Science.gov

Sample records for engineering evaluation cost

  1. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for Decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex

    SciTech Connect

    A. B. Culp

    2006-10-01

    Preparation of this Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis is consistent with the joint U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, which establishes the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action (NTCRA) process as an approach for decommissioning.

  2. Applying Costs, Risks and Values Evaluation (CRAVE) methodology to Engineering Support Request (ESR) prioritization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla N.

    1994-01-01

    Given limited budget, the problem of prioritization among Engineering Support Requests (ESR's) with varied sizes, shapes, and colors is a difficult one. At the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), the recently developed 4-Matrix (4-M) method represents a step in the right direction as it attempts to combine the traditional criteria of technical merits only with the new concern for cost-effectiveness. However, the 4-M method was not adequately successful in the actual prioritization of ESRs for the fiscal year 1995 (FY95). This research identifies a number of design issues that should help us to develop better methods. It emphasizes that given the variety and diversity of ESR's one should not expect that a single method could help in the assessment of all ESR's. One conclusion is that a methodology such as Costs, Risks, and Values Evaluation (CRAVE) should be adopted. It also is clear that the development of methods such as 4-M requires input not only from engineers with technical expertise in ESR's but also from personnel with adequate background in the theory and practice of cost-effectiveness analysis. At KSC, ESR prioritization is one part of the Ground Support Working Teams (GSWT) Integration Process. It was discovered that the more important barriers to the incorporation of cost-effectiveness considerations in ESR prioritization lie in this process. The culture of integration, and the corresponding structure of review by a committee of peers, is not conducive to the analysis and confrontation necessary in the assessment and prioritization of ESR's. Without assistance from appropriately trained analysts charged with the responsibility to analyze and be confrontational about each ESR, the GSWT steering committee will continue to make its decisions based on incomplete understanding, inconsistent numbers, and at times, colored facts. The current organizational separation of the prioritization and the funding processes is also identified as an important barrier to the

  3. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for Power Burst Facility (PER-620) Final End State and PBF Vessel Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    B. C. Culp

    2007-05-01

    Preparation of this engineering evaluation/cost analysis is consistent with the joint U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, (DOE and EPA 1995) which establishes the Comprehensive Environmental, Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time critical removal action process as an approach for decommissioning. The scope of this engineering evaluation/cost analysis is to evaluate alternatives and recommend a preferred alternative for the final end state of the PBF and the final disposal location for the PBF vessel.

  4. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The deactivated 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility (233-S Facility) is located in the 200 Area. The facility has undergone severe degradation due to exposure to extreme weather conditions. A rapid freeze and thaw cycle occurred at the Hanford Site during February 1996, which caused cracking to occur on portions of the building`s roof. This has resulted in significantly infiltration of water into the facility, which provides a pathway for potential release of radioactive material into the environment (air and/or ground). The weather caused several existing cracks in the concrete portions of the structure to lengthen, increasing the potential for failed confinement of the radioactive material in the building. Differential settlement has also occurred, causing portions of the facility to separate from the main building structure thus creating a potential for release of radioactive material t the environment. An expedited removal action is proposed to ensure that a release from the 233-S Facility does not occur. The US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), in cooperation with the EPA, has prepared this Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) pursuant to CERCLA. Based on the evaluation, RL has determined that hazardous substances in the 233-S Facility may present a potential threat to human health and/or the environment, and that an expedited removal action is warranted. The purpose of the EE/CA is to provide the framework for the evaluation and selection of a technology from a viable set of alternatives for a removal action.

  5. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix E: Cost estimation and economic evaluation methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The cost estimation and economic evaluation methodologies presented are consistent with industry practice for assessing capital investment requirements and operating costs of coal conversion systems. All values stated are based on January, 1980 dollars with appropriate recognition of the time value of money. Evaluation of project economic feasibility can be considered a two step process (subject to considerable refinement). First, the costs of the project must be quantified and second, the price at which the product can be manufacturd must be determined. These two major categories are discussed. The summary of methodology is divided into five parts: (1) systems costs, (2)instant plant costs, (3) annual operating costs, (4) escalation and discounting process, and (5) product pricing.

  6. A business case evaluation of workplace engineering noise control: a net-cost model.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Supriya; Low, Colleen; Barry, Michael

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a convenient tool for companies to determine the costs and benefits of alternative interventions to prevent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Contextualized for Singapore and in collaboration with Singapore's Ministry of Manpower, the Net-Cost model evaluates costs of intervention for equipment and labor, avoided costs of productivity losses and medical care, and productivity gains from the employer's economic perspective. To pilot this approach, four case studies are presented, with varying degrees of economic benefits to the employer, including one in which multifactor productivity is the main driver. Although compliance agencies may not require economic analysis of NIHL, given scarce resources in a market-driven economy, this tool enables stakeholders to understand and compare the costs and benefits of NIHL interventions comprehensively and helps in determining risk management strategies.

  7. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) for Decommissioning of TAN-607 Hot Shop Area

    SciTech Connect

    J. P. Floerke

    2007-02-05

    will be protective of human health and the environment. Decommissioning the TAN-607 Hot Shop Area is consistent with the joint DOE and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, which establishes the CERCLA NTCRA process as the preferred approach for decommissioning surplus DOE facilities. Under this policy, a NTCRA may be taken when DOE determines that the action will prevent, minimize, stabilize, or eliminate a risk to human health and/or the environment. When DOE determines that a CERCLA NTCRA is necessary, DOE is authorized to evaluate, select, and implement the removal action that DOE determines is most appropriate to address the potential risk posed by the release or threat of release. This action is taken in accordance with applicable authorities and in conjunction with EPA and the State of Idaho pursuant to Section 5.3 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. In keeping with the joint policy, this engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) was developed in accordance with CERCLA as amended by the ''Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986'' and in accordance with the ''National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan.'' This EE/CA is consistent with the remedial action objectives (RAOs) of the Final Record of Decision, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-10 and supports the overall remediation goals established through the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for Waste Area Group 1. Waste Area Group 1 is located at TAN.

  8. A simple, physically-based method for evaluating the economic costs of geo-engineering schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2009-04-01

    The consumption of primary energy (e.g coal, oil, uranium) by the global economy is done in expectation of a return on investment. For geo-engineering schemes, however, the relationship between the primary energy consumption required and the economic return is, at first glance, quite different. The energy costs of a given scheme represent a removal of economically productive available energy to do work in the normal global economy. What are the economic implications of the energy consumption associated with geo-engineering techniques? I will present a simple thermodynamic argument that, in general, real (inflation-adjusted) economic value has a fixed relationship to the rate of global primary energy consumption. This hypothesis will be shown to be supported by 36 years of available energy statistics and a two millennia period of statistics for global economic production. What is found from this analysis is that the value in any given inflation-adjusted 1990 dollar is sustained by a constant 9.7 +/- 0.3 milliwatts of global primary energy consumption. Thus, insofar as geo-engineering is concerned, any scheme that requires some nominal fraction of continuous global primary energy output necessitates a corresponding inflationary loss of real global economic value. For example, if 1% of global energy output is required, at today's consumption rates of 15 TW this corresponds to an inflationary loss of 15 trillion 1990 dollars of real value. The loss will be less, however, if the geo-engineering scheme also enables a demonstrable enhancement to global economic production capacity through climate modification.

  9. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final engineering evaluation/cost analysis: Petroleum, oil, and lubricants area, Galena Airport, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-05

    This decision document presents the selected removal action for the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) site ST005, otherwise known as the POL Tank Farm, at Galena Airport, Alaska. This decision is based on the administrative record for this site, specifically the draft Remedial Investigation Report (March 1995) and the Treatability Study Report (January 1995) (PB95-225314). The information from these documents is summarized, along with an analysis of potential removal action alternatives in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA).

  10. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for decontamination at the St. Louis Downtown Site, St. Louis, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Picel, M.H.; Hartmann, H.M.; Nimmagadda, M.R. ); Williams, M.J. )

    1991-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing a cleanup program for three groups of properties in the St. Louis, Missouri, area: the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS), the St. Louis Airport Site (SLAPS) and vicinity properties, and the Latty Avenue Properties, including the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS). The general location of these properties is shown in Figure 1; the properties are referred to collectively as the St. Louis Site. None of the properties are owned by DOE, but each property contains radioactive residues from federal uranium processing activities conducted at the SLDS during and after World War 2. The activities addressed in this environmental evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report are being proposed as interim components of a comprehensive cleanup strategy for the St. Louis Site. As part of the Department's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), DOE is proposing to conduct limited decontamination in support of proprietor-initiated activities at the SLDS, commonly referred to as the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works. The primary goal of FUSRAP activity at the SLDS is to eliminate potential environmental hazards associated with residual contamination resulting from the site's use for government-funded uranium processing activities. 17 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Basewide engineering evaluation-cost analysis for soil vapor extraction. Site specific document IC-1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This document supports the use of soil vapor extraction (SVE) as the non-time-critical removal for selected areas with high levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination in Investigation Cluster 1 (IC 1), which is located near the center of Operable Unit B (OU B). This SVE removal action is part of the initial basewide SVE removal action at McClellan Air Force Base (McAFB). The principal objective of basewide SVE removal actions is to achieve early risk reduction by removing a significant quantity of VOCs from soils in the vadose zone, intercepting an exposure pathway, or preventing additional flow to groundwater. This document is a comparison to the Basewide Engineering Evaluation-Cost Analysis (EE/CA) General Evaluation Document. The General Evaluation Document provides the long-term plan to standardize and streamline the use of SVE removal actions at McAFB by establishing SVE as the presumptive remedy for McAFB; outlining a site selection methodology for SVE removal actions, and providing a general SVE system configuration and cost estimate.

  12. Engineering/Cost Evaluation of Options for Removal/Disposal of NC (nitrocellulose) Fines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-30

    manuals, and budgetary quotations from equipment suppliers were used. The Guthrie’s Modular Factor method was used to convert purchased component costs to...and labor), cont actor’s fee d contingency. Specific" modular factors used along with equipment list and purchased component costs are shown in the...applications, the process streams are concentrated through staged Pe operations to highly viscous toothpaste -like slurries while the -* microfiltrate is

  13. Excel for Cost Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butts, Glenn C.

    2007-01-01

    Excel is a powerful tool with a plethora of largely unused capabilities that can make the life of an engineer cognizant of them a great deal easier. This paper offers tips, tricks and techniques for better worksheets. Including the use of data validation, conditional formatting, subtotals, text formulas, custom functions and much more. It is assumed that the reader will have a cursory understanding of Excel so the basics will not be covered, if you get hung up try Excel's built in help menus, or a good book.

  14. Outfitting Navy Ships with Microclimate Cooling Systems: An Engineering Evaluation to Determine the Initial Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    requirements on existing shipboard low pressure air compressors ( LPAC ) when the air-cooled MCS are used minimally and maximally. Outfitting only...engineering personnel during normal operations was considered the minimum supplemental demand on the LPAC . Outfitting the complete ship during GO was...considered the maximum supplemental demand on the LPAC . These data, which are presented in Table 9, were calculated by multiplying the number of air vests

  15. The JPL Cost Risk Analysis Approach that Incorporates Engineering Realism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Corey C.; Warfield, Keith R.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the JPL Cost Engineering Group (CEG) cost risk analysis approach that accounts for all three types of cost risk. It will also describe the evaluation of historical cost data upon which this method is based. This investigation is essential in developing a method that is rooted in engineering realism and produces credible, dependable results to aid decision makers.

  16. The JPL Cost Risk Analysis Approach that Incorporates Engineering Realism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Corey C.; Warfield, Keith R.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the JPL Cost Engineering Group (CEG) cost risk analysis approach that accounts for all three types of cost risk. It will also describe the evaluation of historical cost data upon which this method is based. This investigation is essential in developing a method that is rooted in engineering realism and produces credible, dependable results to aid decision makers.

  17. World War I chemical weapons bunker engineering evaluation and cost analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, C.A.; Crotteau, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a review of the US Army Corps of Engineers development and execution of a CERCLA chemical weapons and soil removal from two World War 1 underground test bunkers. The non-time critical removal action was completed from October 1994 to January 1995 in conjunction with Operation Safe Removal, Spring Valley, Washington, D.C. On January 5, 1993, a startled backhoe operator unearthed three 75mm artillery shells, exposing the legacy of a World War 1 (WWI) chemical weapons test facility in the midst of the nation`s capitol. That discovery, made in an exclusive residential neighborhood, prompted an intensive two year environmental cleanup. The Army immediately responded to the chemical ordnance threat, initiating Operation Safe Removal, a $20 million emergency response action and remedial investigation.

  18. Evaluation of low-cost aluminum composites for aircraft engine structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdanels, D. L.; Signorelli, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Panels of discontinuous SiC composites, with several aluminum matrices, were fabricated and evaluated. Modulus, yield strength and tensile strength results indicated that the properties of composites containing SiC whisker, nodule or particulate reinforcements were similar. The modulus of the composites was controlled by the volume percentage of the SiC reinforcement content, while the strength and ductility were controlled by both the reinforcement content and the matrix alloy. The feasibility of fabricating structural shapes by both wire performs and direct casting was demonstrated for Al2O3/Al composites. The feasibility of fabricating high performance composites into structural shapes by low pressure hot molding was demonstrated for B4C-coated B/Al composites.

  19. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal of contaminated materials at the Elza Gate site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared in support of the proposed removal action for cleanup of radioactive and chemically contaminated soil at the Elza Gate site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This property became contaminated as a result of storage of ore residues, equipment, and other materials for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup of portions of the site under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. In December 1990 an area known as Pad 1 was abrasively scoured to remove surface contamination, and in March 1991 removal of Pad 1 contamination was begun under a separate EE/CA. This EE/CA is intended to cover the remaining portions of the site for which the Department of Energy has responsibility. It has been determined that an EE/CA report is appropriate documentation for the proposed removal action. This EE/CA covers removal of contaminated soils and contaminated concrete rubble from the Elza Gate site. The primary objectives of this EE/CA report are to identify and describe the preferred removal action, and to document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential for release of contaminants from the property into the environment and that will minimize the associated threats to human health or welfare and the environment. The preferred alternative is disposition on the Oak Ridge Reservation. 30 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Space Shuttle main engine. NASA has not evaluated the alternate fuel turbopump costs and benefits. Report to the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    NASA's plans to develop an alternate high pressure fuel turbopump for the Space Shuttle's main engines were assessed by the General Accounting Office as a part of the evaluation of the Space Shuttle Safety and Obsolescence Upgrade program. The objective was to determine whether NASA has adequately analyzed cost, performance, and benefits that are expected to result from this program in comparison to other alternatives before resuming development of the alternate pump, which was suspended in 1992. The alternate fuel pump is one of five improvements being developed or planned to significantly enhance safety margins of the engines.

  1. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf, AFB, Alaska. Final engineering evaluation/cost analysis, million gallon hill source area of the West Unit, Galena Airport, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-05

    This decision document presents the selected removal action for the Million Gallon Hill source area of the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) site ST009, otherwise known as the West Unit at Galena Airport, Alaska. The information from the RI Report is summarized, along with an analysis of potential removal action alternatives in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA).

  2. Incremental Scheduling Engines: Cost Savings through Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and ob.jectives are met and resources are not over-booked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper, presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  3. Cost estimating Brayton and Stirling engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortgang, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    Brayton and Stirling engines were analyzed for cost and selling price for production quantities ranging from 1000 to 400,000 units per year. Parts and components were subjected to indepth scrutiny to determine optimum manufacturing processes coupled with make or buy decisions on materials and small parts. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for each detail and/or assembly. For low annual production volumes, the Brayton engine appears to have a lower cost and selling price than the Stirling Engine. As annual production quantities increase, the Stirling becomes a lower cost engine than the Brayton. Both engines could benefit cost wise if changes were made in materials, design and manufacturing process as annual production quantities increase.

  4. Experience with low cost jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A summary is given of the results of a NASA program for reducing the cost of turbojet and turbofan engines. The design, construction, and testing of a simple turbojet, designed for use in missiles, is described. Low cost axial stage fabrication, the design of a fan jet engine suitable for propulsion of light aircraft, and application of such engines to provide higher flight speeds, are discussed.

  5. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final engineering evaluation/cost analysis potential tce impact to the drinking water supply, Galena Airport, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-05

    This decision document presents the selected removal action to address potential trichloroethene (TCE) impact to drinking water supply wells, located in the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) site ST009, otherwise known as the West Unit, at Galena Airport, Alaska. The information fron the RI Report is summarized, along with an analysis of potential removal action alternatives, in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA).

  6. Design concepts for low-cost composite turbofan engine frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, S. C.; Stoffer, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    Design concepts for low cost, lightweight composite engine frames were applied to the design requirements for the frame of a commercial, high bypass engine. Four alternative composite frame design concepts identified which consisted of generic type components and subcomponents that could be adapted to use in different locations in the engine and the different engine sizes. A variety of materials and manufacturing methods were projected with a goal for the lowest number of parts at the lowest possible cost. After a preliminary evaluation of all four frame concepts, two designs were selected for an extended design and evaluation which narrowed the final selection down to one frame that was significantly lower in cost and slighty lighter than the other frame. An implementation plan for this lowest cost frame is projected for future development and includes prospects for reducing its weight with proposed unproven, innovative fabrication techniques.

  7. Integrating Cost Models with Systems Engineering Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-20

    expert judgment, bottom up (Industrial Engineering), and top down or parametric estimation . Table IV presents a Production Program Training...Bottom Up approach. life cycle cost. These costs are generally computed by Top Down or Parametric Estimation is the most analogy, expert opinion or by

  8. Life cycle cost assessment of future low heat rejection engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The Adiabatic Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) represents a project which has the objective to accelerate the development of highway truck engines with advanced technology aimed at reduced fuel consumption. The project comprises three steps, including the synthesis of a number of engine candidate designs, the coupling of each with a number of systems for utilizing exhaust gas energy, and the evaluation of each combination in terms of desirability. Particular attention is given to the employed evaluation method and the development of this method. The objective of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) evaluation in the ADECD program was to select the best from among 42 different low heat rejection engine (LHRE)/exhaust energy recovery system configurations. The LCC model is discussed along with a maintenance cost model, the evaluation strategy, the selection of parameter ranges, and a full factorial analysis.

  9. Cost of energy evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasbrouck, T. M.

    1979-01-01

    The estimated cost per kilowatt hour, the wind resources in the utilities service area, and the reliability of the units are considered in computing the cost of energy of the wind turbine generator system.

  10. Cost Risk Analysis Based on Perception of the Engineering Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.; Wood, Darrell A.; Moore, Arlene A.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1986-01-01

    In most cost estimating applications at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), it is desirable to present predicted cost as a range of possible costs rather than a single predicted cost. A cost risk analysis generates a range of cost for a project and assigns a probability level to each cost value in the range. Constructing a cost risk curve requires a good estimate of the expected cost of a project. It must also include a good estimate of expected variance of the cost. Many cost risk analyses are based upon an expert's knowledge of the cost of similar projects in the past. In a common scenario, a manager or engineer, asked to estimate the cost of a project in his area of expertise, will gather historical cost data from a similar completed project. The cost of the completed project is adjusted using the perceived technical and economic differences between the two projects. This allows errors from at least three sources. The historical cost data may be in error by some unknown amount. The managers' evaluation of the new project and its similarity to the old project may be in error. The factors used to adjust the cost of the old project may not correctly reflect the differences. Some risk analyses are based on untested hypotheses about the form of the statistical distribution that underlies the distribution of possible cost. The usual problem is not just to come up with an estimate of the cost of a project, but to predict the range of values into which the cost may fall and with what level of confidence the prediction is made. Risk analysis techniques that assume the shape of the underlying cost distribution and derive the risk curve from a single estimate plus and minus some amount usually fail to take into account the actual magnitude of the uncertainty in cost due to technical factors in the project itself. This paper addresses a cost risk method that is based on parametric estimates of the technical factors involved in the project being costed. The engineering

  11. Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Stage 3, Operable Unit B engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis - Environmental Assessment for McClellan AFB/EM, McClellan AFB, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Electrical 10% 21,000 Contingency 25% 52,000 Contractor 15% 31,000 Engineering 10% 21,000 $187,000 0 TOTAL COSTS: $593,000 $29,000 PRESENT WORTH COSTS2...Instrumentation 10% 6,000 Controls 5% 3,000 Electrical 10% 6,000 Contingency 25% 15,000 Contractor 15% 9,000 Engineering 10% 6,000 $54,000 0 TOTAL COSTS...andj, sposal of 0Zhemicals ...... 1-33 1.2.3 ’+’o te tia an )(n’ ’ sharges ,13 1.2.4 Previous Remedial Investigations ...... 14 125^i,_Contamiation

  12. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine cost trade studies

    SciTech Connect

    Paschall, R.K. )

    1993-01-10

    The NASA transportation strategy for the Mars Exploration architecture includes the use of nuclear thermal propulsion as the primary propulsion system for Mars transits. It is anticipated that the outgrowth of the NERVA/ROVER programs will be a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system capable of providing the propulsion for missions to Mars. The specific impulse (Isp) for such a system is expected to be in the 870 s range. Trade studies were conducted to investigate whether or not it may be cost effective to invest in a higher performance (Isp[gt]870 s) engine for nuclear thermal propulsion for missions to Mars. The basic cost trades revolved around the amount of mass that must be transported to low-earth orbit prior to each Mars flight and the cost to launch that mass. The mass required depended on the assumptions made for Mars missions scenarios including piloted/cargo flights, number of Mars missions, and transit time to Mars. Cost parameters included launch cost, program schedule for development and operations, and net discount rate. The results were very dependent on the assumptions that were made. Under some assumptions, higher performance engines showed cost savings in the billions of dollars; under other assumptions, the additional cost to develop higher performance engines was not justified.

  13. Design concepts for low-cost composite engine frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Design concepts for low-cost, lightweight composite engine frames were applied to the design requirements for the frame of commercial, high-bypass turbine engines. The concepts consist of generic-type components and subcomponents that could be adapted for use in different locations in the engine and to different engine sizes. A variety of materials and manufacturing methods were assessed with a goal of having the lowest number of parts possible at the lowest possible cost. The evaluation of the design concepts resulted in the identification of a hybrid composite frame which would weigh about 70 percent of the state-of-the-art metal frame and cost would be about 60 percent.

  14. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal of contaminated materials from pad 1 at the Elza Gate site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared in support of the proposed removal action for cleanup of radioactively contaminated concrete and soil beneath a building on privately owned commercial property in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The property, known as the Elza Gate site, became contaminated with uranium-238, radium-226, thorium-232, thorium-230, and decay products as a result of the Manhattan Engineer District storing uranium ore and ore processing residues at the site in the early 1940s. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibility for cleanup of the property under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The DOE plans to remove the cracked and worn concrete pad and contaminated subsoil beneath the pad, after which the property owner/tenant will provide clean backfill and new concrete. Portions of the pad and subsoil are contaminated and, if stored or disposed of improperly, may represent a potential threat to public health or welfare and the environment. The EE/CA report is the appropriate documentation for the proposed removal action, as identified in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. The objective of the EE/CA report, in addition to identifying the planned removal action, is to document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential for release of contaminants from the property into the environment and minimize the related threats to public health or welfare and the environment. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Software Estimates Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Simulation-Based Cost Model (SiCM) is a computer program that simulates pertinent aspects of the testing of rocket engines for the purpose of estimating the costs of such testing during time intervals specified by its users. A user enters input data for control of simulations; information on the nature of, and activity in, a given testing project; and information on resources. Simulation objects are created on the basis of this input. Costs of the engineering-design, construction, and testing phases of a given project are estimated from numbers and labor rates of engineers and technicians employed in each phase, the duration of each phase; costs of materials used in each phase; and, for the testing phase, the rate of maintenance of the testing facility. The three main outputs of SiCM are (1) a curve, updated at each iteration of the simulation, that shows overall expenditures vs. time during the interval specified by the user; (2) a histogram of the total costs from all iterations of the simulation; and (3) table displaying means and variances of cumulative costs for each phase from all iterations. Other outputs include spending curves for each phase.

  16. Software Estimates Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Simulation-Based Cost Model (SiCM) is a computer program that simulates pertinent aspects of the testing of rocket engines for the purpose of estimating the costs of such testing during time intervals specified by its users. A user enters input data for control of simulations; information on the nature of, and activity in, a given testing project; and information on resources. Simulation objects are created on the basis of this input. Costs of the engineering-design, construction, and testing phases of a given project are estimated from numbers and labor rates of engineers and technicians employed in each phase, the duration of each phase; costs of materials used in each phase; and, for the testing phase, the rate of maintenance of the testing facility. The three main outputs of SiCM are (1) a curve, updated at each iteration of the simulation, that shows overall expenditures vs. time during the interval specified by the user; (2) a histogram of the total costs from all iterations of the simulation; and (3) table displaying means and variances of cumulative costs for each phase from all iterations. Other outputs include spending curves for each phase.

  17. Costing bias in economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Frappier, Julie; Tremblay, Gabriel; Charny, Mark; Cloutier, L Martin

    2015-01-01

    Determining the cost-effectiveness of healthcare interventions is key to the decision-making process in healthcare. Cost comparisons are used to demonstrate the economic value of treatment options, to evaluate the impact on the insurer budget, and are often used as a key criterion in treatment comparison and comparative effectiveness; however, little guidance is available to researchers for establishing the costing of clinical events and resource utilization. Different costing methods exist, and the choice of underlying assumptions appears to have a significant impact on the results of the costing analysis. This editorial describes the importance of the choice of the costing technique and it's potential impact on the relative cost of treatment options. This editorial also calls for a more efficient approach to healthcare intervention costing in order to ensure the use of consistent costing in the decision-making process.

  18. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed decontamination of properties in the vicinity of the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site, Hazelwood, Missouri -- environment assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Picel, M H; Peterson, J M; Williams, M J

    1991-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), is implementing a cleanup program for three groups of properties in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. None of the properties is owned by DOE, but each property contains radioactive residues from federal uranium-processing activities conducted at the SLDS during and after World War II. This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support the interim cleanup measures for the contaminated properties in the Hazelwood and Berkeley, Missouri area. The near-term cleanup measures that may be necessary at the vicinity properties are evaluated in the main body of this report. Because of the range of active land uses in the Hazelwood and Berkeley areas and because of the extent of contamination on public and private properties, the potential exists for disturbance and spreading of soil contamination. Specifically, implementation of the proposed action would allow DOE to remove, transport, and safely store contaminated soils from properties where other activities (not involving DOE) are likely to result in either spreading contamination or otherwise complicating ultimate cleanup measures. 25 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis-environmental assessment for the proposed decontamination of properties in the vicinity of the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site, Hazelwood, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Picel, M H; Peterson, J M; Williams, M J

    1992-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), is implementing a cleanup program for three groups of properties in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. None of the properties is owned by DOE, but each property contains radioactive residues from federal uranium-processing activities conducted at the SLDS during and after World War II. This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support the interim cleanup measures for the contaminated properties in the Hazelwood and Berkeley, Missouri area. The near-term cleanup measures that may be necessary at the vicinity properties are evaluated in the main body of this report. Because of the range of active land uses in the Hazelwood and Berkeley areas and because of the extent of contamination on public and private properties, the potential exists for disturbance and spreading of soil contamination. Specifically, implementation of the proposed action would allow DOE to remove, transport, and safely store contaminated soils from properties where other activities (not involving DOE) are likely to result in either spreading contamination or otherwise complicating ultimate cleanup measures.

  20. Software Estimates Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. L.

    2003-01-01

    Simulation-Based Cost Model (SiCM), a discrete event simulation developed in Extend , simulates pertinent aspects of the testing of rocket propulsion test articles for the purpose of estimating the costs of such testing during time intervals specified by its users. A user enters input data for control of simulations; information on the nature of, and activity in, a given testing project; and information on resources. Simulation objects are created on the basis of this input. Costs of the engineering-design, construction, and testing phases of a given project are estimated from numbers and labor rates of engineers and technicians employed in each phase, the duration of each phase; costs of materials used in each phase; and, for the testing phase, the rate of maintenance of the testing facility. The three main outputs of SiCM are (1) a curve, updated at each iteration of the simulation, that shows overall expenditures vs. time during the interval specified by the user; (2) a histogram of the total costs from all iterations of the simulation; and (3) table displaying means and variances of cumulative costs for each phase from all iterations. Other outputs include spending curves for each phase.

  1. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal action at the Southeast Drainage near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared to support the proposed removal of contaminated sediment from selected portions of the Southeast Drainage as part of cleanup activities being conducted at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The cleanup activities are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Weldon Spring site is located near the town of Weldon Spring, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. It consists of two noncontiguous areas: the chemical plant area and a limestone quarry about 6.4 km (4 mi) south-southwest of the chemical plant area. The Southeast Drainage is a natural 2.4-km (1.5-mi) channel that carries surface runoff to the Missouri River from the southern portion of the chemical plant area and a small portion of the ordnance works area (part of the Weldon Spring Training Area) south of the groundwater divide. The drainage became contaminated as a result of past activities of the U.S. Army and the DOE (and its predecessors).

  2. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of 15 nonprocess buildings (15 series) at the Weldon Spring Site Chemical Plant, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M M; Peterson, J M

    1989-05-01

    The US Department of Energy, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon-Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) a raffinate pits and chemical plant area and (2) a quarry. This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support a proposed removal action to manage 15 nonprocess buildings, identified as the 15 Series buildings, at the chemical plant on the Weldon Spring site. These buildings have been nonoperational for more than 20 years, and the deterioration that has occurred during this time has resulted in a potential threat to site workers, the general public, and the environment. The EE/CA documentation of this proposed action is consistent with guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that addresses removal actions at sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Actions at the Weldon Spring site are subject to CERCLA requirements because the site is on the EPA`s National Priorities List. The objectives of this report are to (1) identify alternatives for management of the nonprocess buildings; (2) document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential threat to workers, the public, and the environment associated with these buildings; and (3) address environmental impacts associated with the proposed action.

  3. Performance and cost evaluation of internal combustion engines for the destruction of hydrocarbon vapors from fuel-contaminated soils. Report for 18 October 1993-14 January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Archabal, S.R.; Downey, D.C.

    1994-12-01

    This document describes the performance and costs associated with a modified internal combustion engine (ICE) used for the destruction of hydrocarbon vapors extracted from fuel contaminated soils. During the period of 18 October 1993 to 14 January 1994, an ICE treatment system manufactured by VR Systems Inc. in Anaheim, California was tested at the Patrick Air Force Base (AFB), Florida, active Base Exchange (BX) service station. The purpose of this test was to independently measure both the performance and the cost of ICE operation, and to determine how this technology can be most effectively used to complement the bioventing technology.

  4. Process-based Cost Estimation for Ramjet/Scramjet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Brijendra; Torres, Felix; Nesman, Miles; Reynolds, John

    2003-01-01

    Process-based cost estimation plays a key role in effecting cultural change that integrates distributed science, technology and engineering teams to rapidly create innovative and affordable products. Working together, NASA Glenn Research Center and Boeing Canoga Park have developed a methodology of process-based cost estimation bridging the methodologies of high-level parametric models and detailed bottoms-up estimation. The NASA GRC/Boeing CP process-based cost model provides a probabilistic structure of layered cost drivers. High-level inputs characterize mission requirements, system performance, and relevant economic factors. Design alternatives are extracted from a standard, product-specific work breakdown structure to pre-load lower-level cost driver inputs and generate the cost-risk analysis. As product design progresses and matures the lower level more detailed cost drivers can be re-accessed and the projected variation of input values narrowed, thereby generating a progressively more accurate estimate of cost-risk. Incorporated into the process-based cost model are techniques for decision analysis, specifically, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and functional utility analysis. Design alternatives may then be evaluated not just on cost-risk, but also user defined performance and schedule criteria. This implementation of full-trade study support contributes significantly to the realization of the integrated development environment. The process-based cost estimation model generates development and manufacturing cost estimates. The development team plans to expand the manufacturing process base from approximately 80 manufacturing processes to over 250 processes. Operation and support cost modeling is also envisioned. Process-based estimation considers the materials, resources, and processes in establishing cost-risk and rather depending on weight as an input, actually estimates weight along with cost and schedule.

  5. Process-based Cost Estimation for Ramjet/Scramjet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Brijendra; Torres, Felix; Nesman, Miles; Reynolds, John

    2003-01-01

    Process-based cost estimation plays a key role in effecting cultural change that integrates distributed science, technology and engineering teams to rapidly create innovative and affordable products. Working together, NASA Glenn Research Center and Boeing Canoga Park have developed a methodology of process-based cost estimation bridging the methodologies of high-level parametric models and detailed bottoms-up estimation. The NASA GRC/Boeing CP process-based cost model provides a probabilistic structure of layered cost drivers. High-level inputs characterize mission requirements, system performance, and relevant economic factors. Design alternatives are extracted from a standard, product-specific work breakdown structure to pre-load lower-level cost driver inputs and generate the cost-risk analysis. As product design progresses and matures the lower level more detailed cost drivers can be re-accessed and the projected variation of input values narrowed, thereby generating a progressively more accurate estimate of cost-risk. Incorporated into the process-based cost model are techniques for decision analysis, specifically, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and functional utility analysis. Design alternatives may then be evaluated not just on cost-risk, but also user defined performance and schedule criteria. This implementation of full-trade study support contributes significantly to the realization of the integrated development environment. The process-based cost estimation model generates development and manufacturing cost estimates. The development team plans to expand the manufacturing process base from approximately 80 manufacturing processes to over 250 processes. Operation and support cost modeling is also envisioned. Process-based estimation considers the materials, resources, and processes in establishing cost-risk and rather depending on weight as an input, actually estimates weight along with cost and schedule.

  6. Low Cost Computer Graphics in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Richard L.

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation of a personal computer was conducted to determine its potential for applications normally assumed to require higher resolution, higher cost graphics devices. Its resolution, stand-alone computing power, and capability to function as a distributed computing element in a time-sharing system are discussed. Six references are listed.…

  7. Central heat engine cost and availability study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the performance and cost of commercially available heat engines for use at solar power plants. The scope of inquiry spans power ratings of 500 kW to 50 MW and peak cycle temperatures of 750 /sup 0/F to 1200 /sup 0/F. Data were collected by surveying manufacturers of steam turbines, organic Rankine (ORC) systems, and ancillary equipment (steam condensers, cooling towers, pumps, etc.). Methods were developed for estimating design-point and off-design efficiencies of steam Rankine cycle (SRC) and ORC systems. In the size-temperature range of interest, SRC systems were found to be the only heat engines requiring no additional development effort, and SRC capital and operating cost estimates were developed. Commercially available steam turbines limit peak cycle temperatures to about 1000 /sup 0/F in this size range, which in turn limits efficiency. Other systems were identified that could be prototyped using existing turbomachines. These systems include ORC, advanced SRC, and various configurations employing Brayton cycle equipment, i.e., gas turbines. The latter are limited to peak cycle temperatures of 1500 /sup 0/F in solar applications, based on existing heat-exchanger technology. The advanced systems were found to offer performance advantages over SRC in specific cases. 7 refs., 30 figs., 20 tabs.

  8. Estimating archiving costs for engineering records

    SciTech Connect

    Stutz, R.A.; Lamartine, B.C.

    1997-02-01

    Information technology has completely changed the concept of record keeping for engineering projects -- the advent of digital records was a momentous discovery, as significant as the invention of the printing press. Digital records allowed huge amounts of information to be stored in a very small space and to be examined quickly. However, digital documents are much more vulnerable to the passage of time than printed documents because the media on which they are stored are easily affected by physical phenomena, such as magnetic fields, oxidation, material decay, and by various environmental factors that may erase the information. Even more important, digital information becomes obsolete because, even if future generations may be able to read it, they may not necessarily be able to interpret it. Engineering projects of all sizes are becoming more dependent on digital records. These records are created on computers used in design, estimating, construction management, and construction. The necessity for the accurate and accessible storage of these documents, generated by computer software systems, is increasing for a number of reasons including legal and environment issues. This paper will discuss media life considerations and life cycle costs associated with several methods of storing engineering records.

  9. Designing Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors for Performance, Stability, and Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westra, Douglas G.; West, Jeffrey S.; Richardson, Brian R.; Tucker, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to lower the cost and increase the performance and stability of fuel injector designs for next-generation liquid rocket engines (LREs). The Loci-STREAM CFD code is used to simulate the complex combustion processes inside the LRE. These analyses enable efficient evaluation of the performance and stability characteristics of injector design concepts, while decreasing reliance on the costly test-fail-fix cycle of traditional design approaches. These injector simulations were recently employed as a key part of the design process for an Advanced Booster concept for NASA's heavy-lift Space Launch System (SLS).

  10. Cost and price estimate of Brayton and Stirling engines in selected production volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortgang, H. R.; Mayers, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    The methods used to determine the production costs and required selling price of Brayton and Stirling engines modified for use in solar power conversion units are presented. Each engine part, component and assembly was examined and evaluated to determine the costs of its material and the method of manufacture based on specific annual production volumes. Cost estimates are presented for both the Stirling and Brayton engines in annual production volumes of 1,000, 25,000, 100,000 and 400,000. At annual production volumes above 50,000 units, the costs of both engines are similar, although the Stirling engine costs are somewhat lower. It is concluded that modifications to both the Brayton and Stirling engine designs could reduce the estimated costs.

  11. Engineering and fabrication cost considerations for cryogenic wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, R. M., Jr.; Davenport, J. B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Design and fabrication cost drivers for cryogenic transonic wind tunnel models are defined. The major cost factors for wind tunnel models are model complexity, tolerances, surface finishes, materials, material validation, and model inspection. The cryogenic temperatures require the use of materials with relatively high fracture toughness but at the same time high strength. Some of these materials are very difficult to machine, requiring extensive machine hours which can add significantly to the manufacturing costs. Some additional engineering costs are incurred to certify the materials through mechanical tests and nondestructive evaluation techniques, which are not normally required with conventional models. When instrumentation such as accelerometers and electronically scanned pressure modules is required, temperature control of these devices needs to be incorporated into the design, which requires added effort. Additional thermal analyses and subsystem tests may be necessary, which also adds to the design costs. The largest driver to the design costs is potentially the additional static and dynamic analyses required to insure structural integrity of the model and support system.

  12. Engineering flight evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The primary objective was to determine if the two-segment profile equipment, and operational procedures as defined by the B-727 Simulation Evaluation are operationally sound under all flight conditions expected to be encountered in line service. The evaluation was divided into the following areas: (1) to verify that the two-segment system operates as it was designed; (2) to conduct sufficient tests to secure a supplemental type certificate for line operation of the system; (3) to evaluate the normal operation of the equipment and procedures; (4) to evaluate the need for an autothrottle system for two-segment approaches; (5) to investigate abnormal operation of the equipment and procedures, including abused approaches and malfunctions of airborne and ground components; (6) to determine the accuracy and ease of flying the two-segment approach; (7) to determine the improvement in ground noise levels; and (8) to develop a guest pilot flight test syllabus.

  13. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E & P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2006-09-30

    Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NO{sub X} emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work tests non-production, prototype, mid-pressure fuel valves and begins analysis of these tests. This analysis reveals questions which must be answered before coming to any firm conclusions about the use of the180 psig fuel valve. The research team plans to continue with the remaining pre-combustion chamber tests in the coming quarter. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine. Progress in moving toward field testing is discussed, and a change in strategy is suggested. Although field engines are available to test, it is suggested that the final field testing be put on hold due to information from outside publications during this last quarter. Instead, KSU would focus on related field-testing and characterization in an outside project that will close an apparent technology gap. The results of this characterization will give a more solid footing to the field testing that will complete this project.

  14. Cost Analysis for Educational Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Emil J.

    Concerned with the problem of determining program costs as part of the evaluation process, this article helps the practitioner arrive at useful conceptions of the term "cost" and procedures for assessing the costs of an educational program. Its purpose is to help design costing procedures for evaluation situations that are commonly encountered. An…

  15. Orbit transfer vehicle engine study. Volume 3: Program costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Budgetary and planning cost estimates are presented that were prepared for the development, production and operation and flight support phases for each of the engines proposed for OTV propulsion. The major features of each category engine are described. The development program estimates were structured to the preliminary program Work Breakdown Structures (WBS). Program costs are provided within the applicable WBS elements to Level 4 for each category engine. The production program cost estimates assume a first production lot of 50 units produced at a rate of two units per month. Cumulative average unit costs assume a 90% learning capability. The operations and flight support cost estimates are based on 15, 30 and 45 missions per year for the period 1988 through 1999. Estimated funding requirements were developed for each category and program phase. All cost estimates and funding data are presented in 1979 dollars. The assumptions and ground rules for these estimates are summarized.

  16. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Vehicle Combustion Engine R&D Investments: Impacts of a Cluster of Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Albert N.

    2010-05-01

    Advanced Combustion Engine R&D (ACE R&D) is one of the subprograms within DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office. The ACE subprogram's R&D is conducted in cooperation with the DOE Combustion Research Facility (CRF). This report summarizes the findings from a retrospective study of the net benefits to society from investments by DOE (both EERE and cooperative CRF efforts) in laser diagnostic and optical engine technologies and combustion modeling for heavy-duty diesel engines.

  17. Potential Logistics Cost Savings from Engine Commonality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Bowden, Mr. Bruce Eberhard, Mrs. Janice Eberhard, Mr. Doug “Zing” Fogel, Mr. David Horn, Mr. Hank Houtman, Professor Keebom Kang, Mr. Don Keeton ...engines. Engine competition between PW and GEAE begins in fiscal year 2011 , when production is expected to have delivered less that 100 aircraft...supported at the 70 percent service level (D. Keeton , personal communication, August 29, 2007). A more thorough discussion of the modeling

  18. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Beshouri; Kirby S. Chapman; Jim McCarthy; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren; Mike Whelan

    2006-03-01

    This quarterly report re-evaluates current market objectives in the exploration and production industry, discusses continuing progress in testing that evaluates emission control technologies applied to a two-stroke cycle natural gas-fueled engine, and presents a scheme for enacting remote monitoring and control of engines during upcoming field tests. The examination of current market objectives takes into account technological developments and changing expectations for environmental permitting which may have occurred over the last year. This demonstrates that the continuing work in controlled testing and toward field testing is on track Market pressures currently affecting the gas exploration and production industry are shown to include a push for increased production, as well as an increasing cost for environmental compliance. This cost includes the direct cost of adding control technologies to field engines as well as the indirect cost of difficulty obtaining permits. Environmental regulations continue to require lower emissions targets, and some groups of engines which had not previously been regulated will be required to obtain permits in the future. While the focus remains on NOx and CO, some permits require reporting of additional emissions chemicals. Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NOx emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work focuses on final preparations for testing

  19. Improving Space Project Cost Estimating with Engineering Management Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joseph W.; Roth, Axel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Current space project cost models attempt to predict space flight project cost via regression equations, which relate the cost of projects to technical performance metrics (e.g. weight, thrust, power, pointing accuracy, etc.). This paper examines the introduction of engineering management parameters to the set of explanatory variables. A number of specific engineering management variables are considered and exploratory regression analysis is performed to determine if there is statistical evidence for cost effects apart from technical aspects of the projects. It is concluded that there are other non-technical effects at work and that further research is warranted to determine if it can be shown that these cost effects are definitely related to engineering management.

  20. Expanding the role of the cost engineer

    SciTech Connect

    Stutz, R.A.; Shaw, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    There have been many questions about the costs of providing medical services. These questions have resulted in the development of Resource-Based Relative Values Scale (RBRVS) at the national level. Policymakers view RBRVS as a potential tool to pay physicians. The questions, about the cost of operations of HSE-2 at Los Alamos National Laboratory, revolve around doing routine occupation health physicals for the Laboratory. Generally, these questions are concerned about why the costs appear to be high relative to what private physician suggests the costs should be. There is also an interest in trying to find methods to reduce these costs if possible. Many of the tools developed to help in construction estimating can be applied to estimating medical costs. With the need to perform many thousands of physicals each year the saving of even a few dollars for each exam can quickly add up to a large saving. There are a number of different types of physicals and different levels; based on age, sex, type of work, and years since last physical. The LANL Health Services are housed in a 12,600 square foot building close to the population center of the Laboratory Health Services, produced by a staff of seven physicians and approximately 25 support personnel, include acute medical care, routine surveillance exams, and preventive medicine programs. This paper will consider the routine surveillance exams, which constitute the major activity of the medical staff, in terms of time and dollars expended.

  1. Conceptual Study of a Low Cost Turbojet Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    problem at the moment is the lack of long-mission reliability of small piston engines , originally designed for low-cost civil applications such as "Go...U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Natio5nal Technical Information Service AD-A025 652 CONCEPTUAL STUDY OF A LOW COST TURBOJET ENGINE AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF...Turbojet 6. Thesis Engine s. ,.I. G ORG. REPORT NUMER AUTHOR(..) ’ I.’-NTKACT OR GRANT NUMBER(#) Tommy J. Kent Captain, USAF I. PERPIORMING ORGANIZATION

  2. Researchers View the Small Low Cost Engine and the Large Quiet Engine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-02-21

    Researchers Robert Cummings, left, and Harold Gold with the small Low Cost Engine in the shadow of the much larger Quiet Engine at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. The two engines were being studied in different test cells at the Propulsion Systems Laboratory. Jet engines had proven themselves on military and large transport aircraft, but their use on small general aviation aircraft was precluded by cost. Lewis undertook a multiyear effort to develop a less expensive engine to fill this niche using existing technologies. Lewis researchers designed a four-stage, axial-flow engine constructed from sheet metal. It was only 11.5 inches in diameter and weighed 100 pounds. The final design specifications were turned over to a manufacturer in 1972. Four engines were created, and, as expected, the fabrication and assembly of the engine were comparatively inexpensive. In 1973 the Low Cost Engine had its first realistic analysis in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory altitude tank. The engine successfully operated at speeds up to Mach 1.24 and simulated altitudes of 30,000 feet. NASA released the engine to private industry in the hope that design elements would be incorporated into future projects and reduce the overall cost of small jet aircraft. Small jet and turboprop engines became relatively common in general aviation aircraft by the late 1970s.

  3. The 'negative cost' of value engineering.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Martin Wilkinson, national sales manager at system protection specialist, Spirotech UK, highlights the 'potential negative consequences' of value engineering in heating system specification in the healthcare sector, and argues that system protection products such as de-aerators and dirt separators have considerable value in preventative maintenance, and in helping to extend the useful life of both the system as a whole, and its vital parts.

  4. Measurement of costs for health economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn

    2014-05-01

    The provision of guidelines on cost measurement for health economic evaluations enable research to be more standardized and hence more comparable, which offers clear benefits for policy formulation and health management. The guidelines herein focus on three aspects-the cost of health intervention/health care programs, the cost of illness/health risks, and use of costs in health economic evaluation. For each aspect, the main concepts and methods are outlined, and recommendations for the Thai context are presented. There is particular focus on how to calculate various costs according to different evaluation methods and perspectives, how to evaluate source of cost data, how to make value adjustments and how to present cost measurement findings.

  5. Generomak: Fusion physics, engineering and costing model

    SciTech Connect

    Delene, J.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Sheffield, J.; Dory, R.A.

    1988-06-01

    A generic fusion physics, engineering and economics model (Generomak) was developed as a means of performing consistent analysis of the economic viability of alternative magnetic fusion reactors. The original Generomak model developed at Oak Ridge by Sheffield was expanded for the analyses of the Senior Committee on Environmental Safety and Economics of Magnetic Fusion Energy (ESECOM). This report describes the Generomak code as used by ESECOM. The input data used for each of the ten ESECOM fusion plants and the Generomak code output for each case is given. 14 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. The Stirling engine as a low cost tool to educate mechanical engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Gros, J.; Munoz, M.; Moreno, F.; Valero, A.

    1995-12-31

    The University of Zaragoza through CIRCE, the New Enterprise foundation, an Opel foundation and the local Government of Aragon have been developed a program to introduce the Stirling Engine as a low cost tool to educate students in mechanical engineering. The promotion of a prize like GNAT Power organized by the magazine Model Engineer in London, has improved the practical education of students in the field of mechanical devices and thermal engines. Two editions of the contest, 1993 and 1994, awarded the greatest power Stirling engine made by only using a little candle of paraffin as a heat source. Four engines were presented in the first edition, with an average power of about 100 mW, and seven engines in the second one, achieving a power of about 230 mW. Presentations in Technical Schools and the University have been carried out. Also low cost tools have been made for measuring an electronic device to draw the real internal pressure volume diagram using a PC. A very didactic software to design classic kinematic alpha, beta and gamma engines plus Ringbom beta and gamma engines has been created. A book is going to be published (in Spanish) explaining the design of small Stirling engines as a way to start with low cost research in thermal engines, a very difficult target with IC engines.

  7. Reducing the Time and Cost of Testing Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Producing a new aircraft engine currently costs approximately $1 billion, with 3 years of development time for a commercial engine and 10 years for a military engine. The high development time and cost make it extremely difficult to transition advanced technologies for cleaner, quieter, and more efficient new engines. To reduce this time and cost, NASA created a vision for the future where designers would use high-fidelity computer simulations early in the design process in order to resolve critical design issues before building the expensive engine hardware. To accomplish this vision, NASA's Glenn Research Center initiated a collaborative effort with the aerospace industry and academia to develop its Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), an advanced engineering environment for the analysis and design of aerospace propulsion systems and components. Partners estimate that using NPSS has the potential to dramatically reduce the time, effort, and expense necessary to design and test jet engines by generating sophisticated computer simulations of an aerospace object or system. These simulations will permit an engineer to test various design options without having to conduct costly and time-consuming real-life tests. By accelerating and streamlining the engine system design analysis and test phases, NPSS facilitates bringing the final product to market faster. NASA's NPSS Version (V)1.X effort was a task within the Agency s Computational Aerospace Sciences project of the High Performance Computing and Communication program, which had a mission to accelerate the availability of high-performance computing hardware and software to the U.S. aerospace community for its use in design processes. The technology brings value back to NASA by improving methods of analyzing and testing space transportation components.

  8. Systems engineering and integration: Cost estimation and benefits analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, ED; Fridge, Ernie; Hamaker, Joe

    1990-01-01

    Space Transportation Avionics hardware and software cost has traditionally been estimated in Phase A and B using cost techniques which predict cost as a function of various cost predictive variables such as weight, lines of code, functions to be performed, quantities of test hardware, quantities of flight hardware, design and development heritage, complexity, etc. The output of such analyses has been life cycle costs, economic benefits and related data. The major objectives of Cost Estimation and Benefits analysis are twofold: (1) to play a role in the evaluation of potential new space transportation avionics technologies, and (2) to benefit from emerging technological innovations. Both aspects of cost estimation and technology are discussed here. The role of cost analysis in the evaluation of potential technologies should be one of offering additional quantitative and qualitative information to aid decision-making. The cost analyses process needs to be fully integrated into the design process in such a way that cost trades, optimizations and sensitivities are understood. Current hardware cost models tend to primarily use weights, functional specifications, quantities, design heritage and complexity as metrics to predict cost. Software models mostly use functionality, volume of code, heritage and complexity as cost descriptive variables. Basic research needs to be initiated to develop metrics more responsive to the trades which are required for future launch vehicle avionics systems. These would include cost estimating capabilities that are sensitive to technological innovations such as improved materials and fabrication processes, computer aided design and manufacturing, self checkout and many others. In addition to basic cost estimating improvements, the process must be sensitive to the fact that no cost estimate can be quoted without also quoting a confidence associated with the estimate. In order to achieve this, better cost risk evaluation techniques are

  9. Structures, performance, benefit, cost study. [gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feder, E.

    1981-01-01

    Aircraft engine structures were studied to identify the advanced structural technologies that would provide the most benefits to future aircraft operations. A series of studies identified engine systems with the greatest potential for improvements. Based on these studies, six advanced generic structural concepts were selected and conceptually designed. The benefits of each concept were quantitatively assessed in terms of thrust specific fuel consumption, weight, cost, maintenance cost, fuel burned and direct operating cost plus interest. The probability of success of each concept was also determined. The concepts were ranked and the three most promising were selected for further study which consisted of identifying and comprehensively outlining the advanced technologies required to develop these concepts for aircraft engine application. Analytic, fabrication, and test technology developments are required. The technology programs outlined emphasize the need to provide basic, fundamental understanding of technology to obtain the benefit goals.

  10. Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports: Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Cherie; Lierens, Abigail

    2003-01-01

    With the increasing trend of charging for externalities and the aim of encouraging the sustainable development of the air transport industry, there is a need to evaluate the social costs of these undesirable side effects, mainly aircraft noise and engine emissions, for different airports. The aircraft noise and engine emissions social costs are calculated in monetary terms for five different airports, ranging from hub airports to small regional airports. The number of residences within different levels of airport noise contours and the aircraft noise classifications are the main determinants for accessing aircraft noise social costs. Whist, based on the damages of different engine pollutants on the human health, vegetation, materials, aquatic ecosystem and climate, the aircraft engine emissions social costs vary from engine types to aircraft categories. The results indicate that the relationship appears to be curvilinear between environmental costs and the traffic volume of an airport. The results and methodology of environmental cost calculation could input for to the proposed European wide harmonized noise charges as well as the social cost benefit analysis of airports.

  11. Software for Estimating Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Merion M.

    2002-01-01

    A high-level parametric mathematical model for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center has been implemented as a Microsoft Excel program that generates multiple spreadsheets. The model and the program are both denoted, simply, the Cost Estimating Model (CEM). The inputs to the CEM are the parameters that describe particular tests, including test types (component or engine test), numbers and duration of tests, thrust levels, and other parameters. The CEM estimates anticipated total project costs for a specific test. Estimates are broken down into testing categories based on a work-breakdown structure and a cost-element structure. A notable historical assumption incorporated into the CEM is that total labor times depend mainly on thrust levels. As a result of a recent modification of the CEM to increase the accuracy of predicted labor times, the dependence of labor time on thrust level is now embodied in third- and fourth-order polynomials.

  12. Software for Estimating Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Merlon M.

    2004-01-01

    A high-level parametric mathematical model for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center has been implemented as a Microsoft Excel program that generates multiple spreadsheets. The model and the program are both denoted, simply, the Cost Estimating Model (CEM). The inputs to the CEM are the parameters that describe particular tests, including test types (component or engine test), numbers and duration of tests, thrust levels, and other parameters. The CEM estimates anticipated total project costs for a specific test. Estimates are broken down into testing categories based on a work-breakdown structure and a cost-element structure. A notable historical assumption incorporated into the CEM is that total labor times depend mainly on thrust levels. As a result of a recent modification of the CEM to increase the accuracy of predicted labor times, the dependence of labor time on thrust level is now embodied in third- and fourth-order polynomials.

  13. Software for Estimating Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Merlon M.

    2003-01-01

    A high-level parametric mathematical model for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center has been implemented as a Microsoft Excel program that generates multiple spreadsheets. The model and the program are both denoted, simply, the Cost Estimating Model (CEM). The inputs to the CEM are the parameters that describe particular tests, including test types (component or engine test), numbers and duration of tests, thrust levels, and other parameters. The CEM estimates anticipated total project costs for a specific test. Estimates are broken down into testing categories based on a work-breakdown structure and a cost-element structure. A notable historical assumption incorporated into the CEM is that total labor times depend mainly on thrust levels. As a result of a recent modification of the CEM to increase the accuracy of predicted labor times, the dependence of labor time on thrust level is now embodied in third- and fourth-order polynomials.

  14. Total cost of ownership: the role of clinical engineering.

    PubMed

    Hockel, Dale; Kintner, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Hospitals often incur substantial hidden costs associated with service agreements that they enter into with original equipment manufacturers at the time of equipment purchase. Hospitals should perform an analysis of the total cost of ownership (TCO) of their organizations' medical equipment to identify opportunities for performance improvement and savings. The findings of the TCO analysis can point to areas where clinical engineering service management can be improved through investments in technology, training, and teamwork.

  15. Integration of safety engineering into a cost optimized development program.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A six-segment management model is presented, each segment of which represents a major area in a new product development program. The first segment of the model covers integration of specialist engineers into 'systems requirement definition' or the system engineering documentation process. The second covers preparation of five basic types of 'development program plans.' The third segment covers integration of system requirements, scheduling, and funding of specialist engineering activities into 'work breakdown structures,' 'cost accounts,' and 'work packages.' The fourth covers 'requirement communication' by line organizations. The fifth covers 'performance measurement' based on work package data. The sixth covers 'baseline requirements achievement tracking.'

  16. Integration of safety engineering into a cost optimized development program.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A six-segment management model is presented, each segment of which represents a major area in a new product development program. The first segment of the model covers integration of specialist engineers into 'systems requirement definition' or the system engineering documentation process. The second covers preparation of five basic types of 'development program plans.' The third segment covers integration of system requirements, scheduling, and funding of specialist engineering activities into 'work breakdown structures,' 'cost accounts,' and 'work packages.' The fourth covers 'requirement communication' by line organizations. The fifth covers 'performance measurement' based on work package data. The sixth covers 'baseline requirements achievement tracking.'

  17. An Industrial Engineering Approach to Cost Containment of Pharmacy Education.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Wendy; Bottenberg, Michelle; Chase, Marilea; Chesnut, Renae; Clarke, Cheryl; Schott, Kathryn; Torry, Ronald; Welty, Tim

    2015-11-25

    A 2-semester project explored employing teams of fourth-year industrial engineering students to optimize some of our academic management processes. Results included significant cost savings and increases in efficiency, effectiveness, and student and faculty satisfaction. While we did not adopt all of the students' recommendations, we did learn some important lessons. For example, an initial investment of time in developing a mutually clear understanding of the problems, constraints, and goals maximizes the value of industrial engineering analysis and recommendations. Overall, industrial engineering was a valuable tool for optimizing certain academic management processes.

  18. An Industrial Engineering Approach to Cost Containment of Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Bottenberg, Michelle; Chase, Marilea; Chesnut, Renae; Clarke, Cheryl; Schott, Kathryn; Torry, Ronald; Welty, Tim

    2015-01-01

    A 2-semester project explored employing teams of fourth-year industrial engineering students to optimize some of our academic management processes. Results included significant cost savings and increases in efficiency, effectiveness, and student and faculty satisfaction. While we did not adopt all of the students’ recommendations, we did learn some important lessons. For example, an initial investment of time in developing a mutually clear understanding of the problems, constraints, and goals maximizes the value of industrial engineering analysis and recommendations. Overall, industrial engineering was a valuable tool for optimizing certain academic management processes. PMID:26839421

  19. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah R. Nuss-Warren; Kirby S. Chapman

    2005-12-01

    This quarterly report discusses continuing work in the testing phase of the project that evaluates emission control technologies applied to a two-stroke cycle natural gas-fueled engine. In this phase, a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) is used to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. This report describes potential emission reduction technologies, some of which have already been tested, and describes progress toward completing remaining tests to evaluate further synergies between some of the more promising technologies. While the end-goal is a closed-loop control system coupled with a low cost NO{sub x} retrofit package, additional work remains. Technologies including pre-combustion chambers, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work focuses on preparing the test cell for tests using a 180 psig fuel valve. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine.

  20. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman

    2005-10-01

    This quarterly report discusses the results from a testing phase of the project that evaluates emission control technologies applied to a two-stroke cycle natural gas-fueled engine. In this phase, a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) is used to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. This report describes potential emission reduction technologies followed by a battery of tests that demonstrate synergies between some of the more promising technologies. While the end-goal is a closed loop control, low cost NO{sub x} retrofit package, additional work remains. The battery of tests include pre-combustion chambers, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing. During several phases of the tests, the ignition timing also was varied to determine the optimal point for ignition timing. The results from these tests suggest that an optimum exists where fuel consumption is minimized along with NO{sub x} emissions. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and the cost to operate the engine is very inexpensive.

  1. Management Science/Industrial Engineering Techniques to Reduce Food Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Murray

    This paper examines the contributions of Industrial Engineering and Management Science toward reduction in the cost of production and distribution of food. Food processing firms were requested to respond to a questionnaire which asked for examples of their use of various operations research tools and information on the number of operations…

  2. Cost Analysis, Evaluation and Feedback. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on cost analysis, evaluation, and feedback in human resource development. "Training Evaluation with 360-Degree Feedback" (Froukje A. Jellema) reports on a quasi-experimental study that examined the effectiveness of 360-degree feedback in evaluating the training received by nurses in a…

  3. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2006-07-01

    Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NOX emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work focuses on final preparations for testing pre-combustion chambers with different characteristics and using mid-to-high-pressure fuel valves and initial runs of these tests. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine. Progress in moving toward field testing is discussed, and changes to the first planned field test are presented. Although changes have been made to the previous plan, it is expected that several new sites will be selected soon. Field tests will begin in the next quarter.

  4. NPR (New Production Reactor) capacity cost evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1988-07-01

    The ORNL Cost Evaluation Technical Support Group (CETSG) has been assigned by DOE-HQ Defense Programs (DP) the task defining, obtaining, and evaluating the capital and life-cycle costs for each of the technology/proponent/site/revenue possibilities envisioned for the New Production Reactor (NPR). The first part of this exercise is largely one of accounting, since all NPR proponents use different accounting methodologies in preparing their costs. In order to address this problem of comparing ''apples and oranges,'' the proponent-provided costs must be partitioned into a framework suitable for all proponents and concepts. If this is done, major cost categories can then be compared between concepts and major cost differences identified. Since the technologies proposed for the NPR and its needed fuel and target support facilities vary considerably in level of technical and operational maturity, considerable care must be taken to evaluate the proponent-derived costs in an equitable manner. The use of cost-risk analysis along with derivation of single point or deterministic estimates allows one to take into account these very real differences in technical and operational maturity. Chapter 2 summarizes the results of this study in tabular and bar graph form. The remaining chapters discuss each generic reactor type as follows: Chapter 3, LWR concepts (SWR and WNP-1); Chapter 4, HWR concepts; Chapter 5, HTGR concept; and Chapter 6, LMR concept. Each of these chapters could be a stand-alone report. 39 refs., 36 figs., 115 tabs.

  5. Report on Audit of Architect and Engineering Costs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-22

    In September 1990 the Office of Inspector General (OIG) issued the Department-wide Audit of Architect and Engineering Design Costs (DOE/IG-0289) which concluded that the Department`s A/E costs averaged more than twice that of private industry. The primary cause of the higher costs was the lack of Departmental A/E cost standards that would provide measurement criteria for controlling costs. Consistent with our prior Department-wide audit, the purpose of this audit was to determine whether A/E services performed at the Laboratory were economical. Specifically, we determined whether the costs for A/E services at the Laboratory were comparable to the cost standards for A/E services in industry and the State; and, whether A/E costs were reasonable.

  6. Energy efficient engine: Propulsion system-aircraft integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Flight performance and operating economics of future commercial transports utilizing the energy efficient engine were assessed as well as the probability of meeting NASA's goals for TSFC, DOC, noise, and emissions. Results of the initial propulsion systems aircraft integration evaluation presented include estimates of engine performance, predictions of fuel burns, operating costs of the flight propulsion system installed in seven selected advanced study commercial transports, estimates of noise and emissions, considerations of thrust growth, and the achievement-probability analysis.

  7. Preliminary site characterization summary and engineering evaluation/cost analysis for Site 2, New Fuel Farm, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cronk, T.A.; Smuin, D.R. ); Schlosser, R.M. )

    1991-09-01

    This report addresses subsurface contamination associated with Site 2, the New Fuel Farm at Naval Air Station Fallon (NAS Fallon), Nevada and is an integral part of Phase 2 of the Installation Restoration Program (IR Program) currently underway at the facility. This report: (1) reviews and assesses environmental information characterizing Site 2; (2) determine if site-characterization information is sufficient to design and evaluate removal actions; and, (3) investigates, develops, and describes any removal actions deemed feasible. Previous environmental investigations at Site 2 indicate the presence of floating product (primarily JP-5, jet fuel) on the water table underlying the facility. While the extent of floating-produce plumes has been characterized, the degree of associated soil and groundwater contamination remains uncertain. A comprehensive characterization of soil and groundwater contamination will be completed as the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study progresses. Corrective actions are recommended at this time to remove free-phase floating product. Implementing these removal actions will also provide additional information which will be used to direct further investigations of the extent, mobility, and potential environmental threat from soil and groundwater contaminants at this side.

  8. Tactical/Combat Engines Cetane Window Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    custom diesel fuels typically used in Homogeneous Charge Coupled Ignition ( HCCI ) research engines . These fuels are characterized by a very heavy...UNCLASSIFIED TACTICAL/COMBAT ENGINES CETANE WINDOW EVALUATION INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 436 by Gregory A. Hansen, Douglas Yost...report when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED TACTICAL/COMBAT ENGINES CETANE WINDOW

  9. Evaluating Google Compute Engine with PROOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganis, Gerardo; Panitkin, Sergey

    2014-06-01

    The advent of private and commercial cloud platforms has opened the question of evaluating the cost-effectiveness of such solution for computing in High Energy Physics . Google Compute Engine (GCE) is a IaaS product launched by Google as an experimental platform during 2012 and now open to the public market. In this contribution we present the results of a set of CPU-intensive and I/O-intensive tests we have run with PROOF on a GCE resources made available by Google for test purposes. We have run tests on large scale PROOF clusters (up to 1000 workers) to study the overall scalability of coordinated multi-process jobs. We have studied and compared the performance of ephemeral and persistent storage with PROOF-Lite on the single machines and of standard PROOF on the whole cluster. We will discuss our results in perspective, in particular with respect to the typical analysis needs of an LHC experiment.

  10. A cost evaluation methodology for surgical technologies.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Imad; Wolff, Sandrine; Gronfier, Agnes; Mutter, Didier; Swanström, Lee L; Swantröm, Lee L

    2015-08-01

    To create and validate a micro-costing methodology that surgeons and hospital administrators can use to evaluate the cost of implementing innovative surgical technologies. Our analysis is broken down into several elements of fixed and variable costs which are used to effectively and easily calculate the cost of surgical operations. As an example of application, we use data from 86 robot assisted gastric bypass operations made in our hospital. To validate our methodology, we discuss the cost reporting approaches used in 16 surgical publications with respect to 7 predefined criteria. Four formulas are created which allow users to import data from their health system or particular situation and derive the total cost. We have established that the robotic surgical system represents 97.53 % of our operating room's medical device costs which amounts to $4320.11. With a mean surgery time of 303 min, personnel cost per operation amounts to $1244.73, whereas reusable instruments and disposable costs are, respectively, $1539.69 and $3629.55 per case. The literature survey demonstrates that the cost of surgery is rarely reported or emphasized, and authors who do cover this concept do so with variable methodologies which make their findings difficult to interpret. Using a micro-costing methodology, it is possible to identify the cost of any new surgical procedure/technology using formulas that can be adapted to a variety of operations and healthcare systems. We hope that this paper will provide guidance for decision makers and a means for surgeons to harmonise cost reporting in the literature.

  11. Affordability Engineering: Bridging the Gap Between Design and Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, J. D.; DePasquale, Dominic; Lim, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Affordability is a commonly used term that takes on numerous meanings depending on the context used. Within conceptual design of complex systems, the term generally implies comparisons between expected costs and expected resources. This characterization is largely correct, but does not convey the many nuances and considerations that are frequently misunderstood and underappreciated. In the most fundamental sense, affordability and cost directly relate to engineering and programmatic decisions made throughout development programs. Systems engineering texts point out that there is a temporal aspect to this relationship, for decisions made earlier in a program dictate design implications much more so than those made during latter phases. This paper explores affordability engineering and its many sub-disciplines by discussing how it can be considered an additional engineering discipline to be balanced throughout the systems engineering and systems analysis processes. Example methods of multidisciplinary design analysis with affordability as a key driver will be discussed, as will example methods of data visualization, probabilistic analysis, and other ways of relating design decisions to affordability results.

  12. Component Cost Reduction by Value Engineering: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalluri, Vinayak; Kodali, Rambabu

    2016-06-01

    The concept value engineering (VE) acts to increase the value of a product through the improvement in existent functions without increasing their costs. In other words, VE is a function oriented, systematic team approach study to provide value in a product, system or service. The authors systematically explore VE through the six step framework proposed by SAVE and a case study is presented to address the concern of reduction in cost without compromising the function of a hydraulic steering cylinder through the aforementioned VE framework.

  13. Cost Estimation in Engineer-to-Order Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooshmand, Yousef; Köhler, Peter; Korff-Krumm, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    In Engineer-to-Order (ETO) manufacturing the price of products must be defined during early stages of product design and during the bidding process, thus an overestimation of product development (PD) costs may lead to the loss of orders and an underestimation causes a profit loss. What many ETO systems have in common is that the products have to be developed based on different customer requirements so that each order usually results in a new variant. Furthermore, many customer requirement change-requests may arise in different phases of the PD, which is to be considered properly. Thus it is utmost important for ETO systems to have an accurate cost estimation in first stages of the product design and to be able to determine the cost of customer requirement changes in different phases of PD. This paper aims to present a cost estimation methodology as well as a cost estimation model, which estimate the cost of products by relative comparison of the attributes of new product variants with the attributes of standard product variants. In addition, as a necessity in ETO manufacturing, the cost calculation of customer requirement changes in different phases of PD is integrated in the presented method.

  14. An Improved Effective Cost Review Process for Value Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Joo, D. S.; Park, J. I.

    2014-01-01

    Second-look value engineering (VE) is an approach that aims to lower the costs of products for which target costs are not being met during the production stage. Participants in second-look VE typically come up with a variety of ideas for cost cutting, but the outcomes often depend on their levels of experience, and not many good alternatives are available during the production stage. Nonetheless, good ideas have been consistently generated by VE experts. This paper investigates past second-look VE cases and the thinking processes of VE experts and proposes a cost review process as a systematic means of investigating cost-cutting ideas. This cost review process includes the use of an idea checklist and a specification review process. In addition to presenting the process, this paper reports on its feasibility, based on its introduction into a VE training course as part of a pilot study. The results indicate that the cost review process is effective in generating ideas for later analysis. PMID:25580459

  15. An improved effective cost review process for value engineering.

    PubMed

    Joo, D S; Park, J I

    2014-01-01

    Second-look value engineering (VE) is an approach that aims to lower the costs of products for which target costs are not being met during the production stage. Participants in second-look VE typically come up with a variety of ideas for cost cutting, but the outcomes often depend on their levels of experience, and not many good alternatives are available during the production stage. Nonetheless, good ideas have been consistently generated by VE experts. This paper investigates past second-look VE cases and the thinking processes of VE experts and proposes a cost review process as a systematic means of investigating cost-cutting ideas. This cost review process includes the use of an idea checklist and a specification review process. In addition to presenting the process, this paper reports on its feasibility, based on its introduction into a VE training course as part of a pilot study. The results indicate that the cost review process is effective in generating ideas for later analysis.

  16. The importance of cost considerations in the systems engineering process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, John D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the question of cost, from the birth of a program to its conclusion, particularly from the point of view of large multi-center programs, and suggests how to avoid some of the traps and pitfalls. Emphasis is given to cost in the systems engineering process, but there is an inevitable overlap with program management. (These terms, systems engineering and program management, have never been clearly defined.) In these days of vast Federal budget deficits and increasing overseas competition, it is imperative that we get more for each research and development dollar. This is the only way we will retain our leadership in high technology and, in the long run, our way of life.

  17. Calculation of the Actual Cost of Engine Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    many hours in the congress determining the budget for the next year, and they have long arguments on which projects to fund or not to meet objectives...following disadvantages. First, the relationship between future costs and the historical data may change for many reasons. For example, engine...available. On the other hand, many models currently in use would fall into one of these three categories: Parametric models, accounting models and

  18. The cost of performance - A comparison of the space transportation main engine and the Space Shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barisa, B. B.; Flinchbaugh, G. D.; Zachary, A. T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares the cost of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) proposed by the Advanced Launch System Program. A brief description of the SSME and STME engines is presented, followed by a comparison of these engines that illustrates the impact of focusing on acceptable performance at minimum cost (as for the STME) or on maximum performance (as for the SSME). Several examples of cost reduction methods are presented.

  19. Evaluation of undeveloped rocket engine cycle applications to advanced transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Undeveloped pump-fed, liquid propellant rocket engine cycles were assessed and evaluated for application to Next Manned Transportation System (NMTS) vehicles, which would include the evolving Space Transportation System (STS Evolution), the Personnel Launch System (PLS), and the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Undeveloped engine cycles selected for further analysis had potential for increased reliability, more maintainability, reduced cost, and improved (or possibly level) performance when compared to the existing SSME and proposed STME engines. The split expander (SX) cycle, the full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle, and a hybrid version of the FFSC, which has a LOX expander drive for the LOX pump, were selected for definition and analysis. Technology requirements and issues were identified and analyses of vehicle systems weight deltas using the SX and FFSC cycles in AMLS vehicles were performed. A strawman schedule and cost estimate for FFSC subsystem technology developments and integrated engine system demonstration was also provided.

  20. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the computational techniques employed in determining the optimal propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements. The computer programs used to perform calculations for all the factors that enter into the selection process of determining the optimum combinations of airplanes and engines are examined. Attention is given to the description of the computer codes including NNEP, WATE, LIFCYC, INSTAL, and POD DRG. A process is illustrated by which turbine engines can be evaluated as to fuel consumption, engine weight, cost and installation effects. Examples are shown as to the benefits of variable geometry and of the tradeoff between fuel burned and engine weights. Future plans for further improvements in the analytical modeling of engine systems are also described.

  1. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the computational techniques employed in determining the optimal propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements. The computer programs used to perform calculations for all the factors that enter into the selection process of determining the optimum combinations of airplanes and engines are examined. Attention is given to the description of the computer codes including NNEP, WATE, LIFCYC, INSTAL, and POD DRG. A process is illustrated by which turbine engines can be evaluated as to fuel consumption, engine weight, cost and installation effects. Examples are shown as to the benefits of variable geometry and of the tradeoff between fuel burned and engine weights. Future plans for further improvements in the analytical modeling of engine systems are also described.

  2. Risk evaluation: A cost-oriented approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, B.H.

    1998-02-03

    This method provides a structured and cost-oriented way to determine risks associated with loss and destruction of industrial security interests consisting of material assets and human resources. Loss and destruction are assumed to be adversary perpetrated, high-impact events in which the health and safety of people or high-value property is at risk. This concept provides a process for: (1) assessing effectiveness of all integrated protection system, which includes facility operations, safety, emergency and security systems, and (2) a qualitative prioritization scheme to determine the level of consequence relative to cost and subsequent risk. The method allows managers the flexibility to establish asset protection appropriate to programmatic requirements and priorities and to decide if funding is appropriate. The evaluation objectives are to: (1) provide for a systematic, qualitative tabletop process to estimate the potential for an undesirable event and its impact; and (2) identify ineffective protection and cost-effective solutions.

  3. MOSS, an evaluation of software engineering techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounds, J. R.; Pruitt, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    An evaluation of the software engineering techniques used for the development of a Modular Operating System (MOSS) was described. MOSS is a general purpose real time operating system which was developed for the Concept Verification Test (CVT) program. Each of the software engineering techniques was described and evaluated based on the experience of the MOSS project. Recommendations for the use of these techniques on future software projects were also given.

  4. The common engine concept for ALS application - A cost reduction approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, E. K.; Schindler, C. M.

    1989-01-01

    Future launch systems require the application of propulsion systems which have been designed and developed to meet mission model needs while providing high degrees of reliability and cost effectiveness. Vehicle configurations which utilize different propellant combinations for booster and core stages can benefit from a common engine approach where a single engine design can be configured to operate on either set of propellants and thus serve as either a booster or core engine. Engine design concepts and mission application for a vehicle employing a common engine are discussed. Engine program cost estimates were made and cost savings, over the design and development of two unique engines, estimated.

  5. The common engine concept for ALS application - A cost reduction approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, E. K.; Schindler, C. M.

    1989-01-01

    Future launch systems require the application of propulsion systems which have been designed and developed to meet mission model needs while providing high degrees of reliability and cost effectiveness. Vehicle configurations which utilize different propellant combinations for booster and core stages can benefit from a common engine approach where a single engine design can be configured to operate on either set of propellants and thus serve as either a booster or core engine. Engine design concepts and mission application for a vehicle employing a common engine are discussed. Engine program cost estimates were made and cost savings, over the design and development of two unique engines, estimated.

  6. An Evaluation of Software Cost Estimating Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    EVALUATION OF SOFTWARE COST ESTIMATING Sep 73- Oct 79 MODELS. R14- --. R IOTNME 7. AUTHOR (.) * ce.4 **CT OR GRANT NUMBER(C.’ * ~ Robert Thibodeau K 1 F30602...review of the draft DCP begins, the program can be terminated with the approval of the highest command level which authorized it. Once DSARC review begins...concert with many other elements. Initially, we might speak of the navigation subsystem and its functions. Later, we would describe the alignment element

  7. The Cost-Effective Evaluation of Syncope.

    PubMed

    Angus, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Syncope is a common clinical problem that carries a high socioeconomic burden. A structured approach in the evaluation of syncope with special emphasis on a detailed history, comprehensive physical examination that includes orthostatic vital signs, and an electrocardiogram, proves to be the most cost-effective approach. The need for additional testing and hospital admission should be based on the results of the initial evaluation and use of risk-stratification tools that help identify those syncope patients at highest risk for poor outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating a Federated Medical Search Engine

    PubMed Central

    Belden, J.; Williams, J.; Richardson, B.; Schuster, K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Federated medical search engines are health information systems that provide a single access point to different types of information. Their efficiency as clinical decision support tools has been demonstrated through numerous evaluations. Despite their rigor, very few of these studies report holistic evaluations of medical search engines and even fewer base their evaluations on existing evaluation frameworks. Objectives To evaluate a federated medical search engine, MedSocket, for its potential net benefits in an established clinical setting. Methods This study applied the Human, Organization, and Technology (HOT-fit) evaluation framework in order to evaluate MedSocket. The hierarchical structure of the HOT-factors allowed for identification of a combination of efficiency metrics. Human fit was evaluated through user satisfaction and patterns of system use; technology fit was evaluated through the measurements of time-on-task and the accuracy of the found answers; and organization fit was evaluated from the perspective of system fit to the existing organizational structure. Results Evaluations produced mixed results and suggested several opportunities for system improvement. On average, participants were satisfied with MedSocket searches and confident in the accuracy of retrieved answers. However, MedSocket did not meet participants’ expectations in terms of download speed, access to information, and relevance of the search results. These mixed results made it necessary to conclude that in the case of MedSocket, technology fit had a significant influence on the human and organization fit. Hence, improving technological capabilities of the system is critical before its net benefits can become noticeable. Conclusions The HOT-fit evaluation framework was instrumental in tailoring the methodology for conducting a comprehensive evaluation of the search engine. Such multidimensional evaluation of the search engine resulted in recommendations for

  9. Designing Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors for Performance, Stability, and Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westra, Douglas G.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System (SLS) for crewed exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is designing rocket engines for the SLS Advanced Booster (AB) concepts being developed to replace the Shuttle-derived solid rocket boosters. One AB concept uses large, Rocket-Propellant (RP)-fueled engines that pose significant design challenges. The injectors for these engines require high performance and stable operation while still meeting aggressive cost reduction goals for access to space. Historically, combustion stability problems have been a critical issue for such injector designs. Traditional, empirical injector design tools and methodologies, however, lack the ability to reliably predict complex injector dynamics that often lead to combustion stability. Reliance on these tools alone would likely result in an unaffordable test-fail-fix cycle for injector development. Recently at MSFC, a massively parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program was successfully applied in the SLS AB injector design process. High-fidelity reacting flow simulations were conducted for both single-element and seven-element representations of the full-scale injector. Data from the CFD simulations was then used to significantly augment and improve the empirical design tools, resulting in a high-performance, stable injector design.

  10. Cost benefit study of advanced materials technology for aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillery, R. V.; Johnston, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    The cost/benefits of eight advanced materials technologies were evaluated for two aircraft missions. The overall study was based on a time frame of commercial engine use of the advanced material technologies by 1985. The material technologies evaluated were eutectic turbine blades, titanium aluminide components, ceramic vanes, shrouds and combustor liners, tungsten composite FeCrAly blades, gamma prime oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy blades, and no coat ODS alloy combustor liners. They were evaluated in two conventional takeoff and landing missions, one transcontinental and one intercontinental.

  11. Methodology for Evaluating Cost-effectiveness of Commercial Energy Code Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Philip R.; Liu, Bing

    2015-01-31

    This document lays out the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) method for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of energy code proposals and editions. The evaluation is applied to provisions or editions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 and the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). The method follows standard life-cycle cost (LCC) economic analysis procedures. Cost-effectiveness evaluation requires three steps: 1) evaluating the energy and energy cost savings of code changes, 2) evaluating the incremental and replacement costs related to the changes, and 3) determining the cost-effectiveness of energy code changes based on those costs and savings over time.

  12. Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Edna C; Johnston, David B; McAloon, Andrew J; Singh, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Background Enzymatic corn wet milling (E-milling) is a process derived from conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and co-products using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and decrease the steeping time. In 2006, the total starch production in USA by conventional wet milling equaled 23 billion kilograms, including modified starches and starches used for sweeteners and ethanol production [1]. Process engineering and cost models for an E-milling process have been developed for a processing plant with a capacity of 2.54 million kg of corn per day (100,000 bu/day). These models are based on the previously published models for a traditional wet milling plant with the same capacity. The E-milling process includes grain cleaning, pretreatment, enzymatic treatment, germ separation and recovery, fiber separation and recovery, gluten separation and recovery and starch separation. Information for the development of the conventional models was obtained from a variety of technical sources including commercial wet milling companies, industry experts and equipment suppliers. Additional information for the present models was obtained from our own experience with the development of the E-milling process and trials in the laboratory and at the pilot plant scale. The models were developed using process and cost simulation software (SuperPro Designer®) and include processing information such as composition and flow rates of the various process streams, descriptions of the various unit operations and detailed breakdowns of the operating and capital cost of the facility. Results Based on the information from the model, we can estimate the cost of production per kilogram of starch using the input prices for corn, enzyme and other wet milling co-products. The work presented here describes the E-milling process and compares the process, the operation and costs with the conventional process. Conclusion The E-milling process was found to be cost

  13. A minimum cost tolerance allocation method for rocket engines and robust rocket engine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerth, Richard J.

    1993-01-01

    Rocket engine design follows three phases: systems design, parameter design, and tolerance design. Systems design and parameter design are most effectively conducted in a concurrent engineering (CE) environment that utilize methods such as Quality Function Deployment and Taguchi methods. However, tolerance allocation remains an art driven by experience, handbooks, and rules of thumb. It was desirable to develop and optimization approach to tolerancing. The case study engine was the STME gas generator cycle. The design of the major components had been completed and the functional relationship between the component tolerances and system performance had been computed using the Generic Power Balance model. The system performance nominals (thrust, MR, and Isp) and tolerances were already specified, as were an initial set of component tolerances. However, the question was whether there existed an optimal combination of tolerances that would result in the minimum cost without any degradation in system performance.

  14. Programmer's manual for the fire safety evaluation system cost minimizer computer program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, R. E.; Hall, W. G.

    1983-07-01

    The fire safety evaluation system cost minimizer (FSESCM) computer program integrates engineering and economic considerations with a linear programming algorithm which permits the least-cost means of upgrading health care facilities to compliance with the Life Safety Code to be identified. A mathematical discussion of the application program is used to introduce the basic philosophy behind the FORTRAN program.

  15. Suggested criteria for evaluating systems engineering methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Audrey; Paul, Arthur S.; Gill, Tepper L.

    1989-01-01

    Systems engineering is the application of mathematical and scientific principles to practical ends in the life-cycle of a system. A methodology for systems engineering is a carefully developed, relatively complex procedure or process for applying these mathematical and scientific principles. There are many systems engineering methodologies (or possibly many versions of a few methodologies) currently in use in government and industry. These methodologies are usually designed to meet the needs of a particular organization. It has been observed, however, that many technical and non-technical problems arise when inadequate systems engineering methodologies are applied by organizations to their systems development projects. Various criteria for evaluating systems engineering methodologies are discussed. Such criteria are developed to assist methodology-users in identifying and selecting methodologies that best fit the needs of the organization.

  16. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of the...

  17. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of the...

  18. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of the...

  19. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of the...

  20. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of the...

  1. NASA Lewis Stirling engine computer code evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Stirling engine performance code was evaluated by comparing code predictions without engine-specific calibration factors to GPU-3, P-40, and RE-1000 Stirling engine test data. The error in predicting power output was /minus/11 percent for the P-40 and 12 percent for the RE-1000 at design conditions and 16 percent for the GPU-3 at near-design conditions (2000 rpm engine speed versus 3000 rpm at design). The efficiency and heat input predictions showed better agreement with engine test data than did the power predictions. Concerning all data points, the error in predicting the GPU-3 brake power was significantly larger than for the other engines and was mainly a result of inaccuracy in predicting the pressure phase angle. Analysis into this pressure phase angle prediction error suggested that improvement to the cylinder hysteresis loss model could have a significant effect on overall Stirling engine performance predictions. 13 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. NASA Lewis Stirling engine computer code evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Timothy J.

    1989-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Stirling engine performance code was evaluated by comparing code predictions without engine-specific calibration factors to GPU-3, P-40, and RE-1000 Stirling engine test data. The error in predicting power output was -11 percent for the P-40 and 12 percent for the Re-1000 at design conditions and 16 percent for the GPU-3 at near-design conditions (2000 rpm engine speed versus 3000 rpm at design). The efficiency and heat input predictions showed better agreement with engine test data than did the power predictions. Concerning all data points, the error in predicting the GPU-3 brake power was significantly larger than for the other engines and was mainly a result of inaccuracy in predicting the pressure phase angle. Analysis into this pressure phase angle prediction error suggested that improvements to the cylinder hysteresis loss model could have a significant effect on overall Stirling engine performance predictions.

  3. Investigation of low cost material processes for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyentat, Thinh; Kawashige, Chester M.; Scala, James G.; Horn, Ronald M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of low cost material processes is essential to the achievement of economical liquid rocket propulsion systems in the next century. This paper will present the results of the evaluation of some promising material processes including powder metallurgy, vacuum plasma spray, metal spray forming, and bulge forming. The physical and mechanical test results from the samples and subscale hardware fabricated from high strength copper alloys and superalloys will be discussed.

  4. Investigation of low cost material processes for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyentat, Thinh; Kawashige, Chester M.; Scala, James G.; Horn, Ronald M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of low cost material processes is essential to the achievement of economical liquid rocket propulsion systems in the next century. This paper will present the results of the evaluation of some promising material processes including powder metallurgy, vacuum plasma spray, metal spray forming, and bulge forming. The physical and mechanical test results from the samples and subscale hardware fabricated from high strength copper alloys and superalloys will be discussed.

  5. Evaluation Methodology for Software Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-31

    Recall that the standard QWERTY keyboard format initially was chosen because it would slow performance and thus prevent the jamming of keys; this...retention may become a software parallel to the QWERTY keyboard. Given this stratification of the problem domain, what evaluation methods can be applied? It

  6. Hypergolic Propellant Destruction Evaluation Cost Benefit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    At space vehicle launch sites such as Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and Kennedy Space Center (KSC), toxic vapors and hazardous liquid wastes result from the handling of commodities (hypergolic fuels and oxidizers), most notably from transfer operations where fuel and oxidizer are transferred from bulk storage tanks or transfer tankers to space launch vehicles. During commodity transfer at CCAFS and KSC, wet chemical scrubbers (typically containing four scrubbing towers) are used to neutralize fuel saturated vapors from vent systems on tanks and tanker trailers. For fuel vapors, a citric acid solution is used to scrub out most of the hydrazine. Operation of both the hypergolic fuel and oxidizer vapor scrubbers generates waste scrubber liquor. Currently, scrubber liquor from the fuel vapor scrubber is considered non-hazardous. The scrubber liquor is defined as spent citric acid scrubber solution; the solution contains complexed hydrazine I methylhydrazine and is used to neutralize nonspecification hypergolic fuel generated by CCAFS and KSC. This project is a collaborative effort between Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), Space and Missile Center (SMC), the CCAFS, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to evaluate microwave destruction technology for the treatment of non-specification hypergolic fuel generated at CCAFS and KSC. The project will capitalize on knowledge gained from microwave treatment work being accomplished by AFSPC and SMC at V AFB. This report focuses on the costs associated with the current non-specification hypergolic fuel neutralization process (Section 2.0) as well as the estimated costs of operating a mobile microwave unit to treat non-specification hypergolic fuel (Section 3.0), and compares the costs for each (Section 4.0).The purpose of this document is to assess the costs associated with waste hypergolic fuel. This document will report the costs associated with the current fuel

  7. Recovery of metal oxides from fly ash. Volume 2. Engineering data and cost estimates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, R.F.; Barrett, P.J.; Henslee, L.W. Jr.

    1984-06-01

    An engineering, cost and financial evaluation study was carried out for a conceptual commercial plant to process fly ash into marketable metal oxides by the direct HCl acid leach process. The proposed plant site was adjacent to the TVA Kingston, Tennessee power plant and was sized to process 1 million tons of ash (dry basis) per year. The capital cost requirements for the HCl direct acid leach (DAL) optimized process plant were estimated to be $244,390,000. Based upon the reported Kingston plant fly ash analysis and extractability, the conceptual commercial plant would annually produce about 158,000 TPY of alumina, 102,000 TPY of ferric oxide, 46,000 TPY of gypsum, 81,000 TPY of alkali sulfate salts, 866,000 TPY of spent fly ash and 1,940,000 kWh of excess cogeneration power. Potential long term average revenues were projected to be $126,400,000 per year which would indicate a commercial project's economics may be quite adequate. Volume 1 of this study report presents the investment and operating cost data, revenue considerations and an evaluation of profitability. Volume 2 presents the engineering data and capital cost estimates and Volume 3 presents the commercial facility design criteria. 16 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Costs and benefits of lunar oxygen: Engineering, operations, and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen is the most commonly discussed lunar resource. It will certainly not be the easiest to retrieve, but oxygen's fundamental place in propulsion and life support guarantees it continued attention as a prime candidate for early in situ resource utilization (ISRU). The findings are reviewed of recent investigation, sponsored by NASA-Ames, into the kinds of technologies, equipment, and scenarios (the engineering and operations costs) that will be required even to initiate lunar oxygen production. The infrastructure necessary to surround and support a viable oxygen-processing operation is explained. Selected details are used to illustrate the depth of technology challenges, extent of operations burdens, and complexity of decision linkages. Basic assumptions, and resulting timelines and mass manifests, are listed. These findings are combined with state-of-the-art knowledge of lunar and Mars propulsion options in simple economic input/output and internal-rate-of-return models, to compare production costs with performance benefits. Implications for three realistic scales of exploration architecture - expeditionary, aggressive science, and industrialization/settlement - are discussed. Conclusions are reached regarding the contextual conditions within which production of lunar oxygen (LLOX) is a reasonable activity. LLOX appears less useful for Mars missions than previously hoped. Its economical use in low Earth orbit hinges on production of lunar hydrogen as well. LLOX shows promise for lunar ascent/descent use, but that depends strongly on the plant mass required.

  9. Costs and benefits of lunar oxygen: Engineering, operations, and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen is the most commonly discussed lunar resource. It will certainly not be the easiest to retrieve, but oxygen's fundamental place in propulsion and life support guarantees it continued attention as a prime candidate for early in situ resource utilization (ISRU). The findings are reviewed of recent investigation, sponsored by NASA-Ames, into the kinds of technologies, equipment, and scenarios (the engineering and operations costs) that will be required even to initiate lunar oxygen production. The infrastructure necessary to surround and support a viable oxygen-processing operation is explained. Selected details are used to illustrate the depth of technology challenges, extent of operations burdens, and complexity of decision linkages. Basic assumptions, and resulting timelines and mass manifests, are listed. These findings are combined with state-of-the-art knowledge of lunar and Mars propulsion options in simple economic input/output and internal-rate-of-return models, to compare production costs with performance benefits. Implications for three realistic scales of exploration architecture - expeditionary, aggressive science, and industrialization/settlement - are discussed. Conclusions are reached regarding the contextual conditions within which production of lunar oxygen (LLOX) is a reasonable activity. LLOX appears less useful for Mars missions than previously hoped. Its economical use in low Earth orbit hinges on production of lunar hydrogen as well. LLOX shows promise for lunar ascent/descent use, but that depends strongly on the plant mass required.

  10. Preliminary study of advanced turboprop and turboshaft engines for light aircraft. [cost effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knip, G.; Plencner, R. M.; Eisenberg, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of engine configuration, advanced component technology, compressor pressure ratio and turbine rotor-inlet temperature on such figures of merit as vehicle gross weight, mission fuel, aircraft acquisition cost, operating, cost and life cycle cost are determined for three fixed- and two rotary-wing aircraft. Compared with a current production turboprop, an advanced technology (1988) engine results in a 23 percent decrease in specific fuel consumption. Depending on the figure of merit and the mission, turbine engine cost reductions required to achieve aircraft cost parity with a current spark ignition reciprocating (SIR) engine vary from 0 to 60 percent and from 6 to 74 percent with a hypothetical advanced SIR engine. Compared with a hypothetical turboshaft using currently available technology (1978), an advanced technology (1988) engine installed in a light twin-engine helicopter results in a 16 percent reduction in mission fuel and about 11 percent in most of the other figures of merit.

  11. 48 CFR 736.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 736.605 Section 736.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 736.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. See 736.602-3(c)(5)....

  12. 48 CFR 36.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 36.605 Section 36.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 36.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. (a) An...

  13. 48 CFR 436.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 436.605 Section 436.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Service 436.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. The...

  14. 48 CFR 1336.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 1336.605 Section 1336.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 1336.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. After award,...

  15. 48 CFR 436.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 436.605 Section 436.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Service 436.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. The contracting...

  16. 48 CFR 436.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 436.605 Section 436.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Service 436.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. The contracting...

  17. 48 CFR 1336.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 1336.605 Section 1336.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 1336.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. After award, the...

  18. 48 CFR 736.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 736.605 Section 736.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 736.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. See 736.602-3(c)(5). ...

  19. 48 CFR 36.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 36.605 Section 36.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 36.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. (a) An independent...

  20. 48 CFR 736.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 736.605 Section 736.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 736.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. See 736.602-3(c)(5). ...

  1. 48 CFR 436.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 436.605 Section 436.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Service 436.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. The contracting...

  2. 48 CFR 1336.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 1336.605 Section 1336.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 1336.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. After award, the...

  3. 48 CFR 36.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 36.605 Section 36.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 36.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. (a) An independent...

  4. 48 CFR 736.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 736.605 Section 736.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 736.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. See 736.602-3(c)(5). ...

  5. 48 CFR 436.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 436.605 Section 436.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Service 436.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. The contracting...

  6. 48 CFR 36.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 36.605 Section 36.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 36.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. (a) An independent...

  7. 48 CFR 1336.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 1336.605 Section 1336.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 1336.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. After award, the...

  8. 48 CFR 36.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 36.605 Section 36.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 36.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. (a) An independent...

  9. 48 CFR 1336.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 1336.605 Section 1336.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 1336.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. After award, the...

  10. 48 CFR 736.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 736.605 Section 736.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 736.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. See 736.602-3(c)(5). ...

  11. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing and Evaluating Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Erin M.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing and evaluation techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing and evaluating hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and white light scanning are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing both technologies on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powdered metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. The white light technique is a non-invasive method that can be used to inspect for geometric feature alignment. Both the DMLS manufacturing method and the white light scanning technique have proven to be viable options for manufacturing and evaluating rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of these techniques is recommended.

  12. Can-Type Combustor Design for a Low Cost Subsonic Ramjet Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    Combustion Systems", AFAPL-TR-70-81, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1971. 10. Levenspiel , 0., Chemical Reaction Engineering , John Wiley & Sons, Inc... engines , where the flameholder cost is not as significant when compared to the total engine cost. The can’s wide operating range makes it a likely solution ...for good combustion performance and is a volatile fuel even at low temperatures. 5. IGNITION The engine was ignited by a triethylborane (TEB) ignitor

  13. An Introduction to the Cost of Engineering and Institutional Controls at Brownfield Properties

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet introduces and explores the costs of site cleanup and, where cleanup leaves site contamination that restricts reuse, outlines the engineering and institutional controls and their monitoring and maintenance costs over a longer time frame.

  14. Local Government Planning Tool to Calculate Institutional and Engineering Control Costs for Brownfield Properties

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This cost calculator is designed as a guide for municipal or local governments to assist in calculating their expected costs of implementing and conducting long-term stewardship of institutional controls and engineering controls at brownfield properties.

  15. White River Falls Fish Passage Project, Tygh Valley, Oregon : Final Technical Report, Volume III, Appendix B, Fisheries Report; Appendix C, Engineering Alternative Evaluation; Appendix D, Benefit/Cost Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Oregon. Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Mount Hood National Forest

    1985-06-01

    Studies were conducted to describe current habitat conditions in the White River basin above White River Falls and to evaluate the potential to produce anadromous fish. An inventory of spawning and rearing habitats, irrigation diversions, and enhancement opportunities for anadromous fish in the White River drainage was conducted. Survival of juvenile fish at White River Falls was estimated by releasing juvenile chinook and steelhead above the falls during high and low flow periods and recapturing them below the falls in 1983 and 1984. Four alternatives to provide upstream passage for adult salmon and steelhead were developd to a predesign level. The cost of adult passage and the estimated run size of anadromous fish were used to determine the benefit/cost of the preferred alternative. Possible effects of the introduction of anadromous fish on resident fish and on nearby Oak Springs Hatchery were evaluated. This included an inventory of resident species, a genetic study of native rainbow, and the identification of fish diseases in the basin. This volume contains appendices of habitat survey data, potential production, resident fish population data, upstream passage designs, and benefit/cost calculations. (ACR)

  16. Ablative material testing for low-pressure, low-cost rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, G. Paul; Smith, Timothy D.

    1995-01-01

    The results of an experimental evaluation of ablative materials suitable for the production of light weight, low cost rocket engine combustion chambers and nozzles are presented. Ten individual specimens of four different compositions of silica cloth-reinforced phenolic resin materials were evaluated for comparative erosion in a subscale rocket engine combustion chamber. Gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen were used as propellants, operating at a nominal chamber pressure of 1138 kPa (165 psi) and a nominal mixture ratio (O/F) of 3.3. These conditions were used to thermally simulate operation with RP-1 and liquid oxygen, and achieved a specimen throat gas temperature of approximately 2456 K (4420 R). Two high-density composition materials exhibited high erosion resistance, while two low-density compositions exhibited approximately 6-75 times lower average erosion resistance. The results compare favorably with previous testing by NASA and provide adequate data for selection of ablatives for low pressure, low cost rocket engines.

  17. Configuration evaluation and criteria plan. Volume 2: Evaluation criteria plan (update). Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, E. K.

    1987-01-01

    Candidate main engine configurations which enhance vehicle performance, operation and cost are identified. These candidate configurations are evaluated and the configurations which provide significant advantages over existing systems are selected for consideration for the next generation of launch vehicles. The unbiased selection of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration requires that the candidate engines be evaluated against a predetermined set of criteria which must be properly weighted to emphasize critical requirements defined prior to the actual evaluation. During a prior study of the STME a Gas Generator Cycle engine was selected for conceptual design, with emphasis on reusability, reliability and low cost while achieving good performance. In this study emphasis is on expendable application of the STME while maintaining low cost and high reliability.

  18. A cost engineered launch vehicle for space tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, -Ing. Dietrich E., , Dr.

    1999-09-01

    The paper starts with a set of major requirements for a space tourism vehicle and discusses major vehicle options proposed for this purpose. It seems that the requirements can be met best with a Ballistic SSTO Vehicle which has the additional advantage of lowest development cost compared to other launch vehicle options — important for a commercial development venture. The BETA Ballistic Reusable Vehicle Concept is characterized by the plug nozzle cluster engine configuration where the plug nozzle serves also as base plate and re-entry heat shield. In this case no athmospheric turn maneuver is required (as in case-of the front-entry Delta-Clipper DC-Y concept). In our specific case for space tourism this mode has the avantage that the forces at launch and reentry are in exactly the same direction, easing passenger seating arrangements. The second basic advantage is the large available volume on top of the vehicle providing ample space for passenger accomodation, visibility and volume for zero-g experience (free floating), one of the major passenger mission requirements. An adequate passenger cabin design for 100 passengers is presented, as well as the modern BETA-STV Concept with its mass allocations.

  19. Evaluating the Costs of IPM in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Long-term costs of IPM may be less than a conventional pest control program that relies solely on the use of pesticides. Learn about factors that affect costs and how IPM can be set up within school budgets.

  20. Evaluation of Distribution Network Customer Outage Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemīte, Laila; Gerhards, Jānis

    2009-01-01

    Customer outage cost criteria are considered, collected and analyzed outage costs in Latvia distribution network, as well as distribution network outage elimination structure, the most common outage causes, are proposed outage costs estimation model. Finally the discussion of results of expected customer outage costs and interrupted energy assessment rate calculation results in Latvia distribution network in 2007 are presented, based on customers' mean value of incomes, outcomes and profitability.

  1. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  2. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  3. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  4. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  5. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  6. Comparative Analysis of Thermoeconomic Evaluation Criteria for an Actual Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özel, Gülcan; Açıkkalp, Emin; Savaş, Ahmet Fevzi; Yamık, Hasan

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, an actual heat engine is investigated by using different thermoeconomic evaluation criteria in the literature. A criteria that has not been investigated in detail is considered and it is called as ecologico-economical criteria (F_{EC}). It is the difference of power cost and exergy destruction rate cost of the system. All four criteria are applied to an irreversible Carnot heat engine, results are presented numerically and some suggestions are made.

  7. Jet Engine Operating and Support Cost Estimating Relationship Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    warrants caution. In add- ition, this model is not recommended for predictive pur- poses for those engines whose physical and performnce characteristics...Transportation Plan 71-1: Jet Aircraft Engines. Tinker AFB OK, April 1978. 40. Walker, Steve, Engine Management Specialist, Financial Management for

  8. Evaluating word semantic properties using Sketch Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoykova, Velislava; Simkova, Maria

    2015-02-01

    The paper describes approach to use statistically-based tools incorporated into Sketch Engine system for electronic text corpora processing to mining big textual data for search and extract word semantic properties. It presents and compares series of word search experiments using different statistical approaches and evaluates results for Bulgarian language EUROPARL 7 Corpus search to extract word semantic properties. Finally, the methodology is extended for multilingual application using Slovak language EUROPARL 7 Corpus.

  9. Cost of Quality Evaluation Methodologies Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-28

    proQram that are reflected in cost of guality cateaory imbalances. or excessive costs in the non-value added areas of cuality . Now that the total cost...ect supplies or services when the nonconformance adversely affects safety, health , reliability. durability, performance, interchanaeabilitv of parts or...responsible for the technical requirements of the contract, and where health factors are involved, of the responsible health official of the agency

  10. Configuration evaluation and criteria plan. Volume 2: Evaluation critera plan (preliminary). Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, E. K.

    1986-01-01

    The unbiased selection of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration requires that the candidate engines be evaluated against a predetermined set of criteria which must be properly weighted to emphasize critical requirements defined prior to the actual evaluation. The evaluation and selection process involves the following functions: (1) determining if a configuration can satisfy basic STME requirements (yes/no); (2) defining the evaluation criteria; (3) selecting the criteria relative importance or weighting; (4) determining the weighting sensitivities; and (5) establishing a baseline for engine evaluation. The criteria weighting and sensitivities are cost related and are based on mission models and vehicle requirements. The evaluation process is used as a coarse screen to determine the candidate engines for the parametric studies and as a fine screen to determine concept(s) for conceptual design. The criteria used for the coarse and fine screen evaluation process is shown. The coarse screen process involves verifying that the candidate engines can meet the yes/no screening requirements and a semi-subjective quantitative evaluation. The fine screen engines have to meet all of the yes/no screening gates and are then subjected to a detailed evaluation or assessment using the quantitative cost evaluation processes. The option exists for re-cycling a concept through the quantitative portion of the screening and allows for some degree of optimization. The basic vehicle is a two stage LOX/HC, LOX/LH2 parallel burn vehicle capable of placing 150,000 lbs in low Earth orbit (LEO).

  11. Evaluation of direct-use-project drilling costs

    SciTech Connect

    Dolenc, M.R.; Childs, F.W.; Allman, D.W.; Sanders, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    This study evaluates drilling and completion costs from eleven low-to-moderate temperature geothermal projects carried out under the Program Opportunity Notice (PON) and User-Coupled Confirmation Drilling Programs. Several studies have evaluated geothermal drilling costs, particularly with respect to high-temperature-system drilling costs. This study evaluates drilling costs and individual cost elements for low-to-moderate temperature projects. It considers the effect of drilling depth, rock types, remoteness of location, rig size, and unique operating and subsurface conditions on the total drilling cost. This detailed evaluation should provide the investor in direct-use projects with approximate cost projections by which the economics of such projects can be evaluated.

  12. Evaluation of heat engine for hybrid vehicle application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    The status of ongoing heat-engine developments, including spark-ignition, compression-ignition, internal-combustion, and external-combustion engines is presented. The potential of engine concepts under consideration for hybrid vehicle use is evaluated, using self-imposed criteria for selection. The deficiencies of the engines currently being evaluated in hybrid vehicles are discussed. Focus is on recent research with two-stroke, rotary, and free-piston engines. It is concluded that these engine concepts have the most promising potential for future application in hybrid vehicles. Recommendations are made for analysis and experimentation to evaluate stop-start and transient emission behavior of recommended engine concepts.

  13. Evaluation of heat engine for hybrid vehicle application

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, H.W.

    1984-08-01

    The status of ongoing heat-engine developments, including spark-ignition, compression-ignition, internal-combustion, and external-combustion engines is presented. The potential of engine concepts under consideration for hybrid vehicle use is evaluated, using self-imposed criteria for selection. The deficiencies of the engines currently being evaluated in hybrid vehicles are discussed. Focus is on recent research with two-stroke, rotary, and free-piston engines. It is concluded that these engine concepts have the most promising potential for future application in hybrid vehicles. Recommendations are made for analysis and experimentation to evaluate stop-start and transient emission behavior of recommended engine concepts.

  14. Emergent Challenges in Determining Costs for Economic Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Josephine C; Barnett, Paul G

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes methods of determining costs for economic evaluations of healthcare and considers how cost determination is being affected by recent developments in healthcare. The literature was reviewed to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the four principal methods of cost determination: micro-costing, activity-based costing, charge-based costing, and gross costing. A scoping review was conducted to identify key trends in healthcare delivery and to identify costing issues associated with these changes. Existing guidelines provide information on how to implement various costing methods. Bottom-up costing is needed when accuracy is paramount, but top-down approaches are often the only feasible approach. We describe six healthcare trends that have important implications for costing methodology: (1) reform in payment mechanisms; (2) care delivery in less restrictive settings; (3) the growth of telehealth interventions; (4) the proliferation of new technology; (5) patient privacy concerns; and (6) growing efforts to implement guidelines. Some costs are difficult to measure and have been overlooked. These include physician services for inpatients, facility costs for outpatient services, the cost of developing treatment innovations, patient and caregiver costs, and the indirect costs of organizational interventions. Standardized methods are needed to determine social welfare and productivity costs. In the future, cost determination will be facilitated by technological advances but hindered by the shift to capitated payment, to the provision of care in less restrictive settings, and by heightened concern for medical record privacy.

  15. Evolution of a Low Cost Control Engineering Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Shirbeeny, El-Hosseiny Taha

    1986-01-01

    Presents an approach for building an inexpensive control engineering laboratory to support control courses in an undergraduate engineering program. Outlines the use of simple amplifier circuits and small personal computers in performing control experiments. Proposes an optimum configuration of the laboratory for minimum servicing and adequate…

  16. Evolution of a Low Cost Control Engineering Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Shirbeeny, El-Hosseiny Taha

    1986-01-01

    Presents an approach for building an inexpensive control engineering laboratory to support control courses in an undergraduate engineering program. Outlines the use of simple amplifier circuits and small personal computers in performing control experiments. Proposes an optimum configuration of the laboratory for minimum servicing and adequate…

  17. Conceptual design and cost analysis of hydraulic output unit for 15 kW free-piston Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A long-life hydraulic converter with unique features was conceptually designed to interface with a specified 15 kW(e) free-piston Stirling engine in a solar thermal dish application. Hydraulic fluid at 34.5 MPa (5000 psi) is produced to drive a conventional hydraulic motor and rotary alternator. Efficiency of the low-maintenance converter design was calculated at 93.5% for a counterbalanced version and 97.0% without the counterbalance feature. If the converter were coupled to a Stirling engine with design parameters more typcial of high-technology Stirling engines, counterbalanced converter efficiency could be increased to 99.6%. Dynamic computer simulation studies were conducted to evaluate performance and system sensitivities. Production costs of the complete Stirling hydraulic/electric power system were evaluated at $6506 which compared with $8746 for an alternative Stirling engine/linear alternator system.

  18. Cost-benefit tradeoffs in engineered lac operons.

    PubMed

    Eames, Matt; Kortemme, Tanja

    2012-05-18

    Cells must balance the cost and benefit of protein expression to optimize organismal fitness. The lac operon of the bacterium Escherichia coli has been a model for quantifying the physiological impact of costly protein production and for elucidating the resulting regulatory mechanisms. We report quantitative fitness measurements in 27 redesigned operons that suggested that protein production is not the primary origin of fitness costs. Instead, we discovered that the lac permease activity, which relates linearly to cost, is the major physiological burden to the cell. These findings explain control points in the lac operon that minimize the cost of lac permease activity, not protein expression. Characterizing similar relationships in other systems will be important to map the impact of cost/benefit tradeoffs on cell physiology and regulation.

  19. Furniture rough mill costs evaluated by computer simulation

    Treesearch

    R. Bruce Anderson

    1983-01-01

    A crosscut-first furniture rough mill was simulated to evaluate processing and raw material costs on an individual part basis. Distributions representing the real-world characteristics of lumber, equipment feed speeds, and processing requirements are programed into the simulation. Costs of parts from a specific cutting bill are given, and effects of lumber input costs...

  20. Comparison of low-cost and engineered materials for phosphorus removal from organic-rich surface water.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Treavor H; Persaud, Amar; Banerjee, Poulomi; Palomino, Pedro

    2011-10-15

    Excess phosphorus (P) in lakes and rivers remains a major water quality problem on a global scale. As a result, new materials and innovative approaches to P remediation are required. Natural materials and waste byproduct materials from industrial processes have the potential to be effective materials for P removal from surface water. Advantages of natural and waste byproduct materials include their low-cost, abundant supply, and minimal preparation, especially compared with engineered materials, such as ion exchange resins and polymeric adsorbents. As a result, natural and waste byproduct materials are commonly referred to as low-cost materials. Despite the potential advantages of low-cost materials, there are critical gaps in knowledge that are preventing their effective use. In particular, there are limited data on the performance of low-cost materials in surface waters that have high concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM), and there are no systematic studies that track the changes in water chemistry following treatment with low-cost materials or compare their performance with engineered materials. Accordingly, the goal of this work was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of low-cost and engineered materials for P removal from NOM-rich surface water. Seven low-cost materials and three engineered materials were evaluated using jar tests and mini-column experiments. The test water was a surface water that had a total P concentration of 132-250 μg P/L and a total organic carbon concentration of 15-32 mg C/L. Alum sludge, a byproduct of drinking water treatment, and a hybrid anion exchange resin loaded with nanosize iron oxide were the best performing materials in terms of selective P removal in the presence of NOM and minimum undesirable secondary changes to the water chemistry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. How to estimate productivity costs in economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Krol, Marieke; Brouwer, Werner

    2014-04-01

    Productivity costs are frequently omitted from economic evaluations, despite their often strong impact on cost-effectiveness outcomes. This neglect may be partly explained by the lack of standardization regarding the methodology of estimating productivity costs. This paper aims to contribute to standardization of productivity cost methodology by offering practical guidance on how to estimate productivity costs in economic evaluations. The paper discusses the identification, measurement and valuation of productivity losses. It is recommended to include not only productivity losses related to absenteeism from and reduced productivity at paid work, but also those related to unpaid work. Hence, it is recommended to use a measurement instrument including questions about both paid and unpaid productivity, such as the iMTA Productivity Cost Questionnaire (iPCQ) or the Valuation of Lost Productivity (VOLP). We indicate how to apply the friction cost and the human capital approach and give practical guidance on deriving final cost estimates.

  2. The Cummins advanced turbocompound diesel engine evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehne, J. L.; Werner, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced turbocompound diesel engine program was initiated to improve the tank mileage of the turbocompound engine by 5% over the vehicle test engines. Engine improvements could be realized by increasing the available energy of the exhaust gas at the turbine inlet, incorporating gas turbine techniques into improving the turbomachinery efficiencies, and through refined engine system optimization. The individual and cumulative performance gains achieved with the advanced turbocompound engine improvements are presented.

  3. Life Cycle Cost/System Effectiveness Evaluation and Criteria,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This document contains results of an independent research and development task on life cycle cost performed by Boeing Aerospace Company. This seven...month study is Phase I of a planned continued effort and includes discussion on life cycle cost current state-of-the-art, a planned approach and...relevant to life cycle cost, and an evaluation of 14 computer programs which provided the data base from which cost consideration elements and new criteria were developed. (Author)

  4. A cost-minimization analysis of tissue-engineered constructs for corneal endothelial transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tien-En; Peh, Gary S L; George, Benjamin L; Cajucom-Uy, Howard Y; Dong, Di; Finkelstein, Eric A; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2014-01-01

    Corneal endothelial transplantation or endothelial keratoplasty has become the preferred choice of transplantation for patients with corneal blindness due to endothelial dysfunction. Currently, there is a worldwide shortage of transplantable tissue, and demand is expected to increase further with aging populations. Tissue-engineered alternatives are being developed, and are likely to be available soon. However, the cost of these constructs may impair their widespread use. A cost-minimization analysis comparing tissue-engineered constructs to donor tissue procured from eye banks for endothelial keratoplasty was performed. Both initial investment costs and recurring costs were considered in the analysis to arrive at a final tissue cost per transplant. The clinical outcomes of endothelial keratoplasty with tissue-engineered constructs and with donor tissue procured from eye banks were assumed to be equivalent. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to simulate various possible scenarios, and to determine the robustness of the results. A tissue engineering strategy was cheaper in both investment cost and recurring cost. Tissue-engineered constructs for endothelial keratoplasty could be produced at a cost of US$880 per transplant. In contrast, utilizing donor tissue procured from eye banks for endothelial keratoplasty required US$3,710 per transplant. Sensitivity analyses performed further support the results of this cost-minimization analysis across a wide range of possible scenarios. The use of tissue-engineered constructs for endothelial keratoplasty could potentially increase the supply of transplantable tissue and bring the costs of corneal endothelial transplantation down, making this intervention accessible to a larger group of patients. Tissue-engineering strategies for corneal epithelial constructs or other tissue types, such as pancreatic islet cells, should also be subject to similar pharmacoeconomic analyses.

  5. A Cost-Minimization Analysis of Tissue-Engineered Constructs for Corneal Endothelial Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Tien-En; Peh, Gary S. L.; George, Benjamin L.; Cajucom-Uy, Howard Y.; Dong, Di; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Mehta, Jodhbir S.

    2014-01-01

    Corneal endothelial transplantation or endothelial keratoplasty has become the preferred choice of transplantation for patients with corneal blindness due to endothelial dysfunction. Currently, there is a worldwide shortage of transplantable tissue, and demand is expected to increase further with aging populations. Tissue-engineered alternatives are being developed, and are likely to be available soon. However, the cost of these constructs may impair their widespread use. A cost-minimization analysis comparing tissue-engineered constructs to donor tissue procured from eye banks for endothelial keratoplasty was performed. Both initial investment costs and recurring costs were considered in the analysis to arrive at a final tissue cost per transplant. The clinical outcomes of endothelial keratoplasty with tissue-engineered constructs and with donor tissue procured from eye banks were assumed to be equivalent. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to simulate various possible scenarios, and to determine the robustness of the results. A tissue engineering strategy was cheaper in both investment cost and recurring cost. Tissue-engineered constructs for endothelial keratoplasty could be produced at a cost of US$880 per transplant. In contrast, utilizing donor tissue procured from eye banks for endothelial keratoplasty required US$3,710 per transplant. Sensitivity analyses performed further support the results of this cost-minimization analysis across a wide range of possible scenarios. The use of tissue-engineered constructs for endothelial keratoplasty could potentially increase the supply of transplantable tissue and bring the costs of corneal endothelial transplantation down, making this intervention accessible to a larger group of patients. Tissue-engineering strategies for corneal epithelial constructs or other tissue types, such as pancreatic islet cells, should also be subject to similar pharmacoeconomic analyses. PMID:24949869

  6. Engineering Evaluation of the Optacon (OPtical to TActile CONverter). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBenedictis, John A.

    An independent engineering evaluation was conducted of the Optical to Tactile Converter (Optacon), a reading aid for the blind which senses the contrast of printed text and converts the information into a tactile presentation. Tasks performed included: user evaluation, optical, electrical, mechanical, production costs, life tests, reliability, and…

  7. Evaluation of engineering plastic for rollover protective structure (ROPS) mounting.

    PubMed

    Comer, R S; Ayers, P D; Liu, J

    2007-04-01

    Agriculture has one of the highest fatality rates of any industry in America. Tractor rollovers are a significant contributor to the high death rate. Rollover protective structures (ROPS) have helped lower these high fatality rates on full-size tractors. However, a large number of older tractors still do not use ROPS due to the difficulty of designing and creating a mounting structure. To help reduce this difficulty, engineering plastics were evaluated for use in a ROPS mounting structure on older tractors. The use of engineering plastics around axle housings could provide a uniform mounting configuration as well as lower costs for aftermarket ROPS. Various plastics were examined through shear testing, scale model testing, and compressive strength testing. Once a material was chosen based upon strength and cost, full-scale testing of the plastic's strength on axle housings was conducted. Finally, a mounting structure was tested in static ROPS tests, and field upset tests were performed in accordance with SAE Standard J2194. Initial tests revealed that the ROPS mounting structure and axle housing combination had higher torsional strength with less twisting than the axle housing alone. An engineering plastic ROPS mounting structure was easily successful in withstanding the forces applied during the static longitudinal and lateral ROPS tests. Field upset testing revealed that the mounting structure could withstand the impact loads seen during actual upsets without a failure. During both static testing and field upset testing, no permanent twisting of the mounting structure was found. Engineering plastic could therefore be a viable option for a universal ROPS mounting structure for older tractors.

  8. HSCT Sector Combustor Evaluations for Demonstration Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenfield, Stuart; Heberling, Paul; Kastl, John; Matulaitis, John; Huff, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    In LET Task 10, critical development issues of the HSCT lean-burn low emissions combustor were addressed with a range of engineering tools. Laser diagnostics and CFD analysis were applied to develop a clearer understanding of the fuel-air premixing process and premixed combustion. Subcomponent tests evaluated the emissions and operability performance of the fuel-air premixers. Sector combustor tests evaluated the performance of the integrated combustor system. A 3-cup sector was designed and procured for laser diagnostics studies at NASA Glenn. The results of these efforts supported the earlier selection of the Cyclone Swirler as the pilot stage premixer and the IMFH (Integrated Mixer Flame Holder) tube as the main stage premixer of the LPP combustor. In the combustor system preliminary design subtask, initial efforts to transform the sector combustor design into a practical subscale engine combustor met with significant challenges. Concerns about the durability of a stepped combustor dome and the need for a removable fuel injection system resulted in the invention and refinement of the MRA (Multistage Radial Axial) combustor system in 1994. The MRA combustor was selected for the HSR Phase II LPP subscale combustor testing in the CPC Program.

  9. Simplified cost models for prefeasibility mineral evaluations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camm, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains 2 open pit models, 6 underground mine models, 11 mill models, and cost equations for access roads, power lines, and tailings ponds. In addition, adjustment factors for variation in haulage distances are provided for open pit models and variation in mining depths for underground models.

  10. Use of a cost accounting system to evaluate costs of a VA special program.

    PubMed

    Menke, T J; Wray, N P

    1999-04-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) established six mobile clinics to provide care for rural veterans. Each was operated by a parent VA Medical Center (VAMC). To describe the use of a cost-accounting system which does not provide costs at the service or patient level to determine the costs of the mobile clinics. Costs per visit were compared among the mobile clinics with the parent VAMCs and with simulated fixed-location clinics. Cost data came from VA's Centralized Accounting for Local Management (CALM) data. Utilization data came from VA's outpatient file. Information was obtained from the VAMCs' fiscal services to reallocate costs among the CALM subaccounts to generate cost data that was comparable among the mobile clinics. Costs per visit for the mobile clinics were twice as high as those of the parent VAMCs. Costs per visit would be lower at fixed-location clinics unless the volume were substantially less than that provided by the mobile clinics. Differences between cost allocations for accounting purposes and research are likely to necessitate adjusting cost accounting data for research purposes. Fortunately, information from the accountants or primary data can lead to a cost database which is appropriate for research evaluations. In the mobile clinics study, the analysis of cost accounting data led to the conclusion that mobile clinics were not a cost-effective way in which to provide care to rural veterans.

  11. Architect and engineering costs at Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this audit was to determine whether architect and engineering (A-E) costs at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories were reasonable in comparison with industry standards.

  12. Estimating Costs for Development of Candidate Performance Evaluation Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, David A.

    This paper contains cost unit tables and instructions for their use in estimating the total cost of evaluating a given instructional objective or group of objectives. Included is a list of analytical procedures to be followed in the development of any device to evaluate student performance, (e.g., a unit exam in child development or an attitude…

  13. Dynamic integrated cost and engineering (DICE) model and its applicability to ATP systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMont, Douglas V.; Benjamin, Brian J.

    1995-05-01

    As the system engineering process flows down constellation coverage specifications to the Spacecraft level in terms of agility requirements it's critical that the relationships between manueverability and cost are clearly understood. The probability of optimizing the cost of typical ATP system would be greatly enhanced if a realistic integrated cost/engineering model were available during the initial phase of a program (e.g. Conceptual Design Phase). Most Cost Engineering work performed to date has been done by Cost and/or Systems Engineers which has typically lead to models with a cost emphasis. This work tends to be parametric in nature and hence the models have has little 'buy-in' from the design engineering side of the house. A better approach is to take existing credible engineering models for the key Spacecraft subsystems (Attitude Control, Thermal, Power, etc.) and to append these models to include the appropriate hardware databases. This would allow the models to output cost, power and weight, besides analytical engineering parameters like torque, momentum, etc.. For sound engineering reasons some, but not all, subsystem models should be time-domain based (dynamic) simulations--a clear diverges from the typical Systems Engineering approach. A modular spacecraft model like the one created at Lockheed for the FEWS/ALARM programs provides an ideal basis for developing a Dynamic Integrated Cost & Engineering (DICE) Model. This paper provides a 'snapshot' of the initial development of Attitude Determination and Control portion of the DICE Model. These subsystems were modeled first since maneuverability has such a large cost impact on them. A multiple body dynamics package, High TEC1, provides the core of this DICE module. This package has been integrated into several simulation packages as described in previous works. Having access to this detailed 3-axis simulation model allows one to properly size spacecraft attitude systems (especially sensors and actuators

  14. Productivity costs in economic evaluations: past, present, future.

    PubMed

    Krol, Marieke; Brouwer, Werner; Rutten, Frans

    2013-07-01

    Productivity costs occur when the productivity of individuals is affected by illness, treatment, disability or premature death. The objective of this paper was to review past and current developments related to the inclusion, identification, measurement and valuation of productivity costs in economic evaluations. The main debates in the theory and practice of economic evaluations of health technologies described in this review have centred on the questions of whether and how to include productivity costs, especially productivity costs related to paid work. The past few decades have seen important progress in this area. There are important sources of productivity costs other than absenteeism (e.g. presenteeism and multiplier effects in co-workers), but their exact influence on costs remains unclear. Different measurement instruments have been developed over the years, but which instrument provides the most accurate estimates has not been established. Several valuation approaches have been proposed. While empirical research suggests that productivity costs are best included in the cost side of the cost-effectiveness ratio, the jury is still out regarding whether the human capital approach or the friction cost approach is the most appropriate valuation method to do so. Despite the progress and the substantial amount of scientific research, a consensus has not been reached on either the inclusion of productivity costs in economic evaluations or the methods used to produce productivity cost estimates. Such a lack of consensus has likely contributed to ignoring productivity costs in actual economic evaluations and is reflected in variations in national health economic guidelines. Further research is needed to lessen the controversy regarding the estimation of health-related productivity costs. More standardization would increase the comparability and credibility of economic evaluations taking a societal perspective.

  15. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this project is to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by exploration and production (E&P) operators to significantly lower the cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. The project team takes considerable advantage of the emissions control research and development efforts and practices that have been underway in the gas pipeline industry for the last 12 years. These efforts and practices are expected to closely interface with the E&P industry to develop cost-effective options that apply to widely-used field and gathering engines, and which can be readily commercialized. The project is separated into two phases. Phase 1 work establishes an E&P industry liaison group, develops a frequency distribution of installed E&P field engines, and identifies and assesses commercially available and emerging engine emissions control and monitoring technologies. Current and expected E&P engine emissions and monitoring requirements are reviewed, and priority technologies are identified for further development. The identified promising technologies are tested on a laboratory engine to confirm their generic viability. In addition, a full-scale field test of prototype emissions controls will be conducted on at least ten representative field engine models with challenging emissions profiles. Emissions monitoring systems that are integrated with existing controls packages will be developed. Technology transfer/commercialization is expected to be implemented through compressor fleet leasing operators, engine component suppliers, the industry liaison group, and the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council. This topical report discusses work completed during Phase 1 of the project Cost Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines. In this report information, data, and results are compiled and summarized from quarterly

  16. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) engine phase A study, extension 1. Volume 3: Study cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Program cost and planning data based on 1980 technology and shown in 1979 dollars for a 20K lb Thrust Staged Combustion Cycle Engine are presented. These data were compared with those for the Advanced Expander Cycle Engine at 10K lb and 20K lb thrust levels.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamics MHD Engineering Test Facility ETF 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report CDER. Volume 3: Costs and schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The estimated plant capital cost for a coal fired 200 MWE electric generating plant with open cycle magnetohydrodynamics is divided into principal accounts based on Federal Energy Regulatory Commision account structure. Each principal account is defined and its estimated cost subdivided into identifiable and major equipment systems. The cost data sources for compiling the estimates, cost parameters, allotments, assumptions, and contingencies, are discussed. Uncertainties associated with developing the costs are quantified to show the confidence level acquired. Guidelines established in preparing the estimated costs are included. Based on an overall milestone schedule related to conventional power plant scheduling experience and starting procurement of MHD components during the preliminary design phase there is a 6 1/2-year construction period. The duration of the project from start to commercial operation is 79 months. The engineering phase of the project is 4 1/2 years; the construction duration following the start of the man power block is 37 months.

  18. Municipal solid waste management: identification and analysis of engineering indexes representing demand and costs generated in virtuous Italian communities.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, R; Del Buono, D; Lolli, F; Rimini, B

    2013-11-01

    The definition and utilisation of engineering indexes in the field of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is an issue of interest for technicians and scientists, which is widely discussed in literature. Specifically, the availability of consolidated engineering indexes is useful when new waste collection services are designed, along with when their performance is evaluated after a warm-up period. However, most published works in the field of MSWM complete their study with an analysis of isolated case studies. Conversely, decision makers require tools for information collection and exchange in order to trace the trends of these engineering indexes in large experiments. In this paper, common engineering indexes are presented and their values analysed in virtuous Italian communities, with the aim of contributing to the creation of a useful database whose data could be used during experiments, by indicating examples of MSWM demand profiles and the costs required to manage them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Agile-Lean Software Engineering (ALSE) Evaluating Kanban in Systems Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-06

    Agile-Lean Software Engineering (ALSE) Evaluating Kanban in Systems Engineering A013 - Final Technical Report SERC-2013-TR-022-2 March 6, 2013...06 MAR 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Agile-Lean Software Engineering (ALSE) Evaluating...engineering (SE). Such approaches have been seen to be valuable in software system development. In particular, the research focuses on SE where rapid response

  20. Value Engineering. "A Working Tool for Cost Control in the Design of Educational Facilities."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Jerry

    Value Engineering (VE) is a cost optimizing technique used to analyze design quality and cost-effectiveness. The application of VE procedures to the design and construction of school facilities has been adopted by the state of Washington. By using VE, the optimum value for every life cycle dollar spent on a facility is obtained by identifying not…

  1. Cost and fuel consumption per nautical mile for two engine jet transports using OPTIM and TRAGEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiggs, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The cost and fuel consumption per nautical mile for two engine jet transports are computed using OPTIM and TRAGEN. The savings in fuel and direct operating costs per nautical mile for each of the different types of optimal trajectories over a standard profile are shown.

  2. Municipal solid waste management: Identification and analysis of engineering indexes representing demand and costs generated in virtuous Italian communities

    SciTech Connect

    Gamberini, R. Del Buono, D.; Lolli, F.; Rimini, B.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Collection and analysis of real life data in the field of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation and costs for management. • Study of 92 virtuous Italian communities. • Elaboration of trends of engineering indexes useful during design and evaluation of MSWM systems. - Abstract: The definition and utilisation of engineering indexes in the field of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is an issue of interest for technicians and scientists, which is widely discussed in literature. Specifically, the availability of consolidated engineering indexes is useful when new waste collection services are designed, along with when their performance is evaluated after a warm-up period. However, most published works in the field of MSWM complete their study with an analysis of isolated case studies. Conversely, decision makers require tools for information collection and exchange in order to trace the trends of these engineering indexes in large experiments. In this paper, common engineering indexes are presented and their values analysed in virtuous Italian communities, with the aim of contributing to the creation of a useful database whose data could be used during experiments, by indicating examples of MSWM demand profiles and the costs required to manage them.

  3. Control of Total Ownership Costs of DoD Acquisition Development Programs Through Integrated Systems Engineering Processes and Metrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-30

    Airborne, Maritime and Fixed Station Joint Tactical Radio System ^Åèìáëáíáçå oÉëÉ~êÅÜW `ob^qfkd pvkbodv clo fkclojba `e^kdb - ii - • Program...perspective to cost estimation and control and may be enriched by enhancing with system engineering activities that are also focused and similar areas ...Mission and requirements definition, Functional analysis, Alternative synthesis, and Evaluation , trade-off, and selection. This methodology is

  4. How do we evaluate the cost of healthcare technology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobel, Joel J.

    1994-12-01

    Five critical questions apply when evaluating the cost of healthcare technology: Who is asking the question (of how to evaluate healthcare costs)? For what purpose? What is the nature of the decision that must be made? At what state of a technology's development and diffusion are the questions being posed? What type of technology is stimulating the questions? A large number of organizations, both national and international, are engaged in technology assessment, and constructive disagreement improves the overall quality of those assessments. Current cost measurements tools such as cost-utility analysis, cost-benefit analysis, cost- effectiveness analysis, and outcomes research are weak and ineffective. Recently, pharmaceutical manufacturers have adopted more global cost-effectiveness studies. Technology assessments will ultimately focus on examining the relative cost-effectiveness of alternative technologies for a specific pathology or examining the relative cost-effectiveness of alternative technologies for a specific pathology or DRG. In addition to the traditional healthcare facility--hospital, outpatient facility, or group practice, group purchasing organizations are also asking about cost-effectiveness of healthcare. ECRI's SELECTTM process, unlike less effective technology assessments, takes into account real-world user experience data and life-cycle cost analysis in addition to detailed comparisons of technical features and performance.

  5. Maintainability Engineering Design Notebook, Revision 2, and Cost of Maintainability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    Powerl * az~d Extend Sid POWer Yes H Spply RoDeReoeRdlc Repair Sld oe oe oer Supply No Istall 1 tte Lowe r Cover Slide Card ye oate Remove Replace Repai...assumed that tne fielded YLItiplexer Set equipments are evenly divided between COWS and OS locatioh3, the average packaging and transportation cost per

  6. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, G. E.

    1980-01-01

    The materials technologies studied included thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoils, turbine disks, cases, turbine vanes and engine and nacelle composite materials. The cost/benefit of each technology was determined in terms of Relative Value defined as change in return on investment times probability of success divided by development cost. A recommended final ranking of technologies was based primarily on consideration of Relative Values with secondary consideration given to changes in other economic parameters. Technologies showing the most promising cost/benefits were thermal barrier coated temperature nacelle/engine system composites.

  7. Engineering and Fabrication Considerations for Cost-Effective Space Reactor Shield Development

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Thomas A.; Disney, Richard K.

    2004-02-04

    Investment in developing nuclear power for space missions cannot be made on the basis of a single mission. Current efforts in the design and fabrication of the reactor module, including the reactor shield, must be cost-effective and take into account scalability and fabricability for planned and future missions. Engineering considerations for the shield need to accommodate passive thermal management, varying radiation levels and effects, and structural/mechanical issues. Considering these challenges, design principles and cost drivers specific to the engineering and fabrication of the reactor shield are presented that contribute to lower recurring mission costs.

  8. A simplified life-cycle cost comparison of various engines for small helicopter use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civinskas, K. C.; Fishbach, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    A ten-year, life-cycle cost comparison is made of the following engines for small helicopter use: (1) simple turboshaft; (2) regenerative turboshaft; (3) compression-ignition reciprocator; (4) spark-ignited rotary; and (5) spark-ignited reciprocator. Based on a simplified analysis and somewhat approximate data, the simple turboshaft engine apparently has the lowest costs for mission times up to just under 2 hours. At 2 hours and above, the regenerative turboshaft appears promising. The reciprocating and rotary engines are less attractive, requiring from 10 percent to 80 percent more aircraft to have the same total payload capability as a given number of turbine powered craft. A nomogram was developed for estimating total costs of engines not covered in this study.

  9. Study of the costs and benefits of composite materials in advanced turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinhagen, C. A.; Stotler, C. L.; Neitzel, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Composite component designs were developed for a number of applicable engine parts and functions. The cost and weight of each detail component was determined and its effect on the total engine cost to the aircraft manufacturer was ascertained. The economic benefits of engine or nacelle composite or eutectic turbine alloy substitutions was then calculated. Two time periods of engine certification were considered for this investigation, namely 1979 and 1985. Two methods of applying composites to these engines were employed. The first method just considered replacing an existing metal part with a composite part with no other change to the engine. The other method involved major engine redesign so that more efficient composite designs could be employed. Utilization of polymeric composites wherever payoffs were available indicated that a total improvement in Direct Operating Cost (DOC) of 2.82 to 4.64 percent, depending on the engine considered, could be attained. In addition, the percent fuel saving ranged from 1.91 to 3.53 percent. The advantages of using advanced materials in the turbine are more difficult to quantify but could go as high as an improvement in DOC of 2.33 percent and a fuel savings of 2.62 percent. Typically, based on a fleet of one hundred aircraft, a percent savings in DOC represents a savings of four million dollars per year and a percent of fuel savings equals 23,000 cu m (7,000,000 gallons) per year.

  10. Thermal lag test engines evaluated and compared to equivalent Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Tailer, P.L.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal lag engines run both free piston and with pistons kinematically linked. Free piston, a thermal lag engine may be the simplest of all piston engines as it is valveless and has only one moving part, the piston. Horizontal and vertical thermal lag engines with substantially identical cooled pistons and cylinders are tested and evaluated, particularly as to power density. The horizontal engine has an elongated, small diameter heated chamber and the vertical engine has a large diameter flat heated chamber. Both heated chambers may be altered in volume to maximize engine power at optimum compression ratios. The power density of unpressurized thermal lag engines is compared to that of early commercial Stirling cycle unpressurized air engines. The comparison indicates the potential for applying well-known modern Stirling technology to thermal lag engines.

  11. An In-depth Report on the Development, Advancement, and Implementation of Pneumatic Waste Collection Systems and a Proposed Program for the Practical Evaluation of such a System in Terms of Waste Disposal Parameters, Engineering Design, and Economic Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-24

    Walt Disney World The conveyance network is made up of 50-cm diameter pipes that stretch approximately 2,440 m between the various collection stations...34Pneumatic Waste Collection", Anon, 1975. p. 30 - 31. ASCE Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division, "Environmental Systems at Walt Disney World ", Bravo

  12. Space Transportation Booster Engine Configuration Study. Volume 3: Program Cost estimates and work breakdown structure and WBS dictionary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Space Transportation Booster Engine Configuration Study is to contribute to the ALS development effort by providing highly reliable, low cost booster engine concepts for both expendable and reusable rocket engines. The objectives of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study were: (1) to identify engine development configurations which enhance vehicle performance and provide operational flexibility at low cost; and (2) to explore innovative approaches to the follow-on Full-Scale Development (FSD) phase for the STBE.

  13. Small, low-cost, expendable turbojet engine. 1: Design, fabrication, and preliminary testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dengler, R. P.; Macioce, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    A small experimental axial-flow turbojet engine in the 2,669-Newton (600-lbf) thrust class was designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of several low-cost concepts. Design simplicity was stressed in order to reduce the number of components and machining operations. Four engines were built and tested for a total of 157 hours. Engine testing was conducted at both sea-level static and simulated flight conditions for engine speeds as high as 38,000 rpm and turbine-inlet temperatures as high as 1,255 K (1,800 F).

  14. Cost evaluation of clinical laboratory in Taiwan's National Health System by using activity-based costing.

    PubMed

    Su, Bin-Guang; Chen, Shao-Fen; Yeh, Shu-Hsing; Shih, Po-Wen; Lin, Ching-Chiang

    2016-11-01

    To cope with the government's policies to reduce medical costs, Taiwan's healthcare service providers are striving to survive by pursuing profit maximization through cost control. This article aimed to present the results of cost evaluation using activity-based costing performed in the laboratory in order to throw light on the differences between costs and the payment system of National Health Insurance (NHI). This study analyzed the data of costs and income of the clinical laboratory. Direct costs belong to their respective sections of the department. The department's shared costs, including public expenses and administrative assigned costs, were allocated to the department's respective sections. A simple regression equation was created to predict profit and loss, and evaluate the department's break-even point, fixed cost, and contribution margin ratio. In clinical chemistry and seroimmunology sections, the cost per test was lower than the NHI payment and their major laboratory tests had revenues with the profitability ratio of 8.7%, while the other sections had a higher cost per test than the NHI payment and their major tests were in deficit. The study found a simple linear regression model as follows: "Balance=-84,995+0.543×income (R2=0.544)". In order to avoid deficit, laboratories are suggested to increase test volumes, enhance laboratory test specialization, and become marginal scale. A hospital could integrate with regional medical institutions through alliances or OEM methods to increase volumes to reach marginal scale and reduce laboratory costs, enhancing the level and quality of laboratory medicine.

  15. Corps of Engineers’ Acquisition of Fish Hatchery Proves Costly.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-18

    point, even with the low beef prices, cattle ranches are selling stronger in the Northwest than any other type of real estate at this time. [GAO COMMENT...of the bare land to the depreciated reproduction or replacement cost of I/The required rate of return necessary to induce investors to buy or hold a...substantial effect on farm land prices. It is common knowledge prices paid for pork, beef , and poultry are dictated by supply and demand. You will

  16. Cost-Outcome Analysis: Streamlining Techniques. Evaluation Guide Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jana K.

    Streamlining involves the modification of cost-analysis methods to make them more appropriate for the limited time and resources, and immediate information needs, of local-level program evaluations. It can also enhance the reliability and validity of district-level studies. A review of existing texts of cost analysis and of studies of traditional…

  17. Evaluating the Reliability, Validity, and Usefulness of Education Cost Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies that purport to estimate the costs of constitutionally adequate education have been described as either a "gold standard" that should guide legislative school finance policy design and judicial evaluation, or as pure "alchemy." Methods for estimating the cost of constitutionally adequate education can be roughly…

  18. Evaluating the Reliability, Validity, and Usefulness of Education Cost Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies that purport to estimate the costs of constitutionally adequate education have been described as either a "gold standard" that should guide legislative school finance policy design and judicial evaluation, or as pure "alchemy." Methods for estimating the cost of constitutionally adequate education can be roughly…

  19. NASA Indexing Benchmarks: Evaluating Text Search Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esler, Sandra L.; Nelson, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The current proliferation of on-line information resources underscores the requirement for the ability to index collections of information and search and retrieve them in a convenient manner. This study develops criteria for analytically comparing the index and search engines and presents results for a number of freely available search engines. A product of this research is a toolkit capable of automatically indexing, searching, and extracting performance statistics from each of the focused search engines. This toolkit is highly configurable and has the ability to run these benchmark tests against other engines as well. Results demonstrate that the tested search engines can be grouped into two levels. Level one engines are efficient on small to medium sized data collections, but show weaknesses when used for collections 100MB or larger. Level two search engines are recommended for data collections up to and beyond 100MB.

  20. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman

    2004-01-01

    During the fourth reporting period, the project team investigated the Non-Selective Catalytic Reduction technologies that are in use on rich-burn four-stroke cycle engines. Several engines were instrumented and data collected to obtain a rich set of engine emissions and performance data. During the data collection, the performance of the catalyst under a variety of operating conditions was measured. This information will be necessary to specify a set of sensors that can then be used to reliably implement NSCRs as plausible technologies to reduce NOx emissions for four-stroke cycle engines used in the E&P industry. A complete summary all the technologies investigated to data is included in the report. For each technology, the summary includes a description of the process, the emission reduction that is to be expected, information on the cost of the technology, development status, practical considerations, compatibility with other air pollutant control technologies, and any references used to obtain the information.

  1. Evaluation of the Hanford RI/FS cost projections

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The US Department of Energy-Richland Operations (DOE-RL) tasked the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) to review the cost estimates and implementation process for the Hanford Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program as defined by the Hanford RCRA/CERLA Past Practices Cost Models. The purpose of the review was to determine if there were opportunities to reduce the RI/FS costs at Hanford, with a focus on the approach being taken at Hanford to implement and complete the RI/FS process. This volume contains 4 appendices for the evaluation of the Hanford RI/FS Cost Projections.

  2. Evaluation of heat engines for hybrid vehicle application

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, H.W.

    1984-08-31

    The status of ongoing heat-engine developments, including spark-ignition, compression-ignition, internal-combustion, and external-combustion engines is presented in this report. The potential of engine concepts under consideration for hybrid vehicle use is evaluated, using self-imposed criteria for selection. The deficiencies of the engines currently being evaluated in hybrid vehicles are discussed. The study focuses on recent research with two-stroke, rotary, and free-piston engines and concludes that these engine concepts have the most promising potential for future application in hybrid vehicles. Recommendations are made for analysis and experimentation to evaluate stop-start and transient emission behavior of recommended engine concepts.

  3. [Cost evaluation of two induced labor methods].

    PubMed

    Torres Magret, E; Sánchez Batista, R; Ramírez Pellicer, A M; Deulofeu Betancourt, A I

    1997-01-01

    Two induced labor methods, the venoclysis with oxitocin and the self-stimulation of the nipples, were comparatively evaluated in 2 groups of pregnant women (80) admitted at the Eastern Gyneco-obstetric and Teaching Hospital in Santiago de Cuba during the first semester of 1993. The following variables were calculated: drugs intake, material expenses, length of stay, and quality. A questionnaire was used to collect them. Percent and chi square were applied to these data, which were represented by tables. The self-stimulation of the nipples proved to be the most economical as regards the saving os spendable material and drugs. Hospital stay and the perinatal results connected with the type of labor and the newborn status were similar with both methods.

  4. Configuration evaluation and criteria plan. Volume 1: System trades study and design methodology plan (preliminary). Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, E. K.

    1986-01-01

    The System Trades Study and Design Methodology Plan is used to conduct trade studies to define the combination of Space Shuttle Main Engine features that will optimize candidate engine configurations. This is accomplished by using vehicle sensitivities and engine parametric data to establish engine chamber pressure and area ratio design points for candidate engine configurations. Engineering analyses are to be conducted to refine and optimize the candidate configurations at their design points. The optimized engine data and characteristics are then evaluated and compared against other candidates being considered. The Evaluation Criteria Plan is then used to compare and rank the optimized engine configurations on the basis of cost.

  5. Evaluation of electric vehicle production and operating costs

    SciTech Connect

    Cuenca, R. M.; Gaines, L. L.; Vyas, A. D.

    2000-05-23

    This report presents an analysis of the initial cost of electric vehicles (EVs). The manufacturing and retail cost structure of mature conventional vehicles produced at high volume is analyzed first, and the contributions by various cost categories to vehicle price are estimated. The costs are then allocated to such vehicle component groups as body, chassis, and powertrain. The similarities and differences among various component systems are reviewed. In electric vehicles, an electric drive replaces the conventional powertrain, and a battery pack replaces the fuel system. Three types of traction motors are reviewed, and their cost in high-volume production is analyzed. Various components of the motor and controller package are analyzed, and their representative costs are summarized. Four types of EV batteries are reviewed, and their costs are presented. Various alternatives for the low-, medium-, and high-volume production of EVs are evaluated, and some sample costs are presented. A methodology that estimates initial and operating costs on the basis of this analysis is presented. The methodology also estimates the average lifetime cost of owning and operating an electric vehicle.

  6. Evaluation of Subsurface Engineered Barriers at Waste Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-01

    Evaluation of Subsurface Engineered Barriers at Waste Sites United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste and Emergency...of Subsurface Engineered Barriers at Waste Sites 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...1998 www.epa.gov clu-in.com EVALUATION OF SUBSURFACE ENGINEERED BARRIERS AT WASTE SITES i NOTICE This document was prepared for the U.S. Environmental

  7. Threatened and endangered species: at what cost? The corps of engineers looks at expenditures and priorities.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Jim E; Smith, Jennifer M

    2007-01-01

    Current political conditions, primarily budgetary uncertainty, and the related reluctance to make funding commitments for future generations, have raised questions about the costs of conservation and environmental protection that have not previously been asked. As Federal investments are scrutinized and budgets become ever more constrained, the costs associated with environmental requirements could begin to be of greater importance and to influence decisions on Federal projects. In response to concerns about the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) spending under the Endangered Species Act (P.L. 93-205) (ESA), a limited investigation was performed to determine the accuracy of reported Corps expenditures. The investigation showed that, for particular groups of species, actual conservation costs for threatened and endangered species may be twice the amounts previously reported in the annual ESA expenditure reporting to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. In light of this finding, the Corps has sought a means to provide more accurate and consistent reporting of expenditures for addressing threatened and endangered species. A Species Costs Template (template) has been developed to identify the types and magnitude of costs related to the ESA and to counteract the impediments (legal, institutional, and practical) to underreporting costs. The template will be used by the Corps for reporting ESA costs beginning with Fiscal Year 2005 (FY05) (reported in January 2006). Five broad categories of expenditures (effects determination costs, ESA protection and conservation costs, equipment costs, opportunity costs, and other species costs) are identified by the template.

  8. Standardisation of costs: the Dutch Manual for Costing in economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Oostenbrink, Jan B; Koopmanschap, Marc A; Rutten, Frans F H

    2002-01-01

    The lack of a uniform costing methodology is often considered a weakness of economic evaluations that hinders the interpretation and comparison of studies. Standardisation is therefore an important topic within the methodology of economic evaluations and in national guidelines that formulate the formal requirements for studies to be considered when deciding on the reimbursement of new medical therapies. Recently, the Dutch Manual for Costing: Methods and Standard Costs for Economic Evaluations in Health Care (further referred to as "the manual") has been published, in addition to the Dutch guidelines for pharmacoeconomic research. The objectives of this article are to describe the main content of the manual and to discuss some key issues of the manual in relation to the standardisation of costs. The manual introduces a six-step procedure for costing. These steps concern: the scope of the study;the choice of cost categories;the identification of units;the measurement of resource use;the monetary valuation of units; andthe calculation of unit costs. Each step consists of a number of choices and these together define the approach taken. In addition to a description of the costing process, five key issues regarding the standardisation of costs are distinguished. These are the use of basic principles, methods for measurement and valuation, standard costs (average prices of healthcare services), standard values (values that can be used within unit cost calculations), and the reporting of outcomes. The use of the basic principles, standard values and minimal requirements for reporting outcomes, as defined in the manual, are obligatory in studies that support submissions to acquire reimbursement for new pharmaceuticals. Whether to use standard costs, and the choice of a particular method to measure or value costs, is left mainly to the investigator, depending on the specific study setting. In conclusion, several instruments are available to increase standardisation in

  9. Progress in Documentation: The Evaluation of WWW Search Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheim, C.; Morris, A.; McKnight, C.; Lowley, S.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the literature on Web search engines evaluation, with the aim of identifying some of the issues and problems in this rapidly changing field. Suggests that a standardized set of tools be developed for the evaluation of search engines so comparisons can be made between them more effectively and variations in performance of any given search…

  10. Identification, Characterization, and Evaluation Criteria for Systems Engineering Agile Enablers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-16

    Identification, Characterization, and Evaluation Criteria for Systems Engineering Agile Enablers Technical Report SERC-2015-TR-049-1...Characterization, and Evaluation Criteria for Systems Engineering Agile Enablers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER HQ0034-13-D-0004 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Agile SE, SE Transformation, SE MPT, The

  11. Engine Company Evaluation of Feasibility of Aircraft Retrofit Water-Injected Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    This study supports the NASA Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory in their efforts to evaluate the effect of water injection on aircraft engine performance and emissions. In this study, water is only injected during the takeoff and initial climb phase of a flight. There is no water injection during engine start or ground operations, nor during climb, cruise, descent, or landing. This study determined the maintenance benefit of water injection during takeoff and initial climb and evaluated the feasibility of retrofitting a current production engine, the PW4062 (Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT), with a water injection system. Predicted NO(x) emissions based on a 1:1 water-tofuel ratio are likely to be reduced between 30 to 60 percent in Environmental Protection Agency parameter (EPAP). The maintenance cost benefit for an idealized combustor water injection system installed on a PW4062 engine in a Boeing 747-400ER aircraft (The Boeing Company, Chicago, IL) is computed to be $22 per engine flight hour (EFH). Adding water injection as a retrofit kit would cost up to $375,000 per engine because of the required modifications to the fuel system and addition of the water supply system. There would also be significant nonrecurring costs associated with the development and certification of the system that may drive the system price beyond affordability.

  12. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    The computational techniques are described which are utilized at Lewis Research Center to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements. Cycle performance, and engine weight can be calculated along with costs and installation effects as opposed to fuel consumption alone. Almost any conceivable turbine engine cycle can be studied. These computer codes are: NNEP, WATE, LIFCYC, INSTAL, and POD DRG. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  13. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    The computational techniques are described which are utilized at Lewis Research Center to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements. Cycle performance, and engine weight can be calculated along with costs and installation effects as opposed to fuel consumption alone. Almost any conceivable turbine engine cycle can be studied. These computer codes are: NNEP, WATE, LIFCYC, INSTAL, and POD DRG. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  14. Evaluation of Biodiesel Production, Engine Performance, and Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürü, Metin; Keskïn, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, to decrease environmental pollution and dependence on fossil-based fuels, research on alternative renewable energy sources has been increasing. One such renewable energy source is biodiesel, which is used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly. Biodiesel is domestically produced from vegetable oil (edible or nonedible), animal fat, and used cooking oils. In the biodiesel production process, oil or fat undergoes transesterification reaction through use of simple alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, etc. Use of methanol is most feasible because of its low cost, and physical and chemical advantages. Acid catalysis, alkali catalysis, and enzyme catalysis are usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. Glycerol is a byproduct of the reaction and can be used as an industrial raw material. In this study, biodiesel production methods (direct use, pyrolysis, microemulsion, transesterification, supercritical processes, ultrasound- assisted, and microwave-assisted) and types of catalyst (homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme) have been evaluated and compared. In addition, the effects of biodiesel and its blends on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions are described and reviewed.

  15. The Cost-Income Compenent of Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Norris

    Cost-income studies are designed to serve two functions in instructional program evaluation. First, they act as the indicator of the economic value of a program. This economic value in conjunction with the other educational values needed in program evaluation allow for the most realistic appraisal of program worth. Second, if the studies show a…

  16. Evaluating Training: Return on Investment and Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Maria D.; Munoz, Marco A.

    Training interventions can be evaluated by calculating return on investment (ROI) and cost-benefit analysis. The four-level model proposed by Kirkpatrick is the dominant evaluation model used. Calculating ROI has been a critical issue for trainers and executives, but only a few organizations have implemented the process that is considered as…

  17. Repository Planning, Design, and Engineering: Part II-Equipment and Costing.

    PubMed

    Baird, Phillip M; Gunter, Elaine W

    2016-08-01

    Part II of this article discusses and provides guidance on the equipment and systems necessary to operate a repository. The various types of storage equipment and monitoring and support systems are presented in detail. While the material focuses on the large repository, the requirements for a small-scale startup are also presented. Cost estimates and a cost model for establishing a repository are presented. The cost model presents an expected range of acquisition costs for the large capital items in developing a repository. A range of 5,000-7,000 ft(2) constructed has been assumed, with 50 frozen storage units, to reflect a successful operation with growth potential. No design or engineering costs, permit or regulatory costs, or smaller items such as the computers, software, furniture, phones, and barcode readers required for operations have been included.

  18. Validation of the Algorithms for Base Exchangeable Repair Costs (Engine) and Base Exchangeable Modification Costs (Engine) for the Component Support Cost System (D160B).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    3 of reference (25] shows that this document number S ,includes the SRAN of the shipper. In the case of engines pro- cessed through a "Queen Bee ...believed that this number will iden- tify the base of origin, not the Queen Bee . At the time of generation of this report, this remains to be verified...interpretations. LO 3.2.2.3 Depot Receipts of Engines When an engine is shipped to a depot from a base, or a "Queen Bee " activity, the depot generates a single

  19. Systems Engineering and Program Management. Trends and Costs for Aircraft and Guided Weapons Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Project AIR FORCE PCA Physical Configuration Audit P&D Production and Deployment PDR Preliminary Design Review P3I Preplanned Product Improvement PIN ...Program Management SEPM LOT Lot Cost of SE/PM (in production) SEPM UC Unit Cost of SE/PM (in production) SFR System Functional Review ii SE/PM...perform as intended, without a mission critical failure , for a specified period of time. Maintainability engineers are concerned with the resource re

  20. Evaluating the cost of therapy for restenosis: considerations for brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, W S

    1996-11-01

    Costs have become increasingly important in medicine in recent years as demand for services has outstripped readily available resources. Clinical microeconomics offers an approach to understanding cost and outcomes in an environment of economic scarcity. In this article the types of costs and methods for determining cost are presented. In addition, methods for assessing outcome and outcome in relation to cost are developed. Restenosis after coronary angioplasty is a prime example of a clinical problem requiring economic evaluation. This is because it results in little serious morbidity except for recurrent chest pain, but it has serious economic consequences which occur some time after the original angioplasty. This makes the economic assessment of restenosis complicated. The application of health care microeconomic principles to brachytherapy for restenosis in the coronary arteries is presented.

  1. [Evaluation of landscape connectivity based on least-cost model].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Guang; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Peng-Cheng; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Teng, Ming-Jun; Peng, Li

    2009-08-01

    Landscape connectivity, as a dominant factor affecting species dispersal, reflects the degree to which the landscape facilitates or impedes organisms' movement among resources patches. It is also an important indicator in sustainable land use and biological conservation. Least-cost model originates from graph theory, and integrates the detailed geographical information with organisms' behavioral characteristics in the landscape. Through cost distance analysis, this model can describe the species connectivity in heterogeneous landscape intuitively and visually. Due to the simple algorithm performed in GIS packages and the demand of moderate data information, least-cost model has gained extensive attention in the evaluation of large-scale landscape connectivity. Based on the current studies of landscape connectivity, this paper elaborated the significance, principles, and operation processes of least-cost model in evaluating landscape connectivity, and discussed the existing problems of the model in its practical applications, which would benefit the further related studies and biodiversity conservation.

  2. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2006-12-31

    This report highlights work done on a project intended to lower the cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting for Exploration and Production (E&P) operators by identifying, developing, testing, and commercializing emissions control and monitoring technologies. Promising technologies have already been identified and developed. Current work focuses on testing these promising technologies. Specifically, several technologies are being tested in the laboratory for application to lean-burn engines or fully characterized on-site for use with rich-burn engines. Upon completion of these tests, the most cost-effective and robust technologies will be tested in the field and commercialization will ensue. During this quarter, progress in laboratory testing for lean-burn engines was limited by maintenance issues on the KSU Ajax DP-115. The difficulties that required maintenance to be performed will likely require that the 180 psig prototype valve be tested in the future, if possible. The maintenance was performed, and it is expected that the Ajax will be available for testing in the coming quarter. Although laboratory testing was slowed as a result of maintenance issues, progress in experimental characterization of technologies has been significant. NSCR systems will be characterized as applied to rich-burn engines on-site. This characterization will ensure high-quality data in final field testing on rich-burn engines and is considered to be essential, despite that the work requires the delay of official field testing until 2008. Many preliminary and administrative tasks have been completed, including initial site selection, official proposal submittal, and beginning a process to approve necessary changes to installed field engines.

  3. Standard cost lists for health economic evaluation in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn

    2014-05-01

    This analysis was undertaken to generate a set of standard costs for medical services and those incurred by patient receiving treatment, for use in health economic evaluations. Medical service unit cost data were derived from a survey of 3,091 hospital medical services in five hospitals, disaggregated by type of hospital (district or provincial/regional) and analyzed using the relative value unit method. Patient-borne ambulatory cost values were derived from data gathered through 905 patient interviews that took place in six health centers, three district hospitals, and three provincial/regional hospitals. The survey gathered data on costs a rising from the distance travelled to access the medical service, the time spent in the healthcare facility, as well as travel and meal costs. The analysis generated a set of standard cost data for Thailand that will make conducting economic evaluations more accurate, faster and more convenient, as well as allowing better comparability between studies. This is the first standard cost menu that has been developed specifically for Thailand, and as such should be revised and refined in the future. Some areas that would benefit from revision are suggested.

  4. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume I. Oil-shale retorting process engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-15

    The present volume is the first of a series of three constituting the title study. It provides a brief but thorough description of six Oil Shale Retorting Processes, namely: Paraho, Tosco II, Oxidental Modified In-Situ, Rio Blanco, Union Oil, and Superior Oil. The processes are treated at Unit Operations level, including operations such as Mining, Crushing, Screening, Conveying, Hydrogenation (or Upgrading), Hydrogen Manufacturing Plant, Amine Treating, Low-Btu Gas Treating, Tail Gas Treating, Sulfur Recovery, Wastewater Treatment, Sour Waste Stripping, Refining, Spent Shale Disposal, etc. The present first volume of the study provides most process engineering information required in order for Control Requirements, at specific points of a given unit operations flowsheet, to be fully assessed. Flow sheets for unit operations presented in the present Volume I are only conceptual and qualitative. Some quantitative data on volumeric flow rates of specific flow streams are occasionally given. However, no systematic effort has been presently made to develop a numerical data base on process flow streams. This has been done in a much more systematic and thorough manner in another FMR study performed on behalf of DOE under title Source Terms for the Health and Environmental Effects Document (HEED) for Oil Shale - 1982. Additional original quantitative analysis has been performed by FMR towards developing material balances for specific oil shale feeds into specific retorting processes.

  5. Performance Evaluation of the NEXT Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.; Domonkos, Matthew T.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    The performance test results of three NEXT ion engines are presented. These ion engines exhibited peak specific impulse and thrust efficiency ranges of 4060 4090 s and 0.68 0.69, respectively, at the full power point of the NEXT throttle table. The performance of the ion engines satisfied all project requirements. Beam flatness parameters were significantly improved over the NSTAR ion engine, which is expected to improve accelerator grid service life. The results of engine inlet pressure and temperature measurements are also presented. Maximum main plenum, cathode, and neutralizer pressures were 12,000 Pa, 3110 Pa, and 8540 Pa, respectively, at the full power point of the NEXT throttle table. Main plenum and cathode inlet pressures required about 6 hours to increase to steady-state, while the neutralizer required only about 0.5 hour. Steady-state engine operating temperature ranges throughout the power throttling range examined were 179 303 C for the discharge chamber magnet rings and 132 213 C for the ion optics mounting ring.

  6. Evaluation of the cost of atrial fibrillation during emergency hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Pirson, Magali; Di Pierdomenico, Lionel; Gusman, Julie; Baré, Benoît; Fontaine, David; Motte, Serge

    2013-10-01

    The number of hospitalizations for atrial fibrillation has increased dramatically. This increase, in the number of hospital stays will continue, given the growth projections based on epidemiological data, and will contribute to significantly increase expenses for the social security system.The objective of this study was to evaluate the length of hospital stay, the average cost borne by social security, and the types of hospital stay expenditures for patients admitted through the emergency department for atrial fibrillation. Patients were identified by using the minimal clinical summaries of seven general hospitals in Belgium in 2008. Only hospitalized patients having as primary diagnosis code ICD-9-CM 42731 'atrial fibrillation'were selected for this study. Hospital billing files were analysed in order to isolate the costs borne by social security. Outliers were isolated in order not to have results influenced by patients having an atypical length of stay. Results show that the mean length of stay was 8.6 days and the mean cost charged to social security was euro 3,066.02 per hospital stay.The mean cost of care was strongly associated with the degree of severity index related to the APR-DRG. Approximately 85% of the total cost was related to the cost of hospital days and medical procedures with medical imaging and laboratory tests being the two main cost inductors. 18% of patients had cardioversion during their hospital stay, including 4% who had only that treatment. 19% of patients used amiodarone. Flecainide and propafenone were also used, but less frequently. The mean cost of care for AF patients admitted via the emergency department is strongly associated with the degree of severity. Approximately 85% of the total cost is related to the cost of hospital days and medical procedures. Hypertension is the most common secondary diagnosis. An optimal treatment of this risk factor could help to reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation, and thereby reduce the morbidity

  7. Improving environmental impact and cost assessment for supplier evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beucker, Severin; Lang, Claus

    2004-02-01

    Improving a company"s environmental and financial performance necessitates the evaluation of environmental impacts deriving from the production and cost effects of corporate actions. These effects have to be made transparent and concrete targets have to be developed. Such an evaluation has to be done on a regular basis but with limited expenses. To achieve this, different instruments of environmental controlling such as LCA and environmental performance indicators have to be combined with methods from cost accounting. Within the research project CARE (Computer Aided Resource Efficiency Accounting for Medium-Sized Enterprises), the method Resource Efficiency Accounting (REA) is used to give the participating companies new insights into hidden costs and environmental effects of their production and products. The method combines process based cost accounting with environmental impact assessment methodology and offers results that can be integrated into a company"s environmental controlling system and business processes like cost accounting, supplier assessment, etc. Much of the data necessary for the combined assessment can be available within a company"s IT system and therefore can be efficiently used for the assessment process. The project CARE puts a strong focus on the use of company data and information systems for the described assessment process and offers a methodological background for the evaluation and the structuring of such data. Besides the general approach of the project CARE the paper will present results from a case study in which the described approach is used for the evaluation of suppliers.

  8. ENGINEERING EVALUATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION WITH SULFUR RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    G.W. ROBERTS; J.W. PORTZER; S.C. KOZUP; S.K. GANGWAL

    1998-05-31

    Engineering evaluations and economic comparisons of two hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) processes with elemental sulfur recovery, being developed by Research Triangle Institute, are presented. In the first process, known as the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), the SO{sub 2} tail gas from air regeneration of zinc-based HGD sorbent is catalytically reduced to elemental sulfur with high selectivity using a small slipstream of coal gas. DSRP is a highly efficient first-generation process, promising sulfur recoveries as high as 99% in a single reaction stage. In the second process, known as the Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP), the zinc-based HGD sorbent is modified with iron so that the iron portion of the sorbent can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} . This is followed by air regeneration to fully regenerate the sorbent and provide the required SO{sub 2} for iron regeneration. This second-generation process uses less coal gas than DSRP. Commercial embodiments of both processes were developed. Process simulations with mass and energy balances were conducted using ASPEN Plus. Results show that AHGP is a more complex process to operate and may require more labor cost than the DSRP. Also capital costs for the AHGP are higher than those for the DSRP. However, annual operating costs for the AHGP appear to be considerably less than those for the DSRP with a potential break-even point between the two processes after just 2 years of operation for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant using 3 to 5 wt% sulfur coal. Thus, despite its complexity, the potential savings with the AHGP encourage further development and scaleup of this advanced process.

  9. Building Models to Better Understand the Importance of Cost versus Safety in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William; Mott, Michael

    2010-01-01

    While some disasters involving engineered structures are due to events in nature (e.g., tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes), others may be caused by inadequate materials, design flaws, and poor maintenance. These catastrophes result in the loss of human lives and cost billions of dollars. In the set of lessons described here, students design a…

  10. Three Phases of Low-Cost Rocket Engine Demonstration Program Completed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the TRW Space & Technology Group have successfully completed three phases of testing on the Low-Cost Roc ket Engine Demonstration Program. TRW and the McDonnell Douglas Corpo ration are working, in a joint effort, to quickly develop and produce a highly stable, inexpensive, simple, yet reliable, expendable launc h vehicle.

  11. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Professional Accreditation by ABET for Baccalaureate Engineering Degree Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Faye Sui Yee

    2012-01-01

    Tightening fiscal budgets and the growing emphasis on accountability has created a need to assess the value that programmatic accreditation provides. For degrees in engineering, ABET is the only organization recognized in the U.S. responsible for the programmatic accreditation. This research examines the costs and benefits of ABET accreditation to…

  12. Building Models to Better Understand the Importance of Cost versus Safety in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William; Mott, Michael

    2010-01-01

    While some disasters involving engineered structures are due to events in nature (e.g., tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes), others may be caused by inadequate materials, design flaws, and poor maintenance. These catastrophes result in the loss of human lives and cost billions of dollars. In the set of lessons described here, students design a…

  13. Low Cost Propulsion Technology at the Marshall Space Flight Center: Fastrac Engine and the Propulsion Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Mark F.; Ise, Michael R.

    1998-01-01

    The need for low cost access to space has initiated the development of low cost liquid rocket engine and propulsion system hardware at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The engine, the 60,000 lbf, RP-1 and LOX Fastrac Engine has been designed as a robust, low cost liquid rocket engine with applications for X-34 as well as future low cost booster systems. The engine is a turbopump fed, gas generator cycle, rocket motor with an ablative nozzle. The Propulsion Test Article (PTA) is a test bed for low cost propulsion system hardware including a composite RP-1 tank, flight feedlines and pressurization system, stacked in a booster configuration. A general description of the PTA and the Fastrac engine is given, with emphasis on the technical specification of the hardware including flow rates, pressures and other operating conditions. The process which has been used for the design and integration of this hardware is described.

  14. Low Cost Propulsion Technology at the Marshall Space Flight Center: Fastrac Engine and the Propulsion Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Mark F.; Ise, Michael R.

    1998-01-01

    The need for low cost access to space has initiated the development of low cost liquid rocket engine and propulsion system hardware at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The engine, the 60,000 lbf, RP-1 and LOX Fastrac Engine has been designed as a robust, low cost liquid rocket engine with applications for X-34 as well as future low cost booster systems. The engine is a turbopump fed, gas generator cycle, rocket motor with an ablative nozzle. The Propulsion Test Article (PTA) is a test bed for low cost propulsion system hardware including a composite RP-1 tank, flight feedlines and pressurization system, stacked in a booster configuration. A general description of the PTA and the Fastrac engine is given, with emphasis on the technical specification of the hardware including flow rates, pressures and other operating conditions. The process which has been used for the design and integration of this hardware is described.

  15. Evaluation of the STM4-120 kinematic Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linker, Kevin L.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Smith, Greg

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Program has identified the Stirling cycle heat engine as the conversion device for dish-electric systems with the most potential for meeting the program's goals. To advance the technology toward commercialization in a dish-electric system, Sandia National Laboratories has acquired a Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc. kinematic Stirling engine, STM4-120, for evaluation. During the past year this engine has been operating at Sandia's Engine Test Facility. The engine's heat input was provided through fossil fuel combustion and sodium heat pipes, while the output power was absorbed with an eddy-current dynamometer. The evaluation of the engine performance during the past year is presented.

  16. Classification and moral evaluation of uncertainties in engineering modeling.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Colleen; Gardoni, Paolo; Harris, Charles E

    2011-09-01

    Engineers must deal with risks and uncertainties as a part of their professional work and, in particular, uncertainties are inherent to engineering models. Models play a central role in engineering. Models often represent an abstract and idealized version of the mathematical properties of a target. Using models, engineers can investigate and acquire understanding of how an object or phenomenon will perform under specified conditions. This paper defines the different stages of the modeling process in engineering, classifies the various sources of uncertainty that arise in each stage, and discusses the categories into which these uncertainties fall. The paper then considers the way uncertainty and modeling are approached in science and the criteria for evaluating scientific hypotheses, in order to highlight the very different criteria appropriate for the development of models and the treatment of the inherent uncertainties in engineering. Finally, the paper puts forward nine guidelines for the treatment of uncertainty in engineering modeling.

  17. Energy Efficient Engine Program technology benefit/cost study, volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.E.; Gardner, W.B.

    1983-10-01

    In a benefit/cost study to identify turbofan engine technologies required for the years 2000 to 2010, the benefits of those technologies were formulated, and programs for developing the technologies required for that time period were formulated. It is shown that there are still many potential benefits to be realized from the advancement of gas turbine engine technology. Preliminary technology concepts that might be amenable to future development were ranked. Cycle studies, flowpath definition studies, and mechancial configuration studies were used to identify and establish the feasibility of the technologies that would be required in the 2000 to 2010 time frame. It is shown that a turbofan engine with advancements in aerodynamics, mechanical arrangements, and materials offers significant performance improvements over 1988 technology. The benefits of the technologies are assessed using fuel burn and direct operating cost plus interest (DOC+I).

  18. Operational Issues in the Development of a Cost-Effective Reusable LOX/LH2 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Space Launch Initiative (SLI) was initiated in early 2001 to conduct technology development and to reduce the business and technical risk associated with developing the next-generation reusable launch system. In the field of main propulsion, two LOXLH2 rocket engine systems, the Pratt & Whitney / Aerojet Joint Venture (JV) COBRA and the Rocketdyne RS-83, were funded to develop a safe, economical, and reusable propulsion system. Given that a large-thrust reusable rocket engine program had not been started in the U.S. since 1971, with the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), this provided an opportunity to build on the experience developed on the SSME system, while exploiting advances in technology that had occurred in the intervening 30 years. One facet of engine development that was identified as being especially vital in order to produce an optimal system was in the areas of operability and maintainability. In order to achieve the high levels of performance required by the Space Shuttle, the SSME system is highly complex with very tight tolerances and detailed requirements. Over the lifetime of the SSME program, the engine has required a high level of manpower to support the performance of inspections, maintenance (scheduled and unscheduled) and operations (prelaunch and post-flight). As a consequence, the labor- intensive needs of the SSME provide a significant impact to the overall cost efficiency of the Space Transportation System (STS). One of the strategic goals of the SLI is to reduce cost by requiring the engine(s) to be easier (Le. less expensive) to operate and maintain. The most effective means of accomplishing this goal is to infuse the operability and maintainability features into the engine design from the start. This paper discusses some of the operational issues relevant to a reusable LOx/LH2 main engine, and the means by which their impact is mitigated in the design phase.

  19. Evaluating cost benefits of combination therapies for advanced melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Ivar S.; Zacherle, Emily; Blanchette, Christopher M.; Zhang, Jie; Yin, Wes

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although a number of monoimmunotherapies and targeted therapies are available to treat BRAF+ advanced melanoma, response rates remain relatively low in the range of 22–53% with progression-free survival (PFS) in the range of 4.8–8.8 months. Recently, combination targeted therapies have improved response rates to about 66–69%, PFS to 11.0–12.6 months and overall survival (OS) to 25.1–25.6 months. While combination immunotherapies have improved response rates of 67 compared with 19–29% with monotherapies and improved PFS of 11.7 compared with 4.4–5.8 months with monotherapies, the OS benefit is yet to be established in phase 3 trials. As healthcare costs continue to rise, US payers have a predominant interest in assessing the value of available treatments. Therefore, a cost-benefit model was developed to evaluate the value of treating BRAF+ advanced melanoma with two combination therapies: nivolumab + ipilimumab (N+I) and dabrafenib + trametinib (D+T). Scope: The model was used to estimate total costs, total costs by expenditure category, cost per month of PFS and cost per responder for the payer, and societal perspectives of treating advanced melanoma patients with the BRAF V600 mutation using combination targeted therapy (D+T) or combination immunotherapy (N+I). The model followed patients from initiation of treatment to the point of progression or death. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the results and to understand the dispersion of simulated results. Findings: Based on a hypothetical payer with one million covered lives, it was expected that fourteen metastatic melanoma patients with the BRAF V600 mutation would be treated each year. Cost-benefit with N+I and D+T was simulated from the payer perspective. The cost per month of PFS for N+I was $22,162, while that for D+T was $17,716 (−$4,446 cost difference); the cost per responder for N+I was $388,746 and that for D+T was

  20. Fuzzy/Neural Software Estimates Costs of Rocket-Engine Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Freddie; Bourgeois, Edit Kaminsky

    2005-01-01

    The Highly Accurate Cost Estimating Model (HACEM) is a software system for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center. HACEM is built on a foundation of adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) a hybrid software concept that combines the adaptive capabilities of neural networks with the ease of development and additional benefits of fuzzy-logic-based systems. In ANFIS, fuzzy inference systems are trained by use of neural networks. HACEM includes selectable subsystems that utilize various numbers and types of inputs, various numbers of fuzzy membership functions, and various input-preprocessing techniques. The inputs to HACEM are parameters of specific tests or series of tests. These parameters include test type (component or engine test), number and duration of tests, and thrust level(s) (in the case of engine tests). The ANFIS in HACEM are trained by use of sets of these parameters, along with costs of past tests. Thereafter, the user feeds HACEM a simple input text file that contains the parameters of a planned test or series of tests, the user selects the desired HACEM subsystem, and the subsystem processes the parameters into an estimate of cost(s).

  1. An Exploratory Study of Cost Engineering in Axiomatic Design: Creation of the Cost Model Based on an FR-DP Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Taesik; Jeziorek, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Large complex projects cost large sums of money throughout their life cycle for a variety of reasons and causes. For such large programs, the credible estimation of the project cost, a quick assessment of the cost of making changes, and the management of the project budget with effective cost reduction determine the viability of the project. Cost engineering that deals with these issues requires a rigorous method and systematic processes. This paper introduces a logical framework to a&e effective cost engineering. The framework is built upon Axiomatic Design process. The structure in the Axiomatic Design process provides a good foundation to closely tie engineering design and cost information together. The cost framework presented in this paper is a systematic link between the functional domain (FRs), physical domain (DPs), cost domain (CUs), and a task/process-based model. The FR-DP map relates a system s functional requirements to design solutions across all levels and branches of the decomposition hierarchy. DPs are mapped into CUs, which provides a means to estimate the cost of design solutions - DPs - from the cost of the physical entities in the system - CUs. The task/process model describes the iterative process ot-developing each of the CUs, and is used to estimate the cost of CUs. By linking the four domains, this framework provides a superior traceability from requirements to cost information.

  2. Materials Development Program, Ceramic Technology Project addendum to program plan: Cost effective ceramics for heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This is a new thrust in the Ceramic Technology project. This effort represents an expansion of the program and an extension through FY 1997. Moderate temperature applications in conventional automobile and truck engines will be included along with high-temp. gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The reliability goals are expected to be met on schedule by end of FY 1993. Ceramic turbine rotors have been run (in DOE`s ATTAP program) for 1000 h at 1370C and full speed. However, the cost of ceramic components is a deterrrent to near-term commercialization. A systematic approach to reducing this cost includes the following elements: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, and testing and data base development. A draft funding plan is outlined. 6 figs, 1 tab.

  3. Materials Development Program, Ceramic Technology Project addendum to program plan: Cost effective ceramics for heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This is a new thrust in the Ceramic Technology project. This effort represents an expansion of the program and an extension through FY 1997. Moderate temperature applications in conventional automobile and truck engines will be included along with high-temp. gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The reliability goals are expected to be met on schedule by end of FY 1993. Ceramic turbine rotors have been run (in DOE's ATTAP program) for 1000 h at 1370C and full speed. However, the cost of ceramic components is a deterrrent to near-term commercialization. A systematic approach to reducing this cost includes the following elements: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, and testing and data base development. A draft funding plan is outlined. 6 figs, 1 tab.

  4. The effectiveness of insurer-supported safety and health engineering controls in reducing workers' compensation claims and costs.

    PubMed

    Wurzelbacher, Steven J; Bertke, Stephen J; Lampl, Michael P; Bushnell, P Timothy; Meyers, Alysha R; Robins, David C; Al-Tarawneh, Ibraheem S

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a program in which a workers' compensation (WC) insurer provided matching funds to insured employers to implement safety/health engineering controls. Pre- and post-intervention WC metrics were compiled for the employees designated as affected by the interventions within 468 employers for interventions occurring from 2003 to 2009. Poisson, two-part, and linear regression models with repeated measures were used to evaluate differences in pre- and post-data, controlling for time trends independent of the interventions. For affected employees, total WC claim frequency rates (both medical-only and lost-time claims) decreased 66%, lost-time WC claim frequency rates decreased 78%, WC paid cost per employee decreased 81%, and WC geometric mean paid claim cost decreased 30% post-intervention. Reductions varied by employer size, specific industry, and intervention type. The insurer-supported safety/health engineering control program was effective in reducing WC claims and costs for affected employees. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Effectiveness of Insurer-Supported Safety and Health Engineering Controls in Reducing Workers’ Compensation Claims and Costs

    PubMed Central

    Wurzelbacher, Steven J.; Bertke, Stephen J.; Lampl, Michael P.; Bushnell, P. Timothy; Meyers, Alysha R.; Robins, David C.; Al-Tarawneh, Ibraheem S.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the effectiveness of a program in which a workers’ compensation (WC) insurer provided matching funds to insured employers to implement safety/health engineering controls. Methods Pre- and post-intervention WC metrics were compiled for the employees designated as affected by the interventions within 468 employers for interventions occurring from 2003 to 2009. Poisson, two-part, and linear regression models with repeated measures were used to evaluate differences in pre- and post-data, controlling for time trends independent of the interventions. Results For affected employees, total WC claim frequency rates (both medical-only and lost-time claims) decreased 66%, lost-time WC claim frequency rates decreased 78%, WC paid cost per employee decreased 81%, and WC geometric mean paid claim cost decreased 30% post-intervention. Reductions varied by employer size, specific industry, and intervention type. Conclusions The insurer-supported safety/health engineering control program was effective in reducing WC claims and costs for affected employees. PMID:25223846

  6. Automating the Human Factors Engineering and Evaluation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mastromonico, C.

    2002-05-28

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed a software tool for automating the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) design review, analysis, and evaluation processes. The tool provides a consistent, cost effective, graded, user-friendly approach for evaluating process control system Human System Interface (HSI) specifications, designs, and existing implementations. The initial set of HFE design guidelines, used in the tool, was obtained from NUREG- 0700. Each guideline was analyzed and classified according to its significance (general concept vs. supporting detail), the HSI technology (computer based vs. non-computer based), and the HSI safety function (safety vs. non-safety). Approximately 10 percent of the guidelines were determined to be redundant or obsolete and were discarded. The remaining guidelines were arranged in a Microsoft Access relational database, and a Microsoft Visual Basic user interface was provided to facilitate the HFE design review. The tool also provides the capability to add new criteria to accommodate advances in HSI technology and incorporate lessons learned. Summary reports produced by the tool can be easily ported to Microsoft Word and other popular PC office applications. An IBM compatible PC with Microsoft Windows 95 or higher is required to run the application.

  7. Global cost and weight evaluation of fuselage keel design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, B. W.; Morris, M. R.; Metschan, S. L.; Swanson, G. D.; Smith, P. J.; Griess, K. H.; Schramm, M. R.; Humphrey, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Boeing program entitled Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structure (ATCAS) is focused on the application of affordable composite technology to pressurized fuselage structure of future aircraft. As part of this effort, a design study was conducted on the keel section of the aft fuselage. A design build team (DBT) approach was used to identify and evaluate several design concepts which incorporated different material systems, fabrication processes, structural configurations, and subassembly details. The design concepts were developed in sufficient detail to accurately assess their potential for cost and weight savings as compared with a metal baseline representing current wide body technology. The cost and weight results, along with an appraisal of performance and producibility risks, are used to identify a globally optimized keel design; one which offers the most promising cost and weight advantages over metal construction. Lastly, an assessment is given of the potential for further cost and weight reductions of the selected keel design during local optimization.

  8. Re-Evaluating Directive Commentary in an Engineering Activity System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Martha Davis; Taylor, Summer Smith

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the writing of 30 engineering students, faculty response, students' reading of the response, subsequent revision, and faculty evaluation to ask what factors contribute to constructive conversation about writing. It affirms previous research that suggests engineering faculty do not provide the facilitative commentary widely…

  9. Knowledge Engineering for Young Scholars. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Gloria T.

    The Knowledge Engineering for Young Scholars (KEYS) Program was a National Science Foundation (NSF) program conducted at Louisiana State University during 1989 and 1990. The program's goals were to increase 8th-12th grade students' exposure to science, acquaint them with university research, stimulate interest in science, and build their…

  10. Life-Cycle-Cost Evaluation on Degradation Diagnosis for Cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimakage, Toyonari; Wu, Kai; Kato, Takeyoshi; Okamoto, Tatsuki; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    Degradation diagnosis is aimed at preventing unexpected failure and extending the service life of electric power apparatuses. It is, however, necessary to investigate the economic feasibility of degradation diagnosis, because the life-cycle cost of cable maintenance changes with the diagnostic parameters such as diagnosis cost, diagnosis interval and replacement criterion. In this paper, based on the actual data of water-tree degradation, we proposed a method of life-cycle-cost evaluation and evaluated the economic effect of degradation diagnosis. We also discussed the economic feasibility of practical nondestructive diagnosis of 6.6 kV XLPE cable, i. e. DC leakage current measurement and residual charge measurement, and compared the economic effects of these methods. As a result, the residual charge measurement is economically feasible and has higher effectiveness than the DC leakage current measurement.

  11. Building Alaska's Science and Engineering Pipeline: Evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Hamutal; Martin, Carlos; Eyster, Lauren; Anderson, Theresa; Owen, Stephanie; Martin-Caughey, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The Urban Institute conducted an implementation and participant-outcomes evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP). ANSEP is a multi-stage initiative designed to prepare and support Alaska Native students from middle school through graduate school to succeed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)…

  12. Radar Evaluation Report. A Technical and Cost Analysis of the German Air Force MPR Radar Antenna Boresighting Requirement,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-24

    AD-A09 025 RADAR EVALUATION SQUADRON (TECHNICAL) (1954TH) HILL -ETC F/6 1717m RADAR EVALUATION REPORT. A TECHNICAL AND COST ANALYSIS OF THE B-ETC(U...UNCLASSIFIED 7 MARflffa flL fl..fl.N RADAR EVALUATION REPORT (U) DTIC jfELECTrEp - MAY 5 1981 A 1bA4 -TR 4 L~~ 1954TH ’ rlRADAR EVALUATION SQUADRON...TECHNICAL AND COST ANALYSIS OF THE GERMAN AIR FORCE MPR RADAR ANTENNA BORESIGHTING REQUIREMENT A comprehensive Engineering Report Presented to the Faculty

  13. A Flexible, Low Cost, Beam Loss Monitor Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyes, George Garnet; Pimol, Piti; Juthong, Nawin; Attaphibal, Malee

    2007-01-19

    A flexible, low cost, Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) Evaluation System based on Bergoz BLMs has been developed. Monitors can easily be moved to any location for beam loss investigations and/or monitor usefulness evaluations. Different PC pulse counting cards are compared and tested for this application using the display software developed based on LabVIEW. Beam problems uncovered with this system are presented.

  14. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced material technologies for small aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comey, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Cost/benefit studies were conducted on ten advanced material technologies applicable to small aircraft gas turbine engines to be produced in the 1985 time frame. The cost/benefit studies were applied to a two engine, business-type jet aircraft in the 6800- to 9100-Kg (15,000- to 20,000-lb) gross weight class. The new material technologies are intended to provide improvements in the areas of high-pressure turbine rotor components, high-pressure turbine rotor components, high-pressure turbine stator airfoils, and static structural components. The cost/benefit of each technology is presented in terms of relative value, which is defined as a change in life cycle cost times probability of success divided by development cost. Technologies showing the most promising cost/benefits based on relative value are uncooled single crystal MAR-M 247 turbine blades, cooled DS MAR-M 247 turbine blades, and cooled ODS 'M'CrAl laminate turbine stator vanes.

  15. US-Based Drug Cost Parameter Estimation for Economic Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Levy, Joseph F; Meek, Patrick D; Rosenberg, Marjorie A

    2015-07-01

    In the United States, more than 10% of national health expenditures are for prescription drugs. Assessing drug costs in US economic evaluation studies is not consistent, as the true acquisition cost of a drug is not known by decision modelers. Current US practice focuses on identifying one reasonable drug cost and imposing some distributional assumption to assess uncertainty. We propose a set of Rules based on current pharmacy practice that account for the heterogeneity of drug product costs. The set of products derived from our Rules, and their associated costs, form an empirical distribution that can be used for more realistic sensitivity analyses and create transparency in drug cost parameter computation. The Rules specify an algorithmic process to select clinically equivalent drug products that reduce pill burden, use an appropriate package size, and assume uniform weighting of substitutable products. Three diverse examples show derived empirical distributions and are compared with previously reported cost estimates. The shapes of the empirical distributions among the 3 drugs differ dramatically, including multiple modes and different variation. Previously published estimates differed from the means of the empirical distributions. Published ranges for sensitivity analyses did not cover the ranges of the empirical distributions. In one example using lisinopril, the empirical mean cost of substitutable products was $444 (range = $23-$953) as compared with a published estimate of $305 (range = $51-$523). Our Rules create a simple and transparent approach to creating cost estimates of drug products and assessing their variability. The approach is easily modified to include a subset of, or different weighting for, substitutable products. The derived empirical distribution is easily incorporated into 1-way or probabilistic sensitivity analyses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Using an Electronic Spreadsheet to Cut Costs in Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robert; Steele, Sara

    A microcomputer spreadsheet software package can be used for a variety of tasks to manage a program or research project and to cut costs in evaluation. LOTUS 1 2 3 is a versatile, commonly available, and well-known electronic spreadsheet package. Spreadsheets were originally designed to emulate financial ledgers and balance sheets. They are useful…

  17. A Decision Support Framework for Evaluation of Engineered Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are currently being developed and applied at rates that far exceed our ability to evaluate their potential for environmental or human health risks. The gap between material development and capacity for assessment grows wider every day. Transforma...

  18. A Decision Support Framework for Evaluation of Engineered Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are currently being developed and applied at rates that far exceed our ability to evaluate their potential for environmental or human health risks. The gap between material development and capacity for assessment grows wider every day. Transforma...

  19. Hubble Space Telescope: cost reduction by re-engineering telemetry processing and archiving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miebach, Manfred P.

    1998-05-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the first of NASA's Great Observatories, was launched on April 24, 1990. The HST was designed for a minimum fifteen-year mission with on-orbit servicing by the Space Shuttle System planned at approximately three-year intervals. Major changes to the HST ground system are planned to be in place for the third servicing mission in December 1999. The primary objectives of the ground system reengineering effort, a project called 'vision December 1999. The primary objectives of the ground system re-engineering effort, a project called 'vision 2000 control center systems (CCS)', are to reduce both development and operating costs significantly for the remaining years of HST's lifetime. Development costs will be reduced by providing a modern hardware and software architecture and utilizing commercial of f the shelf (COTS) products wherever possible. Operating costs will be reduced by eliminating redundant legacy systems and processes and by providing an integrated ground system geared toward autonomous operation. Part of CCS is a Space Telescope Engineering Data Store, the design of which is based on current Data Warehouse technology. The purpose of this data store is to provide a common data source of telemetry data for all HST subsystems. This data store will become the engineering data archive and will include a queryable database for the user to analyze HST telemetry. The access to the engineering data in the Data Warehouse is platform- independent from an office environment using commercial standards. Latest internet technology is used to reach the HST engineering community. A WEB-based user interface allows easy access to the data archives. This paper will provide a high level overview of the CCS system and will illustrate some of the CCS telemetry capabilities. Samples of CCS user interface pages will be given. Vision 2000 is an ambitious project, but one that is well under way. It will allow the HST program to realize reduced

  20. A human factors evaluation using tools for automated knowledge engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomes, Marie E.; Lind, Stephanie

    1994-01-01

    A human factors evaluation of the MH-53J helicopter cockpit is described. This evaluation was an application and futher development of Tools for Automated Knowledge Engineering (TAKE). TAKE is used to acquire and analyze knowledge from domain experts (aircrew members, system designers, maintenance personnel, human factors engineers, or others). TAKE was successfully utilized for the purpose of recommending improvements for the man-machine interfaces (MMI) in the MH-53J cockpit.

  1. A cost benefit analysis of professional accreditation by ABET for baccalaureate engineering degree programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Faye Sui Yee

    Tightening fiscal budgets and the growing emphasis on accountability has created a need to assess the value that programmatic accreditation provides. For degrees in engineering, ABET is the only organization recognized in the U.S. responsible for the programmatic accreditation. This research examines the costs and benefits of ABET accreditation to baccalaureate engineering programs in 4-year degree granting institutions. Engineering department heads, or a designee, completed an online survey containing Likert items, open-ended questions, and multiple-choice questions that addressed the costs and benefits of ABET accreditation. The greatest benefits in pursuing accreditation are the recognition and prestige programs receive and the increased career opportunities for graduates. The greatest costs are time, resources (human capital), and effort due to an over cumbersome process and ambiguous expectations. These factors likely cause programs to perceive the cost of ABET accreditation to slightly exceed the benefits. This research will further discuss the implications of the findings and propose areas for future research.

  2. Benefit/Cost Ratio in Systems Engineering: Integrated Models, Tests, Design, and Production

    SciTech Connect

    Nitta, C; Logan, R; Chidester, S; Foltz, M F

    2004-10-27

    We have previously described our methodology for quantification of risk and risk reduction, and the use of risk, quantified as a dollar value, in the Value Engineering and decision tradeoff process. In this work we extend our example theme of the safety of reactive materials during accidental impacts. We have begun to place the validation of our impact safety model into a systems engineering context. In that sense, we have made connections between the data and the trends in the data, our models of the impact safety process, and the implications regarding confidence levels and reliability based on given impact safety requirements. We have folded this information into a quantitative risk assessment, and shown the assessed risk reduction value of developing an even better model, with more model work or more experimental data or both. Since there is a cost incurred for either model improvement or testing, we have used a Benefit/Cost Ratio metric to quantify this, where Benefit is our quantification of assessed risk reduction, and cost is the cost of the new test data, code development, and model validation. This has left us with further questions posed for our evolving system engineering representation for impact safety and its implications. We had concluded that the Benefit/Cost Ratio for more model validation was high, but such improvement could take several paths. We show our progress along two such paths; simple and high fidelity modeling of the impact safety process, and the implications of our knowledge and assumptions of the probability distribution functions involved. At the other end of the systems engineering scale, we discuss the implications of our linkage from model validation to risk on our production plant operations. Naturally, the nature of most such methodologies is still evolving, and this work represents the views of the authors and not necessarily the views of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  3. Cost/benefit studies of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines: Materials for advanced turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, M.; Wilbers, L.

    1982-01-01

    Cost benefit studies were conducted on six advanced materials and processes technologies applicable to commercial engines planned for production in the 1985 to 1990 time frame. These technologies consisted of thermal barrier coatings for combustor and high pressure turbine airfoils, directionally solidified eutectic high pressure turbine blades, (both cast and fabricated), and mixers, tail cones, and piping made of titanium-aluminum alloys. A fabricated titanium fan blisk, an advanced turbine disk alloy with improved low cycle fatigue life, and a long-life high pressure turbine blade abrasive tip and ceramic shroud system were also analyzed. Technologies showing considerable promise as to benefits, low development costs, and high probability of success were thermal barrier coating, directionally solidified eutectic turbine blades, and abrasive-tip blades/ceramic-shroud turbine systems.

  4. CAIRSENSE Study: Real-world evaluation of low cost sensors ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Low-cost air pollution sensors are a rapidly developing field in air monitoring. In recent years, numerous sensors have been developed that can provide real-time concentration data for different air pollutants at costs accessible to individuals and non-regulatory groups. Additionally, these sensors have the potential to improve the spatial resolution of monitoring networks and provide a better understanding of neighborhood- and local-scale air quality and sources. However, many new sensors have not been evaluated to determine their long-term performance and capabilities. In this study, nine different low-cost sensor models, including O3, NO2 and particle sensors, were deployed in Denver, CO from September 2015 to February 2016. Three sensors of each type were deployed to evaluate instrument precision and consistency over the time period. Sensors were co-located with reference monitors at the Denver NCore site in order to evaluate sensor accuracy and precision. Denver was chosen as the location for this study to evaluate sensor performance in dry, high altitude, and low winter temperatures. Sensors were evaluated for data completeness, performance over time, and comparison with regulatory monitors. This presentation will also address challenges and approaches to data logging and processing. Preliminary analysis revealed that most sensors had high data completeness when data loggers were operational (e.g., the Aeroqual O3 sensor ranged from 94-100%), and exhibited

  5. CAIRSENSE Study: Real-world evaluation of low cost sensors ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Low-cost air pollution sensors are a rapidly developing field in air monitoring. In recent years, numerous sensors have been developed that can provide real-time concentration data for different air pollutants at costs accessible to individuals and non-regulatory groups. Additionally, these sensors have the potential to improve the spatial resolution of monitoring networks and provide a better understanding of neighborhood- and local-scale air quality and sources. However, many new sensors have not been evaluated to determine their long-term performance and capabilities. In this study, nine different low-cost sensor models, including O3, NO2 and particle sensors, were deployed in Denver, CO from September 2015 to February 2016. Three sensors of each type were deployed to evaluate instrument precision and consistency over the time period. Sensors were co-located with reference monitors at the Denver NCore site in order to evaluate sensor accuracy and precision. Denver was chosen as the location for this study to evaluate sensor performance in dry, high altitude, and low winter temperatures. Sensors were evaluated for data completeness, performance over time, and comparison with regulatory monitors. This presentation will also address challenges and approaches to data logging and processing. Preliminary analysis revealed that most sensors had high data completeness when data loggers were operational (e.g., the Aeroqual O3 sensor ranged from 94-100%), and exhibited

  6. Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar: Research Perspectives in COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    can be used by GPR operators to identify the signatures generated by uncommon targets or by composite structures. Repeated evaluations of the electromagnetic field scattered by known targets can be performed by a forward solver, in order to estimate - through comparison with measured data - the physics and geometry of the region investigated by the GPR. It is possible to identify three main areas, in the GPR field, that have to be addressed in order to promote the use of this technology in the civil engineering. These are: a) increase of the system sensitivity to enable the usability in a wider range of conditions; b) research novel data processing algorithms/analysis tools for the interpretation of GPR results; c) contribute to the development of new standards and guidelines and to training of end users, that will also help to increase the awareness of operators. In this framework, the COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar", proposed by Lara Pajewski, "Roma Tre" University, Rome, Italy, has been approved in November 2012 and is going to start in April 2013. It is a 4-years ambitious project already involving 17 European Countries (AT, BE, CH, CZ, DE, EL, ES, FI, FR, HR, IT, NL, NO, PL, PT, TR, UK), as well as Australia and U.S.A. The project will be developed within the frame of a unique approach based on the integrated contribution of University researchers, software developers, geophysics experts, Non-Destructive Testing equipment designers and producers, end users from private companies and public agencies. The main objective of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of systems. In this interdisciplinary Action, advantages and limitations of GPR will be highlighted, leading to the identification of gaps in knowledge and technology

  7. Microcomputer Software Engineering, Documentation and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-31

    microcomputer program called "EVAL." 4.1 The Evaluation Methodology At the core of EVAL lies an evaluation methodology known as multi-attribute utility theory ...Agent (RITA) : Reference Manual. Santa Monica, California: The Rand Corporation, December 1976. Edwards, W. "How to Use Multiattribute Utility ...structured programming, unconventional docu- mentation, and multi-attribute utility -based software evaluation. The general methods employed include software

  8. Cost Evaluation Method of Wind Turbine Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichita, Hajime; Takahashi, Rion; Tamura, Junji; Kimura, Mamoru; Ichinose, Masaya; Futami, Moto-O.; Ide, Kazumasa

    In recent years, many wind turbine generation systems (WTGSs) have been installed in many countries from a point of view of grobal environment due to CO2 emission. But wind turbine generator output and annual energy production are dependent on wind characteristic of each area and a kind of WTGS. Authors' previous paper presented the analyses about annual electrical energy production and capacity facotor of WTGS for each area with different wind data. This paper presents a method to calculate each cost of WTGS component such as drive train system, generator and other equipments, and also to evaluate generation cost obtained from WTGS cost and annual electrical energy production. Based on these results, the optimal kind of WTGS can be determined for each installation area from an economical point of view.

  9. Multimodal evaluation of tissue-engineered cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Joseph M.; Welter, Jean F.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) has promise as a biological solution and a disease modifying treatment for arthritis. Although cartilage can be generated by TE, substantial inter- and intra-donor variability makes it impossible to guarantee optimal, reproducible results. TE cartilage must be able to perform the functions of native tissue, thus mechanical and biological properties approaching those of native cartilage are likely a pre-requisite for successful implantation. A quality-control assessment of these properties should be part of the implantation release criteria for TE cartilage. Release criteria should certify that selected tissue properties have reached certain target ranges, and should be predictive of the likelihood of success of an implant in vivo. Unfortunately, it is not currently known which properties are needed to establish release criteria, nor how close one has to be to the properties of native cartilage to achieve success. Achieving properties approaching those of native cartilage requires a clear understanding of the target properties and reproducible assessment methodology. Here, we review several main aspects of quality control as it applies to TE cartilage. This includes a look at known mechanical and biological properties of native cartilage, which should be the target in engineered tissues. We also present an overview of the state of the art of tissue assessment, focusing on native articular and TE cartilage. Finally, we review the arguments for developing and validating non-destructive testing methods for assessing TE products. PMID:23606823

  10. Cost/feasibility considerations for off-shore engineering/construction

    SciTech Connect

    Sturges, R.K.; Harrison, J.G. )

    1988-01-01

    Considerable construction activity is now occurring in areas of the world where in-country engineering/construction capability is limited. This limitation requires the use of off-shore capabilities in conjunction with local engineering contractors (LEC's) to satisfy local legal requirements for use of on-shore services. While LEC's can provide the advantage of relatively inexpensive labor, it also brings the challenge of managing an international team given the difference in productivity and cultures. Procurement of equipment worldwide also has advantages and disadvantages. Government regulations relative to equipment purchased off-shore can be complex. Shipping considerations are significant when the existing infrastructure is taken into account, particularly when modular construction techniques are utilized. Understanding the contractual and documentation required takes a major effort. This paper addresses the complexities of off-shore engineering/construction from a management and cost perspective.

  11. Energy efficient engine program technology benefit/cost study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.E.; Gardner, W.B.

    1983-10-01

    Under the NASA sponsored Energy Efficient Engine Program, Pratt and Whitney completed the Benefit/Cost Study to identify turbofan engine technologies required for the years 2000 to 2010, to assess the benefits of those technologies, and to formulate programs for developing the technologies required for that time period. The results verified that there are still many potential benefits to be realized from the advancement of gas turbine technology. The initial effort was to screen and rank preliminary technology concepts that might be amenable to future development. Cycle studies, flowpath definition studies, and mechanical configuration studies were then used to identify and establish the feasibility of the technologies that would be required in the 2000 to 2010 time frame. These efforts showed that a turbofan engine with advancements in aerodynamics, mechanical arrangements, and materials offered significant performance improvements over 1988 technology. The benefits of the technologies were assessed using fuel burn and direct operating cost plus interest (DOC+I). These concepts could yield thrust specific fuel consumption benefits of almost 16 percent, fuel burn benefits of up to 24 percent and DOC+I benefits of up to 14 percent in a long-range airplane relative to Energy Efficient Engine technology levels. Technology development programs were formulated and recommended to realize those benefits.

  12. National Aerospace Plane Engine Seals: High Temperature Seal Performance Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1991-01-01

    The key to the successful development of the single stage to orbit National Aerospace Plane (NASP) is the successful development of combined cycle ramjet/scramjet engines that can propel the vehicle to 17,000 mph to reach low Earth orbit. To achieve engine performance over this speed range, movable engine panels are used to tailor engine flow that require low leakage, high temperature seals around their perimeter. NASA-Lewis is developing a family of new high temperature seals to form effective barriers against leakage of extremely hot (greater than 2000 F), high pressure (up to 100 psi) flow path gases containing hydrogen and oxygen. Preventing backside leakage of these explosive gas mixtures is paramount in preventing the potential loss of the engine or the entire vehicle. Seal technology development accomplishments are described in the three main areas of concept development, test, and evaluation and analytical development.

  13. Criteria for evaluating alternative MEDLINE search engines.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M; Edwards, A; Graves, R S; Johnson, E D

    1998-01-01

    With so many options available for searching MEDLINE on the World Wide Web or as a component of an online service, evaluation criteria are suggested as a means of assisting librarians in determining the positive and negative aspects of alternative MEDLINE sites. A set of searches was utilized to systematically compare MEDLINE sites. Sites evaluated included Avicenna, America Online, HealthGate, PubMed, Medscape, and Physicians' Online. Some features used to evaluate these sites were: default fields; operators (default); access to MeSH; subheadings; stop words protected in MeSH; truncation; and stemming. This article will describe the group process used to arrive at the evaluation criteria, as well as some general conclusions which will help librarians in directing their users to a particular MEDLINE site.

  14. A multi agent system model for evaluating quality service of Clinical Engineering Department.

    PubMed

    Gaetano, Laura; Balestra, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical technology is strategically important to the operational effectiveness of healthcare facilities. As a consequence, clinical engineers have become an essential figure in hospital environment: their role in maintenance, support, evaluation, integration, assessment of new, advanced and complex technologies in point of view of patient safety and cost reduction is become inalienable. For this reason, nations have begun to establish Clinical Engineering Department, but, unfortunately, in a very diversified and fragmented way. So, a tool able to evaluate and improve the quality of current services is needed. Hence, this work builds a model that acts as a reference tool in order to assess the quality of an existing Clinical Engineering Department, underlining its defaulting aspects and suggesting improvements.

  15. Engineering evaluation of a sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perdue, D. G.; Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    An engineering evaluation of thermal energy storage prototypes was performed in order to assess the development status of latent heat storage media. The testing and the evaluation of a prototype sodium hydroxide module is described. This module stored off-peak electrical energy as heat for later conversion to domestic hot water needs.

  16. EVALUATION OF A LOW FRICTION - HIGH EFFICIENCY ROLLER BEARING ENGINE

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarik, Robert V. II; Shattuck, Charles W.; Copper, Anthony P.

    2009-06-30

    This Low Friction (High Efficiency Roller Bearing) Engine (LFE) report presents the work done by The Timken Company to conduct a technology demonstration of the benefits of replacing hydrodynamic bearings with roller bearings in the crankshaft and camshaft assemblies of an internal combustion engine for the purpose of collecting data sufficient to prove merit. The engines in the present study have been more extensively converted to roller bearings than any previous studies (40 needle roller bearings per engine) to gain understanding of the full potential of application of bearing technology. The project plan called for comparative testing of a production vehicle which was already respected for having demonstrated low engine friction levels with a rollerized version of that engine. Testing was to include industry standard tests for friction, emissions and fuel efficiency conducted on instrumented dynamometers. Additional tests for fuel efficiency, cold start resistance and other measures of performance were to be made in the actual vehicle. Comparative measurements of noise, vibration and harshness (NVH), were planned, although any work to mitigate the suspected higher NVH level in the rollerized engine was beyond the scope of this project. Timken selected the Toyota Avalon with a 3.5L V-6 engine as the test vehicle. In an attempt to minimize cost and fabrication time, a ‘made-from’ approach was proposed in which as many parts as possible would be used or modified from production parts to create the rollerized engine. Timken commissioned its test partner, FEV Engine Technology, to do a feasibility study in which they confirmed that using such an approach was possible to meet the required dimensional restrictions and tolerances. In designing the roller bearing systems for the crank and cam trains, Timken utilized as many production engine parts as possible. The crankshafts were produced from production line forgings, which use Timken steel, modified with special

  17. Energy efficient engine flight propulsion system: Aircraft/engine integration evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Patt, R.F.

    1980-06-01

    Results of aircraft/engine integration studies conducted on an advanced flight propulsion system are reported. Economic evaluations of the preliminary design are included and indicate that program goals will be met. Installed sfc, DOC, noise, and emissions were evaluated. Aircraft installation considerations and growth were reviewed.

  18. Energy efficient engine flight propulsion system: Aircraft/engine integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Results of aircraft/engine integration studies conducted on an advanced flight propulsion system are reported. Economic evaluations of the preliminary design are included and indicate that program goals will be met. Installed sfc, DOC, noise, and emissions were evaluated. Aircraft installation considerations and growth were reviewed.

  19. System engineering and energy costs of small and medium wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, P K.C.

    1985-07-01

    A preliminary system-level, computational model was developed to allow broad assessment and optimization of wind turbine design and costs analysis at The Wind Energy Research Center, Solar Energy Research Institute under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper briefly describes the basic principles used in the model for energy capture and cost-of-energy (COE), and demonstrates the model's usefulness in determining the effects of rotor and system design modifications. The model's utilization for conducting parametric studies and defining the energy cost of small and medium-sized wind turbines is also shown. Topics of interest to wind turbine engineers and designers include the effects on rotor performance of airfoil geometry, blade pitch angle setting, and the system RPM schedule, etc.

  20. Technology Needs for Reduced Design and Manufacturing Cost of Commercial Transport Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, Douglas A.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the needs in the design and manufacturing processes and identify areas where technology could impact in cost and cycle-time reduction. At the highest level, the team first identified the goals that were in line with long-range needs of the aeropropulsion industry, and to which technology and process improvements would be required to contribute. These goals are to reduce the time and costs in the development cycle of aircraft engines by a factor of two, reduce production cycle time by a factor of four, and to reduce production costs by 25%. Also, it was the intent of the team to identify the highest impact technologies that could be developed and demonstrated in five years.

  1. Technology Needs for Reduced Design and Manufacturing Cost of Commercial Transport Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, Douglas A.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the needs in the design and manufacturing processes and identify areas where technology could impact in cost and cycle-time reduction. At the highest level, the team first identified the goals that were in line with long-range needs of the aeropropulsion industry, and to which technology and process improvements would be required to contribute. These goals are to reduce the time and costs in the development cycle of aircraft engines by a factor of two, reduce production cycle time by a factor of four, and to reduce production costs by 25%. Also, it was the intent of the team to identify the highest impact technologies that could be developed and demonstrated in five years.

  2. Advanced Low-Cost O2/H2 Engines for the SSTO Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goracke, B. David; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Nixon, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The recent NASA Access to Space study examined future Earth to orbit (ETO) transportation needs and fleets out to 2030. The baseline in the option 3 assessment was a single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicle. A study was conducted to assess the use of new advanced low cost O2/H2 engines for this SSTO application. The study defined baseline configurations and ground rules and defined six engine cycles to explore engine performance. The cycles included an open cycle, and a series of closed cycles with varying abilities to extract energy from the propellants to power he turbomachinery. The cycles thus varied in the maximum chamber pressure they could reach and in their weights at any given chamber pressure. The weight of each cycle was calculated for two technology levels versus chamber pressure up to the power limit of the cycle. The performance in the SSTO mission was then modeled using the resulting engine weights and specific impulse performance using the Access to Space option 3 vehicle. The results showed that new O2/H2 engines are viable and competitive candidates for the SSTO application using chamber pressures of 4,000 psi.

  3. Evaluations that Consider the Cost of Educational Programs: The Contribution of High-Quality Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Barkaoui, Khaled; Scott, Garth

    2007-01-01

    Cost studies are program evaluations that judge program worth by relating program costs to program benefits. There are three sets of strategies: cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility analysis, although the last appears infrequently. The authors searched relevant databases to identify 103 cost studies in education and then reduced the…

  4. Apollo experience report: Data management for postflight engineering evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, G. B., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The Apollo management of data for postflight engineering evaluation is described. The sources of Apollo telemetry data, the control of data processing by a single data team, the data techniques used to assist in evaluation of the large quantity of data, and the operation of the data team before the mission and during the evaluation phase are described. The techniques used to ensure the output of valid data and to determine areas in which data were of questionable quality are also included.

  5. Evaluation of ceramics for stator application: Gas turbine engine report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trela, W.; Havstad, P. H.

    1978-01-01

    Current ceramic materials, component fabrication processes, and reliability prediction capability for ceramic stators in an automotive gas turbine engine environment are assessed. Simulated engine duty cycle testing of stators conducted at temperatures up to 1093 C is discussed. Materials evaluated are SiC and Si3N4 fabricated from two near-net-shape processes: slip casting and injection molding. Stators for durability cycle evaluation and test specimens for material property characterization, and reliability prediction model prepared to predict stator performance in the simulated engine environment are considered. The status and description of the work performed for the reliability prediction modeling, stator fabrication, material property characterization, and ceramic stator evaluation efforts are reported.

  6. Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  7. Ceramic automotive Stirling engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  8. Nanoparticle risk management and cost evaluation: a general framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Dominique; Bomfim, João A. S.; Metz, Sébastien; Bouillard, Jacques X.; Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-01

    Industrial production of nano-objects has been growing fast during the last decade and a wide range of products containing nanoparticles (NPs) is proposed to the public in various markets (automotive, electronics, textiles...). The issues encountered in monitoring the presence of nano-objects in any media cause a major difficulty for controlling the risk associated to the production stage. It is therefore very difficult to assess the efficiency of prevention and mitigation solutions, which potentially leads to overestimate the level of the protection barriers that are recommended. The extra costs in adding nano-objects to the process, especially that of nanosafety, must be estimated and optimized to ensure the competitiveness of the future production lines and associated products. The risk management and cost evaluation methods presented herein have been designed for application in a pilot production line of injection-moulded nanocomposites.

  9. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The computational techniques utilized to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements are described. The characteristics and use of the following computer codes are discussed: (1) NNEP - a very general cycle analysis code that can assemble an arbitrary matrix fans, turbines, ducts, shafts, etc., into a complete gas turbine engine and compute on- and off-design thermodynamic performance; (2) WATE - a preliminary design procedure for calculating engine weight using the component characteristics determined by NNEP; (3) POD DRG - a table look-up program to calculate wave and friction drag of nacelles; (4) LIFCYC - a computer code developed to calculate life cycle costs of engines based on the output from WATE; and (5) INSTAL - a computer code developed to calculate installation effects, inlet performance and inlet weight. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight, and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  10. Safety effects of low-cost engineering measures. An observational study in a Portuguese multilane road.

    PubMed

    Vieira Gomes, Sandra; Cardoso, João Lourenço

    2012-09-01

    Single carriageway multilane roads are not, in general, a very safe type of road, mainly because of the high number of seriously injured victims in head-on collisions, when compared with dual carriageway multilane roads, with a median barrier. In this paper the results of a study on the effect of the application of several low cost engineering measures, aimed at road infrastructure correction and road safety improvement on a multilane road (EN6), are presented. The study was developed by the National Laboratory of Civil Engineering (LNEC) for the Portuguese Road Administration and involved a comparison of selected aspects of motorized traffic behaviour (traffic volumes and speeds) measured in several sections of EN6, as well as monitoring of road safety developments in the same road. The applied low cost engineering measures allowed a reduction of 10% in the expected annual number of personal injury accidents and a 70% decrease in the expected annual number of head-on collisions; the expected annual frequency of accidents involving killed and seriously injured persons was reduced by 26%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Engineering Halomonas TD01 for the low-cost production of polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Tan, Dan; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Jin-Chun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2014-11-01

    The halophile Halomonas TD01 and its derivatives have been successfully developed as a low-cost platform for the unsterile and continuous production of chemicals. Therefore, to increase the genetic engineering stability of this platform, the DNA restriction/methylation system of Halomonas TD01 was partially inhibited. In addition, a stable and conjugative plasmid pSEVA341 with a high-copy number was constructed to contain a LacI(q)-Ptrc system for the inducible expression of multiple pathway genes. The Halomonas TD01 platform, was further engineered with its 2-methylcitrate synthase and three PHA depolymerases deleted within the chromosome, resulting in the production of the Halomonas TD08 strain. The overexpression of the threonine synthesis pathway and threonine dehydrogenase made the recombinant Halomonas TD08 able to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) or PHBV consisting of 4-6 mol% 3-hydroxyvalerate or 3 HV, from various carbohydrates as the sole carbon source. The overexpression of the cell division inhibitor MinCD during the cell growth stationary phase in Halomonas TD08 elongated its shape to become at least 1.4-fold longer than its original size, resulting in enhanced PHB accumulation from 69 wt% to 82 wt% in the elongated cells, further promoting gravity-induced cell precipitations that simplify the downstream processing of the biomass. The resulted Halomonas strains contributed to further reducing the PHA production cost. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation and ranking of candidate ceramic wafer engine seal materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1991-01-01

    Modern engineered ceramics offer high temperature capabilities not found in even the best superalloy metals. The high temperature properties of several selected ceramics including aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride are reviewed as they apply to hypersonic engine seal design. A ranking procedure is employed to objectively differentiate among four different monolithic ceramic materials considered, including: a cold-pressed and sintered aluminum oxide; a sintered alpha-phase silicon carbide; a hot-isostatically pressed silicon nitride; and a cold-pressed and sintered silicon nitride. This procedure is used to narrow the wide range of potential ceramics considered to an acceptable number for future detailed and costly analyses and tests. The materials are numerically scored according to their high temperature flexural strength; high temperature thermal conductivity; resistance to crack growth; resistance to high heating rates; fracture toughness; Weibull modulus; and finally according to their resistance to leakage flow, where materials having coefficients of thermal expansion closely matching the engine panel material resist leakage flow best. The cold-pressed and sintered material (Kyocera SN-251) ranked the highest in the overall ranking especially when implemented in engine panels made of low expansion rate materials being considered for the engine, including Incoloy and titanium alloys.

  13. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Hohn; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2011-08-31

    This final report describes a project intended to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by E&P operators to significantly lower their cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. Technologies were installed and tested in controlled laboratory situations and then installed and tested on field engines based on the recommendations of an industry-based steering committee, analysis of installed horsepower, analysis of available emissions control and monitoring technologies, and review of technology and market gaps. The industry-recognized solution for lean-burn engines, a low-emissions-retrofit including increased airflow and pre-combustion chambers, was found to successfully control engine emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) and carbon monoxide (CO). However, the standard non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) system recognized by the industry was found to be unable to consistently control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. The standard NSCR system was observed to produce emissions levels that changed dramatically on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis. Because difficulties with this system seemed to be the result of exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensors that produced identical output for very different exhaust gas conditions, models were developed to describe the behavior of the EGO sensor and an alternative, the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. Meanwhile, an integrated NSCR system using an advanced, signal-conditioned UEGO sensor was tested and found to control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. In conjunction with this project, advanced monitoring technologies, such as Ion Sense, and improved sensors for emissions control, such as the AFM1000+ have been developed and commercialized.

  14. Evaluation of engine coolant recycling processes: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, W.H.

    1999-08-01

    Engine coolant recycling continues to provide solutions to both economic and environmental challenges often faced with the disposal of used engine coolant. General Motors` Service Technology Group (STG), in a continuing effort to validate the general practice of recycling engine coolants, has conducted an in-depth study on the capabilities of recycled coolants. Various recycling processes ranging from complex forms of fractional distillation to simple filtration were evaluated in this study to best represent the current state of coolant recycling technology. This study incorporates both lab and (limited) fleet testing to determine the performance capabilities of the recycled coolants tested. While the results suggest the need for additional studies in this area, they reveal the true capabilities of all types of engine coolant recycling technologies.

  15. Expert System Approach For Generating And Evaluating Engine Design Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Stewart N. T.; Chew, Meng-Sang; Issa, Ghassan F.

    1989-03-01

    Artificial intelligence is becoming an increasingly important subject of study for computer scientists, engineering designers, as well as professionals in other fields. Even though AI technology is a relatively new discipline, many of its concepts have already found practical applications. Expert systems, in particular, have made significant contributions to technologies in such fields as business, medicine, engineering design, chemistry, and particle physics. This paper describes an expert system developed to aid the mechanical designer with the preliminary design of variable-stroke internal-combustion engines. The expert system accomplished its task by generating and evaluating a large number of design alternatives represented in the form of graphs. Through the application of structural and design rules directly to the graphs, optimal and near optimal preliminary design configurations of engines are deduced.

  16. A practical model for economic evaluation of tissue-engineered therapies.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tien-En; Peh, Gary S L; Finkelstein, Eric A; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-engineered therapies are being developed across virtually all fields of medicine. Some of these therapies are already in clinical use, while others are still in clinical trials or the experimental phase. Most initial studies in the evaluation of new therapies focus on demonstration of clinical efficacy. However, cost considerations or economic viability are just as important. Many tissue-engineered therapies have failed to be impactful because of shortcomings in economic competitiveness, rather than clinical efficacy. Furthermore, such economic viability studies should be performed early in the process of development, before significant investment has been made. Cost-minimization analysis combined with sensitivity analysis is a useful model for the economic evaluation of new tissue-engineered therapies. The analysis can be performed early in the development process, and can provide valuable information to guide further investment and research. The utility of the model is illustrated with the practical real-world example of tissue-engineered constructs for corneal endothelial transplantation. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Evaluation of activity-based costing versus resource-based relative value costing.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Mark F; Smith, Tommy H

    2004-01-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and relative value units costing (RVU) are two approaches that a practice manager can use to determine the cost of physician services. Each costing approach has features that provide distinction as well as differentiation in the cost estimates that are estimated. This paper will provide cost estimates under each approach along with cost estimates under a hybrid approach that merges features from each costing approach known as the ABC-RVU costing technique. A comparison of the results will be provided.

  18. A quantitative evaluation of the public response to climate engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Malcolm J.; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Feetham, Pamela M.

    2014-02-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations continue to increase, with CO2 passing 400 parts per million in May 2013. To avoid severe climate change and the attendant economic and social dislocation, existing energy efficiency and emissions control initiatives may need support from some form of climate engineering. As climate engineering will be controversial, there is a pressing need to inform the public and understand their concerns before policy decisions are taken. So far, engagement has been exploratory, small-scale or technique-specific. We depart from past research to draw on the associative methods used by corporations to evaluate brands. A systematic, quantitative and comparative approach for evaluating public reaction to climate engineering is developed. Its application reveals that the overall public evaluation of climate engineering is negative. Where there are positive associations they favour carbon dioxide removal (CDR) over solar radiation management (SRM) techniques. Therefore, as SRM techniques become more widely known they are more likely to elicit negative reactions. Two climate engineering techniques, enhanced weathering and cloud brightening, have indistinct concept images and so are less likely to draw public attention than other CDR or SRM techniques.

  19. Rocketdyne Development of RBCC Engine for Low Cost Access to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortwerth, P.; Ratekin, G.; Goldman, A.; Emanuel, M.; Ketchum, A.; Horn, M.

    1997-01-01

    Rocketdyne is pursuing the conceptual design and development of a Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine for booster and SSTO, advanced reusable space transportation ARTT systems under contract with NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The Rocketdyne concept is fixed geometry integrated Rocket, Ram Scramjet which is Hydrogen fueled and uses Hydrogen regenerative cooling. Vision vehicle integration studies have determined that scramjet operation to Mach 12 has high payoff for low cost reusable space transportation. Rocketdyne is internally developing versions of the concept for other applications in high speed aircraft and missiles with Hydrocarbon fuel systems. Subscale engine ground testing is underway for all modes of operation from takeoff to Mach 8. High altitude Rocket only mode tests will be completed as part of the ground test program to validate high expansion ratio performance. A unique feature of the ground test series is the inclusion of dynamic trajectory simulation with real time Mach number, altitude, engine throttling, and RBCC mode changes in a specially modified freejet test facility at GASL. Preliminary cold flow Air Augmented Rocket mode test results and Short Combustor tests have met program goals and have been used to integrate all modes of operation in a single combustor design with a fixed geometry inlet for design confirmation tests. A water cooled subscale engine is being fabricated and installed for test beginning the last quarter of 1997.

  20. Low-cost solar collector test and evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, C M

    1983-01-01

    Project was to test and evaluate a highly efficient low cost solar collector and to make this technology available to the average homeowner. The basic collector design was for use in mass production, so approximately forty collector panels were made for testing and to make it simple to be hand built. The collectors performed better than expected and written and visual material was prepared to make construction easier for a first time builder. Publicity was generated to make public aware of benefits with stories by Associated Press and in publications like Popular Science.

  1. Flight System Testbed for Low Cost Spacecraft Interface Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casani, E.; Thomas, N.

    1994-01-01

    A world leader in space technology, JPL has over 30 years experience in developing spacecraft systems and managing deep space missions for NASA. Future scientific missions will require the rapid development of small, lightweight, high-technology, low-cost spacecraft. JPL is developing a method of meeting these requirements: a test facility specifically for supporting a rapid prototyping development environment that creates a virtual (simulated) spacecraft in which system-level evaluations of components can be carried out very early in the development cycle, long before an actual spacecraft is built.

  2. Energy technologies evaluated against climate targets using a cost and carbon trade-off curve.

    PubMed

    Trancik, Jessika E; Cross-Call, Daniel

    2013-06-18

    Over the next few decades, severe cuts in emissions from energy will be required to meet global climate-change mitigation goals. These emission reductions imply a major shift toward low-carbon energy technologies, and the economic cost and technical feasibility of mitigation are therefore highly dependent upon the future performance of energy technologies. However, existing models do not readily translate into quantitative targets against which we can judge the dynamic performance of technologies. Here, we present a simple, new model for evaluating energy-supply technologies and their improvement trajectories against climate-change mitigation goals. We define a target for technology performance in terms of the carbon intensity of energy, consistent with emission reduction goals, and show how the target depends upon energy demand levels. Because the cost of energy determines the level of adoption, we then compare supply technologies to one another and to this target based on their position on a cost and carbon trade-off curve and how the position changes over time. Applying the model to U.S. electricity, we show that the target for carbon intensity will approach zero by midcentury for commonly cited emission reduction goals, even under a high demand-side efficiency scenario. For Chinese electricity, the carbon intensity target is relaxed and less certain because of lesser emission reductions and greater variability in energy demand projections. Examining a century-long database on changes in the cost-carbon space, we find that the magnitude of changes in cost and carbon intensity that are required to meet future performance targets is not unprecedented, providing some evidence that these targets are within engineering reach. The cost and carbon trade-off curve can be used to evaluate the dynamic performance of existing and new technologies against climate-change mitigation goals.

  3. Cost/benefit assessment of the application of composite materials to subsonic commercial transport engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.; Signorelli, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Results from a number of studies concerned with the cost and benefits of applying advanced composite materials to commercial turbofan engines are summarized. For each application area the optimistic and pessimistic benefit projections were averaged to arrive at a projected yearly percentage fuel savings for a commercial fleet of advanced technology transport aircraft. Engine components included in the summary are the fan section which includes fan blades, fan frame/case, and the blade containment ring; the nacelle; and the high pressure turbine blades and vanes. The projected fuel savings resulting from the application of composites are 1.85 percent for the fan section, 1.75 percent for the nacelle, and 2.35 percent for the high pressure turbine.

  4. Evaluation of APACHE II for cost containment and quality assurance.

    PubMed Central

    Civetta, J M; Hudson-Civetta, J A; Nelson, L D

    1990-01-01

    APACHE II (an acronym formed from acute physiology score and chronic health evaluation) has been proposed to limit intensive care unit (ICU) admissions ('cost containment') and to judge outcome ('quality assurance') of surgical patients. To judge its performance, a 6-month study of 372 surgical ICU patients was performed. When patients were divided by mean duration of stay, mortality rates rose from 1% (short stay) to 19% (long stay) (p less than 0.001) for patients with APACHE II scores less than 10, but decreased from 94% (short stay) to 60% (long stay) (p less than 0.01) for patients with APACHE II scores more than 24. Exclusion of patients by high or low APACHE scores would 'save' 6% of ICU days but risk increasing morbidity, hospital costs, and deaths. Grouped APACHE II scores did not correlate with total hospital charges (r = 0.05, p = 0.89) or ICU days used (r = 0.42, p = 0.17). Grouping by APACHE II score and duration of ICU stay showed neither symmetry nor uniformity of mortality rates. Surgical patients would not be well served by APACHE II for quality assurance or cost containment. PMID:2396881

  5. A framework for improving the cost-effectiveness of DSM program evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenblick, R.; Eto, J.

    1995-09-01

    The prudence of utility demand-side management (DSM) investments hinges on their performance, yet evaluating performance is complicated because the energy saved by DSM programs can never be observed directly but only inferred. This study frames and begins to answer the following questions: (1) how well do current evaluation methods perform in improving confidence in the measurement of energy savings produced by DSM programs; (2) in view of this performance, how can limited evaluation resources be best allocated to maximize the value of the information they provide? The authors review three major classes of methods for estimating annual energy savings: tracking database (sometimes called engineering estimates), end-use metering, and billing analysis and examine them in light of the uncertainties in current estimates of DSM program measure lifetimes. The authors assess the accuracy and precision of each method and construct trade-off curves to examine the costs of increases in accuracy or precision. Several approaches for improving evaluations for the purpose of assessing program cost effectiveness are demonstrated. The methods can be easily generalized to other evaluation objectives, such as shared savings incentive payments.

  6. Performance of an annual combustor designed for a low-cost turbojet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fear, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    Performance tests were conducted on a combustor designed for use in a low-cost turbojet engine. Low-cost features included the use of very inexpensive simplex fuel nozzles and combustor liners of perforated sheet material. Combustion efficiencies at the altitude-cruise and sea-level design points were approximately 94 and 96 percent, respectively. The combustor isothermal total-pressure loss was 8.8 percent at the altitude-cruise-condition diffuser-inlet Mach number of 0.335. The combustor-exit temperature pattern factor was less than 0.3 at the altitude-cruise, sea-level-cruise, and sea-level-static design conditions. The combustor-exit average radial temperature profiles at all conditions were in very good agreement with the design profile. The intense mixing required because of the very high combustor heat-release rate had an adverse effect on ignition capability at altitude windmilling design conditions.

  7. Evaluation of Engineered Pichia stipitis Strains for Ethanol Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the fermentation capabilities of five strains of Pichia stipitis that had been engineered for xylose fermentation to ethanol by USDA, ARS, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research. The strains tested were P. stipitis WT-1-11, WT-1-2, 14-2-6, 22-1-1, and 22-1-12. Strains w...

  8. Data driven uncertainty evaluation for complex engineered system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Boyuan; Huang, Shuangxi; Fan, Wenhui; Xiao, Tianyuan; Humann, James; Lai, Yuyang; Jin, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Complex engineered systems are often difficult to analyze and design due to the tangled interdependencies among their subsystems and components. Conventional design methods often need exact modeling or accurate structure decomposition, which limits their practical application. The rapid expansion of data makes utilizing data to guide and improve system design indispensable in practical engineering. In this paper, a data driven uncertainty evaluation approach is proposed to support the design of complex engineered systems. The core of the approach is a data-mining based uncertainty evaluation method that predicts the uncertainty level of a specific system design by means of analyzing association relations along different system attributes and synthesizing the information entropy of the covered attribute areas, and a quantitative measure of system uncertainty can be obtained accordingly. Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to get the uncertainty extrema, and the possible data distributions under different situations is discussed in detail. The uncertainty values can be normalized using the simulation results and the values can be used to evaluate different system designs. A prototype system is established, and two case studies have been carried out. The case of an inverted pendulum system validates the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the case of an oil sump design shows the practicability when two or more design plans need to be compared. This research can be used to evaluate the uncertainty of complex engineered systems completely relying on data, and is ideally suited for plan selection and performance analysis in system design.

  9. Evaluation of Current Assessment Methods in Engineering Entrepreneurship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purzer, Senay; Fila, Nicholas; Nataraja, Kavin

    2016-01-01

    Quality assessment is an essential component of education that allows educators to support student learning and improve educational programs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current state of assessment in engineering entrepreneurship education. We identified 52 assessment instruments covered in 29 journal articles and conference…

  10. Development of a Supplemental Evaluation for Engineering Design Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesay, Glen A.; Rogge, Renee D.; Dee, Kay C.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to the learning that occurs in most engineering courses, the learning that occurs in design courses is more dependent on students, and less dependent on instructors. Because typical course evaluations are instructor-centric and do not provide information about students' contributions to their learning, we developed a supplemental…

  11. Evaluation of the Arizona health care cost-containment system

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Nelda; Henton, Douglas; Crane, Michael; Haber, Susan; Freund, Deborah; Wrightson, William

    1985-01-01

    This article evaluates Arizona's alternative to the acute portion of Medicaid, the Arizona Health Care Cost-Containment System (AHCCCS), during its first 18 months of operation from October 1982 through March 1984. It focuses on the program's implementation and describes and evaluates the program's innovative features. The features of the program outlined in the original AHCCCS legislation included: Competitive bidding, prepaid capitation of providers, capitation of the State by the Health Care Financing Administration, assignment of gatekeepers, beneficiary copayment, private administration, inclusion of private and public employees and county financed long-term care. An assessment of implementation during the second 18 months of the program reporting on more recent developments and is now being prepared by SRI International. PMID:10311438

  12. Cost-of-illness studies: a guide to critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Larg, Allison; Moss, John R

    2011-08-01

    Cost-of-illness (COI) studies aim to assess the economic burden of health problems on the population overall, and they are conducted for an ever widening range of health conditions and geographical settings. While they attract much interest from public health advocates and healthcare policy makers, inconsistencies in the way in which they are conducted and a lack of transparency in reporting have made interpretation difficult, and have ostensibly limited their usefulness. Yet there is surprisingly little in the literature to assist the non-expert in critically evaluating these studies. This article aims to provide non-expert readers with a straightforward guide to understanding and evaluating traditional COI studies. The intention is to equip a general audience with an understanding of the most important issues that influence the validity of a COI study, and the ability to recognize the most common limitations in such work.

  13. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation, Engineering and Development of Advanced Cyclone Processes'' is a research and development project for the reduction of pyritic sulfur in coal. Project goals are to remove 80 to 90% of the ash and pyritic sulfur while retaining 80 to 90% of the parent coal's heating value. A number of media and media separator options are to be evaluated and tested, culminating with the implementation of the preferred combination in a 1,000 lb/hr bench-scale process optimization circuit.

  14. Energy Cost of Running Instability Evaluated with Wearable Trunk Accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Schütte, Kurt Heinrich; Sackey, Saint; Venter, Rachel; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2017-07-27

    Maintaining stability under dynamic conditions is an inherent challenge to bipedal running. This challenge may impose an energetic cost (Ec) thus hampering endurance running performance, yet the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Wireless tri-axial trunk accelerometry is a simple tool that could be used to unobtrusively evaluate these mechanisms. Here, we test a cost of instability hypothesis by examining the contribution of trunk accelerometry-based measures (tri-axial root mean square, step and stride regularity, and sample entropy) to inter-individual variance in Ec (kcal.km-1) during treadmill running. Accelerometry and indirect calorimetry data were collected concurrently from 30 recreational runners (16 men; 14 women) running at their highest steady-state running speed (80.65 ± 5.99% VO2 max). After reducing dimensionality with factor analysis, the effect of dynamic stability features on Ec was evaluated using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Three accelerometry-based measures could explain an additional 10.4% of inter-individual variance in Ec after controlling for body mass, attributed to anteroposterior stride regularity (5.2%), anteroposterior RMS ratio (3.2%), and mediolateral sample entropy (2.0%). Our results lend support to a cost of instability hypothesis, with trunk acceleration waveform signals that are 1) more consistent between strides anteroposterioly, 2) larger in amplitude variability anteroposterioly, and 3) more complex mediolaterally, are energetically advantageous to endurance running performance. This study shows that wearable trunk accelerometry is a useful tool for understanding the Ec of running, and that running stability is important for economy in recreational runners. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  15. High-temperature superconducting transformer performance, cost, and market evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Dirks, J.A.; Dagle, J.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Huber, H.D.; Smith, S.A.; Currie, J.W.; Merrick, S.B.; Williams, T.A.

    1993-09-01

    Recent laboratory breakthroughs in high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have stimulated both the scientific community and general public with questions regarding how these materials can be used in practical applications. While there are obvious benefits from using HTS materials (most notably the potential for reduced energy losses in the conductors), a number of issues (such as overall system energy losses, cost, and reliability) may limit applications of HTS equipment, even if the well known materials problems are solved. This study examined the future application potential of HTS materials to power transformers. This study effort was part of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD) research program, Superconductivity Technology for Electric Power Systems (STEPS). The study took a systems perspective to gain insights to help guide DOE in managing research designed to realize the vision of HTS applications. Specific objectives of the study were as follows: to develop an understanding of the fundamental HTS transformer design issues that can provide guidance for developing practical devices of interest to the electric utility industry; to identify electric utility requirements for HTS transformers and to evaluate the potential for developing a commercial market; to evaluate the market potential and national benefits for HTS transformers that could be achieved by a successful HTS development program; to develop an integrated systems analysis framework, which can be used to support R&D planning by DOE, by identifying how various HTS materials characteristics impact the performance, cost, and national benefits of the HTS application.

  16. Cost of Unsuitability: Assessment of Trade-offs Between the Cost of Operational Unsuitability and Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    9 2. F119 -PW-100 CIP Budget...the additional downstream costs. The structure of the paper is as follows: The three case studies, presented respectively in chapters II-IV, follow...22’s F119 -PW-100 engine; and (3) the implementation of RAMMP and CIP design improvements to existing aircraft via retrofitting

  17. Preliminary flight evaluation of an engine performance optimization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, H. H.; Gilyard, G. B.; Chisholm, J. D.; Kerr, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    A performance seeking control (PSC) algorithm has undergone initial flight test evaluation in subsonic operation of a PW 1128 engined F-15. This algorithm is designed to optimize the quasi-steady performance of an engine for three primary modes: (1) minimum fuel consumption; (2) minimum fan turbine inlet temperature (FTIT); and (3) maximum thrust. The flight test results have verified a thrust specific fuel consumption reduction of 1 pct., up to 100 R decreases in FTIT, and increases of as much as 12 pct. in maximum thrust. PSC technology promises to be of value in next generation tactical and transport aircraft.

  18. Experimental evaluation of exhaust mixers for an Energy Efficient Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Kraft, G.

    1980-01-01

    Static scale model tests were conducted to evaluate exhaust system mixers for a high bypass ratio engine as part of the NASA sponsored Energy Efficient program. Gross thrust coefficients were measured for a series of mixer configurations which included variations in the number of mixer lobes, tailpipe length, mixer penetration, and length. All of these parameters have a significant impact on exhaust system performance. In addition, flow visualization pictures and pressure/temperature traverses were obtained for selected configurations. Parametric performance trends are discussed and the results considered relative to the Energy Efficient Engine program goals.

  19. Investigation of the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures on road safety in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Yannis, George; Kondyli, Alexandra; Georgopoulou, Xenia

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures (LCTEMs) on the improvement of road safety in urban areas. A number of such measures were considered, such as speed humps, woonerfs, raised intersections and other traffic calming measures, which have been implemented on one-way, one-lane roads in the Municipality of Neo Psychiko in the Greater Athens Area. Data were analysed using the before-and-after safety analysis methodology with large control group. The selected control group comprised of two Municipalities in the Athens Greater Area, which present similar road network and land use characteristics with the area considered. The application of the methodology showed that the total number of crashes presented a statistically significant reduction, which can be possibly attributed to the introduction of LCTEMs. This reduction concerns passenger cars and single-vehicle crashes and is possibly due to the behavioural improvement of drivers of 25 years old or more. The results of this research are very useful for the identification of the appropriate low cost traffic engineering countermeasures for road safety problems in urban areas.

  20. Production of Diesel Engine Turbocharger Turbine from Low Cost Titanium Powder

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, T. R.; Mayer, R.

    2012-05-04

    Turbochargers in commercial turbo-diesel engines are multi-material systems where usually the compressor rotor is made of aluminum or titanium based material and the turbine rotor is made of either a nickel based superalloy or titanium, designed to operate under the harsh exhaust gas conditions. The use of cast titanium in the turbine section has been used by Cummins Turbo Technologies since 1997. Having the benefit of a lower mass than the superalloy based turbines; higher turbine speeds in a more compact design can be achieved with titanium. In an effort to improve the cost model, and develop an industrial supply of titanium componentry that is more stable than the traditional aerospace based supply chain, the Contractor has developed component manufacturing schemes that use economical Armstrong titanium and titanium alloy powders and MgR-HDH powders. Those manufacturing schemes can be applied to compressor and turbine rotor components for diesel engine applications with the potential of providing a reliable supply of titanium componentry with a cost and performance advantage over cast titanium.

  1. Investigation on new low cost electronically controlled fuel metering systems for small gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohtasebi, Seyer Saeid

    This work introduces two new lost cost, electronically controlled fuel metering systems for small gas turbine engines, particularly applicable in remotely piloted vehicles. The first one incorporates a diaphragm operated flat-seat bypass valve to maintain a constant differential pressure across the metering valve, which is actuated by a digital linear actuator. In the second one, both the metering and the bypass valves are controlled by two independently operated digital linear actuators. The mathematical models for the first fuel metering system, were created and used for computer simulation. Next, after preparing the experimental test set-up, the manufactured prototype was tested and the models for both the steady state and the dynamic response were validated. Three design optimization criteria, fuel flow linearity, low sensitivity to the design parameters changes and fast dynamic response were examined to improve the performance of the proposed fuel metering system. Finally, a multi-objective optimization technique was developed and implemented to obtain the best design parameters of the system. For the second fuel metering system, first the mathematical models for both the steady state and dynamic response were developed. Next, due to the flexibility offered by this system, different control strategies for controlling the digital linear actuators during the normal operation mode of the actuators and also during the back-up operation modes were introduced and investigated. Finally, to investigate the impact of different control strategies on the dynamic response of the engine, a dynamic model for the engine was also developed and used. At the end, four available fuel metering systems, including the two new ones, were compared regarding their deviation from the fuel flow linearity, dynamic response and the cost.

  2. Modification and performance evaluation of a mono-valve engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Justin W.

    A four-stroke engine utilizing one tappet valve for both the intake and exhaust gas exchange processes has been built and evaluated. The engine operates under its own power, but has a reduced power capacity than the conventional 2-valve engine. The reduction in power is traced to higher than expected amounts of exhaust gases flowing back into the intake system. Design changes to the cylinder head will fix the back flow problems, but the future capacity of mono-valve engine technology cannot be estimated. The back flow of exhaust gases increases the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and deteriorates combustion. Intake pressure data shows the mono-valve engine requires an advanced intake valve closing (IVC) time to prevent back flow of charge air. A single actuation camshaft with advanced IVC was tested in the mono-valve engine, and was found to improve exhaust scavenging at TDC and nearly eliminated all charge air back flow at IVC. The optimum IVC timing is shown to be approximately 30 crank angle degrees after BDC. The mono-valve cylinder head utilizes a rotary valve positioned above the tappet valve. The open spaces inside the rotary valveand between the rotary valve and tappet valve represent a common volume that needs to be reduced in order to reduce the base EGR rate. Multiple rotary valve configurations were tested, and the size of the common volume was found to have no effect on back flow but a direct effect on the EGR rate and engine performance. The position of the rotary valve with respect to crank angle has a direct effect on the scavenging process. Optimum scavenging occurs when the intake port is opened just after TDC.

  3. Evaluating the costs and benefits of pneumococcal vaccination in adults.

    PubMed

    Porchia, Barbara Rita; Bonanni, Paolo; Bechini, Angela; Bonaccorsi, Gugliemo; Boccalini, Sara

    2017-02-01

    Pneumococcal infection is a public health concern that disproportionately affects the young, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. There is an open debate on the implementation of polysaccharide and/or conjugate vaccines for pneumococcal diseases in adults and the elderly in many countries. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the economic profile of pneumococcal vaccines in adults in terms of costs and benefits. Areas covered: The search for economic studies on pneumococcal vaccination was carried out in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and the HTA and NHS EED databases and through a manual search in journals dealing with economic evaluations. We included original articles and reviews with economic evaluation of polysaccharide 23-valent (PPV23) and/or conjugate pneumococcal vaccine 13-valent (PCV13) use in adults, the elderly, and at-risk groups to provide a systematic review of economical evaluation. Expert commentary: Pneumococcal vaccination is strongly recommended for all adults, especially subjects at risk and the elderly. Pneumococcal vaccination with PCV13 or PPV23 in adults is good value for money and should be a priority for the decision-makers. The main issue is how vaccination could be offered.

  4. Evaluation of Preservative Engine Oil Containing Vapor-Phase Corrosion Inhibitor and a Simplified Engine Preservation Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    AD-A240 100 EVALUATIONS OF PRESERVATIVE ENGINE OIL CONTAINING VAPOR-PHASE CORROSION INHIBITOR AND A SIMPLIFIED ENGINE PRESERVATION TECHNIQUE INTERIM...22060-5606 62786 AH20 123 11. TITLE (Include Security Classtfication) Evaluations of Preservative Engine Oil Containing Vapor-Phase Corrosion Inhibitor...the feasibility of adding a vapor-phase corrosion inhibitor (VCI) component to improve the preservation performance of MIL-L-21260 and (2) to evaluate

  5. Engineering and evaluating drug delivery particles in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Björnmalm, Mattias; Yan, Yan; Caruso, Frank

    2014-09-28

    The development of new and improved particle-based drug delivery is underpinned by an enhanced ability to engineer particles with high fidelity and integrity, as well as increased knowledge of their biological performance. Microfluidics can facilitate these processes through the engineering of spatiotemporally highly controlled environments using designed microstructures in combination with physical phenomena present at the microscale. In this review, we discuss microfluidics in the context of addressing key challenges in particle-based drug delivery. We provide an overview of how microfluidic devices can: (i) be employed to engineer particles, by providing highly controlled interfaces, and (ii) be used to establish dynamic in vitro models that mimic in vivo environments for studying the biological behavior of engineered particles. Finally, we discuss how the flexible and modular nature of microfluidic devices provides opportunities to create increasingly realistic models of the in vivo milieu (including multi-cell, multi-tissue and even multi-organ devices), and how ongoing developments toward commercialization of microfluidic tools are opening up new opportunities for the engineering and evaluation of drug delivery particles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Small-wind-turbine production evaluation and cost analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greaver, V.W.; Thornton, J.; Britt, J.F.; Davey, H.L.; McCarroll, D.A.; Wysocki, K.J.

    1981-12-01

    This is the final report of a study conducted by the GM Energy Systems Group (formerly, GM Transportation Systems Center (GM TSC)), under SERI Subcontract No. XH-0-9049-1 to develop a factory cost for the production of a 10-kilowatt Wind Energy Conversion System. Three production levels are evaluated, 1000 units per year, 10,000 units per year and 100,000 units per year. This final report was preceded by two interim reports, Wind Turbine Design Analysis, SERI/RR-9049-1, GM TSC EP-80123, and Production Analysis, SERI/RR-9049-2, GM TSC EP-81016, and the information contained in those reports has been incorporated into this final report to provide a self-contained document.

  7. Two Rotor Stratified Charge Rotary Engine (SCRE) Engine System Technology Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, T.; Mack, J.; Mount, R.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes results of an evaluation of technology enablement component technologies as integrated into a two rotor Stratified Charge Rotary Engine (SCRE). The work constitutes a demonstration of two rotor engine system technology, utilizing upgraded and refined component technologies derived from prior NASA Contracts NAS3-25945, NAS3-24628 and NAS-23056. Technical objectives included definition of, procurement and assembly of an advanced two rotor core aircraft engine, operation with Jet-A fuel at Take-Off rating of 340 BHP (254kW) and operation at a maximum cruise condition of 255 BHP (190kW), 75% cruise. A fuel consumption objective of 0.435 LBS/BHP-Hr (265 GRS/kW-Hr) was identified for the maximum cruise condition. A critical technology component item, a high speed, unit injector fuel injection system with electronic control was defined, procured and tested in conjunction with this effort. The two rotor engine configuration established herein defines an affordable, advanced, Jet-A fuel capability core engine (not including reduction gear, propeller shaft and some aircraft accessories) for General Aviation of the mid-1990's and beyond.

  8. The evaluation of cost-of-illness due to use of cost-of-illness-based chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jiyeon; Lee, Yongjin; Lee, Geonwoo; Lee, Hanseul; Yang, Jiyeon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study is conducted to estimate the cost paid by the public suffering from disease possibly caused by chemical and to examine the effect on public health. Methods Cost-benefit analysis is an important factor in analysis and decision-making and is an important policy decision tool in many countries. Cost-of-illness (COI), a kind of scale-based analysis method, estimates the potential value lost as a result of illness as a monetary unit and calculates the cost in terms of direct, indirect and psychological costs. This study estimates direct medical costs, transportation fees for hospitalization and outpatient treatment, and nursing fees through a number of patients suffering from disease caused by chemicals in order to analyze COI, taking into account the cost of productivity loss as an indirect cost. Results The total yearly cost of the diseases studied in 2012 is calculated as 77 million Korean won (KRW) per person. The direct and indirect costs being 52 million KRW and 23 million KRW, respectively. Within the total cost of illness, mental and behavioral disability costs amounted to 16 million KRW, relevant blood immunological parameters costs were 7.4 million KRW, and disease of the nervous system costs were 6.7 million KRW. Conclusions This study reports on a survey conducted by experts regarding diseases possibly caused by chemicals and estimates the cost for the general public. The results can be used to formulate a basic report for a social-economic evaluation of the permitted use of chemicals and limits of usage. PMID:26206367

  9. Evaluating a federated medical search engine: tailoring the methodology and reporting the evaluation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Saparova, D; Belden, J; Williams, J; Richardson, B; Schuster, K

    2014-01-01

    Federated medical search engines are health information systems that provide a single access point to different types of information. Their efficiency as clinical decision support tools has been demonstrated through numerous evaluations. Despite their rigor, very few of these studies report holistic evaluations of medical search engines and even fewer base their evaluations on existing evaluation frameworks. To evaluate a federated medical search engine, MedSocket, for its potential net benefits in an established clinical setting. This study applied the Human, Organization, and Technology (HOT-fit) evaluation framework in order to evaluate MedSocket. The hierarchical structure of the HOT-factors allowed for identification of a combination of efficiency metrics. Human fit was evaluated through user satisfaction and patterns of system use; technology fit was evaluated through the measurements of time-on-task and the accuracy of the found answers; and organization fit was evaluated from the perspective of system fit to the existing organizational structure. Evaluations produced mixed results and suggested several opportunities for system improvement. On average, participants were satisfied with MedSocket searches and confident in the accuracy of retrieved answers. However, MedSocket did not meet participants' expectations in terms of download speed, access to information, and relevance of the search results. These mixed results made it necessary to conclude that in the case of MedSocket, technology fit had a significant influence on the human and organization fit. Hence, improving technological capabilities of the system is critical before its net benefits can become noticeable. The HOT-fit evaluation framework was instrumental in tailoring the methodology for conducting a comprehensive evaluation of the search engine. Such multidimensional evaluation of the search engine resulted in recommendations for system improvement.

  10. SREM (Software Requirements Engineering Methodology) Evaluation. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    71 -11631 SREM (SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING METODOLOGY )EV 1A O SU U MA A ENE EOPC EVALUATION VOLUME l(U) MARTIN MARIETTA DENVER AEROSPACE...executed by SIMXQT with the results analyzed by SIHDA. 2.2.3 Results For each system studied , the size of the specification used, the time spent...particular set of problems is identified, with feasibility assessments, tradeoff studies and analyses being performed. Requirements for computer resources are

  11. SPS and alternative technologies cost and performance evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samsa, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Cost estimates for production of the electrical energy needed in the early twenty-first century are provided. Costs and performance of the Satellite Power System are compared with alternative methods of producing electrical energy.

  12. Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES): Raising the Bar on Engine Technology with Increased Efficiency and Reduced Emissions, at Attractive Costs

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    This is a fact sheet on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems program (ARES), which is designed to promote separate, but parallel engine development between the major stationary, gaseous fueled engine manufacturers in the United States.

  13. Cost Effectiveness Ratio: Evaluation Tool for Comparing the Effectiveness of Similar Extension Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayaratne, K. S. U.

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been challenged to be cost effective in their educational programming. The cost effectiveness ratio is a versatile evaluation indicator for Extension educators to compare the cost of achieving a unit of outcomes or educating a client in similar educational programs. This article describes the cost effectiveness ratio and…

  14. Cost Effectiveness Ratio: Evaluation Tool for Comparing the Effectiveness of Similar Extension Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayaratne, K. S. U.

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been challenged to be cost effective in their educational programming. The cost effectiveness ratio is a versatile evaluation indicator for Extension educators to compare the cost of achieving a unit of outcomes or educating a client in similar educational programs. This article describes the cost effectiveness ratio and…

  15. Evaluation of scaffold materials for tooth tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Takayuki; Itaya, Toshimitsu; Usami, Kazutada; Ando, Yusuke; Sakurai, Hiroya; Honda, Masaki J; Ueda, Minoru; Kagami, Hideaki

    2010-09-01

    Recently, the possibility of tooth tissue engineering has been reported. Although there are a number of available materials, information about scaffolds for tooth tissue engineering is still limited. To improve the manageability of tooth tissue engineering, the effect of scaffolds on in vivo tooth regeneration was evaluated. Collagen and fibrin were selected for this study based on the biocompatibility to dental papilla-derived cells and the results were compared with those of polyglycolic acid (PGA) fiber and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) porous block, which are commonly used for tooth, dentin and bone tissue engineering. Isolated porcine tooth germ-derived cells were seeded onto one of those scaffolds and transplanted to the back of nude mice. Tooth bud-like structures were observed more frequently in collagen and fibrin gels than on PGA or beta-TCP, while the amount of hard tissue formation was less. The results showed that collagen and fibrin gel support the initial regeneration process of tooth buds possibly due to their ability to support the growth of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. On the other hand, maturation of tooth buds was difficult in fibrin and collagen gels, which may require other factors. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Engineering metal-impurity nanodefects for low-cost solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonassisi, Tonio; Istratov, Andrei A.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Lai, Barry; Cai, Zhonghou; Heald, Steven M.; Weber, Eicke R.

    2005-09-01

    As the demand for high-quality solar-cell feedstock exceeds supply and drives prices upwards, cheaper but dirtier alternative feedstock materials are being developed. Successful use of these alternative feedstocks requires that one rigorously control the deleterious effects of the more abundant metallic impurities. In this study, we demonstrate how metal nanodefect engineering can be used to reduce the electrical activity of metallic impurities, resulting in dramatic enhancements of performance even in heavily contaminated solar-cell material. Highly sensitive synchrotron-based measurements directly confirm that the spatial and size distributions of metal nanodefects regulate the minority-carrier diffusion length, a key parameter for determining the actual performance of solar-cell devices. By engineering the distributions of metal-impurity nanodefects in a controlled fashion, the minority-carrier diffusion length can be increased by up to a factor of four, indicating that the use of lower-quality feedstocks with proper controls may be a viable alternative to producing cost-effective solar cells.

  17. Engineering metal-impurity nanodefects for low-cost solar cells.

    PubMed

    Buonassisi, Tonio; Istratov, Andrei A; Marcus, Matthew A; Lai, Barry; Cai, Zhonghou; Heald, Steven M; Weber, Eicke R

    2005-09-01

    As the demand for high-quality solar-cell feedstock exceeds supply and drives prices upwards, cheaper but dirtier alternative feedstock materials are being developed. Successful use of these alternative feedstocks requires that one rigorously control the deleterious effects of the more abundant metallic impurities. In this study, we demonstrate how metal nanodefect engineering can be used to reduce the electrical activity of metallic impurities, resulting in dramatic enhancements of performance even in heavily contaminated solar-cell material. Highly sensitive synchrotron-based measurements directly confirm that the spatial and size distributions of metal nanodefects regulate the minority-carrier diffusion length, a key parameter for determining the actual performance of solar-cell devices. By engineering the distributions of metal-impurity nanodefects in a controlled fashion, the minority-carrier diffusion length can be increased by up to a factor of four, indicating that the use of lower-quality feedstocks with proper controls may be a viable alternative to producing cost-effective solar cells.

  18. Programme costs in the economic evaluation of health interventions

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Benjamin; Baltussen, Rob; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Estimating the costs of health interventions is important to policy-makers for a number of reasons including the fact that the results can be used as a component in the assessment and improvement of their health system performance. Costs can, for example, be used to assess if scarce resources are being used efficiently or whether there is scope to reallocate them in a way that would lead to improvements in population health. As part of its WHO-CHOICE project, WHO has been developing a database on the overall costs of health interventions in different parts of the world as an input to discussions about priority setting. Programme costs, defined as costs incurred at the administrative levels outside the point of delivery of health care to beneficiaries, may comprise an important component of total costs. Cost-effectiveness analysis has sometimes omitted them if the main focus has been on personal curative interventions or on the costs of making small changes within the existing administrative set-up. However, this is not appropriate for non-personal interventions where programme costs are likely to comprise a substantial proportion of total costs, or for sectoral analysis where questions of how best to reallocate all existing health resources, including administrative resources, are being considered. This paper presents a first effort to systematically estimate programme costs for many health interventions in different regions of the world. The approach includes the quantification of resource inputs, choice of resource prices, and accounts for different levels of population coverage. By using an ingredients approach, and making tools available on the World Wide Web, analysts can adapt the programme costs reported here to their local settings. We report results for a selected number of health interventions and show that programme costs vary considerably across interventions and across regions, and that they can contribute substantially to the overall costs of

  19. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Final separating media evaluation and test report (FSMER)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-19

    {open_quotes}Evaluation Engineering and Development of Advanced Cyclone Processes{close_quotes} is one of the DOE-PETC sponsored advanced coal cleaning projects, which share a number of specific goals. These goals are to produce a 6% ash product, reject 85% of the parent coal`s pyritic sulfur, recover 85% of the parent coal`s Btu value, and provide products that are less than 30% moisture. The process in this project, as the name implies, relies on a cyclone or cyclonic separator to achieve physical beneficiation based on the gravimetric differences between clean coal and its impurities. Just as important as the cyclonic separator, if not more so, is the selection of a parting liquid or medium for use in the separator. Selection of a separating medium is regarded as a significant portion of the project because it has a profound impact on the required unit operations, the performance of the separator, and economics of the process. The choice of medium especially influences selection of media recovery system(s), and the characteristics of clean coal and refuse products. Since medium selection is such an important aspect of the project, portions of the project are dedicated to the study, evaluation, and selection of the most desirable medium. Though separators are an important component, this project initially focused on media study, rather than the separators themselves. In coal processing, discussion of media requires description of the handling and recovery system(s), separation performance, interaction with coal, cost, and health, environmental and safety issues. In order to be effective, a candidate must perform well in all of these categories.

  20. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b)...

  1. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b)...

  2. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b) In... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost...

  3. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b) In... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost...

  4. Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsden, T.

    2013-04-01

    This report discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment (MHE, or more typically 'forklifts'). A number of fuel cell MHE deployments have received funding support from the federal government. Using data from these government co-funded deployments, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been evaluating the performance of fuel cells in material handling applications. NREL has assessed the total cost of ownership of fuel cell MHE and compared it to the cost of ownership of traditional battery-powered MHE. As part of its cost of ownership assessment, NREL looked at a range of costs associated with MHE operation, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of supporting infrastructure, maintenance costs, warehouse space costs, and labor costs. Considering all these costs, NREL found that fuel cell MHE can have a lower overall cost of ownership than comparable battery-powered MHE.

  5. Design and evaluation of fluidized bed heat recovery for diesel engine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamm, J. R.; Newby, R. A.; Vidt, E. J.; Lippert, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of utilizing fluidized bed heat exchangers in place of conventional counter-flow heat exchangers for heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engine exhaust gas streams was studied. Fluidized bed heat recovery systems were evaluated in three different heavy duty transport applications: (1) heavy duty diesel truck; (2) diesel locomotives; and (3) diesel marine pushboat. The three applications are characterized by differences in overall power output and annual utilization. For each application, the exhaust gas source is a turbocharged-adiabatic diesel core. Representative subposed exhaust gas heat utilization power cycles were selected for conceptual design efforts including design layouts and performance estimates for the fluidized bed heat recovery heat exchangers. The selected power cycles were: organic rankine with RC-1 working fluid, turbocompound power turbine with steam injection, and stirling engine. Fuel economy improvement predictions are used in conjunction with capital cost estimates and fuel price data to determine payback times for the various cases.

  6. Cost-effectiveness evaluation of an RCT in rehabilitation after lumbar spinal fusion: a low-cost, behavioural approach is cost-effective over individual exercise therapy.

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Rikke; Bünger, Cody E; Laurberg, Ida; Christensen, Finn B

    2008-02-01

    Recently, Christensen et al. reported the clinical effects of a low-cost rehabilitation program equally efficient to a relatively intensive program of individual, physiotherapist-guided exercise therapy. Yet, the low-cost approach is not fully supported as an optimal strategy until a full-scale economic evaluation, including extra-hospital effects such as service utilization in the primary health care sector and return-to-work, is conducted. The objective of this study was to conduct such evaluation i.e. investigate the cost-effectiveness of (1) a low-cost rehabilitation regimen with a behavioural element and (2) a regimen of individual exercise therapy, both in comparison with usual practice, from a health economic, societal perspective. Study design was a cost-effectiveness evaluation of an RCT with a 2-year follow-up. Ninety patients having had posterolateral or circumferential fusion (indicated by chronic low back pain and localized pathology) were randomized 3 months after their spinal fusion. Validated pain- and disability index scales were applied at baseline and at 2 years postoperative. Costs were measured in a full-scale societal perspective. The probability of the behavioural approach being cost-effective was close to 1 given pain as the prioritized effect measure, and 0.8 to 0.6 (dependent on willingness to pay per effect unit) given disability as the prioritized effect measure. The probability of the exercise therapy approach being cost-effective was modest due to inferior effectiveness. Results proved robust to relevant sensitivity analysis although a differentiated cost-effectiveness ratio between males and females was suspected. In conclusion, a simple behavioural extension, of setting up group meetings for patients, to a regimen with a strict physiotherapeutic focus was found cost-effective, whereas the cost-effectiveness of increasing frequency and guidance of a traditional physiotherapeutic regimen was unlikely in present trial setting.

  7. Comprehensive investigation into historical pipeline construction costs and engineering economic analysis of Alaska in-state gas pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Zhenhua

    This study analyzes historical cost data of 412 pipelines and 220 compressor stations. On the basis of this analysis, the study also evaluates the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Analysis of pipeline construction costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary by diameter, length, volume, year, and location. Overall average learning rates for pipeline material and labor costs are 6.1% and 12.4%, respectively. Overall average cost shares for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, and right of way (ROW) are 31%, 40%, 23%, and 7%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate pipeline component costs for different lengths, cross-sectional areas, and locations. An analysis of inaccuracy in pipeline cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation of pipeline cost components is biased except for in the case of total costs. Overall overrun rates for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, ROW, and total costs are 4.9%, 22.4%, -0.9%, 9.1%, and 6.5%, respectively, and project size, capacity, diameter, location, and year of completion have different degrees of impacts on cost overruns of pipeline cost components. Analysis of compressor station costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary in terms of capacity, year, and location. Average learning rates for compressor station material and labor costs are 12.1% and 7.48%, respectively. Overall average cost shares of material, labor, miscellaneous, and ROW are 50.6%, 27.2%, 21.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate compressor station component costs in different capacities and locations. An investigation into inaccuracies in compressor station cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation for compressor stations is biased except for in the case of material costs. Overall average

  8. Genetically engineered maize plants reveal distinct costs and benefits of constitutive volatile emissions in the field.

    PubMed

    Robert, Christelle Aurélie Maud; Erb, Matthias; Hiltpold, Ivan; Hibbard, Bruce Elliott; Gaillard, Mickaël David Philippe; Bilat, Julia; Degenhardt, Jörg; Cambet-Petit-Jean, Xavier; Turlings, Ted Christiaan Joannes; Zwahlen, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    Genetic manipulation of plant volatile emissions is a promising tool to enhance plant defences against herbivores. However, the potential costs associated with the manipulation of specific volatile synthase genes are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the physiological and ecological effects of transforming a maize line with a terpene synthase gene in field and laboratory assays, both above- and below ground. The transformation, which resulted in the constitutive emission of (E)-β-caryophyllene and α-humulene, was found to compromise seed germination, plant growth and yield. These physiological costs provide a possible explanation for the inducibility of an (E)-β-caryophyllene-synthase gene in wild and cultivated maize. The overexpression of the terpene synthase gene did not impair plant resistance nor volatile emission. However, constitutive terpenoid emission increased plant apparency to herbivores, including adults and larvae of the above ground pest Spodoptera frugiperda, resulting in an increase in leaf damage. Although terpenoid overproducing lines were also attractive to the specialist root herbivore Diabrotica virgifera virgifera below ground, they did not suffer more root damage in the field, possibly because of the enhanced attraction of entomopathogenic nematodes. Furthermore, fewer adults of the root herbivore Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardii were found to emerge near plants that emitted (E)-β-caryophyllene and α-humulene. Yet, overall, under the given field conditions, the costs of constitutive volatile production overshadowed its benefits. This study highlights the need for a thorough assessment of the physiological and ecological consequences of genetically engineering plant signals in the field to determine the potential of this approach for sustainable pest management strategies.

  9. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1994-02-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  10. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  11. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  12. Evaluation of scavenging in two-stroke-cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venediger, Herbert J

    1934-01-01

    The viewpoints are discussed, according to which the scavenging of two-stroke-cycle engines can be evaluated, and the relations between scavenging pressure and the quantity of the scavenging medium required, as also between the scavenging pressure and the revolution speed, are developed. It is further shown that the power increase is limited by the scavenging process, so that further researches are desirable for qualitative improvement. These results lead to several conclusions regarding the propulsion of motor vehicles by the two-stroke-cycle engines. Lastly, attention is called to the fundamental defect of the two-dimensional treatment of the scavenging process and to the consequent distinction between the two-dimensional and three-dimensional scavenging-type efficiency.

  13. Experimental Evaluation of the Free Piston Engine - Linear Alternator (FPLA)

    SciTech Connect

    Leick, Michael T.; Moses, Ronald W.

    2015-03-01

    This report describes the experimental evaluation of a prototype free piston engine - linear alternator (FPLA) system developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The opposed piston design wa developed to investigate its potential for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The system is mechanically simple with two - stroke uniflow scavenging for gas exchange and timed port fuel injection for fuel delivery, i.e. no complex valving. Electrical power is extracted from piston motion through linear alternators wh ich also provide a means for passive piston synchronization through electromagnetic coupling. In an HEV application, this electrical power would be used to charge the batteries. The engine - alternator system was designed, assembled and operated over a 2 - year period at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. This report primarily contains a description of the as - built system, modifications to the system to enable better performance, and experimental results from start - up, motoring, and hydrogen combus tion tests.

  14. Four-ball wear test for engine oil evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, R.S.; Hsu, S.M.

    1980-11-01

    In this study, several procedures using the four-ball wear tester have been evaluated using the ASTM engine reference oils. Based on the experimental results the following conclusions can be reached: (1) the normally used slow-sliding and fast-sliding 4-Ball wear procedures did not rank the reference oils correctly; (2) the oxidation coupled slow-sliding wear test procedure gave encouraging results to correlate with engine tests; (3) the step-loading seizure procedure correlated the five reference oils correctly. Both the oxidation-wear coupled and seizure test procedures will be examined further. Wear debris analysis and differential infrared spectroscopy will be used to investigate the mechanism in these procedures.

  15. Assessment of transparency of cost estimates in economic evaluations of patient safety programmes.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Haruhisa; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2009-06-01

    Transparency of costing is essential for decision-makers who require information on the efficiency of a health care programme, because effective decisions depend largely on applicability to their settings. The main objectives of this study were to assess published studies for transparency of cost estimates. We first developed criteria with two axes by reviewing publications dealing with economic evaluations and cost accounting studies: clarification of the scope of costing and accuracy of method evaluating costs. We then performed systematic searches of the literature for studies which estimated prevention costs and assessed the transparency and accuracy of costing based on our criteria. Forty studies met the inclusion criteria. Half of the studies reported data for both the quantity and unit price of programmes in regard to prevention costs. Although 30 studies estimated costs of adverse events, 19 of these described the scope of costing only, and just five studies used a micro-costing method. Among 30 studies that estimated 'gross cost savings' and 'net cost savings', there was a huge discrepancy in labels. Even if a cost study was conducted in accordance with existing techniques of economic evaluation which mostly paid attention to internal validity of cost estimates, without adequate explanation of the process of costing, reproducibility cannot be assured and the study may lose its value as scientific information. This study found that there is tremendous room for improvement.

  16. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Allen J. Adriani

    2005-04-01

    During the eighth reporting period, high-impact monitoring and control technologies were identified during a series of meetings at Ajax/Cooper in Oklahoma City. Many of the technologies that were identified will be tested on the Ajax DP-115 engine and are capable of being widely utilized by the E&P industry. Two major areas were engine controls and ignition systems but still included other alternatives to reduce emissions. Another major advance was the completion of setting the Ajax DP-115 engine. This includes anchoring and leveling the engine. Shortly after the engine was prepared, all the necessary utilities were installed. Once the utilities were installed the engine was successfully operated over its normal operating range at the end of the reporting period.

  17. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) space transportation cost analysis and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a clear picture of SPS space transportation costs at the present time with respect to their accuracy as stated, the reasonableness of the methods used, the assumptions made, and the uncertainty associated with the estimates. The approach used consists of examining space transportation costs from several perspectives - to perform a variety of sensitivity analyses or reviews and examine the findings in terms of internal consistency and external comparison with analogous systems. These approaches are summarized as a theoretical and historical review including a review of stated and unstated assumptions used to derive the costs, and a performance or technical review. These reviews cover the overall transportation program as well as the individual vehicles proposed. The review of overall cost assumptions is the principal means used for estimating the cost uncertainty derived. The cost estimates used as the best current estimate are included.

  18. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) space transportation cost analysis and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A picture of Space Power Systems space transportation costs at the present time is given with respect to accuracy as stated, reasonableness of the methods used, assumptions made, and uncertainty associated with the estimates. The approach used consists of examining space transportation costs from several perspectives to perform a variety of sensitivity analyses or reviews and examine the findings in terms of internal consistency and external comparison with analogous systems. These approaches are summarized as a theoretical and historical review including a review of stated and unstated assumptions used to derive the costs, and a performance or technical review. These reviews cover the overall transportation program as well as the individual vehicles proposed. The review of overall cost assumptions is the principal means used for estimating the cost uncertainty derived. The cost estimates used as the best current estimate are included.

  19. Construction Performance Optimization toward Green Building Premium Cost Based on Greenship Rating Tools Assessment with Value Engineering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latief, Yusuf; Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Basten, Van; Riswanto; Budiman, Rachmat

    2017-07-01

    Green building concept becomes important in current building life cycle to mitigate environment issues. The purpose of this paper is to optimize building construction performance towards green building premium cost, achieving green building rating tools with optimizing life cycle cost. Therefore, this study helps building stakeholder determining building fixture to achieve green building certification target. Empirically the paper collects data of green building in the Indonesian construction industry such as green building fixture, initial cost, operational and maintenance cost, and certification score achievement. After that, using value engineering method optimized green building fixture based on building function and cost aspects. Findings indicate that construction performance optimization affected green building achievement with increasing energy and water efficiency factors and life cycle cost effectively especially chosen green building fixture.

  20. On evaluation of assessments of accruals of future dismantling costs

    SciTech Connect

    Labor, Bea; Lindskog, Staffan

    2013-07-01

    A major prerequisite in order for civilian commercial nuclear energy production to qualify as sustainable energy production is that systems for the management of the nuclear waste legacy are in operation. These waste types are present in a range from very low short lived waste (VLLW) to long lived high level waste (HLW) (including the used nuclear fuel). The second prerequisite is that financial responsibilities or other constraints must not be passed on to coming generations. The first condition for qualification corresponds to the Polluters Pays Principle (PPP) which demands that the responsibility for the waste management rests solely with the polluter. The second qualification corresponds to the principle of fairness between generations and thus concerns the appropriate distribution of responsibilities between the generations. It is important to note that these two conditions must be met simultaneously, and that compliance with both is a necessary prerequisite in order for commercial use of nuclear power to qualify as a semi-sustainable energy source. Financial and technical planning for dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear installations cannot be regarded as successful unless it rests upon a distinctive way to describe and explain the well-founded values of different groups of stakeholders. This cumbersome task can be underpinned by transparent and easy to grasp models for calculation and estimation of future environmental liabilities. It essential that a systematic classification is done of all types of costs and that an effort is done to evaluate the precision level in the cost estimates. In this paper, a systematic and transparent way to develop a parametric approach that rest upon basic accounting standards is combined with data about younger stakeholder's values towards decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installation. The former entity rests upon theoretical and practical methods from business administration, whilst the latter is based on

  1. A system for evaluating inpatient care cost-efficiency in hospital.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Hawkins, J

    2001-01-01

    The cost-efficiency evaluation is one important aspect in the health care organization performance assessment. This paper introduces the ratio of exact cost to Relative Intensity Weights, cost per case weight, as one indicator. A statistical approach for cost-efficiency analyses is presented in this paper. The analyses would be done at the population level and patient level. The linkage between population and individual patients provides the capability to review the distributions of several cost-efficiency measures and to do further studies, including factor adjustment. A well established health care data warehouse is to accomplish a timely and evaluation of the cost-efficiency in hospital.

  2. A system for evaluating inpatient care cost-efficiency in a hospital.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Hawkins, J

    2001-01-01

    The cost-efficiency evaluation is one important aspect in the health care organization performance assessment. This paper introduces the ratio of exact cost to Relative Intensity Weights, cost per case weight, as one indicator. A statistical approach for cost-efficiency analyses is presented in this paper. The analyses would be done at the population level and patient level. The linkage between population and individual patients provides the capability to review the distributions of several cost-efficiency measures and to do further studies, including factor adjustment. A well established health care data warehouse is to accomplish a timely and evaluation of the cost-efficiency in hospital.

  3. Cost Efficiency in the University: A Departmental Evaluation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez, Victor M.; Martinez, Jose Luis

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a model for the analysis of cost efficiency within the framework of data envelopment analysis models. It calculates the cost excess, separating a unit of production from its optimal or frontier levels, and, at the same time, breaks these excesses down into three explanatory factors: (a) technical inefficiency, which depends…

  4. Cost Efficiency in the University: A Departmental Evaluation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez, Victor M.; Martinez, Jose Luis

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a model for the analysis of cost efficiency within the framework of data envelopment analysis models. It calculates the cost excess, separating a unit of production from its optimal or frontier levels, and, at the same time, breaks these excesses down into three explanatory factors: (a) technical inefficiency, which depends…

  5. Integrating Cost Engineering and Project Management in a Junior Engineering Economics Course and a Senior Capstone Project Design Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickles, Virginia C.; Li, Yadong; Walters, Wilbur L.

    2013-01-01

    Much criticism exists concerning a lack of focus on real-world problem-solving in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) infrastructures. Many of these critics say that current educational infrastructures are incapable in preparing future scientists and engineers to solve the complex and multidisciplinary problems this society…

  6. Integrating Cost Engineering and Project Management in a Junior Engineering Economics Course and a Senior Capstone Project Design Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickles, Virginia C.; Li, Yadong; Walters, Wilbur L.

    2013-01-01

    Much criticism exists concerning a lack of focus on real-world problem-solving in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) infrastructures. Many of these critics say that current educational infrastructures are incapable in preparing future scientists and engineers to solve the complex and multidisciplinary problems this society…

  7. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  8. Evaluation of engine coolants under flow boiling conditions

    SciTech Connect

    McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Stinson, C.; Gollin, M.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental program has been conducted to evaluate the heat transfer performance of two engine coolant mixtures, propylene-glycol/water and ethylene-glycol/water. In each mixture, the concentration was 50-50 by volume. Performance in this situation is defined as the ability to maintain a lower surface temperature for a given flux. The heat transfer regimes considered covered the range from single phase forced convection through saturated flow boiling. Results show that both coolants perform satisfactorily. However, in single phase convection, ethylene-glycol/water is slightly more effective. Conversely, for sub-cooled nucleate boiling and saturated boiling, propylene-glycol/water results in slightly lower metal temperatures.

  9. Cost of Unnecessary Testing in the Evaluation of Pediatric Syncope.

    PubMed

    Redd, Connor; Thomas, Cameron; Willis, Martha; Amos, Michelle; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2017-08-01

    Syncope is a common and a typically benign clinical problem in children and adolescents. The majority of tests ordered in otherwise healthy pediatric patients presenting with syncope have low diagnostic yield. This study quantifies testing and corresponding patient charges in a group of pediatric patients presenting for outpatient evaluation for syncope. Patients seen between 3/2011 and 4/2013 in the multi-disciplinary Syncope Clinic at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center were enrolled in a registry which was reviewed for patient information. The electronic medical record was used to determine which syncope patients underwent cardiac (electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, or exercise testing) or neurologic (head CT/MRI or electroencephalogram) testing within the interval from 3 months before to 3 months after the Syncope Clinic visit. Testing charges were obtained through hospital billing records. 442 patients were included for analysis; 91% were Caucasian; 65.6% were female; median age was 15.1 years (8.1-21.2 years). Cardiac and neurologic testing was common in this population. While some testing was performed during the Syncope Clinic visit, 46% of the testing occurred before or after the visit. A total of $1.1 million was charged to payers for cardiac and neurological testing with an average total charge of $2488 per patient. Despite the typically benign etiology of pediatric syncope, patients often have expensive and unnecessary cardiac and/or neurologic testing. Reducing or eliminating this unnecessary testing could have a significant impact on healthcare costs, especially as the economics of healthcare shift to more capitated systems.

  10. The effect of three low-cost engineering treatments on driver fatigue: A driving simulator study.

    PubMed

    Merat, Natasha; Jamson, A Hamish

    2013-01-01

    Three engineering treatments were implemented in a driving simulator study to assess the effect of road-based measures on alleviating the symptoms of fatigue. Using results from previous research on the effect of circadian rhythms on fatigue-related crashes, two groups of male drivers were recruited for this study: young shift workers under the age of 35, who attended immediately after their night shift, and older drivers over the age of 45, who completed the study during the 'post lunch dip' period, after consuming lunch. Eye tracking (PERCLOS) and lateral driver performance measures were used to assess whether baseline measures of fatigue changed after drivers experienced each of the three treatments, which included variable message signs, chevrons and rumble strips. Results showed a marked difference in these measures between drivers' baseline (not fatigued) and experimental (fatigued) visits. There were also some reductions in lateral deviation and eye closure (as measured by PERCLOS) when the treatments were encountered, but no marked difference between the three treatments. These results suggest that in addition to driver- and vehicle-based methods currently employed to mitigate the effects of fatigue, the inclusion of such engineering measures may help alleviate fatigue-related impairments in driving, particularly if such treatments are implemented during long stretches of straight monotonous roads which are known to be associated with fatigue-related crashes. However, positive effects of the treatments were short lived, prompting the need for further investigations on their optimal frequency of presentation and combination to achieve maximum impact from these low-cost, road-based treatments.

  11. Integrating Evaluation into a Program for Increased Utility and Cost-Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1988-01-01

    An approach toward integrating evaluation into a program at its inception is presented as a way to increase utility and cost-effectiveness. Examples illustrate that such integration, combining internal and external evaluation, is preferable to independent and separate evaluation in terms of the cost to stakeholders. (SLD)

  12. Space Industry Commercialization: A Systems Engineering Evaluation of Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinally, Jihan

    The Constellation Program cancellation reversed the government and commercial space industry's roles and relationships by dedicating the majority of the federal funding and opportunities to the commercial space industry and left the government space industry in search of an approach to collaborate with the dominant organization, the commercial space industry service providers. The space industry government agencies, Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had realized that to gain resources in the new commercially oriented economic environment, they had to work together and possess the capabilities aligned with the National Space Policy's documented goals. Multi-organizational collaboration in space industry programs is challenging, as NASA, AFSPC, and commercial providers, follow different [1] enterprise architecture guidance such as the NASA systems engineering Handbook, MIL-STD-499 and "A Guide to the systems engineering Body of Knowledge" by the International Council on systems engineering [2] [3]. A solution to streamline their enterprise architecture documentation and meet National Space Policy goals is the Multi-User Architecture Maturity Model Methodology (MAM3), which offers a tailored systems engineering technique the government agencies and private companies can implement for the program's maturity level. In order to demonstrate the MAM3, a CubeSat motivated study was conducted partnering a commercial provider with a government agency. A survey of the commercial space industry service providers' capabilities was performed to select the private companies for the study. Using the survey results, the commercial space industry service providers were ranked using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) [4]. The AHP is a structured technique for making complex decisions for representing and quantifying its weights, relating those weights to overall goals, and evaluating alternative solutions [5] - [8]. The weights

  13. Emulation-Based Virtual Laboratories: A Low-Cost Alternative to Physical Experiments in Control Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, G. C.; Medioli, A. M.; Sher, W.; Vlacic, L. B.; Welsh, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues the case for emulation-based virtual laboratories in control engineering education. It demonstrates that such emulation experiments can give students an industrially relevant educational experience at relatively low cost. The paper also describes a particular emulation-based system that has been developed with the aim of giving…

  14. Emulation-Based Virtual Laboratories: A Low-Cost Alternative to Physical Experiments in Control Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, G. C.; Medioli, A. M.; Sher, W.; Vlacic, L. B.; Welsh, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues the case for emulation-based virtual laboratories in control engineering education. It demonstrates that such emulation experiments can give students an industrially relevant educational experience at relatively low cost. The paper also describes a particular emulation-based system that has been developed with the aim of giving…

  15. What is the cost per millimetre? Challenging traditional GNSS equipment for precise geosciences and engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, William; Boreham, Nicholas; Benedetti, Elisa; Roberts, William

    2017-04-01

    Surveyors, civil and geotechnical engineers are the typical users of professional grade GNSS receiver that is capable of achieving positioning accuracies of sub-centimetre and navigation accuracies of 1-2cm. When choosing the equipment for their needs, they are often faced with a dilemma with each additional frequency, constellation and feature coming at a cost, resulting in professional GNSS equipment being regarded as high-priced specialist equipment. Indeed there are many users that have discounted GNSS on the grounds that it is too expensive and too operationally complex to warrant purchase. Having identified this situation, Nottingham Scientific Ltd (NSL) set about the development of equipment that would break down this barrier making high accuracy GNSS affordable to new users and applications and more cost effective to existing users. NSL created "STICK" which is a single frequency, multi-constellation, IMU-integrated GNSS sensor for precise movement detection of the natural and built environments and infrastructures, at approximately 1/20th of the price of a professional grade GNSS system. STICK has been developed within the context of three European Space Agency (ESA) Integrated Applications Programme Demonstration projects that use space assets to monitor the land stability and the status of different types of infrastructure, each with its own operational challenges. However through the careful selection of components, the implementation of certain operational constraints and the use of advanced statistical data processing, sub-centimetre positioning can be achieved for monitoring purposes. This paper describes STICK, the applications for which it has been developed, and the environments within which it is operating. We then explore the performance by directly comparing STICK to geodetic GNSS receivers setup in an operational, test bed environment. This test bed allows the receivers/antennas to be subjected to a three-dimensional displacement in the order

  16. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Allen J. Adriani

    2004-01-01

    For the period of the 8th reporting period high-impact control technologies were identified during the meeting at Cooper in Oklahoma City. The technologies that were identified will be tested on the Ajax DP-115 engine and are capable of being widely utilized by the E&P industry. Two major areas where engine controls and ignition systems, but still included were other alternatives to reduce emissions. The most exhilarating item for this quarter was when Ajax engine was delivered to the test bed at the NGML.

  17. EPA evaluation of the SYNERGY-1 fuel additive under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-06-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'SYNERGY-1' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This additive is intended to improve fuel economy and exhaust emission levels of two and four cycle gasoline fueled engines.

  18. CoMET: Cost and Mass Evaluation Tool for Spacecraft and Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieber, Ben S.

    2005-01-01

    New technology in space exploration is often developed without a complete knowledge of its impact. While the immediate benefits of a new technology are obvious, it is harder to understand its indirect consequences, which ripple through the entire system. COMET is a technology evaluation tool designed to illuminate how specific technology choices affect a mission at each system level. COMET uses simplified models for mass, power, and cost to analyze performance parameters of technologies of interest. The sensitivity analysis that CoMET provides shows whether developing a certain technology will greatly benefit the project or not. CoMET is an ongoing project approaching a web-based implementation phase. This year, development focused on the models for planetary daughter craft, such as atmospheric probes, blimps and balloons, and landers. These models are developed through research into historical data, well established rules of thumb, and engineering judgment of experts at JPL. The model is validated by corroboration with JpL advanced mission studies. Other enhancements to COMET include adding launch vehicle analysis and integrating an updated cost model. When completed, COMET will allow technological development to be focused on areas that will most drastically improve spacecraft performance.

  19. An evaluation of contractor projected and actual costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwiatkowski, K. A.; Buffalano, C.

    1974-01-01

    GSFC contractors with cost-plus contracts provide cost estimates for each of the next four quarters on a quarterly basis. Actual expenditures over a two-year period were compared to the estimates, and the data were sorted in different ways to answer several questions and give quantification to observations, such as how much does the accuracy of estimates degrade as they are made further into the future? Are estimates made for small dollar amounts more accurate than for large dollar estimates? Other government agencies and private companies with cost-plus contracts may be interested in this analysis as potential methods of contract management for their organizations. It provides them with the different methods one organization is beginning to use to control costs.

  20. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory analytical services performance evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, J.M.; Sailer, S.J.; Anderson, D.A.

    1994-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL`s) Sample Management Office (SMO) conducts a Performance Evaluation Program that ensures that data of known quality are supplied by the analytical. chemistry service organizations with which the INEL contracts. The Analytical Services Performance Evaluation Plan documents the routine monitoring and assessment of suppliers conducted by the SMO, and it describes the procedures that are followed to ensure that suppliers meet all appropriate requirements. Because high-quality analytical support is vital to the success of DOE Environmental Management programs at the INEL, the performance of organizations providing these services must be routinely monitored and assessed. Analytical disciplines for which performance is monitored include metals, organics, radiochemical, and miscellaneous classical analysis methods.

  1. The Value of Systematic Reviews in Estimating the Cost and Barriers to Translation in Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Margot A; Greenberg, Alexandra J; Koep, Tyler H; Angius, Diana; Yaszemski, Michael J; Spinner, Robert J; Windebank, Anthony J

    2016-12-01

    Little quantitative data exist concerning barriers that impede translation from bench to bedside. We systematically reviewed synthetic or biosynthetic polymer nerve scaffolds for peripheral nerve repair to study a defined research area that is beyond the discovery phase and has potential for clinical application. Using electronic and manual search methods, we identified published English language articles, where scaffolds were tested in preclinical animal models. A systematic review of these 416 reports estimated all costs related to the use of animals, surgery, and evaluation methods. The research studied 17 different nerves in eight animal species, with use of 65 evaluation methods at an estimated cost of $61,264,910 for the preclinical studies. A total of 127 surveys were sent to authors, of whom 12 could not be accessed electronically and 45 (39%) responded. Major causes for failure to translate included lack of a commercial partner, insufficient financial resources, a research program not involved in translation, and lack of expertise in regulatory affairs. This review emphasizes the urgent need for standardization of preclinical models and the need to establish better collaboration between laboratory investigators, clinicians, and the companies involved in commercialization. It identifies important areas for education of future investigators in the process of translation from discovery to improved health such as those funded by the National Institutes of Health Clinical and Translational Science Awards.

  2. Cross-System Evaluation of Clinical Trial Search Engines

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Silis Y.; Weng, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials are fundamental to the advancement of medicine but constantly face recruitment difficulties. Various clinical trial search engines have been designed to help health consumers identify trials for which they may be eligible. Unfortunately, knowledge of the usefulness and usability of their designs remains scarce. In this study, we used mixed methods, including time-motion analysis, think-aloud protocol, and survey, to evaluate five popular clinical trial search engines with 11 users. Differences in user preferences and time spent on each system were observed and correlated with user characteristics. In general, searching for applicable trials using these systems is a cognitively demanding task. Our results show that user perceptions of these systems are multifactorial. The survey indicated eTACTS being the generally preferred system, but this finding did not persist among all mixed methods. This study confirms the value of mixed-methods for a comprehensive system evaluation. Future system designers must be aware that different users groups expect different functionalities. PMID:25954590

  3. Cross-system evaluation of clinical trial search engines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Silis Y; Weng, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials are fundamental to the advancement of medicine but constantly face recruitment difficulties. Various clinical trial search engines have been designed to help health consumers identify trials for which they may be eligible. Unfortunately, knowledge of the usefulness and usability of their designs remains scarce. In this study, we used mixed methods, including time-motion analysis, think-aloud protocol, and survey, to evaluate five popular clinical trial search engines with 11 users. Differences in user preferences and time spent on each system were observed and correlated with user characteristics. In general, searching for applicable trials using these systems is a cognitively demanding task. Our results show that user perceptions of these systems are multifactorial. The survey indicated eTACTS being the generally preferred system, but this finding did not persist among all mixed methods. This study confirms the value of mixed-methods for a comprehensive system evaluation. Future system designers must be aware that different users groups expect different functionalities.

  4. Cost effectiveness evaluation of the Ministry of Health Malaysia dialysis programme.

    PubMed

    Lim, T O; Lim, Y N; Wong, H S; Ahmad, G; Singam, T S; Morad, Z; Suleiman, A B; Rozina, G; Ong, L M; Hooi, L S; Shaariah, W; Tan, C C; Loo, C S

    1999-12-01

    We determine the cost effectiveness of centre and home haemodialysis (HD), continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD) treatment in the Ministry of Health (MOH) programme. The viewpoint taken for this evaluation is that of MOH. Cost categories identified were capital cost, dialysis operational cost, medical cost and general hospital cost. Cost estimates were mostly based on actual resource utilisation. Life years saved were estimated based on Dialysis Registry data on 2480 HD and 732 CAPD patients. Overall, the cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) of centre HD was RM21620/life year saved. Those of home HD, CAPD and IPD were RM23375, RM30469 and RM36016 respectively. Sensitivity analyses did not change the ranking of the CER. We conclude the MOH dialysis programme was cost-effective, and among the various dialysis modalities centre HD was the most cost-effective.

  5. Evaluation of the Hanford RI/FS cost projections

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The US Department of Energy-Richland Operations (DOE-RL) tasked the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) to review the cost estimates and implementation process for the Hanford Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program as defined by the Hanford RCRA/CERCLA Past Particles Cost Model. The purpose of the review was to determine if there were opportunities to reduce the RI/FS costs at Hanford, with a focus on the approach being taken at Hanford to implement and complete the RI/FS process. Three specific tasks comprised the review. The first focused on the cost model assumptions to assess whether the assumptions and resulting estimates were representative of the cost of performing work at Hanford. The second involved a detailed review of the regulatory and other driving forces that define the scope and approach to be taken at Hanford. The purpose of the review was to develop recommendations on changes what would help streamline the past practices process and reduce the cost and schedule. The third (Task 1C) provided a review of the scope and approach planned for two operable units (OUs), 100-HR-1 and 100-HR-3, as contained in their detailed draft RI/FS work plans. These work plans were reviewed for appropriate application of and conformance to the regulations and other requirements examined in the first two tasks. 4 refs.

  6. Fabrication of low cost and high performance ceramic gas turbine engine components

    SciTech Connect

    Novich, B.E.; Lee, R.R.; Franks, G.V.; Quellette, D.; Ferber, M.K.

    1990-12-31

    AGT-5 gasifier vane seat platforms with 14 vane pockets were fabricated by Ceramics Process Systems Corporation under contract to GM-Allison for the US Department of Energy sponsored ATTAP program. A newly developed SiAlon, engineered for gas turbine engine use at 1370{degrees}C, was formed into the component using the Quickset{trademark} injection molding process followed by pressureless sintering. The as-sintered components gave average 4-point flexural strengths of 102 kpsi at 25{degrees}C, 80 kpsi at 1000{degrees}C, 73 kpsi at 1200{degrees}C, 67 kpsi at 1300{degrees}C and 53 kpsi at 1370{degrees}C. Injection molded billet strengths were similar except at 1370{degrees}C where the average flexural strength was 72 kpsi. Creep rates at secondary steady state, were determined for CM200 material at 1300{degrees}C, 36 kpsi, 190 hr to be 0.0006%/hr and at 1300{degrees}C, 50 kpsi, 190 hr to be 0.0014%/hr. As sintered 3-sigma dimensional tolerances for the vane seat platforms were less than + 0.20 mm, within the component specification tolerance of {plus_minus}0.30 mm. Components have been delivered to GM-Allison for evaluation and test. 2 refs.

  7. Fabrication of low cost and high performance ceramic gas turbine engine components

    SciTech Connect

    Novich, B.E.; Lee, R.R.; Franks, G.V.; Quellette, D. ); Ferber, M.K. )

    1990-01-01

    AGT-5 gasifier vane seat platforms with 14 vane pockets were fabricated by Ceramics Process Systems Corporation under contract to GM-Allison for the US Department of Energy sponsored ATTAP program. A newly developed SiAlon, engineered for gas turbine engine use at 1370{degrees}C, was formed into the component using the Quickset{trademark} injection molding process followed by pressureless sintering. The as-sintered components gave average 4-point flexural strengths of 102 kpsi at 25{degrees}C, 80 kpsi at 1000{degrees}C, 73 kpsi at 1200{degrees}C, 67 kpsi at 1300{degrees}C and 53 kpsi at 1370{degrees}C. Injection molded billet strengths were similar except at 1370{degrees}C where the average flexural strength was 72 kpsi. Creep rates at secondary steady state, were determined for CM200 material at 1300{degrees}C, 36 kpsi, 190 hr to be 0.0006%/hr and at 1300{degrees}C, 50 kpsi, 190 hr to be 0.0014%/hr. As sintered 3-sigma dimensional tolerances for the vane seat platforms were less than + 0.20 mm, within the component specification tolerance of {plus minus}0.30 mm. Components have been delivered to GM-Allison for evaluation and test. 2 refs.

  8. Engineering evaluation of SSME dynamic data from engine tests and SSV flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An engineering evaluation of dynamic data from SSME hot firing tests and SSV flights is summarized. The basic objective of the study is to provide analyses of vibration, strain and dynamic pressure measurements in support of MSFC performance and reliability improvement programs. A brief description of the SSME test program is given and a typical test evaluation cycle reviewed. Data banks generated to characterize SSME component dynamic characteristics are described and statistical analyses performed on these data base measurements are discussed. Analytical models applied to define the dynamic behavior of SSME components (such as turbopump bearing elements and the flight accelerometer safety cut-off system) are also summarized. Appendices are included to illustrate some typical tasks performed under this study.

  9. Accuracy evaluation of a lower-cost and four higher-cost laser scanners.

    PubMed

    Campanelli, Valentina; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2016-01-04

    Knowing the accuracy of laser scanners is imperative to select the best scanner to generate bone models. However, errors stated by manufacturers may not apply to bones. The three objectives of this study were to determine: 1) whether the overall error stated by the manufacturers of five laser scanners was different from the root mean squared error (RMSE) computed by scanning a gage block; 2) the repeatability of 3D models generated by the laser scanners when scanning a complex freeform surface such as a distal femur and whether this differed from the repeatability when scanning a gage block; 3) whether the errors for one lower-cost laser scanner are comparable to those of four higher-cost laser scanners. The RMSEs in scanning the gage block were 2 to 52µm lower than the overall errors stated by the manufacturers. The repeatability in scanning the bovine femur 10 times was significantly worse than that in scanning the gage block 10 times. The precision of the lower-cost laser scanner was comparable to that of the higher-cost laser scanners, but the bias was an order of magnitude greater. The contributions of this study are that 1) the overall errors stated by the manufacturers are an upper bound when simple geometric objects like a gage block are scanned, 2) the repeatability is worse on average three times when scanning a complex freeform surface compared to scanning the gage block, and 3) the main difference between the lower-cost and the higher-cost laser scanners is the bias.

  10. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  11. Ballast Water Treatment, U.S. Great Lakes Bulk Carrier Engineering and Cost Study. Volume 2: Analysis of On-Board Treatment Methods, Alternative Ballast Water Management Practices, and Implementation Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    hull underbody would be scheduled. The engineering , on which the estimate is based, is at a concept design level; labor, material , and subcontractor...Costs and Schedule Impact The engineering , on which the estimate is based, is at a concept design level; labor, material , and subcontractor margins...Estimated Costs and Schedule Impact The engineering , on which the estimate is based, is at a concept design level; labor, material , and subcontractor

  12. The Estimation and Inclusion of Presenteeism Costs in Applied Economic Evaluation: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kigozi, Jesse; Jowett, Sue; Lewis, Martyn; Barton, Pelham; Coast, Joanna

    2017-03-01

    Given the significant costs of reduced productivity (presenteeism) in comparison to absenteeism, and overall societal costs, presenteeism has a potentially important role to play in economic evaluations. However, these costs are often excluded. The objective of this study is to review applied cost of illness studies and economic evaluations to identify valuation methods used for, and impact of including presenteeism costs in practice. A structured systematic review was carried out to explore (i) the extent to which presenteeism has been applied in cost of illness studies and economic evaluations and (ii) the overall impact of including presenteeism on overall costs and outcomes. Potential articles were identified by searching Medline, PsycINFO and NHS EED databases. A standard template was developed and used to extract information from economic evaluations and cost of illness studies incorporating presenteeism costs. A total of 28 studies were included in the systematic review which also demonstrated that presenteeism costs are rarely included in full economic evaluations. Estimation and monetisation methods differed between the instruments. The impact of disease on presenteeism whilst in paid work is high. The potential impact of presenteeism costs needs to be highlighted and greater consideration should be given to including these in economic evaluations and cost of illness studies. The importance of including presenteeism costs when conducting economic evaluation from a societal perspective should be emphasised in national economic guidelines and more methodological work is required to improve the practical application of presenteeism instruments to generate productivity cost estimates. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cost of Stem Cell-Based Tissue-Engineered Airway Transplants in the United Kingdom: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Culme-Seymour, Emily J.; Mason, Katrina; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Carvalho, Carla; Partington, Leanne; Crowley, Claire; Hamilton, Nick J.; Toll, Ed C.; Butler, Colin R.; Elliott, Martin J.; Birchall, Martin A.; Lowdell, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell-based tissue-engineered tracheas are at an early stage in their product development cycle. Tens of patients have been treated worldwide in predominantly compassionate use settings, demonstrating significant promise. This potentially life-saving treatment is complex, and the cost and its implications for such treatments are yet to be fully understood. The costs are compounded by varying strategies for graft preparation and transplant, resulting in differing clinical and laboratory costs from different research groups. In this study, we present a detailed breakdown of the clinical and manufacturing costs for three of the United Kingdom (UK) patients treated with such transplants. All three patients were treated under Compassionate Use legislation, within the UK National Health Service (NHS) hospital setting. The total costs for the three UK patients treated ranged from $174,420 to $740,500. All three patients were in a state of poor health at time of treatment and had a number of complexities in addition to the restricted airway. This is the first time a cost analysis has been made for a tissue-engineered organ and provides a benchmark for future studies, as well as comparative data for use in reimbursement considerations. PMID:26559535

  14. [Methodology for evaluating the social cost of noise in an industrial milieu].

    PubMed

    Josserand, P; Chamonard, D

    1982-05-01

    The investments needed for the prevention of noise in industrial environment bring no apparent profit to the firms and are therefore often deferred or rejected. Yet noise costs money, but part of this cost is "externalized". This cost cannot be entirely measured in financial terms since it is much more a social cost. We used different methods to try to evaluate this social cost. Occupational deafness, which is a parital indicator, allowed us to calculate the financial cost of its "repair". The non-financial aspect has been approached in a psychosocial study whose main results are presented here. These approaches, if they were better studied and appropriately extended, should lead to a more realistic assessment of the social cost of this nuisance. In this context an accurate evaluation of the social cost of noise could socially and economically justify strategies for noise prevention whose components are now well-known.

  15. Development of Low-Cost Austenitic Stainless Gas-Turbine and Diesel Engine Components with Enhanced High-Temperature Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Swindeman, R.W.; Browning, P.F.; Frary, M.E.; Pollard, M.J.; Siebenaler, C.W.; McGreevy, T.E.

    2004-06-01

    In July of 1999, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Solar Turbines, Inc. and Caterpillar, Inc. (Caterpillar Technical Center) to evaluate commercial cast stainless steels for gas turbine engine and diesel engine exhaust component applications relative to the materials currently being used. If appropriate, the goal was to develop cast stainless steels with improved performance and reliability rather than switch to more costly cast Ni-based superalloys for upgraded performance. The gas-turbine components considered for the Mercury-50 engine were the combustor housing and end-cover, and the center-frame hot-plate, both made from commercial CF8C cast austenitic stainless steel (Fe-l9Cr-12Ni-Nb,C), which is generally limited to use at below 650 C. The advanced diesel engine components considered for truck applications (C10, C12, 3300 and 3400) were the exhaust manifold and turbocharger housing made from commercial high SiMo ductile cast iron with uses limited to 700-750 C or below. Shortly after the start of the CRADA, the turbine materials emphasis changed to wrought 347H stainless steel (hot-plate) and after some initial baseline tensile and creep testing, it was confirmed that this material was typical of those comprising the abundant database; and by 2000, the emphasis of the CRADA was primarily on diesel engine materials. For the diesel applications, commercial SiMo cast iron and standard cast CN12 austenitic stainless steel (Fe-25Cr-13Ni-Nb,C,N,S) baseline materials were obtained commercially. Tensile and creep testing from room temperature to 900 C showed the CN12 austenitic stainless steel to have far superior strength compared to SiMo cast iron above 550 C, together with outstanding oxidation resistance. However, aging at 850 C reduced room-temperature ductility of the standard CN12, and creep-rupture resistance at 850 C was less than expected, which triggered a focused

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of Altitude Scaling for Turbofan Engine Ice Crystal Icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of altitude scaling for turbofan engine ice crystal icing simulation was conducted during the 2015 LF11 engine icing test campaign in PSL.The results showed that a simplified approach for altitude scaling to simulate the key reference engine ice growth feature and associated icing effects to the engine is possible. But special considerations are needed to address the facility operation limitation for lower altitude engine icing simulation.

  17. Economics of mycotoxins: evaluating costs to society and cost-effectiveness of interventions.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The economic impacts of mycotoxins to human society can be thought of in two ways: (i) the direct market costs associated with lost trade or reduced revenues due to contaminated food or feed, and (ii) the human health losses from adverse effects associated with mycotoxin consumption. Losses related to markets occur within systems in which mycotoxins are being monitored in the food and feed supply. Food that has mycotoxin levels above a particular maximum allowable level is either rejected outright for sale or sold at a lower price for a different use. Such transactions can take place at local levels or at the level of trade among countries. Sometimes this can result in heavy economic losses for food producers, but the benefit of such monitoring systems is a lower risk of mycotoxins in the food supply. Losses related to health occur when mycotoxins are present in food at levels that can cause illness. In developed countries, such losses are often measured in terms of cost of illness; around the world, such losses are more frequently measured in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). It is also useful to assess the economics of interventions to reduce mycotoxins and their attendant health effects; the relative effectiveness of public health interventions can be assessed by estimating quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with each intervention. Cost-effectiveness assessment can be conducted to compare the cost of implementing the intervention with the resulting benefits, in terms of either improved markets or improved human health. Aside from cost-effectiveness, however, it is also important to assess the technical feasibility of interventions, particularly in low-income countries, where funds and infrastructures are limited.

  18. The concept of cost in the economic evaluation of health care. A theoretical inquiry.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, M

    1994-01-01

    The costs included in economic evaluations of health care vary from study to study. Based on the theory of cost-benefit analysis, the costs that should be included in an economic evaluation are those not already included in the measurement of willingness to pay (net willingness to pay above any treatment costs paid by the individual) in a cost-benefit analysis or in the measurement of effectiveness in a cost-effectiveness analysis. These costs can be defined as the consumption externality of the treatment (the change in production minus consumption for those included in the treatment program). For a full economic evaluation, the consequences for those included in the treatment program and a caring externality (altruism) should also be added.

  19. An integrated evaluation for the performance of clinical engineering department.

    PubMed

    Yousry, Ahmed M; Ouda, Bassem K; Eldeib, Ayman M

    2014-01-01

    Performance benchmarking have become a very important component in all successful organizations nowadays that must be used by Clinical Engineering Department (CED) in hospitals. Many researchers identified essential mainstream performance indicators needed to improve the CED's performance. These studies revealed mainstream performance indicators that use the database of a CED to evaluate its performance. In this work, we believe that those indicators are insufficient for hospitals. Additional important indicators should be included to improve the evaluation accuracy. Therefore, we added new indicators: technical/maintenance indicators, economic indicators, intrinsic criticality indicators, basic hospital indicators, equipment acquisition, and safety indicators. Data is collected from 10 hospitals that cover different types of healthcare organizations. We developed a software tool that analyses collected data to provide a score for each CED under evaluation. Our results indicate that there is an average gap of 67% between the CEDs' performance and the ideal target. The reasons for the noncompliance are discussed in order to improve performance of CEDs under evaluation.

  20. Development and evaluation of cost-sensitive universum-SVM.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Sauptik; Cherkassky, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Many machine learning applications involve analysis of high-dimensional data, where the number of input features is larger than/comparable to the number of data samples. Standard classification methods may not be sufficient for such data, and this provides motivation for nonstandard learning settings. One such new learning methodology is called learning through contradiction or Universum-support vector machine (U-SVM). Recent studies have shown U-SVM to be quite effective for sparse high-dimensional data sets. However, all these earlier studies have used balanced data sets with equal misclassification costs. This paper extends the U-SVM formulation to problems with different misclassification costs, and presents practical conditions for the effectiveness of this cost-sensitive U-SVM. Several empirical comparisons are presented to validate the proposed approach.

  1. Multi-purpose canister system evaluation: A systems engineering approach

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes Department of Energy (DOE) efforts to investigate various container systems for handling, transporting, storing, and disposing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The primary goal of DOE`s investigations was to select a container technology that could handle the vast majority of commercial SNF at a reasonable cost, while ensuring the safety of the public and protecting the environment. Several alternative cask and canister concepts were evaluated for SNF assembly packaging to determine the most suitable concept. Of these alternatives, the multi-purpose canister (MPC) system was determined to be the most suitable. Based on the results of these evaluations, the decision was made to proceed with design and certification of the MPC system. A decision to fabricate and deploy MPCs will be made after further studies and preparation of an environmental impact statement.

  2. What does delirium cost? An economic evaluation of hyperactive delirium.

    PubMed

    Weinrebe, W; Johannsdottir, E; Karaman, M; Füsgen, I

    2016-01-01

    Demographic changes have resulted in an increase in the number of older (> 75 years) multimorbid patients in clinics. In addition to the primary acute diagnoses that lead to hospitalization, this group of patients often has cognitive dysfunctions, such as delirium. According to clinical experience, delirium patients are more time-consuming for clinicians and their function is often poor. The costs caused by delirium patients are currently unknown. In the present study, a retrospective examination of a database was carried out to calculate the costs that arise during the clinical treatment of documented delirium patients. The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to collect information recorded by nursing personnel trained in the treatment of delirium and information from a manual documentation matrix for additional time expenditure. In the database analysis anonymous data of previously discharged patients for a time window of 3 months were analyzed. Documented additional expenditure for patients with hyperactive delirium at hospitalization were analyzed by personnel. Material costs, the duration of hospitalization by main diagnosis and age clusters during hospitalization until discharge were also examined. The analysis was performed in a hospital with internal wards. Data for 82 hyperactive delirium patients were examined and an average of approximately 240 min of additional personnel expenditure for these patients was found. These patients were approximately 10 years older (p < 0.01) and were hospitalized for an average of 4.2 days longer (p < 0.01) than non-delirium patients. Hyperactive delirium usually developed within the first 5 days of hospitalization and lasted 1.6 days on average. Patients for whom hyperactive delirium was detected early were hospitalized for significantly less time than those for whom it was detected late (6.85 versus 13.61 days, p = 0.002). Additionally, calculated personnel and material costs, including costs affecting the

  3. A Multi-dimensional Program Evaluation Model: Considerations of Cost-Effectiveness, Equity, Quality, and Sustainability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, William A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an algorithm for integrating evaluative concerns of cost effectiveness, equity, quality, and sustainability in program evaluation and offers suggestions for refining the system of measurement and analysis. (SLD)

  4. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar": ongoing research activities and third-year results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    This work aims at disseminating the ongoing research activities and third-year results of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar." About 350 experts are participating to the Action, from 28 COST Countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Macedonia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom), and from Albania, Armenia, Australia, Colombia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Israel, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Ukraine, and United States of America. In September 2014, TU1208 has been recognised among the running Actions as "COST Success Story" ("The Cities of Tomorrow: The Challenges of Horizon 2020," September 17-19, 2014, Torino, IT - A COST strategic workshop on the development and needs of the European cities). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of

  5. Cost-Benefit Analysis Methodology: Install Commercially Compliant Engines on National Security Exempted Vessels?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-05

    types. INTRODUCTION Commercial diesel engines on new and existing U.S. flagged or registered vessels (or equipment in general) must comply with... diesel , engine, fuels, emissions, national security exemption, NSE, commercial compliance 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...Marine diesel engine regulation tiers and implementation dates Table 2. Summary of commercial compliance certification and documentation

  6. Evaluating the cost effectiveness of national program for control of blindness in Jorhat district, India

    PubMed Central

    Laskar, Nasrin B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the cost of different components of the national program for control of blindness (NPCB) and assess the cost effectiveness of this program. Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted in Jorhat District of Assam, India from July 2009 to June 2010 for assessing the cost effectiveness of the NPCB. Four broad categories of cost inputs, that is, capital costs, recurrent costs, prime/variable costs, and fixed costs were considered. The cost incurred by the provider was taken as the actual cost of delivery of different component of services to the patients, which was calculated from the costs of labor, material, and capital costs using the time utilization pattern recommended by WHO. Result: The District Blindness Control Society, Jorhat had spent 58.93% of total expense on fixed heads of which 65.86% had been spent for cataract surgery. The medical care cost was found to be Indian rupee (INR) 425 for intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE), INR 675 for extracapsular cataract extraction + intraocular lens (ECCE + IOL) and INR 225 for refractive error correction. The patient-wise provider cost was estimated to be INR 519 for ICCE, INR 769 for ECCE + IOL implantation and INR 319 for spectacle correction of refractive error. Conclusion: National program for control of blindness is a cost effective means of controlling and treating blindness. PMID:26283841

  7. Solid rocket booster performance evaluation model. Volume 1: Engineering description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The space shuttle solid rocket booster performance evaluation model (SRB-II) is made up of analytical and functional simulation techniques linked together so that a single pass through the model will predict the performance of the propulsion elements of a space shuttle solid rocket booster. The available options allow the user to predict static test performance, predict nominal and off nominal flight performance, and reconstruct actual flight and static test performance. Options selected by the user are dependent on the data available. These can include data derived from theoretical analysis, small scale motor test data, large motor test data and motor configuration data. The user has several options for output format that include print, cards, tape and plots. Output includes all major performance parameters (Isp, thrust, flowrate, mass accounting and operating pressures) as a function of time as well as calculated single point performance data. The engineering description of SRB-II discusses the engineering and programming fundamentals used, the function of each module, and the limitations of each module.

  8. Preliminary systems engineering evaluations for the National Ecological Observatory Network.

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Perry J.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Crouch, Shannon M.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Osborn, Thor D.; Ivey, Mark D.; Gass, Karl Leslie; Heller, Edwin J.; Dishman, James Larry; Schubert, William Kent; Zirzow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-11-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ambitious National Science Foundation sponsored project intended to accumulate and disseminate ecologically informative sensor data from sites among 20 distinct biomes found within the United States and Puerto Rico over a period of at least 30 years. These data are expected to provide valuable insights into the ecological impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species in these various biomes, and thereby provide a scientific foundation for the decisions of future national, regional, and local policy makers. NEON's objectives are of substantial national and international importance, yet they must be achieved with limited resources. Sandia National Laboratories was therefore contracted to examine four areas of significant systems engineering concern; specifically, alternatives to commercial electrical utility power for remote operations, approaches to data acquisition and local data handling, protocols for secure long-distance data transmission, and processes and procedures for the introduction of new instruments and continuous improvement of the sensor network. The results of these preliminary systems engineering evaluations are presented, with a series of recommendations intended to optimize the efficiency and probability of long-term success for the NEON enterprise.

  9. Krypton-85 hydrofracture engineering feasibility and safety evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, F.J.; Muller, M.E.; Pan, P.Y.

    1981-07-01

    Engineering studies have been made to determine the hazards associated with the disposal of /sup 85/Kr using the hydrofracture process. To assess the hazards, an effort has been made to identify the equipment required to entrain and dissolve the noble gas into the grout stream at hydrofracture pressure (up to 350 bar). Off-the-shelf or slightly modified equipment has been identified for safe and effective compression and gas-grout mixing. Each monthly injection disposes of 1.6 x 10/sup 6/ Ci of /sup 85/Kr. By connecting only one gas cylinder to the injection system at a time, the maximum amount of krypton likely to be released as a result of equipment failure is limited to 128,000 Ci. An evaluation by Los Alamos Technical Associates shows that releasing this amount of gas in less than one hour under worst-case meteorological conditions through a 30-m stack would result in a whole-body dose of 170 millirem at a distance of 1 km from the facility. A krypton collection and recovery system can further reduce this dose to 17 millirem; increasing the distance to the site boundary to 3 km can also reduce the dose by a factor of ten. Lung and skin dose estimates are 1.6 and 120 times the whole-body dose, respectively. These are all worst-case values; releases under more typical conditions would result in a significantly lower dose. No insurmountable safety or engineering problems have been identified.

  10. Evaluation of air pollution modelling tools as environmental engineering courseware.

    PubMed

    Souto González, J A; Bello Bugallo, P M; Casares Long, J J

    2004-01-01

    The study of phenomena related to the dispersion of pollutants usually takes advantage of the use of mathematical models based on the description of the different processes involved. This educational approach is especially important in air pollution dispersion, when the processes follow a non-linear behaviour so it is difficult to understand the relationships between inputs and outputs, and in a 3D context where it becomes hard to analyze alphanumeric results. In this work, three different software tools, as computer solvers for typical air pollution dispersion phenomena, are presented. Each software tool developed to be implemented on PCs, follows approaches that represent three generations of programming languages (Fortran 77, VisualBasic and Java), applied over three different environments: MS-DOS, MS-Windows and the world wide web. The software tools were tested by students of environmental engineering (undergraduate) and chemical engineering (postgraduate), in order to evaluate the ability of these software tools to improve both theoretical and practical knowledge of the air pollution dispersion problem, and the impact of the different environment in the learning process in terms of content, ease of use and visualization of results.

  11. Definition, technology readiness, and development cost of the orbit transfer vehicle engine integrated control and health monitoring system elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, I.; Balcer, S.; Cochran, M.; Klop, J.; Peterson, S.

    1991-01-01

    An Integrated Control and Health Monitoring (ICHM) system was conceived for use on a 20 Klb thrust baseline Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) engine. Considered for space used, the ICHM was defined for reusability requirements for an OTV engine service free life of 20 missions, with 100 starts and a total engine operational time of 4 hours. Functions were derived by flowing down requirements from NASA guidelines, previous OTV engine or ICHM documents, and related contracts. The elements of an ICHM were identified and listed, and these elements were described in sufficient detail to allow estimation of their technology readiness levels. These elements were assessed in terms of technology readiness level, and supporting rationale for these assessments presented. The remaining cost for development of a minimal ICHM system to technology readiness level 6 was estimated. The estimates are within an accuracy range of minus/plus 20 percent. The cost estimates cover what is needed to prepare an ICHM system for use on a focussed testbed for an expander cycle engine, excluding support to the actual test firings.

  12. The Mobile Bark Blower: An Evaluation of Performance and Costs

    Treesearch

    Raymond L. Sarles; David M. Emanuel

    1977-01-01

    A custom-built bark blower truck (MOBLOW) developed in Oregon was tested for its effectiveness in applying bark mulches, sawdust, and shavings in the eastern United States. Tests determined the bark blower's performance and cost in mulching grass-legume seedings and shrub beds with 10 bark products or wood residues. Bark blower trucks built to MOBLOW...

  13. A new harvest operation cost model to evaluate forest harvest layout alternatives

    Treesearch

    Mark M. Clark; Russell D. Meller; Timothy P. McDonald; Chao Chi Ting

    1997-01-01

    The authors develop a new model for harvest operation costs that can be used to evaluate stands for potential harvest. The model is based on felling, extraction, and access costs, and is unique in its consideration of the interaction between harvest area shapes and access roads. The scientists illustrate the model and evaluate the impact of stand size, volume, and road...

  14. India's mission to Mars cost less than the movie Gravity: Multidimensional View in Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Meenu; Kumar, Pawan; Vandana, Vandana

    2016-07-01

    Over the years, Mars has been the centre of attraction for science fiction writers, Hollywood movie makers, astrologers, astronomers and the scientific community. For scientists and technologists, Mars continues to be an enigma. This is essentially because even tough humans have dreamt for long about human colonisation of Mars. Indian space programme had a very humble beginning during the early 1960s. India launched its first satellite in 1975 with assistance from the erstwhile USSR. India achieved the status of space-faring nation2 by 1980, and by the end of 2014 has launched around 75 satellites. India has become the first nation to reach Mars on its maiden attempt after its Mars Orbiter Mission completed its 10-month journey and successfully entered the Red Planet's orbit. The Mars Orbiter Mission, a low-cost 74 million project, blasted off from Earth on November 5, 2013, aboard an Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. At its initial stage, the rocket booster placed the probe into Earth's orbit before the craft fired the engines to break free of Earth's gravity en route to Mars. This is India's first mission into such deep space to search for evidence of life on the Red Planet. But the mission's primary objective is technological-if successful, the country will be joining an elite club of nations: the United States, Russia and Europe. India is becoming known for low-cost innovation in diverse fields such as healthcare and education. The technological capability being demonstrated and the knowledge gained from the operations of the mission will be invaluable in future developments and also in the training of the flight operations and mission control staff. All of this capability can be carried forward to future launches and operations. The sustained presence of methane observed by previous missions suggests that an active production mechanism is at work, most likely tectonic in nature, although there are some suggestions that it may point to a biological origin

  15. Transfer film evaluation for shuttle engine turbopump bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannel, J. W.; Dufrane, K. F.

    1981-01-01

    A series of low speed experiments to evaluate the possible occurrence of transfer film lubrication and the effectiveness of burnished films in the shuttle spacecraft main engine thrust bearings were conducted. No evidence of transfer film lubrication was evident, although this could have been the result of the (used) condition of the bearing. Burnished films of either Teflon or Rulon were found to greatly enhance the performance of the bearing. Crush load experiments indicated that the bearing ultimate load capability is on the order of 489,000 N (110,000 pounds). The effect of ball (as well as race) burnishing techniques on bearing performance, different types of burnished films, and transfer film formation are suggested for further study.

  16. Structural Evaluation of Exo-Skeletal Engine Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuguoglu, Latife; Abumeri, Galib; Chamis, Christos C.

    2003-01-01

    The available computational simulation capability is used to demonstrate the structural viability of composite fan blades of innovative Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) developed at NASA Glenn Research Center for a subsonic mission. Full structural analysis and progressive damage evaluation of ESE composite fan blade is conducted through the NASA in-house computational simulation software system EST/BEST. The results of structural assessment indicate that longitudinal stresses acting on the blade are in compression. At a design speed of 2000 rpm, pressure and suction surface outer most ply stresses in longitudinal, transverse and shear direction are much lower than the corresponding composite ply strengths. Damage is initiated at 4870 rpm and blade fracture takes place at rotor speed of 7735 rpm. Damage volume is 51 percent. The progressive damage, buckling, stress and strength results indicate that the design at hand is very sound because of the factor of safety, damage tolerance, and buckling load of 6811 rpm.

  17. Quantitative Ultrasonic Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Engineering Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the application of ultrasonic techniques to nondestructive measurement of mechanical strength of engineering materials is reviewed. A dormant concept in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is invoked. The availability of ultrasonic methods that can be applied to actual parts to assess their potential susceptibility to failure under design conditions is discussed. It was shown that ultrasonic methods yield measurements of elastic moduli, microstructure, hardness, fracture toughness, tensile strength, yield strength, and shear strength for a wide range of materials (including many types of metals, ceramics, and fiber composites). It was also indicated that although most of these methods were shown feasible in laboratory studies, more work is needed before they can be used on actual parts in processing, assembly, inspection, and maintenance lines.

  18. Natural polymeric hydrogel evaluation for skeletal muscle tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Pollot, Beth E; Rathbone, Christopher R; Wenke, Joseph C; Guda, Teja

    2017-03-17

    Although skeletal muscle has a remarkable ability to repair/regenerate after most types of injuries, there is limited regeneration after volumetric muscle loss (VML). A number of scaffold materials have been used in the development of grafts to treat VML, however, there is still a need to better understand the most appropriate material with regards to its ability to maintain mechanical integrity while also supporting myogenesis. Five commonly used natural polymeric materials (Collagen I, Agarose, Alginate, Fibrin, and Collagen Chitosan) used in skeletal muscle tissue engineering grafts were evaluated for their mechanical properties and myogenic capacity. Rheological properties, water absorption rates, degradation stability, tensile characteristics, and the ability to support in vitro myogenesis were compared in all five materials. Collagen, Collagen Chitosan, and Fibrin demonstrated high elasticity and 100% stretch without failure, Agarose was the most brittle (20% max stretch), and Alginate demonstrated poor handleabilty. While Collagen was supportive of myogenesis, overall, Fibrin demonstrated the highest myogenic potential as indicated by the earliest and highest increases in myogenin and myosin heavy chain mRNA in satellite cells along with the most extensive myotube development as evaluated with immunohistochemistry. The findings herein support the notion that under the conditions used in this study, Fibrin is the most suitable scaffold for the development of scaffolds for skeletal muscle tissue engineering. Future studies are required to determine whether the differences in mechanical properties and myogenic potential observed in vitro in the current study translate to better skeletal muscle development in a VML injury model. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017.

  19. Pratt and Whitney Aircraft JT8D turbofan engine. performance improvement to offset rising fuel costs

    SciTech Connect

    Fahle, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    A Pratt and Whitney Aircraft Group program begun in 1978 has led to the development of retrofit kit packages and major engine modifications that will provide thrust-specific fuel consumption (TSFC) reductions of 2.1% for the JT8D-1 and -7 engines, 3.0% for the JT8D-9 engine, and 5.5% for the JT8D-15, -17, and -17R engines under cruise conditions, and comparable fuel savings under other conditions. The modifications being made will affect the fan, compressor, and turbine sections of the engines to improve component efficiency. The retrofit kits will be used on existing in-service engines; other modifications will be introduced in service during 1981 and 1982. Fuel savings per engine per year could range from 27,000 to 91,000 gal, and fleet savings could amount to several hundred million gallons per year.

  20. Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) Flight Evaluation in an F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Flight evaluation in an F-15 aircraft by digital electronic engine control (DEEC) was investigated. Topics discussed include: system description, F100 engine tests, effects of inlet distortion on static pressure probe, flight tests, digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation, flight evaluation of a hydromechanical backup control, augmentor transient capability of an F100 engine, investigation of nozzle instability, real time in flight thrust calculation, and control technology for future aircraft propulsion systems. It is shown that the DEEC system is a powerful and flexible controller for the F100 engine.

  1. Scaffold library for tissue engineering: a geometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chantarapanich, Nattapon; Puttawibul, Puttisak; Sucharitpwatskul, Sedthawatt; Jeamwatthanachai, Pongnarin; Inglam, Samroeng; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering scaffold is a biological substitute that aims to restore, to maintain, or to improve tissue functions. Currently available manufacturing technology, that is, additive manufacturing is essentially applied to fabricate the scaffold according to the predefined computer aided design (CAD) model. To develop scaffold CAD libraries, the polyhedrons could be used in the scaffold libraries development. In this present study, one hundred and nineteen polyhedron models were evaluated according to the established criteria. The proposed criteria included considerations on geometry, manufacturing feasibility, and mechanical strength of these polyhedrons. CAD and finite element (FE) method were employed as tools in evaluation. The result of evaluation revealed that the close-cellular scaffold included truncated octahedron, rhombicuboctahedron, and rhombitruncated cuboctahedron. In addition, the suitable polyhedrons for using as open-cellular scaffold libraries included hexahedron, truncated octahedron, truncated hexahedron, cuboctahedron, rhombicuboctahedron, and rhombitruncated cuboctahedron. However, not all pore size to beam thickness ratios (PO:BT) were good for making the open-cellular scaffold. The PO:BT ratio of each library, generating the enclosed pore inside the scaffold, was excluded to avoid the impossibility of material removal after the fabrication. The close-cellular libraries presented the constant porosity which is irrespective to the different pore sizes. The relationship between PO:BT ratio and porosity of open-cellular scaffold libraries was displayed in the form of Logistic Power function. The possibility of merging two different types of libraries to produce the composite structure was geometrically evaluated in terms of the intersection index and was mechanically evaluated by means of FE analysis to observe the stress level. The couples of polyhedrons presenting low intersection index and high stress level were excluded. Good couples for

  2. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

    2010-04-01

    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

  3. Evaluating water quality investments using cost utility analysis.

    PubMed

    Hajkowicz, Stefan; Spencer, Rachel; Higgins, Andrew; Marinoni, Oswald

    2008-09-01

    This study borrows concepts from healthcare economics and uses cost utility analysis (CUA) to select an optimum portfolio of water quality enhancement projects in Perth, Western Australia. In CUA, costs are handled via standard discounted cash flow analysis, but the benefits, being intangible, are measured with a utility score. Our novel methodology combines CUA with a binary combinatorial optimisation solver, known as a 'knapsack algorithm', to identify the optimum portfolio of projects. We show how water quality projects can be selected to maximise an aggregate utility score while not exceeding a budget constraint. Our CUA model applies compromise programming (CP) to measure utility over multiple attributes in different units. CUA is shown to provide a transparent and analytically robust method to maximise benefits from water quality remediation investments under a constrained budget.

  4. Evaluating strategies and costs to recruit smokeless tobacco users.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Raymond G; Enstad, Chris; Asche, Stephen E; Thoele, Merry J; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2007-12-01

    We recruited smokeless tobacco users throughout Minnesota to participate in a trial testing telephone counseling versus a written self-help manual for cessation. This paper describes the recruitment strategies applied on a state-wide basis. We established a recruitment tracking system to monitor weekly rates of screened callers and returned consents, allowing us to adjust future recruitment efforts. Screening was completed with 783 callers, with 406 subjects enrolled. Overall 44% of initial contacts and 52% of those screened enrolled in the study. The overall average cost per consented subject was $99. Sports talk radio, small print ads, and newspaper articles based on press releases were consistently effective channels for recruitment. The overall cost was expensive but reflected the geographic diversity of recruitment and the prevalence of oral snuff use.

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of a Turbine/Rotary Combustion Compound Engine for a Subsonic Transport. [fuel consumption and engine tests of turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civinskas, K. C.; Kraft, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel consumption of a modern compound engine with that of an advanced high pressure ratio turbofan was compared. The compound engine was derived from a turbofan engine by replacing the combustor with a rotary combustion (RC) engine. A number of boost pressure ratios and compression ratios were examined. Cooling of the RC engine was accomplished by heat exchanging to the fan duct. Performance was estimated with an Otto-cycle for two levels of energy lost to cooling. The effects of added complexity on cost and maintainability were not examined and the comparison was solely in terms of cruise performance and weight. Assuming a 25 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representative of current experience), the best compound engine gave a 1.2 percent improvement in cruise. Engine weight increased by 23 percent. For a 10 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representing advanced insulation/high temperature materials technology), a compound engine with a boost PR of 10 and a compression ratio of 10 gave an 8.1 percent lower cruise than the reference turbofan.

  6. An evaluation of low-cost payload carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, V. H.

    1980-01-01

    Payload carrier designed for space vehicles is essentially cargo carrier that supports, positions, and protects various equipment and materials used in conducting experiments in weightless space environment. Proposed carrier entitled Materials Experiment Assembly II (MEA-II) is considered superior to previously developed models in size, weight, and cost to user. Structure is lightweight with insulated exterior and can be custom sized to meet user needs.

  7. A PRELIMINARY METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING THE COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF ALTERNATIVE INDOOR AIR QUALITY APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report defines a simplified methodology that can be used by indoor air quality (IAQ) diagnosticians, architects/engineers, building owners/operators, and the scientific community for preliminary comparison of the cost-effectiveness of alternative IAQ control measures for any ...

  8. A PRELIMINARY METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING THE COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF ALTERNATIVE INDOOR AIR QUALITY APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report defines a simplified methodology that can be used by indoor air quality (IAQ) diagnosticians, architects/engineers, building owners/operators, and the scientific community for preliminary comparison of the cost-effectiveness of alternative IAQ control measures for any ...

  9. Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model DOE Tool for Assessing Impact of Research on Cost of Power

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a spreadsheet model to provide insight as to how its research activities can impact of cost of producing power from geothermal energy. This model is referred to as GETEM, which stands for “Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model”. Based on user input, the model develops estimates of costs associated with exploration, well field development, and power plant construction that are used along with estimated operating costs to provide a predicted power generation cost. The model allows the user to evaluate how reductions in cost, or increases in performance or productivity will impact the predicted power generation cost. This feature provides a means of determining how specific technology improvements can impact generation costs, and as such assists DOE in both prioritizing research areas and identifying where research is needed.

  10. Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon

    2012-07-17

    In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.

  11. DESCRIPTION OF RISK REDUCTION ENGINEERING LABORATORY TEST AND EVALUATION FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An onsite team of multidisciplined engineers and scientists conduct research and provide technical services in the areas of testing, design, and field implementation for both solid and hazardous waste management. Engineering services focus on the design and implementation of...

  12. DESCRIPTION OF RISK REDUCTION ENGINEERING LABORATORY TEST AND EVALUATION FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An onsite team of multidisciplined engineers and scientists conduct research and provide technical services in the areas of testing, design, and field implementation for both solid and hazardous waste management. Engineering services focus on the design and implementation of...

  13. GMOs in animal agriculture: time to consider both costs and benefits in regulatory evaluations.

    PubMed

    Van Eenennaam, Alison L

    2013-09-25

    In 2012, genetically engineered (GE) crops were grown by 17.3 million farmers on over 170 million hectares. Over 70% of harvested GE biomass is fed to food producing animals, making them the major consumers of GE crops for the past 15 plus years. Prior to commercialization, GE crops go through an extensive regulatory evaluation. Over one hundred regulatory submissions have shown compositional equivalence, and comparable levels of safety, between GE crops and their conventional counterparts. One component of regulatory compliance is whole GE food/feed animal feeding studies. Both regulatory studies and independent peer-reviewed studies have shown that GE crops can be safely used in animal feed, and rDNA fragments have never been detected in products (e.g. milk, meat, eggs) derived from animals that consumed GE feed. Despite the fact that the scientific weight of evidence from these hundreds of studies have not revealed unique risks associated with GE feed, some groups are calling for more animal feeding studies, including long-term rodent studies and studies in target livestock species for the approval of GE crops. It is an opportune time to review the results of such studies as have been done to date to evaluate the value of the additional information obtained. Requiring long-term and target animal feeding studies would sharply increase regulatory compliance costs and prolong the regulatory process associated with the commercialization of GE crops. Such costs may impede the development of feed crops with enhanced nutritional characteristics and durability, particularly in the local varieties in small and poor developing countries. More generally it is time for regulatory evaluations to more explicitly consider both the reasonable and unique risks and benefits associated with the use of both GE plants and animals in agricultural systems, and weigh them against those associated with existing systems, and those of regulatory inaction. This would represent a shift away

  14. GMOs in animal agriculture: time to consider both costs and benefits in regulatory evaluations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, genetically engineered (GE) crops were grown by 17.3 million farmers on over 170 million hectares. Over 70% of harvested GE biomass is fed to food producing animals, making them the major consumers of GE crops for the past 15 plus years. Prior to commercialization, GE crops go through an extensive regulatory evaluation. Over one hundred regulatory submissions have shown compositional equivalence, and comparable levels of safety, between GE crops and their conventional counterparts. One component of regulatory compliance is whole GE food/feed animal feeding studies. Both regulatory studies and independent peer-reviewed studies have shown that GE crops can be safely used in animal feed, and rDNA fragments have never been detected in products (e.g. milk, meat, eggs) derived from animals that consumed GE feed. Despite the fact that the scientific weight of evidence from these hundreds of studies have not revealed unique risks associated with GE feed, some groups are calling for more animal feeding studies, including long-term rodent studies and studies in target livestock species for the approval of GE crops. It is an opportune time to review the results of such studies as have been done to date to evaluate the value of the additional information obtained. Requiring long-term and target animal feeding studies would sharply increase regulatory compliance costs and prolong the regulatory process associated with the commercialization of GE crops. Such costs may impede the development of feed crops with enhanced nutritional characteristics and durability, particularly in the local varieties in small and poor developing countries. More generally it is time for regulatory evaluations to more explicitly consider both the reasonable and unique risks and benefits associated with the use of both GE plants and animals in agricultural systems, and weigh them against those associated with existing systems, and those of regulatory inaction. This would represent a shift away

  15. EPA evaluation of the Malpassi Filter King device under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    This report announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'Malpassi Filter King' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The evaluation of the 'Malpassi Filter King' device was conducted upon receiving an application from the marketer. The device is a gasoline pressure regulator. The 'Malpassi Filter King' device is claimed to save gasoline by improving the fuel economy of carburetor-equipped, automotive engines.

  16. Evaluating thermographic phosphors in an operating turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M. ); Lewis, W.; Turley, W.D. ); Beshears, D.L.; Capps, G.J.; Cates, M.R.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W. )

    1989-01-01

    The results of a field test in a commercial turbine engine showed that we can remotely measure the temperature of engine components in operating engines using thermographic phosphors. The remote- measurement method exploits the temperature dependence of the characteristic decay time of the laser-induced fluorescence of thermographic phosphors. This paper summarizes recent work leading up to and including a successful test of the thermographic-phosphor method in an operating turbine engine. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Energy Cost of an Independent Micro-grid with Control of Power Output Sharing of a Distributed Engine Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shin'ya

    Small kerosene diesel-engine power generators are introduced into an independent micro-grid (IMG) that connects 20 houses, and power and heat are supplied to them. A 3 kW engine generator is installed in six houses, and a boiler and a heat storage tank are also installed, and exhaust heat to make up for insufficiency is supplied. The boiler is installed in the house that does not install the engine generator, and heat is supplied to the demand side. Partial load operation of the engine generator has a large influence on power generation efficiency. Therefore, this paper discusses the system that controls the power of the engine generator by the power distribution control system using the genetic algorithm (GA), and the control system that changes the number of operations of the engine generators according to the magnitude of the power load. As a case study, the energy-demand model of the 20 houses in Sapporo was analyzed. As a result, the annual energy cost of the number of operations system and the power distribution control system is reducible with 16% and 8% compared with the conventional method, respectively. However, it depends for this cutback effect on the heat demand characteristic greatly, and when the proposed system is introduced into a community with little heat demand, effectiveness will decrease greatly.

  18. Cost of clinical events in health economic evaluations in Germany: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Scheuringer, Monika; Sahakyan, Narine; Krobot, Karl J; Ulrich, Volker

    2012-05-31

    Guidance from the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) on cost estimation in cost-benefit assessments in Germany acknowledges the need for standardization of costing methodology. The objective of this review was to assess current methods for deriving clinical event costs in German economic evaluations. A systematic literature search of 24 databases (including MEDLINE, BIOSIS, the Cochrane Library and Embase) identified articles, published between January 2005 and October 2009, which reported cost-effectiveness or cost-utility analyses. Studies assessed German patients and evaluated at least one of 11 predefined clinical events relevant to patients with diabetes mellitus. A total of 21 articles, describing 199 clinical cost events, met the inclusion criteria. Year of costing and time horizon were available for 194 (97%) and 163 (82%) cost events, respectively. Cost components were rarely specified (32 [16%]). Costs were generally based on a single literature source (140 [70%]); where multiple sources were cited (32 [16%]), data synthesis methodology was not reported. Cost ranges for common events, assessed using a Markov model with a cycle length of 12 months, were: acute myocardial infarction (nine studies), first year, 4,618-17,556 €; follow-up years, 1,006-3,647 €; and stroke (10 studies), first year; 10,149-24,936 €; follow-up years, 676-7,337 €. These results demonstrate that costs for individual clinical events vary substantially in German health economic evaluations, and that there is a lack of transparency and consistency in the methods used to derive them. The validity and comparability of economic evaluations would be improved by guidance on standardizing costing methodology for individual clinical events.

  19. Field Cage Studies and Progressive Evaluation of Genetically-Engineered Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Facchinelli, Luca; Valerio, Laura; Ramsey, Janine M.; Gould, Fred; Walsh, Rachael K.; Bond, Guillermo; Robert, Michael A.; Lloyd, Alun L.; James, Anthony A.; Alphey, Luke; Scott, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Background A genetically-engineered strain of the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, designated OX3604C, was evaluated in large outdoor cage trials for its potential to improve dengue prevention efforts by inducing population suppression. OX3604C is engineered with a repressible genetic construct that causes a female-specific flightless phenotype. Wild-type females that mate with homozygous OX3604C males will not produce reproductive female offspring. Weekly introductions of OX3604C males eliminated all three targeted Ae. aegypti populations after 10–20 weeks in a previous laboratory cage experiment. As part of the phased, progressive evaluation of this technology, we carried out an assessment in large outdoor field enclosures in dengue endemic southern Mexico. Methodology/Principal Findings OX3604C males were introduced weekly into field cages containing stable target populations, initially at 10∶1 ratios. Statistically significant target population decreases were detected in 4 of 5 treatment cages after 17 weeks, but none of the treatment populations were eliminated. Mating competitiveness experiments, carried out to explore the discrepancy between lab and field cage results revealed a maximum mating disadvantage of up 59.1% for OX3604C males, which accounted for a significant part of the 97% fitness cost predicted by a mathematical model to be necessary to produce the field cage results. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that OX3604C may not be effective in large-scale releases. A strain with the same transgene that is not encumbered by a large mating disadvantage, however, could have improved prospects for dengue prevention. Insights from large outdoor cage experiments may provide an important part of the progressive, stepwise evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes. PMID:23350003

  20. Cost evaluations of radiotherapy: What do we know? An ESTRO-HERO analysis.

    PubMed

    Defourny, Noémie; Dunscombe, Peter; Perrier, Lionel; Grau, Cai; Lievens, Yolande

    2016-12-01

    Although economic evidence is becoming mandatory to support health care decision-making, challenges remain in generating high quality cost data, especially for complex and rapidly evolving treatment modalities, such as radiotherapy. The overall aim of this systematic literature review was to critically analyse the type and quality of radiotherapy cost information available in cost calculation studies, from the health care provider's perspective, published since 1981. A selection process, based on strict and explicit criteria, yielded 52 articles. In spite of meeting our criteria these studies displayed large heterogeneity in scope, costing method, inputs and outputs. The limited use of conventional costing methodologies along with insufficient information on resource inputs hampered comparability across studies. A consistent picture of radiotherapy costs, based on methodologically sound costing studies, has yet to emerge. These results call for developing a well-defined and generally accepted cost methodology for performing economic evaluation studies in radiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Allen Adriani

    2004-04-01

    During the fifth reporting period, the main goal for the team was to focus on collecting data to develop Oxygen Sensor Recording System (OSRS) parametric relationships for several rich-burn engines. An air/fuel ratio controller was intergraded with an O{sub 2} sensor. With the use of an Alternative Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (ACEMS) provided by Eastern Municipal Water District (EMWD), the performance will be observed during normal operation.

  2. Preliminary process engineering evaluation of ethanol production from vegetative crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, A. R.; Linden, J. C.; Smith, D. H.; Villet, R. H.

    1982-12-01

    Vegetative crops show good potential as feedstock for ethanol production via cellulose hydrolysis and yeast fermentation. The low levels of lignin encountered in young plant tissues show an inverse relationship with the high cellulose digestibility during hydrolysis with cellulose enzymes. Ensiled sorghum species and brown midrib mutants of sorghum exhibit high glucose yields after enzyme hydrolysis as well. Vegetative crop materials as candidate feedstocks for ethanol manufacture should continue to be studied. The species studied so far are high value cash crops and result in relatively high costs for the final ethanol product. Unconventional crops, such as pigweed, kochia, and Russian thistle, which can use water efficiently and grow on relatively arid land under conditions not ideal for food production, should be carefully evaluated with regard to their cultivation requirements, photosynthesis rates, and cellulose digestibility. Such crops should result in more favorable process economics for alcohol production.

  3. Software Cost Estimation Using a Decision Graph Process: A Knowledge Engineering Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stukes, Sherry; Spagnuolo, John, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is not a description per se of the efforts by two software cost analysts. Rather, it is an outline of the methodology used for FSW cost analysis presented in a form that would serve as a foundation upon which others may gain insight into how to perform FSW cost analyses for their own problems at hand.

  4. Software Cost Estimation Using a Decision Graph Process: A Knowledge Engineering Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stukes, Sherry; Spagnuolo, John, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is not a description per se of the efforts by two software cost analysts. Rather, it is an outline of the methodology used for FSW cost analysis presented in a form that would serve as a foundation upon which others may gain insight into how to perform FSW cost analyses for their own problems at hand.

  5. As Easy as ABC: Re-engineering the Cost Accounting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussel, John M.; Bitner, Larry N.

    1996-01-01

    To be useful for management decision making, the college or university's cost accounting system must capture and measure improvements. Activity-based costing (ABC), which determines more accurately the full costs of services and products, tracks improvements and should proceed alongside reengineering of institutional accounting. Guidelines are…

  6. As Easy as ABC: Re-engineering the Cost Accounting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussel, John M.; Bitner, Larry N.

    1996-01-01

    To be useful for management decision making, the college or university's cost accounting system must capture and measure improvements. Activity-based costing (ABC), which determines more accurately the full costs of services and products, tracks improvements and should proceed alongside reengineering of institutional accounting. Guidelines are…

  7. A System Dynamics Model for Assessing the Cost-Effectiveness of USAF Engineering Officer Compensation Policies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    215 ix List of Tables Table Page I. Military Manning Projections for Officers in Career Fields 26XX, 27XX, 305X , and 55XX...CAREER FIELDS 26XX, 27XX, 305X , and 55XX* (Government Executive, 1980b; Original Source: AFMPC) FY80 FY81 FY82 FY83 FY84 Requirement 7676 7676 7676 7676...Manager 28XX - Development Engineer 305X - Communications Electronics Engineer 55XX - Civil Engineer TABLE II OFFICER RETENTION: EFGINEER RATES

  8. Objective and automated protocols for the evaluation of biomedical search engines using No Title Evaluation protocols

    PubMed Central

    Campagne, Fabien

    2008-01-01

    Background The evaluation of information retrieval techniques has traditionally relied on human judges to determine which documents are relevant to a query and which are not. This protocol is used in the Text Retrieval Evaluation Conference (TREC), organized annually for the past 15 years, to support the unbiased evaluation of novel information retrieval approaches. The TREC Genomics Track has recently been introduced to measure the performance of information retrieval for biomedical applications. Results We describe two protocols for evaluating biomedical information retrieval techniques without human relevance judgments. We call these protocols No Title Evaluation (NT Evaluation). The first protocol measures performance for focused searches, where only one relevant document exists for each query. The second protocol measures performance for queries expected to have potentially many relevant documents per query (high-recall searches). Both protocols take advantage of the clear separation of titles and abstracts found in Medline. We compare the performance obtained with these evaluation protocols to results obtained by reusing the relevance judgments produced in the 2004 and 2005 TREC Genomics Track and observe significant correlations between performance rankings generated by our approach and TREC. Spearman's correlation coefficients in the range of 0.79–0.92 are observed comparing bpref measured with NT Evaluation or with TREC evaluations. For comparison, coefficients in the range 0.86–0.94 can be observed when evaluating the same set of methods with data from two independent TREC Genomics Track evaluations. We discuss the advantages of NT Evaluation over the TRels and the data fusion evaluation protocols introduced recently. Conclusion Our results suggest that the NT Evaluation protocols described here could be used to optimize some search engine parameters before human evaluation. Further research is needed to determine if NT Evaluation or variants of these

  9. Objective and automated protocols for the evaluation of biomedical search engines using No Title Evaluation protocols.

    PubMed

    Campagne, Fabien

    2008-02-29

    The evaluation of information retrieval techniques has traditionally relied on human judges to determine which documents are relevant to a query and which are not. This protocol is used in the Text Retrieval Evaluation Conference (TREC), organized annually for the past 15 years, to support the unbiased evaluation of novel information retrieval approaches. The TREC Genomics Track has recently been introduced to measure the performance of information retrieval for biomedical applications. We describe two protocols for evaluating biomedical information retrieval techniques without human relevance judgments. We call these protocols No Title Evaluation (NT Evaluation). The first protocol measures performance for focused searches, where only one relevant document exists for each query. The second protocol measures performance for queries expected to have potentially many relevant documents per query (high-recall searches). Both protocols take advantage of the clear separation of titles and abstracts found in Medline. We compare the performance obtained with these evaluation protocols to results obtained by reusing the relevance judgments produced in the 2004 and 2005 TREC Genomics Track and observe significant correlations between performance rankings generated by our approach and TREC. Spearman's correlation coefficients in the range of 0.79-0.92 are observed comparing bpref measured with NT Evaluation or with TREC evaluations. For comparison, coefficients in the range 0.86-0.94 can be observed when evaluating the same set of methods with data from two independent TREC Genomics Track evaluations. We discuss the advantages of NT Evaluation over the TRels and the data fusion evaluation protocols introduced recently. Our results suggest that the NT Evaluation protocols described here could be used to optimize some search engine parameters before human evaluation. Further research is needed to determine if NT Evaluation or variants of these protocols can fully substitute

  10. Evaluating Search Engine Relevance with Click-Based Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radlinski, Filip; Kurup, Madhu; Joachims, Thorsten

    Automatically judging the quality of retrieval functions based on observable user behavior holds promise for making retrieval evaluation faster, cheaper, and more user centered. However, the relationship between observable user behavior and retrieval quality is not yet fully understood. In this chapter, we expand upon, Radlinski et al. (How does clickthrough data reflect retrieval quality, In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM), 43-52, 2008), presenting a sequence of studies investigating this relationship for an operational search engine on the arXiv.org e-print archive. We find that none of the eight absolute usage metrics we explore (including the number of clicks observed, the frequency with which users reformulate their queries, and how often result sets are abandoned) reliably reflect retrieval quality for the sample sizes we consider. However, we find that paired experiment designs adapted from sensory analysis produce accurate and reliable statements about the relative quality of two retrieval functions. In particular, we investigate two paired comparison tests that analyze clickthrough data from an interleaved presentation of ranking pairs, and find that both give accurate and consistent results. We conclude that both paired comparison tests give substantially more accurate and sensitive evaluation results than the absolute usage metrics in our domain.

  11. Phenolics for high temperature applications in small engine technologies (cost effective performance advantages)

    SciTech Connect

    Brosius, D.; Jones, R.

    1995-12-31

    Plastic materials have made significant progress in small engine components. Most of these applications have been in external parts like fan shrouds and fuel tanks. Meeting new emissions requirements, along with reducing noise and more compact engine styling will require plastic materials which perform at higher temperatures than those typically used to date, as well as materials which can replace mechanical parts now produced in metal. This paper presents mechanical performance data at temperatures up to 200 C for several engineering phenolic compounds. Also reviewed are fluid resistance, fatigue endurance, and examples of phenolics in production components in small engines.

  12. Performance and cost evaluation of health information systems using micro-costing and discrete-event simulation.

    PubMed

    Rejeb, Olfa; Pilet, Claire; Hamana, Sabri; Xie, Xiaolan; Durand, Thierry; Aloui, Saber; Doly, Anne; Biron, Pierre; Perrier, Lionel; Augusto, Vincent

    2017-05-17

    Innovation and health-care funding reforms have contributed to the deployment of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to improve patient care. Many health-care organizations considered the application of ICT as a crucial key to enhance health-care management. The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology to assess the organizational impact of high-level Health Information System (HIS) on patient pathway. We propose an integrated performance evaluation of HIS approach through the combination of formal modeling using the Architecture of Integrated Information Systems (ARIS) models, a micro-costing approach for cost evaluation, and a Discrete-Event Simulation (DES) approach. The methodology is applied to the consultation for cancer treatment process. Simulation scenarios are established to conclude about the impact of HIS on patient pathway. We demonstrated that although high level HIS lengthen the consultation, occupation rate of oncologists are lower and quality of service is higher (through the number of available information accessed during the consultation to formulate the diagnostic). The provided method allows also to determine the most cost-effective ICT elements to improve the care process quality while minimizing costs. The methodology is flexible enough to be applied to other health-care systems.

  13. Independent Production Cost Estimate: XM1 Tank Main Armament Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    Total Round $419.895 400.610 4.81 Total Program $629.AM 604.IM 4.IS Total Program $611 ar— 589.8M 4.0% b. Design of the Multipurpose...132.630 33.158 $165.788 ’ Total program increase $156.7 million 9 UK 120nin $186.101 46.525 $232.626 $219.4 million GE 120nin $185.436 46.359...propellant changes the above costs as follows: Total round I Increase _MP IT90Ö2 6.91 TP-MP Hll. 507 10.81 d. Total program increase

  14. A cost-effective and fuel-conserving nonelectric air conditioner that combines engine-driven compression and absorption cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, F.

    1988-01-01

    A natural-gas-fueled electricity-producing condensing furnace with the potential of being mass produced at a cost of less than $1000 and providing a cost-effective and highly fuel-conserving alternative to virtually every residential gas furnace in the world has been developed. While this is a new system, it completely consists of existing mass-produced components including single-cylinder air-cooled engines, induction motors/generators, and control devices. Thus, timely commercialization can be expected and an important new energy technology and industry can result. However, all the benefits of this electricity-producing furnace occur during the winter. This has stimulated the search for a new system that can provide comparable benefits in terms of fuel conservation, the environment, and electric utility peak reduction during the summer, along with the prospects of a new and efficient new use for the natural gas surpluses that occur during the summer. The resulting system, which can use existing component equipment, is a commercial-size nonelectric air conditioner that consists of an automobile-type engine converted to natural gas, or possibly a diesel or combustion turbine, driving a Freon compression cycle, with virtually all of the engine reject heat from the exhaust and from the engine cooling system driving a conventional absorption air conditioning cycle.

  15. Integrating Human Factors Engineering and Information Processing Approaches to Facilitate Evaluations in Criminal Justice Technology Research.

    PubMed

    Salvemini, Anthony V; Piza, Eric L; Carter, Jeremy G; Grommon, Eric L; Merritt, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    Evaluations are routinely conducted by government agencies and research organizations to assess the effectiveness of technology in criminal justice. Interdisciplinary research methods are salient to this effort. Technology evaluations are faced with a number of challenges including (1) the need to facilitate effective communication between social science researchers, technology specialists, and practitioners, (2) the need to better understand procedural and contextual aspects of a given technology, and (3) the need to generate findings that can be readily used for decision making and policy recommendations. Process and outcome evaluations of technology can be enhanced by integrating concepts from human factors engineering and information processing. This systemic approach, which focuses on the interaction between humans, technology, and information, enables researchers to better assess how a given technology is used in practice. Examples are drawn from complex technologies currently deployed within the criminal justice system where traditional evaluations have primarily focused on outcome metrics. Although this evidence-based approach has significant value, it is vulnerable to fully account for human and structural complexities that compose technology operations. Guiding principles for technology evaluations are described for identifying and defining key study metrics, facilitating communication within an interdisciplinary research team, and for understanding the interaction between users, technology, and information. The approach posited here can also enable researchers to better assess factors that may facilitate or degrade the operational impact of the technology and answer fundamental questions concerning whether the technology works as intended, at what level, and cost. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Cost of clinical events in health economic evaluations in Germany: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Guidance from the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) on cost estimation in cost–benefit assessments in Germany acknowledges the need for standardization of costing methodology. The objective of this review was to assess current methods for deriving clinical event costs in German economic evaluations. A systematic literature search of 24 databases (including MEDLINE, BIOSIS, the Cochrane Library and Embase) identified articles, published between January 2005 and October 2009, which reported cost-effectiveness or cost-utility analyses. Studies assessed German patients and evaluated at least one of 11 predefined clinical events relevant to patients with diabetes mellitus. A total of 21 articles, describing 199 clinical cost events, met the inclusion criteria. Year of costing and time horizon were available for 194 (97%) and 163 (82%) cost events, respectively. Cost components were rarely specified (32 [16%]). Costs were generally based on a single literature source (140 [70%]); where multiple sources were cited (32 [16%]), data synthesis methodology was not reported. Cost ranges for common events, assessed using a Markov model with a cycle length of 12 months, were: acute myocardial infarction (nine studies), first year, 4,618–17,556 €; follow-up years, 1,006–3,647 €; and stroke (10 studies), first year; 10,149–24,936 €; follow-up years, 676–7,337 €. These results demonstrate that costs for individual clinical events vary substantially in German health economic evaluations, and that there is a lack of transparency and consistency in the methods used to derive them. The validity and comparability of economic evaluations would be improved by guidance on standardizing costing methodology for individual clinical events. PMID:22651885

  17. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 2: Major mechanical equipment; FGD proposal evaluations; Use of FGDPRISM in FGD system modification, proposal, evaluation, and design; FGD system case study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-04

    Part 2 of this manual provides the electric utility engineer with detailed technical information on some of the major mechanical equipment used in the FGD system. The objectives of Part 2 are the following: to provide the electric utility engineer with information on equipment that may be unfamiliar to him, including ball mills, vacuum filters, and mist eliminators; and to identify the unique technique considerations imposed by an FGD system on more familiar electric utility equipment such as fans, gas dampers, piping, valves, and pumps. Part 3 provides an overview of the recommended procedures for evaluating proposals received from FGD system vendors. The objectives are to provide procedures for evaluating the technical aspects of proposals, and to provide procedures for determining the total costs of proposals considering both initial capital costs and annual operating and maintenance costs. The primary objective of Part 4 of this manual is to provide the utility engineer who has a special interest in the capabilities of FGDPRISM [Flue Gas Desulfurization PRocess Integration and Simulation Model] with more detailed discussions of its uses, requirements, and limitations. Part 5 is a case study in using this manual in the preparation of a purchase specification and in the evaluation of proposals received from vendors. The objectives are to demonstrate how the information contained in Parts 1 and 2 can be used to improve the technical content of an FGD system purchase specification; to demonstrate how the techniques presented in Part 3 can be used to evaluate proposals received in response to the purchase specification; and to illustrate how the FGDPRISM computer program can be used to establish design parameters for the specification and evaluate vendor designs.

  18. Can we use routine data to evaluate organizational change? Lessons from the evaluation of business process re-engineering in a UK teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Brennan, A; Sampson, F; Deverill, M

    2005-11-01

    To review and critically evaluate a multidisciplinary independent evaluation of business process re-engineering within a UK hospital using routine data. Routine data measures of hospital cost efficiency are used to compare rates of changes at Leicester Royal Infirmary (LRI) with a 'peer group' of 22 teaching hospitals and to ascertain changes attributable to re-engineering. Different adjustment factors are quantified and the robustness of individual measures discussed. In addition to providing context to the quantitative primary research and the qualitative research on change management, service performance and quality indicators not captured in overall efficiency measures are assessed using detailed routine data measures. LRI is one of the most efficient teaching hospitals in England and continued improvement during re-engineering is shown to be at a faster rate than the peer group average, although attribution of changes is difficult. Lack of availability and inconsistency of data for support services meant that many re-engineering initiatives are not quantifiable using routine data measures. When combining different measures, routine data is a valuable tool in evaluating organizational change initiatives. However, use in future evaluations would require consistent benchmarking of routine data.

  19. The benefits and costs of new fuels and engines for light-duty vehicles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Ryan; Griffin, James P; Graham, John D

    2008-10-01

    Rising oil prices and concerns about energy security and climate change are spurring reconsideration of both automobile propulsion systems and the fuels that supply energy to them. In addition to the gasoline internal combustion engine, recent years have seen alternatives develop in the automotive marketplace. Currently, hybrid-electric vehicles, advanced diesels, and flex-fuel vehicles running on a high percentage mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E85) are appearing at auto shows and in driveways. We conduct a rigorous benefit-cost analysis from both the private and societal perspective of the marginal benefits and costs of each technology--using the conventional gasoline engine as a baseline. The private perspective considers only those factors that influence the decisions of individual consumers, while the societal perspective accounts for environmental, energy, and congestion externalities as well. Our analysis illustrates that both hybrids and diesels show promise for particular light-duty applications (sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks), but that vehicles running continuously on E85 consistently have greater costs than benefits. The results for diesels were particularly robust over a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The results from the societal analysis are qualitatively similar to the private analysis, demonstrating that the most relevant factors to the benefit-cost calculations are the factors that drive the individual consumer's decision. We conclude with a brief discussion of marketplace and public policy trends that will both illustrate and influence the relative adoption of these alternative technologies in the United States in the coming decade.

  20. STATE-OF-THE-ART AND EMERGING TRUCK ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES FOR OPTIMIZED PERFORMANCE, EMISSIONS AND LIFE CYCLE COSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schittler, M

    2003-08-24

    The challenge for truck engine product engineering is not only to fulfill increasingly stringent emission requirements, but also to improve the engine's economical viability in its role as the backbone of our global economy. While societal impact and therefore emission limit values are to be reduced in big steps, continuous improvement is not enough but technological quantum leaps are necessary. The introduction and refinement of electronic control of all major engine systems has already been a quantum leap forward. Maximizing the benefits of these technologies to customers and society requires full use of parameter optimization and other enabling technologies. The next big step forward will be widespread use of exhaust aftertreatment on all transportation related diesel engines. While exhaust gas aftertreatment has been successfully established on gasoline (Otto cycle) engines, the introduction of exhaust aftertreatment especially for heavy-duty diesel engines will be much mo re demanding. Implementing exhaust gas aftertreatment into commercial vehicle applications is a challenging task but the emission requirements to be met starting in Europe, the USA and Japan in the 2005-2007 timeframe require this step. The engine industry will be able to implement the new technology if all stakeholders support the necessary decisions. One decision has already been taken: the reduction of sulfur in diesel fuel being comparable with the elimination of lead in gasoline as a prerequisite for the three-way catalyst. Now we have the chance to optimize ecology and economy of the Diesel engine simultaneously by taking the decision to provide an additional infrastructure for a NOx reduction agent needed for the introduction of the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology that is already implemented in the electric power generation industry. This requires some effort, but the resulting societal benefits, fuel economy and vehicle life cycle costs are significantly better when

  1. Is tissue engineering a new paradigm in medicine? Consequences for the ethical evaluation of tissue engineering research.

    PubMed

    Trommelmans, Leen; Selling, Joseph; Dierickx, Kris

    2009-11-01

    Ex-vivo tissue engineering is a quickly developing medical technology aiming to regenerate tissue through the introduction of an ex-vivo created tissue construct instead of restoring the damaged tissue to some level of functionality. Tissue engineering is considered by some as a new medical paradigm. We analyse this claim and identify tissue engineering's fundamental characteristics, focusing on the aim of the intervention and on the complexity and continuity of the process. We inquire how these features have an impact not only on the scientific research itself but also on the ethical evaluation of this research. We suggest that viewing tissue engineering as a new medical paradigm allows us to develop a wider perspective for successful investigation instead of focusing on isolated steps of the tissue engineering process in an anecdotal way, which may lead to an inadequate ethical evaluation. We argue that the concept of tissue engineering as a paradigm may benefit the way we address the ethical challenges presented by tissue engineering.

  2. Evaluation of the potential of the Stirling engine for heavy duty application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meijer, R. J.; Ziph, B.

    1981-01-01

    A 150 hp four cylinder heavy duty Stirling engine was evaluated. The engine uses a variable stroke power control system, swashplate drive and ceramic insulation. The sensitivity of the design to engine size and heater temperature is investigated. Optimization shows that, with porous ceramics, indicated efficiencies as high as 52% can be achieved. It is shown that the gain in engine efficiency becomes insignificant when the heater temperature is raised above 200 degrees F.

  3. Evaluation of the safety and durability of low-cost nonprogrammable electric powered wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, Jonathan L; Cooper, Rory A; Karnawat, Jaideep; Cooper, Rosemarie; Boninger, Michael L

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate whether a selection of low-cost, nonprogrammable electric-powered wheelchairs (EPWs) meets the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA) Wheelchair Standards requirements. Objective comparison tests of various aspects of power wheelchair design and performance of 4 EPW types. Three of each of the following EPWs: Pride Mobility Jet 10 (Pride), Invacare Pronto M50 (Invacare), Electric Mobility Rascal 250PC (Electric Mobility), and the Golden Technologies Alanté GP-201-F (Golden). Rehabilitation engineering research center. Not applicable. Static tipping angle; dynamic tipping score; braking distance; energy consumption; climatic conditioning; power and control systems integrity and safety; and static, impact, and fatigue life (equivalent cycles). Static tipping angle and dynamic tipping score were significantly different across manufacturers for each tipping direction (range, 6.6 degrees-35.6 degrees). Braking distances were significantly different across manufacturers (range, 7.4-117.3 cm). Significant differences among groups were found with analysis of variance (ANOVA). Energy consumption results show that all EPWs can travel over 17 km before the battery is expected to be exhausted under idealized conditions (range, 18.2-32.0 km). Significant differences among groups were found with ANOVA. All EPWs passed the climatic conditioning tests. Several adverse responses were found during the power and control systems testing, including motors smoking during the stalling condition (Electric Mobility), charger safety issues (Electric Mobility, Invacare), and controller failures (Golden). All EPWs passed static and impact testing; 9 of 12 failed fatigue testing (3 Invacare, 3 Golden, 1 Electric Mobility, 2 Pride). Equivalent cycles did not differ statistically across manufacturers (range, 9759-824,628 cycles). Large variability in the results, especially with respect to

  4. Costing infectious disease outbreaks for economic evaluation: a review for hepatitis A.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Jeroen; Beutels, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    With the aim to understand and estimate the economic impact of outbreaks of community-acquired infections, we performed a review focusing on hepatitis A outbreaks, and retained 13 papers that had collected relevant cost information during such outbreaks. All costs in this article are expressed in USD, year 2007 values. The costs of hepatitis A outbreaks ranged from USD140 000 to US36 million, and the costs per case in an outbreak situation ranged from USD3824 to USD200 480. These costs were typically found to be substantially higher than estimates from cost-of-illness studies (i.e. costs for sporadic cases) and estimates used in cost-effectiveness analyses, mostly because of costly outbreak-control measures. Post-exposure prophylaxis is a major cost factor, especially for food-borne outbreaks. As a result of the increasing proportion of those susceptible to hepatitis A in low-incidence countries, future outbreaks could, on average, increase in size. The increasing occurrence of hepatitis A cases in outbreak situations and the associated control costs should appropriately be accounted for in economic evaluations of vaccination programmes in low-incidence countries. In order to do this, more studies documenting such outbreak-control strategies in terms of costs and resource use are needed.

  5. Comparing top-down and bottom-up costing approaches for economic evaluation within social welfare.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Tina M

    2011-10-01

    This study compares two approaches to the estimation of social welfare intervention costs: one "top-down" and the other "bottom-up" for a group of social welfare clients with severe problem behavior participating in a randomized trial. Intervention costs ranging over a two-year period were compared by intervention category (foster care placement, institutional placement, mentorship services, individual support services and structured support services), estimation method (price, micro costing, average cost) and treatment group (intervention, control). Analyses are based upon 2007 costs for 156 individuals receiving 404 interventions. Overall, both approaches were found to produce reliable estimates of intervention costs at the group level but not at the individual level. As choice of approach can greatly impact the estimate of mean difference, adjustment based on estimation approach should be incorporated into sensitivity analyses. Analysts must take care in assessing the purpose and perspective of the analysis when choosing a costing approach for use within economic evaluation.

  6. Cervical spine evaluation in urban trauma centers: lowering institutional costs and complications through helical CT scan.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Eric L; Morris, John A; Dittus, Robert S; Moore, Derek E; Poulose, Benjamin K; Diaz, Jose J; Speroff, Theodore

    2005-02-01

    In the evaluation of the cervical spine (c-spine), helical CT scan has higher sensitivity and specificity than plain radiographs in the moderate- and high-risk trauma population, but is more costly. We hypothesize that institutional costs associated with missed injuries make helical CT scan the least costly approach. A cost-minimization study was performed using decision analysis examining helical CT scan versus radiographic evaluation of the c-spine. Parameter estimates were obtained from the literature for probability of c-spine injury, probability of paralysis after missed injury, plain film sensitivity and specificity, CT scan sensitivity and specificity, and settlement cost of missed injuries resulting in paralysis. Institutional costs of CT scan and plain radiography were used. Sensitivity analyses tested robustness of strategy preference, accounted for parameter variability, and determined threshold values for individual parameters on strategy preference. C-spine evaluation with helical CT scan has an expected cost of US 554 dollars per patient compared with US 2,142 dollars for plain films. CT scan is the least costly alternative if threshold values exceed US 58,180 dollars for institutional settlement costs, 0.9% for probability of c-spine fracture, and 1.7% for probability of paralysis. Plain films are least costly if CT scan costs surpass US 1,918 dollars or plain film sensitivity exceeds 90%. Helical CT scan is the preferred initial screening test for detection of cervical spine fractures among moderate- to high-risk patients seen in urban trauma centers, reducing the incidence of paralysis resulting from false-negative imaging studies and institutional costs, when settlement costs are taken into account.

  7. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering. [cost and programmatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The latest technical and programmatic developments are considered as well as expansions of the Rockwell SPS cost model covering each phase of the program through the year 2030. Comparative cost/economic analyses cover elements of the satellite, construction system, space transportation vehicles and operations, and the ground receiving station. System plans to define time phased costs and planning requirements that support major milestones through the year 2000. A special analysis is included on natural resources required to build the SPS reference configuration. An appendix contains the SPS Work Breakdown Structure and dictionary along with detail cost data sheet on each system and main element of the program. Over 200 line items address DDT&E, theoretical first unit, investment cost per satellite, and operations charges for replacement capital and normal operations and maintenance costs.

  8. Activity-based costing evaluation of [18F]-fludeoxyglucose production.

    PubMed

    Krug, Bruno; Van Zanten, Annie; Pirson, Anne-Sophie; Crott, Ralph; Vander Borght, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    As healthcare expenses are escalating in many countries, the sector faces a new challenge of becoming more cost efficient. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of healthcare procedures. The cost of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [(18)F]-fludeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) studies is mainly influenced by the price of the radiopharmaceutical, which may vary throughout Europe from 300 to 500 Euro per patient dose (370 MBq). The aim of the current study is to conduct an activity-based costing (ABC) estimation of (18)F-FDG production in Europe to better identify the different cost components and to analyse their relative contribution to the total cost. Financial data were collected on capital expense and global operating costs through interviews with industry experts, PET centre managers, evaluation of prior studies, and review of expenses incurred at the University Medical Centre in Groningen (The Netherlands). After mapping the activities, we divided the cost in five categories: wage, equipment, consumables, overhead and space costs. A sensitivity analysis was performed for key cost components, including the compliance with regulatory requirements. The critical factor for profitability was throughput. Including the European regulation procedure, the cost for 370 MBq (18)F-FDG patient dose, 3 h EOS without delivery cost, ranges between 155 and 177 Euro/dose for two production runs and between 210 and 237 Euro/dose for one production run. These costs are predominantly determined by personnel and equipment costs, although the cost for quality assurance increases steadily. The ABC analysis provides significant insight into the production cost components of (18)F-FDG through different operating configurations. Reductions in equipment prices, increased availability of radiopharmaceuticals, growth in demand, and improvements in reimbursement will all contribute to the financial viability of this imaging technique.

  9. Army Corps of Engineers: Action Needed to Ensure the Quality of Maintenance Dredging Contract Cost Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    contract data, the Corps risks undertaking analyses on incomplete information, and drawing conclusions about cost trends based on unreliable information...contracts into a single contract to help manage costs. In combining contracts, Corps district officials estimated reducing total mobilization costs—the...costs to transport dredge equipment— based on the need to mobilize dredge equipment once under a combined contract, instead of multiple times for

  10. Lean mixture engine testing and evaluation program. [for automobile engine pollution and fuel performances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Hoehn, F. W.; Griffin, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental results for fuel consumption and emissions are presented for a 350 CID (5.7 liter) Chevrolet V-8 engine modified for lean operation with gasoline. The lean burn engine achieved peak thermal efficiency at an equivalence ratio of 0.75 and a spark advance of 60 deg BTDC. At this condition the lean burn engine demonstrated a 10% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption compared with the stock engine; however, NOx and hydrocarbon emissions were higher. With the use of spark retard and/or slightly lower equivalence ratios, the NOx emissions performance of the stock engine was matched while showing a 6% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption. Hydrocarbon emissions exceeded the stock values in all cases. Diagnostic data indicate that lean performance in the engine configuration tested is limited by ignition delay, cycle-to-cycle pressure variations, and cylinder-to-cylinder distribution.

  11. Functional MR imaging versus Wada test for evaluation of language lateralization: cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Medina, L Santiago; Aguirre, Elsa; Bernal, Byron; Altman, Nolan R

    2004-01-01

    To compare the total direct costs (fixed and variable costs) of functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and of the Wada test for evaluation of language lateralization. The direct fixed and variable costs of functional MR imaging (performed in 21 patients with mean age +/- SD of 15.5 years +/- 8.9) and of the Wada test (performed in 18 patients aged 19.2 years +/- 5.4) were determined prospectively with time and motion analyses. The labor of all personnel involved in evaluations of language lateralization was tracked, and involvement times were recorded to the nearest minute. All material items used in the studies were recorded. Costs of labor and of materials were determined from personnel reimbursement data and from vendor pricing, respectively. Direct fixed costs were determined from hospital accounting department records. Means (+/- SDs) were calculated for all direct fixed and variable costs. Total direct costs were determined for each procedure and compared by using the Student t test. The total direct costs of the Wada test (US dollars 1130.01 +/- US dollars 138.40) and of functional MR imaging (US dollars 301.82 +/- US dollars 10.65) were significantly different (P <.001). The cost of the Wada test was 3.7 times higher than that of functional MR imaging. Substantial savings are achievable with the use of functional MR imaging instead of the Wada test to evaluate language lateralization. Copyright RSNA, 2004

  12. A Decision Support Framework for Evaluation of Engineered ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are currently being developed and applied at rates that far exceed our ability to evaluate their potential for environmental or human health risks. The gap between material development and capacity for assessment grows wider every day. Transformative approaches are required that enhance our ability to forecast potential exposure and adverse health risks based on limited information such as the physical and chemical parameters of ENM, their proposed uses, and functional assays reflective of key ENM - environmental interactions. We are developing a framework that encompasses the potential for release of nanomaterials across a product life cycle, environmental transport, transformations and fate, exposure to sensitive species, including humans, and the potential for causing adverse effects. Each component of the framework is conceive of as a sequential segmented model depicting the movement, transformations and actions of ENM through environmental or biological compartments, and along which targeted functional assays can be developed that are indicative of projected rates of ENM movement or action. The eventual goal is to allow simple predictive models to be built that incorporate the data from key functional assays and thereby allow rapid screening of the projected margin of exposure for proposed applications of ENM enabled products. In this way, cases where a substantially safe margin of exposure is forecast can be reduced in

  13. A Decision Support Framework for Evaluation of Engineered ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are currently being developed and applied at rates that far exceed our ability to evaluate their potential for environmental or human health risks. The gap between material development and capacity for assessment grows wider every day. Transformative approaches are required that enhance our ability to forecast potential exposure and adverse health risks based on limited information such as the physical and chemical parameters of ENM, their proposed uses, and functional assays reflective of key ENM - environmental interactions. We are developing a framework that encompasses the potential for release of nanomaterials across a product life cycle, environmental transport, transformations and fate, exposure to sensitive species, including humans, and the potential for causing adverse effects. Each component of the framework is conceive of as a sequential segmented model depicting the movement, transformations and actions of ENM through environmental or biological compartments, and along which targeted functional assays can be developed that are indicative of projected rates of ENM movement or action. The eventual goal is to allow simple predictive models to be built that incorporate the data from key functional assays and thereby allow rapid screening of the projected margin of exposure for proposed applications of ENM enabled products. In this way, cases where a substantially safe margin of exposure is forecast can be reduced in

  14. ECSIN's methodological approach for hazard evaluation of engineered nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bregoli, Lisa; Benetti, Federico; Venturini, Marco; Sabbioni, Enrico

    2013-04-01

    The increasing production volumes and commercialization of engineered nanomaterials (ENM), together with data on their higher biological reactivity when compared to bulk counterpart and ability to cross biological barriers, have caused concerns about their potential impacts on the health and safety of both humans and the environment. A multidisciplinary component of the scientific community has been called to evaluate the real risks associated with the use of products containing ENM, and is today in the process of developing specific definitions and testing strategies for nanomaterials. At ECSIN we are developing an integrated multidisciplinary methodological approach for the evaluation of the biological effects of ENM on the environment and human health. While our testing strategy agrees with the most widely advanced line of work at the European level, the choice of methods and optimization of protocols is made with an extended treatment of details. Our attention to the methodological and technical details is based on the acknowledgment that the innovative characteristics of matter at the nano-size range may influence the existing testing methods in a partially unpredictable manner, an aspect which is frequently recognized at the discussion level but oftentimes disregarded at the laboratory bench level. This work outlines the most important steps of our testing approach. In particular, each step will be briefly discussed in terms of potential technical and methodological pitfalls that we have encountered, and which are often ignored in nanotoxicology research. The final aim is to draw attention to the need of preliminary studies in developing reliable tests, a crucial aspect to confirm the suitability of the chosen analytical and toxicological methods to be used for the specific tested nanoparticle, and to express the idea that in nanotoxicology,"devil is in the detail".

  15. Two Computer Programs for Equipment Cost Estimation and Economic Evaluation of Chemical Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuri, Carlos J.; Corripio, Armando B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes two computer programs for use in process design courses: an easy-to-use equipment cost estimation program based on latest cost correlations available and an economic evaluation program which calculates two profitability indices. Comparisons between programed and hand-calculated results are included. (JM)

  16. COST EVALUATION OF AUTOMATED AND MANUAL POST- CONSUMER PLASTIC BOTTLE SORTING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluates, on the basis of performance and cost, two Automated BottleSort® sorting systems for post-consumer commingled plastic containers developed by Magnetic Separation Systems. This study compares the costs to sort mixed bales of post-consumer plastic at these t...

  17. COST EVALUATION OF AUTOMATED AND MANUAL POST- CONSUMER PLASTIC BOTTLE SORTING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluates, on the basis of performance and cost, two Automated BottleSort® sorting systems for post-consumer commingled plastic containers developed by Magnetic Separation Systems. This study compares the costs to sort mixed bales of post-consumer plastic at these t...

  18. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b) In... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42 Section 436.42 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND...

  19. Evaluation of the Costs of Caring for the Senile Demented Elderly: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Teh-wei; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Evaluated economic costs for nursing home patients and elderly living in their own homes. Using time records compiled by nurses or family members, the costs incurred annually in caring for a senile demented elderly person at home were estimated to average $11,735, and in a nursing home, $22,458. (Author/BL)

  20. A Cost Effectiveness Model for the Evaluation of Kansas Area Vocational-Technical School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Noel O.

    The purpose of the study was to ascertain what evaluation practices were being utilized for vocational programs and also to apply a cost-effectiveness model to four program areas offered in Kansas area vocational-technical (VT) schools. Cost and benefit data for the study were obtained from the Kansas State Department of Education, Vocational…