inflexible. 4 tables. (DP)

  20. Applications of science and engineering to quantify and control the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Chu, Steven; Lubchenco, Jane; Hunter, Tom; Dreyfus, Gabrielle; Murawski, Steven A.; Kennedy, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented engagement of scientists from government, academia, and industry enabled multiple unanticipated and unique problems to be addressed during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. During the months between the initial blowout on April 20, 2010, and the final well kill on September 19, 2010, researchers prepared options, analyses of tradeoffs, assessments, and calculations of uncertainties associated with the flow rate of the well, well shut in, killing the well, and determination of the location of oil released into the environment. This information was used in near real time by the National Incident Commander and other government decision-makers. It increased transparency into BP’s proposed actions and gave the government confidence that, at each stage proposed, courses of action had been thoroughly vetted to reduce risk to human life and the environment and improve chances of success. PMID:23213225

  1. Applications of science and engineering to quantify and control the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Chu, Steven; Lubchenco, Jane; Hunter, Tom; Dreyfus, Gabrielle; Murawski, Steven A.; Kennedy, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented engagement of scientists from government, academia, and industry enabled multiple unanticipated and unique problems to be addressed during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. During the months between the initial blowout on April 20, 2010, and the final well kill on September 19, 2010, researchers prepared options, analyses of tradeoffs, assessments, and calculations of uncertainties associated with the flow rate of the well, well shut in, killing the well, and determination of the location of oil released into the environment. This information was used in near real time by the National Incident Commander and other government decision-makers. It increased transparency into BP’s proposed actions and gave the government confidence that, at each stage proposed, courses of action had been thoroughly vetted to reduce risk to human life and the environment and improve chances of success.

  2. A New High-Speed Oil-Free Turbine Engine Rotordynamic Simulator Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.

    2007-01-01

    A new test rig has been developed for simulating high-speed turbomachinery rotor systems using Oil-Free foil air bearing technology. Foil air bearings have been used in turbomachinery, primarily air cycle machines, for the past four decades to eliminate the need for oil lubrication. The goal of applying this bearing technology to other classes of turbomachinery has prompted the fabrication of this test rig. The facility gives bearing designers the capability to test potential bearing designs with shafts that simulate the rotating components of a target machine without the high cost of building "make-and-break" hardware. The data collected from this rig can be used to make design changes to the shaft and bearings in subsequent design iterations. This paper describes the new test rig and demonstrates its capabilities through the initial run with a simulated shaft system.

  3. A first approaching to work with viscosity in college level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Karla; Flores, Sergio; Alfaro, Luis L.; Gonzalez, Maria D.

    2008-10-01

    Working with the concepts of flow, velocity and emptying time, in containers with different area, the research group named Physics and Mathematics in Context from the University of Juarez in Mexico is attempting to experiment with the relationship between the geometry of the containers and their discharge time with different kind of liquids. Thus, we have built two different sets of containers, and use kitchen oil, maple syrup, and car oil. Where the cross area is constant: prisms with bases of different geometries. Thus, in order to achieve a better understanding related to differential equations situations and introduce viscosity.

  4. Performance of winter rape (Brassica napus) based fuel mixtures in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Winter rape is well adapted to the Palouse region of Northern Idaho and Eastern Washington. Nearly all of the current US production is grown in this region. Yields of 2200 to 2700 kg/ha with 45 percent oil content are common. Even though present production only 2000 to 2500 ha per year, the long history of production and good yields of oil make winter rape the best potential fuel vegetable oil crop for the region. Winter rape oil is more viscous than sunflower oil (50 cSt at 40/sup 0/C for winter rape and 35 cSt at 40/sup 0/C for sunflower oil) and about 17 times more viscous than diesel. The viscosity of the pure oil has been found too high for operation in typical diesel injector systems. Mixtures and/or additives are essential if the oil is to be a satisfactory fuel. Conversely, the fatty acid composition of witer rape oils is such that it is potentially a more favorable fuel because of reduced rates of oxidation and thermal polymerization. This paper will report on results of short and long term engine tests using winter rape, diesel, and commercial additives as the components. Selection of mixtures for long term screening tests was based on laboratory studies which included high temperature oxidation studies and temperature-viscosity data. Fuel temperature has been monitored at the outlet of the injector nozzle on operating engines so that viscosity comparisons at the actual injector temperature can be made. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  5. Emissions of particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from agricultural diesel engine fueled with degummed, deacidified mixed crude palm oil blends.

    PubMed

    Phoungthong, Khamphe; Tekasakul, Surajit; Tekasakul, Perapong; Prateepchaikul, Gumpon; Jindapetch, Naret; Furuuchi, Masami; Hata, Mitsuhiko

    2013-04-01

    Mixed crude palm oil (MCPO), the mixture of palm fiber oil and palm kernel oil, has become of great interest as a renewable energy source. It can be easily extracted from whole dried palm fruits. In the present work, the degummed, deacidified MCPO was blended in petroleum diesel at portions of 30% and 40% by volume and then tested in agricultural diesel engines for long-term usage. The particulates from the exhaust of the engines were collected every 500 hr using a four-stage cascade air sampler. The 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameters for the first three stages were 10, 2.5 and 1 microm, while the last stage collected all particles smaller than 1 microm. Sixteen particle bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that the size distribution of particulate matter was in the accumulation mode and the pattern of total PAHs associated with fine-particles (< 1 microm) showed a dominance of larger molecular weight PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings), especially pyrene. The mass median diameter, PM and total PAH concentrations decreased when increasing the palm oil content, but increased when the running hours of the engine were increased. In addition, Commercial petroleum diesel (PB0) gave the highest value of carcinogenic potency equivalent (BaP(eq)) for all particle size ranges. As the palm oil was increased, the BaP(eq) decreased gradually. Therefore the degummed-deacidified MCPO blends are recommended for diesel substitute.

  6. A Honeycomb-Structured Ti-6Al-4V Oil-Gas Separation Rotor Additively Manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting for Aero-engine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H. P.; Wang, Q. B.; Yang, G. Y.; Gu, J.; Liu, N.; Jia, L.; Qian, M.

    2016-03-01

    Oil -gas separation is a key process in an aero-engine lubrication system. This study reports an innovative development in oil -gas separation. A honeycomb-structured rotor with hexagonal cone-shaped pore channels has been designed, additively manufactured from Ti-6Al-4V using selective electron beam melting (SEBM) and assessed for oil -gas separation for aero-engine application. The Ti-6Al-4V honeycomb structure showed a high compressive strength of 110 MPa compared to less than 20 MPa for metal foam structures. The oil -gas separation efficiency of the honeycomb-structured separation rotor achieved 99.8% at the rotation speed of 6000 rpm with much lower ventilation resistance (17.3 kPa) than that of the separator rotor constructed using a Ni-Cr alloy foam structure (23.5 kPa). The honeycomb-structured Ti-6Al-4V separator rotor produced by SEBM provides a promising solution to more efficient oil -gas separation in the aero-engine lubrication system.

  7. Plasma viscosity in spherical ICF implosion simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vold, E.; Joglekar, A.; Ortega, M.; Moll, R.; Fenn, D.; Molvig, K.

    2016-05-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hydrodynamic codes often ignore the effects of viscosity though recent research indicates plasma viscosity and mixing by classical transport processes may have a substantial impact on implosion dynamics. A Lagrangian hydrodynamic code in one-dimensional spherical geometry with plasma viscosity and mass transport, and including a three temperature model for ions, electrons, and radiation treated in a gray radiation diffusion approximation, is used to study differences between ICF implosions with and without plasma viscosity and to examine the role of artificial viscosity in a Lagrangian implosion simulation. It was found that plasma viscosity has substantial impacts on ICF shock dynamics characterized by shock burn timing, maximum burn temperatures, fuel compression, and time history of neutron production rates. Plasma viscosity reduces the need for artificial viscosity to maintain numerical stability in the Lagrangian formulation and this study suggests that artificial viscosity may provide an unphysical stability in implosion simulations.

  8. Anomalous-viscosity current drive

    DOEpatents

    Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

    1986-04-25

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

  9. Models for silicate melt viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, D.; Russell, K.; Moretti, R.; Mangiacapra, A.; Potuzak, M.; Romano, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    The prediction of viscosity in silicate liquids, over the range of temperatures and compositions encountered in nature, remains one of the most challenging and elusive goals in Earth Sciences. Recent work has demonstrated that there are now sufficient experimental measurements of melt viscosity to create new viscosity models to replace previous Arrhenian models [1],[2] and extend the compositional range of more recent non-Arrhenian models [3]. Most recently, [4] have developed an empirical strategy for accurately predicting viscosities over a very wide range of anhydrous silicate melt compositions (e.g., rhyolite to basanite). Future models that improve upon this work, will probably extend the composition range of the model to consider, at least, H2O and other volatile components and may utilize a compositional basis that reflects melt structure. In preparation for the next generation model, we explore the attributes of the three most common equations that could be used to model the non-Arrhenian viscosity of multicomponent silicate melts. The equations for the non-Arrhenian temperature dependence of viscosity (η ) include: a) Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT): log η = A + B/(T - C) b) Adam and Gibbs (AG): log η = A + B/[T log (T/C)], and c) Avramov (Av): log η = A + [B/T]α We use an experimental database of approximately 900 high-quality viscosity measurements on silicate melts to test the ability of each equation to capture the experimental data. These equations have different merits [5]. VFT is purely empirical in nature. The AG model has a quasi-theoretical basis that links macroscopic transport properties directly to thermodynamic properties via the configurational entropy. Lastly, the model proposed by Avramov adopts a form designed to relate the fit parameter (α ) to the fragility of the melt. [1] Shaw, H.R., 1972. Am J Science, 272, 438-475. [2] Bottinga Y. and Weill, D., 1972. Am J Science, 272, 438-475. [3] Hess, K.U. and Dingwell, D.B, 1996, Am Min, 81

  10. Capillary blood viscosity in microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, A; Crippa, A; Cavalli, R; Corti, M; Cattaneo, L

    2006-01-01

    As known, at the arteriolar level there is the highest resistance to the flow due to the section and to the velocity with an average pressure fall of 50 mmHg (from 85 to 35 mmHg). This resistance is expressed in sec(-1) by the ratio W/2r. This ratio is very high with an average value of 332 sec(-1) and viscosity at this high shear-rate is negligible. At the capillary level the pressure fall is 11.5 mmHg but the vascular resistance W/2r is much lower, on average 32 sec(-1). We can say that if a resistance of 333 sec(-1) corresponds with a pressure fall of 50 mmHg, then a resistance of 32 sec(-1) should correspond with a pressure fall of 4.8 mmHg. The highest pressure fall is due to another kind of resistance which we can define as "Capillary Blood Viscosity" because it depends on the rheological and structural characteristics of the blood. Our instrument reproduces the structure of the capillary district in an experimental model and measures the General Blood Viscosity (GBV) and the Capillary Blood Viscosity (CBV) at the same shear-rate and in particular at the low shear-rate when in non-Newtonian fluids the highest increase in viscosity appears. Consequently, at the capillary, viscosity is dominant with respect to the other geometric and physical resistances. Moreover, the percentage ratio between the GBV and the CBV gives a physical measure of erythrocyte deformability. Knowing viscosity at shear-rate present in the circulatory system, we can obtain the size of RBCs aggregates in the different circulatory districts and their characteristics expressed like "aggregation bond". Changes in CBV are the only possibility in clinical practice to improve the circulatory flow in the capillary district because it is not sure that changes in the arteriolar section can improve the capillary flow or rather open arterio-venous anastomosis. Moreover, in the systemic circulation the aggregate size allows us to point out the phenomenon of cell adhesion because the presence of

  11. The effect of sweeteners on perceived viscosity.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, M J; Kroeze, J H

    1995-08-01

    Two different sweeteners, sucrose and aspartame, were matched in perceived sweetness intensity. These solutions were thickened with carboxymethylcellulose to six different viscosity levels. Sucrose and aspartame appeared to decrease perceived viscosity of the solutions at a specific sweetener concentration, at all viscosity levels. However, in a second similar experiment with three viscosity levels and seven sucrose concentrations no effect of sucrose concentration on perceived viscosity was found. Reasons for these conflicting results are discussed. No definite conclusions about the effect of sweeteners on perceived viscosity can as yet be drawn.

  12. Structure engineering of filled protein microbeads to tailor release of oil droplets in gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    van Leusden, P; den Hartog, G J M; Bast, A; Postema, M; van der Linden, E; Sagis, L M C

    2016-08-10

    Oil-soluble components can be encapsulated in an O/W1/W2 microsystem, in which they are dissolved in oil droplets dispersed in a gelled microbead (W1), which forms a barrier between the oil droplets and the aqueous continuous phase (W2). We investigated the rate and mechanism of breakdown of protein microbeads in a simulated gastric system, and studied the influence of microbead protein concentration, gelling method (cold-set, slow and fast heat-set), and further processing (freeze-drying), on the breakdown process. Breakdown rate decreased with increasing protein content of the beads, for the same method of production. Due to the porosity of the slowly-heated heat-set beads, breakdown occurred evenly throughout the entire bead. Cold-set microbeads of 10% protein broke down slightly slower than the heat-set microbeads of 15%. The denser surface of the 10% beads slowed down the diffusion of the enzymes into the bead's interior, causing the beads to be broken down from the outside inward. All these beads broke down within one hour. Increasing the rate of temperature increase during the heating step dramatically slowed breakdown. There was no significant breakdown of rapidly heated beads within 138 minutes, even though no difference in microstructure between rapidly and slowly heated beads was visible with electron microscopy. Freeze-drying of the beads also slowed their breakdown. After 132 minutes more than half the measured particle volume of were intact beads. Freeze-drying changed the microstructure of the beads irreversibly: rehydrating the dried beads did not result in a breakdown behaviour similar to that of unprocessed beads. PMID:27458022

  13. Reciprocating seals: Lubrication and wear resistance. (Latest citations from Fluidex (Fluid Engineering Abstracts) database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical and practical analyses of reciprocating seal wear and lubrication. Topics include behavior, friction coefficient, cylinder wear, lubrication film thickness, friction forces, design innovations, lubricating oil viscosity, and wear modeling relative to reciprocating seal frictional wear and lifetime optimization. Applications in piston ring lubrication, internal combustion engines, and vehicle suspension systems are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Effects of Surface-Engineered Nanoparticle-Based Dispersants for Marine Oil Spills on the Model Organism Artemia franciscana

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Fine particles are under active consideration as alternatives to chemical dispersants for large-scale petroleum spills. Fine carbon particles with engineered surface chemistry have been shown to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions, but the environmental impacts of large-scale particle introduction to the marine environment are unknown. Here we study the impact of surface-engineered carbon-black materials on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) as a model marine microcrustacean. Mortality was characterized at 50–1000 mg/L, and levels of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) were characterized at sublethal particle concentrations (25–50 mg/L). Functionalized carbon black (CB) nanoparticles were found to be nontoxic at all concentrations, while hydrophobic (annealed) and as-produced CB induced adverse effects at high concentrations. CB was also shown to adsorb benzene, a model hydrocarbon representing the more soluble and toxic low-molecular weight aromatic fraction of petroleum, but the extent of adsorption was insufficient to mitigate benzene toxicity to Artemia in coexposure experiments. At lower benzene concentrations (25–75 mg/L), coexposure with annealed and as-produced CB increased hsp70 protein levels. This study suggests that surface functionalization for increased hydrophilicity can not only improve the performance of CB-based dispersants but also reduce their adverse environmental impacts on marine organisms. PMID:24823274

  15. Effects of surface-engineered nanoparticle-based dispersants for marine oil spills on the model organism Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Rodd, April L; Creighton, Megan A; Vaslet, Charles A; Rangel-Mendez, J Rene; Hurt, Robert H; Kane, Agnes B

    2014-06-01

    Fine particles are under active consideration as alternatives to chemical dispersants for large-scale petroleum spills. Fine carbon particles with engineered surface chemistry have been shown to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions, but the environmental impacts of large-scale particle introduction to the marine environment are unknown. Here we study the impact of surface-engineered carbon-black materials on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) as a model marine microcrustacean. Mortality was characterized at 50-1000 mg/L, and levels of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) were characterized at sublethal particle concentrations (25-50 mg/L). Functionalized carbon black (CB) nanoparticles were found to be nontoxic at all concentrations, while hydrophobic (annealed) and as-produced CB induced adverse effects at high concentrations. CB was also shown to adsorb benzene, a model hydrocarbon representing the more soluble and toxic low-molecular weight aromatic fraction of petroleum, but the extent of adsorption was insufficient to mitigate benzene toxicity to Artemia in coexposure experiments. At lower benzene concentrations (25-75 mg/L), coexposure with annealed and as-produced CB increased hsp70 protein levels. This study suggests that surface functionalization for increased hydrophilicity can not only improve the performance of CB-based dispersants but also reduce their adverse environmental impacts on marine organisms. PMID:24823274

  16. Effects of surface-engineered nanoparticle-based dispersants for marine oil spills on the model organism Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Rodd, April L; Creighton, Megan A; Vaslet, Charles A; Rangel-Mendez, J Rene; Hurt, Robert H; Kane, Agnes B

    2014-06-01

    Fine particles are under active consideration as alternatives to chemical dispersants for large-scale petroleum spills. Fine carbon particles with engineered surface chemistry have been shown to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions, but the environmental impacts of large-scale particle introduction to the marine environment are unknown. Here we study the impact of surface-engineered carbon-black materials on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) as a model marine microcrustacean. Mortality was characterized at 50-1000 mg/L, and levels of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) were characterized at sublethal particle concentrations (25-50 mg/L). Functionalized carbon black (CB) nanoparticles were found to be nontoxic at all concentrations, while hydrophobic (annealed) and as-produced CB induced adverse effects at high concentrations. CB was also shown to adsorb benzene, a model hydrocarbon representing the more soluble and toxic low-molecular weight aromatic fraction of petroleum, but the extent of adsorption was insufficient to mitigate benzene toxicity to Artemia in coexposure experiments. At lower benzene concentrations (25-75 mg/L), coexposure with annealed and as-produced CB increased hsp70 protein levels. This study suggests that surface functionalization for increased hydrophilicity can not only improve the performance of CB-based dispersants but also reduce their adverse environmental impacts on marine organisms.

  17. Role of reservoir engineering in the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.K.; Bird, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The geology and reservoir-engineering data were integrated in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). VVhereas geology defined the analog pools and fields and provided the basic information on sizes and numbers of hypothesized petroleum accumulations, reservoir engineering helped develop necessary equations and correlations, which allowed the determination of reservoir parameters for better quantification of in-place petroleum volumes and recoverable reserves. Seismic- and sequence-stratigraphic study of the NPRA resulted in identification of 24 plays. Depth ranges in these 24 plays, however, were typically greater than depth ranges of analog plays for which there were available data, necessitating the need for establishing correlations. The basic parameters required were pressure, temperature, oil and gas formation volume factors, liquid/gas ratios for the associated and nonassociated gas, and recovery factors. Finally, the re sults of U.S. Geological Survey deposit simulation were used in carrying out an economic evaluation, which has been separately published. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Blends of Castor Oil Biodiesel-Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanwar, Roopesh; Sharma, Pushpendra Kumar; Singh, Aditya Narayan; Agrawal, Yadvendra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Diesel vehicles are the nerves and veins of transportation, particularly in developing countries. With the rapid rate of modernization, increasing demand of fuel is inevitable. The exponential increase in fuel prices and the scarcity of its supply from the environment have promoted interest in the development of alternative sources of fuel. In this work, genus Ricinus communis L. was studied in order to delimit their potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. Further, castor oil, ethyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst and tested on a four-stroke, single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The test was carried out at a constant speed of 3000 rpm at different loads. The results represent a substantial decrease in carbon monoxide (CO) emission with an increasing biodiesel percentage. The reduction of CO in B05, B10, B15 and B20 averaged 11.75, 22.02, 24.23 and 28.79 %, respectively, compared to mineral diesel. The emission results of the comparative test indicated that CO, oxygen (O2) and smoke density emissions are found to be lower when the engine is filled with B05, B10, B15 and B20 as compared to mineral diesel, while carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) with B05, B10, B15 and B20 are found to increase marginally. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption decrease and increase respectively in biodiesel with different blends in comparison of mineral diesel.

  19. Vegetable-oil test

    SciTech Connect

    Suber, H.

    1983-01-01

    A diesel engine was tested using soy oil as fuel. Tests were run using 20%, 50% 75%, and 100% soy oil combined with diesel fuel. Performance dropped somewhat at 75 and 100% soy oil. After media coverage, used soy oil was difficult to obtain. Other problems mentioned are increased carbon buildup, changes in crankcase oil, and odor. (MHR)

  20. New ultrasonic Bleustein-Gulyaev wave method for measuring the viscosity of liquids at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiełczyński, P.; Szalewski, M.; Siegoczyński, R. M.; Rostocki, A. J.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, a new method for measuring the viscosity of liquids at high pressure is presented. To this end the authors have applied an ultrasonic method using the Bleustein-Gulyaev (BG) surface acoustic wave. By applying the perturbation method, we can prove that the change in the complex propagation constant of the BG wave produced by the layer of liquid loading the waveguide surface is proportional to the shear mechanical impedance of the liquid. In the article, a measuring setup employing the BG wave for the purpose of measuring the viscosity of liquids at high pressure (up to 1GPa) is presented. The results of high-pressure viscosity measurements of triolein and castor oil are also presented. In this paper the model of a Newtonian liquid was applied. Using this new method it is also possible to measure the viscosity of liquids during the phase transition and during the decompression process (hysteresis of the dependence of viscosity on pressure).

  1. Engineering flax plants to increase their antioxidant capacity and improve oil composition and stability.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Magdalena; Prescha, Anna; Stryczewska, Monika; Szopa, Jan

    2012-05-16

    The composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the tissues is very important to human health and strongly depends on dietary intake. Since flax seeds are the richest source of polyunsaturated acids, their consumption might be beneficial for human health. Unfortunately, they are highly susceptible to auto-oxidation, which generates toxic derivatives. The main goal of this study was the generation of genetically modified flax plants with increased antioxidant potential and stable and healthy oil production. Since among phenylpropanoid compounds those belonging to the flavonoid route have the lowest antioxidant capacity, the approach was to inhibit this route of the pathway, which might result in accumulation of other compounds more effective in antioxidation. The suppression of the chalcone synthase gene resulted in hydrolyzable tannin accumulation and thus increased antioxidant status of seeds of the transgenic plant. This was due to the partial redirecting of substrates for flavonoid biosynthesis to the other routes of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Consequently, transgenic plants produced more (20-45%) polyunsaturated fatty acids than the control and mainly α-linolenic acid. Thus, increasing the antioxidant potential of flax plants has benefits in terms of the yield of suitable oil for human dietary consumption.

  2. Bioremediation of oil polluted marine sediments: A bio-engineering treatment.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Simone; Calogero, Rosario; Santisi, Santina; Genovese, Maria; Denaro, Renata; Genovese, Lucrezia; Giuliano, Laura; Mancini, Giuseppe; Yakimov, Michail M

    2015-06-01

    The fate of hydrocarbon pollutants and the development of oil-degrading indigenous marine bacteria in contaminated sediments are strongly influenced by abiotic factors such as temperature, low oxygen levels, and nutrient availability. In this work, the effects of different biodegradation processes (bioremediation) on oil-polluted anoxic sediments were analyzed. In particular, as a potential bioremediation strategy for polluted sediments, we applied a prototype of the "Modular Slurry System" (MSS), allowing containment of the sediments and their physical-chemical treatment (by air insufflations, temperature regulation, and the use of a slow-release fertilizer). Untreated polluted sediments served as the blank in a non-controlled experiment. During the experimental period (30 days), bacterial density and biochemical oxygen demand were measured and functional genes were identified by screening. Quantitative measurements of pollutants and an eco-toxicological analysis (mortality of Corophium orientale) were carried out at the beginning and end of the experiments. The results demonstrated the high biodegradative capability achieved with the proposed technology and its strong reduction of pollutant concentrations and thus toxicity. PMID:26496620

  3. Bioremediation of oil polluted marine sediments: A bio-engineering treatment.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Simone; Calogero, Rosario; Santisi, Santina; Genovese, Maria; Denaro, Renata; Genovese, Lucrezia; Giuliano, Laura; Mancini, Giuseppe; Yakimov, Michail M

    2015-06-01

    The fate of hydrocarbon pollutants and the development of oil-degrading indigenous marine bacteria in contaminated sediments are strongly influenced by abiotic factors such as temperature, low oxygen levels, and nutrient availability. In this work, the effects of different biodegradation processes (bioremediation) on oil-polluted anoxic sediments were analyzed. In particular, as a potential bioremediation strategy for polluted sediments, we applied a prototype of the "Modular Slurry System" (MSS), allowing containment of the sediments and their physical-chemical treatment (by air insufflations, temperature regulation, and the use of a slow-release fertilizer). Untreated polluted sediments served as the blank in a non-controlled experiment. During the experimental period (30 days), bacterial density and biochemical oxygen demand were measured and functional genes were identified by screening. Quantitative measurements of pollutants and an eco-toxicological analysis (mortality of Corophium orientale) were carried out at the beginning and end of the experiments. The results demonstrated the high biodegradative capability achieved with the proposed technology and its strong reduction of pollutant concentrations and thus toxicity.

  4. A highly resilient mesoporous SiOx lithium storage material engineered by oil-water templating.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjun; Park, Min-Sik; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Ki Jae; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hansu

    2015-02-01

    Mesoporous silicon-based materials gained considerable attention as high-capacity lithium-storage materials. However, the practical use is still limited by the complexity and limited number of available synthetic routes. Here, we report carbon-coated porous SiOx as high capacity lithium storage material prepared by using a sol-gel reaction of hydrogen silsesquioxane and oil-water templating. A hydrophobic oil is employed as a pore former inside the SiOx matrix and a precursor for carbon coating on the SiOx . The anode exhibits a high capacity of 730 mAh g(-1) and outstanding cycling performance over 100 cycles without significant dimensional changes. Carbon-coated porous SiOx also showed highly stable thermal reliability comparable to that of graphite. These promising properties come from the mesopores in the SiOx matrix, which ensures reliable operation of lithium storage in SiOx . The scalable sol-gel process presented here can open up a new avenue for the versatile preparation of porous SiOx lithium storage materials.

  5. Modeling the lubrication, dynamics, and effects of piston dynamic tilt of twin-land oil control rings in internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, T.; Wong, V.W.

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to study the lubrication, friction, dynamics, and oil transport of twin-land oil control rings (TLOCR) in internal combustion engines. A mixed lubrication model with consideration of shear-thinning effects of multigrade oils was used to describe the lubrication between the running surfaces of the two lands and the liner. Oil squeezing and asperity contact were both considered for the interaction between the flanks of the TLOCR and the ring groove. Then, the moments and axial forces from TLOCR/liner lubrication and TLOCR/groove interaction were coupled into the dynamic equations of the TLOCR. Furthermore, effects of piston dynamic tilt were considered in a quasi three-dimensional manner so that the behaviors of the TLOCR at different circumferential location could be studied. As a first step, variation of the third land pressure was neglected. The model predictions were illustrated via an SI engine. One important finding is that around thrust and anti-thrust sides, the difference between the minimum oil film thickness of two lands can be as high as several micrometers due to piston dynamic tilt. As a result, at thrust and anti-thrust sides, significant oil can pass under one land of the TLOCR along the bore, although the other land perfectly seals the bore. Then, the capabilities of the model were further explained by studying the effects of ring tension and torsional resistance on the lubrication and oil transport between the lands and the liner. The effects of oil film thickness on the flanks of the ring groove on the dynamics of the TLOCR were also studied. Friction results show that boundary lubrication contributes significantly to the total friction of the TLOCR.

  6. Measurement of viscosity, density and gas solubility of refrigerant blends. Quarterly progress report, 1 January 1993--31 March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Cavestri, R.C.; Munk, J.

    1993-04-01

    Liquid/liquid miscibilities of four different 32 ISO VG polyolesters and one alkylbenzene at three concentrations were determined. Also a full vapor lubricant equilibrium (VLE) viscosity reduction of a 32 ISO VG mineral oil with HCFC-22 is complete. Partial viscosity reduction information by the fractionate components from R-502 in 32 ISO VG mineral oil is presented from 40C (104C) and 70C (158F) isotherms.

  7. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding. Project OE6. [Viscosities of chemical slugs

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.

    1986-05-01

    In this report we are presenting the results of our investigation in 3 areas: (1) the use of low pH alkaline chemicals for wettability alteration; (2) the development of a correlation between interfacial shear viscosity and water breakout for oil-brine macroemulsions; and (3) the evaluation of bicarbonate as a chemical for use in oil recovery. The main objective of our work is to develop an understanding of the mechanisms involved in bicarbonate flooding and to make specific recommendations for its potential use in enhanced oil recovery. To evaluate the use of bicarbonate as an emulsion destabilizer, emulsification and coalescence test results were compared with interfacial shear viscosities. In two of the three systems studied an inverse relationship was found between the maximum rate of water breakout and interfacial shear viscosity. Temperature and aging of the interface was a major factor affecting these results. Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate were used to determine their effect on rock wettability. Sodium bicarbonate was found to change the wettability of Berea sandstone toward the water-wet state more effectively than sodium carbonate for the low acid oil, Noone crude. Highly acidic crude oils appeared to react with bicarbonate creating highly absorbed surfactants. This caused Berea sandstone to become more oil-wet. The major mechanisms of oil recovery using sodium bicarbonate include wettability alteration, emulsification followed by coalescence, and lowered interfacial shear viscosity. These mechanisms alone did not cause significant recovery of the low acid oil, Noone crude. Previous oil displacement tests indicate that bicarbonate is more effective when using acidic crude oils. The range of oils that can be recovered using bicarbonate can be extended by adding small amounts of surfactants to the bicarbonate slug. 18 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Solubility, viscosity and density of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 July 1993--30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, D.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents results of measurements on low refrigerant concentration mixtures (0, 10, 20, 30 wt %) of CFC-12, HCFC`s 22, 123 and 124, HFC`s 134a, 32 and 125 with mineral oil, alkylbenzene and polyolester lubricants. Viscosity, solubility (vapor pressure) and density data are reported for 23 working fluids composed of combinations of these refrigerants and companion lubricants. These data, reduced to engineering form, are presented in form of a Daniel Chart and a plot of density vs temperature and composition. Extensive numerical analysis has been performed in order to derive equations which allow two independent variables (temperature and composition) and to provide for corrections in composition due to vapor space volume in the test apparatus; details of these calculations are provided.

  9. Solubility, viscosity and density of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Final technical report, [1 October 1992--19 April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, D.R.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the results of experimental measurements on low refrigerant concentration mixtures (0, 10, 20 and 30 weight percent) and high refrigerant concentration mixtures (80, 90 and 100 weight percent) of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) 12, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC`s) 22, 123, 124 and 142b, and hydrofluorocarbons (BFC`s) 134a, 32, 125, 152a and 143a with mineral oil, alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol and polyolester lubricants. Viscosity, solubility (vapor pressure) and density data are reported for thirty five working fluids which are selected combinations of these refrigerants and companion lubricants. These data, reduced to engineering form, are presented in the form of a Daniel Chart and a plot of density versus temperature and composition. Extensive numerical analysis has been performed in order to derive equations which allow two independent variables (temperature and composition) and to provide for corrections in composition due to vapor space volume in the test apparatus.

  10. Emission comparison of urban bus engine fueled with diesel oil and 'biodiesel' blend.

    PubMed

    Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi; Battistelli, Chiara L; Conti, Luigi; Crebelli, Riccardo; De Berardis, Barbara; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Gambino, Michele; Iannaccone, Sabato

    2004-07-01

    The chemical and toxicological characteristics of emissions from an urban bus engine fueled with diesel and biodiesel blend were studied. Exhaust gases were produced by a turbocharged EURO 2 heavy-duty diesel engine, operating in steady-state conditions on the European test 13 mode cycle (ECE R49). Regulated and unregulated pollutants, such as carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAHs), carbonyl compounds and light aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified. Mutagenicity of the emissions was evaluated by the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay. The effect of the fuels under study on the size distribution of particulate matter (PM) was also evaluated. The use of biodiesel blend seems to result in small reductions of emissions of most of the aromatic and polyaromatic compounds; these differences, however, have no statistical significance at 95% confidence level. Formaldehyde, on the other hand, has a statistically significant increase of 18% with biodiesel blend. In vitro toxicological assays show an overall similar mutagenic potency and genotoxic profile for diesel and biodiesel blend emissions. The electron microscopy analysis indicates that PM for both fuels has the same chemical composition, morphology, shape and granulometric spectrum, with most of the particles in the range 0.06-0.3 microm. PMID:15172578

  11. Argonne Engine Friction Study Phase 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Issac; Torbeck, Troy; Brogdon, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed a process for making near frictionless carbon (NFC) coatings and depositing them on metal substrates. Friction reductions approaching an order of magnitude have been measured in laboratory tests. While there are many potential applications for such coatings, friction reduction in internal combustion engines is of particular interest due to the apparent fuel savings potential. Ricardo has performed a program of work to estimate potential fuel economy improvements due to the application of such a coating at key interfaces within a diesel engine typical of those found in large trucks. Piston, ring pack, and valvetrain simulations have been performed, using existing models of representative engines, with various degrees of friction reduction applied at important interfaces. The simulations were run at 8 specific operating points to allow approximation of engine performance over the FTP test cycle. Reduction in fuel consumption over the cycle was calculated for each reduced friction case. Results show that application of a friction-reducing surface treatment, like the NFC coatings, at the piston rings and skirt, and at key interfaces within the valvetrain, is expected to result in a reduction in fuel consumption of 0.43% to 0.81% over the FTP heavy duty test cycle. The piston skirt and piston rings are the interfaces where the coating can make the most difference, assuming no changes are made to the engine lubricant. Hydrodynamic friction represents a very large fraction of friction losses within the interfaces considered, at all operating conditions, indicating that changes to the engine lubricant, such as reduced viscosity, can result in further improvement. Reduced oil viscosity may result in increased metal-to-metal contact and wear, unless a durable, low friction coating can be applied at key interfaces. Ricardo recommends an analytical evaluation of the potential benefits of reduced oil viscosity, which considers

  12. On the effective viscosity of nanosuspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.; Egorov, V. V.

    2009-08-01

    The effective viscosity of nanosuspensions is simulated using the molecular dynamics method. It is found that viscosity is controlled not only by the volume concentration of nanoparticles, by also by their mass and diameter. The viscosity of even strongly rarefied nanosuspensions (with a low concentration of nanoparticles) cannot be described by the Einstein relation. This means that the mechanism responsible for the increase in the viscosity of the medium is not of hydrodynamic origin. It is shown that the formation of viscosity of nanosuspensions is associated to a considerable extent with nonequilibrium microfluctuations of density and velocity of the carrier medium, which are induced by the motion of nanoparticles.

  13. In situ combustion of Antrim oil shale: field test of Tejas petroleum engineers burner

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.L.; Pihlaja, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    A major problem in having a successful in situ extraction experiment in Antrim oil shale has been the lack of a reliable ignition system. A reliable burner system has now been found. A methane burner was successfully tested for an intermittant 5-day period with a total of 82 hours of burner operation. The burner was ignited at 800 psig (well pressure) and reignited five times. The burner operated during the test at a theoretical gas temperature of 1200/sup 0/F. Increased temperatures are possible with greater fuel to air ratios. The burner was monitored three different ways. Three thermocouples monitored exhaust gas temperature. A sample was taken of exhaust gas and analyzed for CO, CO/sub 2/, O/sub 2/ and unburned hydrocarbons. The burner pressure pulses were monitored by pressure gauges at the surface on the methane supply line. The three different systems gave an indication of whether the burner was operating. The only thing that the burner test idn't investigate was the upper safe operating temperature limit.

  14. An experimental study on usage of plastic oil and B20 algae biodiesel blend as substitute fuel to diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Ramesha, D K; Kumara, G Prema; Lalsaheb; Mohammed, Aamir V T; Mohammad, Haseeb A; Kasma, Mufteeb Ain

    2016-05-01

    Usage of plastics has been ever increasing and now poses a tremendous threat to the environment. Millions of tons of plastics are produced annually worldwide, and the waste products have become a common feature at overflowing bins and landfills. The process of converting waste plastic into value-added fuels finds a feasible solution for recycling of plastics. Thus, two universal problems such as problems of waste plastic management and problems of fuel shortage are being tackled simultaneously. Converting waste plastics into fuel holds great promise for both the environmental and economic scenarios. In order to carry out the study on plastic wastes, the pyrolysis process was used. Pyrolysis runs without oxygen and in high temperature of about 250-300 °C. The fuel obtained from plastics is blended with B20 algae oil, which is a biodiesel obtained from microalgae. For conducting the various experiments, a 10-HP single-cylinder four-stroke direct-injection water-cooled diesel engine is employed. The engine is made to run at 1500 rpm and the load is varied gradually from 0 to 100 %. The performance, emission and combustion characteristics are observed. The BTE was observed to be higher with respect to diesel for plastic-biodiesel blend and biodiesel blend by 15.7 and 12.9 %, respectively, at full load. For plastic-biodiesel blend, the emission of UBHC and CO decreases with a slight increase in NO x as compared to diesel. It reveals that fuel properties are comparable with petroleum products. Also, the process of converting plastic waste to fuel has now turned the problems into an opportunity to make wealth from waste. PMID:26695415

  15. An experimental study on usage of plastic oil and B20 algae biodiesel blend as substitute fuel to diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Ramesha, D K; Kumara, G Prema; Lalsaheb; Mohammed, Aamir V T; Mohammad, Haseeb A; Kasma, Mufteeb Ain

    2016-05-01

    Usage of plastics has been ever increasing and now poses a tremendous threat to the environment. Millions of tons of plastics are produced annually worldwide, and the waste products have become a common feature at overflowing bins and landfills. The process of converting waste plastic into value-added fuels finds a feasible solution for recycling of plastics. Thus, two universal problems such as problems of waste plastic management and problems of fuel shortage are being tackled simultaneously. Converting waste plastics into fuel holds great promise for both the environmental and economic scenarios. In order to carry out the study on plastic wastes, the pyrolysis process was used. Pyrolysis runs without oxygen and in high temperature of about 250-300 °C. The fuel obtained from plastics is blended with B20 algae oil, which is a biodiesel obtained from microalgae. For conducting the various experiments, a 10-HP single-cylinder four-stroke direct-injection water-cooled diesel engine is employed. The engine is made to run at 1500 rpm and the load is varied gradually from 0 to 100 %. The performance, emission and combustion characteristics are observed. The BTE was observed to be higher with respect to diesel for plastic-biodiesel blend and biodiesel blend by 15.7 and 12.9 %, respectively, at full load. For plastic-biodiesel blend, the emission of UBHC and CO decreases with a slight increase in NO x as compared to diesel. It reveals that fuel properties are comparable with petroleum products. Also, the process of converting plastic waste to fuel has now turned the problems into an opportunity to make wealth from waste.

  16. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the diesel engine by adding light cycle oil to premium diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Chung-Bang

    2006-06-01

    Diesel fuels governed by U.S. regulations are based on the index of the total aromatic contents. Three diesel fuels, containing various fractions of light cycle oil (LCO) and various sulfur, total polyaromatic, and total aromatic contents, were used in a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE) under transient cycle test to assess the feasibility of using current indices in managing the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from HDDE. The mean sulfur content in LCO is 20.8 times as much as that of premium diesel fuel (PDF). The mean total polyaromatic content in LCO is 28.7 times as much as that of PDF, and the mean total aromatic content in LCO is 2.53 times as much as that of PDF. The total polyaromatic hydrocarbon emission factors in the exhaust from the diesel engine, as determined using PDF L3.5 (3.5% LCO and 96.5% PDF), L7.5 (7.5% LCO and 92.5% PDF), and L15 (15% LCO and 85% PDF) were 14.3, 25.8, 44, and 101 mg L(-1), respectively. The total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) emission factors in the exhaust from PDF, L3.5, L7.5, and L15 were 0.0402, 0.121, 0.219, and 0.548 mg L(-1), respectively. Results indicated that using L3.5 instead of PDF will result in an 80.4% and a 201% increase of emission for total PAHs and total BaPeq, respectively. The relationships between the total polyaromatic hydrocarbon emission factor and the two emission control indices, including fuel polyaromatic content and fuel aromatic content, suggest that both indices could be used feasibly to regulate total PAH emissions. These results strongly suggest that LCO used in the traveling diesel vehicles significantly influences PAH emissions.

  17. Production and fuel characteristics of vegetable oil from oilseed crops in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Auld, D.L.; Bettis, B.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential yield and fuel quality of various oilseed crops adapted to the Pacific Northwest as a source of liquid fuel for diesel engines. The seed yield and oil production of three cultivars of winter rape (Brassica napus L.), two cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were evaluated in replicated plots at Moscow. Additional trials were conducted at several locations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Sunflower, oleic and linoleic safflower, and low and high erucic acid rapeseed were evaluated for fatty acid composition, energy content, viscosity and engine performance in short term tests. During 20 minute engine tests power output, fuel economy and thermal efficiency were compared to diesel fuel. Winter rape produced over twice as much farm extractable oil as either safflower or sunflower. The winter rape cultivars, Norde and Jet Neuf had oil yields which averaged 1740 and 1540 L/ha, respectively. Vegetable oils contained 94 to 95% of the KJ/L of diesel fuel, but were 11.1 to 17.6 times more viscous. Viscosity of the vegetable oils was closely related to fatty acid chain length and number of unsaturated bonds (R/sup 2/=.99). During short term engine tests all vegetable oils produced power outputs equivalent to diesel, and had thermal efficiencies 1.8 to 2.8% higher than diesel. Based on these results it appears that species and cultivars of oilseed crops to be utilized as a source of fuel should be selected on the basis of oil yield. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  18. Low Viscosity Zone and Mantle Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, C.; Hansen, U.

    2005-12-01

    We use a three-dimensional mantle convection model to explore the influence of rheological properties on variations in viscosity and mantle dynamics. In particular the interaction of a temperature-, pressure- and stress-dependent viscosity has been studied. In temperature- and stress-dependent viscosity convection, a stagnant lid mode of convection arises if the viscosity is strongly dominated by temperature. This is linked to a strong viscosity drop over the top boundary layer with little further viscosity variations with depth. An almost constant viscosity-depth profile with only a maximum at mid-depth is obtained, if the system is strongly influenced by the stress dependence. This is coupled to a mobilised surface which takes part in the convective process. A low viscosity zone (LVZ) at shallow depths and a viscosity peak at mid-depth have been obtained for the balanced combination of the temperature and stress dependence of the viscosity. The appearance of both zones correlates with the appearance of plate-like motion. Small rigid surface pieces sink into the interior. But subduction is faster than the new creation of plates leading only to an occassional occurrence of the features. Additional pressure dependence of the viscosity helps to slow down subduction speed, so that plates and the LVZ exist over long times. Further the long-wavelength flow resulting in convection with depth-dependent properties leads to extended plates and a more global LVZ.

  19. Superparamagnetic nanoparticle-based viscosity test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kai; Liu, Jinming; Wang, Yi; Ye, Clark; Feng, Yinglong; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Hyperviscosity syndrome is triggered by high blood viscosity in the human body. This syndrome can result in retinopathy, vertigo, coma, and other unanticipated complications. Serum viscosity is one of the important factors affecting whole blood viscosity, which is regarded as an indicator of general health. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate a Brownian relaxation-based mixing frequency method to test human serum viscosity. This method uses excitatory and detection coils and Brownian relaxation-dominated superparamagnetic nanoparticles, which are sensitive to variables of the liquid environment such as viscosity and temperature. We collect the harmonic signals produced by magnetic nanoparticles and estimate the viscosity of unknown solutions by comparison to the calibration curves. An in vitro human serum viscosity test is performed in less than 1.5 min.

  20. Experimental investigation on regulated and unregulated emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel blended with biodiesel from waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C S; Huang, Zuohua

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultra-low sulfur diesel, bi oesel and their blends, to investigate the regulated and unregulated emissions of the engine under five engine loads at an engine speed of 1800 rev/min. Blended fuels containing 19.6%, 39.4%, 59.4% and 79.6% by volume of biodiesel, corresponding to 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by mass of oxygen in the blended fuel, were used. Biodiesel used in this study was converted from waste cooking oil. The following results are obtained with an increase of biodiesel in the fuel. The brake specific fuel consumption and the brake thermal efficiency increase. The HC and CO emissions decrease while NO(x) and NO(2) emissions increase. The smoke opacity and particulate mass concentrations reduce significantly at high engine load. In addition, for submicron particles, the geometry mean diameter of the particles becomes smaller while the total number concentration increases. For the unregulated gaseous emissions, generally, the emissions of formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylene decrease, however, acetaldehyde and benzene emissions increase. The results indicate that the combination of ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel from waste cooking oil gives similar results to those in the literature using higher sulfur diesel fuels and biodiesel from other sources.

  1. Optimisation of biodiesel production by sunflower oil transesterification.

    PubMed

    Antolín, G; Tinaut, F V; Briceño, Y; Castaño, V; Pérez, C; Ramírez, A I

    2002-06-01

    In this work the transformation process of sunflower oil in order to obtain biodiesel by means of transesterification was studied. Taguchi's methodology was chosen for the optimisation of the most important variables (temperature conditions, reactants proportion and methods of purification), with the purpose of obtaining a high quality biodiesel that fulfils the European pre-legislation with the maximum process yield. Finally, sunflower methyl esters were characterised to test their properties as fuels in diesel engines, such as viscosity, flash point, cold filter plugging point and acid value. Results showed that biodiesel obtained under the optimum conditions is an excellent substitute for fossil fuels.

  2. Rapid determination of fluid viscosity using low-field two-dimensional NMR.

    PubMed

    Deng, Feng; Xiao, Lizhi; Chen, Weiliang; Liu, Huabing; Liao, Guangzhi; Wang, Mengying; Xie, Qingming

    2014-10-01

    The rapid prediction of fluid viscosity, especially the fluid in heavy-oil petroleum reservoirs, is of great importance for oil exploration and transportation. We suggest a new method for rapid prediction of fluid viscosity using two-dimensional (2D) NMR relaxation time distributions. DEFIR, Driven-Equilibrium Fast-Inversion Recovery, a new pulse sequence for rapid measurement of 2D relaxation times, is proposed. The 2D relation between the ratio of transverse relaxation time to longitudinal relaxation time (T1/T2) and T1 distribution of fluid are obtained by means of DEFIR with only two one-dimensional measurements. The measurement speed of DEFIR pulse sequence over 2 times as fast as that of the traditional 2D method. Using Bloembergen theory, the relation between the distributions and fluid viscosity is found. Precise method for viscosity prediction is then established. Finally, we apply this method to a down-hole NMR fluid analysis system and realized on-site and on-line prediction of viscosity for formation fluids. The results demonstrated that the new method for viscosity prediction is efficient and accurate. PMID:25218115

  3. Rapid determination of fluid viscosity using low-field two-dimensional NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Feng; Xiao, Lizhi; Chen, Weiliang; Liu, Huabing; Liao, Guangzhi; Wang, Mengying; Xie, Qingming

    2014-10-01

    The rapid prediction of fluid viscosity, especially the fluid in heavy-oil petroleum reservoirs, is of great importance for oil exploration and transportation. We suggest a new method for rapid prediction of fluid viscosity using two-dimensional (2D) NMR relaxation time distributions. DEFIR, Driven-Equilibrium Fast-Inversion Recovery, a new pulse sequence for rapid measurement of 2D relaxation times, is proposed. The 2D relation between the ratio of transverse relaxation time to longitudinal relaxation time (T1/T2) and T1 distribution of fluid are obtained by means of DEFIR with only two one-dimensional measurements. The measurement speed of DEFIR pulse sequence over 2 times as fast as that of the traditional 2D method. Using Bloembergen theory, the relation between the distributions and fluid viscosity is found. Precise method for viscosity prediction is then established. Finally, we apply this method to a down-hole NMR fluid analysis system and realized on-site and on-line prediction of viscosity for formation fluids. The results demonstrated that the new method for viscosity prediction is efficient and accurate.

  4. Rapid determination of fluid viscosity using low-field two-dimensional NMR.

    PubMed

    Deng, Feng; Xiao, Lizhi; Chen, Weiliang; Liu, Huabing; Liao, Guangzhi; Wang, Mengying; Xie, Qingming

    2014-10-01

    The rapid prediction of fluid viscosity, especially the fluid in heavy-oil petroleum reservoirs, is of great importance for oil exploration and transportation. We suggest a new method for rapid prediction of fluid viscosity using two-dimensional (2D) NMR relaxation time distributions. DEFIR, Driven-Equilibrium Fast-Inversion Recovery, a new pulse sequence for rapid measurement of 2D relaxation times, is proposed. The 2D relation between the ratio of transverse relaxation time to longitudinal relaxation time (T1/T2) and T1 distribution of fluid are obtained by means of DEFIR with only two one-dimensional measurements. The measurement speed of DEFIR pulse sequence over 2 times as fast as that of the traditional 2D method. Using Bloembergen theory, the relation between the distributions and fluid viscosity is found. Precise method for viscosity prediction is then established. Finally, we apply this method to a down-hole NMR fluid analysis system and realized on-site and on-line prediction of viscosity for formation fluids. The results demonstrated that the new method for viscosity prediction is efficient and accurate.

  5. Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.B.

    1984-02-28

    An internal combustion engine has a piston rack depending from each piston. This rack is connected to a power output shaft through a mechanical rectifier so that the power output shaft rotates in only one direction. A connecting rod is pivotally connected at one end to the rack and at the other end to the crank of a reduced function crankshaft so that the crankshaft rotates at the same angular velocity as the power output shaft and at the same frequency as the pistons. The crankshaft has a size, weight and shape sufficient to return the pistons back into the cylinders in position for the next power stroke.

  6. Elastohydrodynamic analysis using a power law pressure-viscosity relation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    An isothermal elastohydrodynamic (EHD) inlet analysis of the Grubin type which considers a power law pressure-viscosity relation and a finite pressure at the inlet edge of the Hertzian contact zone was performed. Comparisons made with published X-ray EHD film thickness data for a synthetic paraffinic oil and when conventional EHD theory showed that the present theory exhibits a slightly stronger film thickness load dependence than do previous isothermal EHD theories but far less than that exhibited by the measured data.

  7. Viscosity dictates metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber

    PubMed Central

    Borić, Maja; Danevčič, Tjaša; Stopar, David

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment. PMID:22826705

  8. Viscosities of cetylpyridinium bromide solutions (aqueous and aqueous KBr) in the presence of alcohols and amines

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.L.; Kumar, S.; Kabir-ud-Din

    1997-01-01

    Among the large number of additives, alcohols hold a special place, being by far the most common cosurfactants which are added to surfactant-oil combinations to generate microemulsions. Though the studies using amines as cosurfactant in microemulsions are few, it has been proved that they are also potential candidates for such formulations. The effect of organic additives (aliphatic/aromatic amines or alcohols) on the viscosities of aqueous and 0.1 M KBr solutions of 0.05 or 0.1 M cetylpyridinium bromide have been measured under Newtonian flow conditions. The viscosity changed dramatically in the presence of KBr. This is explained by the favorable conditions produced by the salt which assists the micellar growth by organic additives with a concomitant enhancement in viscosity. Reasons for the effectiveness of these additives are suggested. The causes of the viscosity decrease at higher concentrations of the additive are also explained.

  9. Brassica carinata as an alternative oil crop for the production of biodiesel in Italy: engine performance and regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions.

    PubMed

    Cardone, Massimo; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Rocco, Vittorio; Seggiani, Maurizia; Senatore, Adolfo; Vitoloi, Sandra

    2002-11-01

    A comparison of the performance of Brassica carinata oil-derived biodiesel with a commercial rapeseed oil-derived biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel is discussed as regards engine performance and regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions. B. carinata is an oil crop that can be cultivated in coastal areas of central-southern Italy, where it is more difficult to achieve the productivity potentials of Brassica napus (by far the most common rapeseed cultivated in continental Europe). Experimental tests were carried out on a turbocharged direct injection passenger car diesel engine fueled with 100% biodiesel. The unregulated exhaust emissions were characterized by determining the SOOT and soluble organic fraction content in the particulate matter, together with analysis of the content and speciation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, some of which are potentially carcinogenic, and of carbonyl compounds (aldehydes, ketones) that act as ozone precursors. B. carinata and commercial biodiesel behaved similarly as far as engine performance and regulated and unregulated emissions were concerned. When compared with petroleum diesel fuel, the engine test bench analysis did not show any appreciable variation of output engine torque values, while there was a significant difference in specific fuel consumption data at the lowest loads for the biofuels and petroleum diesel fuel. The biofuels were observed to produce higher levels of NOx concentrations and lower levels of PM with respect to the diesel fuel. The engine heat release analysis conducted shows that there is a potential for increased thermal NOx generation when firing biodiesel with no prior modification to the injection timing. It seems that, for both the biofuels, this behavior is caused by an advanced combustion evolution, which is particularly apparent at the higher loads. When compared with petroleum diesel fuel, biodiesel emissions contain less SOOT, and a greater fraction of the particulate was soluble. The

  10. Brassica carinata as an alternative oil crop for the production of biodiesel in Italy: engine performance and regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions.

    PubMed

    Cardone, Massimo; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Rocco, Vittorio; Seggiani, Maurizia; Senatore, Adolfo; Vitoloi, Sandra

    2002-11-01

    A comparison of the performance of Brassica carinata oil-derived biodiesel with a commercial rapeseed oil-derived biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel is discussed as regards engine performance and regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions. B. carinata is an oil crop that can be cultivated in coastal areas of central-southern Italy, where it is more difficult to achieve the productivity potentials of Brassica napus (by far the most common rapeseed cultivated in continental Europe). Experimental tests were carried out on a turbocharged direct injection passenger car diesel engine fueled with 100% biodiesel. The unregulated exhaust emissions were characterized by determining the SOOT and soluble organic fraction content in the particulate matter, together with analysis of the content and speciation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, some of which are potentially carcinogenic, and of carbonyl compounds (aldehydes, ketones) that act as ozone precursors. B. carinata and commercial biodiesel behaved similarly as far as engine performance and regulated and unregulated emissions were concerned. When compared with petroleum diesel fuel, the engine test bench analysis did not show any appreciable variation of output engine torque values, while there was a significant difference in specific fuel consumption data at the lowest loads for the biofuels and petroleum diesel fuel. The biofuels were observed to produce higher levels of NOx concentrations and lower levels of PM with respect to the diesel fuel. The engine heat release analysis conducted shows that there is a potential for increased thermal NOx generation when firing biodiesel with no prior modification to the injection timing. It seems that, for both the biofuels, this behavior is caused by an advanced combustion evolution, which is particularly apparent at the higher loads. When compared with petroleum diesel fuel, biodiesel emissions contain less SOOT, and a greater fraction of the particulate was soluble. The

  11. Holographic viscosity of fundamental matter.

    PubMed

    Mateos, David; Myers, Robert C; Thomson, Rowan M

    2007-03-01

    A holographic dual of a finite-temperature SU(Nc) gauge theory with a small number of flavors Nfviscosity to entropy ratio in these theories saturates the conjectured universal bound eta/s> or =1/4pi. Given the known results for the entropy density, the contribution of the fundamental matter eta fund is therefore enhanced at strong 't Hooft coupling lambda; for example, eta fund approximately lambda NcNfT3 in four dimensions. Other transport coefficients are analogously enhanced. These results hold with or without a baryon number chemical potential. PMID:17358523

  12. Effects of hydrotreated vegetable oil on emissions of aerosols and gases from light-duty and medium-duty older technology engines.

    PubMed

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D; Hummer, Jon A; Vanderslice, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the potential of hydrotreated vegetable oil renewable diesel (HVORD) as a control strategy to reduce exposure of workers to diesel aerosols and gases. The effects of HVORD on criteria aerosol and gaseous emissions were compared with those of ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD). The results of comprehensive testing at four steady-state conditions and one transient cycle were used to characterize the aerosol and gaseous emissions from two older technology engines: (1) a naturally aspirated mechanically controlled and (2) a turbocharged electronically controlled engine. Both engines were equipped with diesel oxidation catalytic converters (DOCs). For all test conditions, both engines emitted measurably lower total mass concentrations of diesel aerosols, total carbon, and elemental carbon when HVORD was used in place of ULSD. For all test conditions, the reductions in total mass concentrations were more substantial for the naturally aspirated than for the turbocharged engine. In the case of the naturally aspirated engine, HVORD also favorably affected total surface area of aerosols deposited in the alveolar region of human lungs (TSAADAR) and the total number concentrations of aerosols. In the case of the turbocharged electronically controlled engine, for some of the test conditions HVORD adversely affected the TSAADAR and total number concentrations of aerosols. In the majority of the test cases involving the naturally aspirated mechanically controlled engine, HVORD favorably affected carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX), and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations, but adversely affected NO2 and total hydrocarbon concentrations, while the effects of the fuels on carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were masked by the effects of DOC. In the case of the turbocharged electronically controlled engine, the CO2, CO, NOX, NO, and total hydrocarbon concentrations were generally lower when HVORD was used in place of ULSD. The effects of the fuels

  13. Effects of hydrotreated vegetable oil on emissions of aerosols and gases from light-duty and medium-duty older technology engines.

    PubMed

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D; Hummer, Jon A; Vanderslice, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the potential of hydrotreated vegetable oil renewable diesel (HVORD) as a control strategy to reduce exposure of workers to diesel aerosols and gases. The effects of HVORD on criteria aerosol and gaseous emissions were compared with those of ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD). The results of comprehensive testing at four steady-state conditions and one transient cycle were used to characterize the aerosol and gaseous emissions from two older technology engines: (1) a naturally aspirated mechanically controlled and (2) a turbocharged electronically controlled engine. Both engines were equipped with diesel oxidation catalytic converters (DOCs). For all test conditions, both engines emitted measurably lower total mass concentrations of diesel aerosols, total carbon, and elemental carbon when HVORD was used in place of ULSD. For all test conditions, the reductions in total mass concentrations were more substantial for the naturally aspirated than for the turbocharged engine. In the case of the naturally aspirated engine, HVORD also favorably affected total surface area of aerosols deposited in the alveolar region of human lungs (TSAADAR) and the total number concentrations of aerosols. In the case of the turbocharged electronically controlled engine, for some of the test conditions HVORD adversely affected the TSAADAR and total number concentrations of aerosols. In the majority of the test cases involving the naturally aspirated mechanically controlled engine, HVORD favorably affected carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX), and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations, but adversely affected NO2 and total hydrocarbon concentrations, while the effects of the fuels on carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were masked by the effects of DOC. In the case of the turbocharged electronically controlled engine, the CO2, CO, NOX, NO, and total hydrocarbon concentrations were generally lower when HVORD was used in place of ULSD. The effects of the fuels

  14. Cognitive impairment and associated loss in brain white microstructure in aircrew members exposed to engine oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Reneman, Liesbeth; Schagen, Sanne B; Mulder, Michel; Mutsaerts, Henri J; Hageman, Gerard; de Ruiter, Michiel B

    2016-06-01

    Cabin air in airplanes can be contaminated with engine oil contaminants. These contaminations may contain organophosphates (OPs) which are known neurotoxins to brain white matter. However, it is currently unknown if brain white matter in aircrew is affected. We investigated whether we could objectify cognitive complaints in aircrew and whether we could find a neurobiological substrate for their complaints. After medical ethical approval from the local institutional review board, informed consent was obtained from 12 aircrew (2 females, on average aged 44.4 years, 8,130 flying hours) with cognitive complaints and 11 well matched control subjects (2 females, 43.4 years, 233 flying hours). Depressive symptoms and self-reported cognitive symptoms were assessed, in addition to a neuropsychological test battery. State of the art Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques were administered that assess structural and functional changes, with a focus on white matter integrity. In aircrew we found significantly more self-reported cognitive complaints and depressive symptoms, and a higher number of tests scored in the impaired range compared to the control group. We observed small clusters in the brain in which white matter microstructure was affected. Also, we observed higher cerebral perfusion values in the left occipital cortex, and reduced brain activation on a functional MRI executive function task. The extent of cognitive impairment was strongly associated with white matter integrity, but extent of estimated number of flight hours was not associated with cognitive impairment nor with reductions in white matter microstructure. Defects in brain white matter microstructure and cerebral perfusion are potential neurobiological substrates for cognitive impairments and mood deficits reported in aircrew.

  15. Cognitive impairment and associated loss in brain white microstructure in aircrew members exposed to engine oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Reneman, Liesbeth; Schagen, Sanne B; Mulder, Michel; Mutsaerts, Henri J; Hageman, Gerard; de Ruiter, Michiel B

    2016-06-01

    Cabin air in airplanes can be contaminated with engine oil contaminants. These contaminations may contain organophosphates (OPs) which are known neurotoxins to brain white matter. However, it is currently unknown if brain white matter in aircrew is affected. We investigated whether we could objectify cognitive complaints in aircrew and whether we could find a neurobiological substrate for their complaints. After medical ethical approval from the local institutional review board, informed consent was obtained from 12 aircrew (2 females, on average aged 44.4 years, 8,130 flying hours) with cognitive complaints and 11 well matched control subjects (2 females, 43.4 years, 233 flying hours). Depressive symptoms and self-reported cognitive symptoms were assessed, in addition to a neuropsychological test battery. State of the art Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques were administered that assess structural and functional changes, with a focus on white matter integrity. In aircrew we found significantly more self-reported cognitive complaints and depressive symptoms, and a higher number of tests scored in the impaired range compared to the control group. We observed small clusters in the brain in which white matter microstructure was affected. Also, we observed higher cerebral perfusion values in the left occipital cortex, and reduced brain activation on a functional MRI executive function task. The extent of cognitive impairment was strongly associated with white matter integrity, but extent of estimated number of flight hours was not associated with cognitive impairment nor with reductions in white matter microstructure. Defects in brain white matter microstructure and cerebral perfusion are potential neurobiological substrates for cognitive impairments and mood deficits reported in aircrew. PMID:26063438

  16. Nanostructured systems for enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.; Kuvshinov, I. V.

    2015-10-01

    The reservoir energy or that of the injected heat carrier was used to generate in situ intelligent chemical systems—nanostructured gels, sols and oil-displacing surfactants systems, preserving for a long time in the reservoir a complex of the properties being optimal for oil displacement. The results of field tests and commercial application of physicochemical technologies using nanostructured systems for enhanced oil recovery in oilfields with difficult-to-recover reserves, including deposits of high-viscosity oils, have been presented. Field tests of new "cold" technologies on the deposit of high-viscosity oil in Usinskoye oilfield proved their high efficiency.

  17. An Empirical Viscosity Model for Coal Slags

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Cooley, Scott K.; Sundaram, S. K.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Edmondson, Autumn B.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.

    2008-10-25

    Slags of low viscosity readily penetrate the refractory lining in slagging gasifiers, causing rapid and severe corrosion called spalling. In addition, a low-viscosity slag that flows down the gasifier wall forms a relatively thin layer of slag on the refractory surface, allowing the corrosive gases in the gasifier to participate in the chemical reactions between the refractory and the slag. In contrast, a slag viscosity of <25 Pa•s at 1400°C is necessary to minimize the possibility of plugging the slag tap. There is a need to predict and optimize slag viscosity so slagging gasifiers can operate continuously at temperatures ranging from 1300 to 1650°C. The approach adopted in this work was to statistically design and prepare simulated slags, measure the viscosity as a function of temperature, and develop a model to predict slag viscosity based on slag composition and temperature. Statistical design software was used to select compositions from a candidate set of all possible vertices that will optimally represent the composition space for 10 main components. A total of 21 slag compositions were generated, including 5 actual coal slag compositions. The Arrhenius equation was applied to measured viscosity versus temperature data of tested slags, and the Arrhenius coefficients (A and B in ln(vis) = A + B/T) were expressed as linear functions of the slag composition. The viscosity model was validated using 1) data splitting approach, and 2) viscosity/temperature data of selected slag compositions from the literature that were formulated and melted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The capability of the model to predict the viscosity of coal slags was compared with the model developed by Browning et al. because this model can predict the viscosity of slags from coal ash better than the most commonly used empirical models found in the literature.

  18. Scroll Compressor Oil Pump Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branch, S.

    2015-08-01

    Scroll compressors utilize three journal bearings to absorb gas, friction and inertial loads exerted on the crankshaft. To function properly, these bearings must be lubricated with a certain amount of oil. The focus of this paper will be to discuss how computational fluid dynamics can be used to predict oil flow out of a single-stage oil pump. The effects of speed and lubricant viscosity on pump output will also be presented. The comparisons will look at mass flow rates, differences in pressure, and torque at various speeds and dynamic viscosities. The computational fluid dynamic analysis results will be compared with actual lab testing where a crankshaft bench tester was built.

  19. Surface dilatational viscosity of Langmuir monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Juan; Vogel, Michael; Hirsa, Amir

    2003-11-01

    With increased interest in microfluidic systems, interfacial phenomena is receiving more attention. As the length scales of fluid problems decrease, the surface to volume ratio increases and the coupling between interfacial flow and bulk flow becomes increasingly dominated by effects due to intrinsic surface viscosities (shear and dilatational), in comparison to elastic effects (due to surface tension gradients). The surface shear viscosity is well-characterized, as cm-scale laboratory experiments are able to isolate its effects from other interfacial processes (e.g., in the deep-channel viscometer). The same is not true for the dilatational viscosity, because it acts in the direction of surface tension gradients. Their relative strength scale with the capillary number, and for cm-scale laboratory flows, surface tension effects tend to dominate. In microfluidic scale flows, the scaling favors viscosity. We have devised an experimental apparatus which is capable of isolating and enhancing the effects of dilatational viscosity at the cm scales by driving the interface harmonically in time, while keeping the interface flat. In this talk, we shall present both the theory for how this works as well as experimental measurements of surface velocity from which we deduce the dilatational viscosity of several monolayers on the air-water interface over a substantial range of surface concentrations. Anomalous behavior over some range of concentration, which superficially indicates negative viscosity, maybe explained in terms of compositional effects due to large spatial and temporal variations in concentration and corresponding viscosity.

  20. Low shear viscosity due to Anderson localization

    SciTech Connect

    Giannakis, Ioannis; Hou Defu; Ren Haicang; Li Jiarong

    2008-01-15

    We study the Anderson localization effect on the shear viscosity in a system with random medium by Kubo formula. We show that this effect can suppress nonperturbatively the shear viscosity and other transport coefficients. The possible relevancy of such a suppression to the near perfect fluid behavior of the quark-gluon plasma created in heavy-ion collisions is discussed.

  1. Reducing blood viscosity with magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Huang, K.

    2011-07-01

    Blood viscosity is a major factor in heart disease. When blood viscosity increases, it damages blood vessels and increases the risk of heart attacks. Currently, the only method of treatment is to take drugs such as aspirin, which has, however, several unwanted side effects. Here we report our finding that blood viscosity can be reduced with magnetic fields of 1 T or above in the blood flow direction. One magnetic field pulse of 1.3 T lasting ˜1 min can reduce the blood viscosity by 20%-30%. After the exposure, in the absence of magnetic field, the blood viscosity slowly moves up, but takes a couple of hours to return to the original value. The process is repeatable. Reapplying the magnetic field reduces the blood viscosity again. By selecting the magnetic field strength and duration, we can keep the blood viscosity within the normal range. In addition, such viscosity reduction does not affect the red blood cells’ normal function. This technology has much potential for physical therapy.

  2. Measuring the Shear Viscosity at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, Sean; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed

    2006-11-17

    Measurements of transverse momentum fluctuations can be used to determine the shear viscosity. We use current data to estimate the viscosity-to-entropy ratio in the range from 0.08 to 0.3, and discuss how future measurements can reduce this uncertainty.

  3. Brief introduction to viscosity in hadron physics

    SciTech Connect

    Dobado, Antonio; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.

    2010-12-28

    We introduce the concept of viscosity (both shear and bulk) in the context of hadron physics and in particular the meson gas, highlighting the current theoretical efforts to connect possible measurements of the viscosities to underlying physics such as a phase transition or the trace anomaly.

  4. Solubility, viscosity and density of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, D.R.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents results for low refrigerant concentration (70, 80, 90 and 100 weight percent lubricant) mixtures of the following fluids: CFC-12/ISO 32 naphthenic mineral oil, HCFC-22/ISO 32 naphthenic mineral oil, CFC-12/ISO 100 naphthenic mineral oil, HFC-134a/ISO 22 pentaerythritol ester mixed acid, HFC-134a/ISO 32 pentaerythritol ester mixed acid [number sign]1, HFC-134a/ISO 68 pentaerythritol ester mixed acid, HFC-134a/ISO 100 pentaerythritol ester mixed acid, HFC-134a/ISO 32 pentaerythritol ester mixed acid [number sign]2, HCFC-123/ISO 32 naphthenic mineral oil, HCFC-123/ISO 100 naphthenic mineral oil, HCFC-123/150 SUS alkylbenzene, HCFC-123/300 SUS alkylbenzene. These data have been reduced to engineering form and are presented in the form of a Daniel Chart. Equations are given along with statistical measures of goodness of fit.

  5. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Gondouin, M.

    1991-10-31

    The West Sak (Upper Cretaceous) sands, overlaying the Kuparuk field, would rank among the largest known oil fields in the US, but technical difficulties have so far prevented its commercial exploitation. Steam injection is the most successful and the most commonly-used method of heavy oil recovery, but its application to the West Sak presents major problems. Such difficulties may be overcome by using a novel approach, in which steam is generated downhole in a catalytic Methanator, from Syngas made at the surface from endothermic reactions (Table 1). The Methanator effluent, containing steam and soluble gases resulting from exothermic reactions (Table 1), is cyclically injected into the reservoir by means of a horizontal drainhole while hot produced fluids flow form a second drainhole into a central production tubing. The downhole reactor feed and BFW flow downward to two concentric tubings. The large-diameter casing required to house the downhole reactor assembly is filled above it with Arctic Pack mud, or crude oil, to further reduce heat leaks. A quantitative analysis of this production scheme for the West Sak required a preliminary engineering of the downhole and surface facilities and a tentative forecast of well production rates. The results, based on published information on the West Sak, have been used to estimate the cost of these facilities, per daily barrel of oil produced. A preliminary economic analysis and conclusions are presented together with an outline of future work. Economic and regulatory conditions which would make this approach viable are discussed. 28 figs.

  6. Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment - Abstract of Issues 9907W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, N.; Pitta, A. T.; Markopoulos, N.; Limniou, M.; Lemos, M. A. N. D. A.; Lemos, F.; Freire, F. G.

    1999-11-01

    Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment simulates a series of viscosity experiments. Viscosity is an important subject in chemistry and chemical engineering. It is important when dealing with intermolecular forces in liquids and gases and it has enormous relevance in all technological aspects of equipment dealing with liquids or gases. Most university-level chemistry courses include viscosity to some extent. Viscosity Measurement includes three virtual experiments: an Ostwald viscometer simulator, a falling-ball viscometer simulator, and a balance simulator for a simple determination of the density of a liquid. The Ostwald viscometer simulator and the balance simulator allow the student to find out how composition and temperature influence the density and viscosity of an ethanol-water mixture. The falling-ball viscometer simulator allows the student to determine experimentally the size and density of the ball required to measure viscosity of various liquids. Each virtual experiment includes a corresponding theoretical section. Support from the program is sufficient to enable the students to carry out a virtual experiment sensibly and on their own. Preparation is not essential. Students can use the program unsupervised, thus saving staff time and allowing flexibility in students' time. The design of the program interface plays a key role in the success of a simulated experiment. Direct manipulation has greater intuitive appeal than alternative interface forms such as menus and has been observed to provide performance and learning advantages (1). We tried to design an interface that is visually attractive, is user friendly with simple and intuitive navigation, and provides appropriate schematic animations to clarify the principles of the laboratory procedures. The opening screen presents the virtual experiments that can be selected. Clicking an icon takes the student to the appropriate section. Viscosity Measurement allows the student to concentrate on the

  7. Effects of bulk viscosity at freezeout

    SciTech Connect

    Monnai, Akihiko; Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2009-11-15

    We investigate particle spectra and elliptic flow coefficients in relativistic heavy-ion collisions by taking into account the distortion of phase space distributions by bulk viscosity at freezeout. We first calculate the distortion of phase space distributions in a multicomponent system with Grad's 14-moment method. We find some subtle issues when macroscopic variables are matched with microscopic momentum distributions in a multicomponent system, and we develop a consistent procedure to uniquely determine the corrections to the phase space distributions. Next, we calculate particle spectra by using the Cooper-Frye formula to see the effect of the bulk viscosity. Despite the relative smallness of the bulk viscosity, we find that it is likely to have a visible effect on particle spectra and elliptic flow coefficients. This indicates the importance of taking into account bulk viscosity together with shear viscosity to constrain the transport coefficients with better accuracy from comparison with experimental data.

  8. Plasma viscosity elevations with simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. G.; Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D.; Ferguson, E. W.; Schoomaker, E. B.

    1986-01-01

    A hypothesis correlating an increase in blood viscosity during bed rest to a decrease in aerobic capacity during simulated weightlessness is tested. Eight human subjects were studied on the sixth day of bed rest during two consecutive 10-d bed rest periods separated by a 14-d recovery interval designed to simulate the flight-layover schedule of Shuttle astronauts. Plasma viscosity and volume were measured, together with maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). An increase in hematocrit, plasma protein, and fibrinogen concentrations was found, contributing to an elevation in plasma viscosity. VO2max decreased significantly in the first, but not the second bed rest cycle, and though many individuals exhibited a decrease in plasma volume and aerobic capacity coupled with elevated plasma viscosity, correlations between these variables were lacking. It is concluded that the decrease in VO2max observed following simulated weightlessness cannot be attributed to alterations in muscle blood flow resulting from increased blood viscosity.

  9. Influence of Molecular Coherence on Surface Viscosity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Adding small fractions of cholesterol decreases the interfacial viscosity of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers by an order of magnitude per wt %. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction shows that cholesterol at these small fractions does not mix ideally with DPPC but rather induces nanophase separated structures of an ordered, primarily DPPC phase bordered by a line-active, disordered, mixed DPPC-cholesterol phase. We propose that the free area in the classic Cohen and Turnbull model of viscosity is inversely proportional to the number of molecules in the coherence area, or product of the two coherence lengths. Cholesterol significantly reduces the coherence area of the crystals as well as the interfacial viscosity. Using this free area collapses the surface viscosity data for all surface pressures and cholesterol fractions to a universal logarithmic relation. The extent of molecular coherence appears to be a fundamental factor in determining surface viscosity in ordered monolayers. PMID:24991992

  10. Viscosity of magnetorheological fluids using Iron-silicon nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Hee; Kim, CheolGi; Lee, Seung Goo; Hong, Tae Min; Choi, Joon Hong

    2013-09-01

    Fe-6.5Si fine particles were mechanically fabricated by a milling method for use in magnetorheological fluids. Oleic acid was used as a surfactant for the dispersed substance for preparing the hydrophobic fluid with silicon oil as a dispersing medium. Further, oleic acid and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate were used as surfactants, forming a bilayer structure, for preparing the hydrophilic fluid with polyethylene glycol as a dispersing medium. The adsorption of oleic acid onto the Fe-Si particles was achieved by oxidizing the particle surface with trimethylamine N-oxide dihydrate. In order to make a comparative examination of the fluid properties, ferromagnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical precipitation and the subsequent process was accompanied under the same conditions as applied for the magnetorheological fluid. The fluid particles were characterized by magnetization measurements. The viscosity of the fluids was obtained at various concentrations under an external field. The viscosity values of the magnetorheological fluid were higher than those of the ferromagnetic fluid. Moreover, they increased considerably by using silicon oil as the dispersing medium as well as under an applied magnetic field and at higher fluid concentrations. The magnetorheological fluids may be effectively resistant to a strong impact from outside when the appropriate fluid concentration is used and a magnetic field is applied for increasing the shear strength of the fluids. PMID:24205598

  11. Film-forming properties of blends of high-oleic sunflower oil with polyalkyl glycol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic film thicknesses of oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (PAG), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO), and their 50/50 (wt.) blends were investigated. The viscosity and density of the blends were found to be predictable from the corresponding neat oil properties us...

  12. Phytoassessment of a waste engine oil-polluted soil exposed to two different intervals of monitored natural attenuation using African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa).

    PubMed

    Ikhajiagbe, B; Anoliefo, G O; Jolaoso, M A; Oshomoh, E O

    2013-07-15

    The present study comparatively investigated the phytotoxic effects of waste engine oil (WEO)-polluted soil exposed to monitored natural attenuation up to 5 and 14 months respectively. Soil was previously polluted with WEO at 0, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10% w/w oil in soil. Although, there was significant reduction in heavy metal concentration of soil as well as total hydrocarbon contents, performance of Sphenostylis stenocarpa was greatly retarded when sown at 5 months after pollution (MAP), with death of all seedlings except in the control. However, growth and yield performances were significantly (p > 0.05) enhanced at 14 MAP. Computation of hazard quotient showed that ecological risk factor initially posed by the presence of heavy metals in the soil at 5 MAP was significantly (p > 0.05) reduced to safe levels at 14 MAP.

  13. Interaction between Fingering and Heterogeneity during Viscous Oil Recovery in Carbonate Rocks (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, K. K.; Doorwar, S.

    2013-12-01

    Due to the fast depleting conventional oil reserves, research in the field of petroleum engineering has shifted focus towards unconventional (viscous and heavy) oils. Many of the viscous oil reserves are in carbonate rocks. Thermal methods in carbonate formations are complicated by mineral dissolution and precipitation. Non-thermal methods should be developed for viscous oils in carbonates. In viscous oil reservoirs, oil recovery due to water flood is low due to viscous fingering. Polymer flood is an attractive process, but the timing of the polymer flood start is an important parameter in the optimization of polymer floods. Vuggy Silurian dolomite cores were saturated with formation brine and reservoir oil (150-200 cp). They were then displaced by either a polymeric solution (secondary polymer flood) or brine followed the polymeric solution (tertiary polymer flood). The amount of brine injection was varied as a parameter. Oil recovery and pressure drop was monitored as a function of the starting point of the polymer flood. To visualize the displacement at the pore-scale, two types of micromodels were prepared: one with isolated heterogeneity and the other with connected heterogeneity. The wettability of the micromodels was either water-wet or oil-wet. The micromodels were saturated with formation brine and oil. A series of water flood and polymer flood was conducted to identify the mechanism of fluid flow. Dolomite corefloods show that a tertiary polymer flood following a secondary water flood recovers a substantial amount of oil unlike what is observed in typical sandstone cores with light oil. The tertiary oil recovery plus the secondary waterflood recovery can exceed the oil recovery in a secondary polymer flood in dolomite-viscous oil-brine system. These experiments were repeated in a Berea-oil-brine system which showed that the oil recovered in the secondary polymer flood was similar to the cumulative oil recovery in the tertiary polymer flood. The high

  14. Viscosity scaling in concentrated dispersions and its impact on colloidal aggregation.

    PubMed

    Nicoud, Lucrèce; Lattuada, Marco; Lazzari, Stefano; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    Gaining fundamental knowledge about diffusion in crowded environments is of great relevance in a variety of research fields, including reaction engineering, biology, pharmacy and colloid science. In this work, we determine the effective viscosity experienced by a spherical tracer particle immersed in a concentrated colloidal dispersion by means of Brownian dynamics simulations. We characterize how the effective viscosity increases from the solvent viscosity for small tracer particles to the macroscopic viscosity of the dispersion when large tracer particles are employed. Our results show that the crossover between these two regimes occurs at a tracer particle size comparable to the host particle size. In addition, it is found that data points obtained in various host dispersions collapse on one master curve when the normalized effective viscosity is plotted as a function of the ratio between the tracer particle size and the mean host particle size. In particular, this master curve was obtained by varying the volume fraction, the average size and the polydispersity of the host particle distribution. Finally, we extend these results to determine the size dependent effective viscosity experienced by a fractal cluster in a concentrated colloidal system undergoing aggregation. We include this scaling of the effective viscosity in classical aggregation kernels, and we quantify its impact on the kinetics of aggregate growth as well as on the shape of the aggregate distribution by means of population balance equation calculations.

  15. Rheological Characterization of Foamy Oils under Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abivin, Patrice; Henaut, Isabelle; Moan, Michel; Argillier, Jean-Francois

    2008-07-01

    Heavy oils are a strategic source of hydrocarbons due to the large amount of reserves located mainly in Venezuela and Canada. They distinguish from conventional oils by their higher density and viscosity. When a reservoir is depleted, the lightest components (methane, ethane, etc.) can exsolve from the crude oil and create a gaseous phase. In conventional oils, bubbles grow and coalesce quickly. On the contrary, in heavy oils, bubbles are small and remain dispersed within the oil for a long time. This "foamy oil" phenomenon changes drastically the flow properties of the crude oil. This article is devoted to the characterization of the heavy oil foamy behavior through a rheological study. Our objectives are to study the kinetics of bubble evolution in heavy oil and to measure their influence on viscosity. A new experimental method was developed, based upon rheological measurements under pressure. Several heavy oils containing dissolved gas have been depleted inside the pressure cells of controlled stress rheometers to create foamy oils. Viscoelastic properties have been continuously measured using both oscillatory and continuous tests from the nucleation up to the total disengagement of bubbles from oil. The occurrence of bubbles was visualized using X-ray scanning experiments. Results demonstrate that foamy oil kinetics is mostly related to the oil viscosity. They also reveal that under low shear rates, the presence of bubbles leads to an increase in heavy oil viscosity, as predicted by the Hard Sphere Model or by Taylor's one. A theoretical model describing the viscosity of foamy oil was then established. It takes into account both first-order kinetics of appearance and release of bubbles in oil and a basic suspension model. Good agreement was obtained between experimental data and model predictions. Finally, several tests reveal the strong influence of the shear rate on the foamy oil behavior and point out the major role of bubble deformation on the viscosity of

  16. Eruptive viscosity and volcano morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posin, Seth B.; Greeley, Ronald

    1988-01-01

    Terrestrial central volcanoes formed predominantly from lava flows were classified as shields, stratovolcanoes, and domes. Shield volcanoes tend to be large in areal extent, have convex slopes, and are characterized by their resemblance to inverted hellenic war shields. Stratovolcanoes have concave slopes, whereas domes are smaller and have gentle convex slopes near the vent that increase near the perimeter. In addition to these differences in morphology, several other variations were observed. The most important is composition: shield volcanoes tend to be basaltic, stratovolcanoes tend to be andesitic, and domes tend to be dacitic. However, important exceptions include Fuji, Pico, Mayon, Izalco, and Fuego which have stratovolcano morphologies but are composed of basaltic lavas. Similarly, Ribkwo is a Kenyan shield volcano composed of trachyte and Suswa and Kilombe are shields composed of phonolite. These exceptions indicate that eruptive conditions, rather than composition, may be the primary factors that determine volcano morphology. The objective of this study is to determine the relationships, if any, between eruptive conditions (viscosity, erupted volume, and effusion rate) and effusive volcano morphology. Moreover, it is the goal of this study to incorporate these relationships into a model to predict the eruptive conditions of extraterrestrial (Martian) volcanoes based on their morphology.

  17. Viscosities of the Gay-Berne Nematic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smondyrev, A. M.; Loriot, George B.; Pelcovits, Robert A.

    1995-09-01

    We present molecular dynamics simulation measurements of the viscosities of the Gay-Berne phenomenological model of liquid crystals in the nematic and isotropic phases. The temperature dependence of the rotational and shear viscosities, including the nonmonotonic behavior of one shear viscosity, are in good agreement with experimental data. The bulk viscosities are significantly larger than the shear viscosities, again in agreement with experiment.

  18. Comparison of High-Speed Operating Characteristics of Size 215 Cylindrical-Roller Bearings as Determined in Turbojet Engine and in Laboratory Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E Fred; Nemeth, Zolton N

    1952-01-01

    A comparison of the operating characteristics of 75-millimeter-bore (size 215) cylindrical-roller one-piece inner-race-riding cage-type bearings was made by means of a laboratory test rig and a turbojet engine. Cooling correlation parameters were determined by means of dimensional analysis, and the generalized results for both the inner- and the outer-race bearing operating temperatures are computed for the laboratory test rig and the turbojet engine. A method is given that enables the designer to predict the inner- and outer-race turbine roller-bearing temperatures from single curves, regardless of variations in speed, load, oil flow, oil inlet temperature, oil inlet viscosity, oil-jet diameter, or any combination of these parameters.

  19. Computational tool for the early screening of monoclonal antibodies for their viscosities

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Neeraj J; Helk, Bernhard; Kumar, Sandeep; Mody, Neil; Sathish, Hasige A.; Samra, Hardeep S.; Buck, Patrick M; Li, Li; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2016-01-01

    Highly concentrated antibody solutions often exhibit high viscosities, which present a number of challenges for antibody-drug development, manufacturing and administration. The antibody sequence is a key determinant for high viscosity of highly concentrated solutions; therefore, a sequence- or structure-based tool that can identify highly viscous antibodies from their sequence would be effective in ensuring that only antibodies with low viscosity progress to the development phase. Here, we present a spatial charge map (SCM) tool that can accurately identify highly viscous antibodies from their sequence alone (using homology modeling to determine the 3-dimensional structures). The SCM tool has been extensively validated at 3 different organizations, and has proved successful in correctly identifying highly viscous antibodies. As a quantitative tool, SCM is amenable to high-throughput automated analysis, and can be effectively implemented during the antibody screening or engineering phase for the selection of low-viscosity antibodies. PMID:26399600

  20. Viscosity and sedimentation behaviors of the magnetorheological suspensions with oleic acid/dimer acid as surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianjian; Yan, Hua; Hu, Zhide; Ding, Ding

    2016-11-01

    This work deals with the role of polar interactions on the viscosity and sedimentation behaviors of magnetorheological suspensions with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in oil carriers. The oleic acid and dimer acid were employed to make an adjustment of the hydrophobicity of iron particles, in the interest of performing a comparative evaluation of the contributions of the surface polarity. The viscosity tests show that the adsorbed surfactant layer may impose a hindrance to the movement of iron particles in the oil medium. The polar attractions between dimer acid covered particles gave rise to a considerable increase in viscosity, indicating flocculation structure developed in the suspensions. The observed plateau-like region in the vicinity of 0.1 s-1 for MRF containing dimer acid is possibly due to the flocculation provoked by the carboxylic polar attraction, in which the structure is stable against fragmentation. Moreover, a quick recovery of the viscosity and a higher viscosity-temperature index also suggest the existence of particle-particle polar interaction in the suspensions containing dimer acid. The sedimentation measurements reveal that the steric repulsion of oleic acid plays a limited role in the stability of suspensions only if a large quantity of surfactant was used. The sedimentation results observed in the dimer acid covered particles confirm that loose and open flocculation was formed and enhanced sedimentation stability.

  1. Viscosity measurement techniques in Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boromand, Arman; Jamali, Safa; Maia, Joao M.

    2015-11-01

    In this study two main groups of viscosity measurement techniques are used to measure the viscosity of a simple fluid using Dissipative Particle Dynamics, DPD. In the first method, a microscopic definition of the pressure tensor is used in equilibrium and out of equilibrium to measure the zero-shear viscosity and shear viscosity, respectively. In the second method, a periodic Poiseuille flow and start-up transient shear flow is used and the shear viscosity is obtained from the velocity profiles by a numerical fitting procedure. Using the standard Lees-Edward boundary condition for DPD will result in incorrect velocity profiles at high values of the dissipative parameter. Although this issue was partially addressed in Chatterjee (2007), in this work we present further modifications (Lagrangian approach) to the original LE boundary condition (Eulerian approach) that will fix the deviation from the desired shear rate at high values of the dissipative parameter and decrease the noise to signal ratios in stress measurement while increases the accessible low shear rate window. Also, the thermostat effect of the dissipative and random forces is coupled to the dynamic response of the system and affects the transport properties like the viscosity and diffusion coefficient. We investigated thoroughly the dependency of viscosity measured by both Eulerian and Lagrangian methodologies, as well as numerical fitting procedures and found that all the methods are in quantitative agreement.

  2. Rapid screening of biologically modified vegetable oils for fuel performance

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, D.P.; Goodrum, J.W.; Campbell, C.C.

    1999-08-01

    A process for the rapid screening of alternative diesel fuel performance was applied to analogues of genetically modified vegetable oils and a mixture with no. 2 diesel fuel. The oils examined contained 60 to 70% of low molecular weight, short-chain, saturated triglycerides compared to the 1 to 2% found in traditional vegetable oils. These oils have relatively low viscosity that is predicted to enhance their performance as alternative diesel fuels. The screening process utilizes an engine torque test sequence that accelerates the tendency of diesel fuels to coke fuel injectors, a key indicator of fuel performance. The results of the tests were evaluated using a computer vision system for the rapid quantification of injector coking. The results of the screen were compared to those using no. 2 diesel fuel as a baseline. Coke deposition from the modified vegetable oil analogues was not found to be significantly different than deposition from diesel fuel. Suggestions are made to guide further modification of vegetable oil biosynthesis for the production of alternative diesel fuel.

  3. Low-temperature oxidation of viscous crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Fassihi, M.R. ); Meyers, K.O.; Basile, P.F. )

    1990-11-01

    During in-situ combustion, oxygen can bypass the flame front and react with oil temperatures that are relatively low compared with those in combustion. These reactions, called low temperature oxidation (LTO), can adversely affect the crude's physical and chemical properties and result in lower oil recovery. This paper presents laboratory study results on the LTO of four oils, ranging from 31.1 to 10.1{degrees} API and from 14 to 54,300 cp dead-oil viscosity at 85{degrees}F. They include two biodegraded oils, a mature crude and an immature heavy oil. The LTO of these oils is reported as a function of reaction time, oxygen partial pressure, and temperature. LTO increased oil viscosity and density. For the 31.1{degrees} API oil, these increases are minor and should have insignificant effects on process performance. For the heavier oils, however, the viscosity of the oxidized oils increases exponentially with increasing extent of oxidation, X{sub O{sub 2}}. relatively minor oxidation (40mg O{sub 2}/g oil) results in a six-fold increase in viscosity. The rate of viscosity increase depends on an oil's API gravity, origin, and composition. Compositional changes accompanying LTO are also discussed.

  4. Viscosity studies of water based magnetite nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anu, K.; Hemalatha, J.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetite nanofluids of various concentrations have been synthesized through co-precipitation method. The structural and topographical studies made with the X-Ray Diffractometer and Atomic Force Microscope are presented in this paper. The density and viscosity studies for the ferrofluids of various concentrations have been made at room temperature. The experimental viscosities are compared with theoretical values obtained from Einstein, Batchelor and Wang models. An attempt to modify the Rosensweig model is made and the modified Rosensweig equation is reported. In addition, new empirical correlation is also proposed for predicting viscosity of ferrofluid at various concentrations.

  5. Viscosity of high-temperature iodine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Steve H.; Kunc, Joseph A.

    1991-01-01

    The viscosity coefficient of iodine in the temperature range 500 - 3000 K is calculated. Because of the low dissociation energy of the I2 molecules, the dissociation degree of the gas increases quickly with temperature, and I + I2 and I + I collisions must be taken into account in calculation of viscosity at temperatures greater than 1000 deg. Several possible channels for atom-atom interaction are considered, and the resulting collision integrals are averaged over all the important channels. It is also shown that the rigid-sphere model is inaccurate in predictions of the viscosity.

  6. Viscoseal performance with rarefied-gas sealant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milligan, M. W.

    1973-01-01

    A fundamental study of viscoseals having a rarefied gas as the sealant was conducted. Both experimental and analytical investigations are reported. Three different analytical models were formulated and are described in detail. An experimental investigation was conducted on multiple grooved two-inch diameter viscoseals over a wide range of gas densities and shaft speeds up to 30,000 rpm. Comparisons are presented between actual viscoseal performance and the theoretical predictions for both sealing coefficient and net leakage parameters as functions of the degree of gas rarefication. Recommendations are presented for the use of the analytical models.

  7. Viscoseal performance with rarefied-gas sealant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milligan, M. W.

    1971-01-01

    A fundamental study of viscoseals having a rarefied gas as the sealant has been conducted. Both experimental and analytical investigations are reported. Three different analytical models have been formulated and are described in detail. An experimental investigation has been conducted on multiple grooved two-inch diameter viscoseals over a wide range of gas densities and shaft speeds up to 30,000 rpm. Comparisons are presented between actual viscoseal performance and the theoretical predictions for both sealing coefficient and net leakage parameters as functions of the degree of gas rarefication. Recommendations are presented for the use of the analytical models.

  8. Shear viscosity from effective couplings of gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Ronggen; Nie Zhangyu; Sun Yawen

    2008-12-15

    We calculate the shear viscosity of field theories with gravity duals using Kubo formula by calculating the Green function of dual transverse gravitons and confirm that the value of the shear viscosity is fully determined by the effective coupling of transverse gravitons on the horizon. We calculate the effective coupling of transverse gravitons for Einstein and Gauss-Bonnet gravities coupled with matter fields, respectively. Then we apply the resulting formula to the case of AdS Gauss-Bonnet gravity with F{sup 4} term corrections of Maxwell field and discuss the effect of F{sup 4} terms on the ratio of the shear viscosity to entropy density.

  9. Bulk viscosity of superfluid hyperon stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gusakov, Mikhail E.; Kantor, Elena M.

    2008-10-15

    We calculate the bulk viscosity due to nonequilibrium weak processes in superfluid nucleon-hyperon matter of neutron stars. For that, the dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics, formulated eariler [M. E. Gusakov, Phys. Rev. D 76, 083001 (2007).] for superfluid mixtures, is extended to the case when both nucleons and hyperons are superfluid. It is demonstrated that in the most general case (when neutrons, protons, {lambda}, and {sigma}{sup -} hyperons are superfluid), nonequilibrium weak processes generate 16 bulk viscosity coefficients, with only three of them being independent. In addition, we correct an inaccuracy in a widely used formula for the bulk viscosity of nonsuperfluid nucleon-hyperon matter.

  10. Blood viscosity: influence of erythrocyte aggregation.

    PubMed

    Chien, S; Usami, S; Dellenback, R J; Gregersen, M I; Nanninga, L B; Guest, M M

    1967-08-18

    The addition of purified canine or bovine fibrinogen to suspensions of canine erythocytes in Ringer solution caused an increase in viscosity and the formation of aggregates of erythocytes. Both of these effects became increasingly pronounced as the fibrinogen concentration was raised, and they approached plateaus with 1 gram of fibrinogen per 100 milliliters. An increase in shear rate (or shear stress) reduced both the effect on viscosity and the aggregate size. The data suggest that fibrinogen causes an increase in blood viscosity and a departure from Newtonian behavior by interacting with erythrocytes to form cell aggregates which can be dispersed by shear stress. PMID:17842794

  11. Shear viscosity in the postquasistatic approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Peralta, C.; Rosales, L.; Rodriguez-Mueller, B.; Barreto, W.

    2010-05-15

    We apply the postquasistatic approximation, an iterative method for the evolution of self-gravitating spheres of matter, to study the evolution of anisotropic nonadiabatic radiating and dissipative distributions in general relativity. Dissipation is described by viscosity and free-streaming radiation, assuming an equation of state to model anisotropy induced by the shear viscosity. We match the interior solution, in noncomoving coordinates, with the Vaidya exterior solution. Two simple models are presented, based on the Schwarzschild and Tolman VI solutions, in the nonadiabatic and adiabatic limit. In both cases, the eventual collapse or expansion of the distribution is mainly controlled by the anisotropy induced by the viscosity.

  12. Bulk viscosity of a pion gas

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Egang; Moore, Guy D.

    2011-04-15

    We compute the bulk viscosity of a gas of pions at temperatures below the QCD crossover temperature, for the physical value of m{sub {pi}}, to lowest order in chiral perturbation theory. Bulk viscosity is controlled by number-changing processes which become exponentially slow at low temperatures when the pions become exponentially dilute, leading to an exponentially large bulk viscosity {zeta}{approx}(F{sub 0}{sup 8}/m{sub {pi}}{sup 5})exp(2m{sub {pi}}/T), where F{sub 0}{approx_equal}93 MeV is the pion decay constant.

  13. Drag reduction by a linear viscosity profile.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Elisabetta; Casciola, Carlo M; L'vov, Victor S; Pomyalov, Anna; Procaccia, Itamar; Tiberkevich, Vasil

    2004-11-01

    Drag reduction by polymers in turbulent flows raises an apparent contradiction: the stretching of the polymers must increase the viscosity, so why is the drag reduced? A recent theory proposed that drag reduction, in agreement with experiments, is consistent with the effective viscosity growing linearly with the distance from the wall. With this self-consistent solution the reduction in the Reynolds stress overwhelms the increase in viscous drag. In this Rapid Communication we show, using direct numerical simulations, that a linear viscosity profile indeed reduces the drag in agreement with the theory and in close correspondence with direct simulations of the FENE-P model at the same flow conditions.

  14. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOEpatents

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Reynolds, James W.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION AND TRIBOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1-BENZYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYL)IMIDE AS NEAT LUBRICANT AND OIL ADDITIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Dinesh G; Qu, Jun; Yu, Bo; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Bunting, Bruce G; Blau, Peter Julian; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Selected physical and chemical properties and tribological data for a newly-developed, imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) are presented. The IL is soluble in the SAE 5W-30 oil up to a certain weight percentage, and is as a promising candidate for use in lubrication applications, either in its neat version or as an oil additive. Characterization of the IL included dynamic viscosity at different temperatures, corrosion effects on cast iron cylinder liners, and thermal stability analysis. The tribological performance was evaluated using a reciprocating ring-on-liner test arrangement. When used in neat version this IL demonstrated friction coefficient comparable to a fully formulated engine oil, and when used as an oil additive it produced less wear.

  16. Measurement of viscosity, density, and gas solubility of refrigerant blends in selected synthetic lubricants. Quarterly report, July 1 to September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Cavestri, R.C.

    1993-10-01

    Liquid/liquid miscibilities of four different 32 ISO VG polyolesters and one alkylbenzene at three concentrations has been determined with five refrigerant blends, including HC-290. A vapor lubricant equilibrium (VLE) viscosity reduction of 32 ISO VG mineral oil with HCFC-22 has been completed. Composite viscosity reduction information by the fractionate components from R-502 in 32 ISO VG mineral oil has been obtained from {minus}10{degrees}C (14{degrees}F) to 125{degrees}C (257{degrees}F) isotherms. Vapor lubricant equilibrium (VLE) viscosity reduction for 32 ISO VG mixed acid polyolester with HFC-134a has also been completed.

  17. Measurement of DWPF glass viscosity - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J.R.

    2000-02-17

    This report details the results of a scoping study funded by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for the measurement of melt viscosities for simulated glasses representative of Macrobatch 2 (Tank 42/51 feed).

  18. Second coefficient of viscosity in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, Robert L.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Zheng, Zhonquan

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic attenuation measurements in air were analyzed in order to estimate the second coefficient of viscosity. Data over a temperature range of 11 C to 50 C and at relative humidities between 6 percent and 91 percent were used. This analysis showed that the second coefficient of viscosity varied between 1900 and 20,000 times larger than the dynamic or first coefficient of viscosity over the temperature and humidity range of the data. In addition, the data showed that the molecular relaxation effects, which are responsible for the magnitude of the second coefficient of viscosity, place severe limits on the use of time-independent, thermodynamic equations of state. Compressible flows containing large streamwise velocity gradients, like shock waves, which cause significant changes in particle properties to occur during time intervals shorter than hundredths of seconds, must be modeled using dynamic equations of state. The dynamic model approach is described briefly.

  19. Viscosity of Sheared Helical filament Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartucci, Matthew; Urbach, Jeff; Blair, Dan; Schwenger, Walter

    The viscosity of suspensions can be dramatically affected by high aspect ratio particles. Understanding these systems provides insight into key biological functions and can be manipulated for many technological applications. In this talk, the viscosity as a function of shear rate of suspensions of helical filaments is compared to that of suspensions of straight rod-like filaments. Our goal is to determine the impact of filament geometry on low volume fraction colloidal suspensions in order to identify strategies for altering viscosity with minimal volume fraction. In this research, the detached flagella of the bacteria Salmonella Typhimurium are used as a model system of helical filaments and compared to mutated straight flagella of the Salmonella. We compare rheological measurements of the suspension viscosity in response to shear flow and use a combination of the rheology and fluorescence microscopy to identify the microstructural changes responsible for the observed rheological response.

  20. Quartz resonator fluid density and viscosity monitor

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Stephen J.; Wiczer, James J.; Cernosek, Richard W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Gebert, Charles T.; Casaus, Leonard; Mitchell, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    A pair of thickness-shear mode resonators, one smooth and one with a textured surface, allows fluid density and viscosity to be independently resolved. A textured surface, either randomly rough or regularly patterned, leads to trapping of liquid at the device surface. The synchronous motion of this trapped liquid with the oscillating device surface allows the device to weigh the liquid; this leads to an additional response that depends on liquid density. This additional response enables a pair of devices, one smooth and one textured, to independently resolve liquid density and viscosity; the difference in responses determines the density while the smooth device determines the density-viscosity product, and thus, the pair determines both density and viscosity.

  1. Blood viscosity: influence of erythrocyte deformation.

    PubMed

    Chien, S; Usami, S; Dellenback, R J; Gregersen, M I

    1967-08-18

    Suspensions of canine and human erythocytes hardened with acetaldehyde differ from the suspensions of normal erythrocytes with respect to their rheological behavior. Normal erythrocytes can be packed by centrifugation so that the sediment volume is nearly 100 percent cells, but the hardened erythrocytes (RBC's) can be packed only to approximately 60 percent cells. At the same cell percentage the viscosity of the hardened RBC suspension is higher than that of the suspension of normal erythocytes. An increase in shear stress deforms the normal erythocytes and lowers the suspension viscosity, but has no influence on the viscosity of the hardened cell suspension. In blood with high cell percentages, the shear deformation of normal RBC's plays an important role in reducing viscosity and facilitating flow at high shear stresses. PMID:17842793

  2. Production of Long-Chain α,ω-Dicarboxylic Acids by Engineered Escherichia coli from Renewable Fatty Acids and Plant Oils.

    PubMed

    Sathesh-Prabu, Chandran; Lee, Sung Kuk

    2015-09-23

    Long-chain α,ω-dicarboxylic acids (LDCAs, ≥ C12) are widely used as a raw material for preparing various commodities and polymers. In this study, a CYP450-monooxygenase-mediated ω-oxidation pathway system with high ω-regioselectivity was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli to produce DCAs from fatty acids. The resulting engineered E. coli produced a maximum of 41 mg/L of C12 DCA and 163 mg/L of C14 DCA from fatty acids (1 g/L), following 20 h of whole cell biotransformation. Addition of a heme precursor and the hydroxyl radical scavenger, thiourea, increased product concentration (159 mg/L of C12 DCA and 410 mg/L of C14 DCA) in a shorter culture duration than that of the corresponding controls. DCAs of various chain lengths were synthesized from coconut oil hydrolysate using the engineered E. coli. This novel synthetic biocatalytic system could be applied to produce high value DCAs in a cost-effective manner from renewable plant oils. PMID:26359801

  3. Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of airborne particulate matter emitted from stationary engine fuelled with diesel and waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betha, Raghu; Pavagadhi, Shruti; Sethu, Swaminathan; Hande, M. Prakash; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2012-12-01

    Biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil (WCO) is gaining increased attention as an alternative fuel due to lower particulate emissions and other beneficial factors such as low cost and utilization of waste oil. However, very little information is available on toxicity of airborne particulate matter (PM) emitted from biodiesel combustion. In this study, PM emitted from WCO-derived biodiesel (B100) was analyzed for its toxic potential together with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) as a reference fuel and their blend (B50). Human lung epithelial carcinoma cells (A549) were used for this comparative toxicity study. Results indicate that cytotoxicity and oxidative stress were higher for B100 relative to ULSD. Furthermore, caspase 3/7 activity indicates that cell death induced by B100 was due to either caspase independent apoptotic process or other programmed cell death pathways. The toxicity was also evaluated for different engine load conditions. It was observed that at lower loads there was no significant difference in the toxicological response of B100 and ULSD. However, with increase in the engine load, B100 and B50 showed significantly higher toxicity and oxidative stress compared to ULSD.

  4. Viscosity distribution in the mantle convection models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trubitsyn, V. P.

    2016-09-01

    Viscosity is a fundamental property of the mantle which determines the global geodynamical processes. According to the microscopic theory of defects and laboratory experiments, viscosity exponentially depends on temperature and pressure, with activation energy and activation volume being the parameters. The existing laboratory measurements are conducted with much higher strain rates than in the mantle and have significant uncertainty. The data on postglacial rebound only allow the depth distributions of viscosity to be reconstructed. Therefore, spatial distributions (along the depth and lateral) are as of now determined from the models of mantle convection which are calculated by the numerical solution of the convection equations, together with the viscosity dependences on pressure and temperature ( PT-dependences). The PT-dependences of viscosity which are presently used in the numerical modeling of convection give a large scatter in the estimates for the lower mantle, which reaches several orders of magnitude. In this paper, it is shown that it is possible to achieve agreement between the calculated depth distributions of viscosity throughout the entire mantle and the postglacial rebound data. For this purpose, the values of the volume and energy of activation for the upper mantle can be taken from the laboratory experiments, and for the lower mantle, the activation volume should be reduced twice at the 660-km phase transition boundary. Next, the reduction in viscosity by an order of magnitude revealed at the depths below 2000 km by the postglacial rebound data can be accounted for by the presence of heavy hot material at the mantle bottom in the LLSVP zones. The models of viscosity spatial distribution throughout the entire mantle with the lithospheric plates are presented.

  5. Shear viscosity in SU(2) lattice gluodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braguta, V. V.; Kotov, A. Yu

    2015-05-01

    The calculation of the gluon plasma viscosity has been performed by lattice simulations in the SU(2) gluodynamics at T/Tc = 1.2 on the supercomputers. The evaluation is based on the Kubo formula that relates viscosity to the spectral function of the correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor. For the extraction of the spectral function from the Euclidean correlator the linear method is applied.

  6. Eddy viscosity measurements in a rectangular jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, David H.; Morrison, Gerald L.

    1988-01-01

    The flow field of a rectangular jet with a 2:1 aspect ratio was studied at a Reynolds number of 100,000 (Mach number 0.09) using three-dimensional laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). Velocity gradients, Reynolds stress tensor components, and scalar eddy viscosities are presented for the major and minor axis planes of the jet. The eddy viscosity model was found to be applicable only in the direction of maximum mean velocity gradient.

  7. A Simple BODIPY-Based Viscosity Probe for Imaging of Cellular Viscosity in Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Dongdong; Teoh, Chai Lean; Gao, Nengyue; Xu, Qing-Hua; Chang, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that indicates the functioning of cells. In this work, we developed a simple boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-based probe, BTV, for cellular mitochondria viscosity imaging by coupling a simple BODIPY rotor with a mitochondria-targeting unit. The BTV exhibited a significant fluorescence intensity enhancement of more than 100-fold as the solvent viscosity increased. Also, the probe showed a direct linear relationship between the fluorescence lifetime and the media viscosity, which makes it possible to trace the change of the medium viscosity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that BTV could achieve practical applicability in the monitoring of mitochondrial viscosity changes in live cells through fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM).

  8. A Simple BODIPY-Based Viscosity Probe for Imaging of Cellular Viscosity in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Dongdong; Teoh, Chai Lean; Gao, Nengyue; Xu, Qing-Hua; Chang, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that indicates the functioning of cells. In this work, we developed a simple boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-based probe, BTV, for cellular mitochondria viscosity imaging by coupling a simple BODIPY rotor with a mitochondria-targeting unit. The BTV exhibited a significant fluorescence intensity enhancement of more than 100-fold as the solvent viscosity increased. Also, the probe showed a direct linear relationship between the fluorescence lifetime and the media viscosity, which makes it possible to trace the change of the medium viscosity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that BTV could achieve practical applicability in the monitoring of mitochondrial viscosity changes in live cells through fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). PMID:27589762

  9. A Simple BODIPY-Based Viscosity Probe for Imaging of Cellular Viscosity in Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Dongdong; Teoh, Chai Lean; Gao, Nengyue; Xu, Qing-Hua; Chang, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that indicates the functioning of cells. In this work, we developed a simple boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-based probe, BTV, for cellular mitochondria viscosity imaging by coupling a simple BODIPY rotor with a mitochondria-targeting unit. The BTV exhibited a significant fluorescence intensity enhancement of more than 100-fold as the solvent viscosity increased. Also, the probe showed a direct linear relationship between the fluorescence lifetime and the media viscosity, which makes it possible to trace the change of the medium viscosity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that BTV could achieve practical applicability in the monitoring of mitochondrial viscosity changes in live cells through fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). PMID:27589762

  10. Low-field NMR determinations of the properties of heavy oils and water-in-oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    LaTorraca, G A; Dunn, K J; Webber, P R; Carlson, R M

    1998-01-01

    Low-field (< 50 mT) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging measurements are beginning to be used to obtain estimates of oil viscosity in situ. To build an interpretive capability, we made laboratory T1 and T2 relaxation measurements on a suite of high-density, high-viscosity crude oils. These measurements were also used to estimate oil viscosity and water fraction from T1 and T2 measurements on stable, water-in-oil emulsions. High-density, high-viscosity oils have components that relax faster than can be measured by nuclear magnetic resonance logging tools. This requires corrections to T2 logging measurements for accurate estimates of oil saturation and porosity. PMID:9803933

  11. Investigations on the effect of chlorine in lubricating oil and the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst on PCDD/F releases from an internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Patrick H; Sutton, Mike; Wood, David; Marshall, Jonathan

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports on an intensive study into releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated furans (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from a diesel engine and the analysis of PCDD/F and PCB in crankcase lubricating oil. Experimental conditions were set and carefully controlled in order to maximize the possible impact of, and our ability to measure the effect of, changes in the levels of chlorine in the lubricant. Emissions to air were measured using modified EPA methods following the principles of the European EN 1948 standards. A series of 40 experimental runs were completed using three reference lubricants formulated to have three levels of chlorine present as a residual component (at levels of 12, 131 and 259 mg kg(-1) or ppm). The engine was run with and without the diesel oxidation catalyst. All lubricants were realistic oils and the use of unrealistic additives or doping of components - particularly chlorine - in the fuel and lubricant was carefully avoided. Analysis of fuel and lubricant (before and after testing) samples required strenuous attention to achieve acceptable recoveries and showed non-detectable levels of PCB and PCDD/F at a detection limit of around 1.5 ng I-TEQ kg(-1) (ppt), indistinguishable from the laboratory blank. The testing demonstrated the need for extreme care to be taken in developing measurement methods that are sufficiently sensitive for measuring chlorine content of fluids and PCDD/F in oils, the latter being particularly challenging. Mean emissions of PCDD/F with the diesel oxidation catalyst in place were 23 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel and with the diesel oxidation catalyst removed 97 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel. The results of this testing showed that the emissions of PCDD/F were greatly reduced by the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst in the exhaust, a finding that has not been explicitly tested in previous work. They also show that emissions from the engine were not controlled by the level of

  12. Investigations on the effect of chlorine in lubricating oil and the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst on PCDD/F releases from an internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Patrick H; Sutton, Mike; Wood, David; Marshall, Jonathan

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports on an intensive study into releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated furans (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from a diesel engine and the analysis of PCDD/F and PCB in crankcase lubricating oil. Experimental conditions were set and carefully controlled in order to maximize the possible impact of, and our ability to measure the effect of, changes in the levels of chlorine in the lubricant. Emissions to air were measured using modified EPA methods following the principles of the European EN 1948 standards. A series of 40 experimental runs were completed using three reference lubricants formulated to have three levels of chlorine present as a residual component (at levels of 12, 131 and 259 mg kg(-1) or ppm). The engine was run with and without the diesel oxidation catalyst. All lubricants were realistic oils and the use of unrealistic additives or doping of components - particularly chlorine - in the fuel and lubricant was carefully avoided. Analysis of fuel and lubricant (before and after testing) samples required strenuous attention to achieve acceptable recoveries and showed non-detectable levels of PCB and PCDD/F at a detection limit of around 1.5 ng I-TEQ kg(-1) (ppt), indistinguishable from the laboratory blank. The testing demonstrated the need for extreme care to be taken in developing measurement methods that are sufficiently sensitive for measuring chlorine content of fluids and PCDD/F in oils, the latter being particularly challenging. Mean emissions of PCDD/F with the diesel oxidation catalyst in place were 23 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel and with the diesel oxidation catalyst removed 97 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel. The results of this testing showed that the emissions of PCDD/F were greatly reduced by the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst in the exhaust, a finding that has not been explicitly tested in previous work. They also show that emissions from the engine were not controlled by the level of

  13. Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System

    DOEpatents

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin

    2000-05-09

    An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

  14. Effects of sonication radiation on oil recovery by ultrasonic waves stimulated water-flooding.

    PubMed

    Mohammadian, Erfan; Junin, Radzuan; Rahmani, Omeid; Idris, Ahmad Kamal

    2013-02-01

    Due to partial understanding of mechanisms involved in application of ultrasonic waves as enhanced oil recovery method, series of straight (normal), and ultrasonic stimulated water-flooding experiments were conducted on a long unconsolidated sand pack using ultrasonic transducers. Kerosene, vaseline, and SAE-10 (engine oil) were used as non-wet phase in the system. In addition, a series of fluid flow and temperature rise experiments were conducted using ultrasonic bath in order to enhance the understanding about contributing mechanisms. 3-16% increase in the recovery of water-flooding was observed. Emulsification, viscosity reduction, and cavitation were identified as contributing mechanisms. The findings of this study are expected to increase the insight to involving mechanisms which lead to improving the recovery of oil as a result of application of ultrasound waves. PMID:23137783

  15. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2006-03-31

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. This represents a substantial (30-40%) reduction of the ringpack friction alone. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. Further improvements via piston, lubricant, and surface designs offer additional opportunities. Tests of low-friction lubricants are in progress and preliminary results are very promising. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Piston friction studies indicate that a flatter piston with a more flexible skirt, together with optimizing the waviness and film thickness on the piston skirt offer significant friction reduction. Combined with low-friction ring-pack, material and lubricant parameters, a total power cylinder friction

  16. Detecting cell lysis using viscosity monitoring in E. coli fermentation to prevent product loss.

    PubMed

    Newton, Joseph M; Schofield, Desmond; Vlahopoulou, Joanna; Zhou, Yuhong

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring the physical or chemical properties of cell broths to infer cell status is often challenging due to the complex nature of the broth. Key factors indicative of cell status include cell density, cell viability, product leakage, and DNA release to the fermentation broth. The rapid and accurate prediction of cell status for hosts with intracellular protein products can minimise product loss due to leakage at the onset of cell lysis in fermentation. This article reports the rheological examination of an industrially relevant E. coli fermentation producing antibody fragments (Fab'). Viscosity monitoring showed an increase in viscosity during the exponential phase in relation to the cell density increase, a relatively flat profile in the stationary phase, followed by a rapid increase which correlated well with product loss, DNA release and loss of cell viability. This phenomenon was observed over several fermentations that a 25% increase in broth viscosity (using induction-point viscosity as a reference) indicated 10% product loss. Our results suggest that viscosity can accurately detect cell lysis and product leakage in postinduction cell cultures, and can identify cell lysis earlier than several other common fermentation monitoring techniques. This work demonstrates the utility of rapidly monitoring the physical properties of fermentation broths, and that viscosity monitoring has the potential to be a tool for process development to determine the optimal harvest time and minimise product loss. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 32:1069-1076, 2016.

  17. Detecting cell lysis using viscosity monitoring in E. coli fermentation to prevent product loss

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Joseph M.; Schofield, Desmond; Vlahopoulou, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the physical or chemical properties of cell broths to infer cell status is often challenging due to the complex nature of the broth. Key factors indicative of cell status include cell density, cell viability, product leakage, and DNA release to the fermentation broth. The rapid and accurate prediction of cell status for hosts with intracellular protein products can minimise product loss due to leakage at the onset of cell lysis in fermentation. This article reports the rheological examination of an industrially relevant E. coli fermentation producing antibody fragments (Fab'). Viscosity monitoring showed an increase in viscosity during the exponential phase in relation to the cell density increase, a relatively flat profile in the stationary phase, followed by a rapid increase which correlated well with product loss, DNA release and loss of cell viability. This phenomenon was observed over several fermentations that a 25% increase in broth viscosity (using induction‐point viscosity as a reference) indicated 10% product loss. Our results suggest that viscosity can accurately detect cell lysis and product leakage in postinduction cell cultures, and can identify cell lysis earlier than several other common fermentation monitoring techniques. This work demonstrates the utility of rapidly monitoring the physical properties of fermentation broths, and that viscosity monitoring has the potential to be a tool for process development to determine the optimal harvest time and minimise product loss. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 32:1069–1076, 2016 PMID:27111912

  18. Extension of the dielectric breakdown model for simulation of viscous fingering at finite viscosity ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doorwar, Shashvat; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2014-07-01

    Immiscible displacement of viscous oil by water in a petroleum reservoir is often hydrodynamically unstable. Due to similarities between the physics of dielectric breakdown and immiscible flow in porous media, we extend the existing dielectric breakdown model to simulate viscous fingering patterns for a wide range of viscosity ratios (μr). At low values of power-law index η, the system behaves like a stable Eden growth model and as the value of η is increased to unity, diffusion limited aggregation-like fractals appear. This model is compared with our two-dimensional (2D) experiments to develop a correlation between the viscosity ratio and the power index, i.e., η = 10-5μr0.8775. The 2D and three-dimensional (3D) simulation data appear scalable. The fingering pattern in 3D simulations at finite viscosity ratios appear qualitatively similar to the few experimental results published in the literature.

  19. Extension of the dielectric breakdown model for simulation of viscous fingering at finite viscosity ratios.

    PubMed

    Doorwar, Shashvat; Mohanty, Kishore K

    2014-07-01

    Immiscible displacement of viscous oil by water in a petroleum reservoir is often hydrodynamically unstable. Due to similarities between the physics of dielectric breakdown and immiscible flow in porous media, we extend the existing dielectric breakdown model to simulate viscous fingering patterns for a wide range of viscosity ratios (μ(r)). At low values of power-law index η, the system behaves like a stable Eden growth model and as the value of η is increased to unity, diffusion limited aggregation-like fractals appear. This model is compared with our two-dimensional (2D) experiments to develop a correlation between the viscosity ratio and the power index, i.e., η = 10(-5)μ(r)(0.8775). The 2D and three-dimensional (3D) simulation data appear scalable. The fingering pattern in 3D simulations at finite viscosity ratios appear qualitatively similar to the few experimental results published in the literature. PMID:25122390

  20. Extension of the dielectric breakdown model for simulation of viscous fingering at finite viscosity ratios.

    PubMed

    Doorwar, Shashvat; Mohanty, Kishore K

    2014-07-01

    Immiscible displacement of viscous oil by water in a petroleum reservoir is often hydrodynamically unstable. Due to similarities between the physics of dielectric breakdown and immiscible flow in porous media, we extend the existing dielectric breakdown model to simulate viscous fingering patterns for a wide range of viscosity ratios (μ(r)). At low values of power-law index η, the system behaves like a stable Eden growth model and as the value of η is increased to unity, diffusion limited aggregation-like fractals appear. This model is compared with our two-dimensional (2D) experiments to develop a correlation between the viscosity ratio and the power index, i.e., η = 10(-5)μ(r)(0.8775). The 2D and three-dimensional (3D) simulation data appear scalable. The fingering pattern in 3D simulations at finite viscosity ratios appear qualitatively similar to the few experimental results published in the literature.

  1. On the similarity of variable viscosity flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voivenel, L.; Danaila, L.; Varea, E.; Renou, B.; Cazalens, M.

    2016-08-01

    Turbulent mixing is ubiquitous in both nature and industrial applications. Most of them concern different fluids, therefore with variable physical properties (density and/or viscosity). The focus here is on variable viscosity flows and mixing, involving density-matched fluids. The issue is whether or not these flows may be self-similar, or self-preserving. The importance of this question stands on the predictability of these flows; self-similar dynamical systems are easier tractable from an analytical viewpoint. More specifically, self-similar analysis is applied to the scale-by-scale energy transport equations, which represent the transport of energy at each scale and each point of the flow. Scale-by-scale energy budget equations are developed for inhomogeneous and anisotropic flows, in which the viscosity varies as a result of heterogeneous mixture or temperature variations. Additional terms are highlighted, accounting for the viscosity gradients, or fluctuations. These terms are present at both small and large scales, thus rectifying the common belief that viscosity is a small-scale quantity. Scale-by-scale energy budget equations are then adapted for the particular case of a round jet evolving in a more viscous host fluid. It is further shown that the condition of self-preservation is not necessarily satisfied in variable-viscosity jets. Indeed, the jet momentum conservation, as well as the constancy of the Reynolds number in the central region of the jet, cannot be satisfied simultaneously. This points to the necessity of considering less stringent conditions (with respect to classical, single-fluid jets) when analytically tackling these flows and reinforces the idea that viscosity variations must be accounted for when modelling these flows.

  2. Viscosity of Xenon Examined in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    Why does water flow faster than honey? The short answer, that honey has a greater viscosity, merely rephrases the question. The fundamental answer is that viscosity originates in the interactions between a fluid s molecules. These interactions are so complicated that, except for low-density gases, the viscosity of a fluid cannot be accurately predicted. Progress in understanding viscosity has been made by studying moderately dense gases and, more recently, fluids near the critical point. Modern theories predict a universal behavior for all pure fluids near the liquid-vapor critical point, and they relate the increase in viscosity to spontaneous fluctuations in density near this point. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon (CVX) experiment tested these theories with unprecedented precision when it flew aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-85) in August 1997. Near the critical point, xenon is a billion times more compressible than water, yet it has about the same density. Because the fluid is so "soft," it collapses under its own weight when exposed to the force of Earth s gravity - much like a very soft spring. Because the CVX experiment is conducted in microgravity, it achieves a very uniform fluid density even very close to the critical point. At the heart of the CVX experiment is a novel viscometer built around a small nickel screen. An oscillating electric field forces the screen to oscillate between pairs of electrodes. Viscosity, which dampens the oscillations, can be calculated by measuring the screen motion and the force applied to the screen. So that the fluid s delicate state near the critical point will not be disrupted, the screen oscillations are set to be both slow and small.

  3. Experimental investigation of the physical properties of medium and heavy oils, their vaporization and use in explosion engines. Part IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinlein, Fritz

    1926-01-01

    This report presents a theoretical treatment of the vaporization process of medium and heavy oils. The results of this investigation, which were mostly obtained from the lighter components of the heavy fuels, require a 10- or 16-fold vaporization in comparison with gasoline. We must attain a still finer degree of atomization, in order to include the heavier components.

  4. Influence of sliding surface roughness and oil temperature on piston ring pack operation of an automotive IC engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, A.

    2016-09-01

    In the paper a comprehensive model of a piston ring pack motion on an oil film has been presented. The local oil film thickness can be compared to height of the combined roughness of sliding surfaces of piston rings and cylinder liner. Equations describing the mixed lubrication problem based on the empirical mathematical model formulated in works of Patir, Cheng and Greenwood, Tripp have been combined and used in this paper. The developed model takes the following phenomena into account: hydrodynamic and contact forces, spring and gas forces acting on piston rings. The rings motion concerning low and high temperature of cylinder surface has been compared. These results concern cases of hydrodynamic and mixed lubrication. Changes of oil wetted area and contact zone of piston rings have been shown. In addition the oil film thickness distribution along cylinder liner and all the forces acting on piston rings have been analysed and discussed. The results have been presented in form of relevant diagrams. The developed model and software can be utilized for optimization of piston rings design.

  5. Bio-Friendly Alternatives for Xylene – Carrot oil, Olive oil, Pine oil, Rose oil

    PubMed Central

    Nandan, Surapaneni Rateesh Kumar; Kulkarni, Pavan G.; Rao, Thokala Madhusudan; Palakurthy, Pavan

    2015-01-01

    Background Xylene is a flammable liquid with characteristic petroleum or aromatic odours, it is miscible with most of the organic solvents and paraffin wax. Xylene clears tissues rapidly and renders transparency, facilitating clearing endpoint determination, this made it to be used as a clearing agent in routine histopathological techniques. Even though it is a good clearing agent, it causes damage to the tissues by its hardening effect particularly those fixed in non-protein coagulant fixatives. Apart from these tissue effects, it has severe, long lasting ill effects on health of technicians and pathologists when exposed to longer duration. Hence in order to overcome these effects and replace xylene with a safe alternative agent, the present study was carried out to assess the clearing ability and bio-friendly nature of four different natural oils i.e., Carrot oil, Olive oil, Pine oil and Rose oil in comparison with that of Xylene. According to Bernoulli’s principle of fluid dynamics, to decrease viscosity of these oils and increase penetration into tissues for rapid clearing hot-air oven technique was used. Aims To assess:1) Clearing ability and bio-friendly nature of four different oils i.e., Carrot oil, Olive oil, Pine oil, Rose oil in comparison with that of xylene, 2) Application of Bernoulli’s principle of fluid dynamics in rapid clearing of tissues by using hot-air oven. Materials and Methods Forty different formalin fixed tissue samples were taken. Each sample of tissue was cut into 5 bits (40x5=200 total bits) which were subjected for dehydration in differential alcohol gradients. Later, each bit is kept in 4 different oils such as Carrot oil, Olive oil, Pine oil, Rose oil and xylene and transferred into hot-air oven. Further routine steps of processing, sectioning and staining were done. Individual sections cleared in four different oils were assessed for cellular architecture, staining quality and a comparison was done between them. Results Results

  6. Viscosity Measurement Using Drop Coalescence in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin C.; Maxwell, Daniel; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present in here validation studies of a new method for application in microgravity environment which measures the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids using drop coalescence. The method has the advantage of avoiding heterogeneous nucleation at container walls caused by crystallization of undercooled liquids during processing. Homogeneous nucleation can also be avoided due to the rapidity of the measurement using this method. The technique relies on measurements from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment as well as highly accurate analytical formulation for the coalescence process. The viscosity of the liquid is determined by allowing the computed free surface shape relaxation time to be adjusted in response to the measured free surface velocity for two coalescing drops. Results are presented from two sets of validation experiments for the method which were conducted on board aircraft flying parabolic trajectories. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, namely glycerin, was determined at different temperatures using the drop coalescence method described in here. The experiments measured the free surface velocity of two glycerin drops coalescing under the action of surface tension alone in low gravity environment using high speed photography. The liquid viscosity was determined by adjusting the computed free surface velocity values to the measured experimental data. The results of these experiments were found to agree reasonably well with the known viscosity for the test liquid used.

  7. Predicting slag viscosity from coal ash composition

    SciTech Connect

    Laumb, J.; Benson, S.A.; Katrinak, K.A.; Schwalbe, R.; McCollor, D.P.

    1999-07-01

    Management of slag flow from cyclone-fired utility boilers requires accurate prediction of viscosity. Cyclones tend to build up slag when the cyclone combustion temperature is less than the temperature required to melt and tap the ash from the coal being fired. Cyclone-fired boilers designed for lignite are equipped with predry systems, which remove 6-9% of the moisture from the coal. Cyclones tend to slag when the as-received heating value of the fuel is less than 6350 Btu/lb and T250 (temperature where viscosity equals 250 poise) is greater than 2350 F. The T250 value, as well as the rest of the viscosity-temperature relationship, can be predicted using models based on coal ash composition. The focus of this work is to evaluate several models in terms of their agreement with measured viscosities. Viscosity measurements were made for ten samples, including nine lignite coals and one lignite-derived slag. Model performance is related to the SiO{sub 2}, CaO, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents of the slag. The Sage and McIlroy and Kalmanovitch models worked best for high SiO{sub 2} and low Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} fuels. The Senior model worked best when Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content was moderate to high.

  8. Viscosity of confined inhomogeneous nonequilibrium fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junfang; Todd, B. D.; Travis, Karl P.

    2004-12-01

    We use the nonlocal linear hydrodynamic constitutive model, proposed by Evans and Morriss [Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids (Academic, London, 1990)], for computing an effective spatially dependent shear viscosity of inhomogeneous nonequilibrium fluids. The model is applied to a simple atomic fluid undergoing planar Poiseuille flow in a confined channel of several atomic diameters width. We compare the spatially dependent viscosity with a local generalization of Newton's law of viscosity and the Navier-Stokes viscosity, both of which are known to suffer extreme inaccuracies for highly inhomogeneous systems. The nonlocal constitutive model calculates effective position dependent viscosities that are free from the notorious singularities experienced by applying the commonly used local constitutive model. It is simple, general, and has widespread applicability in nanofluidics where experimental measurement of position dependent transport coefficients is currently inaccessible. In principle the method can be used to predict approximate flow profiles of any arbitrary inhomogeneous system. We demonstrate this by predicting the flow profile for a simple fluid undergoing planar Couette flow in a confined channel of several atomic diameters width.

  9. Effect of viscosity on learned satiation.

    PubMed

    Mars, M; Hogenkamp, P S; Gosses, A M; Stafleu, A; De Graaf, C

    2009-08-01

    A higher viscosity of a food leads to a longer orosensory stimulation. This may facilitate the learned association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. In the current study we investigated the effect of viscosity on learned satiation. In two intervention groups a low viscosity (LV) yogurt (n=24) and a high viscosity (HV) yogurt (n=22) was offered ad libitum for breakfast. In a learning period of 4 weeks, subjects consumed ad libitum a novel flavoured high energy density (HED) yogurt (150 kcal/100 g) or low energy density (LED) yogurt (50 kcal/100 g), with 10 exposures to each yogurt on alternate days. Over the repeated exposures, an interaction effect of exposure timeenergyviscosity on intake was seen (F(1,771)=4.12; p=0.04). In the HV intervention group a borderline significant interaction between exposure and energy density was observed (F(1,369)=3.61; p=0.06); after 10 exposures, the LED yogurt resulted in a 46+/-16 g higher intake compared with the HED yogurt. In the LV group, no significant interaction between exposure and energy density was seen (F(1,401)=1.04; p=0.31); after 10 exposures intake difference between the LED and HED yogurts was only 1.5+/-15 g. These results suggest that a higher viscosity facilitates learned satiation.

  10. Entropy viscosity method applied to Euler equations

    SciTech Connect

    Delchini, M. O.; Ragusa, J. C.; Berry, R. A.

    2013-07-01

    The entropy viscosity method [4] has been successfully applied to hyperbolic systems of equations such as Burgers equation and Euler equations. The method consists in adding dissipative terms to the governing equations, where a viscosity coefficient modulates the amount of dissipation. The entropy viscosity method has been applied to the 1-D Euler equations with variable area using a continuous finite element discretization in the MOOSE framework and our results show that it has the ability to efficiently smooth out oscillations and accurately resolve shocks. Two equations of state are considered: Ideal Gas and Stiffened Gas Equations Of State. Results are provided for a second-order time implicit schemes (BDF2). Some typical Riemann problems are run with the entropy viscosity method to demonstrate some of its features. Then, a 1-D convergent-divergent nozzle is considered with open boundary conditions. The correct steady-state is reached for the liquid and gas phases with a time implicit scheme. The entropy viscosity method correctly behaves in every problem run. For each test problem, results are shown for both equations of state considered here. (authors)

  11. Solubility, viscosity and density of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents results on low refrigerant concentration (70, 80, 90, and 100 weight percent lubricant) mixtures of the following fluids: CFC-12/ISO 32 naphthenic mineral oil; HCFC-22/ISO 32 naphthenic mineral oil; and HFC-134a/ISO 32 pentaerythritol ester mixed acid. These data have been reduced to engineering form and are presented in the form of a Daniel Chart. Scatter diagrams are given for the first fluid listed above, with the intent of illustrating the quality of data as well as providing the rationale for selecting the particular functional forms chosen to represent the experimental data. Equations are given along with statistical measures of goodness of fit.

  12. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  13. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  14. Diffusion, Viscosity and Crystal Growth in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myerson, Allan S.

    1996-01-01

    The diffusivity of TriGlycine Sulfate (TGS), Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP), Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate (ADF) and other compounds of interest to microgravity crystal growth, in supersaturated solutions as a function of solution concentration, 'age' and 'history was studied experimentally. The factors that affect the growth of crystals from water solutions in microgravity have been examined. Three non-linear optical materials have been studied, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) and triglycine sulfate (TGC). The diffusion coefficient and viscosity of supersaturated water solutions were measured. Also theoretical model of diffusivity and viscosity in a metastable state, model of crystal growth from solution including non-linear time dependent diffusivity and viscosity effect and computer simulation of the crystal growth process which allows simulation of the microgravity crystal growth were developed.

  15. Viscosity jump in Earth's mid-mantle.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Maxwell L; Lekić, Vedran; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina

    2015-12-11

    The viscosity structure of Earth's deep mantle affects the thermal evolution of Earth, the ascent of mantle plumes, settling of subducted oceanic lithosphere, and the mixing of compositional heterogeneities in the mantle. Based on a reanalysis of the long-wavelength nonhydrostatic geoid, we infer viscous layering of the mantle using a method that allows us to avoid a priori assumptions about its variation with depth. We detect an increase in viscosity at 800- to 1200-kilometers depth, far greater than the depth of the mineral phase transformations that define the mantle transition zone. The viscosity increase is coincident in depth with regions where seismic tomography has imaged slab stagnation, plume deflection, and changes in large-scale structure and offers a simple explanation of these phenomena.

  16. Polyfunctional dispersants for controlling viscosity of phyllosilicates

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    2006-07-25

    This invention provides phyllosilicates and polyfunctional dispersants which can be manipulated to selectively control the viscosity of phyllosilicate slurries. The polyfunctional dispersants used in the present invention, which include at least three functional groups, increase the dispersion and exfoliation of phyllosilicates in polymers and, when used in conjunction with phyllosilicate slurries, significantly reduce the viscosity of slurries having high concentrations of phyllosilicates. The functional groups of the polyfunctional dispersants are capable of associating with multivalent metal cations and low molecular weight organic polymers, which can be manipulated to substantially increase or decrease the viscosity of the slurry in a concentration dependent manner. The polyfunctional dispersants of the present invention can also impart desirable properties on the phyllosilicate dispersions including corrosion inhibition and enhanced exfoliation of the phyllosilicate platelets.

  17. Viscosity near Earth's solid inner core

    PubMed

    Smylie

    1999-04-16

    Anomalous splitting of the two equatorial translational modes of oscillation of Earth's solid inner core is used to estimate the effective viscosity just outside its boundary. Superconducting gravimeter observations give periods of 3.5822 +/- 0.0012 (retrograde) and 4.0150 +/- 0.0010 (prograde) hours. With the use of Ekman layer theory to estimate viscous drag forces, an inferred single viscosity of 1.22 x 10(11) Pascal seconds gives calculated periods of 3.5839 and 4.0167 hours for the two modes, close to the observed values. The large effective viscosity is consistent with a fluid, solid-liquid mixture surrounding the inner core associated with the "compositional convection" that drives Earth's geodynamo. PMID:10205048

  18. Viscosity of Fluids in Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audétat, Andreas; Keppler, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The viscosities of aqueous fluids with 10 to 80 weight percent dissolved silicates have been measured at 600° to 950°C and 1.0 to 2.0 gigapascals by in situ observation of falling spheres in the diamond anvil cell. The viscosities at 800°C range from 10-4 to 100.5 pascal seconds. The combination of low viscosities with a favorable wetting angle makes silicate-rich fluid an efficient agent for material transport at low-volume fractions. Our results therefore suggest that there may be a direct relationship between the position of the volcanic front and the onset of complete miscibility between water and silicate melt in the subducting slab.

  19. Viscosity of fluids in subduction zones.

    PubMed

    Audétat, Andreas; Keppler, Hans

    2004-01-23

    The viscosities of aqueous fluids with 10 to 80 weight percent dissolved silicates have been measured at 600 degrees to 950 degrees C and 1.0 to 2.0 gigapascals by in situ observation of falling spheres in the diamond anvil cell. The viscosities at 800 degrees C range from 10(-4) to 10(0.5) pascal seconds. The combination of low viscosities with a favorable wetting angle makes silicate-rich fluid an efficient agent for material transport at low-volume fractions. Our results therefore suggest that there may be a direct relationship between the position of the volcanic front and the onset of complete miscibility between water and silicate melt in the subducting slab. PMID:14739456

  20. Neutral lipid biosynthesis in engineered Escherichia coli: jojoba oil-like wax esters and fatty acid butyl esters.

    PubMed

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-02-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain by coexpression of a fatty alcohol-producing bifunctional acyl-coenzyme A reductase from the jojoba plant and a bacterial wax ester synthase from Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1, catalyzing the esterification of fatty alcohols and coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids. In the presence of oleate, jojoba oil-like wax esters such as palmityl oleate, palmityl palmitoleate, and oleyl oleate were produced, amounting to up to ca. 1% of the cellular dry weight. In addition to wax esters, fatty acid butyl esters were unexpectedly observed in the presence of oleate. The latter could be attributed to solvent residues of 1-butanol present in the medium component, Bacto tryptone. Neutral lipids produced in recombinant E. coli were accumulated as intracytoplasmic inclusions, demonstrating that the formation and structural integrity of bacterial lipid bodies do not require specific structural proteins. This is the first report on substantial biosynthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids in E. coli, which might open new perspectives for the biotechnological production of cheap jojoba oil equivalents from inexpensive resources employing recombinant microorganisms.

  1. Neutral Lipid Biosynthesis in Engineered Escherichia coli: Jojoba Oil-Like Wax Esters and Fatty Acid Butyl Esters

    PubMed Central

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain by coexpression of a fatty alcohol-producing bifunctional acyl-coenzyme A reductase from the jojoba plant and a bacterial wax ester synthase from Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1, catalyzing the esterification of fatty alcohols and coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids. In the presence of oleate, jojoba oil-like wax esters such as palmityl oleate, palmityl palmitoleate, and oleyl oleate were produced, amounting to up to ca. 1% of the cellular dry weight. In addition to wax esters, fatty acid butyl esters were unexpectedly observed in the presence of oleate. The latter could be attributed to solvent residues of 1-butanol present in the medium component, Bacto tryptone. Neutral lipids produced in recombinant E. coli were accumulated as intracytoplasmic inclusions, demonstrating that the formation and structural integrity of bacterial lipid bodies do not require specific structural proteins. This is the first report on substantial biosynthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids in E. coli, which might open new perspectives for the biotechnological production of cheap jojoba oil equivalents from inexpensive resources employing recombinant microorganisms. PMID:16461689

  2. Generalized correlation for viscosity of binary eutectics

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.K.; Wanchoo, R.K.; Gupta, R.; Jotshi, C.K.

    1995-12-31

    Heat and mass transfer plays an important role during phase transformation process involving phase change materials. These processes are greatly influenced by thermophysical properties of the material, such as, viscosity, density, thermal conductivity, etc. Viscosity is one of the prime factors which controls the crystal growth rate during crystallization/cooling process of the phase change material. It directs the movement of convection currents arising due to concentration gradient, near the interface of the growing crystal. Eutectics are the compounds having sharp transition temperatures corresponding to specific composition and do not suffer from phase segregation, a major problem in incongruent and semi-congruent melting salt hydrates. The viscometric behavior of the following five binary eutectics in the temperature range of 313--363 K has been studied: Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O-NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}; MgNO{sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O-MgCl{sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O; CO(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}-NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}; CO(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}-NH{sub 4}Br and CH{sub 3}CONH{sub 2}-NaBr. An empirical correlation between reduced viscosity and reduced temperature for molten binary eutectics showing Arrhenius behavior above their melting points has been reported. The correlation predicts the temperature dependence of the eutectic viscosity to within {+-}6. Consistency tests for viscosity data using reduced parameters have been reported. The empirical correlation developed from this study predicts very well, the viscosity of the molten eutectics and salt hydrates to within {+-}6% of the experimental values.

  3. Viscosity Meaurement Technique for Metal Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, Heng; Kennedy, Rory

    2015-02-09

    Metallic fuels have exceptional transient behavior, excellent thermal conductivity, and a more straightforward reprocessing path, which does not separate out pure plutonium from the process stream. Fabrication of fuel containing minor actinides and rare earth (RE) elements for irradiation tests, for instance, U-20Pu-3Am-2Np-1.0RE-15Zr samples at the Idaho National Laboratory, is generally done by melt casting in an inert atmosphere. For the design of a casting system and further scale up development, computational modeling of the casting process is needed to provide information on melt flow and solidification for process optimization. Therefore, there is a need for melt viscosity data, the most important melt property that controls the melt flow. The goal of the project was to develop a measurement technique that uses fully sealed melt sample with no Americium vapor loss to determine the viscosity of metallic melts and at temperatures relevant to the casting process. The specific objectives of the project were to: develop mathematical models to establish the principle of the measurement method, design and build a viscosity measurement prototype system based on the established principle, and calibrate the system and quantify the uncertainty range. The result of the project indicates that the oscillation cup technique is applicable for melt viscosity measurement. Detailed mathematical models of innovative sample ampoule designs were developed to not only determine melt viscosity, but also melt density under certain designs. Measurement uncertainties were analyzed and quantified. The result of this project can be used as the initial step toward the eventual goal of establishing a viscosity measurement system for radioactive melts.

  4. Slim accretion discs with different viscosity prescriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szuszkiewicz, Ewa

    1990-05-01

    The variability of X-ray sources powered by accretion may be connected to thermal instabilities in the innermost parts of slim disks. The time-scales of variability predicted by the theory with the standard alpha-viscosity prescription agree with those observed in a wide range of sources. The amplitudes (3-4 orders of magnitude in luiminosity) are correctly predicted for X-ray transient sources, but in general are too big for quasars, Seyferts, galactic blackhole candidates and LMXBs. It is shown that a slight modification of the viscosity prescription can offer a much better agreement with observations.

  5. Apparatus and method for measuring viscosity

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, R.J. Jr.

    1986-02-25

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for measuring the viscosity of a fluid. This apparatus and method is particularly useful for the measurement of the viscosity of a liquid in a harsh environment characterized by high temperature and the presence of corrosive or deleterious gases and vapors which adversely affect conventional ball or roller bearings. The apparatus and method of the present invention employ one or more flexural or torsional bearings to suspend a bob capable of limited angular motion within a rotatable sleeve suspended from a stationary frame. 7 figs.

  6. Apparatus and method for measuring viscosity

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Jr., Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for measuring the viscosity of a fluid. This apparatus and method is particularly useful for the measurement of the viscosity of a liquid in a harsh environment characterized by high temperature and the presence of corrosive or deleterious gases and vapors which adversely affect conventional ball or roller bearings. The apparatus and method of the present invention employ one or more flexural or torsional bearings to suspend a bob capable of limited angular motion within a rotatable sleeve suspended from a stationary frame.

  7. Viscosity of a nanoconfined liquid during compression

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Shah H.; Kramkowski, Edward L.; Ochs, Peter J.; Wilson, David M.; Hoffmann, Peter M.

    2014-01-13

    The viscous behavior of liquids under nanoconfinement is not well understood. Using a small-amplitude atomic force microscope, we found bulk-like viscosity in a nanoconfined, weakly interacting liquid. A further decrease in viscosity was observed at confinement sizes of a just few molecular layers. Overlaid over the continuum viscous behavior, we measured non-continuum stiffness and damping oscillations. The average stiffness of the confined liquid was found to scale linearly with the size of the confining tip, while the damping scales with the radius of curvature of the tip end.

  8. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, H. P. Thakor, P. B. Prajapati, A. V.; Sonvane, Y. A.

    2015-05-15

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.

  9. Measuring Viscosities of Gases at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Mall, Gerald H.; Hoshang, Chegini

    1987-01-01

    Variant of general capillary method for measuring viscosities of unknown gases based on use of thermal mass-flowmeter section for direct measurement of pressure drops. In technique, flowmeter serves dual role, providing data for determining volume flow rates and serving as well-characterized capillary-tube section for measurement of differential pressures across it. New method simple, sensitive, and adaptable for absolute or relative viscosity measurements of low-pressure gases. Suited for very complex hydrocarbon mixtures where limitations of classical theory and compositional errors make theoretical calculations less reliable.

  10. Shear Viscosity in a Gluon Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2008-05-02

    The relation of the shear viscosity coefficient to the recently introduced transport rate is derived within relativistic kinetic theory. We calculate the shear viscosity over entropy ratio {eta}/s for a gluon gas, which involves elastic gg{yields}gg perturbative QCD (PQCD) scatterings as well as inelastic gg{r_reversible}ggg PQCD bremsstrahlung. For {alpha}{sub s}=0.3 we find {eta}/s=0.13 and for {alpha}{sub s}=0.6, {eta}/s=0.076. The small {eta}/s values, which suggest strongly coupled systems, are due to the gluon bremsstrahlung incorporated.

  11. Viscosity profile of the lower mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellsworth, K.; Schubert, G.; Sammis, C. G.

    1985-01-01

    The viscosity of the earth's mantle is an important factor in studies of mantle convection and other problems in geodynamics. The present investigation is concerned with a determination of the variation of effective viscosity across the lower mantle from models of the Gibb's free energy of activation G(asterisk) and the adiabatic temperature profile. The variation of G(asterisk) with depth is calculated using both an elastic strain energy model, in which G(asterisk) is related to the seismic velocities, and a model which assumes G(asterisk) is proportional to the melting temperature.

  12. A Theory of Solvation Effects on Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakita, Tomofumi; Yoshimori, Akira

    2015-04-01

    We formulate a theory for calculating the viscosity of a dilute solution, considering the solute-solvent interaction. We consider an inhomogeneous density distribution of solvent particles caused by the interaction, using the equilibrium solute-solvent radial distribution function. The theory is a microscopic extension of Einstein's viscosity formula. We formulate the theory by a perturbation expansion, assuming that a solvent particle is much smaller than a solute particle. From the perturbation theory, we obtain hydrodynamic equations with new boundary conditions on the surface of the solute. The theory is applied to a system with a simple radial distribution function.

  13. Shock capturing by the spectral viscosity method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadmor, Eitan

    1989-01-01

    A main disadvantage of using spectral methods for nonlinear conservation laws lies in the formation of Gibbs phenomenon, once spontaneous shock discontinuities appear in the solution. The global nature of spectral methods than pollutes the unstable Gibbs oscillations overall the computational domain, and the lack of entropy dissipation prevents convergences in these cases. The Spectral Viscosity method, which is based on high frequency dependent vanishing viscosity regularization of the classical spectral methods is discussed. It is shown that this method enforces the convergence of nonlinear spectral approximations without sacrificing their overall spectral accuracy.

  14. Shear viscosity of a unitary Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Wlazłowski, Gabriel; Magierski, Piotr; Drut, Joaquín E

    2012-07-13

    We present an ab initio determination of the shear viscosity η of the unitary Fermi gas, based on finite temperature quantum Monte Carlo calculations and the Kubo linear-response formalism. We determine the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio η/s. The minimum of η/s appears to be located above the critical temperature for the superfluid-to-normal phase transition with the most probable value being (η/s)min≈0.2ℏ/k(B), which is close the Kovtun-Son-Starinets universal value ℏ/(4πk(B)).

  15. Shear viscosity in a gluon gas.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2008-05-01

    The relation of the shear viscosity coefficient to the recently introduced transport rate is derived within relativistic kinetic theory. We calculate the shear viscosity over entropy ratio eta/s for a gluon gas, which involves elastic gg-->gg perturbative QCD (PQCD) scatterings as well as inelastic gg<-->ggg PQCD bremsstrahlung. For alpha_{s}=0.3 we find eta/s=0.13 and for alpha_{s}=0.6, eta/s=0.076. The small eta/s values, which suggest strongly coupled systems, are due to the gluon bremsstrahlung incorporated.

  16. One atmosphere viscosity measurements of MORBs from ODP Leg 206, Hole 1256D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Nakamura, H.; Ishibashi, H.

    2009-12-01

    We carried out viscosity measurements of MORBs from ODP Leg 206, Hole 1256D at one atmosphere both in hyperliquidus and subliquidus conditions. Three samples examined are #1 (core 39R1), #2(core 27R19) and #3 (core 3R4). They are typical MORBs but have different Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios of 0.60, 0.48, and 0.42. Viscosity measurements were carried out mostly after the method of Sato (2005, J. Mineral. Petrol. Sci),. The oxygen fugacity of the furnace was controlled by mixed gas of CO2:H2(400/20ml/min), at FMQ buffer conditions. Rotational viscometer was connected to a ceramic rod of 6 mm diameter, the end of which immersed in the sample crucible 30 mm inner diameter and 60 mm high. The system is calibrated with standard viscosity oils for different depths. The samples were initially melted at ca. 50 C higher temperature than liquidus, and kept for 3 days before viscometry and sampling. After the viscometry and sampling, the furnace temperature was decreased by 5 to 30 C, and kept for 1-3 days before another viscometry and sampling. These steps are repeated until the high viscosity of the melt precluded the measurements. The quenched samples were analayzed for phase chemistry and textural features. Sample #1 crystallized plagioclase and olivine at 1215 C, followed by augite at 1205 C. Total crystal content increased to 29 vol% at 1185 C. Sample #2 crystallized plagioclase and pigeonite at 1175 C, followed by olivine and augite at 1165 C. Total crystal content increased up to 25 vol% at 1152 C. Sample #3 crystallized plagioclase, pigeonite and olivine at 1155 C. Total crystal content increased up to 25 vol% at 1133 C. Bulk viscosity increased from 46 to 74 Pa s at hyperliquidus temperatures of 1240 to 1210 C, whereas it increased up to 2908 Pa s in subliquidus temperatures of 1185 C in the sample #1. In the sample #2, bulk viscosity also increased slowly from 42 Pa s at 1232 C to 79 Pa s at 1172 C, then increased much rapidly to 3422 Pa s at 1152 C. Similarly, the sample #3

  17. Determination of ortho-cresyl phosphate isomers of tricresyl phosphate used in aircraft turbine engine oils by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    De Nola, G; Kibby, J; Mazurek, W

    2008-07-25

    Tricresyl phosphate (TCP) is used as an anti-wear additive in aircraft turbine engine oil. Concerns about its toxicity are largely based on the tri-o-cresyl phosphate isomer content. However, the presence of other and more toxic isomers has been previously suggested. In this work, the structural isomers of TCP have been determined by two methods (experimental and semi-theoretical). First, the TCP isomers were separated by gas chromatography (GC) and identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Second, after base cleavage of TCP, GC was used to quantify the cresol precursors. These results were used to calculate the TCP isomer distribution based on the assumption of a statistical distribution of the TCP isomers. The results from the two determinations showed reasonable agreement for three of the four oils studied. The o-cresyl isomers were found to be present almost exclusively as the more toxic mono-o-cresyl isomers in the concentration range 13-150 mg/L. The ability to analyse for the mono-o-cresyl isomers allows the toxicity of TCP to be based on the latter isomers rather than on the less toxic tri-o-cresyl phosphate isomer.

  18. Metabolic engineering of hydroxy fatty acid production in plants: RcDGAT2 drives dramatic increases in ricinoleate levels in seed oil

    PubMed Central

    Burgal, Julie; Shockey, Jay; Lu, Chaofu; Dyer, John; Larson, Tony; Graham, Ian; Browse, John

    2010-01-01

    Summary A central goal of green chemistry is to produce industrially useful fatty acids in oilseed crops. Although genes encoding suitable fatty acid-modifying enzymes are available from many wild species, progress has been limited because the expression of these genes in transgenic plants produces low yields of the desired products. For example, Ricinus communis fatty acid hydroxylase 12 (FAH12) produces a maximum of only 17% hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) when expressed in Arabidopsis. cDNA clones encoding R. communis enzymes for additional steps in the seed oil biosynthetic pathway were identified. Expression of these cDNAs in FAH12 transgenic plants revealed that the R. communis type-2 acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (RcDGAT2) could increase HFAs from 17% to nearly 30%. Detailed comparisons of seed neutral lipids from the single- and double-transgenic lines indicated that RcDGAT2 substantially modified the triacylglycerol (TAG) pool, with significant increases in most of the major TAG species observed in native castor bean oil. These data suggest that RcDGAT2 prefers acyl-coenzyme A and diacylglycerol substrates containing HFAs, and biochemical analyses of RcDGAT2 expressed in yeast cells confirmed a strong preference for HFA-containing diacylglycerol substrates. Our results demonstrate that pathway engineering approaches can be used successfully to increase the yields of industrial feedstocks in plants, and that members of the DGAT2 gene family probably play a key role in this process. PMID:18643899

  19. VISCOSITY AND BINDER COMPOSITION EFFECTS ON TYROSINASE-BASED CARBON PASTE ELECTRODE FOR DETECTION OF PHENOL AND CATECHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The systematic study of the effect of binder viscosity on the sensitivity of a tyrosinase-based carbon paste electrode (CPE) biosensor for phenol and catechol is reported. Silicon oil binders with similar (polydimethylsiloxane) chemical composition were used to represent a wid...

  20. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...