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Sample records for engineering intracellular active

  1. Engineering intracellular active transport systems as in vivo biomolecular tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Bachand, George David; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda

    2006-11-01

    Active transport systems provide essential functions in terms of cell physiology and metastasis. These systems, however, are also co-opted by invading viruses, enabling directed transport of the virus to and from the cell's nucleus (i.e., the site of virus replication). Based on this concept, fundamentally new approaches for interrogating and manipulating the inner workings of living cells may be achievable by co-opting Nature's active transport systems as an in vivo biomolecular tool. The overall goal of this project was to investigate the ability to engineer kinesin-based transport systems for in vivo applications, specifically the collection of effector proteins (e.g., transcriptional regulators) within single cells. In the first part of this project, a chimeric fusion protein consisting of kinesin and a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of an antibody was successfully produced through a recombinant expression system. The kinesin-scFv retained both catalytic and antigenic functionality, enabling selective capture and transport of target antigens. The incorporation of a rabbit IgG-specific scFv into the kinesin established a generalized system for functionalizing kinesin with a wide range of target-selective antibodies raised in rabbits. The second objective was to develop methods of isolating the intact microtubule network from live cells as a platform for evaluating kinesin-based transport within the cytoskeletal architecture of a cell. Successful isolation of intact microtubule networks from two distinct cell types was demonstrated using glutaraldehyde and methanol fixation methods. This work provides a platform for inferring the ability of kinesin-scFv to function in vivo, and may also serve as a three-dimensional scaffold for evaluating and exploiting kinesin-based transport for nanotechnological applications. Overall, the technology developed in this project represents a first-step in engineering active transport system for in vivo applications. Further

  2. Intracellular targeting with engineered proteins

    PubMed Central

    Miersch, Shane; Sidhu, Sachdev S.

    2016-01-01

    If the isolation, production, and clinical use of insulin marked the inception of the age of biologics as therapeutics, the convergence of molecular biology and combinatorial engineering techniques marked its coming of age. The first wave of recombinant protein-based drugs in the 1980s demonstrated emphatically that proteins could be engineered, formulated, and employed for clinical advantage. Yet despite the successes of protein-based drugs such as antibodies, enzymes, and cytokines, the druggable target space for biologics is currently restricted to targets outside the cell. Insofar as estimates place the number of proteins either secreted or with extracellular domains in the range of 8000 to 9000, this represents only one-third of the proteome and circumscribes the pathways that can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. Clearly, a major objective for this field to reach maturity is to access, interrogate, and modulate the majority of proteins found inside the cell. However, owing to the large size, complex architecture, and general cellular impermeability of existing protein-based drugs, this poses a daunting challenge. In recent years, though, advances on the two related fronts of protein engineering and drug delivery are beginning to bring this goal within reach. First, prompted by the restrictions that limit the applicability of antibodies, intense efforts have been applied to identifying and engineering smaller alternative protein scaffolds for the modulation of intracellular targets. In parallel, innovative solutions for delivering proteins to the intracellular space while maintaining their stability and functional activity have begun to yield successes. This review provides an overview of bioactive intrabodies and alternative protein scaffolds amenable to engineering for intracellular targeting and also outlines advances in protein engineering and formulation for delivery of functional proteins to the interior of the cell to achieve therapeutic action

  3. Activities of Antimicrobial Agents against Intracellular Pneumococci

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, Gerald L.; Coleman, Elizabeth J.

    2000-01-01

    Pneumococci can enter and survive inside human lung alveolar carcinoma cells. We examined the activity of azithromycin, gentamicin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, penicillin G, rifampin, telithromycin, and trovafloxacin against pneumococci inside and outside cells. We found that moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin, and telithromycin were the most active, but only telithromycin killed all intracellular organisms. PMID:10952618

  4. Enhanced membrane protein expression by engineering increased intracellular membrane production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Membrane protein research is frequently hampered by the low natural abundance of these proteins in cells and typically relies on recombinant gene expression. Different expression systems, like mammalian cells, insect cells, bacteria and yeast are being used, but very few research efforts have been directed towards specific host cell customization for enhanced expression of membrane proteins. Here we show that by increasing the intracellular membrane production by interfering with a key enzymatic step of lipid synthesis, enhanced expression of membrane proteins in yeast is achieved. Results We engineered the oleotrophic yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, by deleting the phosphatidic acid phosphatase, PAH1, which led to massive proliferation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. For all eight tested representatives of different integral membrane protein families, we obtained enhanced protein accumulation levels and in some cases enhanced proteolytic integrity in the ∆pah1 strain. We analysed the adenosine A2AR G-protein coupled receptor case in more detail and found that concomitant induction of the unfolded protein response in the ∆pah1 strain enhanced the specific ligand binding activity of the receptor. These data indicate an improved quality control mechanism for membrane proteins accumulating in yeast cells with proliferated ER. Conclusions We conclude that redirecting the metabolic flux of fatty acids away from triacylglycerol- and sterylester-storage towards membrane phospholipid synthesis by PAH1 gene inactivation, provides a valuable approach to enhance eukaryotic membrane protein production. Complementary to this improvement in membrane protein quantity, UPR co-induction further enhances the quality of the membrane protein in terms of its proper folding and biological activity. Importantly, since these pathways are conserved in all eukaryotes, it will be of interest to investigate similar engineering approaches in other cell types of

  5. Engineering intracellular biomineralization and biosensing by a magnetic protein.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yuri; Chen, Ritchie; Anikeeva, Polina; Jasanoff, Alan

    2015-11-02

    Remote measurement and manipulation of biological systems can be achieved using magnetic techniques, but a missing link is the availability of highly magnetic handles on cellular or molecular function. Here we address this need by using high-throughput genetic screening in yeast to select variants of the iron storage ferritin (Ft) that display enhanced iron accumulation under physiological conditions. Expression of Ft mutants selected from a library of 10(7) variants induces threefold greater cellular iron loading than mammalian heavy chain Ft, over fivefold higher contrast in magnetic resonance imaging, and robust retention on magnetic separation columns. Mechanistic studies of mutant Ft proteins indicate that improved magnetism arises in part from increased iron oxide nucleation efficiency. Molecular-level iron loading in engineered Ft enables detection of individual particles inside cells and facilitates creation of Ft-based intracellular magnetic devices. We demonstrate construction of a magnetic sensor actuated by gene expression in yeast.

  6. Engineering intracellular biomineralization and biosensing by a magnetic protein

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yuri; Chen, Ritchie; Anikeeva, Polina; Jasanoff, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Remote measurement and manipulation of biological systems can be achieved using magnetic techniques, but a missing link is the availability of highly magnetic handles on cellular or molecular function. Here we address this need by using high-throughput genetic screening in yeast to select variants of the iron storage ferritin (Ft) that display enhanced iron accumulation under physiological conditions. Expression of Ft mutants selected from a library of 107 variants induces threefold greater cellular iron loading than mammalian heavy chain Ft, over fivefold higher contrast in magnetic resonance imaging, and robust retention on magnetic separation columns. Mechanistic studies of mutant Ft proteins indicate that improved magnetism arises in part from increased iron oxide nucleation efficiency. Molecular-level iron loading in engineered Ft enables detection of individual particles inside cells and facilitates creation of Ft-based intracellular magnetic devices. We demonstrate construction of a magnetic sensor actuated by gene expression in yeast. PMID:26522873

  7. Impact of photosensitizers activation on intracellular trafficking and viscosity.

    PubMed

    Aubertin, Kelly; Bonneau, Stéphanie; Silva, Amanda K A; Bacri, Jean-Claude; Gallet, François; Wilhelm, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular microenvironment is essential for the efficiency of photo-induced therapies, as short-lived reactive oxygen species generated must diffuse through their intracellular surrounding medium to reach their cellular target. Here, by combining measurements of local cytoplasmic dissipation and active trafficking, we found that photosensitizers activation induced small changes in surrounding viscosity but a massive decrease in diffusion. These effects are the signature of a return to thermodynamic equilibrium of the system after photo-activation and correlated with depolymerization of the microtubule network, as shown in a reconstituted system. These mechanical measurements were performed with two intracellular photosensitizing chlorins having similar quantum yield of singlet oxygen production but different intracellular localizations (cytoplasmic for mTHPC, endosomal for TPCS2a). These two agents demonstrated different intracellular impact.

  8. Impact of Photosensitizers Activation on Intracellular Trafficking and Viscosity

    PubMed Central

    Aubertin, Kelly; Bonneau, Stéphanie; Silva, Amanda K. A.; Bacri, Jean-Claude; Gallet, François; Wilhelm, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular microenvironment is essential for the efficiency of photo-induced therapies, as short-lived reactive oxygen species generated must diffuse through their intracellular surrounding medium to reach their cellular target. Here, by combining measurements of local cytoplasmic dissipation and active trafficking, we found that photosensitizers activation induced small changes in surrounding viscosity but a massive decrease in diffusion. These effects are the signature of a return to thermodynamic equilibrium of the system after photo-activation and correlated with depolymerization of the microtubule network, as shown in a reconstituted system. These mechanical measurements were performed with two intracellular photosensitizing chlorins having similar quantum yield of singlet oxygen production but different intracellular localizations (cytoplasmic for mTHPC, endosomal for TPCS2a). These two agents demonstrated different intracellular impact. PMID:24386423

  9. Uptake and intracellular activity of fluconazole in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, A; García, I; Conejo, C; Perea, E J

    1993-01-01

    The penetration of fluconazole into human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and tissue culture epithelial cells (McCoy) was evaluated. At different extracellular concentrations (0.5 to 10 mg/liter), fluconazole reached cell-associated concentrations greater than the extracellular ones in either human PMNs (intracellular concentration to extracellular concentration ratio, > or = 2.2) or McCoy cells (intracellular concentration to extracellular concentration ratio, > or = 1.3). The uptake of fluconazole by PMNs was rapid and reversible but was not energy dependent. The intracellular penetration of fluconazole was not affected by environmental pH or temperature. Ingestion of opsonized zymosan and opsonized Candida albicans did not significantly increase the amount of PMN-associated fluconazole. At therapeutic extracellular concentrations, the intracellular activity of fluconazole against C. albicans in PMNs was significantly lower than that of amphotericin B. It was concluded that fluconazole reaches high intracellular concentrations within PMNs but shows moderate activity against intracellular C. albicans in vitro. PMID:8452347

  10. Intracellular activity of azithromycin against bacterial enteric pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Rakita, R M; Jacques-Palaz, K; Murray, B E

    1994-01-01

    Azithromycin, a new azalide antibiotic, is active in vitro against a variety of enteric bacterial pathogens. Since it is concentrated inside human neutrophils and other cells, it might be particularly useful in the treatment of infections caused by enteropathogens that invade host tissues. The intracellular activity of azithromycin against several enteric pathogens that had been phagocytosed by neutrophils was determined. Azithromycin was effective in reducing the intracellular viabilities of almost all strains tested, including representative strains of Salmonella, Shigella, and enteroinvasive, enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Erythromycin was also effective in this model system, although azithromycin was generally more effective than erythromycin against strains of invasive enteric pathogens. Cefotaxime reduced intracellular bacterial viability to a lesser extent than either azithromycin or erythromycin. The presence of neutrophils did not significantly affect the activity of azithromycin in this system. Azithromycin may be a useful agent for the treatment of bacterial diarrhea, and clinical trials should be considered. PMID:7810998

  11. Utilizing Natural and Engineered Peroxiredoxins As Intracellular Peroxide Reporters.

    PubMed

    Van Laer, Koen; Dick, Tobias P

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly apparent that nature evolved peroxiredoxins not only as H2O2 scavengers but also as highly sensitive H2O2 sensors and signal transducers. Here we ask whether the H2O2 sensing role of Prx can be exploited to develop probes that allow to monitor intracellular H2O2 levels with unprecedented sensitivity. Indeed, simple gel shift assays visualizing the oxidation of endogenous 2-Cys peroxiredoxins have already been used to detect subtle changes in intracellular H2O2 concentration. The challenge however is to create a genetically encoded probe that offers real-time measurements of H2O2 levels in intact cells via the Prx oxidation state. We discuss potential design strategies for Prx-based probes based on either the redox-sensitive fluorophore roGFP or the conformation-sensitive fluorophore cpYFP. Furthermore, we outline the structural and chemical complexities which need to be addressed when using Prx as a sensing moiety for H2O2 probes. We suggest experimental strategies to investigate the influence of these complexities on probe behavior. In doing so, we hope to stimulate the development of Prx-based probes which may spearhead the further study of cellular H2O2 homeostasis and Prx signaling.

  12. Gamma Band Activity in the RAS-intracellular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, E.; Kezunovic, N.; D’Onofrio, S.; Luster, B.; Hyde, J.; Bisagno, V.; Urbano, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma band activity participates in sensory perception, problem solving, and memory. This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in the reticular activating system (RAS) exhibit gamma band activity, and describes the intrinsic membrane properties behind such manifestation. Specifically, we discuss how cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf), and pontine Subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD) all fire in the gamma band range when maximally activated, but no higher. The mechanisms involve high threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels or sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. Rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as in the cortex, gamma band activity in the RAS may participate in the processes of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions. We address three necessary next steps resulting from these discoveries, an intracellular mechanism responsible for maintaining gamma band activity based on persistent G-protein activation, separate intracellular pathways that differentiate between gamma band activity during waking vs during REM sleep, and an intracellular mechanism responsible for the dysregulation in gamma band activity in schizophrenia. These findings open several promising research avenues that have not been thoroughly explored. What are the effects of sleep or REM sleep deprivation on these RAS mechanisms? Are these mechanisms involved in memory processing during waking and/or during REM sleep? Does gamma band processing differ during waking vs REM sleep after sleep or REM sleep deprivation? PMID:24309750

  13. Activity of 10 antimicrobial agents against intracellular Rhodococcus equi.

    PubMed

    Giguère, Steeve; Berghaus, Londa J; Lee, Elise A

    2015-08-05

    Studies with facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens have shown that evaluation of the bactericidal activity of antimicrobial agents against intracellular bacteria is more closely associated with in vivo efficacy than traditional in vitro susceptibility testing. The objective of this study was to determine the relative activity of 10 antimicrobial agents against intracellular Rhodococcus equi. Equine monocyte-derived macrophages were infected with virulent R. equi and exposed to erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, rifampin, ceftiofur, gentamicin, enrofloxacin, vancomycin, imipenem, or doxycycline at concentrations achievable in plasma at clinically recommended dosages in foals. The number of intracellular R. equi was determined 48h after infection by counting colony forming units (CFUs). The number of R. equi CFUs in untreated control wells were significantly higher than those of monolayers treated with antimicrobial agents. Numbers of R. equi were significantly lower in monolayers treated with enrofloxacin followed by those treated with gentamicin, and vancomycin, when compared to monolayers treated with other antimicrobial agents. Numbers of R. equi in monolayers treated with doxycycline were significantly higher than those of monolayers treated with other antimicrobial agents. Differences in R. equi CFUs between monolayers treated with other antimicrobial agents were not statistically significant. Enrofloxacin, gentamicin, and vancomycin are the most active drugs in equine monocyte-derived macrophages infected with R. equi. Additional studies will be needed to determine if these findings correlate with in vivo efficacy.

  14. Integrating Protein Engineering and Bioorthogonal Click Conjugation for Extracellular Vesicle Modulation and Intracellular Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming; Altinoglu, Sarah; Takeda, Yuji S.; Xu, Qiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are small, cell-secreted vesicles that transfer proteins and genetic information between cells. This intercellular transmission regulates many physiological and pathological processes. Therefore, exosomes have emerged as novel biomarkers for disease diagnosis and as nanocarriers for drug delivery. Here, we report an easy-to-adapt and highly versatile methodology to modulate exosome composition and conjugate exosomes for intracellular delivery. Our strategy combines the metabolic labeling of newly synthesized proteins or glycan/glycoproteins of exosome-secreting cells with active azides and bioorthogonal click conjugation to modify and functionalize the exosomes. The azide-integrated can be conjugated to a variety of small molecules and proteins and can efficiently deliver conjugates into cells. The metabolic engineering of exosomes diversifies the chemistry of exosomes and expands the functions that can be introduced into exosomes, providing novel, powerful tools to study the roles of exosomes in biology and expand the biomedical potential of exosomes. PMID:26529317

  15. Engineers and Active Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Udo

    2015-08-01

    Knowing that technologies are inherently value-laden and systemically interwoven with society, the question is how individual engineers can take up the challenge of accepting the responsibility for their work? This paper will argue that engineers have no institutional structure at the level of society that allows them to recognize, reflect upon, and actively integrate the value-laden character of their designs. Instead, engineers have to tap on the different institutional realms of market, science, and state, making their work a 'hybrid' activity combining elements from the different institutional realms. To deal with this institutional hybridity, engineers develop routines and heuristics in their professional network, which do not allow societal values to be expressed in a satisfactory manner. To allow forms of 'active' responsibility, there have to be so-called 'accountability forums' that guide moral reflections of individual actors. The paper will subsequently look at the methodologies of value-sensitive design (VSD) and constructive technology assessment (CTA) and explore whether and how these methodologies allow engineers to integrate societal values into the design technological artifacts and systems. As VSD and CTA are methodologies that look at the process of technological design, whereas the focus of this paper is on the designer, they can only be used indirectly, namely as frameworks which help to identify the contours of a framework for active responsibility of engineers.

  16. Nature's engines: active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, Julia M.

    2017-03-01

    Active materials, bacteria, molecular motors, and self-propelled colloids, continuously transform chemical energy from the environment to mechanical work. Dense active matter, from layers of cells to flocks of birds, self-assembles into intricate patterns. Nature's engines are complex and efficient, and we would like to exploit her ideas to fabricate nano-machines.

  17. Intracellular calcium strongly potentiates agonist-activated TRPC5 channels

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Nathaniel T.; Kaczmarek, J. Stefan

    2009-01-01

    TRPC5 is a calcium (Ca2+)-permeable nonselective cation channel expressed in several brain regions, including the hippocampus, cerebellum, and amygdala. Although TRPC5 is activated by receptors coupled to phospholipase C, the precise signaling pathway and modulatory signals remain poorly defined. We find that during continuous agonist activation, heterologously expressed TRPC5 currents are potentiated in a voltage-dependent manner (∼5-fold at positive potentials and ∼25-fold at negative potentials). The reversal potential, doubly rectifying current–voltage relation, and permeability to large cations such as N-methyl-d-glucamine remain unchanged during this potentiation. The TRPC5 current potentiation depends on extracellular Ca2+: replacement by Ba2+ or Mg2+ abolishes it, whereas the addition of 10 mM Ca2+ accelerates it. The site of action for Ca2+ is intracellular, as simultaneous fura-2 imaging and patch clamp recordings indicate that potentiation is triggered at ∼1 µM [Ca2+]. This potentiation is prevented when intracellular Ca2+ is tightly buffered, but it is promoted when recording with internal solutions containing elevated [Ca2+]. In cell-attached and excised inside-out single-channel recordings, increases in internal [Ca2+] led to an ∼10–20-fold increase in channel open probability, whereas single-channel conductance was unchanged. Ca2+-dependent potentiation should result in TRPC5 channel activation preferentially during periods of repetitive firing or coincident neurotransmitter receptor activation. PMID:19398778

  18. Structural rearrangement of the intracellular domains during AMPA receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Zachariassen, Linda G.; Katchan, Ljudmila; Jensen, Anna G.; Pickering, Darryl S.; Plested, Andrew J. R.

    2016-01-01

    α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate the majority of fast excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Despite recent advances in structural studies of AMPARs, information about the specific conformational changes that underlie receptor function is lacking. Here, we used single and dual insertion of GFP variants at various positions in AMPAR subunits to enable measurements of conformational changes using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in live cells. We produced dual CFP/YFP-tagged GluA2 subunit constructs that had normal activity and displayed intrareceptor FRET. We used fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) in live HEK293 cells to determine distinct steady-state FRET efficiencies in the presence of different ligands, suggesting a dynamic picture of the resting state. Patch-clamp fluorometry of the double- and single-insert constructs showed that both the intracellular C-terminal domain (CTD) and the loop region between the M1 and M2 helices move during activation and the CTD is detached from the membrane. Our time-resolved measurements revealed unexpectedly complex fluorescence changes within these intracellular domains, providing clues as to how posttranslational modifications and receptor function interact. PMID:27313205

  19. Diverse intracellular pathogens activate type III interferon expression from peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Odendall, Charlotte; Dixit, Evelyn; Stavru, Fabrizia; Bierne, Helene; Franz, Kate M; Durbin, Ann Fiegen; Boulant, Steeve; Gehrke, Lee; Cossart, Pascale; Kagan, Jonathan C

    2014-08-01

    Type I interferon responses are considered the primary means by which viral infections are controlled in mammals. Despite this view, several pathogens activate antiviral responses in the absence of type I interferons. The mechanisms controlling type I interferon-independent responses are undefined. We found that RIG-I like receptors (RLRs) induce type III interferon expression in a variety of human cell types, and identified factors that differentially regulate expression of type I and type III interferons. We identified peroxisomes as a primary site of initiation of type III interferon expression, and revealed that the process of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation upregulates peroxisome biogenesis and promotes robust type III interferon responses in human cells. These findings highlight the importance of different intracellular organelles in specific innate immune responses.

  20. Enzyme-activated intracellular drug delivery with tubule clay nanoformulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzamukova, Maria R.; Naumenko, Ekaterina A.; Lvov, Yuri M.; Fakhrullin, Rawil F.

    2015-05-01

    Fabrication of stimuli-triggered drug delivery vehicle s is an important milestone in treating cancer. Here we demonstrate the selective anticancer drug delivery into human cells with biocompatible 50-nm diameter halloysite nanotube carriers. Physically-adsorbed dextrin end stoppers secure the intercellular release of brilliant green. Drug-loaded nanotubes penetrate through the cellular membranes and their uptake efficiency depends on the cells growth rate. Intercellular glycosyl hydrolases-mediated decomposition of the dextrin tube-end stoppers triggers the release of the lumen-loaded brilliant green, which allowed for preferable elimination of human lung carcinoma cells (A549) as compared with hepatoma cells (Hep3b). The enzyme-activated intracellular delivery of brilliant green using dextrin-coated halloysite nanotubes is a promising platform for anticancer treatment.

  1. Identification of intracellular receptor proteins for activated protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Mochly-Rosen, D; Khaner, H; Lopez, J

    1991-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) translocates from the cytosol to the particulate fraction on activation. This activation-induced translocation of PKC is thought to reflect PKC binding to the membrane lipids. However, immunological and biochemical data suggest that PKC may bind to proteins in the cytoskeletal elements in the particulate fraction and in the nuclei. Here we describe evidence for the presence of intracellular receptor proteins that bind activated PKC. Several proteins from the detergent-insoluble material of the particulate fraction bound PKC in the presence of phosphatidylserine and calcium; binding was further increased with the addition of diacylglycerol. Binding of PKC to two of these proteins was concentration-dependent, saturable, and specific, suggesting that these binding proteins are receptors for activated C-kinase, termed here "RACKs." PKC binds to RACKs via a site on PKC distinct from the substrate binding site. We suggest that binding to RACKs may play a role in activation-induced translocation of PKC. Images PMID:1850844

  2. Engineering a growth sensor to select intracellular antibodies in the cytosol of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy Duong; Takasuka, Hitoshi; Kaku, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Satoshi; Nagamune, Teruyuki; Kawahara, Masahiro

    2017-03-16

    Intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) are expected to function as therapeutics as well as tools for elucidating in vivo function of proteins. In this study, we propose a novel intrabody selection method in the cytosol of mammalian cells by utilizing a growth signal, induced by the interaction of the target antigen and an scFv-c-kit growth sensor. Here, we challenge this method to select specific intrabodies against rabies virus nucleoprotein (RV-N) for the first time. As a result, we successfully select antigen-specific intrabodies from a naïve synthetic library using phage panning followed by our growth sensor-based intracellular selection method, demonstrating the feasibility of the method. Additionally, we succeed in improving the response of the growth sensor by re-engineering the linker region of its construction. Collectively, the described selection method utilizing a growth sensor may become a highly efficient platform for selection of functional intrabodies in the future.

  3. The Mechanical Environment Modulates Intracellular Calcium Oscillation Activities of Myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Godbout, Charles; Follonier Castella, Lysianne; Smith, Eric A.; Talele, Nilesh; Chow, Melissa L.; Garonna, Adriano; Hinz, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Myofibroblast contraction is fundamental in the excessive tissue remodeling that is characteristic of fibrotic tissue contractures. Tissue remodeling during development of fibrosis leads to gradually increasing stiffness of the extracellular matrix. We propose that this increased stiffness positively feeds back on the contractile activities of myofibroblasts. We have previously shown that cycles of contraction directly correlate with periodic intracellular calcium oscillations in cultured myofibroblasts. We analyze cytosolic calcium dynamics using fluorescent calcium indicators to evaluate the possible impact of mechanical stress on myofibroblast contractile activity. To modulate extracellular mechanics, we seeded primary rat subcutaneous myofibroblasts on silicone substrates and into collagen gels of different elastic modulus. We modulated cell stress by cell growth on differently adhesive culture substrates, by restricting cell spreading area on micro-printed adhesive islands, and depolymerizing actin with Cytochalasin D. In general, calcium oscillation frequencies in myofibroblasts increased with increasing mechanical challenge. These results provide new insight on how changing mechanical conditions for myofibroblasts are encoded in calcium oscillations and possibly explain how reparative cells adapt their contractile behavior to the stresses occurring in normal and pathological tissue repair. PMID:23691248

  4. Platelet activating factor raises intracellular calcium ion concentration in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Peritoneal cells from thioglycollate-stimulated mice were allowed to adhere to coverglasses for 2 h to give a dense monolayer of adherent cells greater than 95% of which were macrophages. After incubation with the tetra-acetoxymethyl ester of quin2, coverglasses were rinsed with Ca2+-free saline, oriented at a 45 degree angle in square cuvettes containing a magnetically driven stir bar, and analyzed for changes in quin2 fluorescence in a spectrofluorimeter. Such fluorescence, taken as an indication of intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i), increased as exogenous calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]o) was raised to 1 mM. At [Ca2+]o approximately equal to 10 microM, [Ca2+]i = 72 +/- 14 nM (n = 26); at [Ca2+]o = 1 mM, [Ca2+]i = 140-220 nM, levels not increased by N, N, N', N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine, a membrane-permeant chelator of heavy metals than can quench quin2. Addition of mouse alpha + beta fibroblast interferon, lipopolysaccharide, thrombin, collagen, vasopressin, ADP, compound 48/80, or U46619 did not change [Ca2+]i. However, addition of platelet activating factor (PAF) (2-20 ng/ml) raised [Ca2+]i by 480 nM within 1 min if [Ca2+]o = 1 mM. In the presence of 5 mM EGTA, PAF raised [Ca2+]i by 25 nM. This suggests that PAF causes influx of exogenous Ca2+, as well as releasing some Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Consistent with these results, when PAF was added to 1 mM Ca2+ in the presence of 100 microM Cd2+ or Mn2+ to block Ca2+ influx, [Ca2+]i increased by only intermediate amounts; at the times of such dampened peak response, [Ca2+]i could be raised within 1 min to normal PAF-stimulated levels by chelation of the exogenous heavy metals with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Normal PAF responses were observed in the presence of indomethacin. The lowest dose of PAF observed to raise [Ca2+]i was 0.1 ng/ml. Response of [Ca2+]i to 2-20 ng/ml PAF was transient, and second applications had no effect. The PAF response also was seen in

  5. Engineering Salmonella as intracellular factory for effective killing of tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Eva María; Mesa-Pereira, Beatriz; Medina, Carlos; Flores, Amando; Santero, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella have many desirable properties as antitumour-agent due to its ability to proliferate inside tumours and induce tumour regression. Additionally, this bacterium can be genetically engineered to deliver therapeutic proteins intratumourally. The main limitation of this approach is the efficient release of therapeutic molecules from intratumoural bacteria. Here we have developed an inducible autolysis system based in the lysis operon of the lambda phage that, in response to anhydrotetracycline, lysates Salmonella thus releasing its content. The system was combined with a salicylate cascade system that allows efficient production of therapeutic molecules in response to aspirin and with a sifA mutation that liberates bacteria from the vacuoles to a cytosolic location. The combination of these three elements makes this strain a putative powerful instrument in cancer treatment. We have used this engineered strain for the intracellular production and delivery of Cp53 peptide. The engineered strain is able to sequentially produce and release the cytotoxic peptide while proliferating inside tumour cells, thus inducing host cell death. Our results show that temporal separation of protein production from protein release is essential to efficiently kill tumour cells. The combined system is a further step in the engineering of more efficient bacteria for cancer therapy. PMID:27464652

  6. Intracellular sodium ion activity and sodium transport in rabbit urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, D C

    1981-01-01

    1. Intracellular potentials and the intracellular activities of Na+ and K+ were examined using conventional and ion-selective micro-electrodes. 2. In animals on a normal diet, the intracellular Na+ activity was 8.6 +/- 2.9 mM (mean +/- S.D.) with a mean short-circuit current of 2.8 +/- 0.9 microA/cm2. 3. In animals on a low-Na+ diet, the intracellular Na+ activity was 18.5 +/- 9.9 mM with a short-circuit current of 4.5 +/- 1.3 microA/cm2 (mean +/- S.D.). 4. There was a correlation between short-circuit current and intracellular Na+ activity which could be fitted by a saturating hyperbolic relationship. 5. Treatment of the issue with ouabain and amiloride produced an increase and a decrease, respectively, in the intracellular Na+ activity. 6. Treatment with aldosterone produced a large increase in short-circuit current with a substantial increase in intracellular Na+ activity. 7. Intracellular Na+ activity does not seem to affect apical membrane permeability directly. PMID:7320880

  7. Engineered antibody therapies to counteract mutant huntingtin and related toxic intracellular proteins

    PubMed Central

    Butler, David C.; McLear, Julie A.; Messer, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The engineered antibody approach to Huntington's disease (HD) therapeutics is based on the premise that significantly lowering the levels of the primary misfolded mutant protein will reduce abnormal protein interactions and direct toxic effects of the misfolded huntingtin (HTT). This will in turn reduce the pathologic stress on cells, and normalize intrinsic proteostasis. Intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) are single-chain (scFv) and single-domain (dAb; nanobody) variable fragments that can retain the affinity and specificity of full-length antibodies, but can be selected and engineered as genes. Functionally, they represent a protein-based approach to the problem of aberrant mutant protein folding, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and aggregation. Several intrabodies that bind on either side of the expanded polyglutamine tract of mutant HTT have been reported to improve the mutant phenotype in cell and organotypic cultures, fruit flies, and mice. Further refinements to the difficult challenges of intraneuronal delivery, cytoplasmic folding, and long-term efficacy are in progress. This review covers published studies and emerging approaches on the choice of targets, selection and engineering methods, gene and protein delivery options, and testing of candidates in cell and animal models. The resultant antibody fragments can be used as direct therapeutics and as target validation/drug discovery tools for HD, while the technology is also applicable to a wide range of neurodegenerative and other diseases that are triggered by toxic proteins. PMID:22120646

  8. Design and engineering of intracellular-metabolite-sensing/regulation gene circuits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Li, Sijin; Zhao, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-throughput phenotyping tools is lagging far behind the rapid advances of genotype generation methods. To bridge this gap, we report a new strategy for design, construction, and fine-tuning of intracellular-metabolite-sensing/regulation gene circuits by repurposing bacterial transcription factors and eukaryotic promoters. As proof of concept, we systematically investigated the design and engineering of bacterial repressor-based xylose-sensing/regulation gene circuits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrated that numerous properties, such as induction ratio and dose-response curve, can be fine-tuned at three different nodes, including repressor expression level, operator position, and operator sequence. By applying these gene circuits, we developed a cell sorting based, rapid and robust high-throughput screening method for xylose transporter engineering and obtained a sugar transporter HXT14 mutant with 6.5-fold improvement in xylose transportation capacity. This strategy should be generally applicable and highly useful for evolutionary engineering of proteins, pathways, and genomes in S. cerevisiae.

  9. Depollution potential of three macrophytes: exudated, wall-bound and intracellular peroxidase activities plus intracellular phenol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Larue, Camille; Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Wang, Runying; Mévy, Jean-Philippe

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of three macrophyte species (Iris pseudacorus, Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis) for detoxication of xenobiotics, and to study their variations with seasons or concentrations of sewage sludge from the food industry. For this purpose, some aspects of the green liver concept were explored through peroxidase measurements in three compartments in roots: intracellular, cell wall and extracellular. In addition, phenol concentrations were also measured in order to assess heavy metal detoxication potential. Enzyme activities and phenol concentrations were overall lower in winter according to the phenological stages and some sludge effects occurred. Results show that P. australis roots exuded and contained more peroxidase in all seasons: 17 U/g (1373 U/g protein), 0.8 U/g (613 U/g protein) and 4.8 U/g (1329 U/g protein) in intracellular compartments, cell wall and exudates, respectively. In contrast, the highest phenol concentration was found in I. pseudacorus roots: 3.58 mg eq. [corrected] gallic acid/g. Hence, in constructed wetlands, P. australis is suitable for organic waste water treatment, while I. pseudacorus should be used in the case of waters highly charged with heavy metals.

  10. Mechanisms Associated with Activation of Intracellular Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor, mGluR5.

    PubMed

    Jong, Yuh-Jiin I; O'Malley, Karen L

    2017-01-01

    The group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR5, is found on the cell surface as well as on intracellular membranes where it can mediate both overlapping and unique signaling effects. Previously we have shown that glutamate activates intracellular mGluR5 by entry through sodium-dependent transporters and/or cystine glutamate exchangers. Calibrated antibody labelling suggests that the glutamate concentration within neurons is quite high (~10 mM) raising the question as to whether intracellular mGluR5 is maximally activated at all times or whether a different ligand might be responsible for receptor activation. To address this issue, we used cellular, optical and molecular techniques to show that intracellular glutamate is largely sequestered in mitochondria; that the glutamate concentration necessary to activate intracellular mGluR5 is about ten-fold higher than what is necessary to activate cell surface mGluR5; and uncaging caged glutamate within neurons can directly activate the receptor. Thus these studies further the concept that glutamate itself serves as the ligand for intracellular mGluR5.

  11. Intracellular complement activation sustains T cell homeostasis and mediates effector differentiation.

    PubMed

    Liszewski, M Kathryn; Kolev, Martin; Le Friec, Gaelle; Leung, Marilyn; Bertram, Paula G; Fara, Antonella F; Subias, Marta; Pickering, Matthew C; Drouet, Christian; Meri, Seppo; Arstila, T Petteri; Pekkarinen, Pirkka T; Ma, Margaret; Cope, Andrew; Reinheckel, Thomas; Rodriguez de Cordoba, Santiago; Afzali, Behdad; Atkinson, John P; Kemper, Claudia

    2013-12-12

    Complement is viewed as a critical serum-operative component of innate immunity, with processing of its key component, C3, into activation fragments C3a and C3b confined to the extracellular space. We report here that C3 activation also occurred intracellularly. We found that the T cell-expressed protease cathepsin L (CTSL) processed C3 into biologically active C3a and C3b. Resting T cells contained stores of endosomal and lysosomal C3 and CTSL and substantial amounts of CTSL-generated C3a. While "tonic" intracellular C3a generation was required for homeostatic T cell survival, shuttling of this intracellular C3-activation-system to the cell surface upon T cell stimulation induced autocrine proinflammatory cytokine production. Furthermore, T cells from patients with autoimmune arthritis demonstrated hyperactive intracellular complement activation and interferon-γ production and CTSL inhibition corrected this deregulated phenotype. Importantly, intracellular C3a was observed in all examined cell populations, suggesting that intracellular complement activation might be of broad physiological significance.

  12. Macrophage activation induced by Brucella DNA suppresses bacterial intracellular replication via enhancing NO production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Lin; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Li; Tang, Bin; Sun, Wanchun; Peng, Qisheng

    2015-12-01

    Brucella DNA can be sensed by TLR9 on endosomal membrane and by cytosolic AIM2-inflammasome to induce proinflammatory cytokine production that contributes to partially activate innate immunity. Additionally, Brucella DNA has been identified to be able to act as a major bacterial component to induce type I IFN. However, the role of Brucella DNA in Brucella intracellular growth remains unknown. Here, we showed that stimulation with Brucella DNA promote macrophage activation in TLR9-dependent manner. Activated macrophages can suppresses wild type Brucella intracellular replication at early stage of infection via enhancing NO production. We also reported that activated macrophage promotes bactericidal function of macrophages infected with VirB-deficient Brucella at the early or late stage of infection. This study uncovers a novel function of Brucella DNA, which can help us further elucidate the mechanism of Brucella intracellular survival.

  13. Engineering the Intracellular Micro- and Nano-environment via Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Peter

    Single cells, despite being the base unit of living organisms, possess a high degree of hierarchical structure and functional compartmentalization. This complexity exists for good reason: cells must respond efficiently and effectively to its surrounding environment by differentiating, moving, interacting, and more in order to survive or inhabit its role in the larger biological system. At the core of these responses is cellular decision-making. Cells process cues internally and externally from the environment and effect intracellular asymmetry in biochemistry and structure in order to carry out the proper biological responses. Functionalized magnetic particles have shown to be a powerful tool in interacting with biological matter, through either cell or biomolecule sorting, and the activation of biological processes. This dissertation reports on techniques utilizing manipulated magnetic nanoparticles (internalized by cells) to spatially and temporally localize intracellular cues, and examines the resulting asymmetry in biological processes generated by our methods. We first examine patterned micromagnetic elements as a simple strategy of rapidly manipulating magnetic nanoparticles throughout the intracellular space. Silicon or silicon dioxide substrates form the base for electroplated NiFe rods, which are repeated at varying size and pitch. A planarizing resin, initially SU-8, is used as the substrate layer for cellular adhesion. We demonstrate that through the manipulations of a simple external magnet, these micro-fabricated substrates can mediate rapid (under 2 s) and precise (submicron), reversible translation of magnetic nanoparticles through cellular space. Seeding cells on substrates composed of these elements allows simultaneous control of ensembles of nanoparticles over thousands of cells at a time. We believe such substrates could form the basis of magnetically based tools for the activation of biological matter. We further utilize these strategies to

  14. Direct activation of cardiac pacemaker channels by intracellular cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    DiFrancesco, D; Tortora, P

    1991-05-09

    Cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger in the modulation of several ion channels that are typically controlled by a phosphorylation process. In cardiac pacemaker cells, adrenaline and acetylcholine regulate the hyperpolarization-activated current (if), but in opposite ways; this current is involved in the generation and modulation of pacemaker activity. These actions are mediated by cAMP and underlie control of spontaneous rate by neurotransmitters. Whether the cAMP modulation of if is mediated by channel phosphorylation is, however, still unknown. Here we investigate the action of cAMP on if in excised patches of cardiac pacemaker cells and find that cAMP activates if by a mechanism independent of phosphorylation, involving a direct interaction with the channels at their cytoplasmic side. Cyclic AMP activates if by shifting its activation curve to more positive voltages, in agreement with whole-cell results. This is the first evidence of an ion channel whose gating is dually regulated by voltage and direct cAMP binding.

  15. Regulation of biofilm formation and cellular buoyancy through modulating intracellular cyclic di-GMP levels in engineered cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Marco; Waters, Christopher M; Montgomery, Beronda L

    2016-02-01

    The second messenger cyclic dimeric (3'→5') GMP (cyclic di-GMP or c-di-GMP) has been implicated in the transition between motile and sessile lifestyles in bacteria. In this study, we demonstrate that biofilm formation, cellular aggregation or flocculation, and cellular buoyancy are under the control of c-di-GMP in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis) and Fremyella diplosiphon. Synechocystis is a unicellular cyanobacterium and displays lower levels of c-di-GMP; F. diplosiphon is filamentous and displays higher intracellular c-di-GMP levels. We transformed Synechocystis and F. diplosiphon with a plasmid for constitutive expression of genes encoding diguanylate cylase (DGC) and phosphodiesterase (PDE) proteins from Vibrio cholerae or Escherichia coli, respectively. These engineered strains allowed us to modulate intracellular c-di-GMP levels. Biofilm formation and cellular deposition were induced in the DGC-expressing Synechocystis strain which exhibited high intracellular levels of c-di-GMP; whereas strains expressing PDE in Synechocystis and F. diplosiphon to drive low intracellular levels of c-di-GMP exhibited enhanced cellular buoyancy. In addition, the PDE-expressing F. diplosiphon strain showed elevated chlorophyll levels. These results imply roles for coordinating c-di-GMP homeostasis in regulating native cyanobacterial phenotypes. Engineering exogenous DGC or PDE proteins to regulate intracellular c-di-GMP levels represents an effective tool for uncovering cryptic phenotypes or modulating phenotypes in cyanobacteria for practical applications in biotechnology applicable in photobioreactors and in green biotechnologies, such as energy-efficient harvesting of cellular biomass or the treatment of metal-containing wastewaters.

  16. The influence of cell growth and enzyme activity changes on intracellular metabolite dynamics in AGE1.HN.AAT cells.

    PubMed

    Rath, Alexander G; Rehberg, Markus; Janke, Robert; Genzel, Yvonne; Scholz, Sebastian; Noll, Thomas; Rose, Thomas; Sandig, Volker; Reichl, Udo

    2014-05-20

    Optimization of bioprocesses with mammalian cells mainly concentrates on cell engineering, cell screening and medium optimization to achieve enhanced cell growth and productivity. For improving cell lines by cell engineering techniques, in-depth understandings of the regulation of metabolism and product formation as well as the resulting demand for the different medium components are needed. In this work, the relationship of cell specific growth and uptake rates and of changes in maximum in vitro enzyme activities with intracellular metabolite pools of glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, citric acid cycle and energy metabolism were determined for batch cultivations with AGE1.HN.AAT cells. Results obtained by modeling cell growth and consumption of main substrates showed that the dynamics of intracellular metabolite pools is primarily linked to the dynamics of specific glucose and glutamine uptake rates. By analyzing maximum in vitro enzyme activities we found low activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase which suggest a reduced metabolite transfer into the citric acid cycle resulting in lactate release (Warburg effect). Moreover, an increase in the volumetric lactate production rate during the transition from exponential to stationary growth together with a transient accumulation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, fructose 1-phosphate and ribose 5-phosphate point toward an upregulation of PK via FBP. Glutaminase activity was about 44-fold lower than activity of glutamine synthetase. This seemed to be sufficient for the supply of intermediates for biosynthesis but might lead to unnecessary dissipation of ATP. Taken together, our results elucidate regulation of metabolic networks of immortalized mammalian cells by changes of metabolite pools over the time course of batch cultivations. Eventually, it enables the use of cell engineering strategies to improve the availability of building blocks for biomass synthesis by increasing glucose as well as

  17. Activator of G-Protein Signaling 3-Induced Lysosomal Biogenesis Limits Macrophage Intracellular Bacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    Vural, Ali; Al-Khodor, Souhaila; Cheung, Gordon Y C; Shi, Chong-Shan; Srinivasan, Lalitha; McQuiston, Travis J; Hwang, Il-Young; Yeh, Anthony J; Blumer, Joe B; Briken, Volker; Williamson, Peter R; Otto, Michael; Fraser, Iain D C; Kehrl, John H

    2016-01-15

    Many intracellular pathogens cause disease by subverting macrophage innate immune defense mechanisms. Intracellular pathogens actively avoid delivery to or directly target lysosomes, the major intracellular degradative organelle. In this article, we demonstrate that activator of G-protein signaling 3 (AGS3), an LPS-inducible protein in macrophages, affects both lysosomal biogenesis and activity. AGS3 binds the Gi family of G proteins via its G-protein regulatory (GoLoco) motif, stabilizing the Gα subunit in its GDP-bound conformation. Elevated AGS3 levels in macrophages limited the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, a sensor of cellular nutritional status. This triggered the nuclear translocation of transcription factor EB, a known activator of lysosomal gene transcription. In contrast, AGS3-deficient macrophages had increased mammalian target of rapamycin activity, reduced transcription factor EB activity, and a lower lysosomal mass. High levels of AGS3 in macrophages enhanced their resistance to infection by Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, whereas AGS3-deficient macrophages were more susceptible. We conclude that LPS priming increases AGS3 levels, which enhances lysosomal function and increases the capacity of macrophages to eliminate intracellular pathogens.

  18. TRPM2 contributes to LPC-induced intracellular Ca(2+) influx and microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heejin; Kim, Yong Ho; Lee, Yunsin; Jung, Sung Jun; Oh, Seog Bae

    2017-02-20

    Microglia are the resident immune cells which become activated in some pathological conditions in central nervous system (CNS). Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), an endogenous inflammatory phospholipid, is implicated in immunomodulatory function of glial cells in the CNS. Although several studies uncovered that LPC induces intracellular Ca(2+) influx and morphologic change in microglia, there is still no direct evidence showing change of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 (p-p38), a widely used microglia activation marker, by LPC. Furthermore, the cellular mechanism of LPC-induced microglia activation remains unknown. In this study, we found that LPC induced intracellular Ca(2+) increase in primary cultured microglia, which was blocked in the presence of Gd(3+), non-selective transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker. RT-PCR and whole cell patch clamp recordings revealed molecular and functional expression of TRP melastatin 2 (TRPM2) in microglia. Using western blotting, we also observed that LPC increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, and the increase of p-p38 expression is also reversed in TRPM2-knockout (KO) microglia. Moreover, LPC induced membrane trafficking of TRPM2 and intrathecal injection of LPC increased Iba-1 immunoreactivity in the spinal cord, which were significantly reduced in KO mice. In addition, LPC-induced intracellular Ca(2+) increase and inward currents were abolished in TRPM2-KO microglia. Taken together, our results suggest that LPC induces intracellular Ca(2+) influx and increases phosphorylation of p38 MAPK via TRPM2, which in turn activates microglia.

  19. ARE MACROPHAGES ACTIVATED AND INDUCE PULMONARY INJURY BY INTRACELLULARLY BIOAVAILABLE IRON?

    EPA Science Inventory

    ARE MACROPHAGES ACTIVATED AND INDUCE PULMONARY INJURY BY INTRACELLULARLY BIOAVAILABLE IRON? UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, S Becker2, DL Costa1, P Mayer3, A Ziesenis3, WG Kreyling3, 1ETD, 2HSDivision, NHEERL, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, and 3GSF, Inhalation Biology...

  20. Intracellular activity of tedizolid phosphate and ACH-702 versus Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the emergency of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is necessary the evaluation of new compounds. Findings Tedizolid, a novel oxazolidinone, and ACH-702, a new isothiazoloquinolone, were tested against M. tuberculosis infected THP-1 macrophages. These two compounds significantly decreased the number of intracellular mycobacteria at 0.25X, 1X, 4X and 16X the MIC value. The drugs were tested either in nanoparticules or in free solution. Conclusion Tedizolid and ACH-702 have a good intracellular killing activity comparable to that of rifampin or moxifloxacin. PMID:24708819

  1. NMDA receptor-mediated epileptiform persistent activity requires calcium release from intracellular stores in prefrontal neurons.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wen-Jun; Goldman-Rakic, Patricia S

    2006-02-01

    Various normal and pathological forms of synchronized population activity are generated by recurrent excitation among pyramidal neurons in the neocortex. However, the intracellular signaling mechanisms underlying this activity remain poorly understood. In this study, we have examined the cellular properties of synchronized epileptiform activity in the prefrontal cortex with particular emphasis on a potential role of intracellular calcium stores. We find that the zero-magnesium-induced synchronized activity is blocked by inhibition of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases, phospholipase C (PLC), the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor, and the ryanodine receptor. This same activity is, however, not affected by application of metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR) agonists, nor by introduction of an mGluR antagonist. These results suggest that persistent synchronized activity in vitro is dependent upon calcium release from internal calcium stores through the activation of PLC-IP3 receptor pathway. Our findings also raise the possibility that intracellular calcium release may be involved in the generation of pathologic synchronized activity in epilepsy in vivo and in physiological forms of synchronized cortical activity.

  2. Status of the intracellular gate in the activated-not-open state of shaker K+ channels.

    PubMed

    del Camino, Donato; Kanevsky, Max; Yellen, Gary

    2005-11-01

    Voltage-dependent K+ channels like Shaker use an intracellular gate to control ion flow through the pore. When the membrane voltage becomes more positive, these channels traverse a series of closed conformations before the final opening transition. Does the intracellular gate undergo conformational changes before channel opening? To answer this question we introduced cysteines into the intracellular end of the pore and studied their chemical modification in conditions favoring each of three distinct states, the open state, the resting closed state, and the activated-not-open state (the closed state adjacent to the open state). We used two independent ways to isolate the channels in the activated-not-open state. First, we used mutations in S4 (ILT; Smith-Maxwell, C.J., J.L. Ledwell, and R.W. Aldrich. 1998. J. Gen. Physiol. 111:421-439; Ledwell, J.L., and R.W. Aldrich. 1999. J. Gen. Physiol. 113:389-414) that separate the final opening step from earlier charge-movement steps. Second, we used the open channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), which has been proposed to promote closure of the intracellular gate and thus specifically to stabilize the activated-not-open state of the channels. Supporting this proposed mechanism, we found that 4-AP enters channels only after opening, remaining trapped in closed channels, and that in the open state it competes with tetraethylammonium for binding. Using these tools, we found that in the activated-not-open state, a cysteine located at a position considered to form part of the gate (Shaker 478) showed higher reactivity than in either the open or the resting closed states. Additionally, we have found that in this activated state the intracellular gate continued to prevent access to the pore by molecules as small as Cd2+ ions. Our results suggest that the intracellular opening to the pore undergoes some rearrangements in the transition from the resting closed state to the activated-not-open state, but throughout this process the

  3. Intracellular acidification is required for full activation of the sweet taste receptor by miraculin

    PubMed Central

    Sanematsu, Keisuke; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Nirasawa, Satoru; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-01-01

    Acidification of the glycoprotein, miraculin (MCL), induces sweet taste in humans, but not in mice. The sweet taste induced by MCL is more intense when acidification occurs with weak acids as opposed to strong acids. MCL interacts with the human sweet receptor subunit hTAS1R2, but the mechanisms by which the acidification of MCL activates the sweet taste receptor remain largely unexplored. The work reported here speaks directly to this activation by utilizing a sweet receptor TAS1R2 + TAS1R3 assay. In accordance with previous data, MCL-applied cells displayed a pH dependence with citric acid (weak acid) being right shifted to that with hydrochloric acid (strong acid). When histidine residues in both the intracellular and extracellular region of hTAS1R2 were exchanged for alanine, taste-modifying effect of MCL was reduced or abolished. Stronger intracellular acidification of HEK293 cells was induced by citric acid than by HCl and taste-modifying effect of MCL was proportional to intracellular pH regardless of types of acids. These results suggest that intracellular acidity is required for full activation of the sweet taste receptor by MCL. PMID:26960429

  4. Modeling spontaneous activity in the developing spinal cord using activity-dependent variations of intracellular chloride.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Cristina; Tabak, Joel; Chub, Nikolai; O'Donovan, Michael J; Rinzel, John

    2005-04-06

    We investigated how spontaneous activity is generated in developing, hyperexcitable networks. We focused our study on the embryonic chick spinal cord, a preparation that exhibits rhythmic discharge on multiple timescales: slow episodes (lasting minutes) and faster intraepisode cycling (approximately 1 Hz frequency). For this purpose, we developed a mean field model of a recurrent network with slow chloride dynamics and a fast depression variable. We showed that the model, in addition to providing a biophysical mechanism for the slow dynamics, was able to account for the experimentally observed activity. The model made predictions on how interval and duration of episodes are affected when changing chloride-mediated synaptic transmission or chloride flux across cell membrane. These predictions guided experiments, and the model results were compared with experimental data obtained with electrophysiological recordings. We found agreement when transmission was affected through changes in synaptic conductance and good qualitative agreement when chloride flux was varied through changes in external chloride concentration or in the rate of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter. Furthermore, the model made predictions about the time course of intracellular chloride concentration and chloride reversal potential and how these are affected by changes in synaptic conductance. Based on the comparison between modeling and experimental results, we propose that chloride dynamics could be an important mechanism in rhythm generation in the developing chick spinal cord.

  5. Activation of tumoricidal properties in human blood monocytes by muramyl dipeptide requires specific intracellular interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Fogler, W.E.; Fidler, I.J.

    1986-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanism by which muramyl dipeptide (MDP) activates antitumor cytotoxic properties in normal and interferon-..gamma.. (IFN-..gamma..)-primed human peripheral blood monocytes. The structurally and functionally active MDP analog, nor-muramyl dipeptide (nor-MDP), and (/sup 3/H)nor-MDP were used as reference glycopeptides. Direct activation of normal, noncytotoxic monocytes by nor-MDP was enhanced its encapsulation within multilamellar vesicles (MLV). Studies with (/sup 3/H)nor-MDP revealed that the activation of monocytes by nor-MDP was not attributable to its interaction with a specific cell surface receptor, nor did it result merely from the internalization by monocytes of glycopeptide. Subthreshold concentrations of nor-MDP could activate tumor cytotoxic properties in IFN-..gamma..-primed monocytes. The intracellular interaction of (/sup 3/H)nor-MDP with IFN-..gamma..-primed monocytes was specific in that intracellular levels of radiolabeled material could be displaced and recovered as intact molecules by unlabeled nor-MDP, but not by a biologically inactive MDP stereoisomer. Collectively, these results suggest that the activation of tumoricidal properties in human blood monocytes by MDP occurs subsequent to intracellular interaction with specific MDP receptors.

  6. CETSA screening identifies known and novel thymidylate synthase inhibitors and slow intracellular activation of 5-fluorouracil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almqvist, Helena; Axelsson, Hanna; Jafari, Rozbeh; Dan, Chen; Mateus, André; Haraldsson, Martin; Larsson, Andreas; Molina, Daniel Martinez; Artursson, Per; Lundbäck, Thomas; Nordlund, Pär

    2016-03-01

    Target engagement is a critical factor for therapeutic efficacy. Assessment of compound binding to native target proteins in live cells is therefore highly desirable in all stages of drug discovery. We report here the first compound library screen based on biophysical measurements of intracellular target binding, exemplified by human thymidylate synthase (TS). The screen selected accurately for all the tested known drugs acting on TS. We also identified TS inhibitors with novel chemistry and marketed drugs that were not previously known to target TS, including the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine. By following the cellular uptake and enzymatic conversion of known drugs we correlated the appearance of active metabolites over time with intracellular target engagement. These data distinguished a much slower activation of 5-fluorouracil when compared with nucleoside-based drugs. The approach establishes efficient means to associate drug uptake and activation with target binding during drug discovery.

  7. CETSA screening identifies known and novel thymidylate synthase inhibitors and slow intracellular activation of 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Almqvist, Helena; Axelsson, Hanna; Jafari, Rozbeh; Dan, Chen; Mateus, André; Haraldsson, Martin; Larsson, Andreas; Molina, Daniel Martinez; Artursson, Per; Lundbäck, Thomas; Nordlund, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Target engagement is a critical factor for therapeutic efficacy. Assessment of compound binding to native target proteins in live cells is therefore highly desirable in all stages of drug discovery. We report here the first compound library screen based on biophysical measurements of intracellular target binding, exemplified by human thymidylate synthase (TS). The screen selected accurately for all the tested known drugs acting on TS. We also identified TS inhibitors with novel chemistry and marketed drugs that were not previously known to target TS, including the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine. By following the cellular uptake and enzymatic conversion of known drugs we correlated the appearance of active metabolites over time with intracellular target engagement. These data distinguished a much slower activation of 5-fluorouracil when compared with nucleoside-based drugs. The approach establishes efficient means to associate drug uptake and activation with target binding during drug discovery. PMID:27010513

  8. Separation of synaptic and spike activity in intracellular recordings for selective analysis.

    PubMed

    Hedwig, B; Knepper, M

    1992-04-01

    A software spike filter has been developed which allows the separation of synaptic activity and action potentials in intracellular recordings. The algorithm uses the different velocities of the membrane potential during synaptic and spike activity and a time window to identify action potentials. When spikes are recognized, they are removed and the membrane potential is substituted by interpolated values. The spike filter makes possible a separate quantitative evaluation of postsynaptic potentials and spike activity. Thus a comprehensive characterization of neuron activity can be obtained. The spike filter is part of a modular software package designed for the evaluation of neurobiological data.

  9. PIP2 Activates TRPV5 and Releases Its Inhibition by Intracellular Mg2+

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jason; Cha, Seung-Kuy; Sun, Tie-Jun; Huang, Chou-Long

    2005-01-01

    The transient receptor potential type V5 channel (TRPV5) is a Ca2+-selective TRP channel important for epithelial Ca2+ transport. Intracellular Mg2+ causes a fast voltage-dependent block of the TRPV5 channel by binding to the selectivity filter. Here, we report that intracellular Mg2+ binding to the selectivity filter of TRPV5 also causes a slower reversible conformational change leading to channel closure. We further report that PIP2 activates TRPV5. Activation of TRPV5 by PIP2 is independent of Mg2+. Yet, PIP2 decreases sensitivity of the channel to the Mg2+-induced slow inhibition. Mutation of aspartate-542, a critical Mg2+-binding site in the selectivity filter, abolishes Mg2+-induced slow inhibition. PIP2 has no effects on Mg2+-induced voltage-dependent block. Thus, PIP2 prevents the Mg2+-induced conformational change without affecting Mg2+ binding to the selectivity filter. Hydrolysis of PIP2 via receptor activation of phospholipase C sensitizes TRPV5 to the Mg2+-induced slow inhibition. These results provide a novel mechanism for regulation of TRP channels by phospholipase C–activating hormones via alteration of the sensitivity to intracellular Mg2+. PMID:16230466

  10. Variation in human cancer cell external phosphatidylserine is regulated by flippase activity and intracellular calcium.

    PubMed

    Vallabhapurapu, Subrahmanya D; Blanco, Víctor M; Sulaiman, Mahaboob K; Vallabhapurapu, Swarajya Lakshmi; Chu, Zhengtao; Franco, Robert S; Qi, Xiaoyang

    2015-10-27

    Viable cancer cells expose elevated levels of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the exoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. However, the mechanisms leading to elevated PS exposure in viable cancer cells have not been defined. We previously showed that externalized PS may be used to monitor, target and kill tumor cells. In addition, PS on tumor cells is recognized by macrophages and has implications in antitumor immunity. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular details of PS exposure on cancer cells in order to improve therapeutic targeting. Here we explored the mechanisms regulating the surface PS exposure in human cancer cells and found that differential flippase activity and intracellular calcium are the major regulators of surface PS exposure in viable human cancer cells. In general, cancer cell lines with high surface PS exhibited low flippase activity and high intracellular calcium, whereas cancer cells with low surface PS exhibited high flippase activity and low intracellular calcium. High surface PS cancer cells also had higher total cellular PS than low surface PS cells. Together, our results indicate that the amount of external PS in cancer cells is regulated by calcium dependent flippase activity and may also be influenced by total cellular PS.

  11. Two helices in the third intracellular loop determine anoctamin 1 (TMEM16A) activation by calcium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jesun; Jung, Jooyoung; Tak, Min Ho; Wee, Jungwon; Lee, Byeongjoon; Jang, Yongwoo; Chun, Hyeyeon; Yang, Dong-Jin; Yang, Young Duk; Park, Sang Ho; Han, Byung Woo; Hyun, Soonsil; Yu, Jaehoon; Cho, Hawon; Hartzell, H Criss; Oh, Uhtaek

    2015-08-01

    Anoctamin 1 (ANO1)/TMEM16A is a Cl(-) channel activated by intracellular Ca(2+) mediating numerous physiological functions. However, little is known of the ANO1 activation mechanism by Ca(2+). Here, we demonstrate that two helices, "reference" and "Ca(2+) sensor" helices in the third intracellular loop face each other with opposite charges. The two helices interact directly in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Positively and negatively charged residues in the two helices are essential for Ca(2+)-dependent activation because neutralization of these charges change the Ca(2+) sensitivity. We now predict that the Ca(2+) sensor helix attaches to the reference helix in the resting state, and as intracellular Ca(2+) rises, Ca(2+) acts on the sensor helix, which repels it from the reference helix. This Ca(2+)-dependent push-pull conformational change would be a key electromechanical movement for gating the ANO1 channel. Because chemical activation of ANO1 is viewed as an alternative means of rescuing cystic fibrosis, understanding its gating mechanism would be useful in developing novel treatments for cystic fibrosis.

  12. Members of the chloride intracellular ion channel protein family demonstrate glutaredoxin-like enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Al Khamici, Heba; Brown, Louise J; Hossain, Khondker R; Hudson, Amanda L; Sinclair-Burton, Alxcia A; Ng, Jane Phui Mun; Daniel, Elizabeth L; Hare, Joanna E; Cornell, Bruce A; Curmi, Paul M G; Davey, Mary W; Valenzuela, Stella M

    2015-01-01

    The Chloride Intracellular Ion Channel (CLIC) family consists of six evolutionarily conserved proteins in humans. Members of this family are unusual, existing as both monomeric soluble proteins and as integral membrane proteins where they function as chloride selective ion channels, however no function has previously been assigned to their soluble form. Structural studies have shown that in the soluble form, CLIC proteins adopt a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fold, however, they have an active site with a conserved glutaredoxin monothiol motif, similar to the omega class GSTs. We demonstrate that CLIC proteins have glutaredoxin-like glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase enzymatic activity. CLICs 1, 2 and 4 demonstrate typical glutaredoxin-like activity using 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide as a substrate. Mutagenesis experiments identify cysteine 24 as the catalytic cysteine residue in CLIC1, which is consistent with its structure. CLIC1 was shown to reduce sodium selenite and dehydroascorbate in a glutathione-dependent manner. Previous electrophysiological studies have shown that the drugs IAA-94 and A9C specifically block CLIC channel activity. These same compounds inhibit CLIC1 oxidoreductase activity. This work for the first time assigns a functional activity to the soluble form of the CLIC proteins. Our results demonstrate that the soluble form of the CLIC proteins has an enzymatic activity that is distinct from the channel activity of their integral membrane form. This CLIC enzymatic activity may be important for protecting the intracellular environment against oxidation. It is also likely that this enzymatic activity regulates the CLIC ion channel function.

  13. Active intracellular transport in metastatic cells studied by spatial light interference microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Silvia; Kandel, Mikhail; Sridharan, Shamira; Majeed, Hassaan; Monroy, Freddy; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Spatiotemporal patterns of intracellular transport are very difficult to quantify and, consequently, continue to be insufficiently understood. While it is well documented that mass trafficking inside living cells consists of both random and deterministic motions, quantitative data over broad spatiotemporal scales are lacking. We studied the intracellular transport in live cells using spatial light interference microscopy, a high spatiotemporal resolution quantitative phase imaging tool. The results indicate that in the cytoplasm, the intracellular transport is mainly active (directed, deterministic), while inside the nucleus it is both active and passive (diffusive, random). Furthermore, we studied the behavior of the two-dimensional mass density over 30 h in HeLa cells and focused on the active component. We determined the standard deviation of the velocity distribution at the point of cell division for each cell and compared the standard deviation velocity inside the cytoplasm and the nucleus. We found that the velocity distribution in the cytoplasm is consistently broader than in the nucleus, suggesting mechanisms for faster transport in the cytosol versus the nucleus. Future studies will focus on improving phase measurements by applying a fluorescent tag to understand how particular proteins are transported inside the cell.

  14. Clioquinol and pyrithione activate TRPA1 by increasing intracellular Zn2+.

    PubMed

    Andersson, David A; Gentry, Clive; Moss, Sian; Bevan, Stuart

    2009-05-19

    The antifungal and amoebicidal drug clioquinol (CQ) was withdrawn from the market when it was linked to an epidemic of subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy (SMON). Clioquinol exerts its anti-parasitic actions by acting as a Cu/Zn chelator and ionophore. Here we show that local injections of CQ produce mechanical hyperalgesia and cold hypersensitivity through a mechanism involving TRPA1 in mice. We also show that CQ activates TRPA1 in a Zn(2+)-dependent manner. Using a different Zn(2+)-ionophore, zinc pyrithione (ZnPy), we demonstrate that low, nanomolar concentrations of intracellular Zn(2+) ([Zn(2+)](i)) stimulate TRPA1. Direct application of Zn(2+) to the intracellular face of excised, inside-out patches activates TRPA1 with an EC(50) value of 7.5 +/- 1 nM. TRPA1 is expressed in a subpopulation of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, where it acts as a sensory receptor for environmental irritants and oxidants. Using cultured DRG neurons from wild-type and TRPA1-deficient mice, we demonstrate that TRPA1 is the principal excitatory receptor for increased [Zn(2+)](i) in DRG neurons. In conclusion, we have discovered that TRPA1 acts a sensor of intracellular Zn(2+), and that Zn(2+) ionophores, such as CQ and ZnPy, activate TRPA1 by increasing [Zn(2+)](i). We also demonstrate that CQ-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia require TRPA1 in vivo.

  15. Activation of Oral Trigeminal Neurons by Fatty Acids is Dependent upon Intracellular Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tian; Shah, Bhavik P.; Hansen, Dane R.; Park-York, MieJung; Gilbertson, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    The chemoreception of dietary fat in the oral cavity has largely been attributed to activation of the somatosensory system that conveys the textural properties of fat. However, the ability of fatty acids, which are believed to represent the proximate stimulus for fat taste, to stimulate rat trigeminal neurons has remained unexplored. Here, we found that several free fatty acids are capable of activating trigeminal neurons with different kinetics. Further, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA), activates trigeminal neurons by increasing intracellular calcium concentration and generating depolarizing receptor potentials. Ion substitution and pharmacological approaches reveal that intracellular calcium store depletion is crucial for LA-induced signaling in a subset of trigeminal neurons. Using pseudorabies virus (PrV) as a live cell tracer, we identified a subset of lingual nerve-innervated trigeminal neurons that respond to different subsets of fatty acids. Quantitative real-time PCR of several transient receptor potential (TRP) channel markers in individual neurons validated that PrV labeled a subset but not the entire population of lingual-innervated trigeminal neurons. We further confirmed that the LA-induced intracellular calcium rise is exclusively coming from the release of calcium stores from the endoplasmic reticulum in this subset of lingual nerve-innervated trigeminal neurons. PMID:22644615

  16. In vitro activity of artemisone and artemisinin derivatives against extracellular and intracellular Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Sisto, Francesca; Scaltrito, Maria Maddalena; Masia, Carla; Bonomi, Arianna; Coccè, Valentina; Marano, Giuseppe; Haynes, Richard K; Miani, Alessandro; Farronato, Giampietro; Taramelli, Donatella

    2016-07-01

    The in vitro activity of the new artemisinin derivative artemisone as well as other molecules of the same class against Helicobacter pylori and their effects when combined with standard antibiotics were evaluated. Since H. pylori can be internalised into gastric epithelial cells, the effects of artemisinin, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone against intracellular H. pylori were also investigated. Bacteriostatic [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)] and bactericidal [minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)] activities were assessed against 24 clinical strains of H. pylori with different antibiotics susceptibilities. Artemisone showed MIC50 and MIC90 values of 0.25 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L, respectively, and an MBC50 value of 0.5 mg/L. Artemisone was synergistic with amoxicillin in 60% of strains, with clarithromycin in 40% and with metronidazole in 20%. There was no interaction between artemisone and omeprazole or bismuth citrate. Against intracellular H. pylori, only dihydroartemisinin at 2× MIC caused a 1 log10 CFU decrease after 18 h and 24 h of incubation. This is the first demonstration in vitro of the activity of artemisinin derivatives against intracellular H. pylori and indicates that artemisone has the potential to be efficacious for the treatment of H. pylori infection, especially in combination with antibiotics.

  17. Intracellular ROS Protection Efficiency and Free Radical-Scavenging Activity of Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Barzegar, Abolfazl; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali A.

    2011-01-01

    Curcumin has many pharmaceutical applications, many of which arise from its potent antioxidant properties. The present research examined the antioxidant activities of curcumin in polar solvents by a comparative study using ESR, reduction of ferric iron in aqueous medium and intracellular ROS/toxicity assays. ESR data indicated that the steric hindrance among adjacent big size groups within a galvinoxyl molecule limited the curcumin to scavenge galvinoxyl radicals effectively, while curcumin showed a powerful capacity for scavenging intracellular smaller oxidative molecules such as H2O2, HO•, ROO•. Cell viability and ROS assays demonstrated that curcumin was able to penetrate into the polar medium inside the cells and to protect them against the highly toxic and lethal effects of cumene hydroperoxide. Curcumin also showed good electron-transfer capability, with greater activity than trolox in aqueous solution. Curcumin can readily transfer electron or easily donate H-atom from two phenolic sites to scavenge free radicals. The excellent electron transfer capability of curcumin is because of its unique structure and different functional groups, including a β-diketone and several π electrons that have the capacity to conjugate between two phenyl rings. Therfore, since curcumin is inherently a lipophilic compound, because of its superb intracellular ROS scavenging activity, it can be used as an effective antioxidant for ROS protection within the polar cytoplasm. PMID:22016801

  18. Catalytic activity of human carbonic anhydrase isoform IX is displayed both extra- and intracellularly.

    PubMed

    Klier, Michael; Jamali, Somayeh; Ames, Samantha; Schneider, Hans-Peter; Becker, Holger M; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2016-01-01

    Most carbonic anhydrases catalyse the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide to protons and bicarbonate, either as soluble cytosolic enzymes, in or at intracellular organelles, or at the extracellular face of the cell membrane as membrane-anchored proteins. Carbonic anhydrase isoform IX (CA IX), a membrane-bound enzyme with catalytic activity at the extracellular membrane surface, has come to prominence in recent years because of its association with hypoxic tissue, particularly tumours, often indicating poor prognosis. We have evaluated the catalytic activity of CA IX heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by measuring the amplitude and rate of cytosolic pH changes as well as pH changes at the outer membrane surface (pHs ) during addition and removal of 5% CO2 /25 mm HCO3-, and by mass spectrometry. Our results indicate both extracellular and intracellular catalytic activity of CA IX. Reduced rates of CO2 -dependent intracellular pH changes after knockdown of CA IX confirmed these findings in two breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Our results demonstrate a new function of CA IX that may be important in the search for therapeutic cancer drugs targeting CA IX.

  19. Localization of the Intracellular Activity Domain of Pasteurella multocida Toxin to the N Terminus

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Brenda A.; Ponferrada, Virgilio G.; Vallance, Jefferson E.; Ho, Mengfei

    1999-01-01

    We have shown that Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) directly causes transient activation of Gqα protein that is coupled to phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase Cβ1 in Xenopus oocytes (B. A. Wilson, X. Zhu, M. Ho, and L. Lu, J. Biol. Chem. 272:1268–1275, 1997). We found that antibodies directed against an N-terminal peptide of PMT inhibited the toxin-induced response in Xenopus oocytes, but antibodies against a C-terminal peptide did not. To test whether the intracellular activity domain of PMT is localized to the N terminus, we conducted a deletion mutational analysis of the PMT protein, using the Xenopus oocyte system as a means of screening for toxin activity. Using PCR and conventional cloning techniques, we cloned from a toxinogenic strain of P. multocida the entire toxA gene, encoding the 1,285-amino-acid PMT protein, and expressed the recombinant toxin as a His-tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli. We subsequently generated a series of N-terminal and C-terminal deletion mutants and expressed the His-tagged PMT fragments in E. coli. These proteins were screened for cytotoxic activity on cultured Vero cells and for intracellular activity in the Xenopus oocyte system. Only the full-length protein without the His tag exhibited activity on Vero cells. The full-length PMT and N-terminal fragments containing the first 500 residues elicited responses in oocytes, but the C-terminal 780 amino acid fragment did not. Our results confirm that the intracellular activity domain of PMT is localized to the N-terminal 500 amino acids of the protein and that the C terminus is required for entry into cells. PMID:9864199

  20. Activation of intracellular serine proteinase in Bacillus subtilis cells during sporulation.

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, T J; Shankweiler, G W; Hageman, J H

    1986-01-01

    Cells of Bacillus subtilis 168 (trpC2) growing and sporulating in a single chemically defined medium carried out intracellular protein degradation and increased their levels of intracellular serine protease-1 in a manner very similar to what had previously been reported for cells sporulating in nutrient broth. The results were interpreted to mean that these processes are intrinsic to sporulation rather than medium dependent. To determine the cause of these increases in specific activity of proteinases, we purified the protease, prepared rabbit immunoglobulins directed against it, and monitored changes in protease antigen levels by performing rocket immunoelectrophoresis. In cells sporulating in nutrient broth, the protease antigen levels increased about 7-fold, whereas the specific activity increased about 150-fold, for an activation of about 20-fold. In cells sporulating in the single chemically defined sporulation medium, the protease antigen increased about 10-fold, whereas the specific activity increased at least 400-fold, for an activation of about 40-fold. These results were interpreted to mean that a posttranslational event activated the protease in vivo; a previously described endogenous proteinase inhibitor was confirmed to be present in the strain used. Chloramphenicol added to the cultures inhibited both the increases in antigen levels and in the specific activity of the proteinase. PMID:3079745

  1. Intracellular alkalization causes pain sensation through activation of TRPA1 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Fumitaka; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Moriyama, Tomoko; Shima, Asako; Shibasaki, Koji; Inada, Hitoshi; Sokabe, Takaaki; Tominaga, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    Vertebrate cells require a very narrow pH range for survival. Cells accordingly possess sensory and defense mechanisms for situations where the pH deviates from the viable range. Although the monitoring of acidic pH by sensory neurons has been attributed to several ion channels, including transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel (TRPV1) and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), the mechanisms by which these cells detect alkaline pH are not well understood. Here, using Ca2+ imaging and patch-clamp recording, we showed that alkaline pH activated transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) and that activation of this ion channel was involved in nociception. In addition, intracellular alkalization activated TRPA1 at the whole-cell level, and single-channel openings were observed in the inside-out configuration, indicating that alkaline pH activated TRPA1 from the inside. Analyses of mutants suggested that the two N-terminal cysteine residues in TRPA1 were involved in activation by intracellular alkalization. Furthermore, intraplantar injection of ammonium chloride into the mouse hind paw caused pain-related behaviors that were not observed in TRPA1-deficient mice. These results suggest that alkaline pH causes pain sensation through activation of TRPA1 and may provide a molecular explanation for some of the human alkaline pH–related sensory disorders whose mechanisms are largely unknown. PMID:19033673

  2. Antibody-Mediated Elimination of the Obligate Intracellular Bacterial Pathogen Ehrlichia chaffeensis during Active Infection

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, Gary M.; Yager, Eric; Shilo, Konstantin; Volk, Erin; Reilly, Andrew; Chu, Frederick K.

    2000-01-01

    It is generally accepted that cellular, but not humoral immunity, plays an important role in host defense against intracellular bacteria. However, studies of some of these pathogens have provided evidence that antibodies can provide immunity if present during the initiation of infection. Here, we examined immunity against infection by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Studies with mice have demonstrated that immunocompetent strains are resistant to persistent infection but that SCID mice become persistently and fatally infected. Transfer of immune serum or antibodies obtained from immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice to C57BL/6 scid mice provided significant although transient protection from infection. Bacterial clearance was observed when administration occurred at the time of inoculation or well after infection was established. The effect was dose dependent, occurred within 2 days, and persisted for as long as 2 weeks. Weekly serum administration prolonged the survival of susceptible mice. Although cellular immunity is required for complete bacterial clearance, the data show that antibodies can play a significant role in the elimination of this obligate intracellular bacterium during active infection and thus challenge the paradigm that humoral responses are unimportant for immunity to such organisms. PMID:10722619

  3. Single-Molecule Imaging Reveals the Activation Dynamics of Intracellular Protein Smad3 on Cell Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Yang, Yong; He, Kangmin; Zhang, Fayun; Zhao, Libo; Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Jinghe; Liang, Wei; Fang, Xiaohong

    2016-09-01

    Smad3 is an intracellular protein that plays a key role in propagating transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signals from cell membrane to nucleus. However whether the transient process of Smad3 activation occurs on cell membrane and how it is regulated remains elusive. Using advanced live-cell single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to image and track fluorescent protein-labeled Smad3, we observed and quantified, for the first time, the dynamics of individual Smad3 molecules docking to and activation on the cell membrane. It was found that Smad3 docked to cell membrane in both unstimulated and stimulated cells, but with different diffusion rates and dissociation kinetics. The change in its membrane docking dynamics can be used to study the activation of Smad3. Our results reveal that Smad3 binds with type I TGF-β receptor (TRI) even in unstimulated cells. Its activation is regulated by TRI phosphorylation but independent of receptor endocytosis. This study offers new information on TGF-β/Smad signaling, as well as a new approach to investigate the activation of intracellular signaling proteins for a better understanding of their functions in signal transduction.

  4. Key mediators of intracellular amino acids signaling to mTORC1 activation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yehui; Li, Fengna; Tan, Kunrong; Liu, Hongnan; Li, Yinghui; Liu, Yingying; Kong, Xiangfeng; Tang, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2015-05-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is activated by amino acids to promote cell growth via protein synthesis. Specifically, Ras-related guanosine triphosphatases (Rag GTPases) are activated by amino acids, and then translocate mTORC1 to the surface of late endosomes and lysosomes. Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) resides on this surface and directly activates mTORC1. Apart from the presence of intracellular amino acids, Rag GTPases and Rheb, other mediators involved in intracellular amino acid signaling to mTORC1 activation include human vacuolar sorting protein-34 (hVps34) and mitogen-activating protein kinase kinase kinase kinase-3 (MAP4K3). Those molecular links between mTORC1 and its mediators form a complicate signaling network that controls cellular growth, proliferation, and metabolism. Moreover, it is speculated that amino acid signaling to mTORC1 may start from the lysosomal lumen. In this review, we discussed the function of these mediators in mTORC1 pathway and how these mediators are regulated by amino acids in details.

  5. Single-Molecule Imaging Reveals the Activation Dynamics of Intracellular Protein Smad3 on Cell Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Yang, Yong; He, Kangmin; Zhang, Fayun; Zhao, Libo; Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Jinghe; Liang, Wei; Fang, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Smad3 is an intracellular protein that plays a key role in propagating transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signals from cell membrane to nucleus. However whether the transient process of Smad3 activation occurs on cell membrane and how it is regulated remains elusive. Using advanced live-cell single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to image and track fluorescent protein-labeled Smad3, we observed and quantified, for the first time, the dynamics of individual Smad3 molecules docking to and activation on the cell membrane. It was found that Smad3 docked to cell membrane in both unstimulated and stimulated cells, but with different diffusion rates and dissociation kinetics. The change in its membrane docking dynamics can be used to study the activation of Smad3. Our results reveal that Smad3 binds with type I TGF-β receptor (TRI) even in unstimulated cells. Its activation is regulated by TRI phosphorylation but independent of receptor endocytosis. This study offers new information on TGF-β/Smad signaling, as well as a new approach to investigate the activation of intracellular signaling proteins for a better understanding of their functions in signal transduction. PMID:27641076

  6. Superoxide dismutase activity of Mycobacterium avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum.

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, B K; Falkinham, J O

    1986-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) (SOD) activity has been detected in crude cell extracts of representative strains of the Mycobacterium avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum (MAIS) group. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated a single SOD activity band for each of the MAIS strains, though there were differences in mobility. All M. avium and M. intracellulare and two of five M. scrofulaceum strains demonstrated a single activity band of identical mobility (Rf = 0.83), while the SOD activity band for the three remaining M. scrofulaceum strains migrated farther (Rf = 0.85). The differences in mobility correlated with differences in sensitivity to NaN3 and H2O2. The SOD activities of the majority of the MAIS strains which displayed the slower-migrating activity band were inhibited 22 to 81% after 15 min of exposure to 5 mM H2O2, suggesting that both iron and manganese may be present in a single enzyme. The SOD activities of the three M. scrofulaceum strains which had the faster-migrating activity band were inhibited 100% after only 5 min of exposure to 5 mM H2O2 and exhibited greater sensitivity to 5 and 10 mM NaN3, characteristics of an iron-containing SOD. A concentration of 1 mM KCN did not cause inhibition of enzyme activity in any of the MAIS strains tested. Extracellular SOD activity was detected in four of six MAIS strains and was shown to be identical in mobility to the SOD activity of the crude extracts. Images PMID:3744555

  7. Intracellular Na(+) modulates large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K (+) currents in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guo Hua; Kim, Moon Young; Park, Seonghee; Kim, Ji Aee; Choi, Shinkyu; Suh, Suk Hyo

    2008-10-01

    We studied the effects of Na(+) influx on large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by means of patch clamp and SBFI microfluorescence measurements. In current-clamped HUVECs, extracellular Na(+) replacement by NMDG(+) or mannitol hyperpolarized cells. In voltage-clamped HUVECs, changing membrane potential from 0 mV to negative potentials increased intracellular Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)](i)) and vice versa. In addition, extracellular Na(+) depletion decreased [Na(+)](i). In voltage-clamped cells, BK(Ca) currents were markedly increased by extracellular Na(+) depletion. In inside-out patches, increasing [Na(+)](i) from 0 to 20 or 40 mM reduced single channel conductance but not open probability (NPo) of BK(Ca) channels and decreasing intracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)](i)) gradually from 140 to 70 mM reduced both single channel conductance and NPo. Furthermore, increasing [Na(+)](i) gradually from 0 to 70 mM, by replacing K(+), markedly reduced single channel conductance and NPo. The Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange blocker Ni(2+) or KB-R7943 decreased [Na(+)](i) and increased BK(Ca) currents simultaneously, and the Na(+) ionophore monensin completely inhibited BK(Ca) currents. BK(Ca) currents were significantly augmented by increasing extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)](o)) from 6 to 12 mM and significantly reduced by decreasing [K(+)](o) from 12 or 6 to 0 mM or applying the Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibitor ouabain. These results suggest that intracellular Na(+) inhibit single channel conductance of BK(Ca) channels and that intracellular K(+) increases single channel conductance and NPo.

  8. Cell type- and activity-dependent extracellular correlates of intracellular spiking

    PubMed Central

    Perin, Rodrigo; Buzsáki, György; Markram, Henry; Koch, Christof

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of extracellular action potential (EAP) recordings monitoring brain activity, the biophysical origin and inherent variability of these signals remain enigmatic. We performed whole cell patch recordings of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in rat somatosensory cortex slice while positioning a silicon probe in their vicinity to concurrently record intra- and extracellular voltages for spike frequencies under 20 Hz. We characterize biophysical events and properties (intracellular spiking, extracellular resistivity, temporal jitter, etc.) related to EAP recordings at the single-neuron level in a layer-specific manner. Notably, EAP amplitude was found to decay as the inverse of distance between the soma and the recording electrode with similar (but not identical) resistivity across layers. Furthermore, we assessed a number of EAP features and their variability with spike activity: amplitude (but not temporal) features varied substantially (∼30–50% compared with mean) and nonmonotonically as a function of spike frequency and spike order. Such EAP variation only partly reflects intracellular somatic spike variability and points to the plethora of processes contributing to the EAP. Also, we show that the shape of the EAP waveform is qualitatively similar to the negative of the temporal derivative to the intracellular somatic voltage, as expected from theory. Finally, we tested to what extent EAPs can impact the lowpass-filtered part of extracellular recordings, the local field potential (LFP), typically associated with synaptic activity. We found that spiking of excitatory neurons can significantly impact the LFP at frequencies as low as 20 Hz. Our results question the common assertion that the LFP acts as proxy for synaptic activity. PMID:25995352

  9. Intracellular Na+ and K+ activities and membrane conductances in the collecting tubule of Amphiuma

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Membrane potentials and conductances, and intracellular ionic activities were studied in isolated perfused collecting tubules of K+- adapted Amphiuma. Intracellular Na+ (aNai) and K+ (aKi) activities were measured, using liquid ion-exchanger double-barreled microelectrodes. Apical and basolateral membrane conductances were estimated by cable analysis. The effects of inhibition of the apical conductance by amiloride (10(-5) M) and of inhibition of the basolateral Na-K pump by either a low K+ (0.1 mM) bath or by ouabain (10(-4) M) were studied. Under control conditions, aNai was 8.4 +/- 1.9 mM and aKi 56 +/- 3 mM. With luminal amiloride, aNai decreased to 2.2 +/- 0.4 mM and aKi increased to 66 +/- 3 mM. Ouabain produced an increase of aNai to 44 +/- 4 mM, and a decrease of aKi to 22 +/- 6, and similar changes were observed when the tubule was exposed to a low K+ bath solution. During pump inhibition, there was a progressive decrease of the K+-selective basolateral membrane conductance and of the Na+ permeability of the apical membrane. A similar inhibition of both membrane conductances was observed after pump inhibition by low K+ solution. Upon reintroduction of K+, a basolateral membrane hyperpolarization of -23 +/- 4 mV was observed, indicating an immediate reactivation of the electrogenic Na-K pump. However, the recovery of the membrane conductances occurred over a slower time course. These data imply that both membrane conductances are regulated according to the intracellular ionic composition, but that the basolateral K+ conductance is not directly linked to the pump activity. PMID:3235975

  10. Intracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticle by actinobacteria and its antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otari, S. V.; Patil, R. M.; Ghosh, S. J.; Thorat, N. D.; Pawar, S. H.

    2015-02-01

    Intracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Rhodococcus spp. is demonstrated. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier trans-form infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy study of microorganisms' revealed synthesis of nanoparticle was occurring inside the cell, in the cytoplasm. AgNPs ranged from 5 to 50 nm. Formed nanoparticles were stable in the colloidal solution due to presence of proteins on the surface. AgNPs showed excellent bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity against pathogenic microorganisms.

  11. Intracellular multiplication of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in macrophages: killing and restriction of multiplication by activated macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Brummer, E; Hanson, L H; Restrepo, A; Stevens, D A

    1989-01-01

    The effect of coculturing yeast-form Paracoccidioides brasiliensis with murine cells was studied. Coculture of resident peritoneal or pulmonary macrophages with P. brasiliensis for 72 h dramatically enhanced fungal multiplication 19.3 +/- 2.4- and 4.7 +/- 0.8-fold, respectively, compared with cocultures with lymph node cells or complete tissue culture medium alone. Support of P. brasiliensis multiplication by resident peritoneal macrophages was macrophage dose dependent. Lysates of macrophages, supernatants from macrophage cultures, or McVeigh-Morton broth, like complete tissue culture medium, did not support multiplication of P. brasiliensis in 72-h cultures. Time course microscopic studies of cocultures in slide wells showed that macrophages ingested P. brasiliensis cells and that the ingested cells multiplied intracellularly. In sharp contrast to resident macrophages, lymphokine-activated peritoneal and pulmonary macrophages not only prevented multiplication but reduced inoculum CFU by 96 and 100%, respectively, in 72 h. Microscopic studies confirmed killing and digestion of P. brasiliensis ingested by activated macrophages in 48 h. These findings indicate that resident macrophages are permissive for intracellular multiplication of P. brasiliensis and that this could be a factor in pathogenicity. By contrast, activated macrophages are fungicidal for P. brasiliensis. Images PMID:2744848

  12. Statins have beneficial effects on platelet free radical activity and intracellular distribution of GTPases in hyperlipidaemia.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Paul K; Hughes, Sinead M T; Plumb, Richard D; Devine, Adrian; Leahey, William; Lyons, Kristopher S; Johnston, Dennis; McVeigh, Gary E

    2010-03-01

    In addition to lowering cholesterol, statins may alter endothelial release of the vasodilator NO and harmful superoxide free radicals. Statins also reduce cholesterol intermediates including isoprenoids. These are important for post-translational modification of substances including the GTPases Rho and Rac. By altering the membrane association of these molecules, statins affect intracellular positioning and hence activity of a multitude of substances. These include eNOS(endothelial NO synthase), which produces NO (inhibited by Rho), and NADPH oxidase, which produces superoxide (dependent on Rac). Statins may improve endothelial function by enhancing production of NO while decreasing superoxide production. A total of 40 hypercholesterolaemic patients were randomized to treatment with either atorvastatin or placebo; 20 normolipidaemic patients were also studied. Platelet nitrite, NO and superoxide were examined as was the cellular distribution of the GTPases Rho and Rac at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment.Following atorvastatin therapy, platelet NO was increased (3.2 pmol/10(8) platelets) and superoxide output was attenuated [-3.4 pmol min(-1) (10(8) platelets)(-1)] when compared with placebo. The detection of both Rho and Rac was significantly reduced in the membranes of platelets, implying reduced activity. In conclusion, the results of the present study show altered NO/superoxide production following statin therapy. A potential mechanism for this is the change in the distribution of intracellular GTPases, which was considered to be secondary to decreases in isoprenoid intermediates, suggesting that the activity of the former had been affected by atorvastatin.

  13. A Carboxyl Ester Lipase (CEL) Mutant Causes Chronic Pancreatitis by Forming Intracellular Aggregates That Activate Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xunjun; Jones, Gabrielle; Sevilla, Wednesday A; Stolz, Donna B; Magee, Kelsey E; Haughney, Margaret; Mukherjee, Amitava; Wang, Yan; Lowe, Mark E

    2016-10-28

    Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) frequently have genetic risk factors for disease. Many of the identified genes have been connected to trypsinogen activation or trypsin inactivation. The description of CP in patients with mutations in the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) domain of carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) presents an opportunity to study the pathogenesis of CP independently of trypsin pathways. We tested the hypothesis that a deletion and frameshift mutation (C563fsX673) in the CEL VNTR causes CP through proteotoxic gain-of-function activation of maladaptive cell signaling pathways including cell death pathways. HEK293 or AR42J cells were transfected with constructs expressing CEL with 14 repeats in the VNTR (CEL14R) or C563fsX673 CEL (CEL maturity onset diabetes of youth with a deletion mutation in the VNTR (MODY)). In both cell types, CEL MODY formed intracellular aggregates. Secretion of CEL MODY was decreased compared with that of CEL14R. Expression of CEL MODY increased endoplasmic reticulum stress, activated the unfolded protein response, and caused cell death by apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that disorders of protein homeostasis can lead to CP and suggest that novel therapies to decrease the intracellular accumulation of misfolded protein may be successful in some patients with CP.

  14. Active site structure and catalytic mechanism of phosphodiesterase for degradation of intracellular second messengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2002-03-01

    Phosphodiesterases are clinical targets for a variety of biological disorders, because this superfamily of enzymes regulate intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides that serve as the second messengers playing a critical role in a variety of physiological processes. Understanding structure and mechanism of a phosphodiesterase will provide a solid basis for rational design of the more efficient therapeutics. Although a three-dimensional X-ray crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human phosphodiesterase 4B2B was recently reported, it was uncertain whether a critical bridging ligand in the active site is a water molecule or a hydroxide ion. The identity of this bridging ligand has been determined by performing first-principles quantum chemical calculations on models of the active site. All the results obtained indicate that this critical bridging ligand in the active site of the reported X-ray crystal structure is a hydroxide ion, rather than a water molecule, expected to serve as the nucleophile to initialize the catalytic degradation of the intracellular second messengers.

  15. Rotenone decreases intracellular aldehyde dehydrogenase activity: implications for the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, David S; Sullivan, Patti; Cooney, Adele; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Kopin, Irwin J; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2015-04-01

    Repeated systemic administration of the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone produces a rodent model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mechanisms of relatively selective rotenone-induced damage to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons remain incompletely understood. According to the 'catecholaldehyde hypothesis,' buildup of the autotoxic dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) contributes to PD pathogenesis. Vesicular uptake blockade increases DOPAL levels, and DOPAL is detoxified mainly by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). We tested whether rotenone interferes with vesicular uptake and intracellular ALDH activity. Endogenous and F-labeled catechols were measured in PC12 cells incubated with rotenone (0-1000 nM, 180 min), without or with F-dopamine (2 μM) to track vesicular uptake and catecholamine metabolism. Rotenone dose dependently increased DOPAL, F-DOPAL, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPET) levels while decreasing dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels and the ratio of dopamine to the sum of its deaminated metabolites. In test tubes, rotenone did not affect conversion of DOPAL to DOPAC by ALDH when NAD(+) was supplied, whereas the direct-acting ALDH inhibitor benomyl markedly increased DOPAL and decreased DOPAC concentrations in the reaction mixtures. We propose that rotenone builds up intracellular DOPAL by decreasing ALDH activity and attenuating vesicular sequestration of cytoplasmic catecholamines. The results provide a novel mechanism for selective rotenone-induced toxicity in dopaminergic neurons. We report that rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor that produces an animal model of Parkinson's disease, increases intracellular levels of the toxic dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-acetaldehyde (DOPAL), via decreased DOPAL metabolism by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and decreased vesicular sequestration of cytoplasmic dopamine by the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT). The results provide a novel

  16. Intracellular RNA recognition pathway activates strong anti-viral response in human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, J; Rintahaka, J; Kovanen, P T; Matikainen, S; Eklund, K K

    2013-04-01

    Mast cells have been implicated in the first line of defence against parasites and bacteria, but less is known about their role in anti-viral responses. Allergic diseases often exacerbate during viral infection, suggesting an increased activation of mast cells in the process. In this study we investigated human mast cell response to double-stranded RNA and viral infection. Cultured human mast cells were incubated with poly(I:C), a synthetic RNA analogue and live Sendai virus as a model of RNA parainfluenza virus infection, and analysed for their anti-viral response. Mast cells responded to intracellular poly(I:C) by inducing type 1 and type 3 interferons and TNF-α. In contrast, extracellular Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR)-3-activating poly(I:C) failed to induce such response. Infection of mast cells with live Sendai virus induced an anti-viral response similar to that of intracellular poly(I:C). Type 1, but not type 3 interferons, up-regulated the expression of melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA-5) and retinoic acid-inducible gene-1 (RIG-1), and TLR-3, demonstrating that human mast cells do not express functional receptors for type 3 interferons. Furthermore, virus infection induced the anti-viral proteins MxA and IFIT3 in human mast cells. In conclusion, our results support the notion that mast cells can recognize an invading virus through intracellular virus sensors and produce high amounts of type 1 and type 3 interferons and the anti-viral proteins human myxovirus resistance gene A (MxA) and interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3 (IFIT3) in response to the virus infection.

  17. Software Engineering Improvement Activities/Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    bd Systems personnel accomplished the technical responsibilities for this reporting period, as planned. A close working relationship was maintained with personnel of the MSFC Avionics Department Software Group (ED14). Work accomplishments included development, evaluation, and enhancement of a software cost model, performing literature search and evaluation of software tools available for code analysis and requirements analysis, and participating in other relevant software engineering activities. Monthly reports were submitted. This support was provided to the Flight Software Group/ED 1 4 in accomplishing the software engineering improvement engineering activities of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Software Engineering Improvement Plan.

  18. Intracellular pH regulates basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances in colonic epithelial cells by modulating Ca2+ activation

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The role of intracellular pH as a modulator of basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances in epithelial cells was studied using digitonin- permeabilized colonic cell layers so that cytosolic pH could be clamped at specific values, while basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances were activated by stepwise increases in intracellular free Ca2+. Increasing the intracellular pH from 6.6 to 8.0 enhanced the sensitivity of both ionic conductances to intracellular Ca2+, but changing extracellular pH had no effect. Maximal K+ and Cl- currents activated by Ca2+ were not affected by changes in intracellular pH, suggesting that protons do not alter the conduction properties of the channels. Hill analysis of the Ca2+ activation process revealed that raising the cytosolic pH from 6.6 to 8.0 reduced the K1/2 for Ca2+ activation. In the absence of Ca2+, changes in intracellular pH did not have a significant effect on the basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances. These results are consistent with the notion that changes in cytosolic pH can modulate basolateral conductances by modifying the action of calcium, perhaps by acting at or near the activation site to provide a mechanism of variable "gain control." PMID:1719125

  19. Intracellular oxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme defense system, and cell senescence in fibroblasts with trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sureda, Víctor; Vilches, Ángel; Sánchez, Olga; Audí, Laura; Domínguez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Down's syndrome (DS) is characterized by a complex phenotype associated with chronic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Overexpression of genes on chromosome-21 is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of the major phenotypic features of DS, such as premature aging. Using cultured fibroblasts with trisomy 21 (T21F), this study aimed to ascertain whether an imbalance exists in activities, mRNA, and protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, glutathione-peroxidase, and catalase during the cell replication process in vitro. T21F had high SOD1 expression and activity which led to an interenzymatic imbalance in the antioxidant defense system, accentuated with replicative senescence. Intracellular ROS production and oxidized protein levels were significantly higher in T21F compared with control cells; furthermore, a significant decline in intracellular ATP content was detected in T21F. Cell senescence was found to appear prematurely in DS cells as shown by SA-β-Gal assay and p21 assessment, though not apoptosis, as neither p53 nor the proapoptotic proteins cytochrome c and caspase 9 were altered in T21F. These novel findings would point to a deleterious role of oxidatively modified molecules in early cell senescence of T21F, thereby linking replicative and stress-induced senescence in cultured cells to premature aging in DS.

  20. Rotenone Decreases Intracellular Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, David S.; Sullivan, Patti; Cooney, Adele; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Kopin, Irwin J.; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2015-01-01

    Repeated systemic administration of the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone produces a rodent model of Parkinson disease (PD). Mechanisms of relatively selective rotenone-induced damage to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons remain incompletely understood. According to the “catecholaldehyde hypothesis,” buildup of the autotoxic dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) contributes to PD pathogenesis. Vesicular uptake blockade increases DOPAL levels, and DOPAL is detoxified mainly by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). We tested whether rotenone interferes with vesicular uptake and intracellular ALDH activity. Endogenous and F-labeled catechols were measured in PC12 cells incubated with rotenone (0-1000 nM, 180 minutes), without or with F-dopamine (2 μM) to track vesicular uptake and catecholamine metabolism. Rotenone dose-dependently increased DOPAL, F-DOPAL, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPET) levels while decreasing dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels and the ratio of dopamine to the sum of its deaminated metabolites. In test tubes, rotenone did not affect conversion of DOPAL to DOPAC by ALDH when NAD+ was supplied, whereas the direct-acting ALDH inhibitor benomyl markedly increased DOPAL and decreased DOPAC concentrations in the reaction mixtures. We propose that rotenone builds up intracellular DOPAL by decreasing ALDH activity and attenuating vesicular sequestration of cytoplasmic catecholamines. The results provide a novel mechanism for selective rotenone-induced toxicity in dopaminergic neurons. PMID:25645689

  1. Encapsulation of Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs within Mesoporous Silica and Intracellular Antibacterial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xin; Pethe, Kevin; Kim, Ryangyeo; Ballell, Lluis; Barros, David; Cechetto, Jonathan; Jeon, HeeKyoung; Kim, Kideok; Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major problem in public health. While new effective treatments to combat the disease are currently under development, they tend suffer from poor solubility often resulting in low and/or inconsistent oral bioavailability. Mesoporous materials are here investigated in an in vitro intracellular assay, for the effective delivery of compound PA-824; a poorly soluble bactericidal agent being developed against Tuberculosis (TB). Mesoporous materials enhance the solubility of PA-824; however, this is not translated into a higher antibacterial activity in TB-infected macrophages after 5 days of incubation, where similar values are obtained. The lack of improved activity may be due to insufficient release of the drug from the mesopores in the context of the cellular environment. However, these results show promising data for the use of mesoporous particles in the context of oral delivery with expected improvements in bioavailability.

  2. Intracellular coenzymes as natural biomarkers for metabolic activities and mitochondrial anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Heikal, Ahmed A

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria play a pivotal role in energy metabolism, programmed cell death and oxidative stress. Mutated mitochondrial DNA in diseased cells compromises the structure of key enzyme complexes and, therefore, mitochondrial function, which leads to a myriad of health-related conditions such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes and aging. Early detection of mitochondrial and metabolic anomalies is an essential step towards effective diagnoses and therapeutic intervention. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) play important roles in a wide range of cellular oxidation–reduction reactions. Importantly, NADH and FAD are naturally fluorescent, which allows noninvasive imaging of metabolic activities of living cells and tissues. Furthermore, NADH and FAD autofluorescence, which can be excited using distinct wavelengths for complementary imaging methods and is sensitive to protein binding and local environment. This article highlights recent developments concerning intracellular NADH and FAD as potential biomarkers for metabolic and mitochondrial activities. PMID:20406068

  3. Intracellular chloride activities in canine tracheal epithelium. Direct evidence for sodium-coupled intracellular chloride accumulation in a chloride-secreting epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, M J

    1983-01-01

    Canine tracheal epithelium secretes Cl via an electrogenic transport process that appears to apply to a wide variety of secretory epithelia. To examine the mechanisms involved, intracellular chloride activity, acCl, was measured with Cl-selective intracellular microelectrodes. The results indicate that when the rate of secretion was minimal acCl was 37 mM; with stimulation of secretion the intracellular voltage depolarized, but acCl was not significantly altered, at 39 mM. These findings indicate that: (a) Cl is accumulated across the basolateral membrane under nonsecreting and secreting conditions at an activity 3.8 and 2.4 times, respectively, that predicted for an equilibrium distribution; (b) Cl exit across the apical membrane may be passive with an electrochemical driving force of 22 mV; and (c) stimulation of secretion enhanced the rate of Cl entry across the basolateral membrane, since Cl transport increased without a change in acCl. In the absence of Na in the extracellular fluid, acCl approached the value expected for an equilibrium distribution. This finding suggests that "uphill" entry of Cl into the cell against its electrochemical gradient is dependent upon, and energized by, the entry of Na down its gradient. Submucosal bumetanide, a loop diuretic, also decreased the rate of Cl secretion and decreased acCl, indicating an inhibition of Cl entry. These findings indicate that Cl entry into the cell is directed against its electrochemical gradient and is mediated by a Na-coupled, bumetanide-inhibitable, transport process at the basolateral membrane and that Cl may exit passively down a favorable electrochemical gradient across the apical membrane. PMID:6853719

  4. Prolonged Intracellular Na+ Dynamics Govern Electrical Activity in Accessory Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zylbertal, Asaph; Kahan, Anat; Ben-Shaul, Yoram; Yarom, Yosef; Wagner, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    Persistent activity has been reported in many brain areas and is hypothesized to mediate working memory and emotional brain states and to rely upon network or biophysical feedback. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which persistent neuronal activity can be generated without feedback, relying instead on the slow removal of Na+ from neurons following bursts of activity. We show that mitral cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), which plays a major role in mammalian social behavior, may respond to a brief sensory stimulation with persistent firing. By combining electrical recordings, Ca2+ and Na+ imaging, and realistic computational modeling, we explored the mechanisms underlying the persistent activity in AOB mitral cells. We found that the exceptionally slow inward current that underlies this activity is governed by prolonged dynamics of intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i), which affects neuronal electrical activity via several pathways. Specifically, elevated dendritic [Na+]i reverses the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger activity, thus modifying the [Ca2+]i set-point. This process, which relies on ubiquitous membrane mechanisms, is likely to play a role in other neuronal types in various brain regions. PMID:26674618

  5. Intracellular Voyeurism: Examining the Modulation of Host Cell Activities bySalmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Jason; Brumell, John H

    2005-11-01

    Salmonella spp. can infect host cells by gaining entry through phagocytosis or by inducing host cell membrane ruffling that facilitates bacterial uptake. With its wide host range, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has proven to be an important model organism for studying intracellular bacterial pathogenesis. Upon entry into host cells, serovar Typhimurium typically resides within a membrane-bound compartment termed the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). From the SCV, serovar Typhimurium can inject several effector proteins that subvert many normal host cell systems, including endocytic trafficking, cytoskeletal rearrangements, lipid signaling and distribution, and innate and adaptive host defenses. The study of these intracellular events has been made possible through the use of various imaging techniques, ranging from classic methods of transmission electron microscopy to advanced livecell fluorescence confocal microscopy. In addition, DNA microarrays have now been used to provide a "snapshot" of global gene expression in serovar Typhimurium residing within the infected host cell. This review describes key aspects of Salmonella-induced subversion of host cell activities, providing examples of imaging that have been used to elucidate these events. Serovar Typhimurium engages specific host cell machinery from initial contact with the host cell to replication within the SCV. This continuous interaction with the host cell has likely contributed to the extensive arsenal that serovar Typhimurium now possesses, including two type III secretion systems, a range of ammunition in the form of TTSS effectors, and a complex genetic regulatory network that coordinates the expression of hundreds of virulence factors.

  6. Probing cytoskeletal modulation of passive and active intracellular dynamics using nanobody-functionalized quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Katrukha, Eugene A.; Mikhaylova, Marina; van Brakel, Hugo X.; van Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M.; Akhmanova, Anna; Hoogenraad, Casper C.; Kapitein, Lukas C.

    2017-01-01

    The cytoplasm is a highly complex and heterogeneous medium that is structured by the cytoskeleton. How local transport depends on the heterogeneous organization and dynamics of F-actin and microtubules is poorly understood. Here we use a novel delivery and functionalization strategy to utilize quantum dots (QDs) as probes for active and passive intracellular transport. Rapid imaging of non-functionalized QDs reveals two populations with a 100-fold difference in diffusion constant, with the faster fraction increasing upon actin depolymerization. When nanobody-functionalized QDs are targeted to different kinesin motor proteins, their trajectories do not display strong actin-induced transverse displacements, as suggested previously. Only kinesin-1 displays subtle directional fluctuations, because the subset of microtubules used by this motor undergoes prominent undulations. Using actin-targeting agents reveals that F-actin suppresses most microtubule shape remodelling, rather than promoting it. These results demonstrate how the spatial heterogeneity of the cytoskeleton imposes large variations in non-equilibrium intracellular dynamics. PMID:28322225

  7. A cell-permeable tool for analysing APP intracellular domain function and manipulation of PIKfyve activity

    PubMed Central

    Guscott, Benjamin; Balklava, Zita; Safrany, Stephen T.; Wassmer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms for regulating PIKfyve complex activity are currently emerging. The PIKfyve complex, consisting of the phosphoinositide kinase PIKfyve (also known as FAB1), VAC14 and FIG4, is required for the production of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2]. PIKfyve function is required for homoeostasis of the endo/lysosomal system and is crucially implicated in neuronal function and integrity, as loss of function mutations in the PIKfyve complex lead to neurodegeneration in mouse models and human patients. Our recent work has shown that the intracellular domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), a molecule central to the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease binds to VAC14 and enhances PIKfyve function. In the present study, we utilize this recent advance to create an easy-to-use tool for increasing PIKfyve activity in cells. We fused APP intracellular domain (AICD) to the HIV TAT domain, a cell-permeable peptide allowing proteins to penetrate cells. The resultant TAT–AICD fusion protein is cell permeable and triggers an increase in PI(3,5)P2. Using the PI(3,5)P2 specific GFP-ML1Nx2 probe, we show that cell-permeable AICD alters PI(3,5)P2 dynamics. TAT–AICD also provides partial protection from pharmacological inhibition of PIKfyve. All three lines of evidence show that the AICD activates the PIKfyve complex in cells, a finding that is important for our understanding of the mechanism of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26934981

  8. Glucose regulates diacylglycerol intracellular levels and protein kinase C activity by modulating diacylglycerol kinase subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Miele, Claudia; Paturzo, Flora; Teperino, Raffaele; Sakane, Fumio; Fiory, Francesca; Oriente, Francesco; Ungaro, Paola; Valentino, Rossella; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2007-11-02

    Although chronic hyperglycemia reduces insulin sensitivity and leads to impaired glucose utilization, short term exposure to high glucose causes cellular responses positively regulating its own metabolism. We show that exposure of L6 myotubes overexpressing human insulin receptors to 25 mm glucose for 5 min decreased the intracellular levels of diacylglycerol (DAG). This was paralleled by transient activation of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) and of insulin receptor signaling. Following 30-min exposure, however, both DAG levels and DGK activity returned close to basal levels. Moreover, the acute effect of glucose on DAG removal was inhibited by >85% by the DGK inhibitor R59949. DGK inhibition was also accompanied by increased protein kinase C-alpha (PKCalpha) activity, reduced glucose-induced insulin receptor activation, and GLUT4 translocation. Glucose exposure transiently redistributed DGK isoforms alpha and delta, from the prevalent cytosolic localization to the plasma membrane fraction. However, antisense silencing of DGKdelta, but not of DGKalpha expression, was sufficient to prevent the effect of high glucose on PKCalpha activity, insulin receptor signaling, and glucose uptake. Thus, the short term exposure of skeletal muscle cells to glucose causes a rapid induction of DGK, followed by a reduction of PKCalpha activity and transactivation of the insulin receptor signaling. The latter may mediate, at least in part, glucose induction of its own metabolism.

  9. Spatio-temporal PLC activation in parallel with intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation in mechanically stimulated single MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Akira; Hayashida, Yasunori; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Ushida, Takashi

    2010-03-01

    Intracellular Ca2+ transients are evoked either by the opening of Ca2+ channels on the plasma membrane or by phospholipase C (PLC) activation resulting in IP3 production. Ca2+ wave propagation is known to occur in mechanically stimulated cells; however, it remains uncertain whether and how PLC activation is involved in intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation in mechanically stimulated cells. To answer these questions, it is indispensable to clarify the spatio-temporal relations between intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation and PLC activation. Thus, we visualized both cytosolic Ca2+ and PLC activation using a real-time dual-imaging system in individual Mardin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. This system allowed us to simultaneously observe intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation and PLC activation in a spatio-temporal manner in a single mechanically stimulated MDCK cell. The results showed that PLC was activated not only in the mechanically stimulated region but also in other subcellular regions in parallel with intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation. These results support a model in which PLC is involved in Ca2+ signaling amplification in mechanically stimulated cells.

  10. Activities of the Institute for Mechanical Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Institute of Mechanical Engineering (IME) is part of Canada's National Research Council. Its mission is to undertake, support, promote, and disseminate research and development in the mechanical engineering aspects of three vital sectors of the Canadian economy: transportation, resource industries, and manufacturing. The IME achieves its mission by performing research and development in its own facilities; by developing, providing, and transferring expertise and knowledge; by making its research facilities available to collaborators and clients; and by participating in international liaison and collaborative research activities. Six research programs are conducted in the IME: Advanced Manufacturing Technology; Coastal Zone Engineering; Cold Regions Engineering; Combustion and Fluids Engineering; Ground Transportation Technology; and Machinery and Engine Technology. The rationale and major research thrusts of each program are described, and specific achievements in 1991-92 are reviewed. Lists of technical reports and papers presented by IME personnel are also included.

  11. α/β-Peptide Foldamers Targeting Intracellular Protein-Protein Interactions with Activity in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Checco, James W; Lee, Erinna F; Evangelista, Marco; Sleebs, Nerida J; Rogers, Kelly; Pettikiriarachchi, Anne; Kershaw, Nadia J; Eddinger, Geoffrey A; Belair, David G; Wilson, Julia L; Eller, Chelcie H; Raines, Ronald T; Murphy, William L; Smith, Brian J; Gellman, Samuel H; Fairlie, W Douglas

    2015-09-09

    Peptides can be developed as effective antagonists of protein-protein interactions, but conventional peptides (i.e., oligomers of l-α-amino acids) suffer from significant limitations in vivo. Short half-lives due to rapid proteolytic degradation and an inability to cross cell membranes often preclude biological applications of peptides. Oligomers that contain both α- and β-amino acid residues ("α/β-peptides") manifest decreased susceptibility to proteolytic degradation, and when properly designed these unnatural oligomers can mimic the protein-recognition properties of analogous "α-peptides". This report documents an extension of the α/β-peptide approach to target intracellular protein-protein interactions. Specifically, we have generated α/β-peptides based on a "stapled" Bim BH3 α-peptide, which contains a hydrocarbon cross-link to enhance α-helix stability. We show that a stapled α/β-peptide can structurally and functionally mimic the parent stapled α-peptide in its ability to enter certain types of cells and block protein-protein interactions associated with apoptotic signaling. However, the α/β-peptide is nearly 100-fold more resistant to proteolysis than is the parent stapled α-peptide. These results show that backbone modification, a strategy that has received relatively little attention in terms of peptide engineering for biomedical applications, can be combined with more commonly deployed peripheral modifications such as side chain cross-linking to produce synergistic benefits.

  12. Unlocking Doors without Keys: Activation of Src by Truncated C-terminal Intracellular Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Lacking Tyrosine Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mezquita, Belén; Mezquita, Pau; Pau, Montserrat; Mezquita, Jovita; Mezquita, Cristóbal

    2014-01-01

    One of the best examples of the renaissance of Src as an open door to cancer has been the demonstration that just five min of Src activation is sufficient for transformation and also for induction and maintenance of cancer stem cells [1]. Many tyrosine kinase receptors, through the binding of their ligands, become the keys that unlock the structure of Src and activate its oncogenic transduction pathways. Furthermore, intracellular isoforms of these receptors, devoid of any tyrosine kinase activity, still retain the ability to unlock Src. This has been shown with a truncated isoform of KIT (tr-KIT) and a truncated isoform of VEGFR-1 (i21-VEGFR-1), which are intracellular and require no ligand binding, but are nonetheless able to activate Src and induce cell migration and invasion of cancer cells. Expression of the i21-VEGFR-1 is upregulated by the Notch signaling pathway and repressed by miR-200c and retinoic acid in breast cancer cells. Both Notch inhibitors and retinoic acid have been proposed as potential therapies for invasive breast cancer. PMID:24709904

  13. Protein kinase C activation inhibits eosinophil degranulation through stimulation of intracellular cAMP production.

    PubMed

    Ezeamuzie, Charles I; Taslim, Najla

    2004-11-01

    The mechanism of inhibition of eosinophil degranulation by protein kinase C (PKC) was investigated in complement C5a (C5a)-stimulated degranulation of highly purified human eosinophils using the specific PKC activator - phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). C5a-induced release of eosinophil peroxidase and eosinophil cationic protein was potently inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by PMA (IC(50): 3 and 5 nM, respectively). The inhibition by PMA, but not histamine, was significantly reversed by the specific, but isoform nonselective, PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220 (1 microM). In the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram (5 microM), PMA stimulated a pronounced concentration-dependent increase in intracellular cAMP, with a potency 400 times that of histamine (EC(50): 55 nM vs 22.5 microM). The inactive PMA analogue, 4alpha-PMA, had no such effect. The cAMP production by PMA, but not histamine, was significantly reversed by Ro 31-8220 (1 microM) and the selective inhibitor of the novel PKCdelta, rottlerin (1-3 microM), but not the selective inhibitor of the classical PKC isoforms, Gö 6976 (0.01-0.1 microM). Western blot analysis revealed the presence of six PKC isoforms (alpha, betaI, betaII, delta, iota and zeta) in isolated eosinophils. Chelation of internal or external calcium had no effect on PMA-induced cAMP response, but abolished that induced by histamine. There was a good correlation between increase in intracellular cAMP and inhibition of degranulation. These results show, for the first time, that in human eosinophils, PMA, via activation of PKCdelta isoform, can stimulate cAMP production, and that this may be the basis for its potent anti-degranulatory effect.

  14. Protein kinase C activation inhibits eosinophil degranulation through stimulation of intracellular cAMP production

    PubMed Central

    Ezeamuzie, Charles I; Taslim, Najla

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of inhibition of eosinophil degranulation by protein kinase C (PKC) was investigated in complement C5a (C5a)-stimulated degranulation of highly purified human eosinophils using the specific PKC activator – phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). C5a-induced release of eosinophil peroxidase and eosinophil cationic protein was potently inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by PMA (IC50: 3 and 5 nM, respectively). The inhibition by PMA, but not histamine, was significantly reversed by the specific, but isoform nonselective, PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220 (1 μM). In the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram (5 μM), PMA stimulated a pronounced concentration-dependent increase in intracellular cAMP, with a potency 400 times that of histamine (EC50: 55 nM vs 22.5 μM). The inactive PMA analogue, 4α-PMA, had no such effect. The cAMP production by PMA, but not histamine, was significantly reversed by Ro 31-8220 (1 μM) and the selective inhibitor of the novel PKCδ, rottlerin (1–3 μM), but not the selective inhibitor of the classical PKC isoforms, Gö 6976 (0.01–0.1 μM). Western blot analysis revealed the presence of six PKC isoforms (α, βI, βII, δ, ι and ζ) in isolated eosinophils. Chelation of internal or external calcium had no effect on PMA-induced cAMP response, but abolished that induced by histamine. There was a good correlation between increase in intracellular cAMP and inhibition of degranulation. These results show, for the first time, that in human eosinophils, PMA, via activation of PKCδ isoform, can stimulate cAMP production, and that this may be the basis for its potent anti-degranulatory effect. PMID:15504748

  15. Very High Concentrations of Active Intracellular Phosphorylated Emtricitabine in Neonates (ANRS 12109 Trial, Step 2)▿

    PubMed Central

    Hirt, Déborah; Pruvost, Alain; Ekouévi, Didier K.; Urien, Saïk; Arrivé, Elise; Kone, Mamourou; Nerrienet, Eric; Nyati, Mandisa; Gray, Glenda; Kruy, Leang Sim; Blanche, Stéphane; Dabis, François; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate neonatal emtricitabine (FTC) plasma and intracellular pharmacokinetics. The study was designed as a phase I/II prospective trial in two sequential steps evaluating the combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and FTC for the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. HIV-1-infected pregnant women received two tablets of TDF (300 mg) and FTC (200 mg) at onset of labor and then one tablet daily for 7 days postpartum. Based on the data obtained in the first part of the Tenofovir/Emtricitabine in Africa and Asia (TEmAA) Study, single doses of 2 mg/kg of FTC and 13 mg/kg of TDF were given to the neonates within 12 h after birth. A total of 540 FTC plasma concentrations and 44 active intracellular phosphorylated metabolite FTC-TP concentrations were taken from the 36 enrolled women and their neonates. Concentrations were measured by the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method and analyzed by a population approach. The proposed dose obtained by simulations based on plasma drug concentrations was confirmed. However, median FTC-TP exposures were, respectively, 5.9 and 6.8 times higher in the fetus and the neonate than in the adult. High FTC-TP concentrations were observed in the four children who had serious adverse events (SAEs), but the link between FTC-TP concentrations and SAEs in children was not formally identified. The exposure to the active form of FTC was high in neonates despite plasma drug concentrations equivalent to those in adults. Our results are similar to those obtained with zidovudine or lamivudine. PMID:21464241

  16. Engineering and Coordination of Regulatory Networks and Intracellular Complexes to Maximize Hydrogen Production by Phototrophic Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Liao

    2012-05-22

    This project is a collaboration with F. R. Tabita of Ohio State. Our major goal is to understand the factors and regulatory mechanisms that influence hydrogen production. The organisms to be utilized in this study, phototrophic microorganisms, in particular nonsulfur purple (NSP) bacteria, catalyze many significant processes including the assimilation of carbon dioxide into organic carbon, nitrogen fixation, sulfur oxidation, aromatic acid degradation, and hydrogen oxidation/evolution. Our part of the project was to develop a modeling technique to investigate the metabolic network in connection to hydrogen production and regulation. Organisms must balance the pathways that generate and consume reducing power in order to maintain redox homeostasis to achieve growth. Maintaining this homeostasis in the nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria is a complex feat with many avenues that can lead to balance, as these organisms possess versatile metabolic capabilities including anoxygenic photosynthesis, aerobic or anaerobic respiration, and fermentation. Growth is achieved by using H{sub 2} as an electron donor and CO{sub 2} as a carbon source during photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic growth, where CO{sub 2} is fixed via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. Photoheterotrophic growth can also occur when alternative organic carbon compounds are utilized as both the carbon source and electron donor. Regardless of the growth mode, excess reducing equivalents generated as a result of oxidative processes, must be transferred to terminal electron acceptors, thus insuring that redox homeostasis is maintained in the cell. Possible terminal acceptors include O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, organic carbon, or various oxyanions. Cells possess regulatory mechanisms to balance the activity of the pathways which supply energy, such as photosynthesis, and those that consume energy, such as CO{sub 2} assimilation or N{sub 2} fixation. The major route for CO{sub 2} assimilation is the CBB

  17. Prediction of hammerhead ribozyme intracellular activity with the catalytic core fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Gabryelska, Marta Magdalena; Wyszko, Eliza; Szymański, Maciej; Popenda, Mariusz; Barciszewski, Jan

    2013-05-01

    Hammerhead ribozyme is a versatile tool for down-regulation of gene expression in vivo. Owing to its small size and high activity, it is used as a model for RNA structure-function relationship studies. In the present paper we describe a new extended hammerhead ribozyme HH-2 with a tertiary stabilizing motif constructed on the basis of the tetraloop receptor sequence. This ribozyme is very active in living cells, but shows low activity in vitro. To understand it, we analysed tertiary structure models of substrate-ribozyme complexes. We calculated six unique catalytic core geometry parameters as distances and angles between particular atoms that we call the ribozyme fingerprint. A flanking sequence and tertiary motif change the geometry of the general base, general acid, nucleophile and leaving group. We found almost complete correlation between these parameters and the decrease of target gene expression in the cells. The tertiary structure model calculations allow us to predict ribozyme intracellular activity. Our approach could be widely adapted to characterize catalytic properties of other RNAs.

  18. Potassium permeability activated by intracellular calcium ion concentration in the pancreatic beta-cell.

    PubMed Central

    Atwater, I; Dawson, C M; Ribalet, B; Rojas, E

    1979-01-01

    1. Membrane potentials and input resistance were measured in beta-cells from mouse pancreatic islets of Langerhans in a study designed to assess the role of a K permeability specifically blocked by quinine or quinidine and activated by intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+])i-activated PK). 2. Addition of 100 microM-quinine to the perifusion medium resulted in a 10--30 mV depolarization of the membrane and an increase in the input resistance of ca. 4.10(7) omega. 3. In the absence of glucose, 100 microM-quinine induced electrical activity. 4. In the presence of glucose, 100 microM-quinine abolished the burst pattern of electrical activity and very much reduced the graded response of spike frequency normally seen with different concentrations of glucose. 5. Addition of mitochondrial inhibitors, KCN, NaN3, DNP, CCCP, FCCP, to the perifusion medium containing glucose rapidly hyperpolarized the beta-cell membrane, inducing a concomitant decrease in input resistance. 6. In the presence of glucose, these mitochondrial inhibitors reversibly blocked electrical activity; upon removal of the inhibitor, recovery of electrical activity followed a biphasic pattern. 7. The effects of mitochondrial inhibitors were partially reversed by 100 microM-quinine. 8. It is proposed that the membrane potential of the beta-cell in the absence of glucose is predominantly controlled by the [Ca2+]i-activated PK. It is further suggested that this permeability to K controls the level for glucose stimulation and leads to the generation of the burst pattern. PMID:381636

  19. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Alters Intracellular Sequestration of Zinc through Interaction with the Transporter ZIP4

    SciTech Connect

    Emmetsberger, Jaime; Mirrione, Martine M.; Zhou, Chun; Fernandez-Monreal, Monica; Siddiq, Mustafa M.; Ji, Kyungmin; Tsirka, Stella E.

    2010-09-17

    Glutamatergic neurons contain free zinc packaged into neurotransmitter-loaded synaptic vesicles. Upon neuronal activation, the vesicular contents are released into the synaptic space, whereby the zinc modulates activity of postsynaptic neurons though interactions with receptors, transporters and exchangers. However, high extracellular concentrations of zinc trigger seizures and are neurotoxic if substantial amounts of zinc reenter the cells via ion channels and accumulate in the cytoplasm. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a secreted serine protease, is also proepileptic and excitotoxic. However, tPA counters zinc toxicity by promoting zinc import back into the neurons in a sequestered form that is nontoxic. Here, we identify the zinc influx transporter, ZIP4, as the pathway through which tPA mediates the zinc uptake. We show that ZIP4 is upregulated after excitotoxin stimulation of the mouse, male and female, hippocampus. ZIP4 physically interacts with tPA, correlating with an increased intracellular zinc influx and lysosomal sequestration. Changes in prosurvival signals support the idea that this sequestration results in neuroprotection. These experiments identify a mechanism via which neurons use tPA to efficiently neutralize the toxic effects of excessive concentrations of free zinc.

  20. Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling of Neuron Action Potential Threshold During Synaptically Driven Broadband Intracellular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Shane M.; Song, Dong; Berger, Theodore W.

    2012-01-01

    Activity-dependent variation of neuronal thresholds for action potential (AP) generation is one of the key determinants of spike-train temporal-pattern transformations from presynaptic to postsynaptic spike trains. In this study, we model the nonlinear dynamics of the threshold variation during synaptically driven broadband intracellular activity. First, membrane potentials of single CA1 pyramidal cells were recorded under physiologically plausible broadband stimulation conditions. Second, a method was developed to measure AP thresholds from the continuous recordings of membrane potentials. It involves measuring the turning points of APs by analyzing the third-order derivatives of the membrane potentials. Four stimulation paradigms with different temporal patterns were applied to validate this method by comparing the measured AP turning points and the actual AP thresholds estimated with varying stimulation intensities. Results show that the AP turning points provide consistent measurement of the AP thresholds, except for a constant offset. It indicates that 1) the variation of AP turning points represents the nonlinearities of threshold dynamics; and 2) an optimization of the constant offset is required to achieve accurate spike prediction. Third, a nonlinear dynamical third-order Volterra model was built to describe the relations between the threshold dynamics and the AP activities. Results show that the model can predict threshold accurately based on the preceding APs. Finally, the dynamic threshold model was integrated into a previously developed single neuron model and resulted in a 33% improvement in spike prediction. PMID:22156947

  1. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Bhatter, Purva D.; Gupta, Pooja D.; Birdi, Tannaz J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome), Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf), Piper nigrum L. (seed), and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber) were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549) infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone) was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous) showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous) and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol) extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity. PMID:26941797

  2. Activation of Src and release of intracellular calcium by phosphatidic acid during Xenopus laevis fertilization.

    PubMed

    Bates, Ryan C; Fees, Colby P; Holland, William L; Winger, Courtney C; Batbayar, Khulan; Ancar, Rachel; Bergren, Todd; Petcoff, Douglas; Stith, Bradley J

    2014-02-01

    We report a new step in the fertilization in Xenopus laevis which has been found to involve activation of Src tyrosine kinase to stimulate phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ) which increases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) to release intracellular calcium ([Ca](i)). Molecular species analysis and mass measurements suggested that sperm activate phospholipase D (PLD) to elevate phosphatidic acid (PA). We now report that PA mass increased 2.7 fold by 1 min after insemination and inhibition of PA production by two methods inhibited activation of Src and PLCγ, increased [Ca](i) and other fertilization events. As compared to 14 other lipids, PA specifically bound Xenopus Src but not PLCγ. Addition of synthetic PA activated egg Src (an action requiring intact lipid rafts) and PLCγ as well as doubling the amount of PLCγ in rafts. In the absence of elevated [Ca](i), PA addition elevated IP3 mass to levels equivalent to that induced by sperm (but twice that achieved by calcium ionophore). Finally, PA induced [Ca](i) release that was blocked by an IP3 receptor inhibitor. As only PLD1b message was detected, and Western blotting did not detect PLD2, we suggest that sperm activate PLD1b to elevate PA which then binds to and activates Src leading to PLCγ stimulation, IP3 elevation and [Ca](i) release. Due to these and other studies, PA may also play a role in membrane fusion events such as sperm-egg fusion, cortical granule exocytosis, the elevation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and the large, late increase in sn 1,2-diacylglycerol in fertilization.

  3. Intracellular Delivery of Peptidyl Ligands by Reversible Cyclization: Discovery of a PDZ Domain Inhibitor that Rescues CFTR Activity**

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Ziqing; Xu, Xiaohua; Amacher, Jeanine F.; Madden, Dean R.; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    We report a general strategy for intracellular delivery of linear peptidyl ligands by fusing them with a cell-penetrating peptide and cyclizing the fusion peptides through a disulfide bond. The resulting cyclic peptides are cell permeable and have improved proteolytic stability. Once inside the cell, the disulfide bond is reduced to produce linear, biologically active peptides. This strategy was applied to generate a cell-permeable peptide substrate for real-time detection of intracellular caspase activities during apoptosis and a CAL-PDZ domain inhibitor for potential treatment of cystic fibrosis. PMID:25785567

  4. Near-Infrared Light Activation of Proteins Inside Living Cells Enabled by Carbon Nanotube-Mediated Intracellular Delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, He; Fan, Xinqi; Chen, Xing

    2016-02-01

    Light-responsive proteins have been delivered into the cells for controlling intracellular events with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, the choice of wavelength is limited to the UV and visible range; activation of proteins inside the cells using near-infrared (NIR) light, which has better tissue penetration and biocompatibility, remains elusive. Here, we report the development of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based bifunctional system that enables protein intracellular delivery, followed by NIR activation of the delivered proteins inside the cells. Proteins of interest are conjugated onto SWCNTs via a streptavidin-desthiobiotin (SA-DTB) linkage, where the protein activity is blocked. SWCNTs serve as both a nanocarrier for carrying proteins into the cells and subsequently a NIR sensitizer to photothermally cleave the linkage and release the proteins. The released proteins become active and exert their functions inside the cells. We demonstrated this strategy by intracellular delivery and NIR-triggered nuclear translocation of enhanced green fluorescent protein, and by intracellular delivery and NIR-activation of a therapeutic protein, saporin, in living cells. Furthermore, we showed that proteins conjugated onto SWCNTs via the SA-DTB linkage could be delivered to the tumors, and optically released and activated by using NIR light in living mice.

  5. Active learning in transportation engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, Jennifer Anne

    The objectives of this research were (1) to develop experimental active-based-learning curricula for undergraduate courses in transportation engineering and (2) to assess the effectiveness of an active-learning-based traffic engineering curriculum through an educational experiment. The researcher developed a new highway design course as a pilot study to test selected active-learning techniques before employing them in the traffic engineering curriculum. Active-learning techniques, including multiple-choice questions, short problems completed by individual students or small groups, and group discussions, were used as active interludes within lectures. The researcher also collected and analyzed student performance and attitude data from control and experimental classes to evaluate the relative effectiveness of the traditional lecture (control) approach and the active-learning (experimental) approach. The results indicate that the active-learning approach adopted for the experimental class did have a positive impact on student performance as measured by exam scores. The students in the experimental class also indicated slightly more positive attitudes at the end of the course than the control class, although the difference was not significant. The author recommends that active interludes similar to those in the experimental curricula be used in other courses in civil engineering.

  6. Biochemical characterization of a new type of intracellular PHB depolymerase from Rhodospirillum rubrum with high hydrolytic activity on native PHB granules.

    PubMed

    Sznajder, Anna; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    A Rhodospirillum rubrum gene that is predicted to code for an extracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerase by the recently published polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) depolymerase engineering database was cloned. The gene product (PhaZ3( Rru )) was expressed in recombinant E. coli, purified and biochemically characterized. PhaZ3( Rru ) turned out, however, to share characteristics of intracellular PHB depolymerases and revealed a combination of properties that have not yet been described for other PHB depolymerases. A fusion of PhaZ3( Rru )with the enhanced cyan fluorescent protein was able to bind to PHB granules in vivo and supported the function as an intracellular PHB depolymerase. Purified PhaZ3( Rru ) was specific for short-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA(SCL)) and hydrolysed both untreated native PHB granules as well as trypsin-activated native PHB granules to a mixture of mono- and dimeric 3-hydroxybutyrate. Crystalline (denatured) PHB granules were not hydrolysed by PhayZ3( Rru ). Low concentrations of calcium or magnesium ions (1-5 mM) reversibly (EDTA) inhibited the enzyme. Our data suggest that PhaZ3( Rru ) is the representative of a new type of the growing number of intracellular PHB depolymerases.

  7. Hypoxia Affects Neprilysin Expression Through Caspase Activation and an APP Intracellular Domain-dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kerridge, Caroline; Kozlova, Daria I.; Nalivaeva, Natalia N.; Turner, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    While gene mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the presenilins lead to an accumulation of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in the brain causing neurodegeneration and familial Alzheimer's disease (AD), over 95% of all AD cases are sporadic. Despite the pathologies being indistinguishable, relatively little is known about the mechanisms affecting generation of Aβ in the sporadic cases. Vascular disorders such as ischaemia and stroke are well established risk factors for the development of neurodegenerative diseases and systemic hypoxic episodes have been shown to increase Aβ production and accumulation. We have previously shown that hypoxia causes a significant decrease in the expression of the major Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin (NEP) which might deregulate Aβ clearance. Aβ itself is derived from the transmembrane APP along with several other biologically active metabolites including the C-terminal fragment (CTF) termed the APP intracellular domain (AICD), which regulates the expression of NEP and some other genes in neuronal cells. Here we show that in hypoxia there is a significantly increased expression of caspase-3, 8, and 9 in human neuroblastoma NB7 cells, which can degrade AICD. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation we have revealed that there was also a reduction of AICD bound to the NEP promoter region which underlies the decreased expression and activity of the enzyme under hypoxic conditions. Incubation of the cells with a caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK could rescue the effect of hypoxia on NEP activity protecting the levels of AICD capable of binding the NEP promoter. These data suggest that activation of caspases might play an important role in regulation of NEP levels in the brain under pathological conditions such as hypoxia and ischaemia leading to a deficit of Aβ clearance and increasing the risk of development of AD. PMID:26617481

  8. Intracellular Erythrocyte Platelet-activating Factor Acetylhydrolase I Inactivates Aspirin in Blood*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Gang; Marathe, Gopal K.; Willard, Belinda; McIntyre, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) prophylaxis suppresses major adverse cardiovascular events, but its rapid turnover limits inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase activity and thrombosis. Despite its importance, the identity of the enzyme(s) that hydrolyzes the acetyl residue of circulating aspirin, which must be an existing enzyme, remains unknown. We find that circulating aspirin was extensively hydrolyzed within erythrocytes, and chromatography indicated these cells contained a single hydrolytic activity. Purification by over 1400-fold and sequencing identified the PAFAH1B2 and PAFAH1B3 subunits of type I platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase, a phospholipase A2 with selectivity for acetyl residues of PAF, as a candidate for aspirin acetylhydrolase. Western blotting showed that catalytic PAFAH1B2 and PAFAH1B3 subunits of the type I enzyme co-migrated with purified erythrocyte aspirin hydrolytic activity. Recombinant PAFAH1B2, but not its family member plasma PAF acetylhydrolase, hydrolyzed aspirin, and PAF competitively inhibited aspirin hydrolysis by purified or recombinant erythrocyte enzymes. Aspirin was hydrolyzed by HEK cells transfected with PAFAH1B2 or PAFAH1B3, and the competitive type I PAF acetylhydrolase inhibitor NaF reduced erythrocyte hydrolysis of aspirin. Exposing aspirin to erythrocytes blocked its ability to inhibit thromboxane A2 synthesis and platelet aggregation. Not all individuals or populations are equally protected by aspirin prophylaxis, the phenomenon of aspirin resistance, and erythrocyte hydrolysis of aspirin varied 3-fold among individuals, which correlated with PAFAH1B2 and not PAFAH1B3. We conclude that intracellular type I PAF acetylhydrolase is the major aspirin hydrolase of human blood. PMID:21844189

  9. Nuclease activity of Legionella pneumophila Cas2 promotes intracellular infection of amoebal host cells.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Felizza F; Mallama, Celeste A; Fairbairn, Stephanie G; Cianciotto, Nicholas P

    2015-03-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the primary agent of Legionnaires' disease, flourishes in both natural and man-made environments by growing in a wide variety of aquatic amoebae. Recently, we determined that the Cas2 protein of L. pneumophila promotes intracellular infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella vermiformis, the two amoebae most commonly linked to cases of disease. The Cas2 family of proteins is best known for its role in the bacterial and archeal clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system that constitutes a form of adaptive immunity against phage and plasmid. However, the infection event mediated by L. pneumophila Cas2 appeared to be distinct from this function, because cas2 mutants exhibited infectivity defects in the absence of added phage or plasmid and since mutants lacking the CRISPR array or any one of the other cas genes were not impaired in infection ability. We now report that the Cas2 protein of L. pneumophila has both RNase and DNase activities, with the RNase activity being more pronounced. By characterizing a catalytically deficient version of Cas2, we determined that nuclease activity is critical for promoting infection of amoebae. Also, introduction of Cas2, but not its catalytic mutant form, into a strain of L. pneumophila that naturally lacks a CRISPR-Cas locus caused that strain to be 40- to 80-fold more infective for amoebae, unequivocally demonstrating that Cas2 facilitates the infection process independently of any other component encoded within the CRISPR-Cas locus. Finally, a cas2 mutant was impaired for infection of Willaertia magna but not Naegleria lovaniensis, suggesting that Cas2 promotes infection of most but not all amoebal hosts.

  10. Intracellular mediators of Na -K pump activity in guinea pig pancreatic acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, S.R.; Ochs, D.L.; Williams, J.A.

    1985-10-01

    The involvement of CaS and cyclic nucleotides in neurohormonal regulation of Na -K -ATPase (Na -K pump) activity in guinea pig pancreatic acinar cells was investigated. Changes in Na+-K+ pump activity elicited by secretagogues were assessed by (3H)ouabain binding and by ouabain-sensitive YWRb uptake. Carbachol (CCh) and cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) each stimulated both ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake and equilibrium binding of (TH)ouabain by approximately 60%. Secretin increased both indicators of Na+-K+ pump activity by approximately 40% as did forskolin, 8-bromo- and dibutyryl cAMP, theophylline, and isobutylmethylxanthine. Incubation of acinar cells in CaS -free HEPES-buffered Ringer (HR) with 0.5 mM EGTA reduced the stimulatory effects of CCh and CCK-8 by up to 90% but caused only a small reduction in the effects of secretin, forskolin, and cAMP analogues. In addition, CCh, CCK-8, secretin, and forskolin each stimulated ouabain-insensitive 86Rb+ uptake by acinar cells. The increase elicited by CCh and CCK-8 was greatly reduced in the absence of extracellular CaS , while that caused by the latter two agents was not substantially altered. The effects of secretagogues on free CaS levels in pancreatic acinar cells also were investigated with quin-2, a fluorescent CaS chelator. Basal intracellular CaS concentration ((CaS )i) was 161 nM in resting cells and increased to 713 and 803 nM within 15 s after addition of 100 microM CCh or 10 nM CCK-8, respectively.

  11. Nuclease Activity of Legionella pneumophila Cas2 Promotes Intracellular Infection of Amoebal Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Felizza F.; Mallama, Celeste A.; Fairbairn, Stephanie G.

    2014-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the primary agent of Legionnaires' disease, flourishes in both natural and man-made environments by growing in a wide variety of aquatic amoebae. Recently, we determined that the Cas2 protein of L. pneumophila promotes intracellular infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella vermiformis, the two amoebae most commonly linked to cases of disease. The Cas2 family of proteins is best known for its role in the bacterial and archeal clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)–CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system that constitutes a form of adaptive immunity against phage and plasmid. However, the infection event mediated by L. pneumophila Cas2 appeared to be distinct from this function, because cas2 mutants exhibited infectivity defects in the absence of added phage or plasmid and since mutants lacking the CRISPR array or any one of the other cas genes were not impaired in infection ability. We now report that the Cas2 protein of L. pneumophila has both RNase and DNase activities, with the RNase activity being more pronounced. By characterizing a catalytically deficient version of Cas2, we determined that nuclease activity is critical for promoting infection of amoebae. Also, introduction of Cas2, but not its catalytic mutant form, into a strain of L. pneumophila that naturally lacks a CRISPR-Cas locus caused that strain to be 40- to 80-fold more infective for amoebae, unequivocally demonstrating that Cas2 facilitates the infection process independently of any other component encoded within the CRISPR-Cas locus. Finally, a cas2 mutant was impaired for infection of Willaertia magna but not Naegleria lovaniensis, suggesting that Cas2 promotes infection of most but not all amoebal hosts. PMID:25547789

  12. Anti-cancer effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles and its intracellular redox activity.

    PubMed

    Pešić, Milica; Podolski-Renić, Ana; Stojković, Sonja; Matović, Branko; Zmejkoski, Danica; Kojić, Vesna; Bogdanović, Gordana; Pavićević, Aleksandra; Mojović, Miloš; Savić, Aleksandar; Milenković, Ivana; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Radotić, Ksenija

    2015-05-05

    Data on medical applications of cerium oxide nanoparticles CeO2 (CONP) are promising, yet information regarding their action in cells is incomplete and there are conflicting reports about in vitro toxicity. Herein, we have studied cytotoxic effect of CONP in several cancer and normal cell lines and their potential to change intracellular redox status. The IC50 was achieved only in two of eight tested cell lines, melanoma 518A2 and colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29. Self-propagating room temperature method was applied to produce CONP with an average crystalline size of 4 nm. The results confirmed presence of Ce(3+) and O(2-) vacancies. The induction of cell death by CONP and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed by flow-cytometry. Free radicals related antioxidant capacity of the cells was studied by the reduction of stable free radical TEMPONE using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. CONP showed low or moderate cytotoxicity in cancer cell lines: adenocarcinoma DLD1 and multi-drug resistant DLD1-TxR, non-small cell lung carcinoma NCI-H460 and multi-drug resistant NCI-H460/R, while normal cell lines (keratinocytes HaCaT, lung fetal fibroblasts MRC-5) were insensitive. The most sensitive were 518A2 melanoma and HT-29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines, with the IC50 values being between 100 and 200 μM. Decreased rate of TEMPONE reduction and increased production of certain ROS species (peroxynitrite and hydrogen peroxide anion) indicates that free radical metabolism, thus redox status was changed, and antioxidant capacity damaged in the CONP treated 518A2 and HT-29 cells. In conclusion, changes in intracellular redox status induced by CONP are partly attributed to the prooxidant activity of the nanoparticles. Further, ROS induced cell damages might eventually lead to the cell death. However, low inhibitory potential of CONP in the other human cell lines tested indicates that CONP may be safe for human usage in industry and medicine.

  13. Antagonistic and cooperative actions of Kif7 and Sufu define graded intracellular Gli activities in Hedgehog signaling.

    PubMed

    Law, Kelvin King Lo; Makino, Shigeru; Mo, Rong; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Puviindran, Vijitha; Hui, Chi-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Graded Hedgehog (Hh) signaling governs the balance of Gli transcriptional activators and repressors to specify diverse ventral cell fates in the spinal cord. It remains unclear how distinct intracellular Gli activity is generated. Here, we demonstrate that Sufu acts universally as a negative regulator of Hh signaling, whereas Kif7 inhibits Gli activity in cooperation with, and independent of, Sufu. Together, they deter naïve precursors from acquiring increasingly ventral identity. We show that Kif7 is also required to establish high intracellular Gli activity by antagonizing the Sufu-inhibition of Gli2. Strikingly, by abolishing the negative regulatory action of Sufu, diverse ventral cell fates can be specified in the absence of extracellular Hh signaling. These data suggest that Sufu is the primary regulator of graded Hh signaling and establish that the antagonistic and cooperative actions of Kif7 and Sufu are responsible for setting up distinct Gli activity in ventral cell fate specification.

  14. Glial potassium channels activated by neuronal firing or intracellular cyclic AMP in Helix.

    PubMed

    Gommerat, I; Gola, M

    1996-09-15

    1. Cell-attached and whole cell patch clamp experiments were performed on satellite glial cells adhering to the cell body of neurones in situ within the nervous system of the snail Helix pomatia. The underlying neurone was under current or voltage-clamp control. 2. Neuronal firing induced a delayed (20-30 s) persistent (3-4 min) increase in the opening probability of glial K+ channels. The channels were also activated by perfusing the ganglion with a depolarizing high-K+ saline, except when the underlying neurone was prevented from depolarizing under voltage-clamp conditions. 3. Two K(+)-selective channels were detected in the glial membrane. The channel responding to neuronal firing was present in 95% of the patches (n = 393). It had a unitary conductance of 56 pS, a Na+ :K+ permeability ratio < 0.02 and displayed slight inward rectification in symmetrical [K+] conditions. It was sensitive to TEA, Ba2+ and Cs+. The following results refer to this channel as studied in the cell-attached configuration. 4. The glial K+ channel was activated by bath application of the membrane-permeant cyclic AMP derivatives 8-bromo-cAMP and dibutyryl-cAMP, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin and the diesterase inhibitors IBMX, theophylline and caffeine. It was insensitive to cyclic GMP activators and to conditions that might alter the intracellular [Ca2+] (ionomycin, low-Ca2+ saline and Ca2+ channel blockers). 5. The forskolin-induced changes in channel behaviour (open and closed time distributions, burst duration, short and long gaps within bursts) could be accounted for by a four-state model (3 closed states, 1 open state) by simply changing one of the six rate parameters. 6. The present results suggest that the signal sent by an active neurone to satellite glial cells is confined to the glial cells round that neurone. The effect of this signal on the class of glial K+ channels studied can be mimicked by an increase in glial cAMP concentration. The subsequent delayed opening

  15. Glial potassium channels activated by neuronal firing or intracellular cyclic AMP in Helix.

    PubMed Central

    Gommerat, I; Gola, M

    1996-01-01

    1. Cell-attached and whole cell patch clamp experiments were performed on satellite glial cells adhering to the cell body of neurones in situ within the nervous system of the snail Helix pomatia. The underlying neurone was under current or voltage-clamp control. 2. Neuronal firing induced a delayed (20-30 s) persistent (3-4 min) increase in the opening probability of glial K+ channels. The channels were also activated by perfusing the ganglion with a depolarizing high-K+ saline, except when the underlying neurone was prevented from depolarizing under voltage-clamp conditions. 3. Two K(+)-selective channels were detected in the glial membrane. The channel responding to neuronal firing was present in 95% of the patches (n = 393). It had a unitary conductance of 56 pS, a Na+ :K+ permeability ratio < 0.02 and displayed slight inward rectification in symmetrical [K+] conditions. It was sensitive to TEA, Ba2+ and Cs+. The following results refer to this channel as studied in the cell-attached configuration. 4. The glial K+ channel was activated by bath application of the membrane-permeant cyclic AMP derivatives 8-bromo-cAMP and dibutyryl-cAMP, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin and the diesterase inhibitors IBMX, theophylline and caffeine. It was insensitive to cyclic GMP activators and to conditions that might alter the intracellular [Ca2+] (ionomycin, low-Ca2+ saline and Ca2+ channel blockers). 5. The forskolin-induced changes in channel behaviour (open and closed time distributions, burst duration, short and long gaps within bursts) could be accounted for by a four-state model (3 closed states, 1 open state) by simply changing one of the six rate parameters. 6. The present results suggest that the signal sent by an active neurone to satellite glial cells is confined to the glial cells round that neurone. The effect of this signal on the class of glial K+ channels studied can be mimicked by an increase in glial cAMP concentration. The subsequent delayed opening

  16. Stepwise-activable multifunctional peptide-guided prodrug micelles for cancerous cells intracellular drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Mengfei; Yuan, Zhefan; Wu, Dan; Chen, Jia-da; Feng, Jie

    2016-10-01

    A novel type of stepwise-activable multifunctional peptide-guided prodrug micelles (MPPM) was fabricated for cancerous cells intracellular drug release. Deca-lysine sequence (K10), a type of cell-penetrating peptide, was synthesized and terminated with azido-glycine. Then a new kind of molecule, alkyne modified doxorubicin (DOX) connecting through disulfide bond (DOX-SS-alkyne), was synthesized. After coupling via Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click chemistry reaction, reduction-sensitive peptide-guided prodrug was obtained. Due to the amphiphilic property of the prodrug, it can assemble to form micelles. To prevent the nanocarriers from unspecific cellular uptake, the prodrug micelles were subsequently modified with 2,3-dimethyl maleic anhydride to obtain MPPM with a negatively charged outer shell. In vitro studies showed that MPPM could be shielded from cells under psychological environment. However, when arriving at mild acidic tumor site, the cell-penetrating capacity of MPPM would be activated by charge reversal of the micelles via hydrolysis of acid-labile β-carboxylic amides and regeneration of K10, which enabled efficient internalization of MPPM by tumor cells as well as following glutathione- and protease-induced drug release inside the cancerous cells. Furthermore, since the guide peptide sequences can be accurately designed and synthesized, it can be easily changed for various functions, such as targeting peptide, apoptotic peptide, even aptamers, only need to be terminated with azido-glycine. This method can be used as a template for reduction-sensitive peptide-guided prodrug for cancer therapy.

  17. Exosome engineering for efficient intracellular delivery of soluble proteins using optically reversible protein-protein interaction module.

    PubMed

    Yim, Nambin; Ryu, Seung-Wook; Choi, Kyungsun; Lee, Kwang Ryeol; Lee, Seunghee; Choi, Hojun; Kim, Jeongjin; Shaker, Mohammed R; Sun, Woong; Park, Ji-Ho; Kim, Daesoo; Heo, Won Do; Choi, Chulhee

    2016-07-22

    Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of functional macromolecules is a promising method for treating a variety of human diseases. Among nanoparticles, cell-derived exosomes have recently been highlighted as a new therapeutic strategy for the in vivo delivery of nucleotides and chemical drugs. Here we describe a new tool for intracellular delivery of target proteins, named 'exosomes for protein loading via optically reversible protein-protein interactions' (EXPLORs). By integrating a reversible protein-protein interaction module controlled by blue light with the endogenous process of exosome biogenesis, we are able to successfully load cargo proteins into newly generated exosomes. Treatment with protein-loaded EXPLORs is shown to significantly increase intracellular levels of cargo proteins and their function in recipient cells in vitro and in vivo. These results clearly indicate the potential of EXPLORs as a mechanism for the efficient intracellular transfer of protein-based therapeutics into recipient cells and tissues.

  18. Exosome engineering for efficient intracellular delivery of soluble proteins using optically reversible protein–protein interaction module

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Nambin; Ryu, Seung-Wook; Choi, Kyungsun; Lee, Kwang Ryeol; Lee, Seunghee; Choi, Hojun; Kim, Jeongjin; Shaker, Mohammed R.; Sun, Woong; Park, Ji-Ho; Kim, Daesoo; Do Heo, Won; Choi, Chulhee

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of functional macromolecules is a promising method for treating a variety of human diseases. Among nanoparticles, cell-derived exosomes have recently been highlighted as a new therapeutic strategy for the in vivo delivery of nucleotides and chemical drugs. Here we describe a new tool for intracellular delivery of target proteins, named ‘exosomes for protein loading via optically reversible protein–protein interactions' (EXPLORs). By integrating a reversible protein–protein interaction module controlled by blue light with the endogenous process of exosome biogenesis, we are able to successfully load cargo proteins into newly generated exosomes. Treatment with protein-loaded EXPLORs is shown to significantly increase intracellular levels of cargo proteins and their function in recipient cells in vitro and in vivo. These results clearly indicate the potential of EXPLORs as a mechanism for the efficient intracellular transfer of protein-based therapeutics into recipient cells and tissues. PMID:27447450

  19. Cell-specific Activation of Nuclear Factor-κB by the Parasite Trypanosoma cruzi Promotes Resistance to Intracellular Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Belinda S.; Tam, Winnie; Sen, Ranjan; Pereira, Miercio E. A.

    2000-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is central to the innate and acquired immune response to microbial pathogens, coordinating cellular responses to the presence of infection. Here we demonstrate a direct role for NF-κB activation in controlling intracellular infection in nonimmune cells. Trypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular parasite of mammalian cells with a marked preference for infection of myocytes. The molecular basis for this tissue tropism is unknown. Trypomastigotes, the infectious stage of T. cruzi, activate nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-κB p65 subunit and NF-κB-dependent gene expression in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. Inactivation of epithelial cell NF-κB signaling by inducible expression of the inhibitory mutant IκBaM significantly enhances parasite invasion. T. cruzi do not activate NF-κB in cells derived from skeletal, smooth, or cardiac muscle, despite the ability of these cells to respond to tumor necrosis factor-α with NF-κB activation. The in vitro infection level in these muscle-derived cells is more than double that seen in the other cell types tested. Therefore, the ability of T. cruzi to activate NF-κB correlates inversely with susceptibility to infection, suggesting that NF-κB activation is a determinant of the intracellular survival and tissue tropism of T. cruzi. PMID:10637298

  20. NHE1 is the sodium-hydrogen exchanger active in acute intracellular pH regulation in preimplantation mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Siyanov, Violetta; Baltz, Jay M

    2013-06-01

    Sodium-hydrogen exchangers (NHE) of the Slc9 gene family are the major regulators of intracellular pH against acidosis in mammalian cells. Of five plasma membrane NHE isoforms, mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos express mRNAs encoding NHE1 (SLC9A1), NHE3 (SLC9A3), and NHE4 (SLC9A4), with higher mRNA levels for each in oocytes through one-cell stage embryos and lower levels after the two-cell stage. NHE2 (SLC9A2) and NHE5 (SLC9A5) are not expressed. Measurements of intracellular pH during recovery from induced acidosis indicated that recovery occurred via NHE activity at all preimplantation stages assessed (one-cell, two-cell, eight-cell and morula). Recovery from acidosis at each stage was entirely inhibited by cariporide, which is very highly selective for NHE1. In contrast, the moderately NHE3-selective inhibitor S3226 did not preferentially block recovery, nor did adding S3226 increase inhibition over cariporide alone, indicating that NHE3 did not play a role. There was no indication of NHE4 activity. Another regulator of intracellular pH against acidosis, the sodium-dependent bicarbonate/chloride exchanger (NDBCE; SLC4A8), had low or absent activity in two-cell embryos. Thus, NHE1 appears to be the only significant regulator of intracellular pH in preimplantation mouse embryos. Culturing embryos from the one-cell or two-cell stages in acidotic medium inhibited their development. Unexpectedly, inhibition of NHE1 with cariporide, NDBCE with DIDS, or both together did not affect embryo development to the blastocyst stage more substantially under conditions of chronic acidosis than at normal pH. Preimplantation mouse embryos thus appear to have limited capacity to resist chronic acidosis using intracellular pH regulatory mechanisms.

  1. Intracellular pH regulation in unstimulated Calliphora salivary glands is Na+ dependent and requires V-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Schewe, Bettina; Blenau, Wolfgang; Walz, Bernd

    2012-04-15

    Salivary gland cells of the blowfly Calliphora vicina have a vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) that lies in their apical membrane and energizes the secretion of a KCl-rich primary saliva upon stimulation with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). Whether and to what extent V-ATPase contributes to intracellular pH (pH(i)) regulation in unstimulated gland cells is unknown. We used the fluorescent dye BCECF to study intracellular pH(i) regulation microfluorometrically and show that: (1) under resting conditions, the application of Na(+)-free physiological saline induces an intracellular alkalinization attributable to the inhibition of the activity of a Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter; (2) the maintenance of resting pH(i) is Na(+), Cl(-), concanamycin A and DIDS sensitive; (3) recovery from an intracellular acid load is Na(+) sensitive and requires V-ATPase activity; (4) the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter is not involved in pH(i) recovery after a NH(4)Cl prepulse; and (5) at least one Na(+)-dependent transporter and the V-ATPase maintain recovery from an intracellular acid load. Thus, under resting conditions, the V-ATPase and at least one Na(+)-dependent transporter maintain normal pH(i) values of pH 7.5. We have also detected the presence of a Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter, which seems to act as an acid loader. Despite this not being a common pH(i)-regulating transporter, its activity affects steady-state pH(i) in C. vicina salivary gland cells.

  2. Modulation of intracellular calcium concentrations and T cell activation by prickly pear polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Aires, Virginie; Adote, Sylvie; Hichami, Aziz; Moutairou, Kabirou; Boustani, Es-Saddik E; Khan, Naim A

    2004-05-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (prickly pear) polyphenolic compounds (OFPC) triggered an increase in [Ca2+]i in human Jurkat T-cell lines. Furthermore, OFPC-induced rise in [Ca2+]i was significantly curtailed in calcium-free buffer (0% Ca2+) as compared to that in 100% Ca2+ medium. Preincubation of cells with tyrphostin A9, an inhibitor of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels, significantly diminished the OFPC-induced sustained response on the increases in [Ca2+]i. Lanthanum and nifedipine, the respective inhibitors of voltage-dependent and L-type calcium channels, failed to curtail significantly the OFPC-induced calcium response. As OFPC still stimulated increases in [Ca2+]i in 0% Ca2+ medium, the role of intracellular calcium was investigated. Hence, addition of thapsigargin (TG), an inhibitor of Ca2+-ATPase of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), during the OFPC-induced peak response exerted an additive effect, indicating that the mechanism of action of these two agents are different. Furthermore, U73122, an inhibitor of IP3 production, completely abolished increases in [Ca2+]i, induced by OFPC, suggesting that these polyphenols induce the production of IP3 that recruits calcium from ER pool. Polyphenolic compounds do act extracellularly as addition of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin (BSA) significantly diminished the rise in [Ca2+]i evoked by the formers. OFPC also induced plasma membrane hyperpolarisation which was reversed by addition of BSA. OFPC were found to curtail the expression of IL-2 mRNA and T-cell blastogenesis. Together these results suggest that OFPC induce increases in [Ca2+]i via ER pool and opening of CRAC channels, and exert immunosuppressive effects in Jurkat T-cells.

  3. Intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity sensitizes cancer cell pH signaling to dynamic changes in CO2 partial pressure.

    PubMed

    Hulikova, Alzbeta; Aveyard, Nicholas; Harris, Adrian L; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D; Swietach, Pawel

    2014-09-12

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes catalyze the chemical equilibration among CO2, HCO3(-) and H(+). Intracellular CA (CAi) isoforms are present in certain types of cancer, and growing evidence suggests that low levels correlate with disease severity. However, their physiological role remains unclear. Cancer cell CAi activity, measured as cytoplasmic CO2 hydration rate (kf), ranged from high in colorectal HCT116 (∼2 s(-1)), bladder RT112 and colorectal HT29, moderate in fibrosarcoma HT1080 to negligible (i.e. spontaneous kf = 0.18 s(-1)) in cervical HeLa and breast MDA-MB-468 cells. CAi activity in cells correlated with CAII immunoreactivity and enzymatic activity in membrane-free lysates, suggesting that soluble CAII is an important intracellular isoform. CAi catalysis was not obligatory for supporting acid extrusion by H(+) efflux or HCO3(-) influx, nor for maintaining intracellular pH (pHi) uniformity. However, in the absence of CAi activity, acid loading from a highly alkaline pHi was rate-limited by HCO3(-) supply from spontaneous CO2 hydration. In solid tumors, time-dependence of blood flow can result in fluctuations of CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) that disturb cytoplasmic CO2-HCO3(-)-H(+) equilibrium. In cancer cells with high CAi activity, extracellular pCO2 fluctuations evoked faster and larger pHi oscillations. Functionally, these resulted in larger pH-dependent intracellular [Ca(2+)] oscillations and stronger inhibition of the mTORC1 pathway reported by S6 kinase phosphorylation. In contrast, the pHi of cells with low CAi activity was less responsive to pCO2 fluctuations. Such low pass filtering would "buffer" cancer cell pHi from non-steady-state extracellular pCO2. Thus, CAi activity determines the coupling between pCO2 (a function of tumor perfusion) and pHi (a potent modulator of cancer cell physiology).

  4. [A role of some intracellular signaling cascades in planarian regeneration activated under irradiation with low-temperature argon plasma].

    PubMed

    Ermakov, A M; Ermakova, O N; Maevskiĭ, E I

    2014-01-01

    Using inhibitory analysis the role of some intracellular signaling pathways in activation of planarian regeneration under the influence of low-temperature argon plasma (LTAP) has been investigated. Inactivation of specific inhibitors of intracellular signaling enzymes such as the receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR), TGF β receptor, calmodulin, adenylate cyclase, phospholipase A2, phospholipase C, cyclin-dependent protein kinase, JAK2-protein kinase, JNK-protein kinase MEK-protein kinase led to inhibition of the head growth during its regeneration in planarians. Pretreatment with LTAP irradiation provided no inhibitory action of some cascades regulating proliferation. However, the inhibitors of the key regulators of regeneration: TGF β receptor, calmodulin and MEK-protein kinase completely suppressed the activating effect of plasma. Thus, by the example of regenerating planarians it is shown, that biological activity of low-temperature argon plasma LTAP is caused by modulation of a plurality of cellular signaling systems.

  5. Evaluating the anti Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. axenically under reducing oxygen conditions and in intracellular assays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In tuberculosis (TB), the steadily increasing bacterial resistance to existing drugs and latent TB continue to be major concerns. A combination of conventional drugs and plant derived therapeutics can serve to expand the antimicrobial spectrum, prevent the emergence of drug resistant mutants and minimize toxicity. Alpinia galanga, used in various traditional medicines, possesses broad spectrum antibacterial properties. The study was undertaken to assess the antimycobacterial potential of A. galanga in axenic (under aerobic and anaerobic conditions) and intracellular assays. Methods Phytochemical analysis was done using HPTLC. The acetone, aqueous and ethanolic extracts (1, 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/ml) of A. galanga were tested axenically using Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) H37Rv and three drug sensitive and three multi drug resistant clinical isolates. The activity of the extracts was also evaluated intracellularly in A549 cell line against these strains. The extracts active under intracellular conditions were further tested in an axenic setup under reducing oxygen concentrations using only H37Rv. Results 1´ acetoxychavicol acetate, the reference standard used, was present in all the three extracts. The acetone and ethanolic extracts were active in axenic (aerobic and anaerobic) and intracellular assays. The aqueous extract did not demonstrate activity under the defined assay parameters. Conclusion A. galanga exhibits anti M.tb activity with multiple modes of action. Since the activity of the extracts was observed under reducing oxygen concentrations, it may be effective in treating the dormant and non-replicating bacteria of latent TB. Though the hypothesis needs further testing, A. galanga being a regular dietary component may be utilized in combination with the conventional TB therapy for enhanced efficacy. PMID:24592852

  6. Cannabinoid Receptor Activation Modifies NMDA Receptor Mediated Release of Intracellular Calcium: Implications for Endocannabinoid Control of Hippocampal Neural Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Robert E.; Miller, Frances; Palchik, Guillermo; Deadwyler, Sam A.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic activation or inhibition of cannabinoid receptors (CB1) leads to continuous suppression of neuronal plasticity in hippocampus and other brain regions, suggesting that endocannabinoids may have a functional role in synaptic processes that produce state-dependent transient modulation of hippocampal cell activity. In support of this, it has previously been shown in vitro that cannabinoid CB1 receptors modulate second messenger systems in hippocampal neurons that can modulate intracellular ion channels, including channels which release calcium from intracellular stores. Here we demonstrate in hippocampal slices a similar endocannabinoid action on excitatory glutamatergic synapses via modulation of NMDA-receptor mediated intracellular calcium levels in confocal imaged neurons. Calcium entry through glutamatergic NMDA-mediated ion channels increases intracellular calcium concentrations via modulation of release from ryanodine-sensitive channels in endoplasmic reticulum. The studies reported here show that NMDA-elicited increases in Calcium Green fluorescence are enhanced by CB1 receptor antagonists (i.e. rimonabant), and inhibited by CB1 agonists (i.e. WIN 55,212-2). Suppression of endocannabinoid breakdown by either reuptake inhibition (AM404) or fatty-acid amide hydrolase inhibition (URB597) produced suppression of NMDA elicited calcium increases comparable to WIN 55,212-2, while enhancement of calcium release provoked by endocannabinoid receptor antagonists (Rimonabant) was shown to depend on the blockade of CB1 receptor mediated de-phosphorylation of Ryanodine receptors. Such CB1 receptor modulation of NMDA elicited increases in intracellular calcium may account for the respective disruption and enhancement by CB1 agents of trial-specific hippocampal neuron ensemble firing patterns during performance of a short-term memory task, reported previously from this laboratory. PMID:21288475

  7. Efficient intracellular delivery of molecules with high cell viability using nanosecond-pulsed laser-activated carbon nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Aritra; Kelly, Sean C; Dwivedi, Nishant; Thadhani, Naresh; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2014-03-25

    Conventional physical and chemical methods that efficiently deliver molecules into cells are often associated with low cell viability. In this study, we evaluated the cellular effects of carbon nanoparticles believed to emit photoacoustic waves due to nanosecond-pulse laser activation to test the hypothesis that this method could achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability. Suspensions of DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells, carbon black (CB) nanoparticles, and calcein were exposed to 5-9 ns long laser pulses of near-infrared (1064 nm wavelength) light and then analyzed by flow cytometry for intracellular uptake of calcein and cell viability by propidium iodide staining. We found that intracellular uptake increased and in some cases saturated at high levels with only small losses in cell viability as a result of increasing laser fluence, laser exposure time, and as a unifying parameter, the total laser energy. Changing interpulse spacing between 0.1 and 10 s intervals showed no significant change in bioeffects, suggesting that the effects of each pulse were independent when spaced by at least 0.1 s intervals. Pretreatment of CB nanoparticles to intense laser exposure followed by mixing with cells also had no significant effect on uptake or viability. Similar uptake and viability were seen when CB nanoparticles were substituted with India ink, when DU145 cells were substituted with H9c2 rat cardiomyoblast cells, and when calcein was substituted with FITC-dextran. The best laser exposure conditions tested led to 88% of cells with intracellular uptake and close to 100% viability, indicating that nanosecond-pulse laser-activated carbon nanoparticles can achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability.

  8. Efficient Intracellular Delivery of Molecules with High Cell Viability Using Nanosecond-Pulsed Laser-Activated Carbon Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conventional physical and chemical methods that efficiently deliver molecules into cells are often associated with low cell viability. In this study, we evaluated the cellular effects of carbon nanoparticles believed to emit photoacoustic waves due to nanosecond-pulse laser activation to test the hypothesis that this method could achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability. Suspensions of DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells, carbon black (CB) nanoparticles, and calcein were exposed to 5–9 ns long laser pulses of near-infrared (1064 nm wavelength) light and then analyzed by flow cytometry for intracellular uptake of calcein and cell viability by propidium iodide staining. We found that intracellular uptake increased and in some cases saturated at high levels with only small losses in cell viability as a result of increasing laser fluence, laser exposure time, and as a unifying parameter, the total laser energy. Changing interpulse spacing between 0.1 and 10 s intervals showed no significant change in bioeffects, suggesting that the effects of each pulse were independent when spaced by at least 0.1 s intervals. Pretreatment of CB nanoparticles to intense laser exposure followed by mixing with cells also had no significant effect on uptake or viability. Similar uptake and viability were seen when CB nanoparticles were substituted with India ink, when DU145 cells were substituted with H9c2 rat cardiomyoblast cells, and when calcein was substituted with FITC-dextran. The best laser exposure conditions tested led to 88% of cells with intracellular uptake and close to 100% viability, indicating that nanosecond-pulse laser-activated carbon nanoparticles can achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability. PMID:24547946

  9. Intracellular calcium promotes radioresistance of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells through activating Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiling; He, Jiantao; Zhang, Shenghui; Yang, Qingbo

    2017-03-01

    Radiotherapy is a major therapeutic approach in non-small cell lung cancer but is restricted by radioresistance. Although Akt signaling promotes radioresistance in non-small cell lung cancer, it is not well understood how Akt signaling is activated. Since intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) could activate Akt in A549 cells, we investigated the relationship between intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) and Akt signaling in radioresistant A549 cells by establishing radioresistant non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. The radioresistant cell line A549 was generated by dose-gradient irradiation of the parental A549 cells. The cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were, respectively, assessed using the cell counting kit-8, EdU labeling, and flow cytometry analysis. The phosphorylation of Akt was evaluated by Western blotting, and the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was assessed by Fluo 4-AM. The radioresistant A549 cells displayed mesenchymal morphology. After additional irradiation, the radioresistant A549 cells showed decreased cell viability and proliferation but increased apoptosis. Moreover, the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and the phosphorylation level on the Akt473 site in radioresistant A549 cells were higher than those in original cells, whereas the percentage of apoptosis in radioresistant A549 cells was less. All these results could be reversed by verapamil. In conclusion, our study found that intracellular Ca(2+) could promote radioresistance of non-small cell lung cancer cells through phosphorylating of Akt on the 473 site, which contributes to a better understanding on the non-small cell lung cancer radioresistance, and may provide a new target for radioresistance management.

  10. Sandia Cognitive Runtime Engine with Active Memory

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Patrick; Chen, Michael C.; Hart, Brian; Hart, Derek; Lippitt, Carl; Wolfenbarger, Paul; Waymire, Russel

    2005-12-01

    The SCREAM (Sandia Cognitive Runtime Engine with Active memory) software implements a subset of a Cognitive Famework developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The software is implemented in the Umbra simulation and modular software framework, which is C++-based. SCREAM components include a Concept Instance Driver, Semantic Activation Network, Concept Database, Context Recognizer, Context Database, Episodic Memory, Egocentric Spatial Memory, Allocentric Spatial Memory, Comparator, and a Context to Abstract Action converter. At initialization, modules load the data files that together specify all the components of a particular cognitive model, such as concept declarations, context declarations, spreading activation weights, and context/situation-cue-patterns.

  11. Anaplasma marginale Actively Modulates Vacuolar Maturation during Intracellular Infection of Its Tick Vector, Dermacentor andersoni

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Chelsea Wright; Schneider, David A.; Noh, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tick-borne transmission of bacterial pathogens in the order Rickettsiales is responsible for diverse infectious diseases, many of them severe, in humans and animals. Transmission dynamics differ among these pathogens and are reflected in the pathogen-vector interaction. Anaplasma marginale has been shown to establish and maintain infectivity within Dermacentor spp. for weeks to months while escaping the complex network of vacuolar peptidases that are responsible for digestion of the tick blood meal. How this prolonged maintenance of infectivity in a potentially hostile environment is achieved has been unknown. Using the natural vector Dermacentor andersoni, we demonstrated that A. marginale-infected tick vacuoles (AmVs) concurrently recruit markers of the early endosome (Rab5), recycling endosome (Rab4 and Rab11), and late endosome (Rab7), are maintained near neutral pH, do not fuse with lysosomes, exclude the protease cathepsin L, and engage the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus for up to 21 days postinfection. Maintenance of this safe vacuolar niche requires active A. marginale protein synthesis; in its absence, the AmVs mature into acidic, protease-active phagolysosomes. Identification of this bacterially directed modeling of the tick midgut endosome provides a mechanistic basis for examination of the differences in transmission efficiency observed among A. marginale strains and among vector populations. IMPORTANCE Ticks transmit a variety of intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause significant diseases in humans and animals. For successful transmission, these bacterial pathogens must first gain entry into the tick midgut digestive cells, avoid digestion, and establish a replicative niche without harming the tick vector. Little is known about how this replicative niche is established and maintained. Using the ruminant pathogen A. marginale and its natural tick vector, D. andersoni, this study characterized the features of the A. marginale

  12. Intracellular and membrane-damaging activities of methyl gallate isolated from Terminalia chebula against multidrug-resistant Shigella spp.

    PubMed

    Acharyya, Saurabh; Sarkar, Prodipta; Saha, Dhira R; Patra, Amarendra; Ramamurthy, T; Bag, Prasanta K

    2015-08-01

    Shigella spp. (Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei) cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), which is characterized by bloody mucous diarrhoea. Although a variety of antibiotics have been effective for treatment of shigellosis, options are becoming limited due to globally emerging drug resistance. In the present study, in vitro antibacterial activity of methyl gallate (MG) isolated from Terminalia chebula was determined by performing MIC, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill kinetic studies. Bacterial membrane-damaging activity of MG was determined by membrane perturbation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cellular drug accumulation, cell infection and assessment of intracellular activities of MG and reference antibiotics were performed using HeLa cell cultures. The bactericidal activity of MG against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Shigella spp. in comparison with other commonly used drugs including fluoroquinolone was demonstrated here. TEM findings in the present study revealed that MG caused the total disintegration of inner and outer membranes, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents of S. dysenteriae. The level of accumulation of MG and tetracycline in HeLa cells incubated for 24  h was relatively higher than that of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (ratio of intracellular concentration/extracellular concentration of antibiotic for MG and tetracycline>ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid). The viable number of intracellular S. dysenteriae was decreased in a time-dependent manner in the presence of MG (4 × MBC) and reduced to zero within 20  h. The significant intracellular activities of MG suggested that it could potentially be used as an effective antibacterial agent for the treatment of severe infections caused by MDR Shigella spp.

  13. Impact of intracellular domain flexibility upon properties of activated human 5-HT3 receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Kozuska, J L; Paulsen, I M; Belfield, W J; Martin, I L; Cole, D J; Holt, A; Dunn, S M J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose It has been proposed that arginine residues lining the intracellular portals of the homomeric 5-HT3A receptor cause electrostatic repulsion of cation flow, accounting for a single-channel conductance substantially lower than that of the 5-HT3AB heteromer. However, comparison of receptor homology models for wild-type pentamers suggests that salt bridges in the intracellular domain of the homomer may impart structural rigidity, and we hypothesized that this rigidity could account for the low conductance. Experimental Approach Mutations were introduced into the portal region of the human 5-HT3A homopentamer, such that putative salt bridges were broken by neutralizing anionic partners. Single-channel and whole cell currents were measured in transfected tsA201 cells and in Xenopus oocytes respectively. Computational simulations of protein flexibility facilitated comparison of wild-type and mutant receptors. Key Results Single-channel conductance was increased substantially, often to wild-type heteromeric receptor values, in most 5-HT3A mutants. Conversely, introduction of arginine residues to the portal region of the heteromer, conjecturally creating salt bridges, decreased conductance. Gating kinetics varied significantly between different mutant receptors. EC50 values for whole-cell responses to 5-HT remained largely unchanged, but Hill coefficients for responses to 5-HT were usually significantly smaller in mutants. Computational simulations suggested increased flexibility throughout the protein structure as a consequence of mutations in the intracellular domain. Conclusions and Implications These data support a role for intracellular salt bridges in maintaining the quaternary structure of the 5-HT3 receptor and suggest a role for the intracellular domain in allosteric modulation of cooperativity and agonist efficacy. Linked Article This article is commented on by Vardy and Kenakin, pp. 1614–1616 of volume 171 issue 7. To view this commentary

  14. Miro1 Regulates Activity-Driven Positioning of Mitochondria within Astrocytic Processes Apposed to Synapses to Regulate Intracellular Calcium Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Terri-Leigh; Higgs, Nathalie F.; Sheehan, David F.; Al Awabdh, Sana; López-Doménech, Guillermo; Arancibia-Carcamo, I. Lorena

    2015-01-01

    It is fast emerging that maintaining mitochondrial function is important for regulating astrocyte function, although the specific mechanisms that govern astrocyte mitochondrial trafficking and positioning remain poorly understood. The mitochondrial Rho-GTPase 1 protein (Miro1) regulates mitochondrial trafficking and detachment from the microtubule transport network to control activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning in neurons. However, whether Miro proteins are important for regulating signaling-dependent mitochondrial dynamics in astrocytic processes remains unclear. Using live-cell confocal microscopy of rat organotypic hippocampal slices, we find that enhancing neuronal activity induces transient mitochondrial remodeling in astrocytes, with a concomitant, transient reduction in mitochondrial trafficking, mediated by elevations in intracellular Ca2+. Stimulating neuronal activity also induced mitochondrial confinement within astrocytic processes in close proximity to synapses. Furthermore, we show that the Ca2+-sensing EF-hand domains of Miro1 are important for regulating mitochondrial trafficking in astrocytes and required for activity-driven mitochondrial confinement near synapses. Additionally, activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning by Miro1 reciprocally regulates the levels of intracellular Ca2+ in astrocytic processes. Thus, the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ signaling, dependent on Miro1-mediated mitochondrial positioning, could have important consequences for astrocyte Ca2+ wave propagation, gliotransmission, and ultimately neuronal function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Mitochondria are key cellular organelles that play important roles in providing cellular energy and buffering intracellular calcium ions. The mechanisms that control mitochondrial distribution within the processes of glial cells called astrocytes and the impact this may have on calcium signaling remains unclear. We show that activation of glutamate receptors or increased neuronal

  15. Engineering a predatory bacterium as a proficient killer agent for intracellular bio-products recovery: The case of the polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Virginia; Herencias, Cristina; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Prieto, M Auxiliadora

    2016-04-18

    This work examines the potential of the predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100, an obligate predator of other Gram-negative bacteria, as an external cell-lytic agent for recovering valuable intracellular bio-products produced by prey cultures. The bio-product targets to be recovered were polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) produced naturally by Pseudomonas putida and Cupriavidus necator, or by recombinant Escherichia coli strains. B. bacteriovorus with a mutated PHA depolymerase gene to prevent the unwanted breakdown of the bio-product allowed the recovery of up to 80% of that accumulated by the prey bacteria, even at high biomass concentrations. This innovative downstream process highlights how B. bacteriovorus can be used as a novel, biological lytic agent for the inexpensive, industrial scale recovery of intracellular products from different Gram-negative prey cultures.

  16. Engineering a predatory bacterium as a proficient killer agent for intracellular bio-products recovery: The case of the polyhydroxyalkanoates

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Virginia; Herencias, Cristina; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Prieto, M. Auxiliadora

    2016-01-01

    This work examines the potential of the predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100, an obligate predator of other Gram-negative bacteria, as an external cell-lytic agent for recovering valuable intracellular bio-products produced by prey cultures. The bio-product targets to be recovered were polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) produced naturally by Pseudomonas putida and Cupriavidus necator, or by recombinant Escherichia coli strains. B. bacteriovorus with a mutated PHA depolymerase gene to prevent the unwanted breakdown of the bio-product allowed the recovery of up to 80% of that accumulated by the prey bacteria, even at high biomass concentrations. This innovative downstream process highlights how B. bacteriovorus can be used as a novel, biological lytic agent for the inexpensive, industrial scale recovery of intracellular products from different Gram-negative prey cultures. PMID:27087466

  17. Probing intracellular biomarkers and mediators of cell activation using nanosensors and bioorthogonal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Haun, Jered B; Devaraj, Neal K; Marinelli, Brett S; Lee, Hakho; Weissleder, Ralph

    2011-04-26

    Nanomaterials offer unique physical properties that make them ideal biosensors for scant cell populations. However, specific targeting of nanoparticles to intracellular proteins has been challenging. Here, we describe a technique to improve intracellular biomarker sensing using nanoparticles that is based on bioorthogonal chemistry. Using trans-cyclooctene-modified affinity ligands that are administered to semipermeabilized cells and revealed by cycloaddition reaction with tetrazine-conjugated nanoparticles, we demonstrate site-specific amplification of nanomaterial binding. We also show that this technique is capable of sensing protein biomarkers and phosho-protein signal mediators, both within the cytosol and nucleus, via magnetic or fluorescent modalities. We expect the described method will have broad applications in nanomaterial-based diagnostics and therapeutics.

  18. Proteomes of Host Cell Membranes Modified by Intracellular Activities of Salmonella enterica*

    PubMed Central

    Vorwerk, Stephanie; Krieger, Viktoria; Deiwick, Jörg; Hensel, Michael; Hansmeier, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens need to establish a growth-stimulating host niche for survival and replication. A unique feature of the gastrointestinal pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is the creation of extensive membrane networks within its host. An understanding of the origin and function of these membranes is crucial for the development of new treatment strategies. However, the characterization of this compartment is very challenging, and only fragmentary knowledge of its composition and biogenesis exists. Here, we describe a new proteome-based approach to enrich and characterize Salmonella-modified membranes. Using a Salmonella mutant strain that does not form this unique membrane network as a reference, we identified a high-confidence set of host proteins associated with Salmonella-modified membranes. This comprehensive analysis allowed us to reconstruct the interactions of Salmonella with host membranes. For example, we noted that Salmonella redirects endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane trafficking to its intracellular niche, a finding that has not been described for Salmonella previously. Our system-wide approach therefore has the potential to rapidly close gaps in our knowledge of the infection process of intracellular pathogens and demonstrates a hitherto unrecognized complexity in the formation of Salmonella host niches. PMID:25348832

  19. Intracellular activities related to in vitro hippocampal sharp waves are altered in CA3 pyramidal neurons of aged mice.

    PubMed

    Moradi-Chameh, H; Peng, J; Wu, C; Zhang, L

    2014-09-26

    Pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA3 area interconnect intensively via recurrent axonal collaterals, and such CA3-to-CA3 recurrent circuitry plays important roles in the generation of hippocampal network activities. In particular, the CA3 circuitry is able to generate spontaneous sharp waves (SPWs) when examined in vitro. These in vitro SPWs are thought to result from the network activity of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons as SPW-correlating intracellular activities are featured with strong IPSPs in pyramidal neurons and EPSPs or spikes in GABAergic interneurons. In view of accumulating evidence indicating a decrease in subgroups of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons in aged animals, we test the hypothesis that the intracellular activities related to in vitro SPWs are altered in CA3 pyramidal neurons of aged mice. Hippocampal slices were prepared from adult and aged C57 black mice (ages 3-6 and 24-28months respectively). Population and single-cell activities were examined via extracellular and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. CA3 SPW frequencies were not significantly different between the slices of adult and aged mice but SPW-correlating intracellular activities featured weaker IPSC components in aged CA3 pyramidal neurons compared to adult neurons. It was unlikely that this latter phenomenon was due to general impairments of GABAergic synapses in the aged CA3 circuitry as evoked IPSC responses and pharmacologically isolated IPSCs were observed in aged CA3 pyramidal neurons. In addition, aged CA3 pyramidal neurons displayed more positive resting potentials and had a higher propensity of burst firing than adult neurons. We postulate that alterations of GABAergic network activity may explain the reduced IPCS contributions to in vitro SPWs in aged CA3 pyramidal neurons. Overall, our present observations are supportive of the notion that excitability of hippocampal CA3 circuitry is increased in aged mice.

  20. Phospholipase C-η1 is activated by intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and enhances GPCRs/PLC/Ca(2+) signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Kuk; Choi, Jung Woong; Lim, Seyoung; Kwon, Ohman; Seo, Jeong Kon; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2011-06-01

    Phospholipase C-η1 (PLC-η1) is the most recently identified PLC isotype and is primarily expressed in nerve tissue. However, its functional role is unclear. In the present study, we report for the first time that PLC-η1 acts as a signal amplifier in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated PLC and Ca(2+) signaling. Short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of endogenous PLC-η1 reduced lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-, bradykinin (BK)-, and PACAP-induced PLC activity in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2A (N2A) cells, indicating that PLC-η1 participates in GPCR-mediated PLC activation. Interestingly, ionomycin-induced PLC activity was significantly decreased by PLC-η1, but not PLC-η2, knockdown. In addition, we found that intracellular Ca(2+) source is enough for PLC-η1 activation. Furthermore, the IP(3) receptor inhibitor, 2-APB, inhibited LPA-induced PLC activity in control N2A cells, whereas this effect was not observed in PLC-η1 knockdown N2A cells, suggesting a pivotal role of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in PLC-η1 activation. Finally, we found that LPA-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and expression of the downstream target gene, krox-24, were significantly decreased by PLC-η1 knockdown, and these knockdown effects were abolished by 2-APB. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that PLC-η1 is activated via intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization from the ER, and therefore amplifies GPCR-mediated signaling.

  1. Intracellular calcium oscillations in strongly metastatic human breast and prostate cancer cells: control by voltage-gated sodium channel activity.

    PubMed

    Rizaner, Nahit; Onkal, Rustem; Fraser, Scott P; Pristerá, Alessandro; Okuse, Kenji; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2016-10-01

    The possible association of intracellular Ca(2+) with metastasis in human cancer cells is poorly understood. We have studied Ca(2+) signaling in human prostate and breast cancer cell lines of strongly versus weakly metastatic potential in a comparative approach. Intracellular free Ca(2+) was measured using a membrane-permeant fluorescent Ca(2+)-indicator dye (Fluo-4 AM) and confocal microscopy. Spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations were observed in a proportion of strongly metastatic human prostate and breast cancer cells (PC-3M and MDA-MB-231, respectively). In contrast, no such oscillations were observed in weakly/non metastatic LNCaP and MCF-7 cells, although a rise in the resting Ca(2+) level could be induced by applying a high-K(+) solution. Various parameters of the oscillations depended on extracellular Ca(2+) and voltage-gated Na(+) channel activity. Treatment with either tetrodotoxin (a general blocker of voltage-gated Na(+) channels) or ranolazine (a blocker of the persistent component of the channel current) suppressed the Ca(2+) oscillations. It is concluded that the functional voltage-gated Na(+) channel expression in strongly metastatic cancer cells makes a significant contribution to generation of oscillatory intracellular Ca(2+) activity. Possible mechanisms and consequences of the Ca(2+) oscillations are discussed.

  2. Active Learning in Engineering Education: A (Re)Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Rui M.; Andersson, Pernille Hammar; Saalman, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    The informal network "Active Learning in Engineering Education" (ALE) has been promoting Active Learning since 2001. ALE creates opportunity for practitioners and researchers of engineering education to collaboratively learn how to foster learning of engineering students. The activities in ALE are centred on the vision that learners…

  3. Functionally active t1-t1 interfaces revealed by the accessibility of intracellular thiolate groups in kv4 channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangyu; Shahidullah, Mohammad; Rocha, Carmen A; Strang, Candace; Pfaffinger, Paul J; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2005-07-01

    Gating of voltage-dependent K(+) channels involves movements of membrane-spanning regions that control the opening of the pore. Much less is known, however, about the contributions of large intracellular channel domains to the conformational changes that underlie gating. Here, we investigated the functional role of intracellular regions in Kv4 channels by probing relevant cysteines with thiol-specific reagents. We find that reagent application to the intracellular side of inside-out patches results in time-dependent irreversible inhibition of Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 currents. In the absence or presence of Kv4-specific auxiliary subunits, mutational and electrophysiological analyses showed that none of the 14 intracellular cysteines is essential for channel gating. C110, C131, and C132 in the intersubunit interface of the tetramerization domain (T1) are targets responsible for the irreversible inhibition by a methanethiosulfonate derivative (MTSET). This result is surprising because structural studies of Kv4-T1 crystals predicted protection of the targeted thiolate groups by constitutive high-affinity Zn(2+) coordination. Also, added Zn(2+) or a potent Zn(2+) chelator (TPEN) does not significantly modulate the accessibility of MTSET to C110, C131, or C132; and furthermore, when the three critical cysteines remained as possible targets, the MTSET modification rate of the activated state is approximately 200-fold faster than that of the resting state. Biochemical experiments confirmed the chemical modification of the intact alpha-subunit and the purified tetrameric T1 domain by MTS reagents. These results conclusively demonstrate that the T1--T1 interface of Kv4 channels is functionally active and dynamic, and that critical reactive thiolate groups in this interface may not be protected by Zn(2+) binding.

  4. Functionally Active T1-T1 Interfaces Revealed by the Accessibility of Intracellular Thiolate Groups in Kv4 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangyu; Shahidullah, Mohammad; Rocha, Carmen A.; Strang, Candace; Pfaffinger, Paul J.; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Gating of voltage-dependent K+ channels involves movements of membrane-spanning regions that control the opening of the pore. Much less is known, however, about the contributions of large intracellular channel domains to the conformational changes that underlie gating. Here, we investigated the functional role of intracellular regions in Kv4 channels by probing relevant cysteines with thiol-specific reagents. We find that reagent application to the intracellular side of inside-out patches results in time-dependent irreversible inhibition of Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 currents. In the absence or presence of Kv4-specific auxiliary subunits, mutational and electrophysiological analyses showed that none of the 14 intracellular cysteines is essential for channel gating. C110, C131, and C132 in the intersubunit interface of the tetramerization domain (T1) are targets responsible for the irreversible inhibition by a methanethiosulfonate derivative (MTSET). This result is surprising because structural studies of Kv4-T1 crystals predicted protection of the targeted thiolate groups by constitutive high-affinity Zn2+ coordination. Also, added Zn2+ or a potent Zn2+ chelator (TPEN) does not significantly modulate the accessibility of MTSET to C110, C131, or C132; and furthermore, when the three critical cysteines remained as possible targets, the MTSET modification rate of the activated state is ∼200-fold faster than that of the resting state. Biochemical experiments confirmed the chemical modification of the intact α-subunit and the purified tetrameric T1 domain by MTS reagents. These results conclusively demonstrate that the T1–T1 interface of Kv4 channels is functionally active and dynamic, and that critical reactive thiolate groups in this interface may not be protected by Zn2+ binding. PMID:15955876

  5. Ehrlichia chaffeensis TRP120 Activates Canonical Notch Signaling To Downregulate TLR2/4 Expression and Promote Intracellular Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lina, Taslima T.; Dunphy, Paige S.; Luo, Tian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ehrlichia chaffeensis preferentially targets mononuclear phagocytes and survives through a strategy of subverting innate immune defenses, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have shown E. chaffeensis type 1 secreted tandem repeat protein (TRP) effectors are involved in diverse molecular pathogen-host interactions, such as the TRP120 interaction with the Notch receptor-cleaving metalloprotease ADAM17. In the present study, we demonstrate E. chaffeensis, via the TRP120 effector, activates the canonical Notch signaling pathway to promote intracellular survival. We found that nuclear translocation of the transcriptionally active Notch intracellular domain (NICD) occurs in response to E. chaffeensis or recombinant TRP120, resulting in upregulation of Notch signaling pathway components and target genes notch1, adam17, hes, and hey. Significant differences in canonical Notch signaling gene expression levels (>40%) were observed during early and late stages of infection, indicating activation of the Notch pathway. We linked Notch pathway activation specifically to the TRP120 effector, which directly interacts with the Notch metalloprotease ADAM17. Using pharmacological inhibitors and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against γ-secretase enzyme, Notch transcription factor complex, Notch1, and ADAM17, we demonstrated that Notch signaling is required for ehrlichial survival. We studied the downstream effects and found that E. chaffeensis TRP120-mediated activation of the Notch pathway causes inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways required for PU.1 and subsequent Toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4) expression. This investigation reveals a novel mechanism whereby E. chaffeensis exploits the Notch pathway to evade the host innate immune response for intracellular survival. PMID:27381289

  6. Prostaglandin E2 inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation through EP4 receptor and intracellular cAMP in human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yueqin; Martinez-Anton, Asuncion; Qi, Hai-Yan; Logun, Carolea; Alsaaty, Sara; Park, Yong Hwan; Kastner, Daniel L.; Chae, Jae Jin; Shelhamer, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a potent lipid mediator involved in maintaining homeostasis but also promotion of acute inflammation or immune suppression in chronic inflammation and cancer. NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in host defense. Uncontrolled activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, due to mutations in the NLRP3 gene causes cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). Here, we showed that NLRP3 inflammasome activation is inhibited by PGE2 in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. This effect was mediated through prostaglandin E receptor 4 (EP4) and an increase in intracellular cAMP, independently of protein kinase A (PKA) or exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac). A specific agonist of EP4 mimicked, while its antagonist or EP4 knockdown reversed PGE2-mediated NLRP3 inhibition. PGE2 caused an increase in intracellular cAMP. Blockade of adenylate cyclase by its inhibitor reversed PGE2-mediated NLRP3 inhibition. Increase of intracellular cAMP by an activator of adenylate cyclase or an analog of cAMP, or a blockade of cAMP degradation by phosphodiesterase inhibitor decreased NLRP3 activation. PKA or Epac agonists did not mimic and their antagonists did not reverse PGE2-mediated NLRP3 inhibition. In addition, constitutive IL-1β secretion from LPS-primed PBMCs of CAPS patients was substantially reduced by high doses of PGE2. Moreover, blocking cytosolic phospholipase A2α by its inhibitor or siRNA or inhibiting cyclooxygenase 2, resulting in inhibition of endogenous PGE2 production, caused an increase in NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our results suggest that PGE2 might play a role in maintaining homeostasis during the resolution phase of inflammation and might serve as an autocrine and paracrine regulator. PMID:25917098

  7. n-Propyl gallate activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1 by modulating intracellular oxygen-sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Motohide; Takabuchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tomoharu; Murata, Miyahiko; Nishi, Kenichiro; Oda, Seiko; Oda, Tomoyuki; Kanai, Michiyuki; Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Adachi, Takehiko; Takabayashi, Arimichi; Semenza, Gregg L; Hirota, Kiichi

    2008-04-01

    HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor 1) is a master regulator of cellular adaptive responses to hypoxia. The expression and transcriptional activity of the HIF-1alpha subunit is stringently controlled by intracellular oxygen tension through the action of prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylases. In the present study we demonstrate that PG (n-propyl gallate) activates HIF-1 and expression of its downstream target genes under normoxic conditions in cultured cells and in mice. The stability and transcriptional activity of HIF-1alpha are increased by PG. PG treatment inhibits the interaction between HIF-1alpha and VHL (von Hippel-Lindau protein) and promotes the interaction between HIF-1alpha and p300, indicating that PG inhibits the activity of both prolyl and asparaginyl HIF-1alpha hydroxylases. We conclude that PG activates HIF-1 and enhances the resultant gene expression by directly affecting the intracellular oxygen sensing system in vitro and in vivo and that PG represents a lead compound for the development of a non-toxic activator of HIF-1.

  8. Cell uptake, intracellular distribution, fate and reactive oxygen species generation of polymer brush engineered CeO2-x NPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yuan; Rojas, Elena; Murray, Richard A.; Irigoyen, Joseba; Gregurec, Danijela; Castro-Hartmann, Pablo; Fledderman, Jana; Estrela-Lopis, Irina; Donath, Edwin; Moya, Sergio E.

    2015-04-01

    Cerium Oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-x NPs) are modified with polymer brushes of negatively charged poly (3-sulfopropylmethacrylate) (PSPM) and positively charged poly (2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl-trimethylammonium chloride) (PMETAC) by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation (ATRP). CeO2-x NPs are fluorescently labelled by covalently attaching Alexa Fluor® 488/Fluorescein isothiocyanate to the NP surface prior to polymerisation. Cell uptake, intracellular distribution and the impact on the generation of intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) with respect to CeO2-x NPs are studied by means of Raman Confocal Microscopy (CRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). PSPM and PMETAC coated CeO2-x NPs show slower and less uptake compared to uncoated Brush modified NPs display a higher degree of co-localisation with cell endosomes and lysosomes after 24 h of incubation. They also show higher co-localisation with lipid bodies when compared to unmodified CeO2-x NPs. The brush coating does not prevent CeO2-x NPs from displaying antioxidant properties.Cerium Oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-x NPs) are modified with polymer brushes of negatively charged poly (3-sulfopropylmethacrylate) (PSPM) and positively charged poly (2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl-trimethylammonium chloride) (PMETAC) by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation (ATRP). CeO2-x NPs are fluorescently labelled by covalently attaching Alexa Fluor® 488/Fluorescein isothiocyanate to the NP surface prior to polymerisation. Cell uptake, intracellular distribution and the impact on the generation of intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) with respect to CeO2-x NPs are studied by means of Raman Confocal Microscopy (CRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). PSPM and PMETAC coated CeO2-x NPs show slower and less uptake compared to uncoated Brush modified NPs display a higher degree of co-localisation with cell

  9. A highly calcium-selective cation current activated by intracellular calcium release in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Delles, C; Haller, T; Dietl, P

    1995-08-01

    1. The whole-cell patch clamp technique and fluorescence microscopy with the Ca2+ indicators fura-2 and fluo-3 were used to measure the whole-cell current and the free intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. 2. In a Ca(2+)-free bath solution, thapsigargin (TG) caused a transient increase of [Ca2+]i. Subsequent addition of Ca2+ caused a long lasting elevation of [Ca2+]i. 3. In a Ca(2+)-free bath solution, extracellular application of TG, ATP or ionomycin, or intracellular application of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), caused a small but significant inward current (Iin) and a transient outward Ca(2+)-dependent K+ current (IK(Ca)), consistent with intracellular Ca2+ release. Subsequent addition of Ca2+ induced a prominent Iin with a current density of -4.2 +/- 0.7 pA pF-1. This Iin was unaffected by inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (IP4). 4. Na+ replacement by mannitol, N-methyl-D-glucamine+ (NMG+), aminomethylidin-trimethanol+ (Tris+) or choline+ reduced Iin by 54, 65, 52 and 56%, respectively. This indicates an apparent Ca2+ selectivity over Na+ of 26:1. Iin was, however, unaffected by replacing Cl- with gluconate- or by the K+ channel blocker charybdotoxin (CTX). 5. Iin was completely blocked by La3+ (IC50 = 0.77 microM). Consistently, La3+ completely reversed the TG-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i. SK&F 96365 (1-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-propoxyl]-1-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-ethyl-1H-im idazole) HCl did not inhibit the TG-induced Iin. It did, however, exhibit a biphasic effect on [Ca2+]i, consisting of an initial Ca2+ decay and a subsequent Ca2+ elevation. La3+ completely reversed the SK&F 96365-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i. 6. In the absence of Na+, Iin was dependent on the bath Ca2+ concentration (EC50 = 1.02 mM). Ca2+ replacement by Ba2+ or Mn2+ resulted in a reduction of Iin by 95 and 94%, respectively. 7. From these experiments we conclude that Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores, induced by different independent

  10. Intracellular Distribution and Nuclear Activity of Antisense Oligonucleotides After Unassisted Uptake in Myoblasts and Differentiated Myotubes In Vitro.

    PubMed

    González-Barriga, Anchel; Nillessen, Bram; Kranzen, Julia; van Kessel, Ingeborg D G; Croes, Huib J E; Aguilera, Begoña; de Visser, Peter C; Datson, Nicole A; Mulders, Susan A M; van Deutekom, Judith C T; Wieringa, Bé; Wansink, Derick G

    2017-04-04

    Clinical efficacy of antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) for the treatment of neuromuscular disorders depends on efficient cellular uptake and proper intracellular routing to the target. Selection of AONs with highest in vitro efficiencies is usually based on chemical or physical methods for forced cellular delivery. Since these methods largely bypass existing natural mechanisms for membrane passage and intracellular trafficking, spontaneous uptake and distribution of AONs in cells are still poorly understood. Here, we report on the unassisted uptake of naked AONs, so-called gymnosis, in muscle cells in culture. We found that gymnosis works similarly well for proliferating myoblasts as for terminally differentiated myotubes. Cell biological analyses combined with microscopy imaging showed that a phosphorothioate backbone promotes efficient gymnosis, that uptake is clathrin mediated and mainly results in endosomal-lysosomal accumulation. Nuclear localization occurred at a low level, but the gymnotically delivered AONs effectively modulated the expression of their nuclear RNA targets. Chloroquine treatment after gymnotic delivery helped increase nuclear AON levels. In sum, we demonstrate that gymnosis is feasible in proliferating and non-proliferating muscle cells and we confirm the relevance of AON chemistry for uptake and intracellular trafficking with this method, which provides a useful means for bio-activity screening of AONs in vitro.

  11. Activation of frog (Xenopus laevis) eggs by inositol trisphosphate. I. Characterization of Ca2+ release from intracellular stores

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Iontophoresis of inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate into frog (Xenopus laevis) eggs activated early developmental events such as membrane depolarization, cortical contraction, cortical granule exocytosis, and abortive cleavage furrow formation (pseudocleavage). Inositol 1, 4- bisphosphate also triggered these events, but only at doses approximately 100-fold higher, whereas no level of fructose-1, 6- bisphosphate tested activated eggs. Using Ca2+-selective microelectrodes, we observed that activating doses of inositol 1, 4, 5- trisphosphate triggered a Ca2+ release from intracellular stores that was indistinguishable from that previously observed at fertilization (Busa, W. B., and R. Nuccitelli, 1985, J. Cell Biol., 100:1325-1329), whereas subthreshold doses triggered only a localized Ca2+ release at the site of injection. The subthreshold IP3 response could be distinguished from the major Ca2+ release at activation with respect to their dose-response characteristics, relative timing, sensitivity to external Ca2+ levels, additivity, and behavior in the activated egg, suggesting that the Xenopus egg may possess two functionally distinct Ca2+ pools mobilized by different effectors. In light of these differences, we suggest a model for intracellular Ca2+ mobilization by sperm-egg interaction. PMID:3874873

  12. Inhibitory effects of SSRIs on IFN-γ induced microglial activation through the regulation of intracellular calcium.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, Hideki; Kato, Takahiro A; Mizoguchi, Yoshito; Monji, Akira; Seki, Yoshihiro; Ohkuri, Takatoshi; Gotoh, Leo; Yonaha, Megumi; Ueda, Tadashi; Hashioka, Sadayuki; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2010-10-01

    Microglia, which are a major glial component of the central nervous system (CNS), have recently been suggested to mediate neuroinflammation through the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO). Microglia are also known to play a critical role as resident immunocompetent and phagocytic cells in the CNS. Immunological dysfunction has recently been demonstrated to be associated with the pathophysiology of depression. However, to date there have only been a few studies on the relationship between microglia and depression. We therefore investigated if antidepressants can inhibit microglial activation in vitro. Our results showed that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) paroxetine and sertraline significantly inhibited the generation of NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α from interferon (IFN)-γ-activated 6-3 microglia. We further investigated the intracellular signaling mechanism underlying NO and TNF-α release from IFN-γ-activated 6-3 microglia. Our results suggest that paroxetine and sertraline may inhibit microglial activation through inhibition of IFN-γ-induced elevation of intracellular Ca(2+). Our results suggest that the inhibitory effect of paroxetine and sertraline on microglial activation may not be a prerequisite for antidepressant function, but an additional beneficial effect.

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Differentially Activates cGAS- and Inflammasome-Dependent Intracellular Immune Responses through ESX-1.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Ruth; Gulen, Muhammet F; Sala, Claudia; Perin, Sonia Garcia; Lou, Ye; Rybniker, Jan; Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan L; Schmidt, Tobias; Hornung, Veit; Cole, Stewart T; Ablasser, Andrea

    2015-06-10

    Cytosolic detection of microbial products is essential for the initiation of an innate immune response against intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). During Mtb infection of macrophages, activation of cytosolic surveillance pathways is dependent on the mycobacterial ESX-1 secretion system and leads to type I interferon (IFN) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production. Whereas the inflammasome regulates IL-1β secretion, the receptor(s) responsible for the activation of type I IFNs has remained elusive. We demonstrate that the cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is essential for initiating an IFN response to Mtb infection. cGAS associates with Mtb DNA in the cytosol to stimulate cyclic GAMP (cGAMP) synthesis. Notably, activation of cGAS-dependent cytosolic host responses can be uncoupled from inflammasome activation by modulating the secretion of ESX-1 substrates. Our findings identify cGAS as an innate sensor of Mtb and provide insight into how ESX-1 controls the activation of specific intracellular recognition pathways.

  14. An In Vivo Selection Identifies Listeria monocytogenes Genes Required to Sense the Intracellular Environment and Activate Virulence Factor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Portnoy, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an environmental saprophyte and facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen with a well-defined life-cycle that involves escape from a phagosome, rapid cytosolic growth, and ActA-dependent cell-to-cell spread, all of which are dependent on the master transcriptional regulator PrfA. The environmental cues that lead to temporal and spatial control of L. monocytogenes virulence gene expression are poorly understood. In this study, we took advantage of the robust up-regulation of ActA that occurs intracellularly and expressed Cre recombinase from the actA promoter and 5’ untranslated region in a strain in which loxP sites flanked essential genes, so that activation of actA led to bacterial death. Upon screening for transposon mutants that survived intracellularly, six genes were identified as necessary for ActA expression. Strikingly, most of the genes, including gshF, spxA1, yjbH, and ohrA, are predicted to play important roles in bacterial redox regulation. The mutants identified in the genetic selection fell into three broad categories: (1) those that failed to reach the cytosolic compartment; (2) mutants that entered the cytosol, but failed to activate the master virulence regulator PrfA; and (3) mutants that entered the cytosol and activated transcription of actA, but failed to synthesize it. The identification of mutants defective in vacuolar escape suggests that up-regulation of ActA occurs in the host cytosol and not the vacuole. Moreover, these results provide evidence for two non-redundant cytosolic cues; the first results in allosteric activation of PrfA via increased glutathione levels and transcriptional activation of actA while the second results in translational activation of actA and requires yjbH. Although the precise host cues have not yet been identified, we suggest that intracellular redox stress occurs as a consequence of both host and pathogen remodeling their metabolism upon infection. PMID:27414028

  15. Intracellular proteoglycans.

    PubMed Central

    Kolset, Svein Olav; Prydz, Kristian; Pejler, Gunnar

    2004-01-01

    Proteoglycans (PGs) are proteins with glycosaminoglycan chains, are ubiquitously expressed and have a wide range of functions. PGs in the extracellular matrix and on the cell surface have been the subject of extensive structural and functional studies. Less attention has so far been given to PGs located in intracellular compartments, although several reports suggest that these have biological functions in storage granules, the nucleus and other intracellular organelles. The purpose of this review is, therefore, to present some of these studies and to discuss possible functions linked to PGs located in different intracellular compartments. Reference will be made to publications relevant for the topics we present. It is beyond the scope of this review to cover all publications on PGs in intracellular locations. PMID:14759226

  16. Identification of Three Classes of Heteroaromatic Compounds with Activity against Intracellular Trypanosoma cruzi by Chemical Library Screening

    PubMed Central

    Bettiol, Esther; Samanovic, Marie; Murkin, Andrew S.; Raper, Jayne; Buckner, Frederick; Rodriguez, Ana

    2009-01-01

    The development of new drugs against Chagas disease is a priority since the currently available medicines have toxic effects, partial efficacy and are targeted against the acute phase of disease. At present, there is no drug to treat the chronic stage. In this study, we have optimized a whole cell-based assay for high throughput screening of compounds that inhibit infection of mammalian cells by Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes. A 2000-compound chemical library was screened using a recombinant T. cruzi (Tulahuen strain) expressing β-galactosidase. Three hits were selected for their high activity against T. cruzi and low toxicity to host cells in vitro: PCH1, NT1 and CX1 (IC50: 54, 190 and 23 nM, respectively). Each of these three compounds presents a different mechanism of action on intracellular proliferation of T. cruzi amastigotes. CX1 shows strong trypanocidal activity, an essential characteristic for the development of drugs against the chronic stage of Chagas disease where parasites are found intracellular in a quiescent stage. NT1 has a trypanostatic effect, while PCH1 affects parasite division. The three compounds also show high activity against intracellular T. cruzi from the Y strain and against the related kinetoplastid species Leishmania major and L. amazonensis. Characterization of the anti–T. cruzi activity of molecules chemically related to the three library hits allowed the selection of two compounds with IC50 values of 2 nM (PCH6 and CX2). These values are approximately 100 times lower than those of the medicines used in patients against T. cruzi. These results provide new candidate molecules for the development of treatments against Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. PMID:19238193

  17. Intracellular ascorbate enhances hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-hydroxylase activity and preferentially suppresses the HIF-1 transcriptional response.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Caroline; Dachs, Gabi U; Currie, Margaret J; Vissers, Margreet C M

    2014-04-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 drives the transcription of hundreds of genes to support cell survival under conditions of microenvironmental and metabolic stress. HIF-1 is downregulated by iron-containing 2-oxoglutarate-dependent enzymes that require ascorbate as a cofactor. The HIF hydroxylases control both protein stability and the formation of an active transcription complex and, consequently, ascorbate could affect HIF-1α stabilization and/or gene expression, but the relative effect of ascorbate on these separate processes has not been well characterized. In this study we examined the effects of known intracellular ascorbate concentrations on both processes in response to various means of hydroxylase inhibition, including CoCl2, NiCl2, desferrioxamine, dimethyloxalylglycine, and hypoxia. Ascorbate inhibited HIF-1 activity most dramatically with all mechanisms of iron competition. In addition, HIF-1-dependent gene expression was effectively prevented by ascorbate and was inhibited even under conditions that allowed HIF-1α protein stabilization. This suggests that (1) ascorbate acts primarily to stabilize and reduce the iron atom in the hydroxylase active site and (2) the asparagine hydroxylase controlling HIF-1 transcriptional activity is particularly susceptible to fluctuations in intracellular ascorbate. These findings suggest that ascorbate plays a significant role in supporting HIF-hydroxylase function and that it could thereby modulate the cell survival response.

  18. Sonic hedgehog stimulates the proliferation of rat gastric mucosal cells through ERK activation by elevating intracellular calcium concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Osawa, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Hirohide . E-mail: hohnishi@jichi.ac.jp; Takano, Koji; Noguti, Takasi; Mashima, Hirosato; Hoshino, Hiroko; Kita, Hiroto; Sato, Kiichi; Matsui, Hirofumi; Sugano, Kentaro

    2006-06-02

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a member of hedgehog peptides family, is expressed in gastric gland epithelium. To elucidate Shh function to gastric mucosal cells, we examined the effect of Shh on the proliferation of a rat normal gastric mucosal cell line, RGM-1. RGM-1 cells express essential components of Shh receptor system, patched-1, and smoothened. Shh enhanced DNA synthesis in RGM-1 cells and elevated intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}). In addition, Shh as well as calcium ionophore A32187 rapidly activated ERK. However, Shh failed to activate ERK under calcium-free culture condition. Pretreatment of cells with PD98059 attenuated the DNA synthesis promoted by Shh. Moreover, when cells were pretreated with cyclopamine, Shh could not elevate [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}, activate ERK or promote DNA synthesis. On the other hand, although Shh induced Gli-1 nuclear accumulation in RGM-1 cells, Shh activated ERK even in cells pretreated with actinomycin D. These results indicate that Shh promotes the proliferation of RGM-1 cells through an intracellular calcium- and ERK-dependent but transcription-independent pathway via Patched/Smoothened receptor system.

  19. Active IR-applications in civil engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggenhauser, H.

    2002-06-01

    Applications of IR-thermography in civil engineering are not limited to the identification of heat losses in building envelopes. As it is well known from other areas of non-destructive testing, active IR-thermographic methods such as cooling down or lock-in thermography improves the results in many investigations. In civil engineering these techniques have not been used widely. Mostly thermography is used in a quasi-static manner. The interpretation of moisture measurements with thermography on surfaces can be very difficult due to several overlapping effects: emissivity changes due to composition, heat transfer through wet sections of the specimen, cooling through air flow or reflected spurious radiation sources. These effects can be reduced by selectively measuring the reflection in two wavelength windows, one on an absorption band of water and another in a reference band and then combining the results in a moisture index image. Cooling down thermography can be used to identify subsurface structural deficiencies. For building materials like concrete these measurements are performed on a much longer time scale than in flash lamp experiments. A quantitative analysis of the full cooling down process over several minutes can reliably identify defects at different depths. Experiments at BAM have shown, that active thermography is capabale of identifying structural deficiencies or moist areas in building materials much more reliable than quasi-static thermography.

  20. Effect of external sodium on intracellular chloride activity in the surface cells of frog gastric mucosa. Microelectrode studies.

    PubMed

    Curci, S; Schettino, T

    1984-06-01

    The intracellular chloride activity and its dependence on ionic substitutions in the bathing media was studied in individual surface cells of resting gastric mucosa using conventional and Cl- selective microelectrodes. When the tissue was perfused with control NaCl-Ringer the cell membrane p.d.'s, cell-lumen (psi cm) and cell-serosa (psi cs) were -40.9 +/- 0.6 mV and -66.8 +/- 0.5 mV (n = 175) respectively and the p.d. measured by the Cl- selective microelectrodes across the serosal membrane (psi csCl-) averaged -32.4 +/- 0.7 mV (n = 138). From these values an intracellular Cl- activity (acCl-) of 15.3 mmol/l can be estimated. The data indicate that chloride ion is distributed close to equilibrium at the luminal membrane while it is accumulated by an energy requiring step at the serosal membrane. Reduction (2 mmol/l) or absence of chloride from the luminal bath did not result in any detectable change of acCl-; on the other hand, after removal of Cl- from the serosal bath the intracellular Cl- activity fell to 7.1 mmol/l. When the tissue was exposed to serosal Na+-free Ringer (Na+ replaced by choline or TMA), although the acCl- remained unaffected, a marked reduction of the electrochemical gradient for Cl- at the serosal membrane was observed. These data indicate that: chloride is accumulated in the surface cells against its electrochemical potential difference at the serosal membrane; the luminal membrane has a negligible conductance to Cl-, while the serosal membrane represents a conductive pathway to chloride; the uphill entry of chloride at the serosal membrane seems to be, at least partially, Na+-dependent.

  1. Intracellular Antioxidant Activity of Grape Skin Polyphenolic Extracts in Rat Superficial Colonocytes: In situ Detection by Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, M. Elena; Ingrosso, Ilaria; Schettino, Trifone; Caricato, Roberto; Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Lionetto, M. Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Colon is exposed to a number of prooxidant conditions and several colon diseases are associated with increased levels of reactive species. Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in the diet, but to date no information is available about their absorption and potential intracellular antioxidant activity on colon epithelial cells. The work was addressed to study the intracellular antioxidant activity of red grape polyphenolic extracts on rat colon epithelium experimentally exposed to prooxidant conditions. The experimental model chosen was represented by freshly isolated colon explants, which closely resemble the functional, and morphological characteristics of the epithelium in vivo. The study was carried out by in situ confocal microscopy observation on CM-H2DCFDA charged explants exposed to H2O2 (5, 10, and 15 min). The qualitative and quantitative polyphenolic composition of the extracts as well as their in vitro oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) was determined. The incubation of the explants with the polyphenolic extracts for 1 h produced a significant decrease of the H2O2 induced fluorescence. This effect was more pronounced following 15 min H2O2 exposure with respect to 5 min and it was also more evident for extracts obtained from mature grapes, which showed an increased ORAC value and qualitative peculiarities in the polyphenolic composition. The results demonstrated the ability of red grape polyphenols to cross the plasma membrane and exert a direct intracellular antioxidant activity in surface colonocytes, inducing a protection against pro-oxidant conditions. The changes in the polyphenol composition due to ripening process was reflected in a more effective antioxidant protection. PMID:27303304

  2. Intracellular calcium-dependent regulation of the sperm-specific calcium-activated potassium channel, hSlo3, by the BKCa activator LDD175

    PubMed Central

    Wijerathne, Tharaka Darshana; Kim, Jihyun; Yang, Dongki

    2017-01-01

    Plasma membrane hyperpolarization associated with activation of Ca2+-activated K+ channels plays an important role in sperm capacitation during fertilization. Although Slo3 (slowpoke homologue 3), together with the auxiliary γ2-subunit, LRRC52 (leucine-rich-repeat–containing 52), is known to mediate the pH-sensitive, sperm-specific K+ current KSper in mice, the molecular identity of this channel in human sperm remains controversial. In this study, we tested the classical BKCa activators, NS1619 and LDD175, on human Slo3, heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells together with its functional interacting γ2 subunit, hLRRC52. As previously reported, Slo3 K+ current was unaffected by iberiotoxin or 4-aminopyridine, but was inhibited by ~50% by 20 mM TEA. Extracellular alkalinization potentiated hSlo3 K+ current, and internal alkalinization and Ca2+ elevation induced a leftward shift its activation voltage. NS1619, which acts intracellularly to modulate hSlo1 gating, attenuated hSlo3 K+ currents, whereas LDD175 increased this current and induced membrane potential hyperpolarization. LDD175-induced potentiation was not associated with a change in the half-activation voltage at different intracellular pHs (pH 7.3 and pH 8.0) in the absence of intracellular Ca2+. In contrast, elevation of intracellular Ca2+ dramatically enhanced the LDD175-induced leftward shift in the half-activation potential of hSlo3. Therefore, the mechanism of action does not involve pH-dependent modulation of hSlo3 gating; instead, LDD175 may modulate Ca2+-dependent activation of hSlo3. Thus, LDD175 potentially activates native KSper and may induce membrane hyperpolarization-associated hyperactivation in human sperm. PMID:28280418

  3. Characteristics of receptor- and transducer-coupled activation of the intracellular signalling in sensory neuron revealed by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalisov, M. M.; Penniyaynen, V. A.; Esikova, N. A.; Ankudinov, A. V.; Krylov, B. V.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties of sensory neurons upon activation of intracellular cascade processes by comenic acid binding to a membrane opioid-like receptor (receptor-coupled), as well as a very low (endogenous) concentration of ouabain (transducer-coupled), have been investigated. Using atomic force microscopy, it is established that exposure to ouabain, in contrast to the impact of comenic acid, leads to a hardening of the neuron soma. This suggests that the receptor-coupled signal transmission to the cell genome is carried out through mechanisms that are different from the transducer-coupled signal pathways.

  4. Glibenclamide decreases ATP-induced intracellular calcium transient elevation via inhibiting reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial activity in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo-ling; Ma, Zhi-yong; Fu, Zhi-jie; Ling, Ming-ying; Yan, Chuan-zhu; Zhang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence has revealed that glibenclamide has a wide range of anti-inflammatory effects. However, it is unclear whether glibenclamide can affect the resting and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) handling in Raw 264.7 macrophages. In the present study, [Ca(2+)]i transient, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial activity were measured by the high-speed TILLvisION digital imaging system using the indicators of Fura 2-am, DCFDA and rhodamine-123, respectively. We found that glibenclamide, pinacidil and other unselective K(+) channel blockers had no effect on the resting [Ca(2+)]i of Raw 264.7 cells. Extracellular ATP (100 µM) induced [Ca(2+)]i transient elevation independent of extracellular Ca(2+). The transient elevation was inhibited by an ROS scavenger (tiron) and mitochondria inhibitor (rotenone). Glibenclamide and 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) also decreased ATP-induced [Ca(2+)]i transient elevation, but pinacidil and other unselective K(+) channel blockers had no effect. Glibenclamide also decreased the peak of [Ca(2+)]i transient induced by extracellular thapsigargin (Tg, 1 µM). Furthermore, glibenclamide decreased intracellular ROS and mitochondrial activity. When pretreated with tiron and rotenone, glibenclamide could not decrease ATP, and Tg induced maximal [Ca(2+)]i transient further. We conclude that glibenclamide may inhibit ATP-induced [Ca(2+)]i transient elevation by blocking mitochondria KATP channels, resulting in decreased ROS generation and mitochondrial activity in Raw 264.7 macrophages.

  5. Juglanthraquinone C Induces Intracellular ROS Increase and Apoptosis by Activating the Akt/Foxo Signal Pathway in HCC Cells.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ya-Qin; Yao, Yao; Bao, Yong-Li; Song, Zhen-Bo; Yang, Cheng; Gao, Xiu-Li; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Sun, Lu-Guo; Yu, Chun-Lei; Huang, Yan-Xin; Wang, Guan-Nan; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Juglanthraquinone C (JC), a naturally occurring anthraquinone extracted from Juglans mandshurica, could induce apoptosis of cancer cells. This study aims to investigate the detailed cytotoxicity mechanism of JC in HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells. The Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays were first used to analyze the mRNA expression exposed to JC or DMSO in HepG2 cells. Consistent with the previous results, the data indicated that JC could induce apoptosis and hyperactivated Akt. The Western blot analysis further revealed that Akt, a well-known survival protein, was strongly activated in HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells. Furthermore, an obvious inhibitory effect on JC-induced apoptosis was observed when the Akt levels were decreased, while the overexpression of constitutively active mutant Akt greatly accelerated JC-induced apoptosis. The subsequent results suggested that JC treatment suppressed nuclear localization and increased phosphorylated levels of Foxo3a, and the overexpression of Foxo3a abrogated JC-induced apoptosis. Most importantly, the inactivation of Foxo3a induced by JC further led to an increase of intracellular ROS levels by suppressing ROS scavenging enzymes, and the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine and catalase successfully decreased JC-induced apoptosis. Collectively, this study demonstrated that JC induced the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells by activating Akt/Foxo signaling pathway and increasing intracellular ROS levels.

  6. A novel exon in the human Ca2+-activated Cl- channel Ano1 imparts greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca2.

    PubMed

    Strege, Peter R; Bernard, Cheryl E; Mazzone, Amelia; Linden, David R; Beyder, Arthur; Gibbons, Simon J; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2015-11-01

    Anoctamin 1 (Ano1; TMEM16A) is a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CACC) expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal. The mechanisms by which Ca(2+) regulates Ano1 are incompletely understood. In the gastrointestinal tract, Ano1 is required for normal slow wave activity and is involved in regulating cell proliferation. Splice variants of Ano1 have varying electrophysiological properties and altered expression in disease states. Recently, we identified a transcript for human Ano1 containing a novel exon-"exon 0" upstream of and in frame with exon 1. The electrophysiological properties of this longer Ano1 isoform are unknown. Our aim was to determine the functional contribution of the newly identified exon to the Ca(2+) sensitivity and electrophysiological properties of Ano1. Constructs with [Ano1(+0)] or without [Ano1(-0)] the newly identified exon were transfected into human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Voltage-clamp electrophysiology was used to determine voltage- and time-dependent parameters of whole cell Cl(-) currents between isoforms with varying concentrations of intracellular Ca(2+), extracellular anions, or Cl(-) channel inhibitors. We found that exon 0 did not change voltage sensitivity and had no impact on the relative permeability of Ano1 to most anions. Ano1(+0) exhibited greater changes in current density but lesser changes in kinetics than Ano1(-0) in response to varying intracellular Ca(2+). The CACC inhibitor niflumic acid inhibited current with greater efficacy and higher potency against Ano1(+0) compared with Ano1(-0). Likewise, the Ano1 inhibitor T16Ainh-A01 reduced Ano1(+0) more than Ano1(-0). In conclusion, human Ano1 containing exon 0 imparts its Cl(-) current with greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca(2+) and CACC inhibitors.

  7. A novel exon in the human Ca2+-activated Cl− channel Ano1 imparts greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Strege, Peter R.; Bernard, Cheryl E.; Mazzone, Amelia; Linden, David R.; Beyder, Arthur; Gibbons, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Anoctamin 1 (Ano1; TMEM16A) is a Ca2+-activated Cl− channel (CACC) expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal. The mechanisms by which Ca2+ regulates Ano1 are incompletely understood. In the gastrointestinal tract, Ano1 is required for normal slow wave activity and is involved in regulating cell proliferation. Splice variants of Ano1 have varying electrophysiological properties and altered expression in disease states. Recently, we identified a transcript for human Ano1 containing a novel exon-“exon 0” upstream of and in frame with exon 1. The electrophysiological properties of this longer Ano1 isoform are unknown. Our aim was to determine the functional contribution of the newly identified exon to the Ca2+ sensitivity and electrophysiological properties of Ano1. Constructs with [Ano1(+0)] or without [Ano1(−0)] the newly identified exon were transfected into human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Voltage-clamp electrophysiology was used to determine voltage- and time-dependent parameters of whole cell Cl− currents between isoforms with varying concentrations of intracellular Ca2+, extracellular anions, or Cl− channel inhibitors. We found that exon 0 did not change voltage sensitivity and had no impact on the relative permeability of Ano1 to most anions. Ano1(+0) exhibited greater changes in current density but lesser changes in kinetics than Ano1(−0) in response to varying intracellular Ca2+. The CACC inhibitor niflumic acid inhibited current with greater efficacy and higher potency against Ano1(+0) compared with Ano1(−0). Likewise, the Ano1 inhibitor T16Ainh-A01 reduced Ano1(+0) more than Ano1(−0). In conclusion, human Ano1 containing exon 0 imparts its Cl− current with greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca2+ and CACC inhibitors. PMID:26359375

  8. Disfacilitation and active inhibition in the neocortex during the natural sleep-wake cycle: An intracellular study

    PubMed Central

    Timofeev, Igor; Grenier, François; Steriade, Mircea

    2001-01-01

    Earlier extracellular recordings during natural sleep have shown that, during slow-wave sleep (SWS), neocortical neurons display long-lasting periods of silence, whereas they are tonically active and discharge at higher rates during waking and sleep with rapid eye movements (REMs). We analyzed the nature of long-lasting periods of neuronal silence in SWS and the changes in firing rates related to ocular movements during REM sleep and waking using intracellular recordings from electrophysiologically identified neocortical neurons in nonanesthetized and nonparalyzed cats. We found that the silent periods during SWS are associated with neuronal hyperpolarizations, which are due to a mixture of K+ currents and disfacilitation processes. Conventional fast-spiking neurons (presumably local inhibitory interneurons) increased their firing rates during REMs and eye movements in waking. During REMs, the firing rates of regular-spiking neurons from associative areas decreased and intracellular traces revealed numerous, short-lasting, low-amplitude inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), that were reversed after intracellular chloride infusion. In awake cats, regular-spiking neurons could either increase or decrease their firing rates during eye movements. The short-lasting IPSPs associated with eye movements were still present in waking; they preceded the spikes and affected their timing. We propose that there are two different forms of firing rate control: disfacilitation induces long-lasting periods of silence that occur spontaneously during SWS, whereas active inhibition, consisting of low-amplitude, short-lasting IPSPs, is prevalent during REMs and precisely controls the timing of action potentials in waking. PMID:11172052

  9. Intracellular Parasite Invasion Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibley, L. D.

    2004-04-01

    Intracellular parasites use various strategies to invade cells and to subvert cellular signaling pathways and, thus, to gain a foothold against host defenses. Efficient cell entry, ability to exploit intracellular niches, and persistence make these parasites treacherous pathogens. Most intracellular parasites gain entry via host-mediated processes, but apicomplexans use a system of adhesion-based motility called ``gliding'' to actively penetrate host cells. Actin polymerization-dependent motility facilitates parasite migration across cellular barriers, enables dissemination within tissues, and powers invasion of host cells. Efficient invasion has brought widespread success to this group, which includes Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, and Cryptosporidium.

  10. Identification of a Lambda Toxin-Negative Clostridium perfringens Strain that Processes and Activates Epsilon Prototoxin Intracellularly

    PubMed Central

    Harkness, Justine M.; Li, Jihong; McClane, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens type B and D strains produce epsilon toxin (ETX), which is one of the most potent clostridial toxins and is involved in enteritis and enterotoxemias of domestic animals. ETX is produced initially as an inactive prototoxin that is typically then secreted and processed by intestinal proteases or possibly, for some strains, lambda toxin. During the current work a unique C. perfringens strain was identified that intracellularly processes epsilon prototoxin to an active form capable of killing MDCK cells. This activated toxin is not secreted but instead is apparently released upon lysis of bacterial cells entering stationary phase. These findings broaden understanding of the pathogenesis of type B and D infections by identifying a new mechanism of ETX activation. PMID:22982043

  11. Endogenous intracellular calcium buffering and the activation/inactivation of HVA calcium currents in rat dentate gyrus granule cells

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Granule cells acutely dissociated from the dentate gyrus of adult rat brains displayed a single class of high-threshold, voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ channels. The kinetics of whole-cell Ca2+ currents recorded with pipette solutions containing an intracellular ATP regenerating system but devoid of exogenous Ca2+ buffers, were fit best by Hodgkin- Huxley kinetics (m2h), and were indistinguishable from those recorded with the nystatin perforated patch method. In the absence of exogenous Ca2+ buffers, inactivation of HVA Ca2+ channels was a predominantly Ca(2+)-dependent process. The contribution of endogenous Ca2+ buffers to the kinetics of inactivation was investigated by comparing currents recorded from control cells to currents recorded from neurons that have lost a specific Ca(2+)-binding protein, Calbindin-D28K (CaBP), after kindling-induced epilepsy. Kindled neurons devoid of CaBP showed faster rates of both activation and inactivation. Adding an exogenous Ca2+ chelator, 1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), to the intracellular solution largely eliminated inactivation in both control and kindled neurons. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that endogenous intraneuronal CaBP contributes significantly to submembrane Ca2+ sequestration at a concentration range and time domain that regulate Ca2+ channel inactivation. PMID:1662686

  12. CIA2 deficiency results in impaired oxidative stress response and enhanced intracellular basal UPR activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Hua-Zhen; Niu, Yu-Jie; Yuan, Yuan; Fang, Bing-Xiong; Liu, Yi-Na; Cai, Lu-Hui; Zhou, Zhong-Jun; Liu, Xin-Guang

    2015-03-01

    Yeast Cia2p is a component of the cytosolic Fe/S protein assembly (CIA) machinery. Initial studies of the CIA machinery were performed in yeast, but the precise role of Cia2p in this eukaryote is still unknown. We report that CIA2 deficiency results in impaired oxidative stress response, as evidenced by increased sensitivity to the oxidant cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), impaired activities of superoxide dismutases and aconitase and decreased replicative lifespan in the mutants. Moreover, intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were significantly increased in CIA2-deficient cells after treatment with CHP. We also show that CIA2-deficient cells display an increased resistance to tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as evidenced by the upregulated splicing of the mRNA of HAC1, which encodes a functional transcription factor that regulates the transcription of unfolded protein response (UPR) target genes, suggesting enhanced intracellular UPR activity. Furthermore, the transcription of several canonical UPR target genes is strongly induced in CIA2-deficient cells as compared with wild-type controls. Taken together, these results suggest the involvement of Cia2p in oxidative and ER stress responses in yeast.

  13. Human endothelial cells are activated by interferon-γ plus tumour necrosis factor-α to kill intracellular Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    De Assis, M C; Da Costa, A O; Barja-Fidalgo, T C; Plotkowski, M C

    2000-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to activate endothelial cells. To investigate the effect of cytokines on the interaction of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cells were treated with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) plus tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) for 24 hr and exposed to P. aeruginosa suspension for 1 hr. Light microscopy showed that activated cells internalized significantly more bacteria than control cells. To ascertain the effect of cytokines on the microbicidal activity of HUVEC, the concentrations of viable intracellular (IC) bacteria in control and activated cells were determined, at 1 and 5 hr postinfection, by the gentamicin exclusion assay. In control cells, no significant decrease in the concentration of bacteria was detected 5 hr postinfection. In contrast, in activated cells the concentration of viable bacteria at 5 hr was significantly lower. Concentrations of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide detected in supernatants of activated cells were significantly higher than in control cell supernatants. HUVEC anti-P. aeruginosa activity was insensitive to the antioxidants superoxide dismutase, dimethylthiourea and allopurinol as well as to the l-arginine analogues aminoguanidine and NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA), but was significantly inhibited by catalase. Our results indicate that HUVEC can be activated by IFN-γ plus TNF-α to kill IC P. aeruginosa and suggest a role for reactive oxygen radicals, notably hydrogen peroxide, in HUVEC antibacterial activity. PMID:11012781

  14. Intracellular colon cancer-associated Escherichia coli promote protumoral activities of human macrophages by inducing sustained COX-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Raisch, Jennifer; Rolhion, Nathalie; Dubois, Anaëlle; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Bringer, Marie-Agnès

    2015-03-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis has been reported in patients with colorectal cancer, and there is a high prevalence of Escherichia coli belonging to B2 phylogroup and producing a genotoxin, termed colibactin. Macrophages are one of the predominant tumor-infiltrating immune cells supporting key processes in tumor progression by producing protumoral factors such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Here, we investigated whether B2 E. coli colonizing colon tumors could influence protumoral activities of macrophages. In contrast to commensal or nonpathogenic E. coli strains that were efficiently and rapidly degraded by macrophages at 24 h after infection, colon cancer-associated E. coli were able to resist killing by human THP-1 macrophages, to replicate intracellularly, and to persist inside host cells until at least 72 h after infection. Significant increases in COX-2 expression were observed in macrophages infected with colon cancer E. coli compared with macrophages infected with commensal and nonpathogenic E. coli strains or uninfected cells at 72 h after infection. Induction of COX-2 expression required live bacteria and was not due to colibactin production, as similar COX-2 levels were observed in macrophages infected with the wild-type colon cancer-associated E. coli 11G5 strain or a clbQ mutant unable to produce colibactin. Treatment of macrophages with ofloxacin, an antibiotic with intracellular tropism, efficiently decreased the number of intracellular bacteria and suppressed bacteria-induced COX-2 expression. This study provides new insights into the understanding of how tumor- infiltrating bacteria could influence cancer progression through their interaction with immune cells. Manipulation of microbes associated with tumors could have a deep influence on the secretion of protumoral molecules by infiltrating macrophages.

  15. Green tea extract protects endothelial progenitor cells from oxidative insult through reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species activity

    PubMed Central

    Widowati, Wahyu; Widyanto, Rahma Micho; Husin, Winsa; Ratnawati, Hana; Laksmitawati, Dian Ratih; Setiawan, Bambang; Nugrahenny, Dian; Bachtiar, Indra

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Many studies have reported that tea consumption decreases cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Green tea is known to have potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. This study aimed to investigate whether green tea extract (GTE) can protect endothelial progenitors cells (EPCs) against oxidative stress through antioxidant mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated from peripheral blood by density gradient centrifugation with Ficoll. The cells were then plated on fibronectin-coated culture dishes. After 7 days of culture, EPCs were characterized as adherent cells double positive for DiI-ac-LDL uptake and lectin binding. EPCs were further identified by assessing the expression of CD34/45, CD133, and KDR. EPCs were then treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at doses of 50, 100, 200 µM and incubated with or without GTE (25 µg/ml). The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were detected by flow cytometry using a 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) fluorescent probe. Results: GTE ameliorated the cell viability of EPCs induced by H2O2 at doses of 50, 100, 200 µM for about 25.47, 22.52, and 11.96% higher than controls, respectively. GTE also decreased the intracellular ROS levels of EPCs induced by H2O2 at doses of 50, 100, 200 µM for about 84.24, 92.27, and 93.72% compared to controls, respectively. Conclusion: GTE improves cell viability by reducing the intracellular ROS accumulation in H2O2-induced EPCs. PMID:25691948

  16. Linkage of protein kinase C-beta activation and intracellular interleukin-2 accumulation in human naive CD4 T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, J; Rainsford, E; Reen, D J

    1997-01-01

    A critical role for protein kinase C (PKC) in signal transduction events has been well established. Moreover, studies of regulation in PKC levels suggest participation in mediating long-term cellular functions. Protein kinase C-beta (PKC-beta) has been reported to be involved in interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis in T lymphocytes. In this study, the role of PKC-beta in intracellular accumulation of IL-2 was investigated using specific inhibitors. Preincubation with two different PKC inhibitors, one specific for classical isotypes (alpha and beta I) Go6976, and one which inhibits both classical and non-classical isotypes, GF109203X, caused a complete block in cytoplasmic IL-2 accumulation when naive CD4 T cells were stimulated in the presence of CD2+CD28+phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). In contrast, preincubation with up to 1000 ng/ml of cyclosporin A (CsA) resulted in a reduction in the intracellular IL-2 detected, as observed by a decrease in the proportion of positive cells as well as a fall in the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). CsA did not influence PKC-beta translocation. Flow cytometric assessments of PKC-beta and its isoforms beta I and beta II correlated with Western blotting analysis and these results were further supported by the use of PKC-beta-positive (HUT 78) and -negative (BW5147) T-cell lines. Using the specific inhibitors, Go6976 and GF109203X, the findings in this study suggest that activation and translocation of PKC-beta is critical for accumulation of intracellular IL-2. The influence of CsA in reducing but not blocking IL-2 synthesis is discussed. PMA-induced down-regulation of the CD4 antigen was observed in the presence of Go6976 and but not GF109203X, suggesting regulation by non-classical PKC isoforms. Images Figure 4 PMID:9497487

  17. A single-chain variable fragment intrabody prevents intracellular polymerization of Z α1-antitrypsin while allowing its antiproteinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Ordóñez, Adriana; Pérez, Juan; Tan, Lu; Dickens, Jennifer A.; Motamedi-Shad, Neda; Irving, James A.; Haq, Imran; Ekeowa, Ugo; Marciniak, Stefan J.; Miranda, Elena; Lomas, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Mutant Z α1-antitrypsin (E342K) accumulates as polymers within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of hepatocytes predisposing to liver disease, whereas low levels of circulating Z α1-antitrypsin lead to emphysema by loss of inhibition of neutrophil elastase. The ideal therapy should prevent polymer formation while preserving inhibitory activity. Here we used mAb technology to identify interactors with Z α1-antitrypsin that comply with both requirements. We report the generation of an mAb (4B12) that blocked α1-antitrypsin polymerization in vitro at a 1:1 molar ratio, causing a small increase of the stoichiometry of inhibition for neutrophil elastase. A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) intrabody was generated based on the sequence of mAb4B12. The expression of scFv4B12 within the ER (scFv4B12KDEL) and along the secretory pathway (scFv4B12) reduced the intracellular polymerization of Z α1-antitrypsin by 60%. The scFv4B12 intrabody also increased the secretion of Z α1-antitrypsin that retained inhibitory activity against neutrophil elastase. MAb4B12 recognized a discontinuous epitope probably located in the region of helices A/C/G/H/I and seems to act by altering protein dynamics rather than binding preferentially to the native state. This novel approach could reveal new target sites for small-molecule intervention that may block the transition to aberrant polymers without compromising the inhibitory activity of Z α1-antitrypsin.—Ordóñez, A., Pérez, J., Tan, L., Dickens, J. A., Motamedi-Shad, N., Irving, J. A., Haq, I., Ekeowa, U., Marciniak, S. J., Miranda, E., Lomas, D. A. A single-chain variable fragment intrabody prevents intracellular polymerization of Z α1-antitrypsin while allowing its antiproteinase activity. PMID:25757566

  18. Anti-infective Activity of 2-Cyano-3-Acrylamide Inhibitors with Improved Drug-Like Properties against Two Intracellular Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Passalacqua, Karla D.; Charbonneau, Marie-Eve; Donato, Nicholas J.; Showalter, Hollis D.; Sun, Duxin; Wen, Bo; He, Miao; Sun, Hanshi

    2016-01-01

    Due to the rise of antibiotic resistance and the small number of effective antiviral drugs, new approaches for treating infectious diseases are urgently needed. Identifying targets for host-based therapies represents an emerging strategy for drug discovery. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a central mode of signaling in the eukaryotic cell and may be a promising target for therapies that bolster the host's ability to control infection. Deubiquitinase (DUB) enzymes are key regulators of the host inflammatory response, and we previously demonstrated that a selective DUB inhibitor and its derivative promote anti-infective activities in host cells. To find compounds with anti-infective efficacy but improved toxicity profiles, we tested a library of predominantly 2-cyano-3-acrylamide small-molecule DUB inhibitors for anti-infective activity in macrophages against two intracellular pathogens: murine norovirus (MNV) and Listeria monocytogenes. We identified compound C6, which inhibited DUB activity in human and murine cells and reduced intracellular replication of both pathogens with minimal toxicity in cell culture. Treatment with C6 did not significantly affect the ability of macrophages to internalize virus, suggesting that the anti-infective activity interferes with postentry stages of the MNV life cycle. Metabolic stability and pharmacokinetic assays showed that C6 has a half-life in mouse liver microsomes of ∼20 min and has a half-life of approximately 4 h in mice when administered intravenously. Our results provide a framework for targeting the host ubiquitin system in the development of host-based therapies for infectious disease. Compound C6 represents a promising tool with which to elucidate the role of DUBs in the macrophage response to infection. PMID:27139470

  19. Intracellular Loop 2 Peptides of the Human 5HT1a Receptor are Differential Activators of Gi

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Brian; Squires, Carley; Parker, Keith K.

    2012-01-01

    Peptide mimics of intracellular loop 2 (ic2) of the human 5HT1a receptor have been studied with respect to their ability to inhibit agonist binding via interference with receptor-G-protein coupling. These peptides give shallow concentration-effect relationships. Additionally, these peptides have been studied with respect to their ability to trigger the signal transduction system of this Gi-coupled receptor. Two signaling parameters have been quantified: concentration of intracellular cAMP and changes in incorporation into the G protein of a stable analog of GTP. In both cases, peptide mimics near midloop of ic2 actually show agonist activity with efficacy falling off toward both loop termini near TM 3 and TM 4. Previous results have suggested that the loop region near the TM3/ic2 interface is primarily responsible for receptor-G-protein coupling, while the current result emphasizes the mid-ic2 loop region's ability to activate the G protein following initial coupling. A limited number of peptides from the receptor's TM5/ic3 loop vicinity were also studied regarding agonist inhibition and G-protein activation. These peptides provide additional evidence that the human 5HT1a receptor, TM5/ic3 loop region, is involved in both coupling and activation actions. Overall, these results provide further information about potential pharmacological intervention and drug development with respect to the human 5HT1a receptor/G-protein system. Finally, the structural evidence generated here provides testable models pending crystallization and X-ray analysis of the receptor. PMID:22649462

  20. Intracellular Na+, K+ and Cl- activities in Acheta domesticus Malpighian tubules and the response to a diuretic kinin neuropeptide.

    PubMed

    Coast, Geoffrey M

    2012-08-15

    The mechanism of primary urine production and the activity of a diuretic kinin, Achdo-KII, were investigated in malpighian tubules of Acheta domesticus by measuring intracellular Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) activities, basolateral membrane voltage (V(b)), fluid secretion and transepithelial ion transport. Calculated electrochemical gradients for K(+) and Cl(-) across the basolateral membrane show they are actively transported into principal cells, and basolateral Ba(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels do not contribute to net transepithelial K(+) transport and fluid secretion. A basolateral Cl(-) conductance was revealed after the blockade of K(+) channels with Ba(2+), and a current carried by the passive outward movement of Cl(-) accounts for the hyperpolarization of V(b) in response to Ba(2+). Ion uptake via Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransport, driven by the inwardly directed Na(+) electrochemical gradient, is thermodynamically feasible, and is consistent with the actions of bumetanide, which reduces fluid secretion and both Na(+) and K(+) transport. The Na(+) gradient is maintained by its extrusion across the apical membrane and by a basolateral ouabain-sensitive Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Achdo-KII has no significant effect on the intracellular ion activities or V(b). Electrochemical gradients across the apical membrane were estimated from previously published values for the levels of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) in the secreted fluid. The electrochemical gradient for Cl(-) favours passive movement into the lumen, but falls towards zero after stimulation by Achdo-KII. This coincides with a twofold increase in Cl(-) transport, which is attributed to the opening of an apical Cl(-) conductance, which depolarises the apical membrane voltage.

  1. Moderate increases in intracellular calcium activate neuroprotective signals in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Bickler, P E; Fahlman, C S

    2004-01-01

    Although large increases in neuronal intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) are lethal, moderate increases in [Ca(2+)](i) of 50-200 nM may induce immediate or long-term tolerance of ischemia or other stresses. In neurons in rat hippocampal slice cultures, we determined the relationship between [Ca(2+)](i), cell death, and Ca(2+)-dependent neuroprotective signals before and after a 45 min period of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Thirty minutes before OGD, [Ca(2+)](i) was increased in CA1 neurons by 40-200 nM with 1 nM-1 microM of a Ca(2+)-selective ionophore (calcimycin or ionomycin-"Ca(2+) preconditioning"). Ca(2+) preconditioning greatly reduced cell death in CA1, CA3 and dentate during the following 7 days, even though [Ca(2+)](i) was similar (approximately 2 microM) in preconditioned and control neurons 1 h after the OGD. When pre-OGD [Ca(2+)](i) was lowered to 25 nM (10 nM ionophore in Ca(2+)-free medium) or increased to 8 microM (10 microM ionophore), more than 90% of neurons died. Increased levels of the anti-apoptotic protein protein kinase B (Akt) and the MAP kinase ERK (p42/44) were present in preconditioned slices after OGD. Reducing Ca(2+) influx, inhibiting calmodulin, and preventing Akt or MAP kinase p42/44 upregulation prevented Ca(2+) preconditioning, supporting a specific role for Ca(2+) in the neuroprotective process. Further, in continuously oxygenated cultured hippocampal/cortical neurons, preconditioning for 30 min with 10 nM ionomycin reduced cell death following a 4 microM increase in [Ca(2+)](i) elicited by 1 microM ionomycin. Thus, a zone of moderately increased [Ca(2+)](i) before a potentially lethal insult promotes cell survival, uncoupling subsequent large increases in [Ca(2+)](i) from initiating cell death processes.

  2. Engineering Challenges for Active Debris Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2011-01-01

    Recent modeling studies on the instability of the debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have underlined the need for active debris removal. A 2009 analysis by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office shows that, in order to maintain the LEO debris population at a constant level for the next 200 years, an active debris removal of about five objects per year is needed. The targets identified for removal are those with the highest mass and collision probability products in the environment. Many of these objects are spent upper stages with masses ranging from 1 to more than 8 metric tons, residing in several altitude regions and concentrated in about 10 inclination bands. To remove five of those objects on a yearly basis, in a cost-effective manner, represents many challenges in engineering, technology development, and operations. This paper outlines a conceptual end-to-end debris removal operation, including launch, precision tracking, rendezvous, stabilization (of the tumbling targets), capture, and deorbit of the targets; and highlights major challenges associated with the operations. Pros and cons of several proposed removal techniques are also evaluated.

  3. Targeting of pegylated liposomal mitomycin-C prodrug to the folate receptor of cancer cells: Intracellular activation and enhanced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Patil, Yogita; Amitay, Yasmine; Ohana, Patricia; Shmeeda, Hilary; Gabizon, Alberto

    2016-03-10

    Mitomycin C (MMC) is a powerful anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-tumor antibiotic, often active against multidrug resistant cells. Despite a broad spectrum of antitumor activity, MMC clinical use is relatively limited due to its fast clearance and dose-limiting toxicity. To exploit the potential antitumor activity of MMC and reduce its toxicity we have previously developed a formulation of pegylated liposomes with a lipophilic prodrug of MMC (PL-MLP), activated by endogenous reducing agents which are abundant in the tumor cell environment in the form of different thiols. PL-MLP has minimal in vitro cytotoxicity unless reducing agents are added to the cell culture to activate the prodrug. In the present study, we hypothesized that targeting PL-MLP via folate receptors will facilitate intracellular activation of prodrug and enhance cytotoxic activity without added reducing agents. We grafted a lipophilic folate conjugate (folate-PEG(5000)-DSPE) to formulate folate targeted liposomes (FT-PL-MLP) and examined in vitro cell uptake and cytotoxic activity in cancer cell lines with high folate receptors (HiFR). 3H-cholesterol-hexadecyl ether (3H-Chol)-radiolabeled liposomes were prepared to study liposome-cell binding in parallel to cellular uptake of prodrug MLP. 3H-Chol and MLP cell uptake levels were 4-fold and 9-fold greater in KB HiFR cells when FT-PL-MLP is compared to non-targeted PL-MLP liposomes. The cytotoxic activity of FT-PL-MLP liposomes was significantly increased up to ~5-fold compared with PL-MLP liposomes in all tested HiFR expressing cell lines. The enhanced uptake and intracytoplasmic liposome delivery was confirmed by confocal fluorescence studies with Rhodamine-labeled liposomes. In vivo, no significant differences in pharmacokinetics and biodistribution were observed when PL-MLP was compared to FT-PL-MLP by the intravenous route. However, when liposomes were directly injected into the peritoneal cavity of mice with malignant ascites of J6456 Hi

  4. Altered Intracellular ATP Production by Activated CD4+ T-Cells in Very Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Corvaglia, Luigi; Gabrielli, Liliana; Chiereghin, Angela; Lazzarotto, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Background. The neonatal immune system is not fully developed at birth; newborns have adequate lymphocytes counts but these cells lack function. Objective. To assess the activity of T-cells and the influence of the main perinatal factors in very preterm infants (birth weight < 1500 g). Design. Blood samples from 59 preterm infants (21/59 were dizygotic twins) were collected at birth and at 30 days of life to measure CD4+ T-cell activity using the ImmuKnow™ assay. Fifteen healthy adults were included as a control group. Results. CD4+ T-cell activity was lower in VLBW infants compared with adults (p < 0.001). Twins showed lower immune activity compared to singletons (p = 0.005). Infants born vaginally showed higher CD4+ T-cell activity compared to those born by C-section (p = 0.031); infants born after prolonged Premature Rupture of Membranes (pPROM) showed higher CD4+ T-cell activity at birth (p = 0.002) compared to infants born without pPROM. Low CD4+ T-cell activity at birth is associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in the first week of life (p = 0.049). Conclusions. Preterm infants show a lack in CD4+ T-cell activity at birth. Perinatal factors such as intrauterine inflammation, mode of delivery, and zygosity can influence the adaptive immune activation capacity at birth and can contribute to exposing these infants to serious complications such as NEC. PMID:28070527

  5. Application of Intracellular Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Measurement in Detection of Neutrophil Adherence In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bednarska, Katarzyna; Klink, Magdalena; Sulowska, Zofia

    2006-01-01

    We have proposed the use of the fluorimetric method with 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (4-MUP) specific substrate for the alkaline phosphatase determination in the neutrophil adhesion assay. We provide evidence that the endogenous neutrophil alkaline phosphatase (NAP) activity evaluation is reliable to quantify neutrophil adhesion at a wide range of cell numbers (104−106). The results obtained by fluorimetric NAP activity test correlate to the results of adherence evaluated using the MTT reduction assay. The fluorimetric NAP activity test may be applied for resting as well as activated neutrophils without the risk of the activators interferences into the test. The alkaline phosphatase survey with the use of 4-MUP substrate is recommended herein as a sensitive, repeatable, simple, and reliable method of the neutrophil adherence determination in vitro. PMID:17047286

  6. Nanoelectropulse intracellular perturbation and electropermeabilization technology: phospholipid translocation, calcium bursts, chromatin rearrangement, cardiomyocyte activation, and tumor cell sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Vernier, P Thomas; Sun, Yinghua; Wang, Jingjing; Thu, Mya Mya; Garon, Edward; Valderrabano, Miguel; Marcu, Laura; Koeffler, H Phillip; Gundersen, Martin A

    2005-01-01

    Nanosecond, megavolt-per-meter pulsed electric fields scramble the asymmetric arrangement of phospholipids in the plasma membrane, release intracellular calcium, trigger cardiomyocyte activity, and induce apoptosis in mammalian cancer cells, without the permeabilizing effects associated with longer, lower-field pulses. Dose dependencies with respect to pulse width, amplitude, and repetition rate, and total pulse count are observed for all of these phenomena. Sensitivities vary among cell types; cells of lymphoid origin growing in suspension are more susceptible to nanoelectropulse exposure than solid tumor lines. Simple electrical models of the cell are useful for first-order explanations, but more sophisticated treatments will be required for analysis and prediction at both biomolecular and tissue levels.

  7. Regulation of the Membrane Insertion and Conductance Activity of the Metamorphic Chloride Intracellular Channel Protein CLIC1 by Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Stella M.; Alkhamici, Heba; Brown, Louise J.; Almond, Oscar C.; Goodchild, Sophia C.; Carne, Sonia; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Holt, Stephen A.; Cornell, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    The Chloride Intracellular ion channel protein CLIC1 has the ability to spontaneously insert into lipid membranes from a soluble, globular state. The precise mechanism of how this occurs and what regulates this insertion is still largely unknown, although factors such as pH and redox environment are known contributors. In the current study, we demonstrate that the presence and concentration of cholesterol in the membrane regulates the spontaneous insertion of CLIC1 into the membrane as well as its ion channel activity. The study employed pressure versus area change measurements of Langmuir lipid monolayer films; and impedance spectroscopy measurements using tethered bilayer membranes to monitor membrane conductance during and following the addition of CLIC1 protein. The observed cholesterol dependent behaviour of CLIC1 is highly reminiscent of the cholesterol-dependent-cytolysin family of bacterial pore-forming proteins, suggesting common regulatory mechanisms for spontaneous protein insertion into the membrane bilayer. PMID:23457643

  8. Regulation of the membrane insertion and conductance activity of the metamorphic chloride intracellular channel protein CLIC1 by cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Stella M; Alkhamici, Heba; Brown, Louise J; Almond, Oscar C; Goodchild, Sophia C; Carne, Sonia; Curmi, Paul M G; Holt, Stephen A; Cornell, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    The Chloride Intracellular ion channel protein CLIC1 has the ability to spontaneously insert into lipid membranes from a soluble, globular state. The precise mechanism of how this occurs and what regulates this insertion is still largely unknown, although factors such as pH and redox environment are known contributors. In the current study, we demonstrate that the presence and concentration of cholesterol in the membrane regulates the spontaneous insertion of CLIC1 into the membrane as well as its ion channel activity. The study employed pressure versus area change measurements of Langmuir lipid monolayer films; and impedance spectroscopy measurements using tethered bilayer membranes to monitor membrane conductance during and following the addition of CLIC1 protein. The observed cholesterol dependent behaviour of CLIC1 is highly reminiscent of the cholesterol-dependent-cytolysin family of bacterial pore-forming proteins, suggesting common regulatory mechanisms for spontaneous protein insertion into the membrane bilayer.

  9. Antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-aging activities of intracellular zinc polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa SH-05.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Gao, Zheng; Hu, Chunlong; Zhang, Jianjun; Sun, Xinyi; Rong, Chengbo; Jia, Le

    2017-02-01

    In present work, the strain of Grifola frondosa SH-05 was used as a vector of zinc biotransformation to produce the IZPS. The bioactivities including antioxidant and antibacterial activities in vitro and anti-aging properties in vivo of IZPS were investigated comparing with the IPS. The results which were in consistent with the results of histopathology assay demonstrated that the IZPS had superior antioxidant and anti-aging activities by scavenging the hydroxyl and DPPH radicals, increasing enzyme activities, decreasing the MDA contents and ameliorating the anile condition of mice. Besides, the IZPS also showed potential antibacterial activities. The IZPS with higher bioactivities was composed of were Rha, Ino and Glu with a molar ratio of 4.7:3.6:1. These conclusions indicated that the IZPS might be a potential source of natural antioxidant, antibacterial agent and anti-aging agent.

  10. A hyperspectral and toxicological analysis of protein corona impact on silver nanoparticle properties, intracellular modifications, and macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Shannahan, Jonathan H; Podila, Ramakrishna; Brown, Jared M

    2015-01-01

    The inevitable adsorption of biomolecules on nanomaterials results in the formation of a protein corona (PC), which modifies the nanoparticle (NP)-cell interface resulting in modified uptake, activity, clearance, and toxicity. While the physicochemical properties of the NP govern the composition of PC, the formation of PC in turn alters the characteristics of the NP by imparting a new unique "biological" identity. To assess how the PC influences AgNP properties, intracellular modifications, and cellular responses, we utilized a combination of hyperspectral and toxicological analyses. AgNPs were coated with a complex PC (multiple proteins, eg, 10% fetal bovine serum) or a simple PC (single protein, eg, bovine serum albumin [BSA]) and evaluated by hyperspectral and dynamic light scattering for modifications in AgNP properties. Mouse macrophages were exposed to AgNPs with PCs and examined for differences in uptake, cytotoxicity, and cell activation. Hyperspectral imaging revealed intracellular modifications to AgNPs that were found to spectrally match alterations in AgNPs following incubation in lysosomal fluid. Addition of the PC influenced AgNP uptake and cytotoxicity; however, hydrodynamic size and surface charge did not contribute to these responses. Assessments of all endpoints demonstrated differences between complex and BSA PC, suggesting that these responses are not purely driven by the primary protein component of the complex PC (ie, BSA). Alterations in cellular-NP uptake/interactions may be driven through cell surface receptor recognition of protein constituents that make up the PC rather than the physicochemical differences in AgNPs.

  11. A hyperspectral and toxicological analysis of protein corona impact on silver nanoparticle properties, intracellular modifications, and macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Shannahan, Jonathan H; Podila, Ramakrishna; Brown, Jared M

    2015-01-01

    The inevitable adsorption of biomolecules on nanomaterials results in the formation of a protein corona (PC), which modifies the nanoparticle (NP)–cell interface resulting in modified uptake, activity, clearance, and toxicity. While the physicochemical properties of the NP govern the composition of PC, the formation of PC in turn alters the characteristics of the NP by imparting a new unique “biological” identity. To assess how the PC influences AgNP properties, intracellular modifications, and cellular responses, we utilized a combination of hyperspectral and toxicological analyses. AgNPs were coated with a complex PC (multiple proteins, eg, 10% fetal bovine serum) or a simple PC (single protein, eg, bovine serum albumin [BSA]) and evaluated by hyperspectral and dynamic light scattering for modifications in AgNP properties. Mouse macrophages were exposed to AgNPs with PCs and examined for differences in uptake, cytotoxicity, and cell activation. Hyperspectral imaging revealed intracellular modifications to AgNPs that were found to spectrally match alterations in AgNPs following incubation in lysosomal fluid. Addition of the PC influenced AgNP uptake and cytotoxicity; however, hydrodynamic size and surface charge did not contribute to these responses. Assessments of all endpoints demonstrated differences between complex and BSA PC, suggesting that these responses are not purely driven by the primary protein component of the complex PC (ie, BSA). Alterations in cellular–NP uptake/interactions may be driven through cell surface receptor recognition of protein constituents that make up the PC rather than the physicochemical differences in AgNPs. PMID:26508856

  12. Intracellular pH regulation by HCO3-/Cl- exchange is activated during early mouse zygote development.

    PubMed

    Phillips, K P; Baltz, J M

    1999-04-15

    We report here that at least one major pHi-regulatory mechanism, the HCO3-/Cl- exchanger, is quiescent in unfertilized mouse eggs but becomes fully activated during early development following fertilization. Zygotes (8-12 h postfertilization) exhibited a marked intracellular alkalinization upon external Cl- removal, which is indicative of active HCO3-/Cl- exchangers, in contrast to the very small response observed in eggs. In addition, efflux of Cl- from eggs upon external Cl- removal was much slower than that from zygotes, indicating additional pathways for Cl- to cross the plasma membrane in zygotes. Furthermore, while zygotes quickly recovered from an induced alkalosis, eggs exhibited only a slow, incomplete recovery. Following in vitro fertilization (IVF), increased HCO3-/Cl- exchanger activity was first detectable about 4 h postfertilization and reached the maximal level after about 8 h. The upregulation of HCO3-/Cl- exchanger activity after fertilization appeared to occur by activation of existing, inactive exchangers rather than by synthesis or transport of new exchangers, as the increase in activity following IVF was unaffected by inhibition of protein synthesis or by disruption of the Golgi apparatus or the cytoskeleton. This activation may depend on the Ca2+ transients which follow fertilization, as suppression of these transients, using the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA, reduced subsequent upregulation of HCO3-/Cl- exchanger activity by about 50%. Activation of pHi-regulatory systems may be a widespread feature of the earliest period of embryonic development, not restricted to species such as marine invertebrates as previously believed.

  13. Engineering Design Activities and Conceptual Change in Middle School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnittka, Christine G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of engineering design classroom activities on conceptual change in science, and on attitudes toward and knowledge about engineering. Students were given a situated learning context and a rationale for learning science in an active, inquiry-based method, and worked in small collaborative…

  14. Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-09

    Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities Nicole T. Carter Specialist in Natural Resources Policy...of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities Congressional Research Service Summary The U.S. Army Corps of...typically called the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) or more recently the Water Resources Reform and Development Act of 2014 (WRRDA 2014

  15. Hexokinase and phosphofructokinase activity and intracellular distribution correlate with aggressiveness and invasiveness of human breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Raquel G; Calaça, Isadora C; Celestrini, Deborah M; Correia-Carneiro, Ana Helena P; Costa, Mauricio M; Zancan, Patricia; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2015-10-06

    Glycolytic enzymes, such as hexokinase and phosphofructokinase, have been reported to be upregulated in many cancer types. Here, we evaluated these two enzymes in 54 breast cancer samples collected from volunteers subjected to mastectomy, and the results were correlated with the prognosis markers commonly used. We found that both enzymes positively correlate with the major markers for invasiveness and aggressiveness. For invasiveness, the enzymes activities increase in parallel to the tumor size. Moreover, we found augmented activities for both enzymes when the samples were extirpated from patients presenting lymph node involvement or occurrence of metastasis. For aggressiveness, we stained the samples for the estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, p53 and Ki-67. The enzyme activities positively correlated with all markers but Ki-67. Finally, we conclude that these enzymes are good markers for breast cancer prognosis.

  16. Hexokinase and phosphofructokinase activity and intracellular distribution correlate with aggressiveness and invasiveness of human breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Raquel G.; Calaça, Isadora C.; Celestrini, Deborah M.; Correia-Carneiro, Ana Helena P.; Costa, Mauricio M.; Zancan, Patricia; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Glycolytic enzymes, such as hexokinase and phosphofructokinase, have been reported to be upregulated in many cancer types. Here, we evaluated these two enzymes in 54 breast cancer samples collected from volunteers subjected to mastectomy, and the results were correlated with the prognosis markers commonly used. We found that both enzymes positively correlate with the major markers for invasiveness and aggressiveness. For invasiveness, the enzymes activities increase in parallel to the tumor size. Moreover, we found augmented activities for both enzymes when the samples were extirpated from patients presenting lymph node involvement or occurrence of metastasis. For aggressiveness, we stained the samples for the estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, p53 and Ki-67. The enzyme activities positively correlated with all markers but Ki-67. Finally, we conclude that these enzymes are good markers for breast cancer prognosis. PMID:26320188

  17. Isosmotic modulation of cell volume and intracellular ion activities during stimulation of single exocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Foskett, J K; Wong, M M; Sue-A-Quan, G; Robertson, M A

    1994-02-01

    Stimulation of salivary secretion is associated with a rise of [Ca2+]i in acinar cells. We examined the osmotic and ionic consequences of activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ and Cl- channels, by simultaneous optical determinations of cell volume and [Ca2+]i, [Cl-]i or [Na+]i during muscarinic stimulation of single salivary acinar cells, using a differential interference contrast (DIC)-fluorescence microscope. Carbachol caused a rapid rise of [Ca2+]i, as well as a substantial cell shrinkage. Despite variability in the level and kinetics of the subsequent sustained phase of the [Ca2+]i response, cell volume was correlated with [Ca2+]i in all cases. Elevated [Ca2+]i was both necessary and sufficient to cause these changes in cell volume. The proposition that changes in cell volume reflected changes in cell solute content was confirmed by simultaneously measuring [Cl-]i and cell volume. Simultaneous determinations of cell volume and [Na+]i indicated that the initial cell shrinkage was due entirely to K+ and Cl- efflux. Subsequent to the initial shrinkage, [Na+]i rose to high levels, primarily due to activation of Na+/H+ exchange. Thus, modulation of ion transport activities under isosmotic conditions results in substantial changes in cell solute content and cell volume. Subsequent to the early Ca(2+)-induced changes in these parameters, other transporters become active, but it is unclear what signals their activation. Cell swelling by osmotic dilution of the bath resulted in compensatory cell shrinkage (RVD) which was sensitive to K+ and Cl- gradients. Nevertheless, a rise of [Ca2+]i was not necessary for RVD. Osmotic shrinkage and/or cell acidification were insufficient to activate Na+ influx.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. PIAS proteins are involved in the SUMO-1 modification, intracellular translocation and transcriptional repressive activity of RET finger protein

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, Tetsuo; Shimono, Yohei; Kawai, Kumi; Murakami, Hideki; Urano, Takeshi; Niwa, Yasumasa; Goto, Hidemi; Takahashi, Masahide . E-mail: mtakaha@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2005-08-01

    Ret finger protein (RFP) is a nuclear protein that is highly expressed in testis and in various tumor cell lines. RFP functions as a transcriptional repressor and associates with Enhancer of Polycomb 1 (EPC1), a member of the Polycomb group proteins, and Mi-2{beta}, a main component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex. We show that RFP binds with PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) proteins, PIAS1, PIAS3, PIASx{alpha} and PIASy at their carboxyl-terminal region and is covalently modified by SUMO-1 (sumoylation). PIAS proteins enhance the sumoylation of RFP in a dose-dependent manner and induce the translocation of RFP into nuclear bodies reminiscent of the PML bodies. In addition, co-expression of PIAS proteins or SUMO-1 strengthened the transcriptional repressive activity of RFP. Finally, our immunohistochemical results show that RFP, SUMO-1 and PIASy localize in a characteristic nuclear structure juxtaposed with the inner nuclear membrane (XY body) of primary spermatocytes in mouse testis. These results demonstrate that the intracellular location and the transcriptional activity of RFP are modified by PIAS proteins which possess SUMO E3 ligase activities and suggest that they may play a co-operative role in spermatogenesis.

  19. Intracellular delivery and activation of the genetically encoded photosensitizer Killer Red by quantum dots encapsulated in polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Muthiah, Muthunarayanan; Park, Seung-Hwan; Nurunnabi, Md; Lee, Jooyoung; Lee, Yong-Kyu; Park, Hansoo; Lee, Byeong-Il; Min, Jung-Joon; Park, In-Kyu

    2014-04-01

    We have prepared polymeric micelle-encapsulating quantum dots (QDots) for delivering the optically activatable protein Killer Red (KR) as a plasmid to cancer cells. QDots absorb light at a lower wavelength and emit light at a higher wavelength in the cell cytoplasm, activating the expressed KR. Once activated, KR triggers the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We prepared cadmium selenide (CdSe)/zinc sulphide (ZnS) QDots and evaluated their optical properties. Subsequently, we performed morphology studies, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and measurements of particle size and surface charge of prepared QDots encapsulated in PHEA-g-PEG-bPEI (PPP-QDot). Cellular uptake of PPP-QDot and PPP-QDot/KR nanoparticles was confirmed using confocal microscopy, and the cellular toxicity and transfection efficiency associated with uptake of PPP-QDot/KR nanoparticles were analyzed. KR expression in normal cells and cancer cells was confirmed using confocal microscopy and Western blotting. Cellular morphologies before and after intracellular activation of KR were observed using phase contrast, fluorescence, and confocal microscopy. Cell fate after exposure to blue light-emitting diode lighting was determined using apoptosis staining and a cell proliferation assay, confirming a suppression in proliferation and a reduction in metabolic activity. We determined that ROS generation contributed to cellular damage after treatment with PPP-QDot/KR nanoparticles and blue light exposure.

  20. Intracellular Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum regulates slow wave currents and pacemaker activity of interstitial cells of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mei Hong; Sung, Tae Sik; O'Driscoll, Kate; Koh, Sang Don

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) provide pacemaker activity in gastrointestinal muscles that underlies segmental and peristaltic contractions. ICC generate electrical slow waves that are due to large-amplitude inward currents resulting from anoctamin 1 (ANO1) channels, which are Ca2+-activated Cl− channels. We investigated the hypothesis that the Ca2+ responsible for the stochastic activation of ANO1 channels during spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs) and synchronized activation of ANO1 channels during slow wave currents comes from intracellular Ca2+ stores. ICC, obtained from the small intestine of Kit+/copGFP mice, were studied under voltage and current clamp to determine the effects of blocking Ca2+ uptake into stores and release of Ca2+ via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-dependent and ryanodine-sensitive channels. Cyclocpiazonic acid, thapsigargin, 2-APB, and xestospongin C inhibited STICs and slow wave currents. Ryanodine and tetracaine also inhibited STICs and slow wave currents. Store-active compounds had no direct effects on ANO1 channels expressed in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Under current clamp, store-active drugs caused significant depolarization of ICC and reduced spontaneous transient depolarizations (STDs). After block of ryanodine receptors with ryanodine and tetracaine, repolarization did not restore STDs. ANO1 expressed in ICC has limited access to cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, suggesting that pacemaker activity depends on Ca2+ dynamics in restricted microdomains. Our data from studies of isolated ICC differ somewhat from studies on intact muscles and suggest that release of Ca2+ from both IP3 and ryanodine receptors is important in generating pacemaker activity in ICC. PMID:25631870

  1. Tuning intracellular homeostasis of human uroporphyrinogen III synthase by enzyme engineering at a single hotspot of congenital erythropoietic porphyria.

    PubMed

    ben Bdira, Fredj; González, Esperanza; Pluta, Paula; Laín, Ana; Sanz-Parra, Arantza; Falcon-Perez, Juan Manuel; Millet, Oscar

    2014-11-01

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) results from a deficiency in uroporphyrinogen III synthase enzyme (UROIIIS) activity that ultimately stems from deleterious mutations in the uroS gene. C73 is a hotspot for these mutations and a C73R substitution, which drastically reduces the enzyme activity and stability, is found in almost one-third of all reported CEP cases. Here, we have studied the structural basis, by which mutations in this hotspot lead to UROIIIS destabilization. First, a strong interdependency is observed between the volume of the side chain at position 73 and the folded protein. Moreover, there is a correlation between the in vitro half-life of the mutated proteins and their expression levels in eukaryotic cell lines. Molecular modelling was used to rationalize the results, showing that the mutation site is coupled to the hinge region separating the two domains. Namely, mutations at position 73 modulate the inter-domain closure and ultimately affect protein stability. By incorporating residues capable of interacting with R73 to stabilize the hinge region, catalytic activity was fully restored and a moderate increase in the kinetic stability of the enzyme was observed. These results provide an unprecedented rationale for a destabilizing missense mutation and pave the way for the effective design of molecular chaperones as a therapy against CEP.

  2. Activated Macrophages Destroy Intracellular Leishmania Major Amastigotes by an l-Arginine-Dependent Killing Mechanism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    conversion of site from one that is supportive of replication, to one that the sandfly -adapted promastigote to the amastigote form is hostile to...Inaddiion th cometiivein-room temperature for 5 min. Absorbance at 543 om was measured.activated macrophages. In addition, t e p titi e tn- No2- was qu

  3. TGF-β-Mediated Sustained ERK1/2 Activity Promotes the Inhibition of Intracellular Growth of Mycobacterium avium in Epithelioid Cells Surrogates

    PubMed Central

    L'Abbate, Carolina; Cipriano, Ivone; Pérez-Hurtado, Elizabeth Cristina; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Carneiro, Célia Regina Whitaker; Machado, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases including infection with intracellular pathogens such as the Mycobacterium avium complex. Infection of macrophages with M. avium induces TGF-β production and neutralization of this cytokine has been associated with decreased intracellular bacterial growth. We have previously demonstrated that epithelioid cell surrogates (ECs) derived from primary murine peritoneal macrophages through a process of differentiation induced by IL-4 overlap several features of epithelioid cells found in granulomas. In contrast to undifferentiated macrophages, ECs produce larger amounts of TGF-β and inhibit the intracellular growth of M. avium. Here we asked whether the levels of TGF-β produced by ECs are sufficient to induce a self-sustaining autocrine TGF-β signaling controlling mycobacterial replication in infected-cells. We showed that while exogenous addition of increased concentration of TGF-β to infected-macrophages counteracted M. avium replication, pharmacological blockage of TGF-β receptor kinase activity with SB-431542 augmented bacterial load in infected-ECs. Moreover, the levels of TGF-β produced by ECs correlated with high and sustained levels of ERK1/2 activity. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activity with U0126 increased M. avium replication in infected-cells, suggesting that modulation of intracellular bacterial growth is dependent on the activation of ERK1/2. Interestingly, blockage of TGF-β receptor kinase activity with SB-431542 in infected-ECs inhibited ERK1/2 activity, enhanced intracellular M. avium burden and these effects were followed by a severe decrease in TGF-β production. In summary, our findings indicate that the amplitude of TGF-β signaling coordinates the strength and duration of ERK1/2 activity that is determinant for the control of intracellular mycobacterial growth. PMID:21731758

  4. Collagen type IV stimulates an increase in intracellular Ca2+ in pancreatic acinar cells via activation of phospholipase C.

    PubMed Central

    Somogyi, L; Lasić, Z; Vukicević, S; Banfić, H

    1994-01-01

    Intracellular Ca2+ responses to extracellular matrix molecules were studied in suspensions of pancreatic acinar cells loaded with Fura-2. Collagen type I, laminin, fibrinogen and fibronectin were unable to raise cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), whereas collagen type IV, at concentrations from 5 to 50 micrograms/ml, significantly increased it. The effect of collagen type IV was not due to possible contamination with type-I transforming growth factor beta or plasminogen, as neither of these agents was able to increase [Ca2+]i. Using highly specific mass assays, concentrations of inositol lipids, 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) and Ins(1,4,5) P3 were measured in pancreatic acinar cells stimulated with collagen type IV. A decrease in the concentrations of PtdIns(4,5) P2 and PtdIns4 P with a concomitant increase in the concentrations of DAG and InsP3 mass were observed, showing that collagen type IV increases [Ca2+]i by activation of phospholipase C. The observed [Ca2+]i signals had two components, the first resulting from Ca2+ release from the intracellular stores, and the second resulting from Ca2+ flux from the extracellular medium through the verapamil-insensitive channels. A tyrosine kinase inhibitor (tyrphostine) was able to block inositol lipid signalling caused by collagen type IV, which together with the insensitivity of this pathway to cholera toxin and pertussis toxin or to preactivation of protein kinase C, the longer duration of the increase in [Ca2+]i and a longer lag period needed for observation of increases in DAG and InsP3 concentration with collagen type IV than with carbachol (50 mM) suggest that activation of phospholipase C by collagen type IV is caused by tyrosine kinase activation. Inositol lipid signalling and increases in [Ca2+]i were also observed with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing peptide but not with Arg-Asp-Gly (RDG)-containing peptide. Collagen type IV and RGD-containing peptide, but not carbachol, competed in increasing [Ca2+]i and

  5. In Vivo Characterization of Intracellular Signaling Pathways Activated by the Nerve Agent Sarin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    Ca+2/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase signaling cascade, which dephosphorylates T34- DARPP-32 (Nishi et al., 1999). Activation of the D 1...phosphorylation state of DARPP-32 at Ser-102 (S102) and Ser-137 (S137) (see Figure 1). For example, S 102 on DARPP-32 is phosphorylated by casein kinase...cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) (Girault et al., 1989). DARPP-32 is also phosphorylated on amino acid S137 by casein kinase I (CK1). Increases in

  6. Mitofusin 2 decreases intracellular lipids in macrophages by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chun; Ge, Beihai; He, Chao; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Kejian; Qian, Cuiping; Zhang, Yu; Peng, Wenzhong; Guo, Xiaomei

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Mfn2 decreases cellular lipid accumulation by activating cholesterol transporters. • PPARγ is involved in the Mfn2-mediated increase of cholesterol transporter expressions. • Inactivation of ERK1/2 and p38 is involved in Mfn2-induced PPARγ expression. - Abstract: Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) inhibits atherosclerotic plaque formation, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. This study aims to reveal how Mfn2 functions in the atherosclerosis. Mfn2 expression was found to be significantly reduced in arterial atherosclerotic lesions of both mice and human compared with healthy counterparts. Here, we observed that Mfn2 increased cellular cholesterol transporter expression in macrophages by upregulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, an effect achieved at least partially by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway. These findings provide insights into potential mechanisms of Mfn2-mediated alterations in cholesterol transporter expression, which may have significant implications for the treatment of atherosclerotic heart disease.

  7. Antagonists of the TMEM16A Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Modulate Airway Smooth Muscle Tone and Intracellular Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, Jennifer; Perez-Zoghbi, Jose; Bernstein, Kyra; Barajas, Matthew B.; Zhang, Yi; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Pawan K.; Gallos, George; Emala, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Perioperative bronchospasm refractory to β-agonists continues to challenge anesthesiologists and intensivists. The TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel modulates airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction. We hypothesized that TMEM16A antagonists would relax ASM contraction by modulating membrane potential and calcium flux. Methods Human ASM, guinea pig tracheal rings or mouse peripheral airways were contracted with acetylcholine (Ach) or leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and then treated with the TMEM16A antagonists: benzbromarone, T16Ainh-A01, MONNA or B25. In separate studies, guinea pig tracheal rings were contracted with Ach and then exposed to increasing concentrations of isoproterenol (0.01nM-10μM) ± benzbromarone. Plasma membrane potential and intracellular calcium concentrations were measured in human ASM cells. Results Benzbromarone was the most potent TMEM16A antagonist tested for relaxing an Ach-induced contraction in guinea pig tracheal rings (n=6). Further studies were done to investigate benzbromarone’s clinical utility. In human ASM, benzbromarone relaxed either an acetylcholine- or LTD4-induced contraction (n=8). Benzbromarone was also effective in relaxing peripheral airways (n=9) and potentiating relaxation by β-agonists (n=5–10). In cellular mechanistic studies, benzbromarone hyperpolarized human ASM cells (n=9–12) and attenuated intracellular calcium flux from both the plasma membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum (n=6–12). Conclusions TMEM16A antagonists work synergistically with β-agonists and through a novel pathway of interrupting ion flux both at the plasma membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum to acutely relax human airway smooth muscle. PMID:26181339

  8. Improved in vitro anti-tumoral activity, intracellular uptake and apoptotic induction of gemcitabine-loaded pegylated unilamellar liposomes.

    PubMed

    Celia, Christian; Calvagno, Maria Grazia; Paolino, Donatella; Bulotta, Stefania; Ventura, Cinzia Anna; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

    2008-04-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is one of the most aggressive and lethal solid carcinomas affecting humans. A major limit of the chemotherapeutic agents is represented by their low therapeutic index. In this work, we investigated the possibility of improving the anti-tumoral activity of gemcitabine by using pegylated unilamellar liposomes. Liposomes were made up of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospocholine monohydrate/cholesterol/N-(carbonyl-methoxypolyethylene glycol-2000)-1, 2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (6:3:1 molar ratio) and they were prepared with a pH gradient to improve the gemcitabine loading capacity. The anti-tumoral efficacy of the liposomal formulation was tested in vitro on human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (ARO) in culture, comparing the effects with those of the free drug. Gemcitabine-loaded unilamellar liposomes had a mean size approximately 200 nm with a zeta potential approximately -2 mV. The liposomal carrier noticeably improved the anti-tumoral activity of gemcitabine against ARO cells in terms of both dose-dependent cytotoxic effect and of drug exposition effect. Namely, gemcitabine-loaded liposomes showed a cytotoxic effect (58.2% increase of cell mortality at 1 microM with respect to free drug) after 12 h incubation, while the free drug showed a significant activity only after 72 h incubation. Moreover, a significant effect on the cell mortality appeared at 0.1 microM and 100% mortality was detected at a concentration of 1 microM of gemcitabine-loaded liposomes, while the free drug elicited the same effect at a concentration of 100 microM. The improved anti-tumoral activity of gemcitabine determined by the liposomal carrier was due to a greater intracellular uptake. The intracellular gemcitabine levels as a function of time showed a sinusoidal profile with peaks after 2 h, 6 h and 11 h, related to the cellular cycle of ARO. PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation analysis provided clear evidence of the apoptosis induction in

  9. Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen stabilizes intracellular activated Notch by targeting the Sel10 protein.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ke; Verma, Subhash C; Murakami, Masanao; Bajaj, Bharat; Kaul, Rajeev; Robertson, Erle S

    2007-10-09

    Deregulation of the evolutionarily conserved Notch signaling is highly correlated with oncogenesis. Intracellular activated Notch (ICN) is a protooncogene linked to the transcription activation of a number of cellular genes involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation, and proliferation. Stability of ICN is tightly regulated by the Sel10-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Sel10 can function as a negative regulator of Notch and exhibits activities of a tumor-suppressor protein. This article shows that the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) directly interacts with Sel10 and forms a complex in KSHV-infected cells. This results in suppression of ICN ubiquitination and degradation. The carboxyl terminus of LANA interacts with the F-box and WD40 domains of Sel10 and competes with ICN for binding to Sel10. This elevated level of ICN is also critical for maintaining the enhanced proliferation of KSHV-infected tumor cells. These findings describe a mechanism by which the KSHV-encoded LANA protein regulates ubiquitination of ICN mediated by the F-box component of the E3 ligase Sel10, leading to proliferation of the virus-infected cells.

  10. Intracellular distribution of fatty alcohol oxidase activity in Mucor circinelloides YR-1 isolated from petroleum contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Silva-Jiménez, Hortencia; Zazueta-Novoa, Vanesa; Durón-Castellanos, Arelí; Rodríguez-Robelo, Carmen; Leal-Morales, Carlos A; Zazueta-Sandoval, Roberto

    2009-11-01

    In previous studies, Mucor circinelloides YR-1 isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils grown in decane as sole carbon source, showed fatty alcohol oxidase (FAO) activities in either particulate or soluble fractions from a cell-free extract. One is associated to internal membranes (mFAO) and the other one is soluble (sFAO). Both activities appear to be located in the cells in specific compartments other than peroxisomes. Results suggested that mFAO could be located on the inner face of the membrane of these compartments, and sFAO could be in the lumen of the specific compartments. This study reports on the intracellular distribution of FAO activity and the purification of sFAOs and mFAO after several different procedures for release from the membranous fraction using the mixed membrane fraction (MMF) after cellular homogenization as enzymatic source. Results with the purified mFAO show, by molecular weight criteria, that the enzyme has only one type of subunit with molecular mass of 46 kDa, with two isoelectric point components: 6.0 and 6.3. We found that mFAO is strongly associated to the MMF, possibly in a transitory fashion. Using non-denaturating gels, we suggest that sFAO and mFAO have the same subunits in their native structures, and, due to their native molecular weight of approximately 350 kDa, each could be natively structured as an octameric complex.

  11. Inhibitory effect of red ginseng acidic polysaccharide from Korean red ginseng on phagocytic activity and intracellular replication of Brucella abortus in RAW 264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, Won Gi; Lee, Hu Jang; Rhee, Man Hee; Chang, Hong Hee

    2016-01-01

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) has long been used in traditional Korean and Oriental medicine. However, the anti-bacterial mechanism and therapeutic efficiency of KGR for intracellular Brucella infection are still unclear. In this study, the bactericidal activity of Korean red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) on Brucella (B.) abortus and its cytotoxic effects on RAW 264.7 cells were evaluated. In addition, B. abortus internalization and intracellular replication in macrophages were investigated after RGAP treatment. RGAP-incubated cells displayed a marked reduction in the adherence, internalization and intracellular growth of B. abortus in macrophages. Furthermore, decreased F-actin fluorescence was observed relative to untreated B. abortus-infected cells. Western blot analysis of intracellular signaling proteins revealed reduced ERK, JNK and p38α phosphorylation levels in B. abortus-infected RGAP-treated cells compared to the control. Moreover, elevated co-localization of B. abortus-containing phagosomes with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) were observed in RGAP-treated cells compared with the control. Overall, the results of this study suggest that RGAP can disrupt phagocytic activity of B. abortus via suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling proteins ERK, JNK and p38 levels and inhibit intracellular replication of B. abortus by enhancing phagolysosome fusion, which may provide an alternative control of brucellosis. PMID:26726017

  12. Regulation of spine and synapse formation by activity-dependent intracellular signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Saneyoshi, Takeo; Fortin, Dale A; Soderling, Thomas R

    2010-01-01

    Formation of the human brain during embryonic and postnatal development is an extraordinarily complex process resulting at maturity in billions of neurons with trillions of specialized connections called synapses. These synapses, composed of a varicosity or bouton from a presynaptic neuron that communicates with a dendritic spine of the postsynaptic neuron, comprise the neural network that is essential for complex behavioral phenomena and cognition. Inappropriate synapse formation or structure is thought to underlie several developmental neuropathologies. Even in the mature CNS, alterations in synapse structure and function continues to be a very dynamic process that is foundational to learning and memory as well as other adaptive abilities of the brain. This synaptic plasticity in mature neurons, which is often triggered by certain patterns of neural activity, is again multifaceted and involves post-translational modifications (e.g. phosphorylation) and subcellular relocalization or trafficking (endocytosis/exocytosis) of existing synaptic proteins, initiation of protein synthesis from existing mRNAs localized in dendrites or spines, and triggering of new gene transcription in the nucleus. These various cellular processes support varying temporal components of synaptic plasticity that begin within 1–2 min but can persist for hours to days. This review will give a critical assessment of activity-dependent molecular modulations of synapses reported over the past couple years. Owing to space limitations, it will focus on mammalian excitatory (i.e. glutamatergic) synapses and will not consider several activity-independent signaling pathways (e.g. ephrinB receptor) that also modulate spine and synapse formation [1,2]. PMID:19896363

  13. Inhibition of intracellular proteolysis in muscle cultures by multiplication-stimulating activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janeczko, Richard A.; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of the insulin-like growth factor, multiplication-stimulating activity (MSA), on chick myotube cultures are studied. The results indicate that MSA is an effective anabolic agent regulating protein metabolism and amino acid uptake, but not sugar transport. Similar size effects on protein metabolism and amino acid uptake in serum-free media were observed in parallel studies with insulin, although insulin levels well in excess of the normal physiological range are required to produce significant effects. It is suggested that there is a generally low insulin sensitivity in cultured chick myotubes relative to adult tissues.

  14. Engineering of chimeric catalase-Angiopep-2 for intracellular protection of brain endothelial cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yainoy, Sakda; Houbloyfa, Patcharaporn; Eiamphungporn, Warawan; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-07-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) death caused by excessive production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have been implicated in several neurological conditions. To overcome this problem, H2O2-degrading enzyme with ability to enter the BMVECs is required. In the present study, genetic fusion of gene encoding human catalase and gene encoding Angiopep-2 (AP2), a brain targeting peptide, was performed. The fusion protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The protein retained heme content and specific enzymatic activity in the same order of magnitude as that of native enzyme. Study of the BMVECs internalization showed that 0.1μM of the fusion protein can enter the cell within 15min, while internalization of the native protein was not observed at this condition. In addition, treatment of the BMVECs with 20 units of the fusion protein for 30min showed protection against H2O2 up to 5.0mM, whereas this protective effect was not observed from treatment with the native protein. Therefore, construction of chimeric human catalase and AP2 provides an insight into the development of potential therapeutic antioxidant with ability to penetrate the BBB for protection against neurodegenerative disorders.

  15. Selection of Intracellularly Functional RNA Mimics of Green Fluorescent Protein Using Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jiawei; Huang, Xin; Wu, Lei; Chen, Gangyi; Dong, Juan; Cui, Xin; Tang, Zhuo

    2015-12-01

    Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was exploited to isolate Escherichia coli cells that were highly fluorescent due to the expression of RNA aptamers that induce fluorescence of 3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxybenzylidene imidazolinone. Two different aptamers, named ZT-26 and ZT-324, were identified by this method and compared to the fluorescence-signaling properties of Spinach, a previously reported RNA aptamer. Aptamer ZT-26 exhibits significantly enhanced fluorescence over Spinach only in vitro. However, aptamer ZT-324 is 36% brighter than Spinach when expressed in E. coli. The FACS-based selection strategy presented here is attractive for deriving fluorescent RNA aptamers that function in cells as it directly selects for cells with a high level of fluorescence due to the expression of the RNA aptamer.

  16. A-FABP mediates adaptive thermogenesis by promoting intracellular activation of thyroid hormones in brown adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Lingling; Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Wu, Xiaoping; Pan, Yong; Lee, Ida P. C.; Cheong, Lai Yee; Bornstein, Stefan R; Rong, Xianglu; Guo, Jiao; Xu, Aimin

    2017-01-01

    The adipokine adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) has been implicated in obesity-related cardio-metabolic complications. Here we show that A-FABP increases thermogenesis by promoting the conversion of T4 to T3 in brown adipocytes. We find that A-FABP levels are increased in both white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues and the bloodstream in response to thermogenic stimuli. A-FABP knockout mice have reduced thermogenesis and whole-body energy expenditure after cold stress or after feeding a high-fat diet, which can be reversed by infusion of recombinant A-FABP. Mechanistically, A-FABP induces the expression of type-II iodothyronine deiodinase in BAT via inhibition of the nuclear receptor liver X receptor α, thereby leading to the conversion of thyroid hormone from its inactive form T4 to active T3. The thermogenic responses to T4 are abrogated in A-FABP KO mice, but enhanced by A-FABP. Thus, A-FABP acts as a physiological stimulator of BAT-mediated adaptive thermogenesis. PMID:28128199

  17. Iron uptake and increased intracellular enzyme activity follow host lactoferrin binding by Trichomonas vaginalis receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.M.; Alderete, J.F.

    1984-08-01

    Lactoferrin acquisition and iron uptake by pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Saturation binding kinetics were obtained for trichomonads using increasing amounts of radioiodinated lactoferrin, while no significant binding by transferrin under similar conditions was achieved. Only unlabeled lactoferrin successfully and stoichiometrically competed with 125I-labeled lactoferrin binding. Time course studies showed maximal lactoferrin binding by 30 min at 37 degrees C. Data suggest no internalization of bound lactoferrin. The accumulation of radioactivity in supernatants after incubation of T. vaginalis with 125I-labeled lactoferrin and washing in PBS suggested the presence of low affinity sites for this host macromolecule. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of 90,000 receptors per trichomonad with an apparent Kd of 1.0 microM. Two trichomonad lactoferrin binding proteins were identified by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation of receptor-ligand complexes. A 30-fold accumulation of iron was achieved using 59Fe-lactoferrin when compared to the steady state concentration of bound lactoferrin. The activity of pyruvate/ferrodoxin oxidoreductase, an enzyme involved in trichomonal energy metabolism, increased more than sixfold following exposure of the parasites to lactoferrin, demonstrating a biologic response to the receptor-mediated binding of lactoferrin. These data suggest that T. vaginalis possesses specific receptors for biologically relevant host proteins and that these receptors contribute to the metabolic processes of the parasites.

  18. Basis Tetrapeptides as Potent Intracellular Inhibitors of type A Botulinum Neurotoxin Protease Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, M.; Swaminathan, S.; Oyler, G.; Ahmed, S. A.

    2011-01-21

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are the most potent of all toxins that cause flaccid muscle paralysis leading to death. They are also potential biothreat agents. A systematic investigation of various short peptide inhibitors of the BoNT protease domain with a 17-residue peptide substrate led to arginine-arginine-glycine-cysteine having a basic tetrapeptide structure as the most potent inhibitor. When assayed in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT), the inhibitory effect was drastically reduced. Replacing the terminal cysteine with one hydrophobic residue eliminated the DTT effect but with two hydrophobic residues made the pentapeptide a poor inhibitor. Replacing the first arginine with cysteine or adding an additional cysteine at the N terminus did not improve inhibition. When assessed using mouse brain lysates, the tetrapeptides also inhibited BoNT/A cleavage of the endogenous SNAP-25. The peptides penetrated the neuronal cell lines, N2A and BE(2)-M17, without adversely affecting metabolic functions as measured by ATP production and P-38 phosphorylation. Biological activity of the peptides persisted within cultured chick motor neurons and rat and mouse cerebellar neurons for more than 40 h and inhibited BoNT/A protease action inside the neurons in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Our results define a tetrapeptide as the smallest peptide inhibitor in the backdrop of a large substrate protein of 200+ amino acids having multiple interaction regions with its cognate enzyme. The inhibitors should also be valuable candidates for drug development.

  19. AmiA is a penicillin target enzyme with dual activity in the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Klöckner, Anna; Otten, Christian; Derouaux, Adeline; Vollmer, Waldemar; Bühl, Henrike; De Benedetti, Stefania; Münch, Daniela; Josten, Michaele; Mölleken, Katja; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Henrichfreise, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular Chlamydiaceae do not need to resist osmotic challenges and a functional cell wall was not detected in these pathogens. Nevertheless, a recent study revealed evidence for circular peptidoglycan-like structures in Chlamydiaceae and penicillin inhibits cytokinesis, a phenomenon known as the chlamydial anomaly. Here, by characterizing a cell wall precursor-processing enzyme, we provide insights into the mechanisms underlying this mystery. We show that AmiA from Chlamydia pneumoniae separates daughter cells in an Escherichia coli amidase mutant. Contrary to homologues from free-living bacteria, chlamydial AmiA uses lipid II as a substrate and has dual activity, acting as an amidase and a carboxypeptidase. The latter function is penicillin sensitive and assigned to a penicillin-binding protein motif. Consistent with the lack of a regulatory domain in AmiA, chlamydial CPn0902, annotated as NlpD, is a carboxypeptidase, rather than an amidase activator, which is the case for E. coli NlpD. Functional conservation of AmiA implicates a role in cytokinesis and host response modulation. PMID:24953137

  20. Role of receptor desensitization, phosphatase induction and intracellular cyclic AMP in the termination of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in UTP-stimulated EAhy 926 endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, A; McLees, A; Malarkey, K; Gould, G W; Plevin, R

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms that bring about the termination of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) activation in response to UTP in EAhy 926 endothelial cells. UTP-stimulated MAP kinase activity was transient, returning to basal values by 60 min. At this time MAP kinase activation was desensitized; re-application of UTP did not further activate MAP kinase, full re-activation of MAP kinase being only apparent after a 1-2 h wash period. However, activation of MAP kinase by UTP could be sustained beyond 60 min by preincubation of the cells with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. UTP also stimulated expression of MAP kinase phosphatase-1 and this was abolished after pretreatment with cycloheximide. Pretreatment of cells with forskolin abolished the initial activation of MAP kinase kinase or c-Raf-1 by UTP, but only affected MAP kinase activity during prolonged stimulation. The effect of forskolin on prolonged MAP kinase activation was also prevented by cycloheximide. These results suggest that the termination of MAP kinase activity in response to UTP involves a number of interacting mechanisms including receptor desensitization and the induction of a phosphatase. However, several pieces of evidence do not support a major role for MAP kinase phosphatase-1 in termination of the MAP kinase signal. Raising intracellular cyclic AMP may also be involved but only after an initial protein-synthesis step and by a mechanism that does not involve the inactivation of c-Raf-1 or MAP kinase kinase. PMID:8615830

  1. The role of substrate specificity and metal binding in defining the activity and structure of an intracellular subtilisin.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Michael; Künze, Georg; Brancale, Andrea; Wilson, Keith S; Jones, D Dafydd

    2012-01-01

    The dimeric intracellular subtilisin proteases (ISPs) found throughout Gram-positive bacteria are a structurally distinct class of the subtilase family. Unlike the vast majority of subtilisin-like proteases, the ISPs function exclusively within the cell, contributing the majority of observed cellular proteolytic activity. Given that they are active within the cell, little is known about substrate specificity and the role of stress signals such as divalent metal ions in modulating ISP function. We demonstrate that both play roles in defining the proteolytic activity of Bacillus clausii ISP and propose the molecular basis of their effects. Enzyme kinetics reveal that one particular synthetic tetrapeptide substrate, Phe-Ala-Ala-Phe-pNA, is hydrolysed with a catalytic efficiency ∼100-fold higher than any other tested. Heat-denatured whole proteins were found to be better substrates for ISP than the native forms. Substrate binding simulations suggest that the S1, S2 and S4 sites form defined binding pockets. The deep S1 cavity and wide S4 site are fully occupied by the hydrophobic aromatic side-chains of Phe. Divalent metal ions, probably Ca(2+), are proposed to be important for ISP activity through structural changes. The presence of >0.01 mM EDTA inactivates ISP, with CD and SEC suggesting that the protein becomes less structured and potentially monomeric. Removal of Ca(2+) at sites close to the dimer interface and the S1 pocket are thought to be responsible for the effect. These studies provide a new insight into the potential physiological function of ISPs, by reconciling substrate specificity and divalent metal binding to associate ISP with the unfolded protein response under stress conditions.

  2. The role of substrate specificity and metal binding in defining the activity and structure of an intracellular subtilisin

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Michael; Künze, Georg; Brancale, Andrea; Wilson, Keith S.; Jones, D. Dafydd

    2012-01-01

    The dimeric intracellular subtilisin proteases (ISPs) found throughout Gram-positive bacteria are a structurally distinct class of the subtilase family. Unlike the vast majority of subtilisin-like proteases, the ISPs function exclusively within the cell, contributing the majority of observed cellular proteolytic activity. Given that they are active within the cell, little is known about substrate specificity and the role of stress signals such as divalent metal ions in modulating ISP function. We demonstrate that both play roles in defining the proteolytic activity of Bacillus clausii ISP and propose the molecular basis of their effects. Enzyme kinetics reveal that one particular synthetic tetrapeptide substrate, Phe-Ala-Ala-Phe-pNA, is hydrolysed with a catalytic efficiency ∼100-fold higher than any other tested. Heat-denatured whole proteins were found to be better substrates for ISP than the native forms. Substrate binding simulations suggest that the S1, S2 and S4 sites form defined binding pockets. The deep S1 cavity and wide S4 site are fully occupied by the hydrophobic aromatic side-chains of Phe. Divalent metal ions, probably Ca2+, are proposed to be important for ISP activity through structural changes. The presence of >0.01 mM EDTA inactivates ISP, with CD and SEC suggesting that the protein becomes less structured and potentially monomeric. Removal of Ca2+ at sites close to the dimer interface and the S1 pocket are thought to be responsible for the effect. These studies provide a new insight into the potential physiological function of ISPs, by reconciling substrate specificity and divalent metal binding to associate ISP with the unfolded protein response under stress conditions. PMID:23650602

  3. AMP-activated kinase in human spermatozoa: identification, intracellular localization, and key function in the regulation of sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Calle-Guisado, Violeta; de Llera, Ana Hurtado; Martin-Hidalgo, David; Mijares, Jose; Gil, Maria C; Alvarez, Ignacio S; Bragado, Maria J; Garcia-Marin, Luis J

    2016-09-27

    AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), a protein that regulates energy balance and metabolism, has recently been identified in boar spermatozoa where regulates key functional sperm processes essential for fertilization. This work's aims are AMPK identification, intracellular localization, and their role in human spermatozoa function. Semen was obtained from healthy human donors. Sperm AMPK and phospho-Thr172-AMPK were analyzed by Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence. High- and low-quality sperm populations were separated by a 40%-80% density gradient. Human spermatozoa motility was evaluated by an Integrated Semen Analysis System (ISAS) in the presence or absence of the AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC). AMPK is localized along the human spermatozoa, at the entire acrosome, midpiece and tail with variable intensity, whereas its active form, phospho-Thr172-AMPK, shows a prominent staining at the acrosome and sperm tail with a weaker staining in the midpiece and the postacrosomal region. Interestingly, spermatozoa bearing an excess residual cytoplasm show strong AMPK staining in this subcellular compartment. Both AMPK and phospho-Thr172-AMPK human spermatozoa contents exhibit important individual variations. Moreover, active AMPK is predominant in the high motility sperm population, where shows a stronger intensity compared with the low motility sperm population. Inhibition of AMPK activity in human spermatozoa by CC treatment leads to a significant reduction in any sperm motility parameter analyzed: percent of motile sperm, sperm velocities, progressivity, and other motility coefficients. This work identifies and points out AMPK as a new molecular mechanism involved in human spermatozoa motility. Further AMPK implications in the clinical efficiency of assisted reproduction and in other reproductive areas need to be studied.

  4. Intracellular ROS protection efficiency and free radical-scavenging activity of quercetin and quercetin-encapsulated liposomes.

    PubMed

    Rezaei-Sadabady, Rogaie; Eidi, Akram; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Barzegar, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone) is a natural bio-flavonoid originating from fruits, vegetables, seeds, berries, and tea. The antioxidant activity of quercetin and its protective effects against cardiovascular disorders, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-viral activities have been extensively documented; however, the clinical request of quercetin in cancer treatment is significantly limited due to its very poor delivery features. In order to increase the hydrophilicity and drug delivery capability, we encapsulated quercetin into liposomes. Our data indicated that liposomal quercetin can significantly improve the solubility and bioavailability of quercetin and can be used as an effective antioxidant for ROS protection within the polar cytoplasm, and the nano-sized quercetin encapsulated by liposomes enhanced the cellular uptake (cancer cell human MCF_7). Quercetin has many pharmaceutical applications, many of which arise from its potent antioxidant properties. The present research examined the antioxidant activities of quercetin in polar solvents by a comparative study using reduction of ferric iron in aqueous medium, intracellular ROS/toxicity assays, and reducing DPPH assays. Cell viability and ROS assays demonstrated that quercetin was able to penetrate into the polar medium inside the cells and to protect them against the highly toxic and deadly belongings of cumene hydroperoxide. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a liposomal formulation of quercetin can suggestively improve its solubility and bioavailability and can be a possible request in the treatment of tumor. The authors encapsulated quercetin in a liposomal delivery system. They studied the in vitro effects of this compound on proliferation using human MCF-7 carcinoma cells. The activity of liposomal quercetin was equal to or better than that of free quercetin at equimolar concentrations. Our data indicated that liposomal quercetin can significantly improve the

  5. In Situ Ratiometric Quantitative Tracing of Intracellular Leucine Aminopeptidase Activity via an Activatable Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probe.

    PubMed

    Gu, Kaizhi; Liu, Yajing; Guo, Zhiqian; Lian, Cheng; Yan, Chenxu; Shi, Ping; Tian, He; Zhu, Wei-Hong

    2016-10-03

    Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), one of the important proteolytic enzymes, is intertwined with the progress of many pathological disorders as a well-defined biomarker. To explore fluorescent aminopeptidase probe for quantitative detection of LAP distribution and dynamic changes, herein we report a LAP-targeting near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe (DCM-Leu) for ratiometric quantitative trapping of LAP activity in different kinds of living cells. DCM-Leu is composed of a NIR-emitting fluorophore (DCM) as a reporter and l-leucine as a triggered moiety, which are linked together by an amide bond specific for LAP cleavage. High contrast on the ratiometric NIR fluorescence signal can be achieved in response to LAP activity, thus enabling quantification of endogenous LAP with "build-in calibration" as well as minimal background interference. Its ratiometric NIR signal can be blocked in a dose-dependent manner by bestatin, an LAP inhibitor, indicating that the alteration of endogenous LAP activity results in these obviously fluorescent signal responses. It is worth noting that DCM-Leu features striking characteristics such as a large Stokes shift (∼205 nm), superior selectivity, and strong photostability responding to LAP. Impressively, not only did we successfully exemplify DCM-Leu in situ ratiometric trapping and quantification of endogenous LAP activity in various types of living cells, but also, with the aid of three-dimensional confocal imaging, the intracellular LAP distribution is clearly observed from different perspectives for the first time, owing to the high signal-to-noise of ratiometric NIR fluorescent response. Collectively, these results demonstrate preclinical potential value of DCM-Leu serving as a useful NIR fluorescent probe for early detection of LAP-associated disease and screening inhibitor.

  6. Active Engine Mount Technology for Automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Z.; Spanos, J.

    1996-01-01

    We present a narrow-band tracking control using a variant of the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm [1,2,3] for supressing automobile engine/drive-train vibration disturbances. The algorithm presented here has a simple structure and may be implemented in a low cost micro controller.

  7. Intracellular delivery and ultrasonic activation of folate receptor-targeted phase-change contrast agents in breast cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Marshalek, Joseph P; Sheeran, Paul S; Ingram, Pier; Dayton, Paul A; Witte, Russell S; Matsunaga, Terry O

    2016-12-10

    Breast cancer is a diverse and complex disease that remains one of the leading causes of death among women. Novel, outside-of-the-box imaging and treatment methods are needed to supplement currently available technologies. In this study, we present evidence for the intracellular delivery and ultrasound-stimulated activation of folate receptor (FR)-targeted phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro. PCCAs are lipid-coated, perfluorocarbon-filled particles formulated as nanoscale liquid droplets capable of vaporization into gaseous microbubbles for imaging or therapy. Cells were incubated with 1:1 decafluorobutane (DFB)/octafluoropropane (OFP) PCCAs for 1h, imaged via confocal microscopy, exposed to ultrasound (9MHz, MI=1.0 or 1.5), and imaged again after insonation. FR-targeted PCCAs were observed intracellularly in both cell lines, but uptake was significantly greater (p<0.001) in MDA-MB-231 cells (93.0% internalization at MI=1.0, 79.5% at MI=1.5) than MCF-7 cells (42.4% internalization at MI=1.0, 35.7% at MI=1.5). Folate incorporation increased the frequency of intracellular PCCA detection 45-fold for MDA-MB-231 cells and 7-fold for MCF-7 cells, relative to untargeted PCCAs. Intracellularly activated PCCAs ranged from 500nm to 6μm (IQR=800nm-1.5μm) with a mean diameter of 1.15±0.59 (SD) microns. The work presented herein demonstrates the feasibility of PCCA intracellular delivery and activation using breast cancer cells, illuminating a new platform toward intracellular imaging or therapeutic delivery with ultrasound.

  8. Na-KATPase activity and intracellular ion concentrations in the lactating guinea pig mammary gland. Studies on Na-K activated adenosine triphosphatase, XXXVI.

    PubMed

    Vreeswijk, J H; de Pont, J J; Bonting, S L

    1975-01-01

    The intracellular sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations in slices of lactating guinea pig mammary gland have been determined by chemical analysis and the use of appropriate values for extracellular space. These ion concentrations after 1 hr incubation at 37 degrees C in a Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution are 45mM Na+, 138 mM K+ and 44 mM Cl-, which values are in agreement with those found in fresh mammary gland slices. Inhibition of the NaK activated ATPase cation pump system of the tissue by 10(-4)M ouabain, anoxia or cooling to 0 degrees C Causes a gain of Na+ and an equimolar loss of K+ without a significant change in chloride concentration. The effect of cooling (0 degrees C) is reversible by reincubation at 37 degrees C. Water content of the tissue (76.5% of wet weight) and extracellular space (40.5%) do not change under these conditions. The results permit the conclusion that the NaK activated ATPase system is responsible for the maintenance of the intracellular Na+ and K+ concentrations, but do not support the presence of a chloride pump.

  9. Synaptic generation of an intracellular retrograde signal requires activation of the tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascades in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Stough, Shara; Kopec, Ashley M; Carew, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Cellular changes underlying memory formation can be generated in an activity-dependent manner at specific synapses. Thus an important question concerns the mechanisms by which synaptic signals communicate with the cell body to mediate these cellular changes. A monosynaptic circuit that is enhanced by sensitization in Aplysia is well-suited to study this question because three different subcellular compartments: (i) the sensorimotor SN-MN synapses, (ii) the SN projections to MNs via axonal connections, (iii) the SN cell bodies, can all be manipulated and studied independently. Here, we report that activity-dependent (AD) training in either the entire SN-MN circuit or in only the synaptic compartment, activates MAPK in a temporally and spatially specific pattern. Specifically, we find (i) MAPK activation is first transiently generated at SN-MN synapses during training, (ii) immediately after training MAPK is transiently activated in SN-MN axonal connections and persistently activated in SN cell bodies, and finally, (iii) MAPK is activated in SN cell bodies and SN-MN synapses 1h after training. These data suggest that there is an intracellularly transported retrograde signal generated at the synapse which is later responsible for delayed MAPK activation at SN somata. Finally, we find that this retrograde signal requires activation of tyrosine kinase (TK) and MEK signaling cascades at the synapses.

  10. Intracellular Proton-mediated Activation of TRPV3 Channels Accounts for the Exfoliation Effect of α-Hydroxyl Acids on Keratinocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xu; Yang, Fan; Zheng, Jie; Wang, KeWei

    2012-01-01

    α-Hydroxyl acids (AHAs) from natural sources act as proton donors and topical compounds that penetrate skin and are well known in the cosmetic industry for their use in chemical peels and improvement of the skin. However, little is known about how AHAs cause exfoliation to expose fresh skin cells. Here we report that the transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) channel in keratinocytes is potently activated by intracellular acidification induced by glycolic acid. Patch clamp recordings and cell death assay of both human keratinocyte HaCaT cells and TRPV3-expressing HEK-293 cells confirmed that intracellular acidification led to direct activation of TRPV3 and promoted cell death. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that an N-terminal histidine residue, His-426, known to be involved in 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate-mediated TRPV3 activation, is critical for sensing intracellular proton levels. Taken together, our findings suggest that intracellular protons can strongly activate TRPV3, and TRPV3-mediated proton sensing and cell death in keratinocytes may serve as a molecular basis for the cosmetic use of AHAs and their therapeutic potential in acidic pH-related skin disorders. PMID:22679014

  11. Lactoferrin inhibits or promotes Legionella pneumophila intracellular multiplication in nonactivated and interferon gamma-activated human monocytes depending upon its degree of iron saturation. Iron-lactoferrin and nonphysiologic iron chelates reverse monocyte activation against Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, T F; Horwitz, M A

    1991-01-01

    We have been exploring the role of iron in the pathogenesis of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication in human monocytes is iron dependent and that IFN gamma-activated monocytes inhibit L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication by limiting the availability of iron. In this study, we have investigated the effect on L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication of lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein which is internalized via specific receptors on monocytes, and of nonphysiologic iron chelates which enter monocytes by a receptor-independent route. Apolactoferrin completely inhibited L. pneumophila multiplication in nonactivated monocytes, and enhanced the capacity of IFN gamma-activated monocytes to inhibit L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication. In contrast, iron-saturated lactoferrin had no effect on the already rapid rate of L. pneumophila multiplication in nonactivated monocytes. Moreover, it reversed the capacity of activated monocytes to inhibit L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication, demonstrating that L. pneumophila can utilize iron from the lactoferrin-lactoferrin receptor pathway. The capacity of iron-lactoferrin to reverse monocyte activation was dependent upon its percent iron saturation and not just its total iron content. Similarly, the nonphysiologic iron chelates ferric nitrilotriacetate and ferric ammonium citrate completely reverse and ferric pyrophosphate partially reversed the capacity of IFN gamma-activated monocytes to inhibit L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication, demonstrating that L. pneumophila can utilize iron derived from nonphysiologic iron chelates internalized by monocytes independently of the transferrin and lactoferrin endocytic pathways. This study suggests that at sites of inflammation, lactoferrin may inhibit or promote L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication in mononuclear phagocytes depending upon

  12. A triple-barreled microelectrode for simultaneous measurements of intracellular Na+ and K+ activities and membrane potential in biological cells.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, M; Honda, M

    1980-01-01

    A triple-barreled Na+, K+-selective microelectrode was constructed with liquid ion exchangers for Na+ (monensin) and K+ (Corning #477317) to measure the intracellular Na+ and K+ activities ((Na)i and (K)i) of a single cell and its membrane potential (EM), simultaneously. The tip of the triple-barreled assembly was made less than 0.6 micron in outside diameter. Prior to in vivo measurements, some physiochemical properties of microelectrodes were examined in vitro for the slope constant, selectivity coefficient, electrical resistance, and pH effect, as well as measurements of the activity coefficient on ions in blood serum and Ringer solution. Carrying out direct micropunctures on single cells of the sartorius muscle and renal proximal tubule of bullfrogs in vivo, we obtained the following results: (1) In sartorius muscle, the average (Na)i was 14.8 mEq/liter, the (K)i 64.5 mEq/liter, and the EM -86.2 mV. (2) In proximal tubule cells, the average (Na)i, (K)i and EM were 16.8, 63.0 mEq/liter and -65.9 mV, respectively. (3) There were significant correlations in the proximal tubule between (K)i and EM, and inversely between (Na)i and EM, and between (Na)i and (K)i. These facts may somehow be related to both the activity of Na+-K+ exchange pump and the osmotic equilibrium of water across the membrane. Further, several problems inherent in the multibarreled microelectrode were discussed from the practical point of view.

  13. Antibody-maytansinoid conjugates are activated in targeted cancer cells by lysosomal degradation and linker-dependent intracellular processing.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Hans K; Park, Peter U; Widdison, Wayne C; Kovtun, Yelena V; Garrett, Lisa M; Hoffman, Karen; Lutz, Robert J; Goldmacher, Victor S; Blättler, Walter A

    2006-04-15

    Antibody-drug conjugates are targeted anticancer agents consisting of a cytotoxic drug covalently linked to a monoclonal antibody for tumor antigen-specific activity. Once bound to the target cell-surface antigen, the conjugate must be processed to release an active form of the drug, which can reach its intracellular target. Here, we used both biological and biochemical methods to better define this process for antibody-maytansinoid conjugates. In particular, we examined the metabolic fate in cells of huC242-maytansinoid conjugates containing either a disulfide linker (huC242-SPDB-DM4) or a thioether linker (huC242-SMCC-DM1). Using cell cycle analysis combined with lysosomal inhibitors, we showed that lysosomal processing is required for the activity of antibody-maytansinoid conjugates, irrespective of the linker. We also identified and characterized the released maytansinoid molecules from these conjugates, and measured their rate of release compared with the kinetics of cell cycle arrest. Both conjugates are efficiently degraded in lysosomes to yield metabolites consisting of the intact maytansinoid drug and linker attached to lysine. The lysine adduct is the sole metabolite from the thioether-linked conjugate. However, the lysine metabolite generated from the disulfide-linked conjugate is reduced and S-methylated to yield the lipophilic and potently cytotoxic metabolite, S-methyl-DM4. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of action of antibody-maytansinoid conjugates in general, and more specifically, identify a biochemical mechanism that may account for the significantly enhanced antitumor efficacy observed with disulfide-linked conjugates.

  14. A single-chain variable fragment intrabody prevents intracellular polymerization of Z α1-antitrypsin while allowing its antiproteinase activity.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Adriana; Pérez, Juan; Tan, Lu; Dickens, Jennifer A; Motamedi-Shad, Neda; Irving, James A; Haq, Imran; Ekeowa, Ugo; Marciniak, Stefan J; Miranda, Elena; Lomas, David A

    2015-06-01

    Mutant Z α1-antitrypsin (E342K) accumulates as polymers within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of hepatocytes predisposing to liver disease, whereas low levels of circulating Z α1-antitrypsin lead to emphysema by loss of inhibition of neutrophil elastase. The ideal therapy should prevent polymer formation while preserving inhibitory activity. Here we used mAb technology to identify interactors with Z α1-antitrypsin that comply with both requirements. We report the generation of an mAb (4B12) that blocked α1-antitrypsin polymerization in vitro at a 1:1 molar ratio, causing a small increase of the stoichiometry of inhibition for neutrophil elastase. A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) intrabody was generated based on the sequence of mAb4B12. The expression of scFv4B12 within the ER (scFv4B12KDEL) and along the secretory pathway (scFv4B12) reduced the intracellular polymerization of Z α1-antitrypsin by 60%. The scFv4B12 intrabody also increased the secretion of Z α1-antitrypsin that retained inhibitory activity against neutrophil elastase. MAb4B12 recognized a discontinuous epitope probably located in the region of helices A/C/G/H/I and seems to act by altering protein dynamics rather than binding preferentially to the native state. This novel approach could reveal new target sites for small-molecule intervention that may block the transition to aberrant polymers without compromising the inhibitory activity of Z α1-antitrypsin.

  15. A novel DNA tetrahedron-hairpin probe for in situ"off-on" fluorescence imaging of intracellular telomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qiu-Mei; Zhu, Meng-Jiao; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2016-04-21

    A novel three-dimensionally structured DNA probe is reported to realize in situ"off-on" imaging of intracellular telomerase activity. The probe consists of a DNA tetrahedron and a hairpin DNA on one of the vertices of the DNA tetrahedron. It is composed of four modified DNA segments: S1-Au nanoparticle (NP) inserting a telomerase strand primer (TSP) and S2-S4, three Cy5 dye modified DNA segments. Fluorescence of Cy5 at three vertices of the DNA tetrahedron is quenched by the Au NP at the other vertex due to the effective fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) ("off" state). When the probe meets telomerase, the hairpin structure changes to rod-like through complementary hybridization with the telomerase-triggered stem elongation product, resulting in a large distance between the Au NP and Cy5 and the recovery of Cy5 fluorescence ("on" state). The molar ratio of 3 : 1 between the reporter (Cy5) and the target related TSP makes the probe show high sensitivity and recovery efficiency of Cy5 in the presence of telomerase extracted from HeLa cells. Given the functional and compact nanostructure, the mechanically stable and noncytotoxic nature of the DNA tetrahedron, this FRET-based probe provides more opportunities for biosensing, molecular imaging and drug delivery.

  16. Inflammation and exercise: Inhibition of monocytic intracellular TNF production by acute exercise via β2-adrenergic activation.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Stoyan; Hulteng, Elaine; Hong, Suzi

    2017-03-01

    Regular exercise is shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects, yet the effects of acute exercise on cellular inflammatory responses and its mechanisms remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that sympathoadrenergic activation during a single bout of exercise has a suppressive effect on monocytic cytokine production mediated by β2 adrenergic receptors (AR). We investigated the effects of 20-min moderate (65-70% VO2 peak) exercise-induced catecholamine production on LPS-stimulated TNF production by monocytes in 47 healthy volunteers and determined AR subtypes involved. We also examined the effects of β-agonist isoproterenol and endogenous β- and α-agonists epinephrine and norepinephrine, and receptor-subtype-specific β- and α-antagonists on TNF production in a series of in vitro investigations. LPS-stimulated TNF production by peripheral blood monocytes was determined intracellularly by flow cytometry, using an intracellular protein transport inhibitor. Percent TNF-producing monocytes and per-cell TNF production with and without LPS was suppressed by exercise with moderate to large effects, which was reversed by a β2-AR antagonist in spite that plasma TNF levels did not change. This inhibitory response in TNF production by exercise was mirrored by β-AR agonists in an agonist-specific and dose-dependent manner in vitro: similar isoproterenol (EC50=2.1-4.7×10(-10)M) and epinephrine (EC50=4.4-10×10(-10)M) potency and higher norepinephrine concentrations (EC50=2.6-4.3×10(-8)M) needed for the effects. Importantly, epinephrine levels observed during acute exercise in vivo significantly inhibited TNF production in vitro. The inhibitory effect of the AR agonists was abolished by β2-, but not by β1- or α-AR blockers. We conclude that the downregulation of monocytic TNF production during acute exercise is mediated by elevated epinephrine levels through β2-ARs. Decreased inflammatory responses during acute exercise may protect against chronic conditions with low

  17. Combustion diagnostic for active engine feedback control

    DOEpatents

    Green, Jr., Johney Boyd; Daw, Charles Stuart; Wagner, Robert Milton

    2007-10-02

    This invention detects the crank angle location where combustion switches from premixed to diffusion, referred to as the transition index, and uses that location to define integration limits that measure the portions of heat released during the combustion process that occur during the premixed and diffusion phases. Those integrated premixed and diffusion values are used to develop a metric referred to as the combustion index. The combustion index is defined as the integrated diffusion contribution divided by the integrated premixed contribution. As the EGR rate is increased enough to enter the low temperature combustion regime, PM emissions decrease because more of the combustion process is occurring over the premixed portion of the heat release rate profile and the diffusion portion has been significantly reduced. This information is used to detect when the engine is or is not operating in a low temperature combustion mode and provides that feedback to an engine control algorithm.

  18. Role of H(+)-pyrophosphatase activity in the regulation of intracellular pH in a scuticociliate parasite of turbot: Physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Mallo, Natalia; Lamas, Jesús; de Felipe, Ana-Paula; Sueiro, Rosa-Ana; Fontenla, Francisco; Leiro, José-Manuel

    2016-10-01

    The scuticociliatosis is a very serious disease that affects the cultured turbot, and whose causal agent is the anphizoic and marine euryhaline ciliate Philasterides dicentrarchi. Several protozoans possess acidic organelles that contain high concentrations of pyrophosphate (PPi), Ca(2+) and other elements with essential roles in vesicular trafficking, pH homeostasis and osmoregulation. P. dicentrarchi possesses a pyrophosphatase (H(+)-PPase) that pumps H(+) through the membranes of vacuolar and alveolar sacs. These compartments share common features with the acidocalcisomes described in other parasitic protozoa (e.g. acid content and Ca(2+) storage). We evaluated the effects of Ca(2+) and ATP on H (+)-PPase activity in this ciliate and analyzed their role in maintaining intracellular pH homeostasis and osmoregulation, by the addition of PPi and inorganic molecules that affect osmolarity. Addition of PPi led to acidification of the intracellular compartments, while the addition of ATP, CaCl2 and bisphosphonates analogous of PPi and Ca(2+) metabolism regulators led to alkalinization and a decrease in H(+)-PPase expression in trophozoites. Addition of NaCl led to proton release, intracellular Ca(2+) accumulation and downregulation of H(+)-PPase expression. We conclude that the regulation of the acidification of intracellular compartments may be essential for maintaining the intracellular pH homeostasis necessary for survival of ciliates and their adaptation to salt stress, which they will presumably face during the endoparasitic phase, in which the salinity levels are lower than in their natural environment.

  19. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Induces the Voltage-Independent Activation of Inward Membrane Currents and Elevation of Intracellular Calcium in HIT-T15 Insulinoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    LEECH, COLIN A.; HOLZ, GEORGE G.; HABENER, JOEL F.

    2010-01-01

    The secretion of insulin by pancreatic β-cells is controlled by synergistic interactions of glucose and hormones of the glucagon-related peptide family, of which pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member. Here we show by simultaneous recording of intracellular calcium ion ([Ca2+]i) and membrane potential that both PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 depolarize HIT-T15 cells and raise [Ca2+]i. PACAP stimulation can result in membrane depolarization by two distinct mechanisms: 1) PACAP reduces the membrane conductance and increases membrane excitability; and 2) PACAP activates a pronounced inward current that is predominantly a Na+ current, blockable by La3+, and which exhibits a reversal potential of about −28 mV. Activation of this current does not require membrane depolarization, because the response is observed when cells are held under voltage clamp at −70 mV. This current may result from the cAMP-dependent activation of nonspecific cation channels because the current is also observed in response to forskolin or membrane-permeant analogs of cAMP. We also suggest that PACAP raises [Ca2+]i and stimulates insulin secretion by three distinct mechanisms: 1) depolarization activates Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, 2) mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stores, and 3) entry of Ca2+ via voltage-independent Ca2+ channels. These effects of PACAP may play an important role in a neuro-entero-endocrine loop regulating insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells during the transition period from fasting to feeding. PMID:7895663

  20. Summary of aerospace and nuclear engineering activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Texas A&M Nuclear and Aerospace engineering departments have worked on five different projects for the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program during the 1987/88 year. The aerospace department worked on two types of lunar tunnelers that would create habitable space. The first design used a heated cone to melt the lunar regolith, and the second used a conventional drill to bore its way through the crust. Both used a dump truck to get rid of waste heat from the reactor as well as excess regolith from the tunneling operation. The nuclear engineering department worked on three separate projects. The NEPTUNE system is a manned, outer-planetary explorer designed with Jupiter exploration as the baseline mission. The lifetime requirement for both reactor and power-conversion systems was twenty years. The second project undertaken for the power supply was a Mars Sample Return Mission power supply. This was designed to produce 2 kW of electrical power for seven years. The design consisted of a General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) utilizing a Stirling engine as the power conversion unit. A mass optimization was performed to aid in overall design. The last design was a reactor to provide power for propulsion to Mars and power on the surface. The requirements of 300 kW of electrical power output and a mass of less than 10,000 Rg were set. This allowed the reactor and power conversion unit to fit within the Space Shuttle cargo bay.

  1. Methylmercury-induced toxicity is mediated by enhanced intracellular calcium through activation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Mi Sun; Jeong, Ju Yeon; Seo, Ji Heui; Jeon, Hyung Jun; Jung, Kwang Mook; Chin, Mi-Reyoung; Moon, Chang-Kiu; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Jung, Sung Yun; Kim, Dae Kyong . E-mail: proteinlab@hanmail.net

    2006-10-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant to which humans can be exposed by ingestion of contaminated food. MeHg has been suggested to exert its toxicity through its high reactivity to thiols, generation of arachidonic acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and elevation of free intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}). However, the precise mechanism has not been fully defined. Here we show that phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is a critical pathway for MeHg-induced toxicity in MDCK cells. D609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC, significantly reversed the toxicity in a time- and dose-dependent manner with concomitant inhibition of the diacylglycerol (DAG) generation and the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-breakdown. MeHg activated the group IV cytosolic phospholipase A{sub 2} (cPLA{sub 2}) and acidic form of sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) downstream of PC-PLC, but these enzymes as well as protein kinase C (PKC) were not linked to the toxicity by MeHg. Furthermore, MeHg produced ROS, which did not affect the toxicity. Addition of EGTA to culture media resulted in partial decrease of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and partially blocked the toxicity. In contrast, when the cells were treated with MeHg in the presence of Ca{sup 2+} in the culture media, D609 completely prevented cell death with parallel decrease in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. Our results demonstrated that MeHg-induced toxicity was linked to elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} through activation of PC-PLC, but not attributable to the signaling pathways such as cPLA{sub 2}, A-SMase, and PKC, or to the generation of ROS.

  2. Cofactor-embedded nanoporous activated carbon matrices for the immobilization of intracellular enzymes and degradation of endocrine disruptor.

    PubMed

    Paranji, Saranya; Ganesan, Sekaran

    2016-03-14

    The mixed intracellular enzyme (MICE) from Citrobacter freundii, capable of degrading o-phenylene diamine (OPD), was extracted and characterized. Cofactors such as zinc and copper ions enhanced the MICE activity. The functionalized nanoporous-activated carbon (FNAC) matrix, zinc-impregnated FNAC matrix (Zn(2+) -FNAC), copper-impregnated FNAC matrix (Cu(2+) -FNAC), and zinc- and copper-impregnated FNAC matrix (Zn(2+) -Cu(2+) -FNAC) were prepared and characterized to immobilize MICE. The parameters such as time (0-240 Min), pH (1-10), temperature (20-50 ºC), amount of MICE (1-5 mg), particle size of carbon (100-600 μm), and mass of carbon (0.5-2.5 g) were optimized for immobilization of MICE on different FNAC matrices. The carrier matrices in the free and MICE immobilized form were characterized using SEM, FT-IR, XPS, XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and DSC analyses. The kinetic and adsorption models for the immobilization of MICE on FNAC matrices were studied. The parameters such as time, pH, temperature, concentration of OPD, and agitation speed were optimized for the degradation of OPD using FNAC-MICE and MICE-immobilized metal-impregnated FNAC matrices. The maximum amount of pyruvic acid formed was found to be 133 μg/mg of OPD using Zn(2+) -Cu(2+) -FNAC-MICE matrix. The kinetic models were studied for the formation of pyruvic acid on OPD degradation and confirmed using FT-IR spectroscopy.

  3. MANAGING ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES FOR THE PLATEAU REMEDIATION CONTRACT - HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    KRONVALL CM

    2011-01-14

    In 2008, the primary Hanford clean-up contract transitioned to the CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Prior to transition, Engineering resources assigned to remediation/Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities were a part of a centralized engineering organization and matrixed to the performing projects. Following transition, these resources were reassigned directly to the performing project, with a loose matrix through a smaller Central Engineering (CE) organization. The smaller (10 FTE) central organization has retained responsibility for the overall technical quality of engineering for the CHPRC, but no longer performs staffing and personnel functions. As the organization has matured, there are lessons learned that can be shared with other organizations going through or contemplating performing a similar change. Benefits that have been seen from the CHPRC CE organization structure include the following: (1) Staff are closely aligned with the 'Project/facility' that they are assigned to support; (2) Engineering priorities are managed to be consistent with the 'Project/facility' priorities; (3) Individual Engineering managers are accountable for identifying staffing needs and the filling of staffing positions; (4) Budget priorities are managed within the local organization structure; (5) Rather than being considered a 'functional' organization, engineering is considered a part of a line, direct funded organization; (6) The central engineering organization is able to provide 'overview' activities and maintain independence from the engineering organizations in the field; and (7) The central engineering organization is able to maintain a stable of specialized experts that are able to provide independent reviews of field projects and day-to-day activities.

  4. Desnitro-imidacloprid activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase cascade via the nicotinic receptor and intracellular calcium mobilization in N1E-115 cells.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Motohiro; Casida, John E

    2002-11-01

    Imidacloprid (IMI) is the principal neonicotinoid (the only major new class of synthetic insecticides of the past three decades). The excellent safety profile of IMI is not shared with a metabolite, desnitro-IMI (DNIMI), which displays high toxicity to mammals associated with agonist action at the alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in brain. This study examines the hypothesis that IMI, DNIMI, and (-)-nicotine activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade via primary interaction with the alpha4beta2 nAChR in mouse neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells. These three nicotinic agonists induce phosphorylation of ERK (p44/p42) in a concentration-dependent manner with an optimal incubation period of 30 min. DNIMI (1 microM)-induced ERK activation is blocked by nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine but not by alpha-bungarotoxin and muscarinic antagonist atropine. This activation is prevented by intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM but not by removal of external Ca(2+) using EGTA and Ca(2+)-free medium. 2-Aminoethoxy-diphenylborate, a blocker for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-mediated Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores, inhibits DNIMI-induced ERK activation but a high level of ryanodine (to block ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release) does not. The inhibitor U-73122 for phospholipase C (to suppress IP(3) production) prevents ERK activation evoked by DNIMI. Inhibitors for protein kinase C (PKC) (GF109203X) and ERK kinase (PD98059) block this activation whereas an inhibitor (H-89) for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase does not. Thus, neonicotinoids activate the ERK cascade triggered by primary action at the alpha4beta2 nAChR with an involvement of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization possibly mediated by IP(3). It is further suggested that intracellular Ca(2+) activates a sequential pathway from PKC to ERK.

  5. A quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR assay for the assessment of drug activities against intracellular Theileria annulata schizonts

    PubMed Central

    Hostettler, Isabel; Müller, Joachim; Stephens, Chad E.; Haynes, Richard; Hemphill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular schizonts of the apicomplexans Theileria annulata and Theileria parva immortalize bovine leucocytes thereby causing fatal immunoproliferative diseases. Buparvaquone, a hydroxynaphthoquinone related to parvaquone, is the only drug available against Theileria. The drug is only effective at the onset of infection and emerging resistance underlines the need for identifying alternative compounds. Current drug assays employ monitoring of proliferation of infected cells, with apoptosis of the infected host cell as a read-out, but it is often unclear whether active compounds directly impair the viability of the parasite or primarily induce host cell death. We here report on the development of a quantitative reverse transcriptase real time PCR method based on two Theileria genes, tasp and tap104, which are both expressed in schizonts. Upon in vitro treatment of T. annulata infected bovine monocytes with buparvaquone, TaSP and Tap104 mRNA expression levels significantly decreased in relation to host cell actin already within 4 h of drug exposure, while significant differences in host cell proliferation were detectable only after 48–72 h. TEM revealed marked alterations of the schizont ultrastructure already after 2 h of buparvaquone treatment, while the host cell remained unaffected. Expression of TaSP and Tap104 proteins showed a marked decrease only after 24 h. Therefore, the analysis of expression levels of mRNA coding for TaSP and Tap104 allows to directly measuring impairment of parasite viability. We subsequently applied this method using a series of compounds affecting different targets in other apicomplexan parasites, and show that monitoring of TaSP- and Tap104 mRNA levels constitutes a suitable tool for anti-theilerial drug development. PMID:25516828

  6. A quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR assay for the assessment of drug activities against intracellular Theileria annulata schizonts.

    PubMed

    Hostettler, Isabel; Müller, Joachim; Stephens, Chad E; Haynes, Richard; Hemphill, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    Intracellular schizonts of the apicomplexans Theileria annulata and Theileria parva immortalize bovine leucocytes thereby causing fatal immunoproliferative diseases. Buparvaquone, a hydroxynaphthoquinone related to parvaquone, is the only drug available against Theileria. The drug is only effective at the onset of infection and emerging resistance underlines the need for identifying alternative compounds. Current drug assays employ monitoring of proliferation of infected cells, with apoptosis of the infected host cell as a read-out, but it is often unclear whether active compounds directly impair the viability of the parasite or primarily induce host cell death. We here report on the development of a quantitative reverse transcriptase real time PCR method based on two Theileria genes, tasp and tap104, which are both expressed in schizonts. Upon in vitro treatment of T. annulata infected bovine monocytes with buparvaquone, TaSP and Tap104 mRNA expression levels significantly decreased in relation to host cell actin already within 4 h of drug exposure, while significant differences in host cell proliferation were detectable only after 48-72 h. TEM revealed marked alterations of the schizont ultrastructure already after 2 h of buparvaquone treatment, while the host cell remained unaffected. Expression of TaSP and Tap104 proteins showed a marked decrease only after 24 h. Therefore, the analysis of expression levels of mRNA coding for TaSP and Tap104 allows to directly measuring impairment of parasite viability. We subsequently applied this method using a series of compounds affecting different targets in other apicomplexan parasites, and show that monitoring of TaSP- and Tap104 mRNA levels constitutes a suitable tool for anti-theilerial drug development.

  7. Quantitative analysis of gentamicin, azithromycin, telithromycin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and oritavancin (LY333328) activities against intracellular Staphylococcus aureus in mouse J774 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Seral, Cristina; Van Bambeke, Françoise; Tulkens, Paul M

    2003-07-01

    Using J774 macrophages, the intracellular activities of gentamicin, azithromycin, telithromycin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and oritavancin (LY333328) against Staphylococcus aureus (strain ATCC 25923) have been quantitatively assessed in a 24-h model. S. aureus was positively localized in phagolysosomes by confocal and electron microscopy, and extracellular growth was prevented with 0.5 mg of gentamicin/liter (1x MIC) in controls. When tested at extracellular concentrations equivalent to their maximum concentrations in human serum, all antibiotics except azithromycin caused a significant reduction of the postphagocytosis inoculum within 24 h, albeit to markedly different extents (telithromycin [2 mg/liter], 0.60 log; ciprofloxacin [4.3 mg/liter], 0.81 log; gentamicin [18 mg/liter], 1.21 log; moxifloxacin [4 mg/liter], 1.51 log; oritavancin [25 mg/liter], 3.49 log). Intracellular activities were not systematically related to drug accumulation (apparent cellular-to-extracellular concentration ratios in infected cells: ciprofloxacin, 3.2; gentamicin, 6.8; telithromycin, 8.7; moxifloxacin, 13.4; azithromycin, 50; oritavancin, 348). Intracellular activity was not directly correlated to extracellular activity as measured in broth. Conditions of pH 5 (i.e., mimicking that of phagolysosomes) markedly reduced the activity of gentamicin, azithromycin, and telithromycin (>or=32 x) and fairly extensively reduced that of ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin (>or=4 x) but did not affect oritavancin activity. We conclude that the cellular accumulation of antibiotics is not the only parameter to take into account for intracellular activity but that local environmental conditions (such as pH) and other factors can also prove critical.

  8. International Collaboration Activities on Engineered Barrier Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    2016-08-31

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) within the DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program has been engaging in international collaborations between repository R&D programs for high-level waste (HLW) disposal to leverage on gathered knowledge and laboratory/field data of near- and far-field processes from experiments at underground research laboratories (URL). Heater test experiments at URLs provide a unique opportunity to mimetically study the thermal effects of heat-generating nuclear waste in subsurface repository environments. Various configurations of these experiments have been carried out at various URLs according to the disposal design concepts of the hosting country repository program. The FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier Experiment in Crystalline Host Rock) project is a large-scale heater test experiment originated by the Spanish radioactive waste management agency (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos S.A. – ENRESA) at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) URL in Switzerland. The project was subsequently managed by CIEMAT. FEBEX-DP is a concerted effort of various international partners working on the evaluation of sensor data and characterization of samples obtained during the course of this field test and subsequent dismantling. The main purpose of these field-scale experiments is to evaluate feasibility for creation of an engineered barrier system (EBS) with a horizontal configuration according to the Spanish concept of deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock. Another key aspect of this project is to improve the knowledge of coupled processes such as thermal-hydro-mechanical (THM) and thermal-hydro-chemical (THC) operating in the near-field environment. The focus of these is on model development and validation of predictions through model implementation in computational tools to simulate coupled THM and THC processes.

  9. Accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of intracellular concentrations of active drug metabolites in human target cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Garner, R C; Lee, L S; Seymour, M; Fuchs, E J; Hubbard, W C; Parsons, T L; Pakes, G E; Fletcher, C V; Flexner, C

    2010-12-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an ultrasensitive technique to detect radiolabeled compounds. We administered a microdose (100 µg) of (14)C-labeled zidovudine (ZDV) with or without a standard unlabeled dose (300 mg) to healthy volunteers. Intracellular ZDV-triphosphate (ZDV-TP) concentration was measured using AMS and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). AMS analysis yielded excellent concordance with LC/MS/MS and was 30,000-fold more sensitive. The kinetics of intracellular ZDV-TP formation changed several-fold over the dose range studied (100 µg-300 mg). AMS holds promise as a tool for quantifying intracellular drug metabolites and other biomediators in vivo.

  10. Vehicle Engineering Development Activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Mark F.; Champion, Robert H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    New initiatives in the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center include an emphasis on Vehicle Engineering to enhance the strong commitment to the Directorate's projects in the development of flight hardware and flight demonstrators for the advancement of space transportation technology. This emphasis can be seen in the activities of a newly formed organization in the Transportation Directorate, The Vehicle Subsystems Engineering Group. The functions and type of activities that this group works on are described. The current projects of this group are outlined including a brief description of the status and type of work that the group is performing. A summary section is included to describe future activities.

  11. Transporting Radioactive Waste: An Engineering Activity. Grades 5-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

    This brochure contains an engineering activity for upper elementary, middle school, and high school students that examines the transportation of radioactive waste. The activity is designed to inform students about the existence of radioactive waste and its transportation to disposal sites. Students experiment with methods to contain the waste and…

  12. Exploring Careers in Science and Engineering. Second Edition. [Student Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC.

    This program (which consists of 12 activities) is aimed at increasing the career relevance of science education for all students in grades 4 through 9, while at the same time particularly encouraging female and minority students to consider careers in science and engineering. Major areas addressed in the activities are: (1) students' images of…

  13. Identifying the ionically bound cell wall and intracellular glycoside hydrolases in late growth stage Arabidopsis stems: implications for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hui; Brunecky, Roman; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Ding, Shi-You; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Yang, Shihui; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the cell wall-ionically bound glycoside hydrolases (GHs) in Arabidopsis stems is important for understanding the regulation of cell wall integrity. For cell wall proteomics studies, the preparation of clean cell wall fractions is a challenge since cell walls constitute an open compartment, which is more likely to contain a mixture of intracellular and extracellular proteins due to cell leakage at the late growth stage. Here, we utilize a CaCl2-extraction procedure to isolate non-structural proteins from Arabidopsis whole stems, followed by the in-solution and in-gel digestion methods coupled with Nano-LC-MS/MS, bioinformatics and literature analyses. This has led to the identification of 75 proteins identified using the in-solution method and 236 proteins identified by the in-gel method, among which about 10% of proteins predicted to be secreted. Together, eight cell wall proteins, namely AT1G75040, AT5G26000, AT3G57260, AT4G21650, AT3G52960, AT3G49120, AT5G49360, and AT3G14067, were identified by the in-solution method; among them, three were the GHs (AT5G26000, myrosinase 1, GH1; AT3G57260, β-1,3-glucanase 2, GH17; AT5G49360, bifunctional XYL 1/α-L-arabinofuranosidase, GH3). Moreover, four more GHs: AT4G30270 (xyloglucan endotransferase, GH16), AT1G68560 (bifunctional α-l-arabinofuranosidase/XYL, GH31), AT1G12240 (invertase, GH32) and AT2G28470 (β-galactosidase 8, GH35), were identified by the in-gel solution method only. Notably, more than half of above identified GHs are xylan- or hemicellulose-modifying enzymes, and will likely have an impact on cellulose accessibility, which is a critical factor for downstream enzymatic hydrolysis of plant tissues for biofuels production. The implications of these cell wall proteins identified at the late growth stage for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops are discussed. PMID:26029221

  14. Identifying the ionically bound cell wall and intracellular glycoside hydrolases in late growth stage Arabidopsis stems: Implications for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, Hui; Brunecky, Roman; Donohoe, Bryon S.; ...

    2015-05-13

    Identifying the cell wall-ionically bound glycoside hydrolases (GHs) in Arabidopsis stems is important for understanding the regulation of cell wall integrity. For cell wall proteomics studies, the preparation of clean cell wall fractions is a challenge since cell walls constitute an open compartment, which is more likely to contain a mixture of intracellular and extracellular proteins due to cell leakage at the late growth stage. Here, for this study, we utilize a CaCl2-extraction procedure to isolate non-structural proteins from Arabidopsis whole stems, followed by the in-solution and in-gel digestion methods coupled with Nano-LC-MS/MS, bioinformatics and literature analyses. This has ledmore » to the identification of 75 proteins identified using the in-solution method and 236 proteins identified by the in-gel method, among which about 10% of proteins predicted to be secreted. Together, eight cell wall proteins, namely AT1G75040, AT5G26000, AT3G57260, AT4G21650, AT3G52960, AT3G49120, AT5G49360, and AT3G14067, were identified by the in-solution method; among them, three were the GHs (AT5G26000, myrosinase 1, GH1; AT3G57260, β-1,3-glucanase 2, GH17; AT5G49360, bifunctional XYL 1/α-L-arabinofuranosidase, GH3). Moreover, four more GHs: AT4G30270 (xyloglucan endotransferase, GH16), AT1G68560 (bifunctional α-l-arabinofuranosidase/XYL, GH31), AT1G12240 (invertase, GH32) and AT2G28470 (β-galactosidase 8, GH35), were identified by the in-gel solution method only. Notably, more than half of above identified GHs are xylan- or hemicellulose-modifying enzymes, and will likely have an impact on cellulose accessibility, which is a critical factor for downstream enzymatic hydrolysis of plant tissues for biofuels production. Finally, the implications of these cell wall proteins identified at the late growth stage for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops are discussed.« less

  15. Identifying the ionically bound cell wall and intracellular glycoside hydrolases in late growth stage Arabidopsis stems: Implications for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Hui; Brunecky, Roman; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Ding, Shi -You; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Yang, Shihui; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2015-05-13

    Identifying the cell wall-ionically bound glycoside hydrolases (GHs) in Arabidopsis stems is important for understanding the regulation of cell wall integrity. For cell wall proteomics studies, the preparation of clean cell wall fractions is a challenge since cell walls constitute an open compartment, which is more likely to contain a mixture of intracellular and extracellular proteins due to cell leakage at the late growth stage. Here, for this study, we utilize a CaCl2-extraction procedure to isolate non-structural proteins from Arabidopsis whole stems, followed by the in-solution and in-gel digestion methods coupled with Nano-LC-MS/MS, bioinformatics and literature analyses. This has led to the identification of 75 proteins identified using the in-solution method and 236 proteins identified by the in-gel method, among which about 10% of proteins predicted to be secreted. Together, eight cell wall proteins, namely AT1G75040, AT5G26000, AT3G57260, AT4G21650, AT3G52960, AT3G49120, AT5G49360, and AT3G14067, were identified by the in-solution method; among them, three were the GHs (AT5G26000, myrosinase 1, GH1; AT3G57260, β-1,3-glucanase 2, GH17; AT5G49360, bifunctional XYL 1/α-L-arabinofuranosidase, GH3). Moreover, four more GHs: AT4G30270 (xyloglucan endotransferase, GH16), AT1G68560 (bifunctional α-l-arabinofuranosidase/XYL, GH31), AT1G12240 (invertase, GH32) and AT2G28470 (β-galactosidase 8, GH35), were identified by the in-gel solution method only. Notably, more than half of above identified GHs are xylan- or hemicellulose-modifying enzymes, and will likely have an impact on cellulose accessibility, which is a critical factor for downstream enzymatic hydrolysis of plant tissues for biofuels production. Finally, the implications of these cell wall proteins identified at the late growth stage for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops are discussed.

  16. Intracellular Accumulation of Glycine in Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge, a Novel Storage Mechanism under Dynamic Anaerobic-Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Kristiansen, Rikke; Vestergaard, Mette; Wimmer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions are applied to wastewater treatment plants to select polyphosphate-accumulating organisms to carry out enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Acetate is a well-known substrate to stimulate this process, and here we show that different amino acids also are suitable substrates, with glycine as the most promising. 13C-labeled glycine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to investigate uptake and potential storage products when activated sludge was fed with glycine under anaerobic conditions. Glycine was consumed by the biomass, and the majority was stored intracellularly as free glycine and fermentation products. Subsequently, in the aerobic phase without addition of external substrate, the stored glycine was consumed. The uptake of glycine and oxidation of intracellular metabolites took place along with a release and uptake of orthophosphate, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography using 3H-labeled glycine revealed uncultured actinobacterial Tetrasphaera as a dominant glycine consumer. Experiments with Tetrasphaera elongata as representative of uncultured Tetrasphaera showed that under anaerobic conditions it was able to take up labeled glycine and accumulate this and other labeled metabolites to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 mM. All components were consumed under subsequent aerobic conditions. Intracellular accumulation of amino acids seems to be a novel storage strategy for polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria under dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions. PMID:25956769

  17. Enhancing learning in geosciences and water engineering via lab activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Cheng, Ming

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the utilisation of lab based activities to enhance the learning experience of engineering students studying Water Engineering and Geosciences. In particular, the use of modern highly visual and tangible presentation techniques within an appropriate laboratory based space are used to introduce undergraduate students to advanced engineering concepts. A specific lab activity, namely "Flood-City", is presented as a case study to enhance the active engagement rate, improve the learning experience of the students and better achieve the intended learning objectives of the course within a broad context of the engineering and geosciences curriculum. Such activities, have been used over the last few years from the Water Engineering group @ Glasgow, with success for outreach purposes (e.g. Glasgow Science Festival and demos at the Glasgow Science Centre and Kelvingrove museum). The activity involves a specific setup of the demonstration flume in a sand-box configuration, with elements and activities designed so as to gamely the overall learning activity. Social media platforms can also be used effectively to the same goals, particularly in cases were the students already engage in these online media. To assess the effectiveness of this activity a purpose designed questionnaire is offered to the students. Specifically, the questionnaire covers several aspects that may affect student learning, performance and satisfaction, such as students' motivation, factors to effective learning (also assessed by follow-up quizzes), and methods of communication and assessment. The results, analysed to assess the effectiveness of the learning activity as the students perceive it, offer a promising potential for the use of such activities in outreach and learning.

  18. PlyC, a bacteriophage endolysin that is internalized by epithelial cells and retains bacteriolytic activity against intracellular streptococci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PlyC, a bacteriophage-encoded endolysin, lyses Streptococcus pyogenes (Spy) on contact. Here, we demonstrate that PlyC is a potent agent for controlling intracellular Spy that often underlies refractory infections. We show that the PlyC holoenzyme, mediated by its PlyCB subunit, crosses epithelial...

  19. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment is a physicochemical process that removes a wide variety of contaminants by adsorbing them from liquid and gas streams [1, p. 6-3]. This treatment is most commonly used to separate organic contaminants from water or air; however, it can b...

  20. Content Analysis in Systems Engineering Acquisition Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    shape requirements definitions for system upgrade or modification contracts and new baseline contracts. Finally, content analysis training and skill...back to the system designers, this information can then be used to shape requirements definition for system upgrade or modification contracts and new...Activity System Requirements Definition Ensuring the system requirements adequately reflect the stakeholder requirements Negotiating modifications to

  1. Bioglass Activated Skin Tissue Engineering Constructs for Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongfei; Peng, Jinliang; Xu, Yuhong; Chang, Jiang; Li, Haiyan

    2016-01-13

    Wound healing is a complicated process, and fibroblast is a major cell type that participates in the process. Recent studies have shown that bioglass (BG) can stimulate fibroblasts to secrete a multitude of growth factors that are critical for wound healing. Therefore, we hypothesize that BG can stimulate fibroblasts to have a higher bioactivity by secreting more bioactive growth factors and proteins as compared to untreated fibroblasts, and we aim to construct a bioactive skin tissue engineering graft for wound healing by using BG activated fibroblast sheet. Thus, the effects of BG on fibroblast behaviors were studied, and the bioactive skin tissue engineering grafts containing BG activated fibroblasts were applied to repair the full skin lesions on nude mouse. Results showed that BG stimulated fibroblasts to express some critical growth factors and important proteins including vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, collagen I, and fibronectin. In vivo results revealed that fibroblasts in the bioactive skin tissue engineering grafts migrated into wound bed, and the migration ability of fibroblasts was stimulated by BG. In addition, the bioactive BG activated fibroblast skin tissue engineering grafts could largely increase the blood vessel formation, enhance the production of collagen I, and stimulate the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts in the wound site, which would finally accelerate wound healing. This study demonstrates that the BG activated skin tissue engineering grafts contain more critical growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins that are beneficial for wound healing as compared to untreated fibroblast cell sheets.

  2. Nano-Engineering of Active Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-29

    follows for silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic silicon-organic hybrid (PSOH) devices: For SOH devices, the following performance has been...H. Steier, Harold R. Fetterman, Pierre Berini, and Larry R. Dalton, “Active Plasmonic and Metamaterials and Devices,” Proc SPIE, 7754, 775403 1-10...Embedded Plasmonic Metal-Slotted Polymer Electro-Optic Waveguide Modulator,” Proc. 2011 Conf. on Laser and Electro-Optics, pp. 1-3 (2011). 24. H. Figi

  3. Intracellular ion activities in frog skin in relation to external sodium and effects of amiloride and/or ouabain.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, B J; Kernan, R P

    1984-01-01

    Intracellular activities of sodium, potassium and chloride ions, aiNa, aiK, and aiCl were measured with ion-selective single-, double- and triple-barrelled micro-electrodes in skin and isolated epithelia of Rana temporaria bathed on both sides with normal or modified physiological saline. Apical and basolateral membrane potentials, psi ac and psi cs and resistance Ra and Rb respectively were also measured and from the latter the fractional resistance of the apical membrane, F(Ra) and voltage divider ratio, delta psi ac/delta psi cs were measured as criteria of satisfactory membrane penetration by the micro-electrodes. Under control conditions, aiNa was 12.3 +/- 0.8 mM, aiK was 70.3 +/- 22 mM and aiCl was 20.3 +/- 1.6 mM with psi ac averaging -38.0 +/- 3.2 mV. When 10(-4) M-amiloride was added to the apical bathing fluid aiNa fell within 10 min to 1.18 +/- 0.1 mM and aiCl to 5.2 +/- 0.9 mM, while aiK increased to 86.2 +/- 3.8 mM as measured from the basolateral border of isolated epithelia. The sodium transport pool of the skin was measured from the fall in aiNa in the presence of amiloride and could be expressed as 33 X 10(-9) mol cm-2 of epithelium. The mean rate of fall of aiNa under these conditions corresponded to an efflux rate at the basolateral border of 30.1 X 10(-9) mol cm-2 min-1 (48 microA cm-2) giving a half-time for turnover of the sodium transport pool of 33 s. Reduction of sodium concentration in the apical fluid from the normal 79 mM-Na to 10, 1 and 0.1 mM caused aiNa to fall in stages to 2 mM. Because psi ac increased in negativity to -101 mV in the process, this driving force for passive sodium accumulation, more than offset the increased sodium gradient opposing sodium influx across the apical border. PMID:6610743

  4. [Transcription activator-like effectors(TALEs)based genome engineering].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei-Wei; Duan, Cheng-Li; Liu, Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Systematic reverse-engineering of functional genome architecture requires precise modifications of gene sequences and transcription levels. The development and application of transcription activator-like effectors(TALEs) has created a wealth of genome engineering possibilities. TALEs are a class of naturally occurring DNA-binding proteins found in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas species. The DNA-binding domain of each TALE typically consists of tandem 34-amino acid repeat modules rearranged according to a simple cipher to target new DNA sequences. Customized TALEs can be used for a wide variety of genome engineering applications, including transcriptional modulation and genome editing. Such "genome engineering" has now been established in human cells and a number of model organisms, thus opening the door to better understanding gene function in model organisms, improving traits in crop plants and treating human genetic disorders.

  5. Quercetin and Ascorbic Acid Suppress Fructose-Induced NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation by Blocking Intracellular Shuttling of TXNIP in Human Macrophage Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2017-03-22

    The aim of this study was to identify the role of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and its interaction with antioxidants in the activation of the fructose-induced NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in human macrophages. The study was performed with U937 and THP-1 macrophage cell lines. Total reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by flow cytometry. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-18, NLRP3, TXNIP, and caspase-1 protein expression was detected using western blotting. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect IL-1β, IL-18, and caspase-1 gene expression. Intracellular shuttling of TXNIP was assessed by immunofluorescent staining with MitoTracker Red. Increased production of ROS and expression of IL-1β, IL-18, and caspase-1 genes and proteins were observed in U937 and THP-1 cells incubated with fructose and were effectively inhibited by quercetin and ascorbic acid. Intracellular shuttling of TXNIP from the nucleus into the mitochondria was detected under stimulation with fructose, which was also attenuated by antioxidants quercetin and ascorbic acid but not butylated hydroxyanisole. Treatment of macrophages with fructose promoted the association between TXNIP and NLRP3 in the cytosol, sequentially resulting in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. This study revealed that intracellular TXNIP protein is a critical regulator of activation of the fructose-induced NLRP3 inflammasome, which can be effectively blocked by the antioxidants quercetin and ascorbic acid.

  6. [Intracellular cAMP involvement in the synchronized activity of noradrenaline in response to evoked release of the transmitter quanta in the frog synapses].

    PubMed

    Bukharaeva, E A; Samigullin, D V; Nikol'skiĭ, E E; Vyskocil, F

    2000-04-01

    An analogue of cyclic AMP (db-cAMP) penetrating into the frog neuromuscular junction's cell, as well as the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin, and inhibitor of nucleotide-depending phosphodiesterase isobutilmethylxantine alter the kinetics of the quanta secretion resulting in synchronizing of the process of the transmitter release. Following a db-cAMP preliminary action, no such synchronizing of the transmitter release occurred. Action of noradrenaline on the time course of the secretion seems to be realised through activation of presynaptic beta-adrenoreceptors, augmentation of the adenylyl cyclase activity, and the rise of the intracellular cAMP.

  7. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Saus, Joseph R.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2000-01-01

    Lean-burning combustors are susceptible to combustion instabilities. Additionally, due to non-uniformities in the fuel-air mixing and in the combustion process, there typically exist hot areas in the combustor exit plane. These hot areas limit the operating temperature at the turbine inlet and thus constrain performance and efficiency. Finally, it is necessary to optimize the fuel-air ratio and flame temperature throughout the combustor to minimize the production of pollutants. In recent years, there has been considerable activity addressing Active Combustion Control. NASA Glenn Research Center's Active Combustion Control Technology effort aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines. Analysis and experiments are tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. Considerable progress has been shown in demonstrating technologies for Combustion Instability Control, Pattern Factor Control, and Emissions Minimizing Control. Future plans are to advance the maturity of active combustion control technology to eventual demonstration in an engine environment.

  8. Calcium-activated potassium channels in the luminal membrane of Amphiuma diluting segment: voltage-dependent block by intracellular Na+ upon depolarisation.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, K; Hunter, M; Giebisch, G

    1990-06-01

    Calcium-activated potassium channels in the luminal membrane of Amphiuma diluting segment were studied using the patch-clamp technique in both the cell-attached and inside-out configurations. The open probability (Po) of the channel is sensitive to both membrane potential and cytoplasmic calcium activity; depolarizing potentials and high calcium concentrations leading to an increased Po. In the cell-attached condition, channel openings were observed between pipette potentials of -100 and -240 mV. As the driving force for potassium exit from the cell into the pipette is increased the single channel currents show a biphasic response. First, the currents increase as expected; however, the single channel currents diminish in magnitude at pipette potentials more negative than -120 mV. We propose that this reduction is due to rapid blockade of the potassium channel by intracellular sodium. This proposal is supported by two facts: (a) using inside-out patches it was possible to reduce the single channel currents in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner, similar to that observed in the cell-attached condition, by raising the sodium concentration of the fluid bathing the cytoplasmic face of the patch; (b) pretreatment of tubules with the loop-acting diuretic furosemide (10(-5) M), an agent known to decrease the intracellular sodium activity, caused an attenuation of the reduction in single channel current seen under control conditions. Given the very low Po of the channels at the resting membrane potential and the sensitivity of the channels to intracellular sodium, it is unlikely that blockade of these channels by intracellular sodium would lead to a physiological regulation of the apical K conductance.

  9. A stereo-compound hybrid microscope for combined intracellular and optical recording of invertebrate neural network activity

    PubMed Central

    Frost, William N.; Wang, Jean; Brandon, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Optical recording studies of invertebrate neural networks with voltage-sensitive dyes seldom employ conventional intracellular electrodes. This may in part be due to the traditional reliance on compound microscopes for such work. While such microscopes have high light-gathering power, they do not provide depth of field, making working with sharp electrodes difficult. Here we describe a hybrid microscope design, with switchable compound and stereo objectives, that eases the use of conventional intracellular electrodes in optical recording experiments. We use it, in combination with a voltage-sensitive dye and photodiode array, to identify neurons participating in the swim motor program of the marine mollusk Tritonia. This microscope design should be applicable to optical recording studies in many preparations. PMID:17306887

  10. Melanin-Associated Synthesis of SERS-Active Nanostructures and the Application for Monitoring of Intracellular Melanogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Haixin; Liu, Zhiming; Zhong, Huiqing; Yang, Hui; Zhou, Yan; Hou, Yuqing; Long, Jia; Lin, Jin; Guo, Zhouyi

    2017-01-01

    Melanin plays an indispensable role in the human body. It serves as a biological reducer for the green synthesis of precious metal nanoparticles. Melanin–Ag nanocomposites were successfully produced which exhibited very strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect because of the reducibility property of melanin. A melanin–Ag composite structure was synthesized in situ in melanin cells, and SERS technique was performed for the rapid imaging and quantitative assay of intracellular melanin. This imaging technique was also used to successfully trace the formation and secretion of intracellular melanin after stimulation with melanin-stimulating hormones. Based on the self-reducing property of melanin, the proposed SERS imaging method can provide potentially powerful analytical detection tools to study the biological functions of melanin and to prevent and cure melanin-related diseases. PMID:28336903

  11. An Educational Program of Engineering Ethics and Its Dissemination Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Ryujiro; Nagashima, Shigeo

    Education on ethics for corporate employees, especially for engineers, seems to become increasingly important for most of companies in Japan, because some affairs or scandals caused by ethical problem in many companies were likely to subject them to operational disadvantages. Even in Hitachi, Ltd., we have worked on education of engineering ethics for two years. In this paper, we describe some activities of committees on engineering ethics, an e-learning training course which is usable on our intranet e-learning system, and a short-term in-house training course operated regularly in our training institute. And we also refer to its dissemination activities to employees in each division and some subsidiaries.

  12. Anaerobic phosphate release from activated sludge with enhanced biological phosphorus removal. A possible mechanism of intracellular pH control

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, P.L.; Keller, J.; Blackall, L.L.

    1999-06-05

    The biochemical mechanisms of the wastewater treatment process known as enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) are presently described in a metabolic model. The authors investigated details of the EBPR model to determine the nature of the anaerobic phosphate release and how this may be metabolically associated with polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) formation. Iodoacetate, an inhibitor of glycolysis, was found to inhibit the anaerobic formation of PHA and phosphate release, supporting the pathways proposed in the EBPR metabolic model. In the metabolic model, it is proposed that polyphosphate degradation provides energy for the microorganisms in anaerobic regions of these treatment systems. Other investigations have shown that anaerobic phosphate release depends on the extracellular pH. The authors observed that when the intracellular pH of EBPR sludge was raised, substantial anaerobic phosphate release was caused without volatile fatty acid (VFA) uptake. Acidification of the sludge inhibited anaerobic phosphate release even in the presence of VFA. from these observations, the authors postulate that an additional possible role of anaerobic polyphosphate degradation in EBPR is for intracellular pH control. Intracellular pH control may be a metabolic feature of EBPR, not previously considered, that could have some use in the control and optimization of EBPR.

  13. Ziram and sodium N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate inhibit ubiquitin activation through intracellular metal transport and increased oxidative stress in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Kathleen E; Valentine, William M

    2015-04-20

    Ubiquitin activating enzyme E1 plays a pivotal role in ubiquitin based protein signaling through regulating the initiating step of the cascade. Previous studies demonstrated that E1 is inhibited by covalent modification of reactive cysteines contained within the ubiquitin-binding groove and by conditions that increase oxidative stress and deplete cellular antioxidants. In this study, we determined the relative contribution of covalent adduction and oxidative stress to E1 inhibition produced by ziram and sodium N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDC) in HEK293 cells. Although no dithiocarbamate-derived E1 adducts were identified on E1 using shotgun LC/MS/MS for either ziram or DMDC, both dithiocarbamates significantly decreased E1 activity, with ziram demonstrating greater potency. Ziram increased intracellular levels of zinc and copper, DMDC increased intracellular levels of only copper, and both dithiocarbamates enhanced oxidative injury evidenced by elevated levels of protein carbonyls and expression of heme oxygenase-1. To assess the contribution of intracellular copper transport to E1 inhibition, coincubations were performed with the copper chelator triethylenetetramine hydrochloride (TET). TET significantly protected E1 activity for both of the dithiocarbamates and decreased the associated oxidative injury in HEK293 cells as well as prevented dithiocarbamate-mediated lipid peroxidation assayed using an ethyl aracidonate micelle system. Because TET did not completely ameliorate intracellular transport of copper or zinc for ziram, TET apparently maintained E1 activity through its ability to diminish dithiocarbamate-mediated oxidative stress. Experiments to determine the relative contribution of elevated intracellular zinc and copper were performed using a metal free incubation system and showed that increases in either metal were sufficient to inhibit E1. To evaluate the utility of the HEK293 in vitro system for screening environmental agents, a series of additional

  14. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal induces apoptosis by activating ERK1/2 signaling and depleting intracellular glutathione in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yun; Dai, Zhaolai; Wu, Guoyao; Wu, Zhenlong

    2016-01-01

    Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) induces oxidative damage to cellular constituents, ultimately leading to induction of apoptotic cell death and the pathogenesis of various diseases. The molecular mechanisms for the action of ROS in intestinal diseases remain poorly defined. Here, we reported that 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) treatment led to capses-3-dependent apoptosis accompanied by increased intracellular ROS level and reduced glutathione concentration in intestinal epithelial cells. These effects of 4-HNE were markedly abolished by the antioxidant L-cysteine derivative N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Further studies demonstrated that the protective effect of NAC was associated with restoration of intracellular redox state by Nrf2-related regulation of expression of genes involved in intracellular glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis and inactivation of 4-HNE-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2). The 4-HNE-induced ERK1/2 activation was mediated by repressing mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), a negative regulator of ERK1/2, through a proteasome-dependent degradation mechanism. Importantly, either overexpression of MKP-1 or NAC treatment blocked 4-HNE-induced MKP-1 degradation, thereby protecting cell from apoptosis. These novel findings provide new insights into a functional role of MKP-1 in oxidative stress-induced cell death by regulating ERK1/2 MAP kinase in intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:27620528

  15. Intracellular amyloid beta interacts with SOD1 and impairs the enzymatic activity of SOD1: implications for the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Goo Young; Cho, Hyung Min; Choi, Jung Ha; Park, Hye Yoon; Jang, Ja Young; Rhim, Hyang Shuk; Kang, Seong Man

    2009-09-30

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the degeneration of motor neurons. Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), including G93A, were reportedly linked to familial ALS. SOD1 is a key antioxidant enzyme, and is also one of the major targets for oxidative damage in the brains of patients suffering from Alzheimers disease (AD). Several lines of evidence suggest that intracellular amyloid beta (Abeta) is associated with the pathogenesis of AD. In this report we demonstrate that intracellular Abeta directly interacts with SOD1, and that this interaction decreases the enzymatic activity of the enzyme. We observed Abeta-SOD1 aggregates in the perinuclear region of H4 cells, and mapped the SOD1 binding region to Abeta amino acids 26-42. Interestingly, intracellular Ab binds to the SOD1 G93A mutant with greater affinity than to wild-type SOD1. This resulted in considerably less mutant enzymatic activity. Our study implicates a potential role for Abeta in the development of ALS by interacting with the SOD1 G93A mutant.

  16. Applications of active adaptive noise control to jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoureshi, Rahmat; Brackney, Larry

    1993-01-01

    During phase 2 research on the application of active noise control to jet engines, the development of multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) active adaptive noise control algorithms and acoustic/controls models for turbofan engines were considered. Specific goals for this research phase included: (1) implementation of a MIMO adaptive minimum variance active noise controller; and (2) turbofan engine model development. A minimum variance control law for adaptive active noise control has been developed, simulated, and implemented for single-input/single-output (SISO) systems. Since acoustic systems tend to be distributed, multiple sensors, and actuators are more appropriate. As such, the SISO minimum variance controller was extended to the MIMO case. Simulation and experimental results are presented. A state-space model of a simplified gas turbine engine is developed using the bond graph technique. The model retains important system behavior, yet is of low enough order to be useful for controller design. Expansion of the model to include multiple stages and spools is also discussed.

  17. Depletion of Intracellular Thiols and Increased Production of 4-Hydroxynonenal that Occur During Cryopreservation of Stallion Spermatozoa Lead to Caspase Activation, Loss of Motility, and Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Martin Muñoz, Patricia; Ortega Ferrusola, Cristina; Vizuete, Guillermo; Plaza Dávila, Maria; Rodriguez Martinez, Heriberto; Peña, Fernando J

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been linked to sperm death and the accelerated senescence of cryopreserved spermatozoa. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered relevant signaling molecules for sperm function, only becoming detrimental when ROS homeostasis is lost. We hereby hypothesize that a major component of the alteration of ROS homeostasis in cryopreserved spermatozoa is the exhaustion of intrinsic antioxidant defense mechanisms. To test this hypothesis, semen from seven stallions was frozen using a standard technique. The parameters of sperm quality (motility, velocity, and membrane integrity) and markers of sperm senescence (caspase 3, 4-hydroxynonenal, and mitochondrial membrane potential) were assessed before and after cryopreservation. Changes in the intracellular thiol content were also monitored. Cryopreservation caused significant increases in senescence markers as well as dramatic depletion of intracellular thiols to less than half of the initial values (P < 0.001) postthaw. Interestingly, very high and positive correlations were observed among thiol levels with sperm functionality postthaw: total motility (r = 0.931, P < 0.001), progressive motility (r = 0.904, P < 0.001), and percentage of live spermatozoa without active caspase 3 (r = 0.996, P < 0.001). In contrast, negative correlations were detected between active caspase 3 and thiol content both in living (r = -0.896) and dead (r = -0.940) spermatozoa; additionally, 4-hydroxynonenal levels were negatively correlated with thiol levels (r = -0.856). In conclusion, sperm functionality postthaw correlates with the maintenance of adequate levels of intracellular thiols. The accelerated senescence of thawed spermatozoa is related to oxidative and electrophilic stress induced by increased production of 4-hydroxynoneal in thawed samples once intracellular thiols are depleted.

  18. Effects of modulators of AMP-activated protein kinase on TASK-1/3 and intracellular Ca2+ concentration in rat carotid body glomus cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donghee; Kang1,2, Dawon; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Insook; Carroll, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Acute hypoxia depolarizes carotid body chemoreceptor (glomus) cells and elevates intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Recent studies suggest that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediates these effects of hypoxia by inhibiting the background K+ channels such as TASK. Here we studied the effects of modulators of AMPK on TASK activity in cell-attached patches. Activators of AMPK (1 mM AICAR and 0.1–0.5 mM A769662) did not inhibit TASK activity or cause depolarization during acute (10 min) or prolonged (2–3 hr) exposure. Hypoxia inhibited TASK activity by ~70% in cells pretreated with AICAR or A769662. Both AICAR and A769662 (15–40 min) failed to increase [Ca2+]i in glomus cells. Compound C (40 µM), an inhibitor of AMPK, showed no effect on hypoxia-induced inhibition of TASK. AICAR and A769662 phosphorylated AMPKα in PC12 cells, and Compound C blocked the phosphorylation. Our results suggest that AMPK does not affect TASK activity and is not involved in hypoxia-induced elevation of intracellular [Ca2+] in isolated rat carotid body glomus cells. PMID:24530802

  19. Increased intracellular calcium activates serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) through a calmodulin-calcium calmodulin dependent kinase kinase pathway in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Imai, Seiji; Okayama, Naotsuka; Shimizu, Manabu; Itoh, Makoto

    2003-04-04

    SGK1 is one of the protein-serine/threonine kinases that is activated by insulin in a PI3K-dependent manner. Although SGK1 mediates a variety of biological activities, the mechanisms regulating its activity remain unclear. In this study, we examined the potential roles of calcium signaling in the activation of SGK1. Treatment of CHO-IR cells with a cell-permeable calcium chelator, BAPTA-AM, abolished the insulin-induced activation of SGK1. Increasing intracellular calcium concentration by treating cells with thapsigargin or ionomycin induced a 6-8 fold increase in SGK1 activation. This was not affected by a PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin, but was completely inhibited by the calmodulin inhibitors, W 7 and W 5. Co-transfection of CHO cells with FLAG-SGK1 and CaMKK revealed the direct association of CaMKK with SGK1. These results suggest a calcium-triggered signaling cascade in which an increase in intracellular calcium concentration directly stimulates SGK1 through CaMKK.

  20. Receptor-activated Ca2+ inflow in animal cells: a variety of pathways tailored to meet different intracellular Ca2+ signalling requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Barritt, G J

    1999-01-01

    Receptor-activated Ca2+ channels (RACCs) play a central role in regulation of the functions of animal cells. Together with voltage-operated Ca2+ channels (VOCCs) and ligand-gated non-selective cation channels, RACCs provide a variety of pathways by which Ca2+ can be delivered to the cytoplasmic space and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in order to initiate or maintain specific types of intracellular Ca2+ signal. Store-operated Ca2+ channels (SOCs), which are activated by a decrease in Ca2+ in the ER, are a major subfamily of RACCs. A careful analysis of the available data is required in order to discern the different types of RACCs (differentiated chiefly on the basis of ion selectivity and mechanism of activation) and to properly develop hypotheses for structures and mechanisms of activation. Despite much intensive research, the structures and mechanisms of activation of RACCs are only now beginning to be understood. In considering the physiological functions of the different RACCs, it is useful to consider the specificity for Ca2+ of each type of cation channel and the rate at which Ca2+ flows through a single open channel; the locations of the channels on the plasma membrane (in relation to the ER, cytoskeleton and other intracellular units of structure and function); the Ca2+-responsive enzymes and proteins; and the intracellular buffers and proteins that control the distribution of Ca2+ in the cytoplasmic space. RACCs which are non-selective cation channels can deliver Ca2+ directly to specific regions of the cytoplasmic space, and can also admit Na+, which induces depolarization of the plasma membrane, the opening of VOCCs and the subsequent inflow of Ca2+. SOCs appear to deliver Ca2+ specifically to the ER, thereby maintaining oscillating Ca2+ signals. PMID:9882611

  1. Properties of a Novel Intracellular Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) Depolymerase with High Specific Activity (PhaZd) in Wautersia eutropha H16

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Teruyuki; Saito, Terumi

    2005-01-01

    A novel intracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerase (PhaZd) of Wautersia eutropha (formerly Ralstonia eutropha) H16 which shows similarity with the catalytic domain of the extracellular PHB depolymerase in Ralstonia pickettii T1 was identified. The positions of the catalytic triad (Ser190-Asp266-His330) and oxyanion hole (His108) in the amino acid sequence of PhaZd deduced from the nucleotide sequence roughly accorded with those of the extracellular PHB depolymerase of R. pickettii T1, but a signal peptide, a linker domain, and a substrate binding domain were missing. The PhaZd gene was cloned and the gene product was purified from Escherichia coli. The specific activity of PhaZd toward artificial amorphous PHB granules was significantly greater than that of other known intracellular PHB depolymerase or 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) oligomer hydrolases of W. eutropha H16. The enzyme degraded artificial amorphous PHB granules and mainly released various 3-hydroxybutyrate oligomers. PhaZd distributed nearly equally between PHB inclusion bodies and the cytosolic fraction. The amount of PHB was greater in phaZd deletion mutant cells than the wild-type cells under various culture conditions. These results indicate that PhaZd is a novel intracellular PHB depolymerase which participates in the mobilization of PHB in W. eutropha H16 along with other PHB depolymerases. PMID:16199568

  2. Properties of a novel intracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase with high specific activity (PhaZd) in Wautersia eutropha H16.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Teruyuki; Saito, Terumi

    2005-10-01

    A novel intracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerase (PhaZd) of Wautersia eutropha (formerly Ralstonia eutropha) H16 which shows similarity with the catalytic domain of the extracellular PHB depolymerase in Ralstonia pickettii T1 was identified. The positions of the catalytic triad (Ser190-Asp266-His330) and oxyanion hole (His108) in the amino acid sequence of PhaZd deduced from the nucleotide sequence roughly accorded with those of the extracellular PHB depolymerase of R. pickettii T1, but a signal peptide, a linker domain, and a substrate binding domain were missing. The PhaZd gene was cloned and the gene product was purified from Escherichia coli. The specific activity of PhaZd toward artificial amorphous PHB granules was significantly greater than that of other known intracellular PHB depolymerase or 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) oligomer hydrolases of W. eutropha H16. The enzyme degraded artificial amorphous PHB granules and mainly released various 3-hydroxybutyrate oligomers. PhaZd distributed nearly equally between PHB inclusion bodies and the cytosolic fraction. The amount of PHB was greater in phaZd deletion mutant cells than the wild-type cells under various culture conditions. These results indicate that PhaZd is a novel intracellular PHB depolymerase which participates in the mobilization of PHB in W. eutropha H16 along with other PHB depolymerases.

  3. Factors affecting the activation and inhibition of intracellular enzymes for degradation of 1,2 diamino benzene: kinetics and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    P, Saranya; G, Sekaran

    2015-11-01

    Citrobacter freundii, the bacterium isolated from marine sediments was capable of degrading 1,2 diamino benzene (DAB), an endocrine disruptor. The mixed intracellular enzymes from C. freundii were extracted and purified. The mixed intracellular enzymes were used for the degradation of DAB and degree of degradation was evaluated in terms of pyruvic acid, the end product, formed. The variables such as effect of pH, temperature and metal ions on the degradation of DAB using mixed intracellular enzymes (MICE) were investigated. The maximum amount of pyruvic acid formed was found to be 569 ± 5 µg with 96% degradation efficiency at pH 7; temperature 25 °C; zinc nitrate 0.1 mM; and copper sulphate ions 0.15 mM. The stability of MICE at different temperatures and the interaction of MICE with metal ions were confirmed using FT-IR spectroscopy. The formation of pyruvic acid from degradation of DAB followed pseudo-second-order rate kinetics and it was a spontaneous, exothermic process. The activation energy of degradation of DAB by MICE was found to be 82.55 kJ/mol.

  4. Localization of intracellular calcium release in cells injured by venom from the ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and dependence of calcium mobilization on G-protein activation.

    PubMed

    Rivers, David B; Crawley, Timothy; Bauser, Holly

    2005-02-01

    Venom from the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis induces cellular injury that appears to involve the release of intracellular calcium stores via the activation of phospholipase C, and culminates in oncotic death. A linkage between release of intracellular Ca2+ and oncosis has not been clearly established and was the focus of this study. When BTI-TN-5B1-4 cells were treated with suramin, an uncoupler of G-proteins, venom-induced swelling and oncotic death were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner for at least 24 h. Suramin also blocked increases in free cytosolic [Ca2+], arguing that venom induces calcium mobilization through G-protein signaling pathways. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was predicted to be the source of intracellular calcium release, but labeling with the fluorescent probe ER-tracker revealed no indication of organelle swelling or loss of membrane integrity as would be expected if the Ca(2+)-ATPase pump was disabled by crude venom. Incubation of cell monolayers with calmodulin or nitrendipine, modulators of ER calcium release channels, neither attenuated nor augmented the effects of wasp venom. These results suggest that wasp venom stimulates calcium release from ER compartments distinct from RyRs, L-type Ca2+ channels, and the Ca(2+)-ATPase pump, or calcium is released from some other intracellular store. A reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential delta psi(m) appeared to precede a rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ as evidenced by fluorescent microscopy using the calcium-sensitive probe fluo-4 AM. This argues that the initial insult to the cell resulting from venom elicits a rapid loss of (delta psi(m)), followed by unregulated calcium efflux from mitochondria into the cytosol. Mobilization of calcium in this fashion could stimulate cAMP formation, and subsequently promote calcium release from NAADP-sensitive stores.

  5. Requirement of a soluble intracellular factor for activation of transient receptor potential A1 by pungent chemicals: role of inorganic polyphosphates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghee; Cavanaugh, Eric J

    2007-06-13

    Pungent chemicals such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), cinnamaldehyde, and allicin, produce nociceptive sensation by directly activating transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) expressed in sensory afferent neurons. In this study, we found that pungent chemicals added to the pipette or bath solution easily activated TRPA1 in cell-attached patches but failed to do so in inside-out or outside-out patches. Thus, a soluble cytosolic factor was required to activate TRPA1. N-Ethylmaleimide, (2-aminoethyl)-methane thiosulfonate, 2-aminoethoxydiphneyl borate, and trinitrophenol, compounds that are known to activate TRPA1, also failed to activate it in inside-out patches. To identify a factor that supports activation of TRPA1 by pungent chemicals, we screened approximately 30 intracellular molecules known to modulate ion channels. Among them, pyrophosphate (PPi) and polytriphosphate (PPPi) were found to support activation of TRPA1 by pungent chemicals. Structure-function studies showed that inorganic polyphosphates (polyP(n), where n = number of phosphates) with at least four phosphate groups were highly effective (polyP4 approximately = polyP65 approximately = polyP45 approximately = polyP25 > PPPi > PPi), with K(1/2) values ranging from 0.2 to 2.8 mM. Inositol-trisphosphate and inositol-hexaphosphate also partially supported activation of TRPA1 by AITC. ATP, GTP, and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate that have three phosphate groups did not support TRPA1 activation. TRPA1 recorded from cell bodies of trigeminal ganglion neurons showed similar behavior with respect to sensitivity to pungent chemicals; no activation was observed in inside-out patches unless a polyphosphate was present. These results show that TRPA1 requires an intracellular factor to adopt a functional conformation that is sensitive to pungent chemicals and suggest that polyphosphates may partly act as such a factor.

  6. The roles of serine protease, intracellular and extracellular phenoloxidase in activation of prophenoloxidase system, and characterization of phenoloxidase from shrimp haemocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide or dopamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Peng; Pan, Luqing; Xu, Wujie; Yue, Feng

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dopamine (DA) on the activation of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system of Litopenaeus vannamei. LPS and DA were shown with a negative dose-dependent effect on hyalne cells (HC), semi-granular cells (SGC), large granular cells (LGC), and total haemocyte count (THC). When haemocytes were treated with LPS or DA, serine proteinase activity and intracellular phenoloxidase (PO) activity were significantly reduced, but extracellular PO activity increased significantly. These findings indicated that the reduction in haemocyte counts was mainly because of the degranulation and activation of the proPO system from semi-granule and large granule cells. The PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine, and the TPK inhibitor, genistein, had an inhibitory effect on extracellular PO activity, while serine proteinase and intracellular PO activity increased. This suggests that the LPS and DA induce the activation of proPO in haemocytes via PKC and TPK-related signaling pathways, but serine proteinase may be activated only by PKC, as the genistein effects were not statistically significant. Electrophoresis analysis revealed that POs induced by LPS or DA have the same molecular mass and high diphenolase activity. Two PO bands at 526 kDa and 272 kDa were observed in PAGE, while in the haemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS), only a 272-kDa band was observed. This band was resolved after SDS-PAGE under non-reducing and reducing conditions into two groups of POs, 166 kDa and 126 kDa, and 78.1 kDa and 73.6 kDa, respectively, suggesting that PO in L. vannamei is an oligomer, which may have different compositions intra- and extracellularly.

  7. Histamine H3-receptor-induced attenuation of norepinephrine exocytosis: a decreased protein kinase a activity mediates a reduction in intracellular calcium.

    PubMed

    Seyedi, Nahid; Mackins, Christina J; Machida, Takuji; Reid, Alicia C; Silver, Randi B; Levi, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    We had reported that activation of presynaptic histamine H(3)-receptors inhibits norepinephrine exocytosis from depolarized cardiac sympathetic nerve endings, an action associated with a marked decrease in intraneuronal Ca(2+) that we ascribed to a decreased Ca(2+) influx. An H(3)-receptor-mediated inhibition of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of Ca(2+) channels could cause a sequential attenuation of Ca(2+) influx, intraneuronal Ca(2+) and norepinephrine exocytosis. We tested this hypothesis in sympathetic nerve endings (cardiac synaptosomes) expressing native H(3)-receptors and in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells transfected with H(3)-receptors. Norepinephrine exocytosis was elicited by K(+) or by stimulation of adenylyl cyclase with forskolin. H(3)-receptor activation markedly attenuated the K(+)- and forskolin-induced norepinephrine exocytosis; pretreatment with pertussis toxin prevented this effect. Similar to forskolin, 8-bromo-cAMP elicited norepinephrine exocytosis but, unlike forskolin, it was unaffected by H(3)-receptor activation, demonstrating that inhibition of adenylyl cyclase is a pivotal step in the H(3)-receptor transductional cascade. Indeed, we found that H(3)-receptor activation attenuated norepinephrine exocytosis concomitantly with a decrease in intracellular cAMP and PKA activity in SH-SY5Y-H(3) cells. Moreover, pharmacological PKA inhibition acted synergistically with H(3)-receptor activation to reduce K(+)-induced peak intracellular Ca(2+) in SH-SY5Y-H(3) cells and norepinephrine exocytosis in cardiac synaptosomes. Furthermore, H(3)-receptor activation synergized with N- and L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers to reduce norepinephrine exocytosis in cardiac synaptosomes. Our findings suggest that the H(3)-receptor-mediated inhibition of norepinephrine exocytosis from cardiac sympathetic nerves results sequentially from H(3)-receptor-G(i)/G(o) coupling, inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity, and decreased cAMP formation, leading to diminished

  8. Recent geothermal reservoir engineering activities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Benson, S.M.; Pruess, K.

    1987-09-01

    This paper briefly describes the most recent activities in reservoir engineering for the geothermal group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The primary emphasis of the geothermal program of LBL is dedicated to reservoir engineering including theoretical investigations, the development and application of mathematical models, and field studies. The objectives of these activities are to develop and validate methods and instruments which will be utilized in the determination of the parameters of geothermal systems, and the identification and evaluation of the importance of the distinct processes which occur in reservoirs. The ultimate goal of the program is the development of state of the art technologies which characterize geothermal reservoirs and evaluate their productive capacity and longevity.

  9. Dense Clouds near the Central Engine of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivron, R.; Tsuruta, S

    1993-01-01

    A model is presented which assumes the existence of cold dense clouds near the central engine of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs). The effects of such clouds on the observed spectrum are explored. It is shown that this model is consistent with the complicated observed spectra and variability behavior of most extensively studied Seyfert nuclei. The results are compared with other proposed models. The existing observational evidence appears to support the "cloud-model."

  10. Ultra Fine Particles from Diesel Engines Induce Vascular Oxidative Stress via JNK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rongsong; Ning, Zhi; Cui, Jeffery; Khalsa, Bhavraj; Ai, Lisong; Takabe, Wakako; Beebe, Tyler; Majumdar, Rohit; Sioutas, Constantinos; Hsiai, Tzung

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of particulate air pollution is linked to increased incidences of cardiovascular diseases. Ambient ultra fine particles (UFP) from diesel vehicle engines have been shown to be pro-atherogenic in apoE knockout mice and may constitute a major cardiovascular risk in humans. We posited that circulating nano-sized particles from traffic pollution sources induced vascular oxidative stress via JNK activation in endothelial cells. Diesel UFP were collected from a 1998 Kenworth truck. Intra-cellular superoxide assay revealed that these UFP dose-dependently induced superoxide (O2·-) production in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Flow cytometry (FACS) showed that UFP increased MitoSOX Red intensity specific for mitochondrial superoxide. Protein carbonyl content is increased by UFP as an indication of vascular oxidative stress. UFP also up-regulated hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and tissue factor (TF) mRNA expression, and pre-treatment with antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), significantly decreased their expression. Furthermore, UFP transiently activated JNK in HAEC. Treatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125 and silencing of both JNK1 and JNK2 with siRNA inhibited UFP stimulated O2·- production and mRNA expression of HO-1 and TF. Our findings suggest that JNK activation play an important role in UFP-induced oxidative stress and stress response gene expression. PMID:19154785

  11. Ultrafine particles from diesel engines induce vascular oxidative stress via JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongsong; Ning, Zhi; Cui, Jeffery; Khalsa, Bhavraj; Ai, Lisong; Takabe, Wakako; Beebe, Tyler; Majumdar, Rohit; Sioutas, Constantinos; Hsiai, Tzung

    2009-03-15

    Exposure to particulate air pollution is linked to increased incidences of cardiovascular diseases. Ambient ultrafine particles (UFP) from diesel vehicle engines have been shown to be proatherogenic in ApoE knockout mice and may constitute a major cardiovascular risk in humans. We posited that circulating nano-sized particles from traffic pollution sources induce vascular oxidative stress via JNK activation in endothelial cells. Diesel UFP were collected from a 1998 Kenworth truck. Intracellular superoxide assay revealed that these UFP dose-dependently induced superoxide (O(2)(-)) production in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Flow cytometry showed that UFP increased MitoSOX red intensity specific for mitochondrial superoxide. Protein carbonyl content was increased by UFP as an indication of vascular oxidative stress. UFP also up-regulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and tissue factor (TF) mRNA expression, and pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine significantly decreased their expression. Furthermore, UFP transiently activated JNK in HAEC. Treatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and silencing of both JNK1 and JNK2 with siRNA inhibited UFP-stimulated O(2)(-) production and mRNA expression of HO-1 and TF. Our findings suggest that JNK activation plays an important role in UFP-induced oxidative stress and stress response gene expression.

  12. Elementary teachers committed to actively teaching science and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opperman, Julianne Radkowski

    Committed elementary teachers of science and engineering, members of a professional learning community called Collaborative Conversations in STEM, were studied to elicit their perceptions of experiences that influenced their commitment to, and their pedagogical content knowledge of, STEM teaching and learning. The hermeneutic phenomenological interviews enabled the teachers to express their beliefs in their own words. Data analysis employed a theoretical framework that investigated teacher epistemology and knowledge in light of their experiences. Findings revealed a web of lifelong experiences unique to each individual, and evidential of the committed elementary scientist-teachers' present day values, teaching epistemology, lifelong learning, and emotional and intellectual engagement. Scientist-teachers are individuals whose teaching and learning characteristics reflect those of scientists and engineers. Evidence indicated that no single transformative learning experience resulted in those elementary teachers' commitment to STEM teaching and learning, but recent professional development activities were influential. Formal K-16 STEM learning was not uniformly or positively influential to the teachers' commitment to, or knowledge of, STEM. Findings suggest that ongoing professional development for STEM teaching and learning can influence elementary teachers to become committed to actively teaching STEM. The Collaborative Conversations in STEM provided intellectual and emotional engagement that empowered the teachers to provide STEM teaching and learning for their students and their colleagues overcoming impediments encountered in a literacy-focused curriculum. Elementary teachers actively committed to teaching science and engineering can undergo further transformation and emerge as leaders.

  13. The voltage dependence of the TMEM16B/anoctamin2 calcium-activated chloride channel is modified by mutations in the first putative intracellular loop

    PubMed Central

    Cenedese, Valentina; Betto, Giulia; Celsi, Fulvio; Cherian, O. Lijo; Pifferi, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Ca2+-activated Cl− channels (CaCCs) are involved in several physiological processes. Recently, TMEM16A/anoctamin1 and TMEM16B/anoctamin2 have been shown to function as CaCCs, but very little information is available on the structure–function relations of these channels. TMEM16B is expressed in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons, in microvilli of vomeronasal sensory neurons, and in the synaptic terminals of retinal photoreceptors. Here, we have performed the first site-directed mutagenesis study on TMEM16B to understand the molecular mechanisms of voltage and Ca2+ dependence. We have mutated amino acids in the first putative intracellular loop and measured the properties of the wild-type and mutant TMEM16B channels expressed in HEK 293T cells using the whole cell voltage-clamp technique in the presence of various intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. We mutated E367 into glutamine or deleted the five consecutive glutamates 386EEEEE390 and 399EYE401. The EYE deletion did not significantly modify the apparent Ca2+ dependence nor the voltage dependence of channel activation. E367Q and deletion of the five glutamates did not greatly affect the apparent Ca2+ affinity but modified the voltage dependence, shifting the conductance–voltage relations toward more positive voltages. These findings indicate that glutamates E367 and 386EEEEE390 in the first intracellular putative loop play an important role in the voltage dependence of TMEM16B, thus providing an initial structure–function study for this channel. PMID:22412191

  14. Cellular accumulation and pharmacodynamic evaluation of the intracellular activity of CEM-101, a novel fluoroketolide, against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Legionella pneumophila in human THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Sandrine; Van Bambeke, Françoise; Tulkens, Paul M

    2009-09-01

    CEM-101 is a novel fluoroketolide with lower MICs than those of telithromycin and macrolides. Our aim was to assess the cellular accumulation and intracellular activity of CEM-101 using models developed for analyzing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacological properties of antibiotics against phagocytized bacteria. We used THP-1 macrophages and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 [methicillin (meticillin) sensitive]), Listeria monocytogenes (strain EGD), and Legionella pneumophila (ATCC 33153). CEM-101 reached cellular-to-extracellular-concentration ratios of about 350 within 24 h (versus approximately 20, 30, and 160 for telithromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin, respectively). This intracellular accumulation was suppressed by incubation at a pH of < or = 6 and by monensin (proton ionophore) and was unaffected by verapamil (P-glycoprotein inhibitor; twofold accumulation increase for azithromycin) or gemfibrozil. While keeping with the general properties of the macrolide antibiotics in terms of maximal efficacy (Emax; approximately 1-log10-CFU decrease compared to the postphagocytosis inoculum after a 24-h incubation), CEM-101 showed significantly greater potency against phagocytized S. aureus than telithromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin (for which the 50% effective concentration [EC50] and static concentrations were about 3-, 6-, and 15-fold lower, respectively). CEM-101 was also about 50-fold and 100-fold more potent than azithromycin against phagocytized L. monocytogenes and L. pneumophila, respectively. These differences in EC50s and static concentrations between drugs were minimized when data were expressed as multiples of the MIC, demonstrating the critical role of intrinsic drug activity (MIC) in eliciting the antibacterial intracellular effects, whereas accumulation per se was unimportant. CEM-101 should show enhanced in vivo potency if used at doses similar to those of the comparators tested here.

  15. Glutamate regulates intracellular calcium and gene expression in oligodendrocyte progenitors through the activation of DL-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Pende, M; Holtzclaw, L A; Curtis, J L; Russell, J T; Gallo, V

    1994-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes and their progenitors (O-2A) express functional kainate- and DL-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-preferring glutamate receptors. The physiological consequences of activation of these receptors were studied in purified rat cortical O-2A progenitors and in the primary oligodendrocyte cell line CG-4. Changes in the mRNA levels of a set of immediate early genes were studied and were correlated to intracellular Ca2+ concentration, as measured by fura-2 Ca2+ imaging. Both in CG-4 and in cortical O-2A progenitors, basal mRNA levels of NGFI-A were much higher than c-fos, c-jun, or jun-b. Glutamate, kainate, and AMPA greatly increased NGFI-A mRNA and protein by activation of membrane receptors in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion. Agonists at non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors promoted transmembrane Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent channels as well as kainate and/or AMPA channels. The influx of Ca2+ ions occurring through glutamate-gated channels was sufficient by itself to increase the expression of NGFI-A mRNA. AMPA receptors were found to be directly involved in intracellular Ca2+ and NGFI-A mRNA regulation, because the effects of kainate were greatly enhanced by cyclothiazide, an allosteric modulator that selectively suppresses desensitization of AMPA but not kainate receptors. Our results indicate that glutamate acting at AMPA receptors regulates immediate early gene expression in cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage by increasing intracellular calcium. Consequently, modulation of these receptor channels may have immediate effects at the genomic level and regulate oligodendrocyte development at critical stages. Images PMID:8159727

  16. Active control of fan noise from a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Fuller, Christopher R.; O'Brien, Walter F.

    1994-01-01

    A three-channel active control system is applied to an operational turbofan engine to reduce tonal noise produced by both the fan and the high-pressure compressor. The control approach is the feedforward filtered-x least-mean-square algorithm implemented on a digital signal processing board. Reference transducers mounted on the engine case provide blade passing and harmonics frequency information to the controller. Error information is provided by large area microphones placed in the acoustic far field. To minimize the error signal, the controller actuates loudspeakers mounted on the inlet to produce destructive interference. The sound pressure level of the fundamental tone of the fan was reduced using the three-channel controller by up to 16 dB over a +/- 30-deg angle about the engine axis. A single-channel controller could produce reduction over a +/- 15-deg angle. The experimental results show the control to be robust. Outside of the areas contolled, the levels of the tone actually increased due to the generation of radial modes by the control sources. Simultaneous control of two tones is achieved with parallel controllers. The fundamental and the first harmonic tones of the fan were controlled simultaneously with reductions of 12 and 5 dBA, respectively, measured on the engine axis. Simultaneous control was also demonstrated for the fan fundamental and the high-pressure compressor fundamental tones.

  17. Active control of fan noise from a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Fuller, Christopher R.; O'Brien, Walter F.

    1993-01-01

    A three channel active control system is applied to an operational turbofan engine in order to reduce tonal noise produced by both the fan and high pressure compressor. The control approach is the feedforward filtered-x least-mean-square algorithm implemented on a digital signal processing board. Reference transducers mounted on the engine case provides blade passing and harmonics frequency information to the controller. Error information is provided by large area microphones placed in the acoustic far field. In order to minimize the error signal, the controller actuates loudspeakers mounted on the inlet to produce destructive interference. The sound pressure level of the fundamental tone of the fan was reduced using the three channel controller by up to 16 dB over a 60 deg angle about the engine axis. A single channel controller could produce reduction over a 30 deg angle. The experimental results show the control to be robust. Simultaneous control of two tones is done with parallel controllers. The fundamental and the first harmonic tones of the fan were controlled simultaneously with reductions of 12 dBA and 5 dBA, respectively, measured on the engine axis. Simultaneous control was also demonstrated for the fan fundamental and the high pressure compressor fundamental tones.

  18. An inside job: hacking into Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling cascades by the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Denkers, Eric Y; Bzik, David J; Fox, Barbara A; Butcher, Barbara A

    2012-02-01

    The intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is well known for its skill at invading and living within host cells. New discoveries are now also revealing the astounding ability of the parasite to inject effector proteins into the cytoplasm to seize control of the host cell. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of one such secretory protein called ROP16. This molecule is released from rhoptries into the host cell during invasion. The ROP16 molecule acts as a kinase, directly activating both signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and STAT6 signaling pathways. In macrophages, an important and preferential target cell of parasite infection, the injection of ROP16 has multiple consequences, including downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine signaling and macrophage deviation to an alternatively activated phenotype.

  19. 3β-Acetyl tormentic acid reverts MRP1/ABCC1 mediated cancer resistance through modulation of intracellular levels of GSH and inhibition of GST activity.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Gleice da Graça; Oliveira, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora Coelho; Gattass, Cerli Rocha

    2014-10-15

    ABC transporter overexpression is an important mechanism of multidrug resistance (MDR) and one of the main obstacles to successful cancer treatment. As these proteins actively remove chemotherapeutics from the tumor cells, the pharmacological inhibition of their activity is a possible strategy to revert drug resistance. Moreover, the ability of MDR inhibitors to sensitize resistant cells to conventional drugs is important for their clinical use. Evidence has shown that the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) is a negative prognostic marker in patients with lung, gastric, or breast cancers or neuroblastoma. Previous data have shown that 3β-acetyl tormentic acid (3ATA) inhibits the transport activity of the protein MRP1/ABCC1. In this study, we evaluated the ability of 3ATA to sensitize an MDR cell line (GLC4/ADR), which overexpresses MRP1, and investigated the anti-MRP1 mechanisms activated by 3ATA. The results showed that 3ATA is able to reverse the resistance of the MDR cell line to doxorubicin and vincristine, two drugs that are commonly used in cancer chemotherapy. Regarding the sensitizing mechanism induced by 3ATA, this work shows that the triterpene does not modulate the expression of MRP1/ABCC1 but is able to reduce total intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels and decrease the activity of glutathione-s-transferase (GST), the enzyme responsible for the glutathione conjugation of xenobiotics. Together, these results show that 3ATA sensitizes the MDR cell line overexpressing MRP1/ABCC1 to antineoplastic drugs and that this effect is mediated by the modulation of intracellular levels of GSH and GST activity.

  20. Engineering Ascorbate Peroxidase Activity Into Cytochrome C Peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Meharenna, Y.T.; Oertel, P.; Bhaskar, B.; Poulos, T.L.

    2009-05-26

    Cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) have very similar structures, and yet neither CCP nor APX exhibits each others activities with respect to reducing substrates. APX has a unique substrate binding site near the heme propionates where ascorbate H-bonds with a surface Arg and one heme propionate (Sharp et al. (2003) Nat. Struct. Biol. 10, 303--307). The corresponding region in CCP has a much longer surface loop, and the critical Arg residue that is required for ascorbate binding in APX is Asn in CCP. In order to convert CCP into an APX, the ascorbate-binding loop and critical arginine were engineered into CCP to give the CCP2APX mutant. The mutant crystal structure shows that the engineered site is nearly identical to that found in APX. While wild-type CCP shows no APX activity, CCP2APX catalyzes the peroxidation of ascorbate at a rate of {approx}12 min{sup -1}, indicating that the engineered ascorbate-binding loop can bind ascorbate.

  1. Scope for active noise abatement in vehicle diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerauer, I.; Boesch, N.

    1984-04-01

    Noise reduction measures must be directed to the engine, the exhaust system, and the cooling system (fan) all of which contribute approximately 90% of the sound energy emitted from commercial diesel trucks. The noise generation processes were visualized and limiting conditions fixed by law were considered in establishing criteria for active solar noise abatement measures. A more effective silencer and better vibration damping on the surface of the silencer and exhaust pipes can reduce noise from the exhaust system. Acoustic emission generated by the fan and air flow can be reduced by decreasing flow velocity or by turning on the fan only when a full cooling output is required (10% of the time). Active measures are needed on the engine itself either at the point of the solid-borne sound transmission or at the point of the solid-borne vibrations. The predominant effect is on the engine casing; oil sump; air suction pipe or air charge line; the flywheel casing; and the clutch housing.

  2. A flow cytometer-based method to simultaneously assess activity and selectivity of compounds against the intracellular forms of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Cristian Gabriel; Solana, Maria Elisa; Curto, Maria de Los Angeles; Lammel, Estela Maria; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel; Alba Soto, Catalina Dirney

    2015-12-01

    Chagas disease is a major unsolved health issue in Latin America and an emerging threat worldwide. New drugs are urgently needed for chemotherapy as those available (benznidazole and nifurtimox) have variable efficacy and elevated toxicity. Efforts are actually oriented to improve tools and technologies (e.g. transgenic parasites, flow cytometry or image-based systems) for the screening of large numbers of candidate compounds for their activity against Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). Methods that test drug efficacy and selectivity in the same assay are suitable to accelerate the process of drug discovery. Here, we developed a GFP expressing T. cruzi from a moderate virulence stock and confirmed that the transgenic parasite retained the biological characteristics of the parental strain. With this tool, we established a flow cytometer-based method to simultaneously test drug activity against intracellular amastigotes and toxicity to the host cell. This one-step procedure allows determining the selectivity index of the tested compound in a sensitive and accurate manner even with low infection rates. This method can provide additional information on the interactions between drug, parasites and host cell and could be adapted to other trypanosomatids and protozoa with intracellular multiplication.

  3. Zn(2+) induces hyperpolarization by activation of a K(+) channel and increases intracellular Ca(2+) and pH in sea urchin spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Carmen; Rodríguez-Miranda, Esmeralda; Granados-González, Gisela; García de De la Torre, Lucia; Nishigaki, Takuya; Darszon, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    Zinc (Zn(2+)) has been recently recognized as a crucial element for male gamete function in many species although its detailed mechanism of action is poorly understood. In sea urchin spermatozoa, Zn(2+) was reported as an essential trace ion for efficient sperm motility initiation and the acrosome reaction by modulating intracellular pH (pHi). In this study we found that submicromolar concentrations of free Zn(2+) change membrane potential (Em) and increase the concentration of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) and cAMP in Lytechinus pictus sperm. Our results indicate that the Zn(2+) response in sperm of this species mainly involves an Em hyperpolarization caused by K(+) channel activation. The pharmacological profile of the Zn(2+)-induced hyperpolarization indicates that the cGMP-gated K(+) selective channel (tetraKCNG/CNGK), which is crucial for speract signaling, is likely a main target for Zn(2+). Considering that Zn(2+) also induces [Ca(2+)]i fluctuations, our observations suggest that Zn(2+) activates the signaling cascade of speract, except for an increase in cGMP, and facilitates sperm motility initiation upon spawning. These findings provide new insights about the role of Zn(2+) in male gamete function.

  4. Mechanism of neutrophil activation and toxicity elicited by engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Helinor; Brown, David M; Kanase, Nilesh; Euston, Matthew; Gaiser, Birgit K; Robb, Calum T; Dyrynda, Elisabeth; Rossi, Adriano G; Brown, Euan R; Stone, Vicki

    2015-08-01

    The effects of nanomaterials (NMs) on biological systems, especially their ability to stimulate inflammatory responses requires urgent investigation. We evaluated the response of the human differentiated HL60 neutrophil-like cell line to NMs. It was hypothesised that NM physico-chemical characteristics would influence cell responsiveness by altering intracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i and reactive oxygen species production. Cells were exposed (1.95-125 μg/ml, 24 h) to silver (Ag), zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide (TiO2), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or ultrafine carbon black (ufCB) and cytotoxicity assessed (alamar blue assay). Relatively low (TiO2, MWCNTs, ufCB) or high (Ag, ZnO) cytotoxicity NMs were identified. Sub-lethal impacts of NMs on cell function were investigated for selected NMs only, namely TiO2, Ag and ufCB. Only Ag stimulated cell activation. Within minutes, Ag stimulated an increase in [Ca2+]i (in Fura-2 loaded cells), and a prominent inward ion current (assessed by electrophysiology). Within 2-4 h, Ag increased superoxide anion release and stimulated cytokine production (MCP-1, IL-8) that was diminished by Ca2+ inhibitors or trolox. Light microscopy demonstrated that cells had an activated phenotype. In conclusion NM toxicity was ranked; Ag>ufCB>TiO2, and the battery of tests used provided insight into the mechanism of action of NM toxicity to guide future testing strategies.

  5. Engineering principles and concepts for active solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunn, B. D.; Carlisle, N.; Franta, G.; Kolar, W.

    1987-07-01

    This publication is a much refined and updated version of a solar design handbook originally prepared in 1978 to accompany a series of week-long courses conducted in support of the Solar Federal Buildings Program. The 1978 material was published in 1981 as the Solar Design Workbook (SERI/SP-62-308). This current document represents the culmination of an eight-year effort to compile a comprehensive state-of-the-art reference and instructional tool for practicing design professionals, architects, and engineers. It is intended to cover all phases of the design and installation of active solar energy systems for buildings. Although it contains many design guidelines, the emphasis is on providing sufficient knowledge of how these systems work to allow an engineer or architect to make well-informed decisions. It is aimed primarily at commercial building applications, but most of the material is also applicable to residential buildings.

  6. Inhibitory Activity of the Isoflavone Biochanin A on Intracellular Bacteria of Genus Chlamydia and Initial Development of a Buccal Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanski, Leena; Genina, Natalja; Uvell, Hanna; Malinovskaja, Kristina; Gylfe, Åsa; Laaksonen, Timo; Kolakovic, Ruzica; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Elofsson, Mikael; Sandler, Niklas; Vuorela, Pia M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump inhibitors, but their therapeutic use is limited by poor water-solubility and intense first-pass metabolism. Here, we report on effects of isoflavones against C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis and describe buccal permeability and initial formulation development for biochanin A. Biochanin A was the most potent Chlamydia growth inhibitor among the studied isoflavones, with an IC50 = 12 µM on C. pneumoniae inclusion counts and 6.5 µM on infectious progeny production, both determined by immunofluorescent staining of infected epithelial cell cultures. Encouraged by the permeation of biochanin A across porcine buccal mucosa without detectable metabolism, oromucosal film formulations were designed and prepared by a solvent casting method. The film formulations showed improved dissolution rate of biochanin A compared to powder or a physical mixture, presumably due to the solubilizing effect of hydrophilic additives and presence of biochanin A in amorphous state. In summary, biochanin A is a potent inhibitor of Chlamydia spp., and the in vitro dissolution results support the use of a buccal formulation to potentially improve its bioavailability in antichlamydial or other pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25514140

  7. Intracellular Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) from hard clam Meretrix meretrix: its cDNA cloning, mRNA expression and enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xianggang; He, Chongbo; Liu, Hong; Li, Hongjun; Zhu, Dan; Cai, Shengli; Xia, Ying; Wang, Ying; Yu, Zhe

    2012-12-01

    Hard clam (Meretrix meretrix) is an economically important bivalve in China. In the present study, a gene coding for an intracellular Cu/Zn-SOD was cloned and characterized from hard clam. The full-length cDNA of this Cu/Zn-SOD (designated as Mm-icCuZn-SOD) consisted of 1,383 bp, with a 462-bp of open reading frame (ORF) encoding 153 amino acids. Several highly conserved motifs, including the Cu/Zn binding sites [H(46), H(48), H(63), and H(119) for Cu binding; H(63), H(71), H(80), and D(83) for Zn binding], an intracellular disulfide bond and two Cu/Zn-SOD signatures were identified in Mm-icCu/Zn-SOD. The deduced amino acid sequence of Mm-icCu/Zn-SOD has a high degree of homology with the Cu/Zn-dependent SODs from other species, indicating that Mm-icCu/Zn-SOD should be a member of the intracellular Cu/Zn-dependent SOD family. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the highest level of Mm-icCu/Zn-SOD expression was in the hepatopancreas, while the lowest level occurred in the hemocytes. Hard clam challenged with Vibrio anguillarum showed a time-dependent increase in Mm-icCu/Zn-SOD expression that reached a maximum level after 6 h. Mm-icCu/Zn-SOD purified as a recombinant protein expressed in E. coli retained a high level of biological activity, 83 % after 10 min incubation at 10-50 °C, and more than 87 % after incubation in buffers with pH values between 2.2 and 10.2. These results indicated that Mm-icCu/Zn-SOD may play an important role in the innate immune system of hard clam.

  8. Activation of PAC1 Receptors in Rat Cerebellar Granule Cells Stimulates Both Calcium Mobilization from Intracellular Stores and Calcium Influx through N-Type Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Basille-Dugay, Magali; Vaudry, Hubert; Fournier, Alain; Gonzalez, Bruno; Vaudry, David

    2013-01-01

    High concentrations of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and a high density of PACAP binding sites have been detected in the developing rat cerebellum. In particular, PACAP receptors are actively expressed in immature granule cells, where they activate both adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of PACAP to induce calcium mobilization in cerebellar granule neurons. Administration of PACAP-induced a transient, rapid, and monophasic rise of the cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), while vasoactive intestinal peptide was devoid of effect, indicating the involvement of the PAC1 receptor in the Ca2+ response. Preincubation of granule cells with the Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor, thapsigargin, or the d-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor antagonist, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, markedly reduced the stimulatory effect of PACAP on [Ca2+]i. Furthermore, addition of the calcium chelator, EGTA, or exposure of cells to the non-selective Ca2+ channel blocker, NiCl2, significantly attenuated the PACAP-evoked [Ca2+]i increase. Preincubation of granule neurons with the N-type Ca2+ channel blocker, ω-conotoxin GVIA, decreased the PACAP-induced [Ca2+]i response, whereas the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, nifedipine, and the P- and Q-type Ca2+ channel blocker, ω-conotoxin MVIIC, had no effect. Altogether, these findings indicate that PACAP, acting through PAC1 receptors, provokes an increase in [Ca2+]i in granule neurons, which is mediated by both mobilization of calcium from IP3-sensitive intracellular stores and activation of N-type Ca2+ channel. Some of the activities of PACAP on proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation of cerebellar granule cells could thus be mediated, at least in part, through these intracellular and/or extracellular calcium fluxes. PMID:23675369

  9. Bradykinin activates ADP-ribosyl cyclase in neuroblastoma cells: intracellular concentration decrease in NAD and increase in cyclic ADP-ribose.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Haruhiro; Salmina, Alla; Hashii, Minako; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Zhang, Jia-Sheng; Noda, Mami; Zhong, Zen-Guo; Jin, Duo

    2006-09-04

    ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity in the crude membrane fraction of neuroblastomaxglioma NGPM1-27 hybrid cells was measured by monitoring [(3)H] cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) formation from [(3)H] NAD(+). Bradykinin (BK) at 100nM increased ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity by about 2.5-fold. Application of 300nM BK to living NGPM1-27 cells decreased NAD(+) to 78% of the prestimulation level at 30s. In contrast, intracellular cADPR concentrations were increased by 2-3-fold during the period from 30 to 120s after the same treatment. Our results suggest that cADPR is one of the second messengers downstream of B(2) BK receptors.

  10. Development and Evaluation of an Undergraduate Multidisciplinary Project Activity in Engineering and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David R.; Cole, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The School of Engineering and Design Multidisciplinary Project (MDP) at Brunel University is a one week long project based activity involving first year undergraduate students from across the School subject areas of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering and Design. This paper describes the main aims of the…

  11. The SIM Lite Astrometric Observatory: engineering risk reduction activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goullioud, Renaud; Dekens, Frank; Nemati, Bijan; An, Xin; Hovland, Larry

    2010-07-01

    The SIM Lite Astrometric Observatory is a mission concept for a space-borne instrument to perform micro-arcsecond narrow-angle astrometry to search 60 to 100 nearby stars for Earth-like planets, and to perform global astrometry for a broad astrophysics program. The main enabling technology development for the mission was completed during phases A & B. While the project is waiting for the results of the ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey to proceed into flight implementation, the instrument team is currently converting the developed technology onto flight-ready engineering models. These key engineering tasks will significantly reduce the implementation risks during the flight phases C & D of the mission. The main optical interferometer components, including the astrometric beam combiner (ABC), the fine steering mechanism (FSM), the path-length control and modulation optical mechanisms (POM & MOM), focal plane camera electronics (ATC & FTC), camera cooling cryo-heat pipe, and the siderostat mechanism are currently under development. Main assemblies are built to meet flight requirements and have been or will be subjected to flight qualification level environmental testing (random vibration and thermal cycling) and performance testing. The Spectral Calibration Development Unit (SCDU), a white light interferometer testbed has recently demonstrated how to perform the spectral calibration of the instrument. The Guide 2 Telescope testbed (G2T) has demonstrated the 50 micro-arcsecond angle monitoring capability required by SIM Lite to perform astrometry. This paper summarizes recent progress in engineering risk reduction activities.

  12. Activity of Fluorine-Containing Analogues of WC-9 and Structurally Related Analogues against Two Intracellular Parasites: Trypanosoma cruzi and Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Chao, María N; Li, Catherine; Storey, Melissa; Falcone, Bruno N; Szajnman, Sergio H; Bonesi, Sergio M; Docampo, Roberto; Moreno, Silvia N J; Rodriguez, Juan B

    2016-12-16

    Two obligate intracellular parasites, Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, and Toxoplasma gondii, an agent of toxoplasmosis, upregulate the mevalonate pathway of their host cells upon infection, which suggests that this host pathway could be a potential drug target. In this work, a number of compounds structurally related to WC-9 (4-phenoxyphenoxyethyl thiocyanate), a known squalene synthase inhibitor, were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their effect on T. cruzi and T. gondii growth in tissue culture cells. Two fluorine-containing derivatives, the 3-(3-fluorophenoxy)- and 3-(4-fluorophenoxy)phenoxyethyl thiocyanates, exhibited half-maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) values of 1.6 and 4.9 μm, respectively, against tachyzoites of T. gondii, whereas they showed similar potency to WC-9 against intracellular T. cruzi (EC50 values of 5.4 and 5.7 μm, respectively). In addition, 2-[3- (phenoxy)phenoxyethylthio]ethyl-1,1-bisphosphonate, which is a hybrid inhibitor containing 3-phenoxyphenoxy and bisphosphonate groups, has activity against T. gondii proliferation at sub-micromolar levels (EC50 =0.7 μm), which suggests a combined inhibitory effect of the two functional groups.

  13. Large-conductance channel formation mediated by P2X7 receptor activation is regulated through distinct intracellular signaling pathways in peritoneal macrophages and 2BH4 cells.

    PubMed

    Faria, R X; Cascabulho, C M; Reis, R A M; Alves, Luiz Anastácio

    2010-07-01

    The P2X(7) receptor (P2X7R) is a ligand-gated ATP receptor that acts as a low- and large-conductance channel (pore) and is known to be coupled to several downstream effectors. Recently, we demonstrated that the formation of a large-conductance channel associated with the P2X(7) receptor is induced by increasing the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration (Faria et al., Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 297:C28-C42, 2005). Here, we investigated the intracellular signaling pathways associated with P2X(7) large-conductance channel formation using the patch clamp technique in conjunction with fluorescent imaging and flow cytometry assays in 2BH4 cells and peritoneal macrophages. Different antagonists were applied to investigate the following pathways: Ca(2+)-calmodulin, phospholipase A, phospholipase D, phospholipase C, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and cytoskeletal proteins. Macroscopic ionic currents induced by 1 mM ATP were reduced by 85% in the presence of PKC antagonists. The addition of antagonists for MAPK, PI3K, and the cytoskeleton (actin, intermediary filament, and microtubule) blocked 92%, 83%, and 95% of the ionic currents induced by 1 mM ATP, respectively. Our results show that PKC, MAPK, PI3K, and cytoskeletal components are involved in P2X(7) receptor large-channel formation in 2BH4 cells and peritoneal macrophages.

  14. Exploring the role of polymer structure on intracellular nucleic acid delivery via polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Corey J; Kozielski, Kristen L; Green, Jordan J

    2015-12-10

    Intracellular nucleic acid delivery has the potential to treat many genetically-based diseases, however, gene delivery safety and efficacy remains a challenging obstacle. One promising approach is the use of polymers to form polymeric nanoparticles with nucleic acids that have led to exciting advances in non-viral gene delivery. Understanding the successes and failures of gene delivery polymers and structures is the key to engineering optimal polymers for gene delivery in the future. This article discusses the polymer structural features that enable effective intracellular delivery of DNA and RNA, including protection of nucleic acid cargo, cellular uptake, endosomal escape, vector unpacking, and delivery to the intracellular site of activity. The chemical properties that aid in each step of intracellular nucleic acid delivery are described and specific structures of note are highlighted. Understanding the chemical design parameters of polymeric nucleic acid delivery nanoparticles is important to achieving the goal of safe and effective non-viral genetic nanomedicine.

  15. Aperiodic arrays of active nanopillars for radiation engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Nate; Trevino, Jacob; Dal Negro, Luca

    2012-06-01

    We engineer aperiodic nanostructures for enhanced omnidirectional light extraction and coupling of 1.55 μm radiation to distinctive optical resonances carrying of orbital angular momentum (OAM) using light emitting Si-based materials. By systematically studying nanopillar arrays with varying pillar separations and increasing degree of rotational symmetry in Fourier space, we show that omnidirectional extraction is achieved with circularly symmetric Fourier space, leading to best light emission enhancement from planar devices such as LEDs or lasers. To demonstrate the potential of active aperiodic structures with azimuthally isotropic k-space, we fabricate nanopillar arrays of erbium doped silicon-rich nitride using electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. Experimental results obtained using leaky-mode photoluminescence spectroscopy prove over 10 times extraction enhancement at 1.55 μm from aperiodic golden angle spirals (GA spirals), in good agreement with design based on analytical Bragg scattering and finite difference time domain calculations. In addition, by imaging Er radiation in direct and reciprocal space, we demonstrate that GA spiral arrays support angularly isotropic emission patterns and distinctive optical resonances with a well-defined azimuthal structure carrying OAM. These findings offer unique opportunities for the engineering of novel active structures that leverage isotropic emission patterns and structured light for secure optical communication, sensing, imaging, and light sources on a Si platform.

  16. RNA polymerase active center: the molecular engine of transcription.

    PubMed

    Nudler, Evgeny

    2009-01-01

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a complex molecular machine that governs gene expression and its regulation in all cellular organisms. To accomplish its function of accurately producing a full-length RNA copy of a gene, RNAP performs a plethora of chemical reactions and undergoes multiple conformational changes in response to cellular conditions. At the heart of this machine is the active center, the engine, which is composed of distinct fixed and moving parts that serve as the ultimate acceptor of regulatory signals and as the target of inhibitory drugs. Recent advances in the structural and biochemical characterization of RNAP explain the active center at the atomic level and enable new approaches to understanding the entire transcription mechanism, its exceptional fidelity and control.

  17. AMPK activation protects cells from oxidative stress-induced senescence via autophagic flux restoration and intracellular NAD(+) elevation.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaojuan; Tai, Haoran; Wang, Xiaobo; Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Jiao; Wei, Xiawei; Ding, Yi; Gong, Hui; Mo, Chunfen; Zhang, Jie; Qin, Jianqiong; Ma, Yuanji; Huang, Ning; Xiang, Rong; Xiao, Hengyi

    2016-06-01

    AMPK activation is beneficial for cellular homeostasis and senescence prevention. However, the molecular events involved in AMPK activation are not well defined. In this study, we addressed the mechanism underlying the protective effect of AMPK on oxidative stress-induced senescence. The results showed that AMPK was inactivated in senescent cells. However, pharmacological activation of AMPK by metformin and berberine significantly prevented the development of senescence and, accordingly, inhibition of AMPK by Compound C was accelerated. Importantly, AMPK activation prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced impairment of the autophagic flux in senescent cells, evidenced by the decreased p62 degradation, GFP-RFP-LC3 cancellation, and activity of lysosomal hydrolases. We also found that AMPK activation restored the NAD(+) levels in the senescent cells via a mechanism involving mostly the salvage pathway for NAD(+) synthesis. In addition, the mechanistic relationship of autophagic flux and NAD(+) synthesis and the involvement of mTOR and Sirt1 activities were assessed. In summary, our results suggest that AMPK prevents oxidative stress-induced senescence by improving autophagic flux and NAD(+) homeostasis. This study provides a new insight for exploring the mechanisms of aging, autophagy and NAD(+) homeostasis, and it is also valuable in the development of innovative strategies to combat aging.

  18. The Philosophical and Pedagogical Underpinnings of Active Learning in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Michael; de Graaff, Erik

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the authors draw on three sequential keynote addresses that they gave at Active Learning in Engineering Education (ALE) workshops in Copenhagen (2012), Caxias do Sol (2014) and San Sebastian (2015). Active Learning in Engineering Education is an informal international network of engineering educators dedicated to improving…

  19. 34 CFR 350.32 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.32 What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering...

  20. 34 CFR 350.32 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.32 What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering...

  1. 34 CFR 350.32 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.32 What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering...

  2. Auto Mechanics I. Learning Activity Packets (LAPs). Section C--Engine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains five learning activity packets (LAPs) that outline the study activities for the "engine" instructional area for an Auto Mechanics I course. The five LAPs cover the following topics: basic engine principles, cooling system, engine lubrication system, exhaust system, and fuel system. Each LAP contains a cover sheet…

  3. Learning Activity Packets for Auto Mechanics II. Section A--Engine Rebuilding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    Eight learning activity packets (LAPs) are provided for the instructional area of engine rebuilding in the auto mechanics II program. They accompany an instructor's guide available separately. The LAPs outline the study activities and performance tasks for these eight units: (1) engine condition evaluation; (2) engine removal; (3) engine…

  4. Intracellular activated Notch1 is critical for proliferation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-associated B-lymphoma cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ke; Choudhuri, Tathagata; Murakami, Masanao; Kuppers, Daniel A; Robertson, Erle S

    2006-07-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human tumor virus expressing latent antigens critical for pathogenesis. The mechanism by which KSHV mediates oncogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway controlling diverse events related to development, proliferation, and tissue homeostasis. Deregulation of Notch signaling has also been shown to be highly correlated with oncogenesis. Here we show that the activated intracellular domain of Notch1 (ICN) is aberrantly accumulated in latently KSHV-infected pleural effusion lymphoma cells and results in increased proliferation. Specifically, growth of the infected cells was dramatically inhibited at the G(1) phase by treatment with a gamma-secretase inhibitor which specifically blocks the production of ICN. Increased ICN also up-regulated the cyclin D1 cell cycle regulator. Taken together, these studies define an important mechanism directly linking latent KSHV infection to induction of oncogenesis through dysregulation of the conserved Notch signaling pathway.

  5. Effects of deprivation of oxygen or glucose on the neural activity in the guinea pig hippocampal slice--intracellular recording study of pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Takata, T; Okada, Y

    1995-06-12

    The block of synaptic transmission and neural activity during deprivation of oxygen or glucose has been simply attributed to the lack of energy due to the disorder of energy production. To clarify the interrelation between neural activity and energy metabolism during hypoxia or glucose deprivation, we studied the changes in ATP levels and electrical events of pyramidal neurons in the CA3 region and [Ca2+]i mobilization of the dendritic and cellular region of CA3 area, using guinea pig hippocampal slices. The studies of field potentials and intracellular recording from the pyramidal cell of CA3 area during hypoxia or glucose deprivation revealed that the cessation of synaptic activity and the depolarization of resting potential occurred earlier than during glucose deprivation while the increase of [Ca2+]i was slow during hypoxia but rapid during glucose deprivation although the ATP level of CA3 area was maintained at its original level for 20 min during both conditions. When glucose was replaced by lactate, ATP concentration was not reduced but the electrical activity decayed and [Ca2+]i increased with the similar time course as observed during lack of glucose, only. These results suggest that different mechanisms underlie the block of synaptic transmission in the CA3 pyramidal neurons during hypoxia and glucose deprivation and that lactate cannot substitute for glucose in the maintenance of neural activity.

  6. Antiviral Activity of a Novel Compound CW-33 against Japanese Encephalitis Virus through Inhibiting Intracellular Calcium Overload

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Su-Hua; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Chen, Chao-Jung; Liu, Yu-Ching; Wang, Ching-Ying; Ping, Chia-Fong; Lin, Yu-Fong; Huang, An-Cheng; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has five genotypes (I, II, III, IV, and V). JEV genotype I circulates widely in some Asian countries. However, current JEV vaccines based on genotype III strains show low neutralizing capacities against genotype I variants. In addition, JE has no specific treatment, except a few supportive treatments. Compound CW-33, an intermediate synthesized derivative of furoquinolines, was investigated for its antiviral activities against JEV in this study. CW-33 exhibited the less cytotoxicity to Syrian baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) and human medulloblastoma (TE761) cells. CW-33 dose-dependently reduced the cytopathic effect and apoptosis of JEV-infected cells. Supernatant virus yield assay pinpointed CW-33 as having potential anti-JEV activity with IC50 values ranging from 12.7 to 38.5 μM. Time-of-addition assay with CW-33 indicated that simultaneous and post-treatment had no plaque reduction activity, but continuous and simultaneous treatments proved to have highly effective antiviral activity, with IC50 values of 32.7 and 48.5 μM, respectively. CW-33 significantly moderated JEV-triggered Ca2+ overload, which correlated with the recovery of mitochondria membrane potential as well as the activation of Akt/mTOR and Jak/STAT1 signals in treated infected cells. Phosphopeptide profiling by LC-MS/MS revealed that CW-33 upregulated proteins from the enzyme modulator category, such as protein phosphatase inhibitor 2 (I-2), Rho GTPase-activating protein 35, ARF GTPase-activating protein GIT2, and putative 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 2. These enzyme modulators identified were associated with the activation of Akt/mTOR and Jak/STAT1 signals. Meanwhile, I-2 treatment substantially inhibited the apoptosis of JEV-infected cells. The results demonstrated that CW-33 exhibited a significant potential in the development of anti-JEV agents. PMID:27563890

  7. Jun NH2-terminal kinase is constitutively activated in T cells transformed by the intracellular parasite Theileria parva.

    PubMed

    Galley, Y; Hagens, G; Glaser, I; Davis, W; Eichhorn, M; Dobbelaere, D

    1997-05-13

    When T cells become infected by the parasite Theileria parva, they acquire a transformed phenotype and no longer require antigen-specific stimulation or exogenous growth factors. This is accompanied by constitutive interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-2 receptor expression. Transformation can be reversed entirely by elimination of the parasites using the specific drug BW720c. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) are members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family, which play a central role in the regulation of cellular differentiation and proliferation and also participate in the regulation of IL-2 and IL-2 receptor gene expression. T. parva was found to induce an unorthodox pattern of mitogen-activated protein kinase expression in infected T cells. JNK-1 and JNK-2 are constitutively active in a parasite-dependent manner, but have altered properties. In contrast, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 is not activated even though its activation pathway is functionally intact. Different components of the T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent signal transduction pathways also were examined. The TCRzeta or CD3epsilon chains were found not to be phosphorylated and T. parva-transformed T cells were resistant to inhibitors that block the early steps of T cell activation. Compounds that inhibit the progression of T cells to proliferation, however, were inhibitory. Our data provide the first example, to our knowledge, for parasite-mediated JNK activation, and our findings strongly suggest that T. parva not only lifts the requirement for antigenic stimulation but also entirely bypasses early TCR-dependent signal transduction pathways to induce continuous proliferation.

  8. Changes in intracellular and apoplastic peroxidase activity, ascorbate redox status, and root elongation induced by enhanced ascorbate content in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Pedregosa, María del Carmen; Villalba, José Manuel; Córdoba, Francisco; González-Reyes, José Antonio

    2005-02-01

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) treated with external ascorbic acid or with the immediate precursor of its synthesis L-galactono-gamma-lactone show a stimulated elongation rate of the roots and an increase in the number of new radicles appearing at the bulb base. Treatment with both molecules resulted in an enhanced accumulation of ascorbate and dehydroascorbate along the root axis, but the distribution of these redox forms was not uniform along the root, as detected in intracellular (symplastic) and extracellular (apoplastic) compartments. Thus, those radicular zones metabolically more active, such as the meristem and the elongation zone, accumulated the highest amount of both redox forms of ascorbate. On the other hand, ascorbate and L-galactono-gamma-lactone also stimulated cytosolic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and inhibited peroxidase activity as deduced from in vivo and in vitro experiments. Differences were also found when comparing apoplastic and symplastic activities. These results are compatible with the idea of an ascorbate-mediated stimulation of root growth by inhibiting cell wall stiffening and increasing root metabolism.

  9. The activity of anandamide at vanilloid VR1 receptors requires facilitated transport across the cell membrane and is limited by intracellular metabolism.

    PubMed

    De Petrocellis, L; Bisogno, T; Maccarrone, M; Davis, J B; Finazzi-Agro, A; Di Marzo, V

    2001-04-20

    The endogenous ligand of CB(1) cannabinoid receptors, anandamide, is also a full agonist at vanilloid VR1 receptors for capsaicin and resiniferatoxin, thereby causing an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in human VR1-overexpressing (hVR1-HEK) cells. Two selective inhibitors of anandamide facilitated transport into cells, VDM11 and VDM13, and two inhibitors of anandamide enzymatic hydrolysis, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and methylarachidonoyl fluorophosphonate, inhibited and enhanced, respectively, the VR1-mediated effect of anandamide, but not of resiniferatoxin or capsaicin. The nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside, known to stimulate anandamide transport, enhanced anandamide effect on the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Accordingly, hVR1-HEK cells contain an anandamide membrane transporter inhibited by VDM11 and VDM13 and activated by sodium nitroprusside, and an anandamide hydrolase activity sensitive to phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and methylarachidonoyl fluorophosphonate, and a fatty acid amide hydrolase transcript. These findings suggest the following. (i) Anandamide activates VR1 receptors by acting at an intracellular site. (ii) Degradation by fatty acid amide hydrolase limits anandamide activity on VR1; and (iii) the anandamide membrane transporter inhibitors can be used to distinguish between CB(1) or VR1 receptor-mediated actions of anandamide. By contrast, the CB(1) receptor antagonist SR141716A inhibited also the VR1-mediated effect of anandamide and capsaicin on cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, although at concentrations higher than those required for CB(1) antagonism.

  10. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-06-10

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms.

  11. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L.; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K.; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes—although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756

  12. Hybrid Active/Passive Jet Engine Noise Suppression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parente, C. A.; Arcas, N.; Walker, B. E.; Hersh, A. S.; Rice, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    A novel adaptive segmented liner concept has been developed that employs active control elements to modify the in-duct sound field to enhance the tone-suppressing performance of passive liner elements. This could potentially allow engine designs that inherently produce more tone noise but less broadband noise, or could allow passive liner designs to more optimally address high frequency broadband noise. A proof-of-concept validation program was undertaken, consisting of the development of an adaptive segmented liner that would maximize attenuation of two radial modes in a circular or annular duct. The liner consisted of a leading active segment with dual annuli of axially spaced active Helmholtz resonators, followed by an optimized passive liner and then an array of sensing microphones. Three successively complex versions of the adaptive liner were constructed and their performances tested relative to the performance of optimized uniform passive and segmented passive liners. The salient results of the tests were: The adaptive segmented liner performed well in a high flow speed model fan inlet environment, was successfully scaled to a high sound frequency and successfully attenuated three radial modes using sensor and active resonator arrays that were designed for a two mode, lower frequency environment.

  13. Intracellular protein delivery activity of peptides derived from insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 3 and 5

    SciTech Connect

    Goda, Natsuko; Tenno, Takeshi; Inomata, Kosuke; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Tanaka, Toshiki; Hiroaki, Hidekazu

    2008-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) have various IGF-independent cellular activities, including receptor-independent cellular uptake followed by transcriptional regulation, although mechanisms of cellular entry remain unclear. Herein, we focused on their receptor-independent cellular entry mechanism in terms of protein transduction domain (PTD) activity, which is an emerging technique useful for clinical applications. The peptides of 18 amino acid residues derived from IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5, which involve heparin-binding regions, mediated cellular delivery of an exogenous protein into NIH3T3 and HeLa cells. Relative protein delivery activities of IGFBP-3/5-derived peptides were approximately 20-150% compared to that of the HIV-Tat peptide, a potent PTD. Heparin inhibited the uptake of the fusion proteins with IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5, indicating that the delivery pathway is heparin-dependent endocytosis, similar to that of HIV-Tat. The delivery of GST fused to HIV-Tat was competed by either IGFBP-3 or IGFBP-5-derived synthetic peptides. Therefore, the entry pathways of the three PTDs are shared. Our data has shown a new approach for designing protein delivery systems using IGFBP-3/5 derived peptides based on the molecular mechanisms of IGF-independent activities of IGFBPs.

  14. Upregulation of arginase activity contributes to intracellular ROS production induced by high glucose in H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lu; Sun, Chuan-Bo; Liu, Chao; Fan, Yue; Zhu, Hong-Yi; Wu, Xiao-Wei; Hu, Liang; Li, Qing-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Arginase is upregulated in some tissues under diabetes states. Arginase can compete with nitroxide synthase (NOS) for the common substrate L-arginine and thus increases oxidative stress by NOS uncoupling. We want to analyze whether arginase is upregulated and contribute to oxidative stress in H9c2 cells during high glucose treatment. H9c2 cells were cultured in normal or high glucose DMEM. Arginase activity increased in parallel with increased cell death and oxidative stress. Arginase inhibitor N ω-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine (nor-NOHA) and NOS inhibitor N ω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) could reverse these effects. Despite of upregulated NOS activity, NO production was impaired which could be preserved by nor-NOHA, suggesting a decreased substrate availability of NOS due to increased arginase activity. L-arginine supplementation decreased superoxide production while it could not protect cells from death. Upregulated arginase activity in H9c2 treated with high glucose can cause NOS uncoupling and subsequently reactive oxygen species augmentation and cell death. These findings suggest that arginase will be a novel therapeutic target for treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  15. Kinetic activity, membrane mitochondrial potential, lipid peroxidation, intracellular pH and calcium of frozen/thawed bovine spermatozoa treated with metabolic enhancers.

    PubMed

    Boni, R; Gallo, A; Cecchini, S

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the progressive decline of sperm motility during storage there is a need to find substances capable of enhancing sperm energy metabolism and motility and/or preserving it from oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate in frozen/thawed bovine spermatozoa the effect of several compounds, such as myo-inositol, pentoxifylline, penicillamine + hypotaurine + epinephrine mixture (PHE), caffeine and coenzyme Q10+ zinc + d-aspartate mixture (CZA), on either kinetic or metabolic parameters. Sperm kinetics was evaluated by Sperm Class Analyser whereas specific fluorochromes were used to evaluated mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular pH, intracellular calcium concentration and lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation was also evaluated by TBARS analysis. Treatments significantly affected total and progressive motility with different dynamics in relation to the incubation time. After the first hour of incubation, CZA treatment produced the best performance in total and progressive sperm motility as well as in curvilinear velocity, average path velocity and amplitude of head displacement, whereas pentoxifylline stimulated the highest straight-line velocity. MMP showed higher values (p < 0.01) after treatment with pentoxifylline and PHE. Intracytoplasmic calcium concentration and lipid peroxidation were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the incubation time rather than the treatments. Intracellular pH varied significantly (p < 0.01) in relation to either the incubation time or treatments. In particular, it showed a progressive increase throughout incubation with values in control group significantly higher than in myo-inositol, PHE, caffeine, pentoxifylline and CZA groups (7.37 ± 0.03 vs. 7.29 ± 0.03, 7.28 ± 0.03, 7.26 ± 0.03, 7.22 ± 0.03 and 7.00 ± 0.03, respectively; p < 0.01).; however, among treatments, CZA displayed the lowest values. Significant correlations were found between sperm kinetic and metabolic

  16. GTP cyclohydrolase I expression, protein, and activity determine intracellular tetrahydrobiopterin levels, independent of GTP cyclohydrolase feedback regulatory protein expression.

    PubMed

    Tatham, Amy L; Crabtree, Mark J; Warrick, Nicholas; Cai, Shijie; Alp, Nicholas J; Channon, Keith M

    2009-05-15

    GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a required cofactor for nitricoxide synthases and aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. Alterations of GTPCH activity and BH4 availability play an important role in human disease. GTPCH expression is regulated by inflammatory stimuli, in association with reduced expression of GTP cyclohydrolase feedback regulatory protein (GFRP). However, the relative importance of GTPCH expression versus GTPCH activity and the role of GFRP in relation to BH4 bioavailability remain uncertain. We investigated these relationships in a cell line with tet-regulated GTPCH expression and in the hph-1 mouse model of GTPCH deficiency. Doxycycline exposure resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in GTPCH protein and activity, with a strong correlation between GTPCH expression and BH4 levels (r(2) = 0.85, p < 0.0001). These changes in GTPCH and BH4 had no effect on GFRP expression or protein levels. GFRP overexpression and knockdown in tet-GCH cells did not alter GTPCH activity or BH4 levels, and GTPCH-specific knockdown in sEnd.1 endothelial cells had no effect on GFRP protein. In mouse liver we observed a graded reduction of GTPCH expression, protein, and activity, from wild type, heterozygote, to homozygote littermates, with a striking linear correlation between GTPCH expression and BH4 levels (r(2) = 0.82, p < 0.0001). Neither GFRP expression nor protein differed between wild type, heterozygote, nor homozygote mice, despite the substantial differences in BH4. We suggest that GTPCH expression is the primary regulator of BH4 levels, and changes in GTPCH or BH4 are not necessarily accompanied by changes in GFRP expression.

  17. Overview of additive manufacturing activities at MTU aero engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberg, Joachim; Dusel, Karl-Heinz; Satzger, Wilhelm

    2015-03-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a promising technology to produce parts easily and effectively, just by using metallic powder or wire as starting material and a sophisticated melting process. In contrast to milling or turning technologies complex shaped and hollow parts can be built up in one step. That reduces the production costs and allows the implementation of complete new 3D designs. Therefore AM is also of great interest for aerospace and aero engine industry. MTU Aero Engines has focused its AM activities to the selective laser melting technique (SLM). This technique uses metallic powder and a laser for melting and building up the part layer by layer. It is shown which lead part was selected for AM and how the first production line was established. A special focus is set on the quality assurance of the selective laser melting process. In addition to standard non-destructive inspection techniques a new online monitoring tool was developed and integrated into the SLM machines. The basics of this technique is presented.

  18. Intracellular Disassembly of Self-Quenched Nanoparticles Turns NIR Fluorescence on for Sensing Furin Activity in Cells and in Tumors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yue; Zhang, Jia; Cao, Qinjingwen; An, Linna; Liang, Gaolin

    2015-06-16

    There has been no report on enzyme-controlled disassembly of self-quenched NIR fluorescent nanoparticles turning fluorescence on for specific detection/imaging of the enzyme's activity in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we reported the rational design of new NIR probe 1 whose fluorescence signal was self-quenched upon reduction-controlled condensation and subsequent assembly of its nanoparticles (i.e., 1-NPs). Then disassembly of 1-NPs by furin turned the fluorescence on. Employing this enzymatic strategy, we successfully applied 1-NPs for NIR detection of furin in vitro and NIR imaging furin activity in living cells. Moreover, we also applied 1-NPs for discriminative NIR imaging of MDA-MB-468 tumors in nude mice. This NIR probe 1 might be further developed for tumor-targeted imaging in routine preclinical studies or even in patients in the future.

  19. Optimization, Composition, and Antioxidant Activities of Exo- and Intracellular Polysaccharides in Submerged Culture of Cordyceps gracilis (Grev.) Durieu & Mont.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sapan Kumar; Atri, Narender Singh

    2015-01-01

    Under present experiments, EPS and IPS production, monosaccharide composition, and antioxidant activities of C. gracilis were studied for the first time under submerged culture conditions. Effect of different factors on polysaccharides production was studied by orthogonal experiments using one-factor-at-a-time method. Incubation of culture in the medium with capacity 200 mL (675.12 ± 5.01 and 385.20 ± 5.01 mg/L), rotation speed 150 rpm (324.62 ± 3.32 and 254.62 ± 4.62 mg/L), 6-day culture incubation time (445.24 ± 1.11, 216.60 ± 1.71 mg/L), pH 6.0 (374.81 ± 2.52 and 219.45 ± 2.59 mg/L), and temperature 23°C (405.24 ± 1.11 and 215.60 ± 1.71 mg/L) produced higher EPS and IPS, respectively. Maximum EPS and IPS production was observed in the medium supplemented with glucose as a carbon source (464.82 ± 2.12 and 264.42 ± 2.62 mg/L) and yeast extract as a nitrogen source (465.21 ± 3.11 and 245.17 ± 3.24 mg/L), respectively. Carbon to nitrogen ratio for maximum EPS and IPS production was observed as 10 : 1 (395.29 ± 2.15 and 235.62 ± 1.40 mg/L), respectively. Glucose was found to be the major monosaccharide (62.15 ± 7.33%). Both EPS and IPS of C. gracilis showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and iron chelating activity. PMID:25878715

  20. Arsenic-induced alteration in intracellular calcium homeostasis induces head kidney macrophage apoptosis involving the activation of calpain-2 and ERK in Clarias batrachus

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Chaitali; Goswami, Ramansu; Datta, Soma; Rajagopal, R.; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2011-10-01

    We had earlier shown that exposure to arsenic (0.50 {mu}M) caused caspase-3 mediated head kidney macrophage (HKM) apoptosis involving the p38-JNK pathway in Clarias batrachus. Here we examined the roles of calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) and extra-cellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), the other member of MAPK-pathway on arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. Arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involved increased expression of ERK and calpain-2. Nifedipine, verapamil and EGTA pre-treatment inhibited the activation of calpain-2, ERK and reduced arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis as evidenced from reduced caspase-3 activity, Annexin V-FITC-propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 staining. Pre-incubation with ERK inhibitor U 0126 inhibited the activation of calpain-2 and interfered with arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. Additionally, pre-incubation with calpain-2 inhibitor also interfered with the activation of ERK and inhibited arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium chloride also inhibited ERK activation indicating activation of ERK in arsenic-exposed HKM also depends on signals from NADPH oxidase pathway. Our study demonstrates the critical role of Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis on arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. We suggest that arsenic-induced alteration in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels initiates pro-apoptotic ERK and calpain-2; the two pathways influence each other positively and induce caspase-3 mediated HKM apoptosis. Besides, our study also indicates the role of ROS in the activation of ERK pathway in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis in C. batrachus. - Highlights: > Altered Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis leads to arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. > Calpain-2 plays a critical role in the process. > ERK is pro-apoptotic in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. > Arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involves cross talk between calpain-2 and ERK.

  1. Role of mitochondria in spontaneous rhythmic activity and intracellular calcium waves in the guinea pig gallbladder smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Balemba, Onesmo B; Bartoo, Aaron C; Nelson, Mark T; Mawe, Gary M

    2008-02-01

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling has been implicated in spontaneous rhythmic activity in smooth muscle and interstitial cells of Cajal. In this investigation we evaluated the effect of mitochondrial inhibitors on spontaneous action potentials (APs), Ca(2+) flashes, and Ca(2+) waves in gallbladder smooth muscle (GBSM). Disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential with carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone, carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone, rotenone, and antimycin A significantly reduced or eliminated APs, Ca(2+) flashes, and Ca(2+) waves in GBSM. Blockade of ATP production with oligomycin did not alter APs or Ca(2+) flashes but significantly reduced Ca(2+) wave frequency. Inhibition of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and Ca(2+) release with Ru360 and CGP-37157, respectively, reduced the frequency of Ca(2+) flashes and Ca(2+) waves in GBSM. Similar to oligomycin, cyclosporin A did not alter AP and Ca(2+) flash frequency but significantly reduced Ca(2+) wave activity. These data suggest that mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling is necessary for the generation of spontaneous electrical activity and may therefore play an important role in gallbladder tone and motility.

  2. Burkholderia pseudomallei type III secreted protein BipC: role in actin modulation and translocation activities required for the bacterial intracellular lifecycle

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wen Tyng; Vellasamy, Kumutha Malar; Rajamani, Lakshminarayanan; Beuerman, Roger W.

    2016-01-01

    Melioidosis, an infection caused by the facultative intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei, has been classified as an emerging disease with the number of patients steadily increasing at an alarming rate. B. pseudomalleipossess various virulence determinants that allow them to invade the host and evade the host immune response, such as the type III secretion systems (TTSS). The products of this specialized secretion system are particularly important for the B. pseudomallei infection. Lacking in one or more components of the TTSS demonstrated different degrees of defects in the intracellular lifecycle of B. pseudomallei. Further understanding the functional roles of proteins involved in B. pseudomallei TTSS will enable us to dissect the enigma of B. pseudomallei-host cell interaction. In this study, BipC (a translocator), which was previously reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei, was further characterized using the bioinformatics and molecular approaches. The bipCgene, coding for a putative invasive protein, was first PCR amplified from B. pseudomallei K96243 genomic DNA and cloned into an expression vector for overexpression in Escherichia coli. The soluble protein was subsequently purified and assayed for actin polymerization and depolymerization. BipC was verified to subvert the host actin dynamics as demonstrated by the capability to polymerize actin in vitro. Homology modeling was also attempted to predict the structure of BipC. Overall, our findings identified that the protein encoded by the bipC gene plays a role as an effector involved in the actin binding activity to facilitate internalization of B. pseudomalleiinto the host cells. PMID:28028452

  3. Microdamage induced calcium efflux from bone matrix activates intracellular calcium signaling in osteoblasts via L-type and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyungjin; Best, Makenzie; Akkus, Ozan

    2015-07-01

    Mechanisms by which bone microdamage triggers repair response are not completely understood. It has been shown that calcium efflux ([Ca(2+)]E) occurs from regions of bone undergoing microdamage. Such efflux has also been shown to trigger intracellular calcium signaling ([Ca(2+)]I) in MC3T3-E1 cells local to damaged regions. Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are implicated in the entry of [Ca(2+)]E to the cytoplasm. We investigated the involvement of VGCC in the extracellular calcium induced intracellular calcium response (ECIICR). MC3T3-E1 cells were subjected to one dimensional calcium efflux from their basal aspect which results in an increase in [Ca(2+)]I. This increase was concomitant with membrane depolarization and it was significantly reduced in the presence of Bepridil, a non-selective VGCC inhibitor. To identify specific type(s) of VGCC in ECIICR, the cells were treated with selective inhibitors for different types of VGCC. Significant changes in the peak intensity and the number of [Ca(2+)]I oscillations were observed when L-type and T-type specific VGCC inhibitors (Verapamil and NNC55-0396, respectively) were used. So as to confirm the involvement of L- and T-type VGCC in the context of microdamage, cells were seeded on devitalized notched bone specimen, which were loaded to induce microdamage in the presence and absence of Verapamil and NNC55-0396. The results showed significant decrease in [Ca(2+)]I activity of cells in the microdamaged regions of bone when L- and T-type blockers were applied. This study demonstrated that extracellular calcium increase in association with damage depolarizes the cell membrane and the calcium ions enter the cell cytoplasm by L- and T-type VGCCs.

  4. Human factors in remote control engineering development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Hamel, W.R.; Draper, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Human factors engineering, which is an integral part of the advanced remote control development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is described. First, work at the Remote Systems Development Facility (RSDF) has shown that operators can perform a wide variety of tasks, some of which were not specifically designed for remote systems, with a dextrous electronic force-reflecting servomanipulator and good television remote viewing capabilities. Second, the data collected during mock-up remote maintenance experiments at the RSDF have been analyzed to provide guidelines for the design of human interfaces with an integrated advanced remote maintenance system currently under development. Guidelines have been provided for task allocation between operators, remote viewing systems, and operator controls. 6 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Engineering titania nanostructure to tune and improve its photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Cargnello, Matteo; Montini, Tiziano; Smolin, Sergey Y; Priebe, Jacqueline B; Delgado Jaén, Juan J; Doan-Nguyen, Vicky V T; McKay, Ian S; Schwalbe, Jay A; Pohl, Marga-Martina; Gordon, Thomas R; Lu, Yupeng; Baxter, Jason B; Brückner, Angelika; Fornasiero, Paolo; Murray, Christopher B

    2016-04-12

    Photocatalytic pathways could prove crucial to the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals required for a carbon-neutral society. Electron-hole recombination is a critical problem that has, so far, limited the efficiency of the most promising photocatalytic materials. Here, we show the efficacy of anisotropy in improving charge separation and thereby boosting the activity of a titania (TiO2) photocatalytic system. Specifically, we show that H2 production in uniform, one-dimensional brookite titania nanorods is highly enhanced by engineering their length. By using complimentary characterization techniques to separately probe excited electrons and holes, we link the high observed reaction rates to the anisotropic structure, which favors efficient carrier utilization. Quantum yield values for hydrogen production from ethanol, glycerol, and glucose as high as 65%, 35%, and 6%, respectively, demonstrate the promise and generality of this approach for improving the photoactivity of semiconducting nanostructures for a wide range of reacting systems.

  6. Engineering titania nanostructure to tune and improve its photocatalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Cargnello, Matteo; Montini, Tiziano; Smolin, Sergey Y.; Priebe, Jacqueline B.; Delgado Jaén, Juan J.; Doan-Nguyen, Vicky V. T.; McKay, Ian S.; Schwalbe, Jay A.; Pohl, Marga-Martina; Gordon, Thomas R.; Lu, Yupeng; Baxter, Jason B.; Brückner, Angelika; Murray, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalytic pathways could prove crucial to the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals required for a carbon-neutral society. Electron−hole recombination is a critical problem that has, so far, limited the efficiency of the most promising photocatalytic materials. Here, we show the efficacy of anisotropy in improving charge separation and thereby boosting the activity of a titania (TiO2) photocatalytic system. Specifically, we show that H2 production in uniform, one-dimensional brookite titania nanorods is highly enhanced by engineering their length. By using complimentary characterization techniques to separately probe excited electrons and holes, we link the high observed reaction rates to the anisotropic structure, which favors efficient carrier utilization. Quantum yield values for hydrogen production from ethanol, glycerol, and glucose as high as 65%, 35%, and 6%, respectively, demonstrate the promise and generality of this approach for improving the photoactivity of semiconducting nanostructures for a wide range of reacting systems. PMID:27035977

  7. DMSO Enhances TGF-β Activity by Recruiting the Type II TGF-β Receptor From Intracellular Vesicles to the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuan Shian; Chen, Chun-Lin; Huang, Franklin W; Hou, Wei-Hsien; Huang, Jung San

    2016-07-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is used to treat many diseases/symptoms. The molecular basis of the pharmacological actions of DMSO has been unclear. We hypothesized that DMSO exerts some of these actions by enhancing TGF-β activity. Here we show that DMSO enhances TGF-β activity by ∼3-4-fold in Mv1Lu and NMuMG cells expressing Smad-dependent luciferase reporters. In Mv1Lu cells, DMSO enhances TGF-β-stimulated expression of P-Smad2 and PAI-1. It increases cell-surface expression of TGF-β receptors (TβR-I and/or TβR-II) by ∼3-4-fold without altering their cellular levels as determined by (125) I-labeled TGF-β-cross-linking/Western blot analysis, suggesting the presence of large intracellular pools in these cells. Sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation/Western blot analysis reveals that DMSO induces recruitment of TβR-II (but not TβR-I) from its intracellular pool to plasma-membrane microdomains. It induces more recruitment of TβR-II to non-lipid raft microdomains than to lipid rafts/caveolae. Mv1Lu cells transiently transfected with TβR-II-HA plasmid were treated with DMSO and analyzed by indirect immunofluoresence staining using anti-HA antibody. In these cells, TβR-II-HA is present as a vesicle-like network in the cytoplasm as well as in the plasma membrane. DMSO causes depletion of TβR-II-HA-containing vesicles from the cytoplasm and co-localization of TβR-II-HA and cveolin-1 at the plasma membrane. These results suggest that DMSO, a fusogenic substance, enhances TGF-β activity presumably by inducing fusion of cytoplasmic vesicles (containing TβR-II) and the plasma membrane, resulting in increased localization of TβR-II to non-lipid raft microdomains where canonical signaling occurs. Fusogenic activity of DMSO may play a pivotal role in its pharmacological actions involving membrane proteins with large cytoplasmic pools. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1568-1579, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Role of I-TAC-binding receptors CXCR3 and CXCR7 in proliferation, activation of intracellular signaling pathways and migration of various tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Miekus, Katarzyna; Jarocha, Danuta; Trzyna, Elzbieta; Majka, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    Chemokines and its receptors stimulate tumor growth, migration and invasion. In this study we evaluated the expression and function of CXCR3 and CXCR7 receptors in cervical carcinoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and glioblastoma cell lines. We found that both receptors were expressed at different degree by tumor cells. CXCR7 was expressed at both mRNA and protein level by all tumor cell lines. The expression of CXCR7 differed between rhabdomyosarcoma subtypes. The receptor was highly expressed in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and the expression was low in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. The expression of CXCR3 was low in majority of the tumor cell lines. Upon I-TAC stimulation AKT and MAPK kinases were activated. However, the activation of growth promoting pathways did not increased the proliferation rate of tumor cells. Since chemokines stimulate the migration of various cell types the ability of I-TAC to stimulate migration of tumor cells were studied. We did not observe the migration of tumor cells toward I-TAC gradient alone. However, at the low dose, I-TAC sensitized tumor cells toward SDF-1beta gradient and synergized with SDF-1beta in activation of intracellular pathways. Our data suggest an important role of I-TAC and its receptors in biology of solid tumors and we postulate that I-TAC-binding receptors might be used as the potential targets for antitumor therapy.

  9. MIF-driven activation of macrophages induces killing of intracellular Trypanosoma cruzi dependent on endogenous production of tumor necrosis factor, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Cutrullis, Romina A; Petray, Patricia B; Corral, Ricardo S

    2017-02-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key player in innate immunity. MIF has been considered critical for controlling acute infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Our study aimed to analyze whether MIF could favor microbicidal activity of the macrophage, a site where T. cruzi grows and the initial effector cell against this parasite. Using murine macrophages infected in vitro, we examined the effect of MIF on their parasiticidal ability and attempted to identify inflammatory agents involved in MIF-induced protection. Our findings show that MIF is readily secreted from peritoneal macrophages upon T. cruzi infection. MIF activates both primary and J774 phagocytes boosting the endogenous production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha via mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 signaling, as well as the release of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, leading to enhanced pathogen elimination. MIF can also potentiate the effect of interferon-gamma on T. cruzi killing by J774 and mouse peritoneal macrophages, rendering these cells more competent in reducing intracellular parasite burden. The present results unveil a novel innate immune pathway that contributes to host defense and broaden our understanding of the regulation of inflammatory mediators implicated in early parasite containment that is decisive for resistance to T. cruzi infection.

  10. Different rate-limiting activities of intracellular pH regulators for HCO3(-) secretion stimulated by forskolin and carbachol in rat parotid intralobular ducts.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Kaori; Hirono, Chikara; Kitagawa, Michinori; Shiba, Yoshiki; Sugita, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation fundamentally participates in maintaining HCO3(-) release from HCO3(-)-secreting epithelia. We used parotid intralobular ducts loaded with BCECF to investigate the contributions of a carbonic anhydrase (CA), anion channels and a Na(+)-H(+) exchanger (NHE) to pHi regulation for HCO3(-) secretion by cAMP and Ca(2+) signals. Resting pHi was dispersed between 7.4 and 7.9. Forskolin consistently decreased pHi showing the dominance of pHi-lowering activities, but carbachol gathered pHi around 7.6. CA inhibition suppressed the forskolin-induced decrease in pHi, while it allowed carbachol to consistently increase pHi by revealing that carbachol prominently activated NHE via Ca(2+)-calmodulin. Under NHE inhibition, forskolin and carbachol induced the remarkable decreases in pHi, which were slowed predominantly by CA inhibition and by CA or anion channel inhibition, respectively. Our results suggest that forskolin and carbachol primarily activate the pHi-lowering CA and pHi-raising NHE, respectively, to regulate pHi for HCO3(-) secretion.

  11. Intracellular route and biological activity of exogenously delivered Rep proteins from the adeno-associated virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Awedikian, Rafi; François, Achille; Guilbaud, Mickaël; Moullier, Philippe; Salvetti, Anna

    2005-05-10

    The two large Rep proteins, Rep78 and Rep68, from the adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) are required for AAV-2 DNA replication, site-specific integration, and for the regulation of viral gene expression. The study of their activities is dependent on the ability to deliver these proteins to the cells in a time and dose-dependent manner. We evaluated the ability of a protein transduction domain (PTD) derived from the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) TAT protein to drive the cellular internalization of exogenously delivered PTD-fused Rep68 proteins. This analysis unexpectedly revealed that recombinant Rep68 alone, in the absence of any PTD, could be endocytosed by the cells. Rep68 as the chimeric TAT-Rep68 proteins were internalized through endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles and retained in late endosomes/lysosomes with no detectable nuclear localization. In the presence of adenovirus, the Rep proteins could translocate into the nucleus where they displayed a biological activity. These findings support recent reports on the mechanism of entry of TAT-fused proteins and also revealed a new property of Rep68.

  12. Intracellular route and biological activity of exogenously delivered Rep proteins from the adeno-associated virus type 2

    SciTech Connect

    Awedikian, Rafi; Francois, Achille; Guilbaud, Mickael; Moullier, Philippe; Salvetti, Anna . E-mail: anna.salvetti@univ-nantes.fr

    2005-05-10

    The two large Rep proteins, Rep78 and Rep68, from the adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) are required for AAV-2 DNA replication, site-specific integration, and for the regulation of viral gene expression. The study of their activities is dependent on the ability to deliver these proteins to the cells in a time and dose-dependent manner. We evaluated the ability of a protein transduction domain (PTD) derived from the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) TAT protein to drive the cellular internalization of exogenously delivered PTD-fused Rep68 proteins. This analysis unexpectedly revealed that recombinant Rep68 alone, in the absence of any PTD, could be endocytosed by the cells. Rep68 as the chimeric TAT-Rep68 proteins were internalized through endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles and retained in late endosomes/lysosomes with no detectable nuclear localization. In the presence of adenovirus, the Rep proteins could translocate into the nucleus where they displayed a biological activity. These findings support recent reports on the mechanism of entry of TAT-fused proteins and also revealed a new property of Rep68.

  13. High Density Individually Addressable Nanowire Arrays Record Intracellular Activity from Primary Rodent and Human Stem Cell Derived Neurons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren; Chen, Renjie; Elthakeb, Ahmed T; Lee, Sang Heon; Hinckley, Sandy; Khraiche, Massoud L; Scott, John; Pre, Deborah; Hwang, Yoontae; Tanaka, Atsunori; Ro, Yun Goo; Matsushita, Albert K; Dai, Xing; Soci, Cesare; Biesmans, Steven; James, Anthony; Nogan, John; Jungjohann, Katherine L; Pete, Douglas V; Webb, Denise B; Zou, Yimin; Bang, Anne G; Dayeh, Shadi A

    2017-04-10

    We report a new hybrid integration scheme that offers for the first time a nanowire-on-lead approach, which enables independent electrical addressability, is scalable, and has superior spatial resolution in vertical nanowire arrays. The fabrication of these nanowire arrays is demonstrated to be scalable down to submicrometer site-to-site spacing and can be combined with standard integrated circuit fabrication technologies. We utilize these arrays to perform electrophysiological recordings from mouse and rat primary neurons and human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons, which revealed high signal-to-noise ratios and sensitivity to subthreshold postsynaptic potentials (PSPs). We measured electrical activity from rodent neurons from 8 days in vitro (DIV) to 14 DIV and from hiPSC-derived neurons at 6 weeks in vitro post culture with signal amplitudes up to 99 mV. Overall, our platform paves the way for longitudinal electrophysiological experiments on synaptic activity in human iPSC based disease models of neuronal networks, critical for understanding the mechanisms of neurological diseases and for developing drugs to treat them.

  14. Phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins during meiotic maturation and following activation in starfish oocytes: its relationship with changes of intracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Peaucellier, G; Picard, A; Robert, J J; Capony, J P; Labbe, J C; Doree, M

    1988-01-01

    An increased phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 has been shown to be correlated with an increase of intracellular pH (pHi) and with stimulation of protein synthesis in many systems. In this research changes in ribosome phosphorylation following hormone-induced meiotic maturation and fertilization or activation by ionophore A23187 were investigated in starfish oocytes. The hormone was found to stimulate, even in the absence of external Na+, the phosphorylation on serine residues of an Mr 31,000 protein identified as S6, as well as that of an acidic Mr 47,000 protein, presumably S1, on threonine residues. Phosphorylation of ribosomes was an early consequence of hormonal stimulation and did not decrease after completion of meiotic maturation. Fertilization or activation by ionophore of prophase-arrested oocytes also stimulated ribosome phosphorylation. Only S6 was labeled in this case, but to a lesser extent than upon hormone-induced meiotic maturation. Changes in pHi were monitored with ion-specific microelectrodes throughout meiotic maturation and following either fertilization or activation. The pHi did not change before germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) following hormone addition, but it increased before first polar body emission. It also increased following fertilization or activation by ionophore or the microinjection of Ca-EGTA. In all cases, alkalinization did not depend on activation of an amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ exchanger. Microinjection of an alkaline Hepes buffer or external application of ammonia, both of which increased pHi, prevented unfertilized oocytes from arresting after formation of the female pronucleus and induced chromosome cycling. Phosphorylation of S6 was still observed following fertilization or induction of maturation when pHi was decreased by external application of acetate, a treatment which suppressed the emission of polar bodies. Protein synthesis increased in prophase-arrested oocytes after fertilization or activation. It also

  15. eIF4E-binding proteins are differentially modified after ammonia versus intracellular calcium activation of sea urchin unfertilized eggs.

    PubMed

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile; Cormier, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Fertilization of sea urchin eggs triggers a rise of protein synthesis mainly dependent on the cap-binding protein eIF4E, which is released from its repressor 4E-BP and associates with eIF4G. Association of eIF4G with eIF4E is a crucial event for the onset of the first mitotic division following fertilization. Artificial activation of unfertilized eggs with the calcium ionophore A23187 results in the activation of protein synthesis comparable to the one triggered by fertilization, while increasing the intracellular pH by ammonia treatment results in partial activation of protein synthesis. Nevertheless, artificial activation does not induce the mitotic division. Here we investigate the effect of calcium ionophore and ammonia treatment of unfertilized eggs on eIF4E and its two antagonist partners, 4E-BP and eIF4G. We show that the addition of calcium ionophore to unfertilized eggs induces permanent dissociation between eIF4E and 4E-BP, whereas a reversible dissociation of the complex occurs after ammonia treatment. The regulation of the complex correlates with permanent or reversible 4E-BP disappearance depending on the treatment used to trigger artificial activation. Furthermore, while calcium ionophore treatment of unfertilized eggs induces eIF4G modifications comparable to those observed following fertilization, ammonia treatment does not. These results suggest that ionophore and ammonia treatments of unfertilized eggs induce differential protein synthesis activation by targeting eIF4E availability and specific regulation through its two partners 4E-BP and eIF4G.

  16. Multidisciplinary and Active/Collaborative Approaches in Teaching Requirements Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosca, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The requirements engineering course is a core component of the curriculum for the Master's in Software Engineering programme, at Monmouth University (MU). It covers the process, methods and tools specific to this area, together with the corresponding software quality issues. The need to produce software engineers with strong teamwork and…

  17. Dysregulation of Macrophage Activation Profiles by Engineered Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kodali, Vamsi; Littke, Matthew H.; Tilton, Susan C.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Shi, Liang; Frevert, Charles W.; Wang, Wei; Pounds, Joel G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Although the potential human health impacts from exposure to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are uncertain, past epidemiological studies have established correlations between exposure to ambient air pollution particulates and the incidence of pneumonia and lung infections. Using amorphous silica and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) as model high production volume ENPs, we examined how macrophage activation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the lung pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is altered by ENP pre-treatment. Neither silica nor SPIO treatment elicited direct cytotoxic or pro-inflammatory effects in bone marrow-derived macrophages. However, pre-treatment of macrophages with SPIO caused extensive reprogramming of nearly 500 genes regulated in response to LPS challenge, hallmarked by exaggerated activation of oxidative stress response pathways and suppressed activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Silica pre-treatment altered regulation of only 67 genes, but there was strong correlation with gene sets affected by SPIO. Macrophages exposed to SPIO displayed a phenotype suggesting an impaired ability to transition from a M1 to M2-like activation state, characterized by suppressed IL-10 induction, enhanced TNFα production, and diminished phagocytic activity toward S. pneumoniae. Studies in macrophages deficient in scavenger receptor A (SR-A) showed SR-A participates in cell uptake of both the ENPs and S. pneumonia, and co-regulates the anti-inflammatory IL-10 pathway. Thus, mechanisms for dysregulation of innate immunity exist by virtue that common receptor recognition pathways are used by some ENPs and pathogenic bacteria, although the extent of transcriptional reprogramming of macrophage function depends on the physicochemical properties of the ENP after internalization. Our results also illustrate that biological effects of ENPs may be indirectly manifested only after challenging normal cell function. Nanotoxicology screening strategies

  18. Dysregulation of Macrophage Activation Profiles by Engineered Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kodali, Vamsi; Littke, Matthew H.; Tilton, Susan C.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Shi, Liang; Frevert, Charles W.; Wang, Wei; Pounds, Joel G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2013-08-27

    Although the potential human health impacts from exposure to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are uncertain, past epidemiological studies have established correlations between exposure to ambient air pollution particulates and the incidence of pneumonia and lung infections. Using amorphous silica and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) as model high production volume ENPs, we examined how macrophage activation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the lung pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is altered by ENP pretreatment. Neither silica nor SPIO treatment elicited direct cytotoxic or pro-inflammatory effects in bone marrow-derived macrophages. However, pretreatment of macrophages with SPIO caused extensive reprogramming of nearly 500 genes regulated in response to LPS challenge, hallmarked by exaggerated activation of oxidative stress response pathways and suppressed activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Silica pretreatment altered regulation of only 67 genes, but there was strong correlation with gene sets affected by SPIO. Macrophages exposed to SPIO displayed a phenotype suggesting an impaired ability to transition from an M1 to M2-like activation state, characterized by suppressed IL-10 induction, enhanced TNFα production, and diminished phagocytic activity toward S. pneumoniae. Studies in macrophages deficient in scavenger receptor A (SR-A) showed SR-A participates in cell uptake of both the ENPs and S. pneumonia and co-regulates the anti-inflammatory IL-10 pathway. Thus, mechanisms for dysregulation of innate immunity exist by virtue that common receptor recognition pathways are used by some ENPs and pathogenic bacteria, although the extent of transcriptional reprogramming of macrophage function depends on the physicochemical properties of the ENP after internalization. Our results also illustrate that biological effects of ENPs may be indirectly manifested only after challenging normal cell function. Finally, nanotoxicology screening

  19. Relative impact of residues at the intracellular and extracellular ends of the human GABAC rho1 receptor M2 domain on picrotoxinin activity.

    PubMed

    Carland, Jane E; Johnston, Graham A R; Chebib, Mary

    2008-02-02

    The relative impact on picrotoxinin activity of residues at the intracellular (2' and 6' residues) and extracellular (15' and 17' residues) ends of the second transmembrane (M2) domain of the human gamma-aminobutyric acid-C (GABA(C)) rho1 receptor was investigated. A series of GABA(C) rho1 subunits were produced containing either single or multiple mutations at the positions of interest. Wild-type and mutant subunits (containing one or more of the following mutations: P2'S, T6'M, I15'N, G17'H) were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and characterized using agonists, partial agonists and antagonists. Changes in agonist activity were observed for mutant receptors. Most notably, mutation at the 2' position resulted in decreased agonist potency, while mutation at the 15' and 17' residues increased agonist potency. The affinity of the competitive antagonist (1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA) was unchanged compared to wild-type at all mutant receptors. Of the four residues studied, mutation of residues at the 2' and 6' positions had the greatest impact on picrotoxinin activity. Inclusion of the P2'S mutation typically produced receptors with increased picrotoxinin potency, while the T6'M mutation reduced picrotoxinin potency. Picrotoxinin is a mixed antagonist at wild-type and all mutant receptors, with the exception of the double mutant rho1P2'S/T6'M receptors at which the non-competitive component was isolated. It is proposed that the contribution of M2 domain residues to picrotoxinin activity is potentially two-fold: (1) their role as a potential picrotoxinin binding site within the pore; and (2) they are critical for receptor activation properties of the receptor, thus may alter the allosteric mechanism of picrotoxinin.

  20. 76 FR 70829 - Proposed Information Collection (Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal) Activity; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Architect--Engineer Fee Proposal) Activity; Comment Request.... Titles: a. Architect--Engineer Fee Proposal, VA Form 10-6298. b. Daily Log (Contract Progress Report... Architect-engineering firm selected for negotiation of a contract with VA is required to submit a...

  1. A molecular signature in the pannexin1 intracellular loop confers channel activation by the α1 adrenoreceptor in smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Billaud, Marie; Chiu, Yu-Hsin; Lohman, Alexander W.; Parpaite, Thibaud; Butcher, Joshua T.; Mutchler, Stephanie M.; DeLalio, Leon J.; Artamonov, Mykhaylo V.; Sandilos, Joanna K.; Best, Angela K.; Somlyo, Avril V.; Thompson, Roger J.; Le, Thu H.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Isakson, Brant E.

    2015-01-01

    Both purinergic signaling through nucleotides such as ATP (adenosine 5′-triphosphate) and noradrenergic signaling through molecules such as norepinephrine regulate vascular tone and blood pressure. Pannexin1 (Panx1), which forms large-pore, ATP-releasing channels, is present in vascular smooth muscle cells in peripheral blood vessels and participates in noradrenergic responses. Using pharmacological approaches and mice conditionally lacking Panx1 in smooth muscle cells, we found that Panx1 contributed to vaso-constriction mediated by the α1 adrenoreceptor (α1AR), whereas vasoconstriction in response to serotonin or endothelin-1 was independent of Panx1. Analysis of the Panx1-deficient mice showed that Panx1 contributed to blood pressure regulation especially during the night cycle when sympathetic nervous activity is highest. Using mimetic peptides and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified a specific amino acid sequence in the Panx1 intracellular loop that is essential for activation by α1AR signaling. Collectively, these data describe a specific link between noradrenergic and purinergic signaling in blood pressure homeostasis. PMID:25690012

  2. Intracellular haemolytic agents of Heterocapsa circularisquama exhibit toxic effects on H. circularisquama cells themselves and suppress both cell-mediated haemolytic activity and toxicity to rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis).

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Cho, Kichul; Yasutomi, Masumi; Ueno, Mikinori; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Basti, Leila; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Takeshita, Satoshi; Kim, Daekyung; Oda, Tatsuya

    2016-10-01

    A harmful dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa circularisquama, is highly toxic to shellfish and the zooplankton rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. A previous study found that H. circularisquama has both light-dependent and -independent haemolytic agents, which might be responsible for its toxicity. Detailed analysis of the haemolytic activity of H. circularisquama suggested that light-independent haemolytic activity was mediated mainly through intact cells, whereas light-dependent haemolytic activity was mediated by intracellular agents which can be discharged from ruptured cells. Because H. circularisquama showed similar toxicity to rotifers regardless of the light conditions, and because ultrasonic ruptured H. circularisquama cells showed no significant toxicity to rotifers, it was suggested that live cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity is a major factor responsible for the observed toxicity to rotifers. Interestingly, the ultrasonic-ruptured cells of H. circularisquama suppressed their own lethal effect on the rotifers. Analysis of samples of the cell contents (supernatant) and cell fragments (precipitate) prepared from the ruptured H. circularisquama cells indicated that the cell contents contain inhibitors for the light-independent cell-mediated haemolytic activity, toxins affecting H. circularisquama cells themselves, as well as light-dependent haemolytic agents. Ethanol extract prepared from H. circularisquama, which is supposed to contain a porphyrin derivative that displays photosensitising haemolytic activity, showed potent toxicity to Chattonella marina, Chattonella antiqua, and Karenia mikimotoi, as well as to H. circularisquama at the concentration range at which no significant toxicity to rotifers was observed. Analysis on a column of Sephadex LH-20 revealed that light-dependent haemolytic activity and inhibitory activity on cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity existed in two separate fractions (f-2 and f-3), suggesting that both

  3. A transcription activator-like effector toolbox for genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Sanjana, Neville E; Cong, Le; Zhou, Yang; Cunniff, Margaret M; Feng, Guoping; Zhang, Feng

    2012-01-05

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a class of naturally occurring DNA-binding proteins found in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas sp. The DNA-binding domain of each TALE consists of tandem 34-amino acid repeat modules that can be rearranged according to a simple cipher to target new DNA sequences. Customized TALEs can be used for a wide variety of genome engineering applications, including transcriptional modulation and genome editing. Here we describe a toolbox for rapid construction of custom TALE transcription factors (TALE-TFs) and nucleases (TALENs) using a hierarchical ligation procedure. This toolbox facilitates affordable and rapid construction of custom TALE-TFs and TALENs within 1 week and can be easily scaled up to construct TALEs for multiple targets in parallel. We also provide details for testing the activity in mammalian cells of custom TALE-TFs and TALENs using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR and Surveyor nuclease, respectively. The TALE toolbox described here will enable a broad range of biological applications.

  4. An Engineered Herpesvirus Activates Dendritic Cells and Induces Protective Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yijie; Chen, Min; Jin, Huali; Prabhakar, Bellur S.; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; He, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are human pathogens that switch between lytic and latent infection. While attenuated HSV is explored for vaccine, the underlying event remains poorly defined. Here we report that recombinant HSV-1 with a mutation in the γ134.5 protein, a virulence factor, stimulates dendritic cell (DC) maturation which is dependent on TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). When exposed to CD11+ DCs, the mutant virus that lacks the amino terminus of γ134.5 undergoes temporal replication without production of infectious virus. Mechanistically, this leads to sequential phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and p65/RelA. In correlation, DCs up-regulate the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines. However, selective inhibition of TBK1 precludes phosphorylation of IRF3 and subsequent DC activation by the γ134.5 mutant. Herein, the γ134.5 mutant is immune-stimulatory and non-destructive to DCs. Remarkably, upon immunization the γ134.5 mutant induces protection against lethal challenge by the wild type virus, indicative of its vaccine potential. Furthermore, CD11+ DCs primed by the γ134.5 mutant in vivo mediate protection upon adoptive transfer. These results suggest that activation of TBK1 by engineered HSV is crucial for DC maturation, which may contribute to protective immunity. PMID:28150813

  5. Amphotericin B-Induced Renal Tubular Cell Injury Is Mediated by Na+ Influx through Ion-Permeable Pores and Subsequent Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases and Elevation of Intracellular Ca2+ Concentration▿

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Takahisa; Itoh, Yoshinori; Kawamura, Eiko; Maeda, Asuka; Egashira, Nobuaki; Nishida, Motohiro; Kurose, Hitoshi; Oishi, Ryozo

    2009-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AMB) is one of the most effective antifungal agents; however, its use is often limited by the occurrence of adverse events, especially nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the possible mechanisms underlying the nephrotoxic action of AMB. The exposure of a porcine proximal renal tubular cell line (LLC-PK1 cells) to AMB caused cell injury, as assessed by mitochondrial enzyme activity, the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, and tissue ATP depletion. Propidium iodide uptake was enhanced, while terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling was not affected by AMB, suggesting a lack of involvement of apoptosis in AMB-induced cell injury. The cell injury was inhibited by the depletion of membrane cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which lowered the extracellular Na+ concentration or the chelation of intracellular Ca2+. The rise in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration may be mediated through the activation of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) on the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondrial Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, since cell injury was attenuated by dantrolene (an RyR antagonist) and CGP37157 (an Na+-Ca2+ exchanger inhibitor). Moreover, AMB-induced cell injury was reversed by PD169316 (a p38 mitogen-activated protein [MAP] kinase inhibitor), c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor II, and PD98059 (a MEK1/2 inhibitor). The phosphorylations of these MAP kinases were enhanced by AMB in a calcium-independent manner, suggesting the involvement of MAP kinases in AMB-induced cell injury. These findings suggest that Na+ entry through membrane pores formed by the association of AMB with membrane cholesterol leads to the activation of MAP kinases and the elevation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, leading to renal tubular cell injury. PMID:19139282

  6. Activation of the neuroprotective ERK signaling pathway by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate during hypoxia involves intracellular Ca2+ and phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Fahlman, C S; Bickler, P E; Sullivan, Breandan; Gregory, G A

    2002-12-20

    The mechanism of the neuroprotective action of the glycolytic pathway intermediate fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) may involve activation of a phospholipase-C (PLC) dependent MAP kinase signaling pathway. In this study, we determined whether FBP's capacity to decrease delayed cell death in hippocampal slice cultures is dependent on PLC signaling or activation of the intracellular Ca(2+)-MEK/ERK neuroprotective signaling cascade. FBP (3.5 mM) reduced delayed death from oxygen/glucose deprivation in CA1, CA3 and dentate neurons in slice cultures. The phospholipase-C inhibitor U73122 and the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 prevented this protection. In hippocampal and cortical neurons, FBP increased phospho-ERK1/2 (p42/44) immunostaining during hypoxic, but not normoxic conditions. Increased phospho-ERK immunostaining was dependent on PLC and also on MEK 1/2, an upstream regulator of ERK. Further, we found that FBP enhancement of phospho-ERK immunostaining depended on [Ca(2+)](i): PLC inhibition and the IP(3) receptor blocker xestospongin C prevented FBP from increasing [Ca(2+)](i) and increasing phospho-ERK levels. However, while FBP-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i) were blocked by xestospongin and a PLC inhibitor, [Ca(2+)](i) increases induced by the neuroprotective growth factor BDNF were not prevented. We conclude that during hypoxia FBP initiates a series of neuroprotective signals which include PLC activation, small increases in [Ca(2+)](i), and increased activity of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway.

  7. Potential involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 in encystation of a primitive eukaryote, Giardia lamblia. Stage-specific activation and intracellular localization.

    PubMed

    Ellis, John G; Davila, Monica; Chakrabarti, Ratna

    2003-01-17

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are major signaling systems by which eukaryotic cells convert environmental cues to intracellular events such as proliferation and differentiation. We have identified Giardia lamblia homologues of two members of the MAPK family ERK1 and ERK2. Functional characterization of giardial ERK1 and ERK2 revealed that both kinases were expressed in trophozoites and encysting cells as 44- and 41-kDa polypeptides, respectively, and were catalytically active. Analysis of the kinetic parameters of the recombinant proteins showed that ERK2 is approximately 5 times more efficient than ERK1 in phosphorylating myelin basic protein as a substrate, although the phosphorylating efficiency of the native ERK1 and ERK2 appeared to be the same. Immunofluorescence analysis of the subcellular localization of ERK1 and ERK2 in trophozoites showed ERK1 staining mostly in the median body and in the outer edges of the adhesive disc and ERK2 staining in the nuclei and in the caudal flagella. Our study also showed a noticeable change in the subcellular distribution of ERK2 during encystation, which became more punctate and mostly cytoplasmic, but no significant change in the ERK1 localization at any time during encystation. Interestingly, both ERK1 and ERK2 enzymes exhibited a significantly reduced kinase activity during encystation reaching a minimum at 24 h, except for an initial approximately 2.5-fold increase in the ERK1 activity at 2 h, which resumed back to the normal levels at 48 h despite no apparent change in the expression level of either one of these kinases in encysting cells. A reduced concentration of the phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2 was also evident in these cells at 24 h. Our study suggests a functional distinction between ERK1 and ERK2 and that these kinases may play a critical role in trophozoite differentiation into cysts.

  8. Influence of extracellular pH on growth, viability, cell size, acidification activity, and intracellular pH of Lactococcus lactis in batch fermentations.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Gunda; Johansen, Claus Lindvald; Marten, Gunvor; Wilmes, Jacqueline; Jespersen, Lene; Arneborg, Nils

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of three extracellular pH (pHex) values (i.e., 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5) on the growth, viability, cell size, acidification activity in milk, and intracellular pH (pHi) of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DGCC1212 during pH-controlled batch fermentations. A universal parameter (e.g., linked to pHi) for the description or prediction of viability, specific acidification activity, or growth behavior at a given pHex was not identified. We found viability as determined by flow cytometry to remain high during all growth phases and irrespectively of the pH set point. Furthermore, regardless of the pHex, the acidification activity per cell decreased over time which seemed to be linked to cell shrinkage. Flow cytometric pHi determination demonstrated an increase of the averaged pHi level for higher pH set points, while the pH gradient (pHi-pHex) and the extent of pHi heterogeneity decreased. Cells maintained positive pH gradients at a low pHex of 5.5 and even during substrate limitation at the more widely used pHex 6.5. Moreover, the strain proved able to grow despite small negative or even absent pH gradients at a high pHex of 7.5. The larger pHi heterogeneity at pHex 5.5 and 6.5 was associated with more stressful conditions resulting, e.g., from higher concentrations of non-dissociated lactic acid, while the low pHi heterogeneity at pHex 7.5 most probably corresponded to lower concentrations of non-dissociated lactic acid which facilitated the cells to reach the highest maximum active cell counts of the three pH set points.

  9. Intracellular Uptake of Curcumin-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Exhibit Anti-Inflammatory Activities Superior to Those of Curcumin Through the NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiao; Zhu, Rongrong; Sun, Dongmei; Sun, Xiaoyu; Geng, Zhengsong; Liu, Hui; Wang, Shi-Long

    2015-03-01

    Curcumin (Cur) is a naturally derived, novel anti-inflammatory agent, but its poor solubility limits its clinical use. The aim of the present study was to encapsulate Cur into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to improve its anti-inflammatory activity. The Cur-loaded SLNs (Cur-SLNs) were prepared using emulsification and low-temperature solidification methods. In contrast to free Cur, the particles were well dispersed in aqueous medium, showing a narrow size distribution with a range of 55 : 1.2 nm, a zeta potential value of -26.2 ± 1.3 mV, and a high drug loading efficiency of 37% ± 2.5%. The sustained release of Cur was observed for up to 6 days. The particles displayed enhanced stability in phosphate-buffered saline by protecting the encapsulated Cur against hydrolysis and biotransformation, as well as increasing biocompatibility. Cur-SLNs were more effective than free Cur at reducing the expression levels of several pro- inflammatory mediators, including inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β) and nitric oxide (NO), under in vitro conditions. By Western blotting, we found that Cur-SLNs were more active than free Cur in inhibiting the LPS-induced activation of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB through the suppression of IκB kinase activation. Compared to free Cur, Cur-SLNs had an increased intracellular uptake over time (observed after 24 h) in RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, the Cur-SLNs (≥ 20 μM) significantly improved RAW264.7 cell viability by inhibiting apoptosis. Thus, these results demonstrated that SLNs could be used as potential anti-inflammatory drug carriers for the treatment of various chronic diseases.

  10. Expression and activation of intracellular receptors TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 in peripheral blood monocytes from HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Pinzón Herrera, Francisc; Cruz López, Juan J; Vera Gamboa, Ligia del Carmen; Pavía Ruiz, Norma; Santos Rivero, Adrián; Sánchez Lugo, Saulo; Puerto, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: TLR´s play a role in host defense in HIV infection recognizing the viral DNA or RNA. Their activation induces a signaling pathway that includes the proteins MyD88, IRAK4, TRAF6 and the transcription factor NF-kBp65. Objective: To determine the expression of TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9, and activation of its signaling pathway in monocytes from patients infected with HIV. Methods. Expression of TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 was determined in monocytes from HIV-infected patients (n= 13) and control subjects (n= 13), which were activated with specific ligands. The expression of MyD88 and NF-kBp65 were determined by flow cytometry; IRAK4 and TRAF6 were studied by immunoblotting. Results: No statistical difference was found in the expression of TLR7, 8 and 9 in monocytes from patients compared to controls, but we observed the non-significant increased expression of TLR9 in patients. The activation showed no significant difference in the expression of MyD88 and NF-kBp65 in patients when compared to controls, but were decreased in stimulated cells over non-stimulated cells. IRAK4 and TRAF6 were not detected. Conclusions: No statistical difference was observed in the expression of intracellular TLRs, MyD88 and NFkBp65 in monocytes from patients compared to controls. This was probably due to effective antiretroviral therapy being received at the time of study entry. Additional studies are needed under controlled conditions that include infected patients with and without ARVT, responders and non-responders, and work with different cell populations. PMID:24892454

  11. H⁺-activated Na⁺ influx in the ventricular myocyte couples Ca²⁺-signalling to intracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Garciarena, Carolina D; Youm, Jae Boum; Swietach, Pawel; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D

    2013-08-01

    Acid extrusion on Na(+)-coupled pH-regulatory proteins (pH-transporters), Na(+)/H(+) exchange (NHE1) and Na(+)-HCO3(-) co-transport (NBC), drives Na(+) influx into the ventricular myocyte. This H(+)-activated Na(+)-influx is acutely up-regulated at pHi<7.2, greatly exceeding Na(+)-efflux on the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase. It is spatially heterogeneous, due to the co-localisation of NHE1 protein (the dominant pH-transporter) with gap-junctions at intercalated discs. Overall Na(+)-influx via NBC is considerably lower, but much is co-localised with L-type Ca(2+)-channels in transverse-tubules. Through a functional coupling with Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange (NCX), H(+)-activated Na(+)-influx increases sarcoplasmic-reticular Ca(2+)-loading and release during intracellular acidosis. This raises Ca(2+)-transient amplitude, rescuing it from direct H(+)-inhibition. Functional coupling is biochemically regulated and linked to membrane receptors, through effects on NHE1 and NBC. It requires adequate cytoplasmic Na(+)-mobility, as NHE1 and NCX are spatially separated (up to 60μm). The relevant functional NCX activity must be close to dyads, as it exerts no effect on bulk diastolic Ca(2+). H(+)-activated Na(+)-influx is up-regulated during ischaemia-reperfusion and some forms of maladaptive hypertrophy and heart failure. It is thus an attractive system for therapeutic manipulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Na(+) Regulation in Cardiac Myocytes".

  12. Non-transferrin bound iron, cytokine activation and intracellular reactive oxygen species generation in hemodialysis patients receiving intravenous iron dextran or iron sucrose.

    PubMed

    Pai, Amy Barton; Conner, Todd; McQuade, Charles R; Olp, Jonathan; Hicks, Paul

    2011-08-01

    Intravenous (IV) iron supplementation is widely used to support erythropoeisis in hemodialysis patients. IV iron products are associated with oxidative stress that has been measured principally by circulating biomarkers such as products of lipid peroxidation. The pro-oxidant effects of IV iron are presumed to be due at least in part, by free or non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI). However, the effects of IV iron on intracellular redox status and downstream effectors is not known. This prospective, crossover study compared cytokine activation, reactive oxygen species generation and oxidative stress after single IV doses of iron sucrose and iron dextran. This was a prospective, open-label, crossover study. Ten patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis and four age and sex-matched healthy were assigned to receive 100 mg of each IV iron product over 5 min in random sequence with a 2 week washout between products. Subjects were fasted and fed a low iron diet in the General Clinical Research Center at the University of New Mexico. Serum and plasma samples for IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 and NTBI were obtained at baseline, 60 and 240 min after iron infusion. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated at the same time points and stained with fluorescent probes to identify intracellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) by flow cytometry. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by plasma F(2) isoprostane concentration. Mean ± SEM maximum serum NTBI values were significantly higher among patients receiving IS compared to ID (2.59 ± 0.31 and 1.0 ± 0.36 µM, respectively, P = 0.005 IS vs. ID) Mean ± SEM NTBI area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) was 3-fold higher after IS versus ID (202 ± 53 vs. 74 ± 23 µM*min/l, P = 0.04) in ESRD patients, indicating increased exposure to NTBI. IV iron administration was associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines. Serum IL-6 concentrations increased most

  13. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    The interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to analyze stochastic processes within complex environments. Broadly speaking, there are two basic mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, and can be direction specific, allowing biomolecules to be transported long distances; this is particularly important in neurons due to their complex geometry. In this review a wide range of analytical methods and models of intracellular transport is presented. In the case of diffusive transport, narrow escape problems, diffusion to a small target, confined and single-file diffusion, homogenization theory, and fractional diffusion are considered. In the case of active transport, Brownian ratchets, random walk models, exclusion processes, random intermittent search processes, quasi-steady-state reduction methods, and mean-field approximations are considered. Applications include receptor trafficking, axonal transport, membrane diffusion, nuclear transport, protein-DNA interactions, virus trafficking, and the self-organization of subcellular structures.

  14. Diverse age-related effects of Bacopa monnieri and donepezil in vitro on cytokine production, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intracellular targets in splenocytes of F344 male rats.

    PubMed

    Priyanka, Hannah P; Singh, Ran Vijay; Mishra, Miti; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan

    2013-02-01

    Aged people are more prone to developing neurodegenerative and infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer due to impairment of neuroendocrine-immune functions. Neuronal degeneration and immunosuppression aided by increased generation of reactive oxygen species combined with loss of antioxidant enzyme activities promote the aging process. Bacopa monnieri (brahmi), an Ayurvedic herb, and donepezil, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, have been used to reverse cognitive dysfunctions in several neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of in vitro incubation of lymphocytes from spleens of young (3-month-old), early middle-aged (8- to 9-month-old), and old (18-month-old) F344 rats with brahmi (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 1%) and donepezil (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml) on Concanavalin (Con A)-induced proliferation of T lymphocytes and cytokine production, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)]. In addition, the effects of these compounds on the expression of intracellular signaling pathway markers (ERK, p-ERK, CREB, p-CREB, Akt and p-Akt), nitric oxide (NO) production, and the extent of lipid peroxidation were measured in the splenocytes. Age-related decline in Con A-induced proliferation of T lymphocytes was not reversed by treatment with brahmi and donepezil but donepezil alone further reduced the lymphocyte proliferation in young rats. Lower doses of brahmi treatment reversed the age-related decrease in Con A-induced IL-2 and IFN-γ production by the splenocytes while their production by splenocytes was suppressed by treatment with donepezil in the young and early middle-aged rats. An age-associated decline in the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST was evident in the lymphocytes of spleen. Brahmi enhanced CAT activity of lymphocytes in all the age groups while donepezil increased SOD

  15. Enhancing human spermine synthase activity by engineered mutations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Zheng, Yueli; Petukh, Margo; Pegg, Anthony; Ikeguchi, Yoshihiko; Alexov, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Spermine synthase (SMS) is an enzyme which function is to convert spermidine into spermine. It was shown that gene defects resulting in amino acid changes of the wild type SMS cause Snyder-Robinson syndrome, which is a mild-to-moderate mental disability associated with osteoporosis, facial asymmetry, thin habitus, hypotonia, and a nonspecific movement disorder. These disease-causing missense mutations were demonstrated, both in silico and in vitro, to affect the wild type function of SMS by either destabilizing the SMS dimer/monomer or directly affecting the hydrogen bond network of the active site of SMS. In contrast to these studies, here we report an artificial engineering of a more efficient SMS variant by transferring sequence information from another organism. It is confirmed experimentally that the variant, bearing four amino acid substitutions, is catalytically more active than the wild type. The increased functionality is attributed to enhanced monomer stability, lowering the pKa of proton donor catalytic residue, optimized spatial distribution of the electrostatic potential around the SMS with respect to substrates, and increase of the frequency of mechanical vibration of the clefts presumed to be the gates toward the active sites. The study demonstrates that wild type SMS is not particularly evolutionarily optimized with respect to the reaction spermidine → spermine. Having in mind that currently there are no variations (non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism, nsSNP) detected in healthy individuals, it can be speculated that the human SMS function is precisely tuned toward its wild type and any deviation is unwanted and disease-causing.

  16. The oxytocin-induced inward current in vagal neurons of the rat is mediated by G protein activation but not by an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration.

    PubMed

    Alberi, S; Dreifuss, J J; Raggenbass, M

    1997-12-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin can depolarize parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve of the rat by generating a sustained inward current, which is sodium-dependent and tetrodotoxin-insensitive. The second messenger activated by oxytocin receptor binding is, however, not yet known. In the present study, we attempted to characterize it by using the whole-cell recording technique and brainstem slices. When loaded with GTP-gamma-S, a non-hydrolysable analogue of GTP, vagal neurons generated a persistent inward current in the absence of agonist and the oxytocin effect was suppressed, suggesting that the peptide-evoked current was mediated by G-protein activation. Loading vagal neurons with the calcium chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N',-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) suppressed a calcium-dependent, slowly decaying potassium aftercurrent but did not affect the oxytocin response, suggesting that the latter was not mediated by an agonist-induced increase in the intracellular calcium concentration. Protein kinase C (PKC) activation was probably not involved, since the peptide-evoked current was not modified by loading neurons with the PKC inhibitor H7. Thus, the oxytocin-evoked current in vagal neurons was probably not mediated by phospholipase C-beta (PLC-beta) activation. Loading neurons with 8-Br-cAMP or with an adenylyl cyclase activator (forskolin) reduced the oxytocin-evoked current by about half. SQ 22536, an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, reduced this current by a similar amount. However, the peptide-evoked current was unaffected by Rp-cAMPS and Sp-cAMPS, an inhibitor and an activator, respectively, of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). We suggest that oxytocin activates two distinct signalling pathways in vagal neurons: one which is cAMP-dependent, but PKA-independent, and one, unidentified, which is PLC-beta-and cAMP-independent. Each pathway accounts for about half of the peptide effect and both appear to involve G

  17. Trypanocidal activity of the ethyl esters of N-propyl and N-isopropyl oxamates on intracellular amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi acute infected mice.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Alvarado, Charmina; Zaragoza-Martínez, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Páez, Lorena; Téllez-Rendón, Juan Luis; Nogueda, Benjamín; Baeza, Isabel; Wong, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    In this investigation we studied the trypanocidal activity of the ethyl esters of N-propyl (Et-NPOX) and N-isopropyl (Et-NIPOX) oxamates on bloodstream trypomastigotes and on the clinically relevant intracellular amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi acute infected mice. In the infected and treated mice, the levels of parasitemia were drastically reduced between days 15 and 20 of treatment and almost to zero between days 35 and 40. We also found that Et-NPOX completely eliminated amastigote nests in the myocardium of mice infected with INC-5 or NINOA T. cruzi strain, and in skeletal muscle the reduction in the number of amastigote nests was between 60 and 80% in both strains. Also, Et-NIPOX reduced by 60-80% the number of amastigote nests in the myocardium and skeletal muscle of mice infected with these T. cruzi strains. In contrast, nifurtimox, used for comparison, produced a reduction of amastigote nests of only 20-40% in the studied tissues in both strains.

  18. Nanoparticles for intracellular-targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulo, Cristiana S. O.; Pires das Neves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Lino S.

    2011-12-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are very promising for the intracellular delivery of anticancer and immunomodulatory drugs, stem cell differentiation biomolecules and cell activity modulators. Although initial studies in the area of intracellular drug delivery have been performed in the delivery of DNA, there is an increasing interest in the use of other molecules to modulate cell activity. Herein, we review the latest advances in the intracellular-targeted delivery of short interference RNA, proteins and small molecules using NPs. In most cases, the drugs act at different cellular organelles and therefore the drug-containing NPs should be directed to precise locations within the cell. This will lead to the desired magnitude and duration of the drug effects. The spatial control in the intracellular delivery might open new avenues to modulate cell activity while avoiding side-effects.

  19. Nano-engineered living bacterial motors for active microfluidic mixing.

    PubMed

    Al-Fandi, M; Jaradat, M A K; Fandi, K; Beech, J P; Tegenfeldt, J O; Yih, T C

    2010-09-01

    Active micromixers with rotating elements are attractive microfluidic actuators in many applications because of their mixing ability at a short distance. However, miniaturising the impeller design poses technical challenges including the fabrication and driving means. As a possible solution inspired by macro magnetic bar-stirrers, this study proposes the use of tethered, rotating bacteria as mixing elements. A tethered cell is a genetically engineered, harmless Escherichia coli (E. coli) attached to a surface by a single, shortened flagellum. The tethered flagellum acts as a pivot around which the entire cell body smoothly rotates. Videomicroscopy, image analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are utilised to demonstrate a proof-of-concept for the micro mixing process. Flow visualisation experiments show that a approximately 3 microm long tethered E. coli rotating at approximately 240 rpm can circulate a 1 microm polystyrene bead in the adjacent area at an average speed of nearly 4 microm/s. The Peclet (Peb) number for the stirred bead is evaluated to approximately 4. CFD simulations show that the rotary motion of a tethered E. coli rotating at 240 rpm can generate fluid velocities, up to 37 microm/s bordering the cell envelop. Based on these simulations, the Strouhal number (St) is calculated to about 2. This hybrid bio-inorganic micromxer could be used as a local, disposable mixer.

  20. Taurodeoxycholate activates potassium and chloride conductances via an IP3-mediated release of calcium from intracellular stores in a colonic cell line (T84)

    PubMed Central

    Devor, D C; Sekar, M C; Frizzell, R A; Duffey, M E

    1993-01-01

    Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques and fluorescence measurements of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, (Ca2+)i, were used to investigate the mechanism of taurodeoxycholate (TDC) stimulation of Cl- secretion in the T84 colonic cell line. During perforated whole-cell recordings, the cell membrane voltage was alternately clamped to EK and ECl. Initially, TDC (0.75 mM) stimulated inward nonselective cation currents that were composed of discrete large conductance single-channel events. This initial response was followed by activation of K+ and Cl- currents with peak values of 385 +/- 41 pA and 98 +/- 28 pA, respectively (n = 12). The K+ and Cl- currents oscillated while TDC was present and returned to baseline levels upon its removal. The threshold for activation of the oscillatory currents was 0.1 mM TDC. Taurocholate, a bile acid that does not stimulate colonic Cl- secretion, induced no current response. The TDC-induced currents could be activated in Ca(2+)-free bathing solutions. Preincubation of cells with the Ca2+ chelator, bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethy)-ester (20 microM), (BAPTA-AM), eliminated the K+ and Cl- current responses, although the nonselective cation channel events were still present. Replacement of bath Na+ with NMDG+ inhibited the TDC-induced nonselective cation current but did not affect the K+ or Cl- currents. TDC induced a transient (Ca2+)i rise of 575 +/- 70 nM from a baseline of 71 +/- 5 nM (n = 15); thereafter, (Ca2+)i either plateaued or oscillated. TDC-induced (Ca2+)i oscillations were observed in the absence of bath Ca2+; however, removal of bath Ca2+ during the TDC response caused (Ca2+)i to return to near baseline values. Simultaneous K+ current and (Ca2+)i measurements confirmed that the initial nonselective cation current was independent of (Ca2+)i, while K+ current oscillations were in phase with the (Ca2+)i oscillations. TDC induced inositol monophosphate (IP) accumulation, reflecting

  1. Usability Engineering: Domain Analysis Activities for Augmented Reality Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses our usability engineering process for the Battlefield Augmented Reality System (BARS). Usability engineering is a structured...management principals and techniques, formal and semiformal evaluation techniques, and computerized tools. BARS is an outdoor augmented reality system...originally developed the process in the context of virtual reality applications, but in this work we are adapting the procedures to an augmented

  2. Improving fold activation of small transcription activating RNAs (STARs) with rational RNA engineering strategies.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sarai; Chappell, James; Sankar, Sitara; Chew, Rebecca; Lucks, Julius B

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory RNAs have become integral components of the synthetic biology and bioengineering toolbox for controlling gene expression. We recently expanded this toolbox by creating small transcription activating RNAs (STARs) that act by disrupting the formation of a target transcriptional terminator hairpin placed upstream of a gene. While STARs are a promising addition to the repertoire of RNA regulators, much work remains to be done to optimize the fold activation of these systems. Here we apply rational RNA engineering strategies to improve the fold activation of two STAR regulators. We demonstrate that a combination of promoter strength tuning and multiple RNA engineering strategies can improve fold activation from 5.4-fold to 13.4-fold for a STAR regulator derived from the pbuE riboswitch terminator. We then validate the generality of our approach and show that these same strategies improve fold activation from 2.1-fold to 14.6-fold for an unrelated STAR regulator, opening the door to creating a range of additional STARs to use in a broad array of biotechnologies. We also establish that the optimizations preserve the orthogonality of these STARs between themselves and a set of RNA transcriptional repressors, enabling these optimized STARs to be used in sophisticated circuits.

  3. Engineering and Technology Challenges for Active Debris Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2011-01-01

    After more than fifty years of space activities, the near-Earth environment is polluted with man-made orbital debris. The collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in 2009 signaled a potential collision cascade effect, also known as the "Kessler Syndrome", in the environment. Various modelling studies have suggested that the commonly-adopted mitigation measures will not be sufficient to stabilize the future debris population. Active debris removal must be considered to remediate the environment. This paper summarizes the key issues associated with debris removal and describes the technology and engineering challenges to move forward. Fifty-four years after the launch of Sputnik 1, satellites have become an integral part of human society. Unfortunately, the ongoing space activities have left behind an undesirable byproduct orbital debris. This environment problem is threatening the current and future space activities. On average, two Shuttle window panels are replaced after every mission due to damage by micrometeoroid or orbital debris impacts. More than 100 collision avoidance maneuvers were conducted by satellite operators in 2010 to reduce the impact risks of their satellites with respect to objects in the U.S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN) catalog. Of the four known accident collisions between objects in the SSN catalog, the last one, collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in 2009, was the most significant. It was the first ever accidental catastrophic destruction of an operational satellite by another satellite. It also signaled the potential collision cascade effect in the environment, commonly known as the "Kessler Syndrome," predicted by Kessler and Cour-Palais in 1978 [1]. Figure 1 shows the historical increase of objects in the SSN catalog. The majority of the catalog objects are 10 cm and larger. As of April 2011, the total objects tracked by the SSN sensors were more than 22,000. However, approximately 6000 of

  4. MiRImpact, a new bioinformatic method using complete microRNA expression profiles to assess their overall influence on the activity of intracellular molecular pathways

    PubMed Central

    Artcibasova, Alina V.; Korzinkin, Mikhail B.; Sorokin, Maksim I.; Shegay, Peter V.; Zhavoronkov, Alex A.; Gaifullin, Nurshat; Alekseev, Boris Y.; Vorobyev, Nikolay V.; Kuzmin, Denis V.; Kaprin, Аndrey D.; Borisov, Nikolay M.; Buzdin, Anton A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT MicroRNAs (miRs) are short noncoding RNA molecules that regulate expression of target mRNAs. Many published sources provide information about miRs and their targets. However, bioinformatic tools elucidating higher level impact of the established total miR profiles, are still largely missing. Recently, we developed a method termed OncoFinder enabling quantification of the activities of intracellular molecular pathways basing on gene expression data. Here we propose a new technique, MiRImpact, which enables to link miR expression data with its estimated outcome on the regulation of molecular pathways, like signaling, metabolic, cytoskeleton rearrangement, and DNA repair pathways. MiRImpact uses OncoFinder rationale for pathway activity calculations, with the major distinctions that (i) it deals with the concentrations of miRs - known regulators of gene products participating in molecular pathways, and (ii) miRs are considered as negative regulators of target molecules, if other is not specified. MiRImpact operates with 2 types of databases: for molecular targets of miRs and for gene products participating in molecular pathways. We applied MiRImpact to compare regulation of human bladder cancer-specific signaling pathways at the levels of mRNA and miR expression. We took 2 most complete alternative databases of experimentally validated miR targets – miRTarBase and DianaTarBase, and an OncoFinder database featuring 2725 gene products and 271 signaling pathways. We showed that the impact of miRs is orthogonal to pathway regulation at the mRNA level, which stresses the importance of studying posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. We also report characteristic set of miR and mRNA regulation features linked with bladder cancer. PMID:27027999

  5. Extracellular zinc stimulates a calcium-activated chloride conductance through mobilisation of intracellular calcium in renal inner medullary collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Linley, J E; Simmons, N L; Gray, M A

    2007-01-01

    We have used the perforated patch clamp and fura-2 fluorescence techniques to study the effect of extracellular Zn(2+) on whole-cell Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents (I (CLCA)) in mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells (mIMCD-3). I (CLCA) was spontaneously active in 74% of cells under basal conditions and displayed time and voltage-independent kinetics and an outwardly rectifying current/voltage relationship (I/V). Addition of zinc chloride (10-400 microM) to the bathing solution resulted in a dose-dependent increase in I (CLCA) with little change in Cl(-) selectivity or biophysical characteristics, whereas gadolinium chloride (30 microM) and lanthanum chloride (100 microM) had no significant effect on the whole-cell current. Using fura-2-loaded mIMCD-3 cells, extracellular Zn(2+) (400 microM) stimulated an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) to an elevated plateau. The Zn(2+)-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) increase was inhibited by thapsigargin (200 nM), the IP(3) receptor antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (10 microM) and removal of bath Ca(2+). Pre-exposure to Zn(2+) (400 microM) markedly attenuated the ATP (100 microM)-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) increase. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that extracellular Zn(2+) stimulates an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) by a release of calcium from thapsigargin/IP(3) sensitive stores. A possible physiological role for a divalent metal ion receptor, distinct from the extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor, in IMCD cells is discussed.

  6. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3) protein promotes SUMOylation and nuclear sequestration of the intracellular domain of ErbB4 protein.

    PubMed

    Sundvall, Maria; Korhonen, Anna; Vaparanta, Katri; Anckar, Julius; Halkilahti, Kalle; Salah, Zaidoun; Aqeilan, Rami I; Palvimo, Jorma J; Sistonen, Lea; Elenius, Klaus

    2012-06-29

    ErbB4 is a receptor tyrosine kinase implicated in the development and homeostasis of the heart, central nervous system, and mammary gland. Cleavable isoforms of ErbB4 release a soluble intracellular domain (ICD) that can translocate to the nucleus and function as a transcriptional coregulator. In search of regulatory mechanisms of ErbB4 ICD function, we identified PIAS3 as a novel interaction partner of ErbB4 ICD. In keeping with the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase function of protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) proteins, we showed that the ErbB4 ICD is modified by SUMO, and that PIAS3 stimulates the SUMOylation. Upon overexpression of PIAS3, the ErbB4 ICD generated from the full-length receptor accumulated into the nucleus in a manner that was dependent on the functional nuclear localization signal of ErbB4. In the nucleus, ErbB4 colocalized with PIAS3 and SUMO-1 in promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, nuclear domains involved in regulation of transcription. Accordingly, PIAS3 overexpression had an effect on the transcriptional coregulatory activity of ErbB4, repressing its ability to coactivate transcription with Yes-associated protein. Finally, knockdown of PIAS3 with siRNA partially rescued the inhibitory effect of the ErbB4 ICD on differentiation of MDA-MB-468 breast cancer and HC11 mammary epithelial cells. Our findings illustrate that PIAS3 is a novel regulator of ErbB4 receptor tyrosine kinase, controlling its nuclear sequestration and function.

  7. Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT3 (PIAS3) Protein Promotes SUMOylation and Nuclear Sequestration of the Intracellular Domain of ErbB4 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Sundvall, Maria; Korhonen, Anna; Vaparanta, Katri; Anckar, Julius; Halkilahti, Kalle; Salah, Zaidoun; Aqeilan, Rami I.; Palvimo, Jorma J.; Sistonen, Lea; Elenius, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    ErbB4 is a receptor tyrosine kinase implicated in the development and homeostasis of the heart, central nervous system, and mammary gland. Cleavable isoforms of ErbB4 release a soluble intracellular domain (ICD) that can translocate to the nucleus and function as a transcriptional coregulator. In search of regulatory mechanisms of ErbB4 ICD function, we identified PIAS3 as a novel interaction partner of ErbB4 ICD. In keeping with the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase function of protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) proteins, we showed that the ErbB4 ICD is modified by SUMO, and that PIAS3 stimulates the SUMOylation. Upon overexpression of PIAS3, the ErbB4 ICD generated from the full-length receptor accumulated into the nucleus in a manner that was dependent on the functional nuclear localization signal of ErbB4. In the nucleus, ErbB4 colocalized with PIAS3 and SUMO-1 in promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, nuclear domains involved in regulation of transcription. Accordingly, PIAS3 overexpression had an effect on the transcriptional coregulatory activity of ErbB4, repressing its ability to coactivate transcription with Yes-associated protein. Finally, knockdown of PIAS3 with siRNA partially rescued the inhibitory effect of the ErbB4 ICD on differentiation of MDA-MB-468 breast cancer and HC11 mammary epithelial cells. Our findings illustrate that PIAS3 is a novel regulator of ErbB4 receptor tyrosine kinase, controlling its nuclear sequestration and function. PMID:22584572

  8. Ethanol Enhances TGF-β Activity by Recruiting TGF-β Receptors From Intracellular Vesicles/Lipid Rafts/Caveolae to Non-Lipid Raft Microdomains.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuan Shian; Chen, Chun-Lin; Huang, Franklin W; Johnson, Frank E; Huang, Jung San

    2016-04-01

    Regular consumption of moderate amounts of ethanol has important health benefits on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Overindulgence can cause many diseases, particularly alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The mechanisms by which ethanol causes both beneficial and harmful effects on human health are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that ethanol enhances TGF-β-stimulated luciferase activity with a maximum of 0.5-1% (v/v) in Mv1Lu cells stably expressing a luciferase reporter gene containing Smad2-dependent elements. In Mv1Lu cells, 0.5% ethanol increases the level of P-Smad2, a canonical TGF-β signaling sensor, by ∼ 2-3-fold. Ethanol (0.5%) increases cell-surface expression of the type II TGF-β receptor (TβR-II) by ∼ 2-3-fold from its intracellular pool, as determined by I(125) -TGF-β-cross-linking/Western blot analysis. Sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and indirect immunofluorescence staining analyses reveal that ethanol (0.5% and 1%) also displaces cell-surface TβR-I and TβR-II from lipid rafts/caveolae and facilitates translocation of these receptors to non-lipid raft microdomains where canonical signaling occurs. These results suggest that ethanol enhances canonical TGF-β signaling by increasing non-lipid raft microdomain localization of the TGF-β receptors. Since TGF-β plays a protective role in ASCVD but can also cause ALD, the TGF-β enhancer activity of ethanol at low and high doses appears to be responsible for both beneficial and harmful effects. Ethanol also disrupts the location of lipid raft/caveolae of other membrane proteins (e.g., neurotransmitter, growth factor/cytokine, and G protein-coupled receptors) which utilize lipid rafts/caveolae as signaling platforms. Displacement of these membrane proteins induced by ethanol may result in a variety of pathologies in nerve, heart and other tissues.

  9. Intracellular pH regulation in isolated trout gill mitochondrion-rich (MR) cell subtypes: evidence for Na+/H+ activity.

    PubMed

    Parks, Scott K; Tresguerres, Martin; Galvez, Fernando; Goss, Greg G

    2010-02-01

    We have studied intracellular pH (pH(i)) recovery in isolated trout gill mitochondrion-rich (MR) cells following acidification by the NH(4)Cl pre-pulse technique. Within a mixed MR cell population, one cell type displayed Na(+)-independent pH(i) recovery while the other cell type lacked a Na(+)-independent pH(i) recovery. Cells displaying Na(+) independent recovery exhibited a significantly higher buffering capacity compared to cells lacking Na(+)-independent pH(i) recovery. Cells displaying Na(+) independent recovery were identified as PNA(+) (peanut lectin agluttinin binding) MR cells while those unable to recover were identified as PNA(-) (non-peanut lectin agluttinin binding) MR cells. Therefore, recovery from acidification in the absence of Na(+) provides a direct functional marker for PNA(+) and PNA(-) MR cells. Re-addition of Na(+) to acidified cells resulted in a transient pH(i) recovery in both cell types. This event was abolished by amiloride (500 microM) but it was insensitive to phenamil (50 microM). The phorbol ester PMA (1 microM) potentiated the Na(+) induced pH(i) recovery suggesting that activation by PKC is required for continuous Na(+)/H(+) exchanger activity in trout gill MR cells. This study is the first functional description of pH(i) recovery in lectin-identified trout gill MR cells and provides insight into a putative cellular signaling mechanism that may control pH(i) regulation in the gill epithelium.

  10. NO Hyperpolarizes Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells and Decreases the Intracellular Ca2+ Concentration by Activating Voltage-Gated K+ Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiao-Jian; Tod, Mary L.; Rubin, Lewis J.; Blaustein, Mordecai P.

    1996-09-01

    NO causes pulmonary vasodilation in patients with pulmonary hypertension. In pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells, the activity of voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels controls resting membrane potential. In turn, membrane potential is an important regulator of the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and pulmonary vascular tone. We used patch clamp methods to determine whether the NO-induced pulmonary vasodilation is mediated by activation of KV channels. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy was employed to test the effect of NO on the depolarization-induced rise in [Ca2+]i. Blockade of KV channels by 4-aminopyridine (5 mM) depolarized pulmonary artery myocytes to threshold for initiation of Ca2+ action potentials, and thereby increased [Ca2+]i. NO (≈ 3 μ M) and the NO-generating compound sodium nitroprusside (5-10 μ M) opened KV channels in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. The enhanced K+ currents then hyperpolarized the cells, and blocked Ca2+-dependent action potentials, thereby preventing the evoked increases in [Ca2+]i. Nitroprusside also increased the probability of KV channel opening in excised, outside-out membrane patches. This raises the possibility that NO may act either directly on the channel protein or on a closely associated molecule rather than via soluble guanylate cyclase. In isolated pulmonary arteries, 4-aminopyridine significantly inhibited NO-induced relaxation. We conclude that NO promotes the opening of KV channels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. The resulting membrane hyperpolarization, which lowers [Ca2+]i, is apparently one of the mechanisms by which NO induces pulmonary vasodilation.

  11. Quantitative quenching evaluation and direct intracellular metabolite analysis in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Meinert, Sabine; Rapp, Sina; Schmitz, Katja; Noack, Stephan; Kornfeld, Georg; Hardiman, Timo

    2013-07-01

    Sustained progress in metabolic engineering methodologies has stimulated new efforts toward optimizing fungal production strains such as through metabolite analysis of Penicillium chrysogenum industrial-scale processes. Accurate intracellular metabolite quantification requires sampling procedures that rapidly stop metabolism (quenching) and avoid metabolite loss via the cell membrane (leakage). When sampling protocols are validated, the quenching efficiency is generally not quantitatively assessed. For fungal metabolomics, quantitative biomass separation using centrifugation is a further challenge. In this study, P. chrysogenum intracellular metabolites were quantified directly from biomass extracts using automated sampling and fast filtration. A master/slave bioreactor concept was applied to provide industrial production conditions. Metabolic activity during sampling was monitored by 13C tracing. Enzyme activities were efficiently stopped and metabolite leakage was absent. This work provides a reliable method for P. chrysogenum metabolomics and will be an essential base for metabolic engineering of industrial processes.

  12. Analyzing the Function of Cartilage Replacements: A Laboratory Activity to Teach High School Students Chemical and Tissue Engineering Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Julie N.; Emady, Heather N.; Galas, Richards J., Jr.; Zhange, Rong; Baertsch, Chelsey D.; Liu, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    A cartilage tissue engineering laboratory activity was developed as part of the Exciting Discoveries for Girls in Engineering (EDGE) Summer Camp sponsored by the Women In Engineering Program (WIEP) at Purdue University. Our goal was to increase awareness of chemical engineering and tissue engineering in female high school students through a…

  13. Active Class Composed with Mechanical Engineering and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Shuichi; Imamura, Yasuhiro; Ohshima, Yasutaka; Ariyoshi, Kouji

    This paper reports that the learning experience for a group working disassembling and assembling an internal combustion engine is constructed for a group working. At the same time, the environment education combined with basic studies is introduced with the aid of a Diesel engine running with biofuel. It is found that (1) the leaning experience enhances the leaning motivation and problem solution ability for students, (2) a group working disassembling and assembling an internal combustion engine is effective for greediness for learning, and (3) the environmental study attracts student.

  14. Cellular Pharmacokinetics and Intracellular Activity of the Novel Peptide Deformylase Inhibitor GSK1322322 against Staphylococcus aureus Laboratory and Clinical Strains with Various Resistance Phenotypes: Studies with Human THP-1 Monocytes and J774 Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Peyrusson, Frédéric; Butler, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    GSK1322322 is a peptide deformylase inhibitor active against Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to currently marketed antibiotics. Our aim was to assess the activity of GSK1322322 against intracellular S. aureus using an in vitro pharmacodynamic model and, in parallel, to examine its cellular pharmacokinetics and intracellular disposition. For intracellular activity analysis, we used an established model of human THP-1 monocytes and tested one fully susceptible S. aureus strain (ATCC 25923) and 8 clinical strains with resistance to oxacillin, vancomycin, daptomycin, macrolides, clindamycin, linezolid, or moxifloxacin. Uptake, accumulation, release, and subcellular distribution (cell fractionation) of [14C]GSK1322322 were examined in uninfected murine J774 macrophages and uninfected and infected THP-1 monocytes. GSK1322322 demonstrated a uniform activity against the intracellular forms of all S. aureus strains tested, disregarding their resistance phenotypes, with a maximal relative efficacy (Emax) of a 0.5 to 1 log10 CFU decrease compared to the original inoculum within 24 h and a static concentration (Cs) close to its MIC in broth. Influx and efflux were very fast (<5 min to equilibrium), and accumulation was about 4-fold, with no or a minimal effect of the broad-spectrum eukaryotic efflux transporter inhibitors gemfibrozil and verapamil. GSK1322322 was recovered in the cell-soluble fraction and was dissociated from the main subcellular organelles and from bacteria (in infected cells). The results of this study show that GSK1322322, as a typical novel deformylase inhibitor, may act against intracellular forms of S. aureus. They also suggest that GSK1322322 has the ability to freely diffuse into and out of eukaryotic cells as well as within subcellular compartments. PMID:26169402

  15. Intracellular shunting of O{sub 2}{sup −} contributes to charge compensation and preservation of neutrophil respiratory burst in the absence of voltage-gated proton channel activity

    SciTech Connect

    Decleva, Eva; Menegazzi, Renzo; Fasolo, Alba; Defendi, Federica

    2013-07-15

    Proton efflux via voltage-gated proton channels (Hv1) is considered to mediate the charge compensation necessary to preserve NADPH oxidase activity during the respiratory burst. Using the Hv1 inhibitor Zn{sup 2+}, we found that the PMA-induced respiratory burst of human neutrophils is inhibited when assessed as extracellular production of O{sub 2}{sup −} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, in accordance with literature studies, but, surprisingly, unaffected when measured as oxygen consumption or total (extracellular plus intracellular) H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. Furthermore, we show that inhibiting Hv1 with Zn{sup 2+} results in an increased production of intracellular ROS. Similar results, i.e. decreased extracellular and increased intracellular ROS production, were obtained using a human granulocyte-like cell line with severely impaired Hv1 expression. Acidic extracellular pH, which dampens proton efflux, also augmented intracellular production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Zinc caused an increase in the rate but not in the extent of depolarization and cytosolic acidification indicating that mechanisms other than proton efflux take part in charge compensation. Our results suggest a hitherto unpredicted mechanism of charge compensation whereby, in the absence of proton efflux, part of O{sub 2}{sup −} generated within gp91{sup phox} in the plasma membrane is shunted intracellularly down electrochemical gradient to dampen excessive depolarization. This would preserve NADPH oxidase activity under conditions such as the inflammatory exudate in which the acidic pH hinders charge compensation by proton efflux. Highlights: • Neutrophils’ respiratory burst is not inhibited by the H{sup +} channel inhibitor Zn{sup 2+}. • Intracellular production of O{sub 2}{sup −} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is increased in the presence of Zn{sup 2+}. • Intracellular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production is increased in H{sup +} channels knock-down cells. • Zn{sup 2+} increases the rate but not the extent of

  16. Anti-plasmodial activity of aroylhydrazone and thiosemicarbazone iron chelators: effect on erythrocyte membrane integrity, parasite development and the intracellular labile iron pool.

    PubMed

    Walcourt, Asikiya; Kurantsin-Mills, Joseph; Kwagyan, John; Adenuga, Babafemi B; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Lovejoy, David B; Lane, Darius J R; Richardson, Des R

    2013-12-01

    Iron chelators inhibit the growth of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, in culture and in animal and human studies. We previously reported the anti-plasmodial activity of the chelators, 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (311), 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde 4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (N4mT), and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (N4pT). In fact, these ligands showed greater growth inhibition of chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (7G8) strains of P. falciparum in culture compared to desferrioxamine (DFO). The present study examined the effects of 311, N4mT and N4pT on erythrocyte membrane integrity and asexual parasite development. While the characteristic biconcave disk shape of the erythrocytes was unaffected, the chelators caused very slight hemolysis at IC50 values that inhibited parasite growth. The chelators 311, N4mT and N4pT affected all stages of the intra-erythrocytic development cycle (IDC) of P. falciparum in culture. However, while these ligands primarily affected the ring-stage, DFO inhibited primarily trophozoite and schizont-stages. Ring, trophozoite and schizont-stages of the IDC were inhibited by significantly lower concentrations of 311, N4mT, and N4pT (IC50=4.45±1.70, 10.30±4.40, and 3.64±2.00μM, respectively) than DFO (IC50=23.43±3.40μM). Complexation of 311, N4mT and N4pT with iron reduced their anti-plasmodial activity. Estimation of the intracellular labile iron pool (LIP) in erythrocytes showed that the chelation efficacy of 311, N4mT and N4pT corresponded to their anti-plasmodial activities, suggesting that the LIP may be a potential source of non-heme iron for parasite metabolism within the erythrocyte. This study has implications for malaria chemotherapy that specifically disrupts parasite iron utilization.

  17. Methodology for the systems engineering process. Volume 1: System functional activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Systems engineering is examined in terms of functional activities that are performed in the conduct of a system definition/design, and system development is described in a parametric analysis that combines functions, performance, and design variables. Emphasis is placed on identification of activities performed by design organizations, design specialty groups, as well as a central systems engineering organizational element. Identification of specific roles and responsibilities for doing functions, and monitoring and controlling activities within the system development operation are also emphasized.

  18. Engineered enzymatically active bacteriophages and methods of uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Collins, James J [Newton, MA; Kobayashi, Hideki [Yokohama, JP; Kearn, Mads [Ottawa, CA; Araki, Michihiro [Minatoku, JP; Friedland, Ari [Boston, MA; Lu, Timothy Kuan-Ta [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-05-22

    The present invention provides engineered bacteriophages that express at least one biofilm degrading enzyme on their surface and uses thereof for degrading bacterial biofilms. The invention also provides genetically engineered bacteriophages expressing the biofilm degrading enzymes and proteins necessary for the phage to replicate in different naturally occurring biofilm producing bacteria. The phages of the invention allow a method of biofilm degradation by the use of one or only a few administration of the phage because the system using these phages is self perpetuating, and capable of degrading biofilm even when the concentration of bacteria within the biofilm is low.

  19. Engineering as a Social Activity: Preparing Engineers to Thrive in the Changing World of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Fredricka F.; Mann, Derek T. Y.; Harris, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Key macro-trends are combining to create a new work context for the practice of engineering. Telecommuting and virtual teams create myriad possibilities and challenges related to managing work and workers. Social network technology tools allow for unprecedented global, 24/7 collaboration. Globalization has created hyper-diverse organizations,…

  20. Technology and Engineering Education Students' Perceptions of Hands-On and Hands-Off Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sianez, David M.; Fugere, Madeleine A.; Lennon, Carter A.

    2010-01-01

    Technology and engineering education students responded to a survey regarding hands-on and hands-off activities. First, the students listed hands-on and hands-off activities and what characterized the two types of activities. Activities such as building or assembling something as well as working manually with tools were viewed as hands-on. Passive…

  1. Pharmacology of intracellular signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nahorski, Stefan R

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a brief and somewhat personalized review of the dramatic developments that have occurred over the last 45 years in our understanding of intracellular signalling pathways associated with G-protein-coupled receptor activation. Signalling via cyclic AMP, the phosphoinositides and Ca2+ is emphasized and these systems have already been revealed as new pharmacological targets. The therapeutic benefits of most of such targets are, however, yet to be realized, but it is certain that the discipline of pharmacology needs to widen its boundaries to meet these challenges in the future. PMID:16402119

  2. Design and Implementation of a Project-Based Active/Cooperative Engineering Design Course for Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulaal, R. M.; Al-Bahi, A. M.; Soliman, A. Y.; Iskanderani, F. I.

    2011-01-01

    A project-based active/cooperative design course is planned, implemented, assessed and evaluated to achieve several desired engineering outcomes. The course allows freshman-level students to gain professional hands-on engineering design experience through an opportunity to practise teamwork, quality principles, communication skills, life-long…

  3. Manpower and Financial Resources Allocated to Academic Science and Engineering Activities, 1965-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This report summarizes the results of the National Science Foundation's biennial survey of manpower and financial resources for scientific engineering activities at institutions of higher education, 1971. The survey was conducted by mail questionnaires sent to 2,198 universities and colleges that maintained science and engineering programs, and…

  4. The Role of Entrepreneurship Program Models and Experiential Activities on Engineering Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval-Couetil, Nathalie; Shartrand, Angela; Reed, Teri

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship education is being delivered to greater numbers of engineering students through a variety of courses, programs, and experiential learning activities. Some of these opportunities are designed primarily to serve engineering students in their departments and colleges, while others are cross-campus, university-wide efforts to serve…

  5. 77 FR 3844 - Agency Information Collection (Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Architect--Engineer Fee Proposal) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY...: a. Architect--Engineer Fee Proposal, VA Form 10-6298. b. Daily Log (Contract Progress Report--Formal...: 2900-0208. Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved collection. ] Abstracts: a. An...

  6. The Complex Dynamics of Student Engagement in Novel Engineering Design Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Mary

    In engineering design, making sense of "messy," design situations is at the heart of the discipline (Schon, 1983); engineers in practice bring structure to design situations by organizing, negotiating, and coordinating multiple aspects (Bucciarelli, 1994; Stevens, Johri, & O'Connor, 2014). In classroom settings, however, students are more often given well-defined, content-focused engineering tasks (Jonassen, 2014). These tasks are based on the assumption that elementary students are unable to grapple with the complexity or open-endedness of engineering design (Crismond & Adams, 2012). The data I present in this dissertation suggest the opposite. I show that students are not only able to make sense of, or frame (Goffman, 1974), complex design situations, but that their framings dynamically involve their nascent abilities for engineering design. The context of this work is Novel Engineering, a larger research project that explores using children's literature as an access point for engineering design. Novel Engineering activities are inherently messy: there are characters with needs, settings with implicit constraints, and rich design situations. In a series of three studies, I show how students' framings of Novel Engineering design activities involve their reasoning and acting as beginning engineers. In the first study, I show two students whose caring for the story characters contributes to their stability in framing the task: they identify the needs of their fictional clients and iteratively design a solution to meet their clients' needs. In the second, I show how students' shifting and negotiating framings influence their engineering assumptions and evaluation criteria. In the third, I show how students' coordinating framings involve navigating a design process to meet clients' needs, classroom expectations, and technical requirements. Collectively, these studies contribute to literature by documenting students' productive beginnings in engineering design. The

  7. Active Learning and Reflection in Product Development Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shekar, Aruna

    2007-01-01

    Traditional engineering courses at tertiary level have been traditionally theory-based, supported by laboratory work, but there is now a world-wide trend towards project-based learning. In product development education, project-based learning is essential in order to integrate the disciplines of design, marketing and manufacturing towards the…

  8. Development and Validation of a Novel Leishmania donovani Screening Cascade for High-Throughput Screening Using a Novel Axenic Assay with High Predictivity of Leishmanicidal Intracellular Activity.

    PubMed

    Nühs, Andrea; De Rycker, Manu; Manthri, Sujatha; Comer, Eamon; Scherer, Christina A; Schreiber, Stuart L; Ioset, Jean-Robert; Gray, David W

    2015-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an important parasitic disease of the developing world with a limited arsenal of drugs available for treatment. The existing drugs have significant deficiencies so there is an urgent need for new and improved drugs. In the human host, Leishmania are obligate intracellular parasites which poses particular challenges in terms of drug discovery. To achieve sufficient throughput and robustness, free-living parasites are often used in primary screening assays as a surrogate for the more complex intracellular assays. We and others have found that such axenic assays have a high false positive rate relative to the intracellular assays, and that this limits their usefulness as a primary platform for screening of large compound collections. While many different reasons could lie behind the poor translation from axenic parasite to intracellular parasite, we show here that a key factor is the identification of growth slowing and cytostatic compounds by axenic assays in addition to the more desirable cytocidal compounds. We present a screening cascade based on a novel cytocidal-only axenic amastigote assay, developed by increasing starting density of cells and lowering the limit of detection, and show that it has a much improved translation to the intracellular assay. We propose that this assay is an improved primary platform in a new Leishmania screening cascade designed for the screening of large compound collections. This cascade was employed to screen a diversity-oriented-synthesis library, and yielded two novel antileishmanial chemotypes. The approach we have taken may have broad relevance to anti-infective and anti-parasitic drug discovery.

  9. Development and Validation of a Novel Leishmania donovani Screening Cascade for High-Throughput Screening Using a Novel Axenic Assay with High Predictivity of Leishmanicidal Intracellular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Nühs, Andrea; De Rycker, Manu; Manthri, Sujatha; Comer, Eamon; Scherer, Christina A.; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Ioset, Jean-Robert; Gray, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an important parasitic disease of the developing world with a limited arsenal of drugs available for treatment. The existing drugs have significant deficiencies so there is an urgent need for new and improved drugs. In the human host, Leishmania are obligate intracellular parasites which poses particular challenges in terms of drug discovery. To achieve sufficient throughput and robustness, free-living parasites are often used in primary screening assays as a surrogate for the more complex intracellular assays. We and others have found that such axenic assays have a high false positive rate relative to the intracellular assays, and that this limits their usefulness as a primary platform for screening of large compound collections. While many different reasons could lie behind the poor translation from axenic parasite to intracellular parasite, we show here that a key factor is the identification of growth slowing and cytostatic compounds by axenic assays in addition to the more desirable cytocidal compounds. We present a screening cascade based on a novel cytocidal-only axenic amastigote assay, developed by increasing starting density of cells and lowering the limit of detection, and show that it has a much improved translation to the intracellular assay. We propose that this assay is an improved primary platform in a new Leishmania screening cascade designed for the screening of large compound collections. This cascade was employed to screen a diversity-oriented-synthesis library, and yielded two novel antileishmanial chemotypes. The approach we have taken may have broad relevance to anti-infective and anti-parasitic drug discovery. PMID:26407168

  10. Activation of glycerol metabolic pathway by evolutionary engineering of Rhizopus oryzae to strengthen the fumaric acid biosynthesis from crude glycerol.

    PubMed

    Huang, Di; Wang, Ru; Du, Wenjie; Wang, Guanyi; Xia, Menglei

    2015-11-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is strictly inhibited by biodiesel-based by-product crude glycerol, which results in low fumaric acid production. In this study, evolutionary engineering was employed to activate the glycerol utilization pathway for fumaric acid production. An evolved strain G80 was selected, which could tolerate and utilize high concentrations of crude glycerol to produce 14.9g/L fumaric acid with a yield of 0.248g/g glycerol. Key enzymes activity analysis revealed that the evolved strain displayed a significant upregulation in glycerol dissimilation, pyruvate consumption and reductive tricarboxylic acid pathways, compared with the parent strain. Subsequently, intracellular metabolic profiling analysis showed that amino acid biosynthesis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid and stress response metabolites accounted for metabolic difference between two strains. Moreover, a glycerol fed-batch strategy was optimized to obtain the highest fumaric acid production of 25.5g/L, significantly increased by 20.9-fold than that of the parent strain of 1.2g/L.

  11. THE ALTERATION OF INTRACELLULAR ENZYMES

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, J. Gordin

    1954-01-01

    1. The ability of homologous series of alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes to cause alteration of intracellular catalase increases approximately threefold for each methylene group added, thus following Traube's rule. Equiactive concentrations of alcohols (methanol to octanol) varied over a 4,000-fold range, yet the average corresponding surface tension was 42 ± 2 dynes/cm., that for ketones 43 ± 2, and for aldehydes (above C1) 41 ± 3. 2. Above C8 the altering activity of alcohols ceased to follow Traube's rule, and at C18 was nil. Yet the surface activities of alcohols from nonanol to dodecanol did follow Traube's rule. These two facts show that the interface which is being affected by these agents is not the cell surface, for if it were, altering activity should not fall off between C9 and C12 where surface activity is undiminished; they show also that micelle formation by short range association of hydrocarbon "tails," usually invoked to explain decrease in biological activity of compounds above C8, is not responsible for this effect in these experiments, in which permeability of the cell membrane probably is involved. 3. The most soluble alcohols and aldehydes (alcohols C1 to C8; aldehydes C1, C2), but not ketones, cause, above optimal concentration, an irreversible inhibition of yeast catalase. 4. The critical concentration of altering agent (i.e., that concentration just sufficient to cause doubling of the catalase activity of the yeast suspension) was independent of the concentration of the yeast cells. 5. Viability studies show that the number of yeast cells killed by the altering agents was not related to the degree of activation of the catalase produced. While all the cells were invariably killed by concentrations of altering agent which produced complete activation, all the cells had been killed by concentrations which were insufficient to cause more than 50 per cent maximal activation. Further, the evidence suggested that the catalase may be partially

  12. Introducing a new semi-active engine mount using force controlled variable stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadi, Mojtaba; Behzadipour, Saeed; Faulkner, Gary

    2013-05-01

    This work introduces a new concept in designing semi-active engine mounts. Engine mounts are under continuous development to provide better and more cost-effective engine vibration control. Passive engine mounts do not provide satisfactory solution. Available semi-active and active mounts provide better solutions but they are more complex and expensive. The variable stiffness engine mount (VSEM) is a semi-active engine mount with a simple ON-OFF control strategy. However, unlike available semi-active engine mounts that work based on damping change, the VSEM works based on the static stiffness change by using a new fast response force controlled variable spring. The VSEM is an improved version of the vibration mount introduced by the authors in their previous work. The results showed significant performance improvements over a passive rubber mount. The VSEM also provides better vibration control than a hydromount at idle speed. Low hysteresis and the ability to be modelled by a linear model in low-frequency are the advantages of the VSEM over the vibration isolator introduced earlier and available hydromounts. These specifications facilitate the use of VSEM in the automotive industry, however, further evaluation and developments are needed for this purpose.

  13. The role of hardware in learning engineering fundamentals: An empirical study of engineering design and product analysis activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brereton, Margot Felicity

    A series of short engineering exercises and design projects was created to help students learn to apply abstract knowledge to physical experiences with hardware. The exercises involved designing machines from kits of materials and dissecting and analyzing familiar household products. Students worked in teams. During the activities students brought their knowledge of engineering fundamentals to bear. Videotape analysis was used to identify and characterize the ways in which hardware contributed to learning fundamental concepts. Structural and qualitative analyses of videotaped activities were undertaken. Structural analysis involved counting the references to theory and hardware and the extent of interleaving of references in activity. The analysis found that there was much more discussion linking fundamental concepts to hardware in some activities than in others. The analysis showed that the interleaving of references to theory and hardware in activity is observable and quantifiable. Qualitative analysis was used to investigate the dialog linking concepts and hardware. Students were found to advance their designs and their understanding of engineering fundamentals through a negotiation process in which they pitted abstract concepts against hardware behavior. Through this process students sorted out theoretical assumptions and causal relations. In addition they discovered design assumptions, functional connections and physical embodiments of abstract concepts in hardware, developing a repertoire of familiar hardware components and machines. Hardware was found to be integral to learning, affecting the course of inquiry and the dynamics of group interaction. Several case studies are presented to illustrate the processes at work. The research illustrates the importance of working across the boundary between abstractions and experiences with hardware in order to learn engineering and physical sciences. The research findings are: (a) the negotiation process by which

  14. Active cooling design for scramjet engines using optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J.; Martin, Carl J.; Lucas, Stephen H.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for using optimization in designing metallic cooling jackets for scramjet engines is presented. The optimal design minimizes the required coolant flow rate subject to temperature, mechanical-stress, and thermal-fatigue-life constraints on the cooling-jacket panels, and Mach-number and pressure contraints on the coolant exiting the panel. The analytical basis for the methodology is presented, and results for the optimal design of panels are shown to demonstrate its utility.

  15. Vehicle Systems Engineering and Integration Activities - Phase 5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-31

    A Modular Open Systems Approach to Acquisition Version 2, Open Systems Joint Task Force, http://www.acq.osd.mil/osjtf/pmguide.html, 2004...System (MTRS) PoR. The acquisition agent for the MTRS PoR is the Robotic System Joint Program Office (RS-JPO), under the TACOM Program Executive...Systems Approach to Acquisition Version 2, Open Systems Joint Task Force, http://www.acq.osd.mil/osjtf/pmguide.html, 2004). Systems engineering

  16. Active cooling design for scramjet engines using optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J.; Martin, Carl J.; Lucas, Stephen H.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for using optimization in designing metallic cooling jackets for scramjet engines is presented. The optimal design minimizes the required coolant flow rate subject to temperature, mechanical-stress, and thermal-fatigue-life constraints on the cooling-jacket panels, and Mach-number and pressure constraints on the coolant exiting the panel. The analytical basis for the methodology is presented, and results for the optimal design of panels are shown to demonstrate its utility.

  17. Software Engineering Support Activities for Very Small Entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribaud, Vincent; Saliou, Philippe; O'Connor, Rory V.; Laporte, Claude Y.

    The emerging ISO/IEC 29110 standard Lifecycle profiles for Very Small Entities has at its core a Management and Engineering Guides which is targeted at very small entity (enterprise, organization, department or project) having up to 25 people, to assist them unlock the potential benefits of using standards which are specifically designed to address there needs. The developers of the standard, ISO/IEC JCT1/SC7 Working Group 24 (WG24), recommend the use of pilot projects as a mean to trial the adoption of the new International standard in small organisations. Accordingly an ISO/IEC 29110 pilot project has been established between the Software Engineering group of Brest University and a 14 person company with the aim of establishing an engineering discipline for a new web-based project. This paper details the lessons learned from the pilot project and based on our experiences with using ISO/IEC 29110 we identify a potential deficiency and accordingly propose new process area, "Infrastructure and Support" for include in the future evolution of ISO/IEC 29110 Process Profiles.

  18. Allosteric Activation of Escherichia coli Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Deaminase (NagB) In Vivo Justified by Intracellular Amino Sugar Metabolite Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Añorve, Laura I.; Gaugué, Isabelle; Link, Hannes; Marcos-Viquez, Jorge; Díaz-Jiménez, Dana M.; Zonszein, Sergio; Bustos-Jaimes, Ismael; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Calcagno, Mario L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have investigated the impact of growth on glucosamine (GlcN) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) on cellular metabolism by quantifying glycolytic metabolites in Escherichia coli. Growth on GlcNAc increased intracellular pools of both GlcNAc6P and GlcN6P 10- to 20-fold compared to growth on glucose. Growth on GlcN produced a 100-fold increase in GlcN6P but only a slight increase in GlcNAc6P. Changes to the amounts of downstream glycolytic intermediates were minor compared to growth on glucose. The enzyme glucosamine-6P deaminase (NagB) is required for growth on both GlcN and GlcNAc. It is an allosteric enzyme in E. coli, displaying sigmoid kinetics with respect to its substrate, GlcN6P, and is allosterically activated by GlcNAc6P. The high concentration of GlcN6P, accompanied by the small increase in GlcNAc6P, drives E. coli NagB (NagBEc) into its high activity state, as observed during growth on GlcN (L. I. Álvarez-Añorve, I. Bustos-Jaimes, M. L. Calcagno, and J. Plumbridge, J Bacteriol 191:6401–6407, 2009, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00633-09). The slight increase in GlcNAc6P during growth on GlcN is insufficient to displace NagC, the GlcNAc6P-responsive repressor of the nag genes, from its binding sites, so there is only a small increase in nagB expression. We replaced the gene for the allosteric NagBEc enzyme with that of the nonallosteric, B. subtilis homologue, NagBBs. We detected no effects on growth rates or competitive fitness on glucose or the amino sugars, nor did we detect any effect on the concentrations of central metabolites, thus demonstrating the robustness of amino sugar metabolism and leaving open the question of the role of allostery in the regulation of NagB. IMPORTANCE Chitin, the polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is an abundant biomaterial, and both glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine are valuable nutrients for bacteria. The amino sugars are components of numerous essential macromolecules, including bacterial peptidoglycan and

  19. Three Dimensions of Learning: Experiential Activity for Engineering Innovation Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Catherine P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a novel approach to engineering education research that provides three dimensions of learning through an experiential class activity. A simulated decision activity brought current research into the classroom, explored the effect of experiential activity on learning outcomes and contributed to the research on innovation decision…

  20. Engineering of the yeast antioxidant enzyme Mpr1 for enhanced activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Iinoya, Kaoru; Kotani, Tetsuya; Sasano, Yu; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2009-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b has the MPR1 gene, which confers resistance to the proline analogue azetidine-2-carboxylate (AZC). This gene encodes an N-acetyltransferase Mpr1 that detoxifies AZC, and the homologous genes have been found in many yeasts. Recently, we found that Mpr1 protects yeast cells by reducing the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels under oxidative stresses, such as heat-shock, freezing, or ethanol treatment. Unlike the known antioxidant enzymes, Mpr1 is thought to acetylate toxic metabolite(s) involved in ROS generation via oxidative events. To improve the enzymatic functions of Mpr1, we applied PCR random mutagenesis to MPR1. The mutagenized plasmid library was introduced into the S. cerevisiae S288C strain lacking MPR1, and we successfully isolated two Mpr1 variants with higher AZC resistance (K63R and F65L/L117V). Interestingly, overexpression of the K63R variant was found to increase cell viability or decrease intracellular ROS levels after exposure to H(2)O(2) or ethanol compared with the wild-type Mpr1. In vitro studies with the recombinant enzymes showed that the catalytic efficiency of the K63R variant for AZC and acetyl-CoA was higher than that of the wild-type Mpr1 and that the F65L mutation greatly enhanced the thermal stability. The mutational analysis and molecular modeling suggest that an alpha-helix containing Lys63 and Phe65 has important roles in the function of Mpr1. In addition, the wild-type and K63R variant Mpr1 reduced intracellular ROS levels under ethanol stress conditions on haploid sake yeast cells. These results suggest that engineering Mpr1 might be useful in breeding oxidative stress-tolerant yeast strains.

  1. Structural analysis of the human interferon gamma receptor: a small segment of the intracellular domain is specifically required for class I major histocompatibility complex antigen induction and antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Cook, J R; Jung, V; Schwartz, B; Wang, P; Pestka, S

    1992-12-01

    Mutations of the human interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) receptor intracellular domain have permitted us to define a restricted region of that domain as necessary for both induction of class I major histocompatibility complex antigen by IFN-gamma and protection against encephalomyocarditis virus. This region consists of five amino acids (YDKPH), all of which are conserved in the human and murine receptors. Tyr-457 and His-461 are essential for activity. Approximately 80% of the amino acids of the intracellular domain of the receptor is not required for major histocompatibility complex class I antigen induction or for antiviral protection against encephalomyocarditis virus. The observation that there was no protection by IFN-gamma against vesiculostomatitis virus indicates that other factors, in addition to chromosome 21 accessory factor(s), are required to generate the full complement of transduction signals from the human IFN-gamma receptor.

  2. Active Narrow-Band Vibration Isolation of Large Engineering Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Zahidul; Spanos, John

    1994-01-01

    We present a narrow-band tracking control method using a variant of the Least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm to isolate slowly changing periodic disturbances from engineering structures. The advantage of the algorithm is that it has a simple architecture and is relatively easy to implement while it can isolate disturbances on the order of 40-50 dB over decades of frequency band. We also present the results of an experiment conducted on a flexible truss structure. The average disturbance rejection achieved is over 40 dB over the frequency band of 5 Hz to 50 Hz.

  3. Linde FUSRAP Site Remediation: Engineering Challenges and Solutions of Remedial Activities on an Active Industrial Facility - 13506

    SciTech Connect

    Beres, Christopher M.; Fort, E. Joseph; Boyle, James D.

    2013-07-01

    The Linde FUSRAP Site (Linde) is located in Tonawanda, New York at a major research and development facility for Praxair, Inc. (Praxair). Successful remediation activities at Linde combines meeting cleanup objectives of radiological contamination while minimizing impacts to Praxair business operations. The unique use of Praxair's property coupled with an array of active and abandoned utilities poses many engineering and operational challenges; each of which has been overcome during the remedial action at Linde. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District (USACE) and CABRERA SERVICES, INC. (CABRERA) have successfully faced engineering challenges such as relocation of an aboveground structure, structural protection of an active water line, and installation of active mechanical, electrical, and communication utilities to perform remediation. As remediation nears completion, continued success of engineering challenges is critical as remaining activities exist in the vicinity of infrastructure essential to business operations; an electrical substation and duct bank providing power throughout the Praxair facility. Emphasis on engineering and operations through final remediation and into site restoration will allow for the safe and successful completion of the project. (authors)

  4. Targeted intracellular delivery of therapeutics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Rawat, A; Vaidya, B; Khatri, K; Goyal, A K; Gupta, P N; Mahor, S; Paliwal, R; Rai, S; Vyas, S P

    2007-09-01

    During the last decade, intracellular drug delivery has become an emerging area of research in the medical and pharmaceutical field. Many therapeutic agents such as drugs and DNA/oligonucleotides can be delivered not just to the cell but also to a particular compartment of that cell to achieve better activity e.g. proapoptotic drugs to the mitochondria, antibiotics and enzymes to the lysosomes and various anticancer drugs and gene to the nucleus. The lipidic nature of biological membrans is the major obstacle to the intracellular delivery of macromolecular and ionic drugs. Additionally, after endocytosis, the lysosome, the major degradation compartment, needs to be avoided for better activity. To avoid these problems, various carriers have been investigated for efficient intracellular delivery, either by direct entry to cytoplasm or by escaping the endosomal compartment. These include cell penetrating peptides, and carrier systems such as liposomes, cationic lipids and polymers, polymeric nanoparticles, etc. Various properties of these carriers, including size, surface charge, composition and the presence of cell specific ligands, alter their efficacy and specificity towards particular cells. This review summarizes various aspects of targeted intracellular delivery of therapeutics including pathways, mechanisms and approaches. Various carrier constructs having potential for targeted intracellular delivery are also been discussed.

  5. Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-18

    ecosystems. Congress directs the Corps through authorizations, appropriations, and oversight of its studies , construction projects, and other activities...appropriations, many authorized activities have not received appropriations. There is a backlog of more than 1,000 authorized studies and construction...projects. In recent years, few new studies and new construction activities have been in either the President’s budget request or enacted appropriations

  6. Nanovehicular Intracellular Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    PROKOP, ALES; DAVIDSON, JEFFREY M.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of principles and barriers relevant to intracellular drug and gene transport, accumulation and retention (collectively called as drug delivery) by means of nanovehicles (NV). The aim is to deliver a cargo to a particular intracellular site, if possible, to exert a local action. Some of the principles discussed in this article apply to noncolloidal drugs that are not permeable to the plasma membrane or to the blood–brain barrier. NV are defined as a wide range of nanosized particles leading to colloidal objects which are capable of entering cells and tissues and delivering a cargo intracelullarly. Different localization and targeting means are discussed. Limited discussion on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is also presented. NVs are contrasted to micro-delivery and current nanotechnologies which are already in commercial use. Newer developments in NV technologies are outlined and future applications are stressed. We also briefly review the existing modeling tools and approaches to quantitatively describe the behavior of targeted NV within the vascular and tumor compartments, an area of particular importance. While we list “elementary” phenomena related to different level of complexity of delivery to cancer, we also stress importance of multi-scale modeling and bottom-up systems biology approach. PMID:18200527

  7. Evolution of intracellular compartmentalization.

    PubMed

    Diekmann, Yoan; Pereira-Leal, José B

    2013-01-15

    Cells compartmentalize their biochemical functions in a variety of ways, notably by creating physical barriers that separate a compartment via membranes or proteins. Eukaryotes have a wide diversity of membrane-based compartments, many that are lineage- or tissue-specific. In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that membrane-based compartmentalization of the cytosolic space is observed in multiple prokaryotic lineages, giving rise to several types of distinct prokaryotic organelles. Endosymbionts, previously believed to be a hallmark of eukaryotes, have been described in several bacteria. Protein-based compartments, frequent in bacteria, are also found in eukaryotes. In the present review, we focus on selected intracellular compartments from each of these three categories, membrane-based, endosymbiotic and protein-based, in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We review their diversity and the current theories and controversies regarding the evolutionary origins. Furthermore, we discuss the evolutionary processes acting on the genetic basis of intracellular compartments and how those differ across the domains of life. We conclude that the distinction between eukaryotes and prokaryotes no longer lies in the existence of a compartmentalized cell plan, but rather in its complexity.

  8. Dynamic and Active Proteins: Biomolecular Motors in Engineered Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Marisela

    In Nature, proteins perform functions that go well beyond controlled self-assembly at the nano scale. They are the principal components of diverse "biological machines" that can self-assemble into dynamic aggregates that achieve the cold conversion of chemical energy into motion to realize complex functions involved in cell division, cellular transport and cell motility. Nowadays, we have identified many of the proteins involved in these "molecular machines" and know much about their biochemistry, structure and biophysical behavior. Additionally, we have a rich toolbox of resources to engineer the basic dynamic working units into nanostructures to provide them with motion and the capacity to manipulate, transport, separate or sense single molecules to develop in vitro sensors and bioassays. This chapter summarizes some of the progress made in incorporating bio-molecular motors and dynamic self-organizing proteins into protein based functional nanostructures.

  9. Laser-activated remote phosphor light engine for projection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Martin; Mehl, Oliver; Hartwig, Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    Recent developments in blue emitting laser diodes enable attractive solutions in projection applications using phosphors for efficient light conversion with very high luminance levels. Various commercially available projectors incorporating this technology have entered the market in the past years. While luminous flux levels are still comparable to lamp-based systems, lifetime expectations of classical lamp systems are exceeded by far. OSRAM GmbH has been exploring this technology for several years and has introduced the PHASER® brand name (Phosphor + laser). State-of-the-art is a rotating phosphor wheel excited by blue laser diodes to deliver the necessary primary colors, either sequentially for single-imager projection engines, or simultaneously for 3-panel systems. The PHASER® technology enables flux and luminance scaling, which allows for smaller imagers and therefore cost-efficient projection solutions. The resulting overall efficiency and ANSI lumen specification at the projection screen of these systems is significantly determined by the target color gamut and the light transmission efficiency of the projection system. With increasing power and flux level demand, thermal issues, especially phosphor conversion related, dominate the opto-mechanical system design requirements. These flux levels are a great challenge for all components of an SSL-projection system (SSL:solid-state lighting). OSRAḾs PHASER® light engine platform is constantly expanded towards higher luminous flux levels as well as higher luminance levels for various applications. Recent experiments employ blue laser pump powers of multiple 100 Watts to excite various phosphors resulting in luminous flux levels of more than 40 klm.

  10. Structural Engineering. Technology Learning Activity. Teacher Edition. Technology Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide provides technology learning activities designed to prepare students in grades 6-10 to work in the world of the future. The 8-day course provides exploratory, hands-on learning activities and information that can enhance the education of students of all types in an integrated curriculum that provides practical applications of…

  11. MDMA causes a redistribution of serotonin transporter from the cell surface to the intracellular compartment by a mechanism independent of phospho-p38-mitogen activated protein kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Kivell, B; Day, D; Bosch, P; Schenk, S; Miller, J

    2010-06-16

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) causes long-term serotonin depletion and reduced serotonin transporter (SERT) function in humans and in animal models. Using quantitative Western blotting and real-time PCR, we have shown that total SERT protein in the striatum and nucleus accumbens and mRNA levels in the dorsal raphe nucleus were not significantly changed following MDMA exposure in rats (4 x 2 h i.p. injections, 10 mg/kg each). In mouse neuroblastoma (N(2)A) cells transiently expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged human SERT (GFP-hSERT), we have shown redistribution of SERT from the cell surface to intracellular vesicles on exposure to MDMA using cell surface biotinylation, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) and live-cell confocal microscopy. To investigate the mechanism responsible for SERT redistribution, we used specific antibodies to phospho-p38-mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), a known signalling pathway involved in SERT membrane expression. We found that p38 MAPK activation was not involved in the MDMA-induced redistribution of SERT from the cell-surface to the cell interior. A loss of SERT from the cell surface on acute exposure to MDMA may contribute to the decreased SERT function seen in rats exposed to MDMA.

  12. Activated carbon fibers and engineered forms from renewable resources

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Frederick S.

    2010-06-01

    A method of producing activated carbon fibers (ACFs) includes the steps of providing a natural carbonaceous precursor fiber material, blending the carbonaceous precursor material with a chemical activation agent to form chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers, spinning the chemical agent-impregnated precursor material into fibers, and thermally treating the chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers. The carbonaceous precursor material is both carbonized and activated to form ACFs in a single step. The method produces ACFs exclusive of a step to isolate an intermediate carbon fiber.

  13. Activated carbon fibers and engineered forms from renewable resources

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Frederick S

    2013-02-19

    A method of producing activated carbon fibers (ACFs) includes the steps of providing a natural carbonaceous precursor fiber material, blending the carbonaceous precursor material with a chemical activation agent to form chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers, spinning the chemical agent-impregnated precursor material into fibers, and thermally treating the chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers. The carbonaceous precursor material is both carbonized and activated to form ACFs in a single step. The method produces ACFs exclusive of a step to isolate an intermediate carbon fiber.

  14. Engineering a hyper-catalytic enzyme by photo-activated conformation modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Pratul K

    2012-01-01

    Enzyme engineering for improved catalysis has wide implications. We describe a novel chemical modification of Candida antarctica lipase B that allows modulation of the enzyme conformation to promote catalysis. Computational modeling was used to identify dynamical enzyme regions that impact the catalytic mechanism. Surface loop regions located distal to active site but showing dynamical coupling to the reaction were connected by a chemical bridge between Lys136 and Pro192, containing a derivative of azobenzene. The conformational modulation of the enzyme was achieved using two sources of light that alternated the azobenzene moiety in cis and trans conformations. Computational model predicted that mechanical energy from the conformational fluctuations facilitate the reaction in the active-site. The results were consistent with predictions as the activity of the engineered enzyme was found to be enhanced with photoactivation. Preliminary estimations indicate that the engineered enzyme achieved 8-52 fold better catalytic activity than the unmodulated enzyme.

  15. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  16. Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    aquatic ecosystems. Congress directs the Corps through authorizations, appropriations, and oversight of its studies , construction projects, and other...appropriations, many authorized activities have not received appropriations. There is a backlog of more than 1,000 authorized studies and construction...projects. In recent years, few new studies and new construction activities have been in either the President’s budget request or enacted appropriations

  17. Platelet collagen receptor integrin alpha2beta1 activation involves differential participation of ADP-receptor subtypes P2Y1 and P2Y12 but not intracellular calcium change.

    PubMed

    Jung, S M; Moroi, M

    2001-06-01

    In agonist-induced platelet activation, the collagen platelet receptor integrin alpha2beta1 is activated to high-affinity states through ADP involvement [Jung, S.M. & Moroi, M. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 8016-8026]. Here we determined the ADP-receptor subtypes involved and their relative contributions to alpha2beta1 activation (assessed by soluble-collagen binding) using the P2Y12 antagonist AR-C69931MX and P2Y1 antagonists adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate (Ado(3,5)PP) and adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (AdoPPS). All three inhibited alpha2beta1 activation induced by low or high ADP, low thrombin, or low collagen-related peptide (CRP) concentrations; however, AR-C69931MX was markedly more inhibitory than the P2Y1 antagonists, suggesting the greater contribution of P2Y12. Inhibition patterns by various combinations of AR-C69931MX, AdoPPS, and wortmannin suggested that P2Y1 and P2Y12 mediate alpha2beta1 activation through different pathways, with possible involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in both. Low concentrations of the acetoxy-methyl derivative of 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid (calcium chelator) markedly decreased alpha2beta1 activation by low thrombin or CRP, but did not affect that by low or high ADP. Measurements of intracellular Ca2+ level (fluorimetric method) and alpha2beta1 activation (soluble-collagen binding) in the same platelet preparation indicated that alpha2beta1 activation via ADP receptors was independent of intracellular Ca2+ release. Our data indicate that integrin alpha2beta1 activation by ADP occurs through an inside-out signaling mechanism involving differential contributions by P2Y1 and P2Y12 wherein each contributes to some portion of the activation, with the stronger contribution of P2Y12. Furthermore, intracellular Ca2+ increase is not directly related to integrin alpha2beta1 activation, meaning that it is separate from the calcium mobilization pathways that these two ADP receptors are involved in.

  18. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor and genetically engineered PAF receptor mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Ishii, S; Shimizu, T

    2000-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF, 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) is a biologically active phospholipid mediator. Although PAF was initially recognized for its potential to induce platelet aggregation and secretion, intense investigations have elucidated potent biological actions of PAF in a broad range of cell types and tissues, many of which also produce the molecule. PAF acts by binding to a unique G-protein-coupled seven transmembrane receptor. PAF receptor is linked to intracellular signal transduction pathways, including turnover of phosphatidylinositol, elevation in intracellular calcium concentration, and activation of kinases, resulting in versatile bioactions. On the basis of numerous pharmacological reports, PAF is thought to have many pathophysiological and physiological functions. Recently advanced molecular technics enable us not only to clone PAF receptor cDNAs and genes, but also generate PAF receptor mutant animals, i.e., PAF receptor-overexpressing mouse and PAF receptor-deficient mouse. These mutant mice gave us a novel and specific approach for identifying the pathophysiological and physiological functions of PAF. This review also describes the phenotypes of these mutant mice and discusses them by referring to previously reported pharmacological and genetical data.

  19. Dimethyloxaloylglycine Improves Angiogenic Activity of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in the Tissue-Engineered Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hao; Chen, Song; Song, Wen-Qi; Gao, You-Shui; Guan, Jun-Jie; Wang, Yang; Sun, Yuan; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2014-01-01

    One of the big challenges in tissue engineering for treating large bone defects is to promote the angiogenesis of the tissue-engineered bone. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays an important role in angiogenesis-osteogenesis coupling during bone regeneration, and can activate a broad array of angiogenic factors. Dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG) can activate HIF-1α expression in cells at normal oxygen tension. In this study, we explored the effect of DMOG on the angiogenic activity of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in the tissue-engineered bone. The effect of different concentrations of DMOG on HIF-1a expression in BMSCs was detected with western blotting, and the mRNA expression and secretion of related angiogenic factors in DMOG-treated BMSCs were respectively analyzed using qRT-PCR and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The tissue-engineered bone constructed with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and DMOG-treated BMSCs were implanted into the critical-sized calvarial defects to test the effectiveness of DMOG in improving the angiogenic activity of BMSCs in the tissue-engineered bone. The results showed DMOG significantly enhanced the mRNA expression and secretion of related angiogenic factors in BMSCs by activating the expression of HIF-1α. More newly formed blood vessels were observed in the group treated with β-TCP and DMOG-treated BMSCs than in other groups. And there were also more bone regeneration in the group treated with β-TCP and DMOG-treated BMSCs. Therefore, we believed DMOG could enhance the angiogenic activity of BMSCs by activating the expression of HIF-1α, thereby improve the angiogenesis of the tissue-engineered bone and its bone healing capacity. PMID:25013382

  20. Modulation of the Cellular Accumulation and Intracellular Activity of Daptomycin towards Phagocytized Staphylococcus aureus by the P-Glycoprotein (MDR1) Efflux Transporter in Human THP-1 Macrophages and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Sandrine; Van Bambeke, Françoise; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule; Tulkens, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1), a major efflux transporter, recognizes various antibiotics and is present in macrophages. We have examined its effect on the modulation of the intracellular accumulation and activity of daptomycin towards phagocytized Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) in human THP-1 macrophages, in comparison with MDCK epithelial cells (wild type and MDCK-MDR1 overexpressing P-gp; the bulk of the protein was immunodetected at the surface of all three cell types). Daptomycin displayed concentration-dependent intracellular activity (Hill equation pattern) in THP-1 and MDCK cells with (i) 50% effective drug extracellular concentration (EC50; relative potency) and static concentrations at 9 to 10 times the MIC and (ii) maximal efficacy (Emax; CFU decrease at infinite extracellular drug concentration) at 1.6 to 2 log compared to that of the postphagocytosis inoculum. Verapamil (100 μM) and elacridar (GF 120918; 0.5 μM), two known inhibitors of P-gp, decreased daptomycin EC50 (about threefold) in THP-1 and MDCK cells without affecting Emax. Daptomycin EC50 was about three- to fourfold higher and accumulation in MDCK-MDR1 commensurately lower than in wild-type cells. In THP-1 macrophages, (i) verapamil and ATP depletion increased, and ouabain (an inducer of mdr1 [the gene encoding P-gp] expression) decreased the accumulation of daptomycin in parallel with that of DiOC2 (a known substrate of P-gp); (ii) silencing mdr1 with duplex human mdr1 siRNAs reduced the cell content in immunoreactive P-gp to 15 to 30% of controls and caused an eight- to 13-fold increase in daptomycin accumulation. We conclude that daptomycin is subject to efflux from THP-1 macrophages and MDCK cells by P-gp, which reduces its intracellular activity against phagocytized S. aureus. PMID:17548493

  1. Three dimensions of learning: experiential activity for engineering innovation education and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killen, Catherine P.

    2015-09-01

    This paper outlines a novel approach to engineering education research that provides three dimensions of learning through an experiential class activity. A simulated decision activity brought current research into the classroom, explored the effect of experiential activity on learning outcomes and contributed to the research on innovation decision making. The 'decision task' was undertaken by more than 480 engineering students. It increased their reported measures of learning and retention by an average of 0.66 on a five-point Likert scale, and revealed positive correlations between attention, enjoyment, ongoing interest and learning and retention. The study also contributed to innovation management research by revealing the influence of different data visualisation methods on decision quality, providing an example of research-integrated education that forms part of the research process. Such a dovetailing of different research studies demonstrates how engineering educators can enhance educational impact while multiplying the outcomes from their research efforts.

  2. Development of engine activity cycles for the prime movers of unconventional natural gas well development.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Derek; Heltzel, Robert; Nix, Andrew; Barrow, Rebekah

    2017-03-01

    With the advent of unconventional natural gas resources, new research focuses on the efficiency and emissions of the prime movers powering these fleets. These prime movers also play important roles in emissions inventories for this sector. Industry seeks to reduce operating costs by decreasing the required fuel demands of these high horsepower engines but conducting in-field or full-scale research on new technologies is cost prohibitive. As such, this research completed extensive in-use data collection efforts for the engines powering over-the-road trucks, drilling engines, and hydraulic stimulation pump engines. These engine activity data were processed in order to make representative test cycles using a Markov Chain, Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation method. Such cycles can be applied under controlled environments on scaled engines for future research. In addition to MCMC, genetic algorithms were used to improve the overall performance values for the test cycles and smoothing was applied to ensure regression criteria were met during implementation on a test engine and dynamometer. The variations in cycle and in-use statistics are presented along with comparisons to conventional test cycles used for emissions compliance.

  3. Inhalable DNase I microparticles engineered with biologically active excipients.

    PubMed

    Osman, Rihab; Al Jamal, Khuloud T; Kan, Pei-Lee; Awad, Gehanne; Mortada, Nahed; El-Shamy, Abd-Elhameed; Alpar, Oya

    2013-12-01

    Highly viscous mucus poses a big challenge for the delivery of particulates carrying therapeutics to patients with cystic fibrosis. In this study, surface modifying DNase I loaded particles using different excipients to achieve better lung deposition, higher enzyme stability or better biological activity had been exploited. For the purpose, controlled release microparticles (MP) were prepared by co-spray drying DNase I with the polymer poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and the biocompatible lipid surfactant 1,2-dipalmitoyl-Sn-phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) using various hydrophilic excipients. The effect of the included modifiers on the particle morphology, size, zeta potential as well as enzyme encapsulation efficiency, biological activity and release had been evaluated. Powder aerosolisation performance and particle phagocytosis by murine macrophages were also investigated. The results showed that more than 80% of enzyme activity was recovered after MP preparation and that selected surface modifiers greatly increased the enzyme encapsulation efficiency. The particle morphology was greatly modified altering in turn the powders inhalation indices where dextran, ovalbumin and chitosan hydrochloride increased considerably the respirable fraction compared to the normal hydrophilic carriers lactose and PVP. Despite of the improved aerosolisation caused by chitosan hydrochloride, yet retardation of chitosan coated particles in artificial mucus samples discouraged its application. On the other hand, dextran and polyanions enhanced DNase I effect in reducing cystic fibrosis mucus viscosity. DPPC proved good ability to reduce particles phagocytic uptake even in the presence of the selected adjuvants. The prepared MP systems were biocompatible with lung epithelial cells. To conclude, controlled release DNase I loaded PLGA-MP with high inhalation indices and enhanced mucolytic activity on CF sputum could be obtained by surface modifying the particles with PGA or dextran.

  4. Science/Engineering Education Division assessment activities: An overview. Annual report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Evaluation and assessment of employment trends and education programs are important functions of the Science/Engineering Education Division (SEED). Objectives of SEED`s evaluation and assessment activities are to provide quantitative measures of the impact of programs on participants; assess programmatic achievements; provide valuable information for continued program operation; ensure that the programs meet their objectives; develop and maintain data bases on scientific and engineering employment and education; provide information about trends in employment and education for energy-related scientists and engineers; and provide analyses of energy-related science and engineering employment requirements, future labor market trends, adequacy of supply of new graduates, and implications for education programs. Whenever possible, data are collected that are consistent with information obtained by other national surveys to facilitate comparisons to national norms.

  5. Heat-activated heat-pump development and potential application of Stirling-engine technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, P. D.; West, C. D.

    1982-06-01

    Presented is a brief overview of the heat-activated heat pump technology development program being carried out with emphasis on the Stirling engine technology projects. The major projects are reviewed as they were formulated and carried out under the previous product development guidelines. The revised technology development focus and current status of those major hardware projects are discussed. The key issues involved in applying Stirling engine technology to heat pump equipment are assessed. The approach and planned future activities to address those issues are described. Also included are brief descriptions of two projects in this area supported by the Gas Research Institute.

  6. Preliminary experiments on active control of fan noise from a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.; Burdisso, R. A.; Fuller, C. R.; O'Brien, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    In the preliminary experiments reported here, active acoustic sources positioned around the circumference of a turbofan engine were used to control the fan noise radiated forward through the inlet. The main objective was to demonstrate the potential of active techniques to alleviate the noise pollution that will be produced by the next generation of larger engines. A reduction of up to 19 dB in the radiation directivity was demonstrated in a zone that encompasses a 30-deg angle, near the error sensor, while spillover effects were observed toward the lateral direction. The simultaneous control of two tones was also demonstrated using two identical controllers in a parallel control configuration.

  7. Engineering of radiation of optically active molecules with chiral nano-meta-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, V. V.; Guzatov, D. V.; Ducloy, M.

    2012-02-01

    The radiation of an optically active (chiral) molecule placed near a chiral nanosphere is investigated. The optimal conditions for engineering of radiation of optically active (chiral) molecules with the help of chiral nanoparticles are derived. It is shown that for this purpose, the substance of the chiral particle must have both ɛ and μ negative (double negative material (DNG)) or negative μ and positive ɛ (μ negative material (MNG)). Our results pave the way to an effective engineering of radiation of "left" and "right" molecules and to creating pure optical devices for separation of drugs enantiomers.

  8. Multichannel activity propagation across an engineered axon network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. Isaac; Wolf, John A.; Smith, Douglas H.

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Although substantial progress has been made in mapping the connections of the brain, less is known about how this organization translates into brain function. In particular, the massive interconnectivity of the brain has made it difficult to specifically examine data transmission between two nodes of the connectome, a central component of the ‘neural code.’ Here, we investigated the propagation of multiple streams of asynchronous neuronal activity across an isolated in vitro ‘connectome unit.’ Approach. We used the novel technique of axon stretch growth to create a model of a long-range cortico-cortical network, a modular system consisting of paired nodes of cortical neurons connected by axon tracts. Using optical stimulation and multi-electrode array recording techniques, we explored how input patterns are represented by cortical networks, how these representations shift as they are transmitted between cortical nodes and perturbed by external conditions, and how well the downstream node distinguishes different patterns. Main results. Stimulus representations included direct, synaptic, and multiplexed responses that grew in complexity as the distance between the stimulation source and recorded neuron increased. These representations collapsed into patterns with lower information content at higher stimulation frequencies. With internodal activity propagation, a hierarchy of network pathways, including latent circuits, was revealed using glutamatergic blockade. As stimulus channels were added, divergent, non-linear effects were observed in local versus distant network layers. Pairwise difference analysis of neuronal responses suggested that neuronal ensembles generally outperformed individual cells in discriminating input patterns. Significance. Our data illuminate the complexity of spiking activity propagation in cortical networks in vitro, which is characterized by the transformation of an input into myriad outputs over several network layers

  9. Engineering a Therapeutic Lectin by Uncoupling Mitogenicity from Antiviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Michael D.; Boudreaux, Daniel M.; Salmon, Loïc; Chugh, Jeetender; Winter, Harry C.; Meagher, Jennifer L.; André, Sabine; Murphy, Paul V.; Oscarson, Stefan; Roy, René; King, Steven; Kaplan