Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials.
Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S; Wu, Ming C; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali
2015-02-11
When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Greg; Lankshear, Allan
1998-07-01
2dF is a multi-object instrument mounted at prime focus at the AAT capable of spectroscopic analysis of 400 objects in a single 2 degree field. It also prepares a second 2 degree 400 object field while the first field is being observed. At its heart is a high precision robotic positioner that places individual fiber end magnetic buttons on one of two field plates. The button gripper is carried on orthogonal gantries powered by linear synchronous motors and contains a TV camera which precisely locates backlit buttons to allow placement in user defined locations to 10 (mu) accuracy. Fiducial points on both plates can also be observed by the camera to allow repeated checks on positioning accuracy. Field plates rotate to follow apparent sky rotation. The spectrographs both analyze light from the 200 observing fibers each and back- illuminate the 400 fibers being re-positioned during the observing run. The 2dF fiber position and spectrograph system is a large and complex instrument located at the prime focus of the Anglo Australian Telescope. The mechanical design has departed somewhat from the earlier concepts of Gray et al, but still reflects the audacity of those first ideas. The positioner is capable of positioning 400 fibers on a field plate while another 400 fibers on another plate are observing at the focus of the telescope and feeding the twin spectrographs. When first proposed it must have seemed like ingenuity unfettered by caution. Yet now it works, and works wonderfully well. 2dF is a system which functions as the result of the combined and coordinated efforts of the astronomers, the mechanical designers and tradespeople, the electronic designers, the programmers, the support staff at the telescope, and the manufacturing subcontractors. The mechanical design of the 2dF positioner and spectrographs was carried out by the mechanical engineering staff of the AAO and the majority of the manufacture was carried out in the AAO workshops.
Simulating MEMS Chevron Actuator for Strain Engineering 2D Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vutukuru, Mounika; Christopher, Jason; Bishop, David; Swan, Anna
2D materials pose an exciting paradigm shift in the world of electronics. These crystalline materials have demonstrated high electric and thermal conductivities and tensile strength, showing great potential as the new building blocks of basic electronic circuits. However, strain engineering 2D materials for novel devices remains a difficult experimental feat. We propose the integration of 2D materials with MEMS devices to investigate the strain dependence on material properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity, refractive index, mechanical elasticity, and band gap. MEMS Chevron actuators, provides the most accessible framework to study strain in 2D materials due to their high output force displacements for low input power. Here, we simulate Chevron actuators on COMSOL to optimize actuator design parameters and accurately capture the behavior of the devices while under the external force of a 2D material. Through stationary state analysis, we analyze the response of the device through IV characteristics, displacement and temperature curves. We conclude that the simulation precisely models the real-world device through experimental confirmation, proving that the integration of 2D materials with MEMS is a viable option for constructing novel strain engineered devices. The authors acknowledge support from NSF DMR1411008.
Band-structure engineering in conjugated 2D polymers.
Gutzler, Rico
2016-10-26
Conjugated polymers find widespread application in (opto)electronic devices, sensing, and as catalysts. Their common one-dimensional structure can be extended into the second dimension to create conjugated planar sheets of covalently linked molecules. Extending π-conjugation into the second dimension unlocks a new class of semiconductive polymers which as a consequence of their unique electronic properties can find usability in numerous applications. In this article the theoretical band structures of a set of conjugated 2D polymers are compared and information on the important characteristics band gap and valence/conduction band dispersion is extracted. The great variance in these characteristics within the investigated set suggests 2D polymers as exciting materials in which band-structure engineering can be used to tailor sheet-like organic materials with desired electronic properties.
Construction of 2D lateral pseudoheterostructures by strain engineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Haifeng; Zhuang, Jincheng; Slattery, Ashley D.; Wang, Liang; Xu, Zhongfei; Xu, Xun; Mitchell, David; Zheng, Tian; Li, Songlin; Higgins, Michael; Ren, Long; Sun, Ziqi; Xue Dou, Shi; Du, Yi; Hao, Weichang
2017-06-01
Two-dimensional (2D) lateral heterostructures host unconventional physical properties due to their controllable band-offset tuning and interfacial sensitive characteristic. The lattice mismatch results in the difficulties to construct the perfect atomic interface in such 2D lateral heterostructures, which in turn limits their desirable properties and performances in applications. In this work, strain-modulated 2D lateral pseudoheterogeneous structures are designed and realized in the single-component 2D BiOBr nanosheets by taking advantage of their strain-sensitive crystal and electronic structures. The pseudoheterogeneous interface without atomic mismatch can be feasibly modulated by local strain distribution, which exhibits similar local electronic band structure of corresponding heterostructures. Significant enhancement in charge separation at the pseudoheterostructure was demonstrated under visible light irradiation, which is given rise to the controllable electronic band alignment across the interface. The construction of the lateral pseudoheterostructure offers a feasible and promising way to build unprecedented 2D systems with exciting properties.
2-D Airbreathing Lightcraft Engine Experiments in Quiescent Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvador, Israel I.; Myrabo, Leik N.; Minucci, Marco A. S.; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Toro, Paulo G. P.; Chanes, José B.; Rego, Israel S.
2011-11-01
Ground-breaking laser propulsion (LP) experiments were performed under quiescent conditions with a 25 cm wide, two-dimensional Lightcraft model using a Lumonics TEA-622 CO2 laser emitting ˜ 1 μs pulses. In preparation for subsequent hypersonic experiments, this static test campaign was conducted at ambient pressures of 0.06, 0.15, 0.30 and 1 bar with laser pulse energies of 150 to 230 J. Time-variant pressure distributions, generated over engine "absorption chamber" walls, were integrated to obtain total impulse and momentum coupling coefficients (Cm) representative of a single propulsion cycle. Schlieren visualization of laser-induced air breakdown and expanding blast waves was also accomplished. Surprisingly, the Cm results of 600-3000 Ns/MJ were 2.5x to 5x greater than previous results from smaller Lightcraft models; this suggests that higher static Cm performance can likely be achieved in larger scale LP engines. This research collaboration, forged between the USAF and Brazilian Air Force, was carried out at the Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics in Brazil.
Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to 2D symmetric potential well
Belfaqih, Idrus Husin Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka Putra Prayitno, T. B.; Sulaksono, Anto
2015-09-30
Carnot model of heat engine is the most efficient cycle consisting of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Although ideal gas usually used as a working fluid in the Carnot engine, Bender used quantum particle confined in 1D potential well as a working fluid. In this paper, by following Bender we generalize the situation to 2D symmetric potential well. The efficiency is express as the ratio of the initial length of the system to the final length of the compressed system. The result then is shown that for the same ratio, 2D potential well is more efficient than 1D potential well.
Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to 2D symmetric potential well
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belfaqih, Idrus Husin; Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka Putra; Prayitno, T. B.; Sulaksono, Anto
2015-09-01
Carnot model of heat engine is the most efficient cycle consisting of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Although ideal gas usually used as a working fluid in the Carnot engine, Bender used quantum particle confined in 1D potential well as a working fluid. In this paper, by following Bender we generalize the situation to 2D symmetric potential well. The efficiency is express as the ratio of the initial length of the system to the final length of the compressed system. The result then is shown that for the same ratio, 2D potential well is more efficient than 1D potential well.
Performance of a 2D-CD nonaxisymmetric exhaust nozzle on a turbojet engine at altitude
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Straight, D. M.; Cullom, R. R.
1982-01-01
Baseline thrust and cooling data obtained with a 2D-CD versatile research exhaust nozzle mounted on a turbojet engine in an altitude chamber are presented. The tests covered a range of nozzle pressure ratios, nozzle pressure ratios, nozzle throat areas, and internal expansion area ratios. The thrust data obtained show good agreement with theory and scale model results after correcting the data for leakage and bypass cooling flows. Additional work is needed to improve predictability of cooling performance.
Band Gap Engineering in a 2D Material for Solar-to-Chemical Energy Conversion.
Hu, Jun; Guo, Zhenkun; Mcwilliams, Peter E; Darges, John E; Druffel, Daniel L; Moran, Andrew M; Warren, Scott C
2016-01-13
The electronic structure of 2D semiconductors depends on their thickness, providing new opportunities to engineer semiconductors for energy conversion, electronics, and catalysis. Here we show how a 3D semiconductor, black phosphorus, becomes active for solar-to-chemical energy conversion when it is thinned to a 2D material. The increase in its band gap, from 0.3 eV (3D) to 2.1 eV (2D monolayer), is accompanied by a 40-fold enhancement in the formation of chemical products. Despite this enhancement, smaller flakes also have shorter excited state lifetimes. We deduce a mechanism in which recombination occurs at flake edges, while the "van der Waals" surface of black phosphorus bonds to chemical intermediates and facilitates electron transfer. The unique properties of black phosphorus highlight its potential as a customizable material for solar energy conversion and catalysis, while also allowing us to identify design rules for 2D photocatalysts that will enable further improvements in these materials.
One-Year stable perovskite solar cells by 2D/3D interface engineering.
Grancini, G; Roldán-Carmona, C; Zimmermann, I; Mosconi, E; Lee, X; Martineau, D; Narbey, S; Oswald, F; De Angelis, F; Graetzel, M; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja
2017-06-01
Despite the impressive photovoltaic performances with power conversion efficiency beyond 22%, perovskite solar cells are poorly stable under operation, failing by far the market requirements. Various technological approaches have been proposed to overcome the instability problem, which, while delivering appreciable incremental improvements, are still far from a market-proof solution. Here we show one-year stable perovskite devices by engineering an ultra-stable 2D/3D (HOOC(CH2)4NH3)2PbI4/CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite junction. The 2D/3D forms an exceptional gradually-organized multi-dimensional interface that yields up to 12.9% efficiency in a carbon-based architecture, and 14.6% in standard mesoporous solar cells. To demonstrate the up-scale potential of our technology, we fabricate 10 × 10 cm(2) solar modules by a fully printable industrial-scale process, delivering 11.2% efficiency stable for >10,000 h with zero loss in performances measured under controlled standard conditions. This innovative stable and low-cost architecture will enable the timely commercialization of perovskite solar cells.
One-Year stable perovskite solar cells by 2D/3D interface engineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grancini, G.; Roldán-Carmona, C.; Zimmermann, I.; Mosconi, E.; Lee, X.; Martineau, D.; Narbey, S.; Oswald, F.; de Angelis, F.; Graetzel, M.; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja
2017-06-01
Despite the impressive photovoltaic performances with power conversion efficiency beyond 22%, perovskite solar cells are poorly stable under operation, failing by far the market requirements. Various technological approaches have been proposed to overcome the instability problem, which, while delivering appreciable incremental improvements, are still far from a market-proof solution. Here we show one-year stable perovskite devices by engineering an ultra-stable 2D/3D (HOOC(CH2)4NH3)2PbI4/CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite junction. The 2D/3D forms an exceptional gradually-organized multi-dimensional interface that yields up to 12.9% efficiency in a carbon-based architecture, and 14.6% in standard mesoporous solar cells. To demonstrate the up-scale potential of our technology, we fabricate 10 × 10 cm2 solar modules by a fully printable industrial-scale process, delivering 11.2% efficiency stable for >10,000 h with zero loss in performances measured under controlled standard conditions. This innovative stable and low-cost architecture will enable the timely commercialization of perovskite solar cells.
One-Year stable perovskite solar cells by 2D/3D interface engineering
Grancini, G.; Roldán-Carmona, C.; Zimmermann, I.; Mosconi, E.; Lee, X.; Martineau, D.; Narbey, S.; Oswald, F.; De Angelis, F.; Graetzel, M.; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja
2017-01-01
Despite the impressive photovoltaic performances with power conversion efficiency beyond 22%, perovskite solar cells are poorly stable under operation, failing by far the market requirements. Various technological approaches have been proposed to overcome the instability problem, which, while delivering appreciable incremental improvements, are still far from a market-proof solution. Here we show one-year stable perovskite devices by engineering an ultra-stable 2D/3D (HOOC(CH2)4NH3)2PbI4/CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite junction. The 2D/3D forms an exceptional gradually-organized multi-dimensional interface that yields up to 12.9% efficiency in a carbon-based architecture, and 14.6% in standard mesoporous solar cells. To demonstrate the up-scale potential of our technology, we fabricate 10 × 10 cm2 solar modules by a fully printable industrial-scale process, delivering 11.2% efficiency stable for >10,000 h with zero loss in performances measured under controlled standard conditions. This innovative stable and low-cost architecture will enable the timely commercialization of perovskite solar cells. PMID:28569749
Lee, Jaekwang; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G.; ...
2017-02-17
Compared with their bulk counterparts, 2D materials can sustain much higher elastic strain at which optical quantities such as bandgaps and absorption spectra governing optoelectronic device performance can be modified with relative ease. Using first-principles density functional theory and quasiparticle GW calculations, we demonstrate how uniaxial tensile strain can be utilized to optimize the electronic and optical properties of transition metal dichalcogenide lateral (in-plane) heterostructures such as MoX2/WX2 (X = S, Se, Te). We find that these lateral-type heterostructures may facilitate efficient electron–hole separation for light detection/harvesting and preserve their type II characteristic up to 12% of uniaxial strain. Basedmore » on the strain-dependent bandgap and band offset, we show that uniaxial tensile strain can significantly increase the power conversion efficiency of these lateral heterostructures. Our results suggest that these strain-engineered lateral heterostructures are promising for optimizing optoelectronic device performance by selectively tuning the energetics of the bandgap.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jaekwang; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Yoon, Mina
2017-06-01
Compared with their bulk counterparts, 2D materials can sustain much higher elastic strain at which optical quantities such as bandgaps and absorption spectra governing optoelectronic device performance can be modified with relative ease. Using first-principles density functional theory and quasiparticle GW calculations, we demonstrate how uniaxial tensile strain can be utilized to optimize the electronic and optical properties of transition metal dichalcogenide lateral (in-plane) heterostructures such as MoX2/WX2 (X = S, Se, Te). We find that these lateral-type heterostructures may facilitate efficient electron-hole separation for light detection/harvesting and preserve their type II characteristic up to 12% of uniaxial strain. Based on the strain-dependent bandgap and band offset, we show that uniaxial tensile strain can significantly increase the power conversion efficiency of these lateral heterostructures. Our results suggest that these strain-engineered lateral heterostructures are promising for optimizing optoelectronic device performance by selectively tuning the energetics of the bandgap.
2-D Air-Breathing Lightcraft Engine Experiments in Hypersonic Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvador, Israel I.; Myrabo, Leik N.; Minucci, Marco A. S.; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Toro, Paulo G. P.; Chanes, José B.; Rego, Israel S.
2011-11-01
Experiments were performed with a 2-D, repetitively-pulsed (RP) laser Lightcraft model in hypersonic flow conditions. The main objective was the feasibility analysis for impulse generation with repetitively-pulsed air-breathing laser Lightcraft engines at hypersonic speeds. The future application of interest for this basic research endeavor is the laser launch of pico-, nano-, and micro-satellites (i.e., 0.1-100 kg payloads) into Low-Earth-Orbit, at low-cost and on-demand. The laser propulsion experiments employed a Hypersonic Shock Tunnel integrated with twin gigawatt pulsed Lumonics 620-TEA CO2 lasers (˜ 1 μs pulses), to produce the required test conditions. This hypersonic campaign was carried out at nominal Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 10. Time-dependent surface pressure distributions were recorded together with Schlieren movies of the flow field structure resulting from laser energy deposition. Results indicated laser-induced pressure increases of 0.7-0.9 bar with laser pulse energies of ˜ 170 J, on off-shroud induced breakdown condition, and Mach number of 7.
Engineering the Charge Transfer in all 2D Graphene-Nanoplatelets Heterostructure Photodetectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robin, A.; Lhuillier, E.; Xu, X. Z.; Ithurria, S.; Aubin, H.; Ouerghi, A.; Dubertret, B.
2016-05-01
Two dimensional layered (i.e. van der Waals) heterostructures open up great prospects, especially in photodetector applications. In this context, the control of the charge transfer between the constituting layers is of crucial importance. Compared to bulk or 0D system, 2D materials are characterized by a large exciton binding energy (0.1–1 eV) which considerably affects the magnitude of the charge transfer. Here we investigate a model system made from colloidal 2D CdSe nanoplatelets and epitaxial graphene in a phototransistor configuration. We demonstrate that using a heterostructured layered material, we can tune the magnitude and the direction (i.e. electron or hole) of the charge transfer. We further evidence that graphene functionalization by nanocrystals only leads to a limited change in the magnitude of the 1/f noise. These results draw some new directions to design van der Waals heterostructures with enhanced optoelectronic properties.
Engineering the Charge Transfer in all 2D Graphene-Nanoplatelets Heterostructure Photodetectors
Robin, A.; Lhuillier, E.; Xu, X. Z.; Ithurria, S.; Aubin, H.; Ouerghi, A.; Dubertret, B.
2016-01-01
Two dimensional layered (i.e. van der Waals) heterostructures open up great prospects, especially in photodetector applications. In this context, the control of the charge transfer between the constituting layers is of crucial importance. Compared to bulk or 0D system, 2D materials are characterized by a large exciton binding energy (0.1–1 eV) which considerably affects the magnitude of the charge transfer. Here we investigate a model system made from colloidal 2D CdSe nanoplatelets and epitaxial graphene in a phototransistor configuration. We demonstrate that using a heterostructured layered material, we can tune the magnitude and the direction (i.e. electron or hole) of the charge transfer. We further evidence that graphene functionalization by nanocrystals only leads to a limited change in the magnitude of the 1/f noise. These results draw some new directions to design van der Waals heterostructures with enhanced optoelectronic properties. PMID:27143413
Engineering the Charge Transfer in all 2D Graphene-Nanoplatelets Heterostructure Photodetectors.
Robin, A; Lhuillier, E; Xu, X Z; Ithurria, S; Aubin, H; Ouerghi, A; Dubertret, B
2016-05-04
Two dimensional layered (i.e. van der Waals) heterostructures open up great prospects, especially in photodetector applications. In this context, the control of the charge transfer between the constituting layers is of crucial importance. Compared to bulk or 0D system, 2D materials are characterized by a large exciton binding energy (0.1-1 eV) which considerably affects the magnitude of the charge transfer. Here we investigate a model system made from colloidal 2D CdSe nanoplatelets and epitaxial graphene in a phototransistor configuration. We demonstrate that using a heterostructured layered material, we can tune the magnitude and the direction (i.e. electron or hole) of the charge transfer. We further evidence that graphene functionalization by nanocrystals only leads to a limited change in the magnitude of the 1/f noise. These results draw some new directions to design van der Waals heterostructures with enhanced optoelectronic properties.
2D soil and engineering-seismic bedrock modeling of eastern part of Izmir inner bay/Turkey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pamuk, Eren; Akgün, Mustafa; Özdağ, Özkan Cevdet; Gönenç, Tolga
2017-02-01
Soil-bedrock models are used as a base when the earthquake-soil common behaviour is defined. Moreover, the medium which is defined as bedrock is classified as engineering and seismic bedrock in itself. In these descriptions, S-wave velocity is (Vs) used as a base. The mediums are called soil where the Vs is < 760 m/s, the bigger ones are called bedrock as well. Additionally, the parts are called engineering bedrock where the Vs is between 3000 m/s and 760 m/s, the parts where are bigger than 3000 m/s called seismic bedrock. The interfacial's horizontal topography where is between engineering and seismic bedrock is effective on earthquake's effect changing on the soil surface. That's why, 2D soil-bedrock models must be used to estimate the earthquake effect that could occur on the soil surface. In this research, surface wave methods and microgravity method were used for occuring the 2D soil-bedrock models in the east of İzmir bay. In the first stage, velocity values were obtained by the studies using surface wave methods. Then, density values were calculated from these velocity values by the help of the empiric relations. 2D soil-bedrock models were occurred based upon both Vs and changing of density by using these density values in microgravity model. When evaluating the models, it was determined that the soil is 300-400 m thickness and composed of more than one layers in parts where are especially closer to the bay. Moreover, it was observed that the soil thickness changes in the direction of N-S. In the study area, geologically, it should be thought the engineering bedrock is composed of Bornova melange and seismic bedrock unit is composed of Menderes massif. Also, according to the geophysical results, Neogene limestone and andesite units at between 200 and 400 m depth show that engineering bedrock characteristic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nordiana, M. M.; Azwin, I. N.; Saad, Rosli; Jia, Teoh Ying; Anderson, A. B.; Tonnizam, Edy; Taqiuddin Zakaria, Muhamad
2017-04-01
The role of geophysics in Environmental Earth Sciences and Engineering is considered. In the developing era, geophysics has mainly contributed in investigation of new constructions such as tunnels, road, dams and high-rise buildings. This study was carried out to assess the foundation depths around a construction site in the Southern Industrial & Logistics Clusters (SiLC), Nusajaya, Johor using 2-D resistivity method. The 2-D resistivity method was carried out with a view to characterize different subsurface geological and to provide the engineering and environmental geophysical characterization of the study area. Measurements of eight 2-D resistivity profile using Pole-dipole array with 2 m minimum electrode spacing was taken with the use of ABEM Terrameter SAS4000 and ES10-64C selector. The results are presented as inversion model resistivity with the outline of the survey line. The inversion model resistivity from L1-L8 obtained is characterized by resistivity range of 1-8000 ohm-m. This range indicates the occurrence of silt, clay, sandy clay and sand whose ranges are; 10-100 ohm-m, 1-100 ohm-m, 100-800 ohm-m and 100-3000 ohm-m respectively. However, there was a boulder with range of >5000 ohm-m and saturated zone (1-20 ohm-m) which may indicate the weak zones of the study area. The 2-D resistivity method is not intended to replace borings, except in specific cases where information gathered would be sufficient to address the intended engineering and environmental purpose.
Engineering 1D Quantum Stripes from Superlattices of 2D Layered Materials.
Gruenewald, John H; Kim, Jungho; Kim, Heung Sik; Johnson, Jared M; Hwang, Jinwoo; Souri, Maryam; Terzic, Jasminka; Chang, Seo Hyoung; Said, Ayman; Brill, Joseph W; Cao, Gang; Kee, Hae-Young; Seo, Sung S Ambrose
2017-01-01
Dimensional tunability from two dimensions to one dimension is demonstrated for the first time using an artificial superlattice method in synthesizing 1D stripes from 2D layered materials. The 1D confinement of layered Sr2 IrO4 induces distinct 1D quantum-confined electronic states, as observed from optical spectroscopy and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering. This 1D superlattice approach is generalizable to a wide range of layered materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
2D/3D video content adaptation decision engine based on content classification and user assessment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M. T.
2017-07-01
Multimedia adaptation depends on several factors, such as the content itself, the consumption device and its characteristics, the transport and access networks and the user. An adaptation decision engine, in order to provide the best possible Quality of Experience to a user, needs to have information about all variables that may influence its decision. For the aforementioned factors, we implement content classification, define device classes, consider limited bandwidth scenarios and categorize user preferences based on a subjective quality evaluation test. The results of these actions generate vital information to pass to the adaptation decision engine so that its operation may provide the indication of the most suitable adaptation to perform that delivers the best possible outcome for the user under the existing constraints.
Catalyst Interface Engineering for Improved 2D Film Lift-Off and Transfer
2016-01-01
The mechanisms by which chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films can be released from a growth catalyst, such as widely used copper (Cu) foil, are systematically explored as a basis for an improved lift-off transfer. We show how intercalation processes allow the local Cu oxidation at the interface followed by selective oxide dissolution, which gently releases the 2D material (2DM) film. Interfacial composition change and selective dissolution can thereby be achieved in a single step or split into two individual process steps. We demonstrate that this method is not only highly versatile but also yields graphene and h-BN films of high quality regarding surface contamination, layer coherence, defects, and electronic properties, without requiring additional post-transfer annealing. We highlight how such transfers rely on targeted corrosion at the catalyst interface and discuss this in context of the wider CVD growth and 2DM transfer literature, thereby fostering an improved general understanding of widely used transfer processes, which is essential to numerous other applications. PMID:27934130
Engineering the extracellular environment: Strategies for building 2D and 3D cellular structures.
Guillame-Gentil, Orane; Semenov, Oleg; Roca, Ana Sala; Groth, Thomas; Zahn, Raphael; Vörös, Janos; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy
2010-12-21
Cell fate is regulated by extracellular environmental signals. Receptor specific interaction of the cell with proteins, glycans, soluble factors as well as neighboring cells can steer cells towards proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis or migration. In this review, approaches to build cellular structures by engineering aspects of the extracellular environment are described. These methods include non-specific modifications to control the wettability and stiffness of surfaces using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) as well as methods where the temporal activation and spatial distribution of adhesion ligands is controlled. Building on these techniques, construction of two-dimensional cell sheets using temperature sensitive polymers or electrochemical dissolution is described together with current applications of these grafts in the clinical arena. Finally, methods to pattern cells in three-dimensions as well as to functionalize the 3D environment with biologic motifs take us one step closer to being able to engineer multicellular tissues and organs. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Bandgap Engineering of Phosphorene by Laser Oxidation toward Functional 2D Materials.
Lu, Junpeng; Wu, Jing; Carvalho, Alexandra; Ziletti, Angelo; Liu, Hongwei; Tan, Junyou; Chen, Yifan; Castro Neto, A H; Özyilmaz, Barbaros; Sow, Chorng Haur
2015-10-27
We demonstrate a straightforward and effective laser pruning approach to reduce multilayer black phosphorus (BP) to few-layer BP under ambient condition. Phosphorene oxides and suboxides are formed and the degree of laser-induced oxidation is controlled by the laser power. Since the band gaps of the phosphorene suboxide depend on the oxygen concentration, this simple technique is able to realize localized band gap engineering of the thin BP. Micropatterns of few-layer phosphorene suboxide flakes with unique optical and fluorescence properties are created. Remarkably, some of these suboxide flakes display long-term (up to 2 weeks) stability in ambient condition. Comparing against the optical properties predicted by first-principle calculations, we develop a "calibration" map in using focused laser power as a handle to tune the band gap of the BP suboxide flake. Moreover, the surface of the laser patterned region is altered to be sensitive to toxic gas by way of fluorescence contrast. Therefore, the multicolored display is further demonstrated as a toxic gas monitor. In addition, the BP suboxide flake is demonstrated to exhibit higher drain current modulation and mobility comparable to that of the pristine BP in the electronic application.
Engineered long-range interactions on a 2D array of trapped ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Britton, Joseph W.; Sawyer, Brian C.; Bollinger, John J.; Freericks, James K.
2014-03-01
Ising interactions are one paradigm used to model quantum magnetism in condensed matter systems. At NIST Boulder we confine and Doppler laser cool hundreds of 9Be+ ions in a Penning trap. The valence electron of each ion behaves as an ideal spin-1/2 particle and, in the limit of weak radial confinement relative to axial confinement, the ions naturally form a two-dimensional triangular lattice. A variable-range anti-ferromagnetic Ising interaction is engineered with a spin-dependent optical dipole force (ODF) through spin-dependent excitation of collective modes of ion motion. We have also exploited this spin-dependent force to perform spectroscopy and thermometry of the normal modes of the trapped ion crystal. The high spin-count and long-range spin-spin couplings achievable in the NIST Penning trap brings within reach simulation of computationally intractable problems in quantum magnetism. Examples include modeling quantum magnetic phase transitions and propagation of spin correlations resulting from a quantum quench. The Penning system may also be amenable to observation of spin-liquid behavior thought to arise in systems where the underlying lattice structure can frustrate long-range ordering. Supported by DARPA OLE and NIST.
Engineering 2D Ising Interactions in a Large (N>100) Ensemble of Trapped Ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawyer, Brian; Britton, Joseph; Keith, Adam; Wang, Joseph; Freericks, James; Uys, Hermann; Biercuk, Michael; Bollinger, John
2012-06-01
Experimental progress in atomic, molecular, and optical physics has enabled exquisite control over ensembles of cold trapped ions. We have recently engineered long-range Ising interactions in a two-dimensional, 1-mK Coulomb crystal of hundreds of ^9Be^+ ions confined within a Penning trap. Interactions between the ^9Be^+ valence spins are mediated via spin-dependent optical dipole forces (ODFs) coupling to transverse motional modes of the planar crystal. A continuous range of inverse power-law spin-spin interactions from infinite (1/r^0) to dipolar (1/r^3) are accessible by varying the ODF drive frequency relative to the transverse modes. The ions naturally form a triangular lattice structure within the planar array, allowing for simulation of spin frustration using our generated antiferromagnetic couplings. We report progress toward simulating the ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic transverse quantum Ising Hamiltonians in this large ensemble. We also report spectroscopy, thermometry, and sensitive displacement detection (˜100 pm) via entanglement of valence spin and drumhead oscillations.
Misra, Rajkumar; Sharma, Aman; Shiras, Anjali; Gopi, Hosahudya N
2017-08-08
We are reporting a spontaneous supramolecular assembly of backbone engineered γ-peptide scaffold and its utility in the immobilization of semiconductor quantum dots and in cell culture. The stimulating feature of this γ-peptide scaffold is that it efficiently gelates both aqueous phosphate buffers and aromatic organic solvents. A comparative and systematic investigation reveals that the greater spontaneous self-aggregation property of γ-peptide over the α- and β-peptide analogues is mainly due to the backbone flexibility, increased hydrophobicity, and π-π stacking of γ-phenylalanine residues. The hydrogels and organogels obtained from the γ-peptide scaffold have been characterized through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, circular dichroism (CD), wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and rheometric study. Additionally, the peptide hydrogel has displayed a stimuli-responsive and thixotropic signature, which leads to the injectable hydrogels. 2D cell culture studies using normal and cancer cell lines reveal the biocompatibility of γ-peptide hydrogels. Further, the immobilization of semiconductor core-shell quantum dots in the transparent γ-peptide organogels showed ordered arrangement of quantum dots along the peptide fibrillar network with retaining photophysical property. Overall, γ-peptide scaffolds may serve as potential templates for the design of new functional biomaterials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Yumei; Wang, Chongze; Qi, Yuhang; Chen, Zhimin; Jia, Yu; Xu, Qun
2017-10-01
Defect engineering has emerged as an efficient and promising strategy in the field of semiconductor materials, while assembling controllable vacancy defects and two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures into together is a great challenge. In this work, 2D heterostructures of WS2/WO3·H2O doped with oxide vacancies have been synthesized successfully with assistance of supercritical CO2. And the fascinating heterostructures have been evidenced by their significant photocatalysis performance for water splitting. Theoretical calculations demonstrate that the vacancies in the obtained 2D heterostructures can narrow the effective band gap and improve the carrier separation efficiency as well. This wok will provide a positive strategy for fabrication of advanced photocatalyst and a new perspective in understanding the synergistic effect of structural and electronic regulations.
Ma, Lin; Li, Xuesong; Sanders, Scott T; Caswell, Andrew W; Roy, Sukesh; Plemmons, David H; Gord, James R
2013-01-14
This paper describes a novel laser diagnostic and its demonstration in a practical aero-propulsion engine (General Electric J85). The diagnostic technique, named hyperspectral tomography (HT), enables simultaneous 2-dimensional (2D) imaging of temperature and water-vapor concentration at 225 spatial grid points with a temporal response up to 50 kHz. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such sensing capabilities have been reported. This paper introduces the principles of the HT techniques, reports its operation and application in a J85 engine, and discusses its perspective for the study of high-speed reactive flows.
Ciesielski, Artur; Szabelski, Paweł J; Rżysko, Wojciech; Cadeddu, Andrea; Cook, Timothy R; Stang, Peter J; Samorì, Paolo
2013-05-08
We report a joint computational and experimental study on the concentration-dependent self-assembly of a flat C3-symmetric molecule at surfaces. As a model system we have chosen a rigid molecular module, 1,3,5-tris(pyridine-4-ylethynyl)benzene, which can undergo self-association via hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) to form ordered 2D nanostructures. In particular, the lattice Monte Carlo method, combined with density functional calculations, was employed to explore the spontaneous supramolecular organization of this tripod-shaped molecule under surface confinement. We analyzed the stability of different weak H-bonded patterns and the influence of the concentration of the starting molecule on the 2D supramolecular packing. We found that ordered, densely packed monolayers and 2D porous networks are obtained at high and low concentrations, respectively. A concentration-dependent scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of the molecular self-assembly at a graphite-solution interface revealed supramolecular motifs, which are in perfect agreement with those obtained by simulations. Therefore, our computational approach represents a step forward toward the deterministic prediction of molecular self-assembly at surfaces and interfaces.
A risk evaluation for the fuel retrieval sub-project
Carlisle, B.S.
1996-10-11
This study reviews the technical, schedule and budget baselines of the sub-project to assure all significant issues have been identified on the sub-project issues management list. The issue resolution dates are identified and resolution plans established. Those issues that could adversely impact procurement activities have been uniquely identified on the list and a risk assessment completed.
Band engineering in a van der Waals heterostructure using a 2D polar material and a capping layer
Cho, Sung Beom; Chung, Yong-Chae
2016-01-01
Van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures are expected to play a key role in next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this study, the band alignment of a vdW heterostructure with 2D polar materials was studied using first-principles calculations. As a model case study, single-sided fluorographene (a 2D polar material) on insulating (h-BN) and metallic (graphite) substrates was investigated to understand the band alignment behavior of polar materials. Single-sided fluorographene was found to have a potential difference along the out-of-plane direction. This potential difference provided as built-in potential at the interface, which shift the band alignment between h-BN and graphite. The interface characteristics were highly dependent on the interface terminations because of this built-in potential. Interestingly, this band alignment can be modified with a capping layer of graphene or BN because the capping layer triggered electronic reconstruction near the interface. This is because the bonding nature is not covalent, but van der Waals, which made it possible to avoid Fermi-level pinning at the interface. The results of this study showed that diverse types of band alignment can be achieved using polar materials and an appropriate capping layer. PMID:27301777
2013-08-16
spatially arrange thermostable enzymes for high- temperature biocatalysis [7][8] and as biotemplates for fabrication and patterning of inorganic...J.C. Moore, K. Robins, Engineering the third wave of biocatalysis , Nature 485 (2012) 185-‐194. [8] J.A...Littlechild, Thermophilic archaeal enzymes and applications in biocatalysis , Biochem Soc Trans 39 (2011
Ao, L; Pham, A; Xiao, H Y; Zu, X T; Li, S
2016-03-14
We have systematically investigated the effects of different vacancy defects in 2D d(0) materials SnS2 and ZrS2 using first principles calculations. The theoretical results show that the single cation vacancy and the vacancy complex like V-SnS6 can induce large magnetic moments (3-4 μB) in these single layer materials. Other defects, such as V-SnS3, V-S, V-ZrS3 and V-ZrS6, can result in n-type conductivity. In addition, the ab initio studies also reveal that the magnetic and conductive properties from the cation vacancy and the defect complex V-SnS6 can be modified using the compressive/tensile strain of the in-plane lattices. Specifically, the V-Zr doped ZrS2 monolayer can be tuned from a ferromagnetic semiconductor to a metallic/half-metallic material with decreasing/increasing magnetic moments depending on the external compressive/tensile strains. On the other hand, the semiconducting and magnetic properties of V-Sn doped SnS2 is preserved under different lattice compression and tension. For the defect complex like V-SnS6, only the lattice compression can tune the magnetic moments in SnS2. As a result, by manipulating the fabrication parameters, the magnetic and conductive properties of SnS2 and ZrS2 can be tuned without the need for chemical doping.
2D semiconductor optoelectronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novoselov, Kostya
The advent of graphene and related 2D materials has recently led to a new technology: heterostructures based on these atomically thin crystals. The paradigm proved itself extremely versatile and led to rapid demonstration of tunnelling diodes with negative differential resistance, tunnelling transistors, photovoltaic devices, etc. By taking the complexity and functionality of such van der Waals heterostructures to the next level we introduce quantum wells engineered with one atomic plane precision. Light emission from such quantum wells, quantum dots and polaritonic effects will be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lotsch, Bettina V.
2015-07-01
Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.
Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Oil-System Performance of XR-4360-8 Engine in XTB2D-1 Airplane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Conrad, E. William
1946-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics and the oil delivery critical altitude of the oil-cooler installation of an XTB2D-1 airplane. The investigation was made with the propeller removed end with the engine operating at 1800 brake horsepower, an altitude of 15,000 feet (except for tests of oil-delivery critical altitude), oil-cooler flap deflections from -20 degrees to 20 degrees and inclinations of the thrust axis of 0 degrees, 1.5 degrees, and 6 degrees. At an inclination of the thrust axis of 0 degrees and with the propeller operating, the total-pressure recovery coefficient at the face of the oil cooler varied from 0.84 to 1.10 depending on the flap deflection. With the propeller removed, the best pressure recovery at the face of the oil cooler was obtained at an inclination of the thrust axis of 1.5 degrees. Air-flow separation occurred on the inner surface of the upper lip of the oil-cooler duct inlet at an inclination of the thrust axis of 0 degrees and on the inner surface of the lower lip at 6 degrees. Static pressure coefficients over the duct lips were sufficiently low that no trouble from compressibility would be encountered in level flight. The oil-delivery critical altitude at cruising power (2230 rpm, 1675 bhp) was approximately 18,500 feet for the oil system tested.
SNF fuel retrieval sub project safety analysis document
BERGMANN, D.W.
1999-02-24
This safety analysis is for the SNF Fuel Retrieval (FRS) Sub Project. The FRS equipment will be added to K West and K East Basins to facilitate retrieval, cleaning and repackaging the spent nuclear fuel into Multi-Canister Overpack baskets. The document includes a hazard evaluation, identifies bounding accidents, documents analyses of the accidents and establishes safety class or safety significant equipment to mitigate accidents as needed.
Ulissi, Zachary W; Govind Rajan, Ananth; Strano, Michael S
2016-08-23
Entropic surfaces represented by fluctuating two-dimensional (2D) membranes are predicted to have desirable mechanical properties when unstressed, including a negative Poisson's ratio ("auxetic" behavior). Herein, we present calculations of the strain-dependent Poisson ratio of self-avoiding 2D membranes demonstrating desirable auxetic properties over a range of mechanical strain. Finite-size membranes with unclamped boundary conditions have positive Poisson's ratio due to spontaneous non-zero mean curvature, which can be suppressed with an explicit bending rigidity in agreement with prior findings. Applying longitudinal strain along a singular axis to this system suppresses this mean curvature and the entropic out-of-plane fluctuations, resulting in a molecular-scale mechanism for realizing a negative Poisson's ratio above a critical strain, with values significantly more negative than the previously observed zero-strain limit for infinite sheets. We find that auxetic behavior persists over surprisingly high strains of more than 20% for the smallest surfaces, with desirable finite-size scaling producing surfaces with negative Poisson's ratio over a wide range of strains. These results promise the design of surfaces and composite materials with tunable Poisson's ratio by prestressing platelet inclusions or controlling the surface rigidity of a matrix of 2D materials.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.
This document contains the transcript of a Senate hearing on the crisis in science and math education. The document includes mathematics, science, and engineering education; enhance the scientific and technical literacy of the U.S. public; stimulate the professional from the state of Oregon; Carl Sagan, Cornell women and minorities in careers in…
2D transition metal dichalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manzeli, Sajedeh; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Pasquier, Diego; Yazyev, Oleg V.; Kis, Andras
2017-08-01
Graphene is very popular because of its many fascinating properties, but its lack of an electronic bandgap has stimulated the search for 2D materials with semiconducting character. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), which are semiconductors of the type MX2, where M is a transition metal atom (such as Mo or W) and X is a chalcogen atom (such as S, Se or Te), provide a promising alternative. Because of its robustness, MoS2 is the most studied material in this family. TMDCs exhibit a unique combination of atomic-scale thickness, direct bandgap, strong spin-orbit coupling and favourable electronic and mechanical properties, which make them interesting for fundamental studies and for applications in high-end electronics, spintronics, optoelectronics, energy harvesting, flexible electronics, DNA sequencing and personalized medicine. In this Review, the methods used to synthesize TMDCs are examined and their properties are discussed, with particular attention to their charge density wave, superconductive and topological phases. The use of TMCDs in nanoelectronic devices is also explored, along with strategies to improve charge carrier mobility, high frequency operation and the use of strain engineering to tailor their properties.
Fuel Retrieval Sub Project (FRS) Stuck Fuel Station Performance Test Data Report
THIELGES, J.R.
2000-02-23
This document provides the test data report for Stuck Fuel Station Performance Testing in support of the Fuel Retrieval Sub-Project. The stuck fuel station was designed to provide a means of cutting open a canister barrel to release fuel elements, etc.
Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueller, Thomas
2015-03-01
Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oyedotun, Temitope D. Timothy
2017-05-01
The need and demand for water in the world are becoming acute with the growing population. This is mostly pressing in developing countries of which Mekelle City in Northern Ethiopia is not an exception. World Bank borehole-support sub-project was aimed at addressing this challenge. The evaluation of the intervention indicates that there is a significant increase in water supply in the city because of the sub-project. However, the increase in water supply has not been able to meet up with the already established and increasing demand. Coupled with this challenge are: the limited capacity of human capital and expertise that will ensure the proper management of borehole interventions; insufficient cost recovery for proper operation and maintenance of the projects; loss of land and farmlands and lack of compensations because of the projects which affect the livelihood.
Sevrin, A.
1993-06-01
After reviewing some aspects of gravity in two dimensions, I show that non-trivial embeddings of sl(2) in a semi-simple (super) Lie algebra give rise to a very large class of extensions of 2D gravity. The induced action is constructed as a gauged WZW model and an exact expression for the effective action is given.
Highly crystalline 2D superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro
2017-02-01
Recent advances in materials fabrication have enabled the manufacturing of ordered 2D electron systems, such as heterogeneous interfaces, atomic layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy, exfoliated thin flakes and field-effect devices. These 2D electron systems are highly crystalline, and some of them, despite their single-layer thickness, exhibit a sheet resistance more than an order of magnitude lower than that of conventional amorphous or granular thin films. In this Review, we explore recent developments in the field of highly crystalline 2D superconductors and highlight the unprecedented physical properties of these systems. In particular, we explore the quantum metallic state (or possible metallic ground state), the quantum Griffiths phase observed in out-of-plane magnetic fields and the superconducting state maintained in anomalously large in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena are examined in the context of weakened disorder and/or broken spatial inversion symmetry. We conclude with a discussion of how these unconventional properties make highly crystalline 2D systems promising platforms for the exploration of new quantum physics and high-temperature superconductors.
Highly crystalline 2D superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro
2016-12-01
Recent advances in materials fabrication have enabled the manufacturing of ordered 2D electron systems, such as heterogeneous interfaces, atomic layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy, exfoliated thin flakes and field-effect devices. These 2D electron systems are highly crystalline, and some of them, despite their single-layer thickness, exhibit a sheet resistance more than an order of magnitude lower than that of conventional amorphous or granular thin films. In this Review, we explore recent developments in the field of highly crystalline 2D superconductors and highlight the unprecedented physical properties of these systems. In particular, we explore the quantum metallic state (or possible metallic ground state), the quantum Griffiths phase observed in out-of-plane magnetic fields and the superconducting state maintained in anomalously large in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena are examined in the context of weakened disorder and/or broken spatial inversion symmetry. We conclude with a discussion of how these unconventional properties make highly crystalline 2D systems promising platforms for the exploration of new quantum physics and high-temperature superconductors.
E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE)
2015-12-01
and Homeland Defense. As a part of the E-2D AHE radar modernization effort, the Navy also invested in integrating a full glass cockpit and full...Communication Navigation Surveillance/Air Traffic Management capability. The glass cockpit will also provide the capability for the pilot or co-pilot to...hours at a station distance of 200nm Flat Turn Service Ceiling =>25,000 feet above MSL at mission profile =>25,000 feet above MSL at mission
2D packing using the Myriad framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatburn, Luke T.; Batchelor, Bruce G.
2004-02-01
Myriad is a framework for building networked and distributed vision systems and is described in a companion paper in this conference. Myriad allows the components of a multi-camera, multi-user vision system (web-cameras, image processing engines, intelligent device controllers, databases and the user interface terminals) to be interconnected and operated together, even if they are physically separated by many hundreds, or thousands, of kilometres. This is achieved by operating them as Internet services. The principal objective in this article is to illustrate the simplicity of harmonising visual control with an existing system using Myriad. However, packing of 2-dimensional blob-like objects is of considerable commercial importance in some industries and involves robotic handling and/or cutting. The shapes to be packed may be cut from sheet metal, glass, cloth, leather, wood, card, paper, composite board, or flat food materials. In addition, many 3D packing applications can realistically be tackled only by regarding them as multi-layer 2D applications. Using Myriad to perform 2D packing, a set of blob-like input objects ("shapes") can be digitised using a standard camera (e.g. a "webcam"). The resulting digital images are then analysed, using a separate processing engine, perhaps located on a different continent. The packing is planned by another processing system, perhaps on a third continent. Finally, the assembly is performed using a robot, usually but not necessarily, located close to the camera.
Technical Review of the UNET2D Hydraulic Model
Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.
2009-05-18
The Kansas City District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is engaged in a broad range of river management projects that require knowledge of spatially-varied hydraulic conditions such as velocities and water surface elevations. This information is needed to design new structures, improve existing operations, and assess aquatic habitat. Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical hydraulic models are a common tool that can be used to provide velocity and depth information. Kansas City District is currently using a specific 2D model, UNET2D, that has been developed to meet the needs of their river engineering applications. This report documents a tech- nical review of UNET2D.
Theory of 2D crystals: graphene and beyond.
Roldán, Rafael; Chirolli, Luca; Prada, Elsa; Silva-Guillén, Jose Angel; San-Jose, Pablo; Guinea, Francisco
2017-07-31
This tutorial review presents an overview of the basic theoretical aspects of two-dimensional (2D) crystals. We revise essential aspects of graphene and the new families of semiconducting 2D materials, like transition metal dichalcogenides or black phosphorus. Minimal theoretical models for various materials are presented. Some of the exciting new possibilities offered by 2D crystals are discussed, such as manipulation and control of quantum degrees of freedom (spin and pseudospin), confinement of excitons, control of the electronic and optical properties with strain engineering, or unconventional superconducting phases.
1991-10-30
Spectroscopy by Virril Percec and Myongsoo Lee Department of Macromolecular Science Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH 44106-2699 and Peter L ...AUTHOrZ(S) Virgil Percec, Myongsoo Lee, Peter L . Rinaldi and Vincent E. Litman l3a TYPE OF REPORT 1131) TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year. Afot? Dy I...with CF3SO 3 H/S(CH 3)2 in CH2Cl2 at 0OC and termninated by ammoniacal methanol, by 1 -D and 2-D (COSY) 300 MHz IH-NMR spectroscopy is presented. The
International concerted action on collaboration in telemedicine: G8 sub-project 4.
Lacroix, A
1999-01-01
The main objective of G-7/8 Global Healthcare Applications sub-project 4 is to enable an international concerted action on collaboration in telemedicine. To promote and facilitate the implementation of telemedicine or health telematics networks around the world, it was felt necessary to solve certain key issues. Five thematic solution-seeking FORUMS are each addressing a specific item. The first FORUM held in Montréal, Canada on May 28-30 1998 focussed on Interoperability of telemedicine and telehealth systems. Other FORUMS address other themes such as: Impacts of Telemedicine on health care management (Regensburg, Germany, November 21-23 1998); Evaluation and Cost Effectiveness of Telemedicine (Melbourne, Australia, February 19-20 1999); Clinical and technical quality and standards (Washington, USA, April 29-30 1999); Medico-legal aspects of national and international applications (Oxford, UK, fall 1999). The main objective of these FORUMS is to arrive at best practices through consultation amongst experts who seek together the best solutions to facilitate global international telemedicine networks. Towards this goal, G-8 sub-project-4 will also conduct the IMPACT (International Multipoint Project of Advanced Communication in Telemedicine) feasibility study which will aim at conducting multipoint exchanges between telemedicine units in the academic centers of the participating G-8 and other countries. More detailed information on this project and summaries of the initial FORUMS are found on our Web site at www.g7sp4.org.
2D quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals
Bauer, Christina; Kobiela, Georg; Giessen, Harald
2012-01-01
Nanophotonic structures with irregular symmetry, such as quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals, have gained an increasing amount of attention, in particular as potential candidates to enhance the absorption of solar cells in an angular insensitive fashion. To examine the photonic bandstructure of such systems that determines their optical properties, it is necessary to measure and model normal and oblique light interaction with plasmonic crystals. We determine the different propagation vectors and consider the interaction of all possible waveguide modes and particle plasmons in a 2D metallic photonic quasicrystal, in conjunction with the dispersion relations of a slab waveguide. Using a Fano model, we calculate the optical properties for normal and inclined light incidence. Comparing measurements of a quasiperiodic lattice to the modelled spectra for angle of incidence variation in both azimuthal and polar direction of the sample gives excellent agreement and confirms the predictive power of our model. PMID:23209871
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaibley, John R.; Yu, Hongyi; Clark, Genevieve; Rivera, Pasqual; Ross, Jason S.; Seyler, Kyle L.; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong
2016-11-01
Semiconductor technology is currently based on the manipulation of electronic charge; however, electrons have additional degrees of freedom, such as spin and valley, that can be used to encode and process information. Over the past several decades, there has been significant progress in manipulating electron spin for semiconductor spintronic devices, motivated by potential spin-based information processing and storage applications. However, experimental progress towards manipulating the valley degree of freedom for potential valleytronic devices has been limited until very recently. We review the latest advances in valleytronics, which have largely been enabled by the isolation of 2D materials (such as graphene and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides) that host an easily accessible electronic valley degree of freedom, allowing for dynamic control.
Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny
2008-09-26
We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles.
2D quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals.
Bauer, Christina; Kobiela, Georg; Giessen, Harald
2012-01-01
Nanophotonic structures with irregular symmetry, such as quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals, have gained an increasing amount of attention, in particular as potential candidates to enhance the absorption of solar cells in an angular insensitive fashion. To examine the photonic bandstructure of such systems that determines their optical properties, it is necessary to measure and model normal and oblique light interaction with plasmonic crystals. We determine the different propagation vectors and consider the interaction of all possible waveguide modes and particle plasmons in a 2D metallic photonic quasicrystal, in conjunction with the dispersion relations of a slab waveguide. Using a Fano model, we calculate the optical properties for normal and inclined light incidence. Comparing measurements of a quasiperiodic lattice to the modelled spectra for angle of incidence variation in both azimuthal and polar direction of the sample gives excellent agreement and confirms the predictive power of our model.
Alloyed 2D Metal-Semiconductor Atomic Layer Junctions.
Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Yonghun; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Dong Jae; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Park, Jucheol; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Byoung Hun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin
2016-03-09
Heterostructures of compositionally and electronically variant two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are viable building blocks for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. We show that the composition of interfacial transition region between semiconducting WSe2 atomic layer channels and metallic NbSe2 contact layers can be engineered through interfacial doping with Nb atoms. WxNb1-xSe2 interfacial regions considerably lower the potential barrier height of the junction, significantly improving the performance of the corresponding WSe2-based field-effect transistor devices. The creation of such alloyed 2D junctions between dissimilar atomic layer domains could be the most important factor in controlling the electronic properties of 2D junctions and the design and fabrication of 2D atomic layer devices.
Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spencer, Austin P.; Hutson, William O.; Harel, Elad
2017-03-01
Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.
Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman–2D electronic spectroscopy
Spencer, Austin P.; Hutson, William O.; Harel, Elad
2017-01-01
Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational–vibrational, electronic–vibrational and electronic–electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment–protein complexes. PMID:28281541
Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy.
Spencer, Austin P; Hutson, William O; Harel, Elad
2017-03-10
Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.
NKG2D ligands as therapeutic targets
Spear, Paul; Wu, Ming-Ru; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Sentman, Charles L.
2013-01-01
The Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays an important role in protecting the host from infections and cancer. By recognizing ligands induced on infected or tumor cells, NKG2D modulates lymphocyte activation and promotes immunity to eliminate ligand-expressing cells. Because these ligands are not widely expressed on healthy adult tissue, NKG2D ligands may present a useful target for immunotherapeutic approaches in cancer. Novel therapies targeting NKG2D ligands for the treatment of cancer have shown preclinical success and are poised to enter into clinical trials. In this review, the NKG2D receptor and its ligands are discussed in the context of cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. In addition, therapies targeting NKG2D ligands in cancer are also reviewed. PMID:23833565
2D materials for photon conversion and nanophotonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.
2015-09-01
The field of two-dimensional (2D) materials has the potential to enable unique applications across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. While 2D-layered materials hold promise for next-generation photon-conversion intrinsic limitations and challenges exist that shall be overcome. Here we discuss the intrinsic limitations as well as application opportunities of this new class of materials, and is sponsored by the NSF program Designing Materials to Revolutionize and Engineer our Future (DMREF) program, which links to the President's Materials Genome Initiative. We present general material-related details for photon conversion, and show that taking advantage of the mechanical flexibility of 2D materials by rolling MoS2/graphene/hexagonal boron nitride stack to a spiral solar cell allows for solar absorption up to 90%.
Quantitative 2D liquid-state NMR.
Giraudeau, Patrick
2014-06-01
Two-dimensional (2D) liquid-state NMR has a very high potential to simultaneously determine the absolute concentration of small molecules in complex mixtures, thanks to its capacity to separate overlapping resonances. However, it suffers from two main drawbacks that probably explain its relatively late development. First, the 2D NMR signal is strongly molecule-dependent and site-dependent; second, the long duration of 2D NMR experiments prevents its general use for high-throughput quantitative applications and affects its quantitative performance. Fortunately, the last 10 years has witnessed an increasing number of contributions where quantitative approaches based on 2D NMR were developed and applied to solve real analytical issues. This review aims at presenting these recent efforts to reach a high trueness and precision in quantitative measurements by 2D NMR. After highlighting the interest of 2D NMR for quantitative analysis, the different strategies to determine the absolute concentrations from 2D NMR spectra are described and illustrated by recent applications. The last part of the manuscript concerns the recent development of fast quantitative 2D NMR approaches, aiming at reducing the experiment duration while preserving - or even increasing - the analytical performance. We hope that this comprehensive review will help readers to apprehend the current landscape of quantitative 2D NMR, as well as the perspectives that may arise from it.
Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager
Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.
2006-02-07
A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.
Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use
J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan
2005-06-24
This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.
The Organic Flatland-Recent Advances in Synthetic 2D Organic Layers.
Cai, Song-Liang; Zhang, Wei-Guang; Zuckermann, Ronald N; Li, Zhan-Ting; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Yi
2015-10-14
Ultrathin, 2D organic layers of sub-ten nanometer thicknesses and high aspect ratios have received a great deal of attention for their graphene-like topological features and emerging properties. Rational synthetic strategies have led to the realization of periodic 2D layers with unprecedented structural precision. Herein, recent progress on the synthesis of 2D organic layers, including methods based on both non-covalent and covalent interactions, is summarized, and potential applications are highlighted. Such 2D organic nanostructures have a brilliant future as prospective multifunctional materials, showing great promise as platforms for engineering novel optoelectronic, interfacial, and bioactive properties.
Ginsparg, P.
1991-01-01
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
Ginsparg, P.
1991-12-31
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
Brittle damage models in DYNA2D
Faux, D.R.
1997-09-01
DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.
2006-02-01
A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.
2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor
Sanford, L. A.; Hallquist, J. O.
1996-07-15
ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.
Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.
Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang
2016-08-01
Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology.
2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics
Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.
2014-11-15
A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.
Large Area Synthesis of 2D Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogel, Eric
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have generated significant interest for numerous applications including sensors, flexible electronics, heterostructures and optoelectronics due to their interesting, thickness-dependent properties. Despite recent progress, the synthesis of high-quality and highly uniform TMDs on a large scale is still a challenge. In this talk, synthesis routes for WSe2 and MoS2 that achieve monolayer thickness uniformity across large area substrates with electrical properties equivalent to geological crystals will be described. Controlled doping of 2D semiconductors is also critically required. However, methods established for conventional semiconductors, such as ion implantation, are not easily applicable to 2D materials because of their atomically thin structure. Redox-active molecular dopants will be demonstrated which provide large changes in carrier density and workfunction through the choice of dopant, treatment time, and the solution concentration. Finally, several applications of these large-area, uniform 2D materials will be described including heterostructures, biosensors and strain sensors.
Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.
2016-10-01
The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V‑1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.
Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose
García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.
2016-01-01
The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V−1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies. PMID:27708364
Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose.
García, Y; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C M
2016-10-06
The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V(-1), ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.
2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics.
Spear, A G; Domier, C W; Hu, X; Muscatello, C M; Ren, X; Tobias, B J; Luhmann, N C
2014-11-01
A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.
Assessing 2D electrophoretic mobility spectroscopy (2D MOSY) for analytical applications.
Fang, Yuan; Yushmanov, Pavel V; Furó, István
2016-12-08
Electrophoretic displacement of charged entity phase modulates the spectrum acquired in electrophoretic NMR experiments, and this modulation can be presented via 2D FT as 2D mobility spectroscopy (MOSY) spectra. We compare in various mixed solutions the chemical selectivity provided by 2D MOSY spectra with that provided by 2D diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra and demonstrate, under the conditions explored, a superior performance of the former method. 2D MOSY compares also favourably with closely related LC-NMR methods. The shape of 2D MOSY spectra in complex mixtures is strongly modulated by the pH of the sample, a feature that has potential for areas such as in drug discovery and metabolomics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. StartCopTextCopyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
2D Distributed Sensing Via TDR
2007-11-02
plate VEGF CompositeSensor Experimental Setup Air 279 mm 61 78 VARTM profile: slope RTM profile: rectangle 22 1 Jul 2003© 2003 University of Delaware...2003 University of Delaware All rights reserved Vision: Non-contact 2D sensing ü VARTM setup constructed within TL can be sensed by its EM field: 2D...300.0 mm/ns. 1 2 1 Jul 2003© 2003 University of Delaware All rights reserved Model Validation “ RTM Flow” TDR Response to 139 mm VEGC
Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.
Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael
2014-11-10
Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.
2D depiction of nonbonding interactions for protein complexes.
Zhou, Peng; Tian, Feifei; Shang, Zhicai
2009-04-30
A program called the 2D-GraLab is described for automatically generating schematic representation of nonbonding interactions across the protein binding interfaces. The input file of this program takes the standard PDB format, and the outputs are two-dimensional PostScript diagrams giving intuitive and informative description of the protein-protein interactions and their energetics properties, including hydrogen bond, salt bridge, van der Waals interaction, hydrophobic contact, pi-pi stacking, disulfide bond, desolvation effect, and loss of conformational entropy. To ensure these interaction information are determined accurately and reliably, methods and standalone programs employed in the 2D-GraLab are all widely used in the chemistry and biology community. The generated diagrams allow intuitive visualization of the interaction mode and binding specificity between two subunits in protein complexes, and by providing information on nonbonding energetics and geometric characteristics, the program offers the possibility of comparing different protein binding profiles in a detailed, objective, and quantitative manner. We expect that this 2D molecular graphics tool could be useful for the experimentalists and theoreticians interested in protein structure and protein engineering.
Parallel Stitching of 2D Materials.
Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Wu, Lijun; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing
2016-03-23
Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, and insulator-semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective "sowing" of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.
Parallel stitching of 2D materials
Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L.; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi -Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomas; Kong, Jing
2016-01-27
Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.
Beckett, Phil
2012-01-01
The technique of two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis is a powerful tool for separating complex mixtures of proteins, but since its inception in the mid 1970s, it acquired the stigma of being a very difficult application to master and was generally used to its best effect by experts. The introduction of commercially available immobilized pH gradients in the early 1990s provided enhanced reproducibility and easier protocols, leading to a pronounced increase in popularity of the technique. However gel-to-gel variation was still difficult to control without the use of technical replicates. In the mid 1990s (at the same time as the birth of "proteomics"), the concept of multiplexing fluorescently labeled proteins for 2D gel separation was realized by Jon Minden's group and has led to the ability to design experiments to virtually eliminate gel-to-gel variation, resulting in biological replicates being used for statistical analysis with the ability to detect very small changes in relative protein abundance. This technology is referred to as 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE).
Parallel stitching of 2D materials
Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; ...
2016-01-27
Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.
Gold-standard performance for 2D hydrodynamic modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasternack, G. B.; MacVicar, B. J.
2013-12-01
Two-dimensional, depth-averaged hydrodynamic (2D) models are emerging as an increasingly useful tool for environmental water resources engineering. One of the remaining technical hurdles to the wider adoption and acceptance of 2D modeling is the lack of standards for 2D model performance evaluation when the riverbed undulates, causing lateral flow divergence and convergence. The goal of this study was to establish a gold-standard that quantifies the upper limit of model performance for 2D models of undulating riverbeds when topography is perfectly known and surface roughness is well constrained. A review was conducted of published model performance metrics and the value ranges exhibited by models thus far for each one. Typically predicted velocity differs from observed by 20 to 30 % and the coefficient of determination between the two ranges from 0.5 to 0.8, though there tends to be a bias toward overpredicting low velocity and underpredicting high velocity. To establish a gold standard as to the best performance possible for a 2D model of an undulating bed, two straight, rectangular-walled flume experiments were done with no bed slope and only different bed undulations and water surface slopes. One flume tested model performance in the presence of a porous, homogenous gravel bed with a long flat section, then a linear slope down to a flat pool bottom, and then the same linear slope back up to the flat bed. The other flume had a PVC plastic solid bed with a long flat section followed by a sequence of five identical riffle-pool pairs in close proximity, so it tested model performance given frequent undulations. Detailed water surface elevation and velocity measurements were made for both flumes. Comparing predicted versus observed velocity magnitude for 3 discharges with the gravel-bed flume and 1 discharge for the PVC-bed flume, the coefficient of determination ranged from 0.952 to 0.987 and the slope for the regression line was 0.957 to 1.02. Unsigned velocity
Consistency between 2D-3D Sediment Transport models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villaret, Catherine; Jodeau, Magali
2017-04-01
Sediment transport models have been developed and applied by the engineering community to estimate transport rates and morphodynamic bed evolutions in river flows, coastal and estuarine conditions. Environmental modelling systems like the open-source Telemac modelling system include a hierarchy of models from 1D (Mascaret), 2D (Telemac-2D/Sisyphe) and 3D (Telemac-3D/Sedi-3D) and include a wide range of processes to represent sediment flow interactions under more and more complex situations (cohesive, non-cohesive and mixed sediment). Despite some tremendous progresses in the numerical techniques and computing resources, the quality/accuracy of model results mainly depend on the numerous choices and skills of the modeler. In complex situations involving stratification effects, complex geometry, recirculating flows… 2D model assumptions are no longer valid. A full 3D turbulent flow model is then required in order to capture the vertical mixing processes and to represent accurately the coupled flow/sediment distribution. However a number of theoretical and numerical difficulties arise when dealing with sediment transport modelling in 3D which will be high-lighted : (1) Dependency of model results to the vertical grid refinement and choice of boundary conditions and numerical scheme (2) The choice of turbulence model determines also the sediment vertical distribution which is governed by a balance between the downward settling term and upward turbulent diffusion. (3) The use of different numerical schemes for both hydrodynamics (mean and turbulent flow) and sediment transport modelling can lead to some inconsistency including a mismatch in the definition of numerical cells and definition of boundary conditions. We discuss here those present issues and present some detailed comparison between 2D and 3D simulations on a set of validation test cases which are available in the Telemac 7.2 release using both cohesive and non-cohesive sediments.
Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology
Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
2016-01-01
The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346
Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.
Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
2016-02-06
The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.
2010-03-01
NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF STATISTICAL TURBULENCE EFFECTS ON BEAM PROPAGATION THROUGH 2-D SHEAR MIXING LAYER THESIS James C. Bowers, Captain, USAF...STATISTICAL TURBULENCE EFFECTS ON BEAM PROPAGATION THROUGH 2-D SHEAR MIXING LAYER THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Engineering Physics...robust method for calculating atmospheric turbulence effects on optical beam propagation, which could simplify similar approaches to chaotic aero-optical
Extrinsic Cation Selectivity of 2D Membranes
2017-01-01
From a systematic study of the concentration driven diffusion of positive and negative ions across porous 2D membranes of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), we prove their cation selectivity. Using the current–voltage characteristics of graphene and h-BN monolayers separating reservoirs of different salt concentrations, we calculate the reversal potential as a measure of selectivity. We tune the Debye screening length by exchanging the salt concentrations and demonstrate that negative surface charge gives rise to cation selectivity. Surprisingly, h-BN and graphene membranes show similar characteristics, strongly suggesting a common origin of selectivity in aqueous solvents. For the first time, we demonstrate that the cation flux can be increased by using ozone to create additional pores in graphene while maintaining excellent selectivity. We discuss opportunities to exploit our scalable method to use 2D membranes for applications including osmotic power conversion. PMID:28157333
Schottky diodes from 2D germanane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Esteves, Richard J.; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Pestov, Dmitry; Arachchige, Indika U.; McLeskey, James T.
2016-07-01
We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe2 framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.
Schottky diodes from 2D germanane
Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Esteves, Richard J; Arachchige, Indika U.; Pestov, Dmitry; McLeskey, James T.
2016-07-11
We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe{sub 2} framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.
Compatible embedding for 2D shape animation.
Baxter, William V; Barla, Pascal; Anjyo, Ken-Ichi
2009-01-01
We present new algorithms for the compatible embedding of 2D shapes. Such embeddings offer a convenient way to interpolate shapes having complex, detailed features. Compared to existing techniques, our approach requires less user input, and is faster, more robust, and simpler to implement, making it ideal for interactive use in practical applications. Our new approach consists of three parts. First, our boundary matching algorithm locates salient features using the perceptually motivated principles of scale-space and uses these as automatic correspondences to guide an elastic curve matching algorithm. Second, we simplify boundaries while maintaining their parametric correspondence and the embedding of the original shapes. Finally, we extend the mapping to shapes' interiors via a new compatible triangulation algorithm. The combination of our algorithms allows us to demonstrate 2D shape interpolation with instant feedback. The proposed algorithms exhibit a combination of simplicity, speed, and accuracy that has not been achieved in previous work.
Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data
Chen, Jinsong
2010-07-01
The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function is explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows
Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids
Lin, Jerry
1996-07-15
NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.
Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Lin, Jerry
1996-08-07
DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.
2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.
Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui
2016-10-01
A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.
Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek
2010-04-01
Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.
Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui
2017-03-01
At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe2), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.
Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana
2003-05-01
We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.
2D materials: Graphene and others
Bansal, Suneev Anil Singh, Amrinder Pal; Kumar, Suresh
2016-05-06
Present report reviews the recent advancements in new atomically thick 2D materials. Materials covered in this review are Graphene, Silicene, Germanene, Boron Nitride (BN) and Transition metal chalcogenides (TMC). These materials show extraordinary mechanical, electronic and optical properties which make them suitable candidates for future applications. Apart from unique properties, tune-ability of highly desirable properties of these materials is also an important area to be emphasized on.
Irreversibility-inversions in 2D turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bragg, Andrew; de Lillo, Filippo; Boffetta, Guido
2016-11-01
We consider a recent theoretical prediction that for inertial particles in 2D turbulence, the nature of the irreversibility of their pair dispersion inverts when the particle inertia exceeds a certain value. In particular, when the particle Stokes number, St , is below a certain value, the forward-in-time (FIT) dispersion should be faster than the backward-in-time (BIT) dispersion, but for St above this value, this should invert so that BIT becomes faster than FIT dispersion. This non-trivial behavior arises because of the competition between two physically distinct irreversibility mechanisms that operate in different regimes of St . In 3D turbulence, both mechanisms act to produce faster BIT than FIT dispersion, but in 2D, the two mechanisms have opposite effects because of the inverse energy cascade in the turbulent velocity field. We supplement the qualitative argument given by Bragg et al. by deriving quantitative predictions of this effect in the short-time dispersion limit. These predictions are then confirmed by results of inertial particle dispersion in a direct numerical simulation of 2D turbulence.
MAGNUM-2D computer code: user's guide
England, R.L.; Kline, N.W.; Ekblad, K.J.; Baca, R.G.
1985-01-01
Information relevant to the general use of the MAGNUM-2D computer code is presented. This computer code was developed for the purpose of modeling (i.e., simulating) the thermal and hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of a waste package emplaced in a deep geologic repository. The MAGNUM-2D computer computes (1) the temperature field surrounding the waste package as a function of the heat generation rate of the nuclear waste and thermal properties of the basalt and (2) the hydraulic head distribution and associated groundwater flow fields as a function of the temperature gradients and hydraulic properties of the basalt. MAGNUM-2D is a two-dimensional numerical model for transient or steady-state analysis of coupled heat transfer and groundwater flow in a fractured porous medium. The governing equations consist of a set of coupled, quasi-linear partial differential equations that are solved using a Galerkin finite-element technique. A Newton-Raphson algorithm is embedded in the Galerkin functional to formulate the problem in terms of the incremental changes in the dependent variables. Both triangular and quadrilateral finite elements are used to represent the continuum portions of the spatial domain. Line elements may be used to represent discrete conduits. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
2D superconductivity by ionic gating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwasa, Yoshi
2D superconductivity is attracting a renewed interest due to the discoveries of new highly crystalline 2D superconductors in the past decade. Superconductivity at the oxide interfaces triggered by LaAlO3/SrTiO3 has become one of the promising routes for creation of new 2D superconductors. Also, the MBE grown metallic monolayers including FeSe are also offering a new platform of 2D superconductors. In the last two years, there appear a variety of monolayer/bilayer superconductors fabricated by CVD or mechanical exfoliation. Among these, electric field induced superconductivity by electric double layer transistor (EDLT) is a unique platform of 2D superconductivity, because of its ability of high density charge accumulation, and also because of the versatility in terms of materials, stemming from oxides to organics and layered chalcogenides. In this presentation, the following issues of electric filed induced superconductivity will be addressed; (1) Tunable carrier density, (2) Weak pinning, (3) Absence of inversion symmetry. (1) Since the sheet carrier density is quasi-continuously tunable from 0 to the order of 1014 cm-2, one is able to establish an electronic phase diagram of superconductivity, which will be compared with that of bulk superconductors. (2) The thickness of superconductivity can be estimated as 2 - 10 nm, dependent on materials, and is much smaller than the in-plane coherence length. Such a thin but low resistance at normal state results in extremely weak pinning beyond the dirty Boson model in the amorphous metallic films. (3) Due to the electric filed, the inversion symmetry is inherently broken in EDLT. This feature appears in the enhancement of Pauli limit of the upper critical field for the in-plane magnetic fields. In transition metal dichalcogenide with a substantial spin-orbit interactions, we were able to confirm the stabilization of Cooper pair due to its spin-valley locking. This work has been supported by Grant-in-Aid for Specially
2D non-separable linear canonical transform (2D-NS-LCT) based cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Liang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Healy, John J.; Malallah, Ra'ed; Cui, Xiao-Guang; Ryle, James P.; Sheridan, John T.
2017-05-01
The 2D non-separable linear canonical transform (2D-NS-LCT) can describe a variety of paraxial optical systems. Digital algorithms to numerically evaluate the 2D-NS-LCTs are not only important in modeling the light field propagations but also of interest in various signal processing based applications, for instance optical encryption. Therefore, in this paper, for the first time, a 2D-NS-LCT based optical Double-random- Phase-Encryption (DRPE) system is proposed which offers encrypting information in multiple degrees of freedom. Compared with the traditional systems, i.e. (i) Fourier transform (FT); (ii) Fresnel transform (FST); (iii) Fractional Fourier transform (FRT); and (iv) Linear Canonical transform (LCT), based DRPE systems, the proposed system is more secure and robust as it encrypts the data with more degrees of freedom with an augmented key-space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gouwens, C.; Dragosavic, M.
The large reserves and increasing use of natural gas as a source of energy have resulted in its storage and transport becoming an urgent problem. Since a liquid of the same mass occupies only a fraction of the volume of a gas, it is economical to store natural gas as a liquid. Liquefied natural gas is stored in insulated tanks and also carried by ship at a temperature of -160 C to 170 C. If a serious accident allows the LNG to escape, a gas cloud forms. The results of a possible explosion from such a gas cloud are studied. The development of a leak, escape and evaporation, size and propagation of the gas cloud, the explosive pressures to be expected and the results on the environment are investigated. Damage to buildings is examined making use of the preliminary conclusions of the other sub-projects and especially the explosive pressures.
Codon Constraints on Closed 2D Shapes,
2014-09-26
19843$ CODON CONSTRAINTS ON CLOSED 2D SHAPES Go Whitman Richards "I Donald D. Hoffman’ D T 18 Abstract: Codons are simple primitives for describing plane...RSONAL AUT"ORtIS) Richards, Whitman & Hoffman, Donald D. 13&. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED N/A P8 AT F RRrT t~r. Ago..D,) is, PlE COUNT Reprint...outlines, if figure and ground are ignored. Later, we will address the problem of indexing identical codon descriptors that have different figure
ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS
Y. JIANG; ET AL
2000-04-01
The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.
Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems
Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán
2015-10-15
We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ong, Wee-Jun
2017-04-01
In recent years, two-dimensional (2D) graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) has elicited interdisciplinary research fascination among the scientific communities due to its attractive properties such as appropriate band structures, visible-light absorption, and high chemical and thermal stability. At present, research aiming at engineering 2D g-C3N4 photocatalysts at an atomic and molecular level in conquering the global energy demand and environmental pollution has been thriving. In this review, the cutting-edge research progress on the 2D/2D g-C3N4-based hybrid nanoarchitectures will be systematically highlighted with a specific emphasis on a multitude of photocatalytic applications, not only in waste degradation for pollution alleviation, but also in renewable energy production (e.g. water splitting and carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction). By reviewing the substantial developments on this hot research platform, it is envisioned that the review will shed light and pave a new prospect for constructing high photocatalytic performance of 2D/2D g-C3N4-based system, which could also be extended to other related energy fields, namely solar cells, supercapacitors and electrocatalysis.
Remarks on thermalization in 2D CFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Boer, Jan; Engelhardt, Dalit
2016-12-01
We revisit certain aspects of thermalization in 2D conformal field theory (CFT). In particular, we consider similarities and differences between the time dependence of correlation functions in various states in rational and non-rational CFTs. We also consider the distinction between global and local thermalization and explain how states obtained by acting with a diffeomorphism on the ground state can appear locally thermal, and we review why the time-dependent expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor is generally a poor diagnostic of global thermalization. Since all 2D CFTs have an infinite set of commuting conserved charges, generic initial states might be expected to give rise to a generalized Gibbs ensemble rather than a pure thermal ensemble at late times. We construct the holographic dual of the generalized Gibbs ensemble and show that, to leading order, it is still described by a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole. The extra conserved charges, while rendering c <1 theories essentially integrable, therefore seem to have little effect on large-c conformal field theories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Shengxue; Jiang, Chengbao; Wei, Su-huai
2017-06-01
Two-dimensional (2D) layered inorganic nanomaterials have attracted huge attention due to their unique electronic structures, as well as extraordinary physical and chemical properties for use in electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics, catalysts, energy generation and storage, and chemical sensors. Graphene and related layered inorganic analogues have shown great potential for gas-sensing applications because of their large specific surface areas and strong surface activities. This review aims to discuss the latest advancements in the 2D layered inorganic materials for gas sensors. We first elaborate the gas-sensing mechanisms and introduce various types of gas-sensing devices. Then, we describe the basic parameters and influence factors of the gas sensors to further enhance their performance. Moreover, we systematically present the current gas-sensing applications based on graphene, graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), functionalized GO or rGO, transition metal dichalcogenides, layered III-VI semiconductors, layered metal oxides, phosphorene, hexagonal boron nitride, etc. Finally, we conclude the future prospects of these layered inorganic materials in gas-sensing applications.
Microwave Assisted 2D Materials Exfoliation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yanbin
Two-dimensional materials have emerged as extremely important materials with applications ranging from energy and environmental science to electronics and biology. Here we report our discovery of a universal, ultrafast, green, solvo-thermal technology for producing excellent-quality, few-layered nanosheets in liquid phase from well-known 2D materials such as such hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), graphite, and MoS2. We start by mixing the uniform bulk-layered material with a common organic solvent that matches its surface energy to reduce the van der Waals attractive interactions between the layers; next, the solutions are heated in a commercial microwave oven to overcome the energy barrier between bulk and few-layers states. We discovered the minutes-long rapid exfoliation process is highly temperature dependent, which requires precise thermal management to obtain high-quality inks. We hypothesize a possible mechanism of this proposed solvo-thermal process; our theory confirms the basis of this novel technique for exfoliation of high-quality, layered 2D materials by using an as yet unknown role of the solvent.
Meshfree natural vibration analysis of 2D structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosta, Tomislav; Tsukanov, Igor
2014-02-01
Determination of resonance frequencies and vibration modes of mechanical structures is one of the most important tasks in the product design procedure. The main goal of this paper is to describe a pioneering application of the solution structure method (SSM) to 2D structural natural vibration analysis problems and investigate the numerical properties of the method. SSM is a meshfree method which enables construction of the solutions to the engineering problems that satisfy exactly all prescribed boundary conditions. This method is capable of using spatial meshes that do not conform to the shape of a geometric model. Instead of using the grid nodes to enforce boundary conditions, it employs distance fields to the geometric boundaries and combines them with the basis functions and prescribed boundary conditions at run time. This defines unprecedented geometric flexibility of the SSM as well as the complete automation of the solution procedure. In the paper we will explain the key points of the SSM as well as investigate the accuracy and convergence of the proposed approach by comparing our results with the ones obtained using analytical methods or traditional finite element analysis. Despite in this paper we are dealing with 2D in-plane vibrations, the proposed approach has a straightforward generalization to model vibrations of 3D structures.
DNN-state identification of 2D distributed parameter systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chairez, I.; Fuentes, R.; Poznyak, A.; Poznyak, T.; Escudero, M.; Viana, L.
2012-02-01
There are many examples in science and engineering which are reduced to a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) through a process of mathematical modelling. Nevertheless there exist many sources of uncertainties around the aforementioned mathematical representation. Moreover, to find exact solutions of those PDEs is not a trivial task especially if the PDE is described in two or more dimensions. It is well known that neural networks can approximate a large set of continuous functions defined on a compact set to an arbitrary accuracy. In this article, a strategy based on the differential neural network (DNN) for the non-parametric identification of a mathematical model described by a class of two-dimensional (2D) PDEs is proposed. The adaptive laws for weights ensure the 'practical stability' of the DNN-trajectories to the parabolic 2D-PDE states. To verify the qualitative behaviour of the suggested methodology, here a non-parametric modelling problem for a distributed parameter plant is analysed.
Predicting non-square 2D dice probabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pender, G. A. T.; Uhrin, M.
2014-07-01
The prediction of the final state probabilities of a general cuboid randomly thrown onto a surface is a problem that naturally arises in the minds of men and women familiar with regular cubic dice and the basic concepts of probability. Indeed, it was considered by Newton in 1664 (Newton 1967 The Mathematical Papers of Issac Newton vol I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) pp 60-1). In this paper we make progress on the 2D problem (which can be realized in 3D by considering a long cuboid, or alternatively a rectangular cross-sectioned dreidel). For the two-dimensional case we suggest that the ratio of the probabilities of landing on each of the two sides is given by \\frac{\\sqrt{{{k}^{2}}+{{l}^{2}}}-k}{\\sqrt{{{k}^{2}}+{{l}^{2}}}-l}\\frac{arctan \\frac{l}{k}}{arctan \\frac{k}{l}} where k and l are the lengths of the two sides. We test this theory both experimentally and computationally, and find good agreement between our theory, experimental and computational results. Our theory is known, from its derivation, to be an approximation for particularly bouncy or ‘grippy’ surfaces where the die rolls through many revolutions before settling. On real surfaces we would expect (and we observe) that the true probability ratio for a 2D die is a somewhat closer to unity than predicted by our theory. This problem may also have wider relevance in the testing of physics engines.
WFR-2D: an analytical model for PWAS-generated 2D ultrasonic guided wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor
2014-03-01
This paper presents WaveFormRevealer 2-D (WFR-2D), an analytical predictive tool for the simulation of 2-D ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with damage. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and self-aware smart structures requires the exploration of a wide range of parameters to achieve best detection and quantification of certain types of damage. Such need for parameter exploration on sensor dimension, location, guided wave characteristics (mode type, frequency, wavelength, etc.) can be best satisfied with analytical models which are fast and efficient. The analytical model was constructed based on the exact 2-D Lamb wave solution using Bessel and Hankel functions. Damage effects were inserted in the model by considering the damage as a secondary wave source with complex-valued directivity scattering coefficients containing both amplitude and phase information from wave-damage interaction. The analytical procedure was coded with MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local finite element model (FEM) with artificial non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The WFR-2D analytical simulation results were compared and verified with full scale multiphysics finite element models and experiments with scanning laser vibrometer. First, Lamb wave propagation in a pristine aluminum plate was simulated with WFR-2D, compared with finite element results, and verified by experiments. Then, an inhomogeneity was machined into the plate to represent damage. Analytical modeling was carried out, and verified by finite element simulation and experiments. This paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for future work.
2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test
Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D
2005-06-06
Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is still preferable over 2
Simulation of Yeast Cooperation in 2D.
Wang, M; Huang, Y; Wu, Z
2016-03-01
Evolution of cooperation has been an active research area in evolutionary biology in decades. An important type of cooperation is developed from group selection, when individuals form spatial groups to prevent them from foreign invasions. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in a mixed population of cooperating and cheating yeast strains in 2D with the interactions among the yeast cells restricted to their small neighborhoods. We conduct a computer simulation based on a game theoretic model and show that cooperation is increased when the interactions are spatially restricted, whether the game is of a prisoner's dilemma, snow drifting, or mutual benefit type. We study the evolution of homogeneous groups of cooperators or cheaters and describe the conditions for them to sustain or expand in an opponent population. We show that under certain spatial restrictions, cooperator groups are able to sustain and expand as group sizes become large, while cheater groups fail to expand and keep them from collapse.
Variational regularized 2-D nonnegative matrix factorization.
Gao, Bin; Woo, W L; Dlay, S S
2012-05-01
A novel approach for adaptive regularization of 2-D nonnegative matrix factorization is presented. The proposed matrix factorization is developed under the framework of maximum a posteriori probability and is adaptively fine-tuned using the variational approach. The method enables: (1) a generalized criterion for variable sparseness to be imposed onto the solution; and (2) prior information to be explicitly incorporated into the basis features. The method is computationally efficient and has been demonstrated on two applications, that is, extracting features from image and separating single channel source mixture. In addition, it is shown that the basis features of an information-bearing matrix can be extracted more efficiently using the proposed regularized priors. Experimental tests have been rigorously conducted to verify the efficacy of the proposed method.
Graphene suspensions for 2D printing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.
2016-04-01
It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).
2D quantum gravity from quantum entanglement.
Gliozzi, F
2011-01-21
In quantum systems with many degrees of freedom the replica method is a useful tool to study the entanglement of arbitrary spatial regions. We apply it in a way that allows them to backreact. As a consequence, they become dynamical subsystems whose position, form, and extension are determined by their interaction with the whole system. We analyze, in particular, quantum spin chains described at criticality by a conformal field theory. Its coupling to the Gibbs' ensemble of all possible subsystems is relevant and drives the system into a new fixed point which is argued to be that of the 2D quantum gravity coupled to this system. Numerical experiments on the critical Ising model show that the new critical exponents agree with those predicted by the formula of Knizhnik, Polyakov, and Zamolodchikov.
2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.
2015-01-01
An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.
Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.
1978-01-01
A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.
Transition to turbulence: 2D directed percolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chantry, Matthew; Tuckerman, Laurette; Barkley, Dwight
2016-11-01
The transition to turbulence in simple shear flows has been studied for well over a century, yet in the last few years has seen major leaps forward. In pipe flow, this transition shows the hallmarks of (1 + 1) D directed percolation, a universality class of continuous phase transitions. In spanwisely confined Taylor-Couette flow the same class is found, suggesting the phenomenon is generic to shear flows. However in plane Couette flow the largest simulations and experiments to-date find evidence for a discrete transition. Here we study a planar shear flow, called Waleffe flow, devoid of walls yet showing the fundamentals of planar transition to turbulence. Working with a quasi-2D yet Navier-Stokes derived model of this flow we are able to attack the (2 + 1) D transition problem. Going beyond the system sizes previously possible we find all of the required scalings of directed percolation and thus establish planar shears flow in this class.
Jamming in 2D Prolate Granular Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franklin, Scott
2003-11-01
We have been looking at how 2D piles of prolate (L/D>1) granular materials respond when disturbed. A test object is pushed slowly through a horizontal network of particles; the packing fraction and particle aspect ratio can be varied independently. Particles are cut from square brass rods; the square cross-section reduces the chances of a particle rolling on top of another and keeps the pile two-dimensinal. The initial condition of the pile is quantified with an orientational order parameter which measures the inter-particle alignment. At a critical packing fraction the pile jams and the force needed to push the test object through the pile increases. The jammed state also corresponds to an increase in the number of particles undergoing large-scale motion. This is revealed both in video analysis, which measures particle rearrangments within the pile, and in the number of particles that are pushed off the end of the table.
2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.
2015-01-01
Electrostatically actuated microshutter arrays consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutters demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.
Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.
1978-01-01
A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.
Numerical Evaluation of 2D Ground States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolkovska, Natalia
2016-02-01
A ground state is defined as the positive radial solution of the multidimensional nonlinear problem
Metrology for graphene and 2D materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pollard, Andrew J.
2016-09-01
The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the
A design principle of polymers processable into 2D homeotropic order
Chen, Zhen; Chan, Yi-Tsu; Miyajima, Daigo; Kajitani, Takashi; Kosaka, Atsuko; Fukushima, Takanori; Lobez, Jose M.; Aida, Takuzo
2016-01-01
How to orient polymers homeotropically in thin films has been a long-standing issue in polymer science because polymers intrinsically prefer to lie down. Here we provide a design principle for polymers that are processable into a 2D homeotropic order. The key to this achievement was a recognition that cylindrical polymers can be designed to possess oppositely directed local dipoles in their cross-section, which possibly force polymers to tightly connect bilaterally, affording a 2D rectangular assembly. With a physical assistance of the surface grooves on Teflon sheets that sandwich polymer samples, homeotropic ordering is likely nucleated and gradually propagates upon hot-pressing towards the interior of the film. Consequently, the 2D rectangular lattice is constructed such that its b axis (side chains) aligns along the surface grooves, while its c axis (polymer backbone) aligns homeotropically on a Teflon sheet. This finding paves the way to molecularly engineered 2D polymers with anomalous functions. PMID:27897189
A design principle of polymers processable into 2D homeotropic order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhen; Chan, Yi-Tsu; Miyajima, Daigo; Kajitani, Takashi; Kosaka, Atsuko; Fukushima, Takanori; Lobez, Jose M.; Aida, Takuzo
2016-11-01
How to orient polymers homeotropically in thin films has been a long-standing issue in polymer science because polymers intrinsically prefer to lie down. Here we provide a design principle for polymers that are processable into a 2D homeotropic order. The key to this achievement was a recognition that cylindrical polymers can be designed to possess oppositely directed local dipoles in their cross-section, which possibly force polymers to tightly connect bilaterally, affording a 2D rectangular assembly. With a physical assistance of the surface grooves on Teflon sheets that sandwich polymer samples, homeotropic ordering is likely nucleated and gradually propagates upon hot-pressing towards the interior of the film. Consequently, the 2D rectangular lattice is constructed such that its b axis (side chains) aligns along the surface grooves, while its c axis (polymer backbone) aligns homeotropically on a Teflon sheet. This finding paves the way to molecularly engineered 2D polymers with anomalous functions.
Efficient screening of 2D molecular polymorphs at the solution-solid interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Shern-Long; Adisoejoso, Jinne; Fang, Yuan; Tahara, Kazukuni; Tobe, Yoshito; Mali, Kunal S.; de Feyter, Steven
2015-03-01
Formation of multiple polymorphs during two-dimensional (2D) crystallization of organic molecules is more of a routine occurrence than rarity. Although such diverse crystalline structures provide exciting possibilities for studying crystal engineering in 2D, predicting the occurrence of polymorphs for a given building block is often non-trivial. Moreover, there is scarcity of methods that can experimentally verify the presence of such crystalline polymorphs in a straightforward fashion. Here we demonstrate a relatively simple experimental approach for screening of 2D polymorphs formed at the solution-solid interface. The strategy involves use of solution flow produced by contacting a piece of tissue paper to the sample to generate a lateral density gradient along the substrate surface. In situ generation of such gradient allows rapid discovery and nanoscale separation of multiple 2D polymorphs in a single experiment. The concept is demonstrated using three structurally different building blocks that differ in terms of intermolecular interactions responsible for 2D crystal formation. The method described here represents a powerful tool for efficient screening of 2D polymorphs formed at the solution-solid interface.Formation of multiple polymorphs during two-dimensional (2D) crystallization of organic molecules is more of a routine occurrence than rarity. Although such diverse crystalline structures provide exciting possibilities for studying crystal engineering in 2D, predicting the occurrence of polymorphs for a given building block is often non-trivial. Moreover, there is scarcity of methods that can experimentally verify the presence of such crystalline polymorphs in a straightforward fashion. Here we demonstrate a relatively simple experimental approach for screening of 2D polymorphs formed at the solution-solid interface. The strategy involves use of solution flow produced by contacting a piece of tissue paper to the sample to generate a lateral density
Hirobe, Tomohisa; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa
2013-09-01
The novel mutation named ru2(d) /Hps5(ru2-d) , characterized by light-colored coats and ruby-eyes, prohibits differentiation of melanocytes by inhibiting tyrosinase (Tyr) activity, expression of Tyr, Tyr-related protein 1 (Tyrp1), Tyrp2, and Kit. However, it is not known whether the ru2(d) allele affects pheomelanin synthesis in recessive yellow (e/Mc1r(e) ) or in pheomelanic stage in agouti (A) mice. In this study, effects of the ru2(d) allele on pheomelanin synthesis were investigated by chemical analysis of melanin present in dorsal hairs of 5-week-old mice from F2 generation between C57BL/10JHir (B10)-co-isogenic ruby-eye 2(d) and B10-congenic recessive yellow or agouti. Eumelanin content was decreased in ruby-eye 2(d) and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice, whereas pheomelanin content in ruby-eye 2(d) recessive yellow and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice did not differ from the corresponding Ru2(d) /- mice, suggesting that the ru2(d) allele inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Processable 2D materials beyond graphene: MoS2 liquid crystals and fibres.
Jalili, Rouhollah; Aminorroaya-Yamini, Sima; Benedetti, Tania M; Aboutalebi, Seyed Hamed; Chao, Yunfeng; Wallace, Gordon G; Officer, David L
2016-09-29
Herein, we show properly engineered MoS2 crystals can readily form liquid crystalline dispersions in water making them ideal candidates for large-scale manufacturing processes. The guideline provided here can serve as the basis to develop practical protocols to address the long-standing goal of large-scale manufacturing of 2D materials.
Comparative metabolic capabilities and inhibitory profiles of CYP2D6.1, CYP2D6.10, and CYP2D6.17.
Shen, Hongwu; He, Minxia M; Liu, Houfu; Wrighton, Steven A; Wang, Li; Guo, Bin; Li, Chuan
2007-08-01
Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene are a major cause of pharmacokinetic variability in human. Although the poor metabolizer phenotype is known to be caused by two null alleles leading to absence of functional CYP2D6 protein, the large variability among individuals with functional alleles remains mostly unexplained. Thus, the goal of this study was to examine the intrinsic enzymatic differences that exist among the several active CYP2D6 allelic variants. The relative catalytic activities (enzyme kinetics) of three functionally active human CYP2D6 allelic variants, CYP2D6.1, CYP2D6.10, and CYP2D6.17, were systematically investigated for their ability to metabolize a structurally diverse set of clinically important CYP2D6-metabolized drugs [atomoxetine, bufuralol, codeine, debrisoquine, dextromethorphan, (S)-fluoxetine, nortriptyline, and tramadol] and the effects of various CYP2D6-inhibitors [cocaine, (S)-fluoxetine, (S)-norfluoxetine, imipramine, quinidine, and thioridazine] on these three variants. The most significant difference observed was a consistent but substrate-dependent decease in the catalytic efficiencies of cDNA-expressed CYP2D6.10 and CYP2D6.17 compared with CYP2D6.1, yielding 1.32 to 27.9 and 7.33 to 80.4% of the efficiency of CYP2D6.1, respectively. The most important finding from this study is that there are mixed effects on the functionally reduced allelic variants in enzyme-substrate affinity or enzyme-inhibitor affinity, which is lower, higher, or comparable to that for CYP2D6.1. Considering the rather high frequencies of CYP2D6*10 and CYP2D6*17 alleles for Asians and African Americans, respectively, these data provide further insight into ethnic differences in CYP2D6-mediated drug metabolism. However, as with all in vitro to in vivo extrapolations, caution should be applied to the clinical consequences.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Wang, Kai; Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Lin, Ming-Wei; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Tian, Mengkun; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Geohegan, David B.
2017-02-01
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide (2D-TMD) semiconductors are new class of functional materials with a great promise for optoelectronics. Despite their atomic thickness, they strongly interact with light. This allows 2D-TMDs to become suitable converters of photons into useful electric charges in heterostructures involving 2D-TMDs and metallic nano-plasmonics or semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). In this talk, I will illustrate how femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy can reveal a sub-45 fs charge transfer at a 2D/QDs heterostructure composed of tungsten disulfide monolayers (2D-WS2) and a single layer of cadmium selenide (CdSe)/zinc sulfide (ZnS) core/shell 0D-QDs. In another heterostructure involving 2D-TMDs and plasmonics, I will describe how plasmons of an array of aluminum (Al) nanoantennas are excited indirectly via energy transfer from photoexcited exciton of 2D-WS2 semiconductor. In particular, femtosecond spectroscopy measurements indicated that the lifetime of the resulting plasmon-induced hot electrons in the Al array continue as long as that of the 2D-WS2 excitons. Conversely, the presence of these excited plasmons almost triples the lifetime of the 2D-WS2 excitons from 15 to 44 ps. This exciton-plasmon coupling enabled by such hybrid nanostructures may open new opportunities for optoelectronic applications. This research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility. Synthesis of the two-dimensional materials was supported by the Materials Science and Engineering Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.
Competing coexisting phases in 2D water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire
2016-05-01
The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.
SEM signal emulation for 2D patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sukhov, Evgenii; Muelders, Thomas; Klostermann, Ulrich; Gao, Weimin; Braylovska, Mariya
2016-03-01
The application of accurate and predictive physical resist simulation is seen as one important use model for fast and efficient exploration of new patterning technology options, especially if fully qualified OPC models are not yet available at an early pre-production stage. The methodology of using a top-down CD-SEM metrology to extract the 3D resist profile information, such as the critical dimension (CD) at various resist heights, has to be associated with a series of presumptions which may introduce such small, but systematic CD errors. Ideally, the metrology effects should be carefully minimized during measurement process, or if possible be taken into account through proper metrology modeling. In this paper we discuss the application of a fast SEM signal emulation describing the SEM image formation. The algorithm is applied to simulated resist 3D profiles and produces emulated SEM image results for 1D and 2D patterns. It allows estimating resist simulation quality by comparing CDs which were extracted from the emulated and from the measured SEM images. Moreover, SEM emulation is applied for resist model calibration to capture subtle error signatures through dose and defocus. Finally, it should be noted that our SEM emulation methodology is based on the approximation of physical phenomena which are taking place in real SEM image formation. This approximation allows achieving better speed performance compared to a fully physical model.
Competing coexisting phases in 2D water
Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire
2016-01-01
The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018
Persistence Measures for 2d Soap Froth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Y.; Ruskin, H. J.; Zhu, B.
Soap froths as typical disordered cellular structures, exhibiting spatial and temporal evolution, have been studied through their distributions and topological properties. Recently, persistence measures, which permit representation of the froth as a two-phase system, have been introduced to study froth dynamics at different length scales. Several aspects of the dynamics may be considered and cluster persistence has been observed through froth experiment. Using a direct simulation method, we have investigated persistent properties in 2D froth both by monitoring the persistence of survivor cells, a topologically independent measure, and in terms of cluster persistence. It appears that the area fraction behavior for both survivor and cluster persistence is similar for Voronoi froth and uniform froth (with defects). Survivor and cluster persistent fractions are also similar for a uniform froth, particularly when geometries are constrained, but differences observed for the Voronoi case appear to be attributable to the strong topological dependency inherent in cluster persistence. Survivor persistence, on the other hand, depends on the number rather than size and position of remaining bubbles and does not exhibit the characteristic decay to zero.
2D Radiative Processes Near Cloud Edges
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Varnai, T.
2012-01-01
Because of the importance and complexity of dynamical, microphysical, and radiative processes taking place near cloud edges, the transition zone between clouds and cloud free air has been the subject of intense research both in the ASR program and in the wider community. One challenge in this research is that the one-dimensional (1D) radiative models widely used in both remote sensing and dynamical simulations become less accurate near cloud edges: The large horizontal gradients in particle concentrations imply that accurate radiative calculations need to consider multi-dimensional radiative interactions among areas that have widely different optical properties. This study examines the way the importance of multidimensional shortwave radiative interactions changes as we approach cloud edges. For this, the study relies on radiative simulations performed for a multiyear dataset of clouds observed over the NSA, SGP, and TWP sites. This dataset is based on Microbase cloud profiles as well as wind measurements and ARM cloud classification products. The study analyzes the way the difference between 1D and 2D simulation results increases near cloud edges. It considers both monochromatic radiances and broadband radiative heating, and it also examines the influence of factors such as cloud type and height, and solar elevation. The results provide insights into the workings of radiative processes and may help better interpret radiance measurements and better estimate the radiative impacts of this critical region.
Ion Transport in 2-D Graphene Nanochannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Quan; Foo, Elbert; Duan, Chuanhua
2015-11-01
Graphene membranes have recently attracted wide attention due to its great potential in water desalination and selective molecular sieving. Further developments of these membranes, including enhancing their mass transport rate and/or molecular selectivity, rely on the understanding of fundamental transport mechanisms through graphene membranes, which has not been studied experimentally before due to fabrication and measurement difficulties. Herein we report the fabrication of the basic constituent of graphene membranes, i.e. 2-D single graphene nanochannels (GNCs) and the study of ion transport in these channels. A modified bonding technique was developed to form GNCs with well-defined geometry and uniform channel height. Ion transport in such GNCs was studied using DC conductance measurement. Our preliminary results showed that the ion transport in GNCs is still governed by surface charge at low concentrations (10-6M to 10-4M). However, GNCs exhibits much higher ionic conductances than silica nanochannels with the same geometries in the surface-charge-governed regime. This conductance enhancement can be attributed to the pre-accumulation of charges on graphene surfaces. The work is supported by the Faculty Startup Fund (Boston University, USA).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Chingyun; Kangara, Jayampathi; Arakelyan, Ilya; Thomas, John
2016-05-01
We tune the dimensionality of a strongly interacting degenerate 6 Li Fermi gas from 2D to quasi-2D, by adjusting the radial confinement of pancake-shaped clouds to control the radial chemical potential. In the 2D regime with weak radial confinement, the measured pair binding energies are in agreement with 2D-BCS mean field theory, which predicts dimer pairing energies in the many-body regime. In the qausi-2D regime obtained with increased radial confinement, the measured pairing energy deviates significantly from 2D-BCS theory. In contrast to the pairing energy, the measured radii of the cloud profiles are not fit by 2D-BCS theory in either the 2D or quasi-2D regimes, but are fit in both regimes by a beyond mean field polaron-model of the free energy. Supported by DOE, ARO, NSF, and AFOSR.
MAGNUM2D. Radionuclide Transport Porous Media
Langford, D.W.; Baca, R.G.
1989-03-01
MAGNUM2D was developed to analyze thermally driven fluid motion in the deep basalts below the Paco Basin at the Westinghouse Hanford Site. Has been used in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to simulate nonisothermal groundwater flow in a heterogeneous anisotropic medium and heat transport in a water/rock system near a high level nuclear waste repository. Allows three representations of the hydrogeologic system: an equivalent porous continuum, a system of discrete, unfilled, and interconnecting fractures separated by impervious rock mass, and a low permeability porous continuum with several discrete, unfilled fractures traversing the medium. The calculations assume local thermodynamic equilibrium between the rock and groundwater, nonisothermal Darcian flow in the continuum portions of the rock, and nonisothermal Poiseuille flow in discrete unfilled fractures. In addition, the code accounts for thermal loading within the elements, zero normal gradient and fixed boundary conditions for both temperature and hydraulic head, and simulation of the temperature and flow independently. The Q2DGEOM preprocessor was developed to generate, modify, plot and verify quadratic two dimensional finite element geometries. The BCGEN preprocessor generates the boundary conditions for head and temperature and ICGEN generates the initial conditions. The GRIDDER postprocessor interpolates nonregularly spaced nodal flow and temperature data onto a regular rectangular grid. CONTOUR plots and labels contour lines for a function of two variables and PARAM plots cross sections and time histories for a function of time and one or two spatial variables. NPRINT generates data tables that display the data along horizontal or vertical cross sections. VELPLT differentiates the hydraulic head and buoyancy data and plots the velocity vectors. The PATH postprocessor plots flow paths and computes the corresponding travel times.
MAGNUM2D. Radionuclide Transport Porous Media
Langford, D.W.; Baca, R.G.
1988-08-01
MAGNUM2D was developed to analyze thermally driven fluid motion in the deep basalts below the Paco Basin at the Westinghouse Hanford Site. Has been used in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to simulate nonisothermal groundwater flow in a heterogeneous anisotropic medium and heat transport in a water/rock system near a high level nuclear waste repository. Allows three representations of the hydrogeologic system: an equivalent porous continuum, a system of discrete, unfilled, and interconnecting fractures separated by impervious rock mass, and a low permeability porous continuum with several discrete, unfilled fractures traversing the medium. The calculation assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium between the rock and groundwater, nonisothermal Darcian flow in the continuum portions of the rock, and nonisothermal Poiseuille flow in discrete unfilled fractures. In addition, the code accounts for thermal loading within the elements, zero normal gradient and fixed boundary conditions for both temperature and hydraulic head, and simulation of the temperature and flow independently. The Q2DGEOM preprocessor was developed to generate, modify, plot and verify quadratic two dimensional finite element geometries. The BCGEN preprocessor generates the boundary conditions for head and temperature and ICGEN generates the initial conditions. The GRIDDER postprocessor interpolates nonregularly spaced nodal flow and temperature data onto a regular rectangular grid. CONTOUR plots and labels contour lines for a function of two variables and PARAM plots cross sections and time histories for a function of time and one or two spatial variables. NPRINT generates data tables that display the data along horizontal or vertical cross sections. VELPLT differentiates the hydraulic head and buoyancy data and plots the velocity vectors. The PATH postprocessor plots flow paths and computes the corresponding travel times.
2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weinman, Lynda
1995-01-01
Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)
2D discrete Fourier transform on sliding windows.
Park, Chun-Su
2015-03-01
Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is the most widely used method for determining the frequency spectra of digital signals. In this paper, a 2D sliding DFT (2D SDFT) algorithm is proposed for fast implementation of the DFT on 2D sliding windows. The proposed 2D SDFT algorithm directly computes the DFT bins of the current window using the precalculated bins of the previous window. Since the proposed algorithm is designed to accelerate the sliding transform process of a 2D input signal, it can be directly applied to computer vision and image processing applications. The theoretical analysis shows that the computational requirement of the proposed 2D SDFT algorithm is the lowest among existing 2D DFT algorithms. Moreover, the output of the 2D SDFT is mathematically equivalent to that of the traditional DFT at all pixel positions.
NIKE2D96. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids
Raboin, P.; Engelmann, B.; Halquist, J.O.
1992-01-24
NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.
Current trends on 2D materials for photonics devices: an NSF perspective (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fallahi, Mahmoud
2017-05-01
Recent advancements in two-dimensional (2D) materials have opened significant research opportunities in optics and photonics. While the initial focus on 2D materials was on Graphene, new generation of 2D materials such as hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), monolayer black phosphorous (BP) and other monolayer structures have shown unique electrical and optical properties. For example, h-BN is an insulator, while monolayers of some TMDCs such as MoS2 and WSe2 are direct band-gap semiconductors. Depending on the choice of material compositional and layer variations their optical properties can be engineered, making them particularly attractive as novel light sources, photodetectors, modulators and photovoltaic components, in particular for few photon applications. Plasmonic properties of 2D materials make them suitable for nanophotonics and monolithic integration with other conventional materials. The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a US federal agency dedicated to promote progress of science and engineering. NSF is the funding source for approximately 24 percent of all federally supported basic research conducted by America's colleges and universities. NSF has recently supported several initiatives related to novel 2D material and device research. In this talk, I will first give an overview of the NSF programs and funding opportunities. The second part of the talk will be focused on the programs related to 2D materials for photonic devices and program specific initiatives. Several highlights of the recent achievements and awards in the field of 2D materials for photonic devices will be presented.
Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ
Hallquist, J. O.; Sanford, Larry
1996-07-15
MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.
MAZE96. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ
Sanford, L.; Hallquist, J.O.
1992-02-24
MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.
Bridging the gap: from 2D cell culture to 3D microengineered extracellular matrices
Li, Yanfen
2016-01-01
Historically the culture of mammalian cells in the laboratory has been performed on planar substrates with media cocktails that are optimized to maintain phenotype. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that much of biology discerned from 2D studies does not translate well to the 3D microenvironment. Over the last several decades, 2D and 3D microengineering approaches have been developed that better recapitulate the complex architecture and properties of in vivo tissue. Inspired by the infrastructure of the microelectronics industry, lithographic patterning approaches have taken center stage because of the ease in which cell-sized features can be engineered on surfaces and within a broad range of biocompatible materials. Patterning and templating techniques enable precise control over extracellular matrix properties including: composition, mechanics, geometry, cell-cell contact, and diffusion. In this review article we will explore how the field of engineered extracellular matrices has evolved with the development of new hydrogel chemistry and the maturation of micro- and nano- fabrication. Guided by the spatiotemporal regulation of cell state in developing tissues, we will review the maturation of micropatterning in 2D, pseudo-3D systems, and patterning within 3D hydrogels in the context of translating the information gained from 2D systems to synthetic engineered 3D tissues. PMID:26592366
A Planar Quantum Transistor Based on 2D-2D Tunneling in Double Quantum Well Heterostructures
Baca, W.E.; Blount, M.A.; Hafich, M.J.; Lyo, S.K.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.
1998-12-14
We report on our work on the double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT), based on the gate-control of two-dimensional -- two-dimensional (2D-2D) tunneling in a double quantum well heterostructure. While previous quantum transistors have typically required tiny laterally-defined features, by contrast the DELTT is entirely planar and can be reliably fabricated in large numbers. We use a novel epoxy-bond-and-stop-etch (EBASE) flip-chip process, whereby submicron gating on opposite sides of semiconductor epitaxial layers as thin as 0.24 microns can be achieved. Because both electron layers in the DELTT are 2D, the resonant tunneling features are unusually sharp, and can be easily modulated with one or more surface gates. We demonstrate DELTTs with peak-to-valley ratios in the source-drain I-V curve of order 20:1 below 1 K. Both the height and position of the resonant current peak can be controlled by gate voltage over a wide range. DELTTs with larger subband energy offsets ({approximately} 21 meV) exhibit characteristics that are nearly as good at 77 K, in good agreement with our theoretical calculations. Using these devices, we also demonstrate bistable memories operating at 77 K. Finally, we briefly discuss the prospects for room temperature operation, increases in gain, and high-speed.
Controlling Structural Anisotropy of Anisotropic 2D Layers in Pseudo-1D/2D Material Heterojunctions.
Chen, Bin; Wu, Kedi; Suslu, Aslihan; Yang, Sijie; Cai, Hui; Yano, Aliya; Soignard, Emmanuel; Aoki, Toshihiro; March, Katia; Shen, Yuxia; Tongay, Sefaattin
2017-07-10
Chemical vapor deposition and growth dynamics of highly anisotropic 2D lateral heterojunctions between pseudo-1D ReS2 and isotropic WS2 monolayers are reported for the first time. Constituent ReS2 and WS2 layers have vastly different atomic structure, crystallizing in anisotropic 1T' and isotropic 2H phases, respectively. Through high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and angle-resolved Raman spectroscopy, this study is able to provide the very first atomic look at intimate interfaces between these dissimilar 2D materials. Surprisingly, the results reveal that ReS2 lateral heterojunctions to WS2 produce well-oriented (highly anisotropic) Re-chains perpendicular to WS2 edges. When vertically stacked, Re-chains orient themselves along the WS2 zigzag direction, and consequently, Re-chains exhibit six-fold rotation, resulting in loss of macroscopic scale anisotropy. The degree of anisotropy of ReS2 on WS2 largely depends on the domain size, and decreases for increasing domain size due to randomization of Re-chains and formation of ReS2 subdomains. Present work establishes the growth dynamics of atomic junctions between novel anisotropic/isotropic 2D materials, and overall results mark the very first demonstration of control over anisotropy direction, which is a significant leap forward for large-scale nanomanufacturing of anisotropic systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Nano-scale electronic and optoelectronic devices based on 2D crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Wenjuan
In the last few years, the research community has been rapidly growing interests in two-dimensional (2D) crystals and their applications. The properties of these 2D crystals are diverse -- ranging from semi-metal such as graphene, semiconductors such as MoS2, to insulator such as boron nitride. These 2D crystals have many unique properties as compared to their bulk counterparts due to their reduced dimensionality and symmetry. A key difference is the band structures, which lead to distinct electronic and photonic properties. The 2D nature of the material also plays an important role in defining their exceptional properties of mechanical strength, surface sensitivity, thermal conductivity, tunable band-gap and their interaction with light. These unique properties of 2D crystals open up a broad territory of applications in computing, communication, energy, and medicine. In this talk, I will present our work on understanding the electrical properties of graphene and MoS2, in particular current transport and band-gap engineering in graphene, interface between gate dielectrics and graphene, and gap states in MoS2. I will also present our work on the nano-scale electronic devices (RF and logic devices) and photonic devices (plasmonic devices and photo-detectors) based on these 2D crystals.
Recent advances in 2D thermoelectric materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Jiabing; Sun, Qiang; Jena, Puru
2016-12-01
The waste heat generated by car engines, power plants, home furnaces and other fossil fuel-burning machinery play an adverse role in the climate. Development of efficient, light-weight, cost-effective, and environmentally-benign thermoelectric materials can help in converting wasted heat into useable energy, thus helping the environment. In this brief review we discuss theoretical methods that can complement experimental search for efficient thermoelectric materials. Using Boltzmann transport theory with a constant relaxation time approximation and non-equilibrium Green's function approach we study thermoelectric parameters by focusing on two dimensional materials ranging from graphene and graphdiyne to phosphorene, transition metal dichalogenides and metal carbides. In some circumstances, the reduced dimension is found to increase the Seebeck coefficient and decrease the thermal conductivity, necessary for improving thermoelectric conversion performance. We also suggest some future studies in this topic.
Piezoelectricity of 2D nanomaterials: characterization, properties, and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jin; Meguid, S. A.
2017-04-01
The discovery of piezoelectricity in 2D nanomaterials represents a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future technologies. This article reviews recent progress in the characterization, properties evaluation, and applications of piezoelectricity of 2D piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs). To begin, an introduction to the existing 2D PNs, which exhibit a wide range of atomic structures and configurations, is presented. The nanoscale measurements and associated experimental techniques as well as the atomic simulations of the piezoelectric properties of 2D PNs are then summarized. Some of the pertinent parameters, which govern the piezoelectric properties of 2D PNs, are discussed. Furthermore, our article concludes with some potential applications including piezotronics, piezophototronics, and energy harvesting of 2D PNs, which can open the doors to the innovative design of next-generation nanoelectronics and nanodevices. Finally, we highlight perspectives and challenges for the future development of 2D PNs.
CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 Genotyping.
Riffel, Amanda K; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C; Leeder, J Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Gaedigk, Andrea
2015-01-01
TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6 (*) 15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6 (*) 35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6 (*) 15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6 (*) 15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer
CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 Genotyping
Riffel, Amanda K.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C.; Leeder, J. Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Gaedigk, Andrea
2016-01-01
TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe regions can impact
2D-fractal based algorithms for nanoparticles characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia
2014-02-01
Fractal geometry concerns the study of non-Euclidean geometrical figures generated by a recursive sequence of mathematical operations. The proposed 2D-fractal approach was applied to characterise the image structure and texture generated by fine and ultra-fine particles when impacting on a flat surface. The work was developed with reference to particles usually produced by ultra-fine milling addressed to generate nano-particles population. In order to generate different particle populations to utilize in the study, specific milling actions have been thus performed adopting different milling actions and utilising different materials, both in terms of original size class distribution and chemical-physical attributes. The aim of the work was to develop a simple, reliable and low cost analytical set of procedures with the ability to establish correlations between particles detected by fractal characteristics and their milled-induced-properties (i.e. size class distribution, shape, surface properties, etc.). Such logic should constitute the core of a control engine addressed to realize a full monitoring of the milling process as well as to establish correlation between operative parameters, fed and resulting products characteristics.
Simultaneous 2D Doppler backscattering from edge turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, David; Brunner, Kai; Freethy, Simon; Huang, Billy; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Vann, Roddy
2015-11-01
The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) diagnostic (previously at MAST and now at NSTX-U) actively probes the plasma edge using a wide (80 degree beam width) and broadband (10-34.5 GHz) beam. It digitizes the phase and amplitude of the Doppler backscattered signal using a receiving array of eight antennas which can be focused in any direction post shot to an angular range of 6-24 degree FWHM. This allows Doppler BackScattering (DBS) experiments to be conducted in every direction within the field of view simultaneously. This capability is unique to SAMI and is a novel way of conducting DBS experiments. SAMI has measured the magnetic pitch angle in the edge for the first time using a backscattering diagnostic. This is possible with simultaneous 2D DBS because the maximum backscattered power is perpendicular to the turbulence and turbulence is elongated along the magnetic field. SAMI has also studied the effect of NBI and the L-H transition on turbulent velocity, and turbulence suppression in the edge during H-mode. Initial results from all of these studies will be presented. This work is supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Grants EP/K504178 and EP/H016732.
Photorealistic image synthesis and camera validation from 2D images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos Ferrer, Juan C.; González Chévere, David; Manian, Vidya
2014-06-01
This paper presents a new 3D scene reconstruction technique using the Unity 3D game engine. The method presented here allow us to reconstruct the shape of simple objects and more complex ones from multiple 2D images, including infrared and digital images from indoor scenes and only digital images from outdoor scenes and then add the reconstructed object to the simulated scene created in Unity 3D, these scenes are then validated with real world scenes. The method used different cameras settings and explores different properties in the reconstructions of the scenes including light, color, texture, shapes and different views. To achieve the highest possible resolution, it was necessary the extraction of partial textures from visible surfaces. To recover the 3D shapes and the depth of simple objects that can be represented by the geometric bodies, there geometric characteristics were used. To estimate the depth of more complex objects the triangulation method was used, for this the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters were calculated using geometric camera calibration. To implement the methods mentioned above the Matlab tool was used. The technique presented here also let's us to simulate small simple videos, by reconstructing a sequence of multiple scenes of the video separated by small margins of time. To measure the quality of the reconstructed images and video scenes the Fast Low Band Model (FLBM) metric from the Video Quality Measurement (VQM) software was used. Low bandwidth perception based features include edges and motion.
Topological Toughening of graphene and other 2D materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Huajian
It has been claimed that graphene, with the elastic modulus of 1TPa and theoretical strength as high as 130 GPa, is the strongest material. However, from an engineering point of view, it is the fracture toughness that determines the actual strength of materials, as crack-like flaws (i.e., cracks, holes, notches, corners, etc.) are inevitable in the design, fabrication, and operation of practical devices and systems. Recently, it has been demonstrated that graphene has very low fracture toughness, in fact close to that of ideally brittle solids. These findings have raised sharp questions and are calling for efforts to explore effective methods to toughen graphene. Recently, we have been exploring the potential use of topological effects to enhance the fracture toughness of graphene. For example, it has been shown that a sinusoidal graphene containing periodically distributed disclination quadrupoles can achieve a mode I fracture toughness nearly twice that of pristine graphene. Here we report working progresses on further studies of topological toughening of graphene and other 2D materials. A phase field crystal method is adopted to generate the atomic coordinates of material with specific topological patterns. We then perform molecular dynamics simulations of fracture in the designed samples, and observe a variety of toughening mechanisms, including crack tip blunting, crack trapping, ligament bridging, crack deflection and daughter crack initiation and coalescence.
Research on verification and validation strategy of detonation fluid dynamics code of LAD2D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, R. L.; Liang, X.; Liu, X. Z.
2017-07-01
The verification and validation (V&V) is an important approach in the software quality assurance of code in complex engineering application. Reasonable and efficient V&V strategy can achieve twice the result with half the effort. This article introduces the software-Lagrangian adaptive hydrodynamics code in 2D space (LAD2D), which is self-developed software in detonation CFD with plastic-elastic structure. The V&V strategy of this detonation CFD code is presented based on the foundation of V&V methodology for scientific software. The basic framework of the module verification and the function validation is proposed, composing the detonation fluid dynamics model V&V strategy of LAD2D.
2D Heterostructure coatings of hBN-MoS2 layers for corrosion resistance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vandana, Sajith; Kochat, Vidya; Lee, Jonghoon; Varshney, Vikas; Yazdi, Sadegh; Shen, Jianfeng; Kosolwattana, Suppanat; Vinod, Soumya; Vajtai, Robert; Roy, Ajit K.; Sekhar Tiwary, Chandra; Ajayan, P. M.
2017-02-01
Heterostructures of atomically thin 2D materials could have improved physical, mechanical and chemical properties as compared to its individual components. Here we report, the effect of heterostructure coatings of hBN and MoS2 on the corrosion behavior as compared to coatings employing the individual 2D layer compositions. The poor corrosion resistance of MoS2 (widely used as wear resistant coating) can be improved by incorporating hBN sheets. Depending on the atomic stacking of the 2D sheets, we can further engineer the corrosion resistance properties of these coatings. A detailed spectroscopy and microscopy analysis has been used to characterize the different combinations of layered coatings. Detailed DFT based calculation reveals that the effect on the electrical properties due to atomic stacking is one of the major reasons for the improvement seen in corrosion resistance.
Fluctuating Pressure Data from 2-D Nozzle Cold Flow Tests (Dual Bell)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nesman, Tomas E.
2001-01-01
Rocket engines nozzle performance changes as a vehicle climbs through the atmosphere. An altitude compensating nozzle, ACN, is intended to improve on a fixed geometry bell nozzle that performs at optimum at only one trajectory point. In addition to nozzle performance, nozzle transient loads are an important consideration. Any nozzle experiences large transient toads when shocks pass through the nozzle at start and shutdown. Additional transient toads will occur at transitional flow conditions. The objectives of cold flow nozzle testing at MSFC are CFD benchmark / calibration and Unsteady flow / sideloads. Initial testing performed with 2-D inserts to 14" transonic wind tunnel. Recent review of 2-D data in preparation for nozzle test facility 3-D testing. This presentation shows fluctuating pressure data and some observations from 2-D dual-bell nozzle cold flow tests.
Recent advances in bioactive 1D and 2D carbon nanomaterials for biomedical applications.
Erol, Ozlem; Uyan, Idil; Hatip, Meryem; Yilmaz, Canelif; Tekinay, Ayse B; Guler, Mustafa O
2017-05-26
One-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the two-dimensional (2D) graphene represent the most widely studied allotropes of carbon. Due to their unique structural, electrical, mechanical and optical properties, 1D and 2D carbon nanostructures are considered to be leading candidates for numerous applications in biomedical fields, including tissue engineering, drug delivery, bioimaging and biosensors. The biocompatibility and toxicity issues associated with these nanostructures have been a critical impediment for their use in biomedical applications. In this review, we present an overview of the various materials types, properties, functionalization strategies and characterization methods of 1D and 2D carbon nanomaterials and their derivatives in terms of their biomedical applications. In addition, we discuss various factors and mechanisms affecting their toxicity and biocompatibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A three-dimensional measuring system based on 2D laser displacement sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Sulun; Fu, Yuegang; Zhu, Wangbin; Zhang, Yingwei; Wang, Weichen
2014-12-01
3D(Three-dimensional) measurement has found its applications in the fields of automation process, Reverse engineering(RE), machine vision, as well as medical diagnostic. There are some disadvantages in the present 3D measurement methods. In this paper, a 2D laser displacement sensor-based and fast-dimensional surface measurement method for small size objects was proposed after analyzing the existing three-dimensional measurement methods. This method uses the information collected by 2D laser displacement sensor and encoder in pan-tilt to three-dimensional reconstruct 3D model. And then discuss the restrictive relation between angular velocity of pan-tilt and parameters (measurement range, signal sample rate, precision, etc.) of 2D laser displacement sensor. The sources of error and methods of improving precision were analyzed. Theoretical analyses and experiments have proved the feasibility, high-precision and practical of this method.
dos, Santos Luís Augusto; Marin, Heimar de Fátima; Marques, Isaac Rosa; Cunha, Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm
2007-01-01
This work intents, in a didactic form, to explain the benefits of use of a technique of project management, named Work Breakdown Structure: a graphical tool to identify the main results to be developed in a project. The real examples are applied to a sub-project of the Virtual Library in Health in Nursing (BVS-Enfermagem) to development of the Sites Catalogs. The benefits of graphical visualization for a major agreement between professionals of different expertise are presented.
Residual lens effects in 2D mode of auto-stereoscopic lenticular-based switchable 2D/3D displays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sluijter, M.; IJzerman, W. L.; de Boer, D. K. G.; de Zwart, S. T.
2006-04-01
We discuss residual lens effects in multi-view switchable auto-stereoscopic lenticular-based 2D/3D displays. With the introduction of a switchable lenticular, it is possible to switch between a 2D mode and a 3D mode. The 2D mode displays conventional content, whereas the 3D mode provides the sensation of depth to the viewer. The uniformity of a display in the 2D mode is quantified by the quality parameter modulation depth. In order to reduce the modulation depth in the 2D mode, birefringent lens plates are investigated analytically and numerically, by ray tracing. We can conclude that the modulation depth in the 2D mode can be substantially decreased by using birefringent lens plates with a perfect index match between lens material and lens plate. Birefringent lens plates do not disturb the 3D performance of a switchable 2D/3D display.
Mechanical characterization of 2D, 2D stitched, and 3D braided/RTM materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Portanova, Marc A.
1993-01-01
Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Fuselage frames, floor beams, wing spars, and stiffeners are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage tolerance requirements are met. Another important consideration for braided composites relates to their mechanical properties and how they compare to the properties of composites produced by other textile composite processes being proposed for these applications. Unfortunately, mechanical property data for braided composites do not appear extensively in the literature. Data are presented in this paper on the mechanical characterization of 2D triaxial braid, 2D triaxial braid plus stitching, and 3D (through-the-thickness) braid composite materials. The braided preforms all had the same graphite tow size and the same nominal braid architectures, (+/- 30 deg/0 deg), and were resin transfer molded (RTM) using the same mold for each of two different resin systems. Static data are presented for notched and unnotched tension, notched and unnotched compression, and compression after impact strengths at room temperature. In addition, some static results, after environmental conditioning, are included. Baseline tension and compression fatigue results are also presented, but only for the 3D braided composite material with one of the resin systems.
Differential CYP 2D6 metabolism alters primaquine pharmacokinetics.
Potter, Brittney M J; Xie, Lisa H; Vuong, Chau; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Luong, Thu-Lan T; Bandara Herath, H M T; Dhammika Nanayakkara, N P; Tekwani, Babu L; Walker, Larry A; Nolan, Christina K; Sciotti, Richard J; Zottig, Victor E; Smith, Philip L; Paris, Robert M; Read, Lisa T; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S; Sousa, Jason C; Reichard, Gregory A; Marcsisin, Sean R
2015-04-01
Primaquine (PQ) metabolism by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D family of enzymes is required for antimalarial activity in both humans (2D6) and mice (2D). Human CYP 2D6 is highly polymorphic, and decreased CYP 2D6 enzyme activity has been linked to decreased PQ antimalarial activity. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism in PQ efficacy, the exact role that these enzymes play in PQ metabolism and pharmacokinetics has not been extensively studied in vivo. In this study, a series of PQ pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with differential CYP 2D metabolism characteristics, including wild-type (WT), CYP 2D knockout (KO), and humanized CYP 2D6 (KO/knock-in [KO/KI]) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single PQ dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) differed significantly among the strains for PQ and carboxy-PQ. Additionally, due to the suspected role of phenolic metabolites in PQ efficacy, these were probed using reference standards. Levels of phenolic metabolites were highest in mice capable of metabolizing CYP 2D6 substrates (WT and KO/KI 2D6 mice). PQ phenolic metabolites were present in different quantities in the two strains, illustrating species-specific differences in PQ metabolism between the human and mouse enzymes. Taking the data together, this report furthers understanding of PQ pharmacokinetics in the context of differential CYP 2D metabolism and has important implications for PQ administration in humans with different levels of CYP 2D6 enzyme activity.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: c2d Spitzer final data release (DR4) (Evans+, 2003)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, N. J., II; Allen, L. E.; Blake, G. A.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Bourke, T.; Harvey, P. M.; Kessler, J. E.; Koerner, D. W.; Lee, C. W.; Mundy, L. G.; Myers, P. C.; Padgett, D. L.; Pontoppidan, K.; Sargent, A. I.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Young, C. H.; Young, K. E.
2014-05-01
This is the final delivery (DR4, Fall 2006 and Fall 2007) of the Spitzer Space Telescope "From Molecular Cores to Planet-Forming Disks" (c2d) Legacy Project. The data are also available as Enhanced Products from the Spitzer Science Center (SSC). c2d has delivered 867 catalogs. IRSA has merged these delivered catalogs into four groups - Clouds, Off-Cloud, Cores, Stars - and serves them through the general catalog search engine Gator. Many of the delivered catalogs, images and spectra are accessible through IRSA's general search service, Atlas. As a service to its users, the CDS has downloaded a dataset containing most of the c2d data (but not all columns) from the IRSA archive. The individual catalogs are listed below: C2D Fall '07 Full CLOUDS Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 High Reliability (HREL) CLOUDS Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 candidate Young Stellar Objects (YSO) CLOUDS Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 Full OFF-CLOUD Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 candidate Young Stellar Objects (YSO) OFF-CLOUD Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 Full CORES Catalog C2D Fall '07 candidate Young Stellar Objects (YSO) CORES Catalog C2D Fall '07 Full STARS Catalog C2D Fall '07 candidate Young Stellar Objects (YSO) STARS Catalog These tables have been merged into a single table at CDS. All three SIRTF instruments (Infrared Array Camera [IRAC], Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF [MIPS], and Infrared Spectrograph [IRS]) were used to observe sources that span the evolutionary sequence from molecular cores to protoplanetary disks, encompassing a wide range of cloud masses, stellar masses, and star-forming environments. (1 data file).
Kochat, Vidya; Apte, Amey; Hachtel, Jordan A; Kumazoe, Hiroyuki; Krishnamoorthy, Aravind; Susarla, Sandhya; Idrobo, Juan Carlos; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Vashishta, Priya; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Ajayan, Pulickel M
2017-10-09
Alloying in 2D results in the development of new, diverse, and versatile systems with prospects in bandgap engineering, catalysis, and energy storage. Tailoring structural phase transitions using alloying is a novel idea with implications in designing all 2D device architecture as the structural phases in 2D materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides are correlated with electronic phases. Here, this study develops a new growth strategy employing chemical vapor deposition to grow monolayer 2D alloys of Re-doped MoSe2 with show composition tunable structural phase variations. The compositions where the phase transition is observed agree well with the theoretical predictions for these 2D systems. It is also shown that in addition to the predicted new electronic phases, these systems also provide opportunities to study novel phenomena such as magnetism which broadens the range of their applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Computational Screening of 2D Materials for Photocatalysis.
Singh, Arunima K; Mathew, Kiran; Zhuang, Houlong L; Hennig, Richard G
2015-03-19
Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit a range of extraordinary electronic, optical, and mechanical properties different from their bulk counterparts with potential applications for 2D materials emerging in energy storage and conversion technologies. In this Perspective, we summarize the recent developments in the field of solar water splitting using 2D materials and review a computational screening approach to rapidly and efficiently discover more 2D materials that possess properties suitable for solar water splitting. Computational tools based on density-functional theory can predict the intrinsic properties of potential photocatalyst such as their electronic properties, optical absorbance, and solubility in aqueous solutions. Computational tools enable the exploration of possible routes to enhance the photocatalytic activity of 2D materials by use of mechanical strain, bias potential, doping, and pH. We discuss future research directions and needed method developments for the computational design and optimization of 2D materials for photocatalysis.
Controlled synthesis of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides: from vertical to planar MoS2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Fu; Momeni, Kasra; Abu AlSaud, Mohammed; Azizi, Amin; Hainey, Mel F., Jr.; Redwing, Joan M.; Chen, Long-Qing; Alem, Nasim
2017-06-01
Among post-graphene two dimensional (2D) materials, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs, such as MoS2) have attracted significant attention due to their superior properties for potential electronic, optoelectronic and energy applications. Scalable and controllable powder vapor transport (PVT) methods have been developed to synthesize 2D MoS2 with controllable morphologies (i.e. horizontal and vertical), yet the growth mechanism for the transition from horizontal to vertical orientation is not clearly understood. Here, we combined experimental and numerical modeling studies to investigate the key growth parameters that govern the morphology of 2D materials. The transition from vertical to horizontal growth is achieved by controlling the magnitude and distribution of the precursor concentration by placing the substrate at different orientations and locations relative to the source. We have also shown that the density of as-grown nanostructures can be controlled by the local precursor-containing gas flow rate. This study demonstrates the possibility for engineering the morphology of 2D materials by controlling the concentration of precursors and flow profiles, and provides a new path for controllable growth of 2D TMDs for various applications.
Synthetic Covalent and Non-Covalent 2D Materials.
Boott, Charlotte E; Nazemi, Ali; Manners, Ian
2015-11-16
The creation of synthetic 2D materials represents an attractive challenge that is ultimately driven by their prospective uses in, for example, electronics, biomedicine, catalysis, sensing, and as membranes for separation and filtration. This Review illustrates some recent advances in this diverse field with a focus on covalent and non-covalent 2D polymers and frameworks, and self-assembled 2D materials derived from nanoparticles, homopolymers, and block copolymers.
Differential cytochrome P450 2D metabolism alters tafenoquine pharmacokinetics.
Vuong, Chau; Xie, Lisa H; Potter, Brittney M J; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Nolan, Christina K; Sciotti, Richard J; Zottig, Victor E; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Tekwani, Babu L; Walker, Larry A; Smith, Philip L; Paris, Robert M; Read, Lisa T; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S; Sousa, Jason C; Reichard, Gregory A; Smith, Bryan; Marcsisin, Sean R
2015-07-01
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D metabolism is required for the liver-stage antimalarial efficacy of the 8-aminoquinoline molecule tafenoquine in mice. This could be problematic for Plasmodium vivax radical cure, as the human CYP 2D ortholog (2D6) is highly polymorphic. Diminished CYP 2D6 enzyme activity, as in the poor-metabolizer phenotype, could compromise radical curative efficacy in humans. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism for tafenoquine liver-stage efficacy, the exact role that CYP 2D metabolism plays in the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine and other 8-aminoquinoline molecules has not been extensively studied. In this study, a series of tafenoquine pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with different CYP 2D metabolism statuses, including wild-type (WT) (reflecting extensive metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) and CYPmouse 2D knockout (KO) (reflecting poor metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single 20-mg/kg of body weight dose of tafenoquine differed between the strains; however, the differences were less striking than previous results obtained for primaquine in the same model. Additionally, the presence of a 5,6-ortho-quinone tafenoquine metabolite was examined in both mouse strains. The 5,6-ortho-quinone species of tafenoquine was observed, and concentrations of the metabolite were highest in the WT extensive-metabolizer phenotype. Altogether, this study indicates that CYP 2D metabolism in mice affects tafenoquine pharmacokinetics and could have implications for human tafenoquine pharmacokinetics in polymorphic CYP 2D6 human populations. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Differential Cytochrome P450 2D Metabolism Alters Tafenoquine Pharmacokinetics
Vuong, Chau; Xie, Lisa H.; Potter, Brittney M. J.; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Nolan, Christina K.; Sciotti, Richard J.; Zottig, Victor E.; Nanayakkara, N. P. Dhammika; Tekwani, Babu L.; Walker, Larry A.; Smith, Philip L.; Paris, Robert M.; Read, Lisa T.; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S.; Sousa, Jason C.; Reichard, Gregory A.; Smith, Bryan
2015-01-01
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D metabolism is required for the liver-stage antimalarial efficacy of the 8-aminoquinoline molecule tafenoquine in mice. This could be problematic for Plasmodium vivax radical cure, as the human CYP 2D ortholog (2D6) is highly polymorphic. Diminished CYP 2D6 enzyme activity, as in the poor-metabolizer phenotype, could compromise radical curative efficacy in humans. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism for tafenoquine liver-stage efficacy, the exact role that CYP 2D metabolism plays in the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine and other 8-aminoquinoline molecules has not been extensively studied. In this study, a series of tafenoquine pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with different CYP 2D metabolism statuses, including wild-type (WT) (reflecting extensive metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) and CYPmouse 2D knockout (KO) (reflecting poor metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single 20-mg/kg of body weight dose of tafenoquine differed between the strains; however, the differences were less striking than previous results obtained for primaquine in the same model. Additionally, the presence of a 5,6-ortho-quinone tafenoquine metabolite was examined in both mouse strains. The 5,6-ortho-quinone species of tafenoquine was observed, and concentrations of the metabolite were highest in the WT extensive-metabolizer phenotype. Altogether, this study indicates that CYP 2D metabolism in mice affects tafenoquine pharmacokinetics and could have implications for human tafenoquine pharmacokinetics in polymorphic CYP 2D6 human populations. PMID:25870069
2015-01-15
Cubukcu, University of Pennsylvania Opto-electro- mechanical devices and sensors with 2D materials 2:50 – 3:10 pm Ted Norris, University of Michigan...focused on mechanisms involved in inducing the meta-stable 1T phase, kinetics of phase transformation and fundamental structural and electronic...Applications of Two-Dimensional Materials beyond Graphene Li Shi Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Materials Institute The University
Coupled BOUSS-2D and CMS-Wave Modeling Approach for Harbor Projects
2012-08-01
channels, erosion problems at coastal inlets, and aid in design and Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for...Harbor Projects by Lihwa Lin and Zeki Demirbilek PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) describes the coupled...application of two advanced coastal wave models, BOUSS-2D and CMS-Wave, for harbor applications. The two models have different computational features and
Epitaxial 2D SnSe2/ 2D WSe2 van der Waals Heterostructures.
Aretouli, Kleopatra Emmanouil; Tsoutsou, Dimitra; Tsipas, Polychronis; Marquez-Velasco, Jose; Aminalragia Giamini, Sigiava; Kelaidis, Nicolaos; Psycharis, Vassilis; Dimoulas, Athanasios
2016-09-07
van der Waals heterostructures of 2D semiconductor materials can be used to realize a number of (opto)electronic devices including tunneling field effect devices (TFETs). It is shown in this work that high quality SnSe2/WSe2 vdW heterostructure can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN(0001)/Si(111) substrates using a Bi2Se3 buffer layer. A valence band offset of 0.8 eV matches the energy gap of SnSe2 in such a way that the VB edge of WSe2 and the CB edge of SnSe2 are lined up, making this materials combination suitable for (nearly) broken gap TFETs.
Functional characterization of CYP2D6 enhancer polymorphisms.
Wang, Danxin; Papp, Audrey C; Sun, Xiaochun
2015-03-15
CYP2D6 metabolizes nearly 25% of clinically used drugs. Genetic polymorphisms cause large inter-individual variability in CYP2D6 enzyme activity and are currently used as biomarker to predict CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype. Previously, we had identified a region 115 kb downstream of CYP2D6 as enhancer for CYP2D6, containing two completely linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs133333 and rs5758550, associated with enhanced transcription. However, the enhancer effect on CYP2D6 expression, and the causative variant, remained to be ascertained. To characterize the CYP2D6 enhancer element, we applied chromatin conformation capture combined with the next-generation sequencing (4C assays) and chromatin immunoprecipitation with P300 antibody, in HepG2 and human primary culture hepatocytes. The results confirmed the role of the previously identified enhancer region in CYP2D6 expression, expanding the number of candidate variants to three highly linked SNPs (rs133333, rs5758550 and rs4822082). Among these, only rs5758550 demonstrated regulating enhancer activity in a reporter gene assay. Use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats mediated genome editing in HepG2 cells targeting suspected enhancer regions decreased CYP2D6 mRNA expression by 70%, only upon deletion of the rs5758550 region. These results demonstrate robust effects of both the enhancer element and SNP rs5758550 on CYP2D6 expression, supporting consideration of rs5758550 for CYP2D6 genotyping panels to yield more accurate phenotype prediction. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magarill, L. I.; Entin, M. V.
2016-12-01
The electron absorption and the edge photocurrent of a 2D topological insulator are studied for transitions between edge states to 2D states. The circular polarized light is found to produce the edge photocurrent, the direction of which is determined by light polarization and edge orientation. It is shown that the edge-state current is found to exceed the 2D current owing to the topological protection of the edge states.
Atomistic methodologies for material properties of 2D materials at the nanoscale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhen
Research on two dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and MoS2, now involves thousands of researchers worldwide cutting across physics, chemistry, engineering and biology. Due to the extraordinary properties of 2D materials, research extends from fundamental science to novel applications of 2D materials. From an engineering point of view, understanding the material properties of 2D materials under various conditions is crucial for tailoring the electrical and mechanical properties of 2D-material-based devices at the nanoscale. Even at the nanoscale, molecular systems typically consist of a vast number of atoms. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations enable us to understand the properties of assemblies of molecules in terms of their structure and the microscopic interactions between them. From a continuum approach, mechanical properties and thermal properties, such as strain, stress, and heat capacity, are well defined and experimentally measurable. In MD simulations, material systems are considered to be discrete, and only interatomic potential, interatomic forces, and atom positions are directly obtainable. Besides, most of the fracture mechanics concepts, such as stress intensity factors, are not applicable since there is no singularity in MD simulations. However, energy release rate still remains to be a feasible and crucial physical quantity to characterize the fracture mechanical property of materials at the nanoscale. Therefore, equivalent definition of a physical quantity both in atomic scale and macroscopic scale is necessary in order to understand molecular and continuum scale phenomena concurrently. This work introduces atomistic simulation methodologies, based on interatomic potential and interatomic forces, as a tool to unveil the mechanical properties, thermal properties and fracture mechanical properties of 2D materials at the nanoscale. Among many 2D materials, graphene and MoS2 have attracted intense interest. Therefore, we applied our
Self-leveling 2D DPN probe arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haaheim, Jason R.; Val, Vadim; Solheim, Ed; Bussan, John; Fragala, J.; Nelson, Mike
2010-02-01
Dip Pen Nanolithography® (DPN®) is a direct write scanning probe-based technique which operates under ambient conditions, making it suitable to deposit a wide range of biological and inorganic materials. Precision nanoscale deposition is a fundamental requirement to advance nanoscale technology in commercial applications, and tailoring chemical composition and surface structure on the sub-100 nm scale benefits researchers in areas ranging from cell adhesion to cell-signaling and biomimetic membranes. These capabilities naturally suggest a "Desktop Nanofab" concept - a turnkey system that allows a non-expert user to rapidly create high resolution, scalable nanostructures drawing upon well-characterized ink and substrate pairings. In turn, this system is fundamentally supported by a portfolio of MEMS devices tailored for microfluidic ink delivery, directed placement of nanoscale materials, and cm2 tip arrays for high-throughput nanofabrication. Massively parallel two-dimensional nanopatterning is now commercially available via NanoInk's 2D nano PrintArray™, making DPN a high-throughput (>3×107 μm2 per hour), flexible and versatile method for precision nanoscale pattern formation. However, cm2 arrays of nanoscopic tips introduce the nontrivial problem of getting them all evenly touching the surface to ensure homogeneous deposition; this requires extremely precise leveling of the array. Herein, we describe how we have made the process simple by way of a selfleveling gimbal attachment, coupled with semi-automated software leveling routines which bring the cm^2 chip to within 0.002 degrees of co-planarity. This excellent co-planarity yields highly homogeneous features across a square centimeter, with <6% feature size standard deviation. We have engineered the devices to be easy to use, wire-free, and fully integrated with both of our patterning tools: the DPN 5000, and the NLP 2000.
Energy Efficiency of D2D Multi-User Cooperation.
Zhang, Zufan; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jie
2017-03-28
The Device-to-Device (D2D) communication system is an important part of heterogeneous networks. It has great potential to improve spectrum efficiency, throughput and energy efficiency cooperation of multiple D2D users with the advantage of direct communication. When cooperating, D2D users expend extraordinary energy to relay data to other D2D users. Hence, the remaining energy of D2D users determines the life of the system. This paper proposes a cooperation scheme for multiple D2D users who reuse the orthogonal spectrum and are interested in the same data by aiming to solve the energy problem of D2D users. Considering both energy availability and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of each D2D user, the Kuhn-Munkres algorithm is introduced in the cooperation scheme to solve relay selection problems. Thus, the cooperation issue is transformed into a maximum weighted matching (MWM) problem. In order to enhance energy efficiency without the deterioration of Quality of Service (QoS), the link outage probability is derived according to the Shannon Equation by considering the data rate and delay. The simulation studies the relationships among the number of cooperative users, the length of shared data, the number of data packets and energy efficiency.
Integrating Mobile Multimedia into Textbooks: 2D Barcodes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Uluyol, Celebi; Agca, R. Kagan
2012-01-01
The major goal of this study was to empirically compare text-plus-mobile phone learning using an integrated 2D barcode tag in a printed text with three other conditions described in multimedia learning theory. The method examined in the study involved modifications of the instructional material such that: a 2D barcode was used near the text, the…
Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and 2D-DIGE.
Meleady, Paula
2018-01-01
Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) continues to be one of the most versatile and widely used techniques to study the proteome of a biological system. In particular, a modified version of 2D-PAGE, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), which uses differential labeling of protein samples with up to three fluorescent tags, offers greater sensitivity and reproducibility over conventional 2D-PAGE gels for differential quantitative analysis of protein expression between experimental groups. Both these methods have distinct advantages in the separation and identification of thousands of individual proteins species including protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss the principles of 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE including limitations to the methods. 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE continue to be popular methods in bioprocessing-related research (particularly on recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells), which will also be discussed in the review chapter.
Simulation of Rio Grande floodplain inundation Using FLO-2D
J. S. O' Brien; W. T. Fullerton
1999-01-01
Spring floodplain inundation is important to the natural functions of the Rio Grande bosque biological community including cottonwood tree germination and recruitment. To predict floodplain inundation, a two-dimensional flood routing model FLO-2D will be applied to various reaches of the Rio Grande. FLO-2D will assess overbank flooding in terms of the area of...
Integrating Mobile Multimedia into Textbooks: 2D Barcodes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Uluyol, Celebi; Agca, R. Kagan
2012-01-01
The major goal of this study was to empirically compare text-plus-mobile phone learning using an integrated 2D barcode tag in a printed text with three other conditions described in multimedia learning theory. The method examined in the study involved modifications of the instructional material such that: a 2D barcode was used near the text, the…
Adaptation algorithms for 2-D feedforward neural networks.
Kaczorek, T
1995-01-01
The generalized weight adaptation algorithms presented by J.G. Kuschewski et al. (1993) and by S.H. Zak and H.J. Sira-Ramirez (1990) are extended for 2-D madaline and 2-D two-layer feedforward neural nets (FNNs).
Energy Efficiency of D2D Multi-User Cooperation
Zhang, Zufan; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jie
2017-01-01
The Device-to-Device (D2D) communication system is an important part of heterogeneous networks. It has great potential to improve spectrum efficiency, throughput and energy efficiency cooperation of multiple D2D users with the advantage of direct communication. When cooperating, D2D users expend extraordinary energy to relay data to other D2D users. Hence, the remaining energy of D2D users determines the life of the system. This paper proposes a cooperation scheme for multiple D2D users who reuse the orthogonal spectrum and are interested in the same data by aiming to solve the energy problem of D2D users. Considering both energy availability and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of each D2D user, the Kuhn-Munkres algorithm is introduced in the cooperation scheme to solve relay selection problems. Thus, the cooperation issue is transformed into a maximum weighted matching (MWM) problem. In order to enhance energy efficiency without the deterioration of Quality of Service (QoS), the link outage probability is derived according to the Shannon Equation by considering the data rate and delay. The simulation studies the relationships among the number of cooperative users, the length of shared data, the number of data packets and energy efficiency. PMID:28350374
Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.
Byun, Jinwoo; Cho, Himchan; Wolf, Christoph; Jang, Mi; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Yang, Hoichang; Lee, Tae-Woo
2016-09-01
Efficient quasi-2D-structure perovskite light-emitting diodes (4.90 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated by mixing a 3D-structured perovskite material (methyl ammonium lead bromide) and a 2D-structured perovskite material (phenylethyl ammonium lead bromide), which can be ascribed to better film uniformity, enhanced exciton confinement, and reduced trap density.
Plasmonics of 2D Nanomaterials: Properties and Applications
Li, Yu; Li, Ziwei; Chi, Cheng; Shan, Hangyong; Zheng, Liheng
2017-01-01
Plasmonics has developed for decades in the field of condensed matter physics and optics. Based on the classical Maxwell theory, collective excitations exhibit profound light‐matter interaction properties beyond classical physics in lots of material systems. With the development of nanofabrication and characterization technology, ultra‐thin two‐dimensional (2D) nanomaterials attract tremendous interest and show exceptional plasmonic properties. Here, we elaborate the advanced optical properties of 2D materials especially graphene and monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), review the plasmonic properties of graphene, and discuss the coupling effect in hybrid 2D nanomaterials. Then, the plasmonic tuning methods of 2D nanomaterials are presented from theoretical models to experimental investigations. Furthermore, we reveal the potential applications in photocatalysis, photovoltaics and photodetections, based on the development of 2D nanomaterials, we make a prospect for the future theoretical physics and practical applications. PMID:28852608
New generation transistor technologies enabled by 2D crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jena, D.
2013-05-01
The discovery of graphene opened the door to 2D crystal materials. The lack of a bandgap in 2D graphene makes it unsuitable for electronic switching transistors in the conventional field-effect sense, though possible techniques exploiting the unique bandstructure and nanostructures are being explored. The transition metal dichalcogenides have 2D crystal semiconductors, which are well-suited for electronic switching. We experimentally demonstrate field effect transistors with current saturation and carrier inversion made from layered 2D crystal semiconductors such as MoS2, WS2, and the related family. We also evaluate the feasibility of such semiconducting 2D crystals for tunneling field effect transistors for low-power digital logic. The article summarizes the current state of new generation transistor technologies either proposed, or demonstrated, with a commentary on the challenges and prospects moving forward.
2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures.
Novoselov, K S; Mishchenko, A; Carvalho, A; Castro Neto, A H
2016-07-29
The physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures based on such crystals has been developing extremely fast. With these new materials, truly 2D physics has begun to appear (for instance, the absence of long-range order, 2D excitons, commensurate-incommensurate transition, etc.). Novel heterostructure devices--such as tunneling transistors, resonant tunneling diodes, and light-emitting diodes--are also starting to emerge. Composed from individual 2D crystals, such devices use the properties of those materials to create functionalities that are not accessible in other heterostructures. Here we review the properties of novel 2D crystals and examine how their properties are used in new heterostructure devices.
Plasmonics of 2D Nanomaterials: Properties and Applications.
Li, Yu; Li, Ziwei; Chi, Cheng; Shan, Hangyong; Zheng, Liheng; Fang, Zheyu
2017-08-01
Plasmonics has developed for decades in the field of condensed matter physics and optics. Based on the classical Maxwell theory, collective excitations exhibit profound light-matter interaction properties beyond classical physics in lots of material systems. With the development of nanofabrication and characterization technology, ultra-thin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials attract tremendous interest and show exceptional plasmonic properties. Here, we elaborate the advanced optical properties of 2D materials especially graphene and monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), review the plasmonic properties of graphene, and discuss the coupling effect in hybrid 2D nanomaterials. Then, the plasmonic tuning methods of 2D nanomaterials are presented from theoretical models to experimental investigations. Furthermore, we reveal the potential applications in photocatalysis, photovoltaics and photodetections, based on the development of 2D nanomaterials, we make a prospect for the future theoretical physics and practical applications.
Regulation of ligands for the NKG2D activating receptor
Raulet, David H.; Gasser, Stephan; Gowen, Benjamin G.; Deng, Weiwen; Jung, Heiyoun
2014-01-01
NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed by all NK cells and subsets of T cells. It serves as a major recognition receptor for detection and elimination of transformed and infected cells and participates in the genesis of several inflammatory diseases. The ligands for NKG2D are self-proteins that are induced by pathways that are active in certain pathophysiological states. NKG2D ligands are regulated transcriptionally, at the level of mRNA and protein stability, and by cleavage from the cell surface. In some cases, ligand induction can be attributed to pathways that are activated specifically in cancer cells or infected cells. We review the numerous pathways that have been implicated in the regulation of NKG2D ligands, discuss the pathologic states in which those pathways are likely to act, and attempt to synthesize the findings into general schemes of NKG2D ligand regulation in NK cell responses to cancer and infection. PMID:23298206
Estrogen-Induced Cholestasis Leads to Repressed CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice.
Pan, Xian; Jeong, Hyunyoung
2015-07-01
Cholestasis activates bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and subsequently enhances hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP). We previously demonstrated that SHP represses the transactivation of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) promoter by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4α. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen-induced cholestasis on CYP2D6 expression. Estrogen-induced cholestasis occurs in subjects receiving estrogen for contraception or hormone replacement, or in susceptible women during pregnancy. In CYP2D6-humanized transgenic (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, cholestasis triggered by administration of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) at a high dose led to 2- to 3-fold decreases in CYP2D6 expression. This was accompanied by increased hepatic SHP expression and subsequent decreases in the recruitment of HNF4α to CYP2D6 promoter. Interestingly, estrogen-induced cholestasis also led to increased recruitment of estrogen receptor (ER) α, but not that of FXR, to Shp promoter, suggesting a predominant role of ERα in transcriptional regulation of SHP in estrogen-induced cholestasis. EE2 at a low dose (that does not cause cholestasis) also increased SHP (by ∼ 50%) and decreased CYP2D6 expression (by 1.5-fold) in Tg-CYP2D6 mice, the magnitude of differences being much smaller than that shown in EE2-induced cholestasis. Taken together, our data indicate that EE2-induced cholestasis increases SHP and represses CYP2D6 expression in Tg-CYP2D6 mice in part through ERα transactivation of Shp promoter.
Estrogen-Induced Cholestasis Leads to Repressed CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice
Pan, Xian
2015-01-01
Cholestasis activates bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and subsequently enhances hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP). We previously demonstrated that SHP represses the transactivation of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) promoter by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4α. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen-induced cholestasis on CYP2D6 expression. Estrogen-induced cholestasis occurs in subjects receiving estrogen for contraception or hormone replacement, or in susceptible women during pregnancy. In CYP2D6-humanized transgenic (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, cholestasis triggered by administration of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) at a high dose led to 2- to 3-fold decreases in CYP2D6 expression. This was accompanied by increased hepatic SHP expression and subsequent decreases in the recruitment of HNF4α to CYP2D6 promoter. Interestingly, estrogen-induced cholestasis also led to increased recruitment of estrogen receptor (ER) α, but not that of FXR, to Shp promoter, suggesting a predominant role of ERα in transcriptional regulation of SHP in estrogen-induced cholestasis. EE2 at a low dose (that does not cause cholestasis) also increased SHP (by ∼50%) and decreased CYP2D6 expression (by 1.5-fold) in Tg-CYP2D6 mice, the magnitude of differences being much smaller than that shown in EE2-induced cholestasis. Taken together, our data indicate that EE2-induced cholestasis increases SHP and represses CYP2D6 expression in Tg-CYP2D6 mice in part through ERα transactivation of Shp promoter. PMID:25943116
Digit ratio (2D:4D) in Klinefelter's syndrome.
Manning, J T; Kilduff, L P; Trivers, R
2013-01-01
The ratio of second to fourth digit length (2D:4D) is a correlate of prenatal testosterone. High 2D:4D is associated with low prenatal testosterone, and reduced sensitivity to testosterone. Klinefelter's syndrome (KS; 47 XXY) affects the endocrine system, such that low testosterone levels are found in KS foetuses, new-borns and adults. To date, there are no published data regarding the pattern of 2D:4D in KS males. Here we consider 2D:4D in KS individuals (n = 51), their relatives (16 fathers and 15 mothers) and an unaffected control sample of 153 men and 153 women. Adult KS individuals were taller than their fathers and had shorter fingers than fathers and male controls. Compared with fathers, male controls and mothers, KS males had shorter fingers relative to height. With regard to 2D:4D, KS individuals had higher 2D:4D than fathers (right and left hands), male controls (right and left hands) and mothers (left hands). Among KS males older than 13 years there were 34 individuals currently prescribed testosterone and nine not prescribed. In comparison to the former, the latter individuals had higher right 2D:4D and higher right-left 2D:4D. We conclude that KS males have mean 2D:4D values similar to those found in female population norms. In addition, testosterone supplementation in KS males may be most common for individuals with low right 2D:4D. © 2012 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.
Xie, Donghao; Ji, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Yue; Cao, Jun; Zheng, Hu; Liu, Lin; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; James, Tony D; He, Xiao-Peng
2016-08-04
Here we demonstrate that 2D MoS2 can enhance the receptor-targeting and imaging ability of a fluorophore-labelled ligand. The 2D MoS2 has an enhanced working concentration range when compared with graphene oxide, resulting in the improved imaging of both cell and tissue samples.
Organic High Electron Mobility Transistors Realized by 2D Electron Gas.
Zhang, Panlong; Wang, Haibo; Yan, Donghang
2017-09-01
A key breakthrough in inorganic modern electronics is the energy-band engineering that plays important role to improve device performance or develop novel functional devices. A typical application is high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), which utilizes 2D electron gas (2DEG) as transport channel and exhibits very high electron mobility over traditional field-effect transistors (FETs). Recently, organic electronics have made very rapid progress and the band transport model is demonstrated to be more suitable for explaining carrier behavior in high-mobility crystalline organic materials. Therefore, there emerges a chance for applying energy-band engineering in organic semiconductors to tailor their optoelectronic properties. Here, the idea of energy-band engineering is introduced and a novel device configuration is constructed, i.e., using quantum well structures as active layers in organic FETs, to realize organic 2DEG. Under the control of gate voltage, electron carriers are accumulated and confined at quantized energy levels, and show efficient 2D transport. The electron mobility is up to 10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) , and the operation mechanisms of organic HEMTs are also argued. Our results demonstrate the validity of tailoring optoelectronic properties of organic semiconductors by energy-band engineering, offering a promising way for the step forward of organic electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Efficient 2D MRI relaxometry using compressed sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Ruiliang; Cloninger, Alexander; Czaja, Wojciech; Basser, Peter J.
2015-06-01
Potential applications of 2D relaxation spectrum NMR and MRI to characterize complex water dynamics (e.g., compartmental exchange) in biology and other disciplines have increased in recent years. However, the large amount of data and long MR acquisition times required for conventional 2D MR relaxometry limits its applicability for in vivo preclinical and clinical MRI. We present a new MR pipeline for 2D relaxometry that incorporates compressed sensing (CS) as a means to vastly reduce the amount of 2D relaxation data needed for material and tissue characterization without compromising data quality. Unlike the conventional CS reconstruction in the Fourier space (k-space), the proposed CS algorithm is directly applied onto the Laplace space (the joint 2D relaxation data) without compressing k-space to reduce the amount of data required for 2D relaxation spectra. This framework is validated using synthetic data, with NMR data acquired in a well-characterized urea/water phantom, and on fixed porcine spinal cord tissue. The quality of the CS-reconstructed spectra was comparable to that of the conventional 2D relaxation spectra, as assessed using global correlation, local contrast between peaks, peak amplitude and relaxation parameters, etc. This result brings this important type of contrast closer to being realized in preclinical, clinical, and other applications.
2D vs. 3D mammography observer study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent
2011-03-01
Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.
Wei, Hongjiang; Zhang, Yuyao; Gibbs, Eric; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Nian; Liu, Chunlei
2017-04-01
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) measures tissue magnetic susceptibility and typically relies on time-consuming three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo (GRE) MRI. Recent studies have shown that two-dimensional (2D) multi-slice gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GRE-EPI), which is commonly used in functional MRI (fMRI) and other dynamic imaging techniques, can also be used to produce data suitable for QSM with much shorter scan times. However, the production of high-quality QSM maps is difficult because data obtained by 2D multi-slice scans often have phase inconsistencies across adjacent slices and strong susceptibility field gradients near air-tissue interfaces. To address these challenges in 2D EPI-based QSM studies, we present a new data processing procedure that integrates 2D and 3D phase processing. First, 2D Laplacian-based phase unwrapping and 2D background phase removal are performed to reduce phase inconsistencies between slices and remove in-plane harmonic components of the background phase. This is followed by 3D background phase removal for the through-plane harmonic components. The proposed phase processing was evaluated with 2D EPI data obtained from healthy volunteers, and compared against conventional 3D phase processing using the same 2D EPI datasets. Our QSM results were also compared with QSM values from time-consuming 3D GRE data, which were taken as ground truth. The experimental results show that this new 2D EPI-based QSM technique can produce quantitative susceptibility measures that are comparable with those of 3D GRE-based QSM across different brain regions (e.g. subcortical iron-rich gray matter, cortical gray and white matter). This new 2D EPI QSM reconstruction method is implemented within STI Suite, which is a comprehensive shareware for susceptibility imaging and quantification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
CYP2D6 Polymorphisms in Patients with Porphyrias
Lavandera, Jimena V.; Parera, Victoria E.; Batlle, Alcira; Buzaleh, Ana María
2006-01-01
The cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isoenzymes, a superfamily of heme proteins which are the terminal oxidases of the mixed function oxidases system, metabolize more than 70% of all clinically approved drugs. The highly polymorphic CYP2D6 isoform metabolizes more than 25% of most common drugs, and the phenotypes of the 70-plus allelic variants range from compromised to excessive enzymatic activity. Porphyrias are a group of inherited or acquired metabolic disorders of heme biosynthesis, due to a specific decrease in the activity of one of the enzymes of the heme pathway. Clinical signs and symptoms of porphyrias are frequently associated with exposure to precipitating agents, including clinically approved drugs. CYP enzymes, including CYP2D6, participate in the metabolism of some porphyrinogenic drugs, leading to the deregulation of heme biosynthesis. Considering that some of the drugs not recommended for use in porphyric patients are metabolized by CYP2D6, the presence of CYP2D6 polymorphisms in porphyric patients would influence the triggering of the disease when these individuals receive a precipitating agent that is metabolized by CYP2D6. To investigate CYP2D6 polymorphisms in porphyric patients, healthy Argentinean volunteers, porphyric patients, and a group of individuals with high levels of iron were studied. Results indicated that the CYP2D6*3 and CYP2D6*4 alleles, in particular, would be linked to the onset of disease. Predictive genotyping for CYP2D6 in porphyric patients holds promise as a method to improve the clinical efficacy of drug therapy and to personalize drug administration for these patients. PMID:17225875
2-D Versus 3-D Magnetotelluric Data Interpretation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ledo, Juanjo
2005-09-01
In recent years, the number of publications dealing with the mathematical and physical 3-D aspects of the magnetotelluric method has increased drastically. However, field experiments on a grid are often impractical and surveys are frequently restricted to single or widely separated profiles. So, in many cases we find ourselves with the following question: is the applicability of the 2-D hypothesis valid to extract geoelectric and geological information from real 3-D environments? The aim of this paper is to explore a few instructive but general situations to understand the basics of a 2-D interpretation of 3-D magnetotelluric data and to determine which data subset (TE-mode or TM-mode) is best for obtaining the electrical conductivity distribution of the subsurface using 2-D techniques. A review of the mathematical and physical fundamentals of the electromagnetic fields generated by a simple 3-D structure allows us to prioritise the choice of modes in a 2-D interpretation of responses influenced by 3-D structures. This analysis is corroborated by numerical results from synthetic models and by real data acquired by other authors. One important result of this analysis is that the mode most unaffected by 3-D effects depends on the position of the 3-D structure with respect to the regional 2-D strike direction. When the 3-D body is normal to the regional strike, the TE-mode is affected mainly by galvanic effects, while the TM-mode is affected by galvanic and inductive effects. In this case, a 2-D interpretation of the TM-mode is prone to error. When the 3-D body is parallel to the regional 2-D strike the TE-mode is affected by galvanic and inductive effects and the TM-mode is affected mainly by galvanic effects, making it more suitable for 2-D interpretation. In general, a wise 2-D interpretation of 3-D magnetotelluric data can be a guide to a reasonable geological interpretation.
NKG2D receptor and its ligands in host defense
Lanier, Lewis L.
2015-01-01
NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells, CD8+ T cells, and subsets of CD4+ T cells, iNKT cells, and γδ T cells. In humans NKG2D transmits signals by its association with the DAP10 adapter subunit and in mice alternatively spliced isoforms transmit signals either using DAP10 or DAP12 adapter subunits. Although NKG2D is encoded by a highly conserved gene (KLRK1) with limited polymorphism, the receptor recognizes an extensive repertoire of ligands, encoded by at least 8 genes in humans (MICA, MICB, RAET1E, RAET1G, RAET1H, RAET1I, RAET1L, and RAET1N), some with extensive allelic polymorphism. Expression of the NKG2D ligands is tightly regulated at the level of transcription, translation, and post-translation. In general healthy adult tissues do not express NKG2D glycoproteins on the cell surface, but these ligands can be induced by hyper-proliferation and transformation, as well as when cells are infected by pathogens. Thus, the NKG2D pathway serves a mechanism for the immune system to detect and eliminate cells that have undergone “stress”. Viruses and tumor cells have devised numerous strategies to evade detection by the NKG2D surveillance system and diversification of the NKG2D ligand genes likely has been driven by selective pressures imposed by pathogens. NKG2D provides an attractive target for therapeutics in the treatment of infectious diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. PMID:26041808
NKG2D Receptor and Its Ligands in Host Defense.
Lanier, Lewis L
2015-06-01
NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells, CD8(+) T cells, and subsets of CD4(+) T cells, invariant NKT cells (iNKT), and γδ T cells. In humans, NKG2D transmits signals by its association with the DAP10 adapter subunit, and in mice alternatively spliced isoforms transmit signals either using DAP10 or DAP12 adapter subunits. Although NKG2D is encoded by a highly conserved gene (KLRK1) with limited polymorphism, the receptor recognizes an extensive repertoire of ligands, encoded by at least eight genes in humans (MICA, MICB, RAET1E, RAET1G, RAET1H, RAET1I, RAET1L, and RAET1N), some with extensive allelic polymorphism. Expression of the NKG2D ligands is tightly regulated at the level of transcription, translation, and posttranslation. In general, healthy adult tissues do not express NKG2D glycoproteins on the cell surface, but these ligands can be induced by hyperproliferation and transformation, as well as when cells are infected by pathogens. Thus, the NKG2D pathway serves as a mechanism for the immune system to detect and eliminate cells that have undergone "stress." Viruses and tumor cells have devised numerous strategies to evade detection by the NKG2D surveillance system, and diversification of the NKG2D ligand genes likely has been driven by selective pressures imposed by pathogens. NKG2D provides an attractive target for therapeutics in the treatment of infectious diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.
Engineering Two-dimensional Materials Surface Chemistry.
Shih, Chih-Jen
2016-11-30
This account reviews our recent research activities and achievements in the field of two-dimensional (2D) materials surface chemistry. 2D materials are atomically thin, so that carriers are less-restricted to move in the in-plane direction, whereas the out-of-plain motion is quantum-confined. Semiconductor quantum wells and graphene are two well-known examples. Applications of 2D materials in optoelectronics, surface modification, and complex materials must overcome engineering challenges associated with understanding and engineering surface chemistry of 2D materials, which essentially bridge multiscale physical phenomena. In my research group, we understand and engineer broad aspects of chemistry and physics at nanomaterials surfaces for advancing nanomaterials-based technologies. The three main topics covered in this account are as follows: i) colloidal synthesis of stacking-controlled 2D materials, ii) wetting properties of 2D materials, and iii) engineering electronic transport at 2D materials-semiconductor interfaces.
Recent advances in 2D materials for photocatalysis.
Luo, Bin; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou
2016-04-07
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted increasing attention for photocatalytic applications because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties. This review gives a brief overview of the recent developments concerning the chemical synthesis and structural design of 2D materials at the nanoscale and their applications in photocatalytic areas. In particular, recent progress on the emerging strategies for tailoring 2D material-based photocatalysts to improve their photo-activity including elemental doping, heterostructure design and functional architecture assembly is discussed.
Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses
Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; O’Daniel, Jennifer
2014-02-15
Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must
Epitaxial Growth of Ternary Topological Insulator Bi2 Te2 Se 2D Crystals on Mica.
Liu, Yujing; Tang, Min; Meng, Mengmeng; Wang, Mingzhan; Wu, Jinxiong; Yin, Jianbo; Zhou, Yubing; Guo, Yunfan; Tan, Congwei; Dang, Wenhui; Huang, Shaoyun; Xu, H Q; Wang, Yong; Peng, Hailin
2017-05-01
Nanostructures of ternary topological insulator (TI) Bi2 Te2 Se are, in principle, advantageous to the manifestation of topologically nontrivial surface states, due to significantly enhanced surface-to-volume ratio compared with its bulk crystals counterparts. Herein, the synthesis of 2D Bi2 Te2 Se crystals on mica via the van der Waals epitaxy method is explored and systematically the growth behaviors during the synthesis process are investigated. Accordingly, 2D Bi2 Te2 Se crystals with domain size up to 50 µm large and thickness down to 2 nm are obtained. A pronounced weak antilocalization effect is clearly observed in the 2D Bi2 Te2 Se crystals at 2 K. The method for epitaxial growth of 2D ternary Bi2 Te2 Se crystals may inspire materials engineering toward enhanced manifestation of the subtle surface states of TIs and thereby facilitate their potential applications in next-generation spintronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Experimental studies of spin-imbalanced Fermi gases in 2D geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, John
We study the thermodynamics of a quasi-two-dimensional Fermi gas, which is not quite two-dimensional (2D), but far from three dimensional (3D). This system offers opportunities to test predictions that cross interdisciplinary boundaries, such as enhanced superfluid transition temperatures in spin-imbalanced quasi-2D superconductors, and provides important benchmarks for calculations of the phase diagrams. In the experiments, an ultra-cold Fermi gas is confined in an infrared CO2 laser standing-wave, which produces periodic pancake-shaped potential wells, separated by 5.3 μm. To study the thermodynamics, we load an ultra-cold mixture of N1 = 800 spin 1/2 -up and N2
INSPECT: A graphical user interface software package for IDARC-2D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
AlHamaydeh, Mohammad; Najib, Mohamad; Alawnah, Sameer
Modern day Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE) pivots about nonlinear analysis and its feasibility. IDARC-2D is a widely used and accepted software for nonlinear analysis; it possesses many attractive features and capabilities. However, it is operated from the command prompt in the DOS/Unix systems and requires elaborate text-based input files creation by the user. To complement and facilitate the use of IDARC-2D, a pre-processing GUI software package (INSPECT) is introduced herein. INSPECT is created in the C# environment and utilizes the .NET libraries and SQLite database. Extensive testing and verification demonstrated successful and high-fidelity re-creation of several existing IDARC-2D input files. Its design and built-in features aim at expediting, simplifying and assisting in the modeling process. Moreover, this practical aid enhances the reliability of the results and improves accuracy by reducing and/or eliminating many potential and common input mistakes. Such benefits would be appreciated by novice and veteran IDARC-2D users alike.
High-response hybrid quantum dots- 2D conductor phototransistors: recent progress and perspectives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sablon, Kimberly A.; Sergeev, Andrei; Najmaei, Sina; Dubey, Madan
2017-03-01
Having been inspired by the tremendous progress in material nanoscience and device nanoengineering, hybrid phototransistors combine solution processed colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) with graphene or two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor materials. Novel detectors demonstrate ultrahigh photoconductive gain, high and selective photoresponse, low noise, and very high responsivity in visible- and near-infrared ranges. The outstanding performance of phototransistors is primarily due to the strong, selective, and size tunable absorption of QDs and fast charge transfer in 2D high mobility conductors. However, the relatively small mobility of QD nanomaterials was a technological barrier, which limited the operating rate of devices. Very recent innovations in detector design and significant progress in QD ligand engineering provide effective tools for further qualitative improvements. This article reviews the recent progress in material science, nanophysics, and device engineering related to hybrid phototransistors. Detectors based on various QD nanomaterials and several 2D conductors are compared, and advantages and disadvantages of various nanomaterials for applications in hybrid phototransistors are identified. We also benchmark the experimental characteristics with model results that establish interrelations and tradeoffs between detector characteristics, such as responsivity, dark and noise currents, the photocarrier lifetime, response, and noise bandwidths. We have shown that the most recent phototransistors demonstrate performance limited by the fundamental generation recombination noise in high gain devices. Interrelation between the dynamic range of the detector and the detector sensitivity is discussed. The review is concluded with a brief discussion of the remaining challenges and possible significant improvements in the performance of hybrid phototransistors.
2D and 3D Self-Assembling Nanofiber Hydrogels for Cardiomyocyte Culture
Ikonen, Liisa; Kerkelä, Erja; Metselaar, Gerald; Stuart, Marc C. A.; de Jong, Menno R.; Aalto-Setälä, Katriina
2013-01-01
Collagen is a widely used biomaterial in cardiac tissue engineering studies. However, as a natural material, it suffers from variability between batches that can complicate the standardization of culture conditions. In contrast, synthetic materials are modifiable, have well-defined structures and more homogeneous batches can be produced. In this study, several collagen-like synthetic self-assembling nanofiber hydrogels were examined for their suitability for cardiomyocyte culture in 2D and 3D. Six different nanofiber coatings were used in the 2D format with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCs) and human embryonic stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs). The viability, growth, and functionality of the 2D-cultured cardiomyocytes were evaluated. The best-performing nanofiber coatings were selected for 3D experiments. Hydrophilic pH-sensitive nanofiber hydrogel coassembled with hyaluronic acid performed best with both NRCs and hESC-CMs. Hydrophilic non-pH-sensitive nanofiber hydrogels supported the growth of NRCs; however, their ability to promote attachment and growth of hESC-CMs was limited. NRCs also grew on hydrophobic nanofiber hydrogels; however, the cell-supporting capacity of these hydrogels was inferior to that of the hydrophilic hydrogel materials. This is the first study demonstrating that hydrophilic self-assembling nanofiber hydrogels support the culture of both NRCs and hESC-CMs, which suggests that these biomaterials hold promise for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:23573513
Enhanced perception of terrain hazards in off-road path choice: stereoscopic 3D versus 2D displays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merritt, John O.; CuQlock-Knopp, V. Grayson; Myles, Kimberly
1997-06-01
Off-road mobility at night is a critical factor in modern military operations. Soldiers traversing off-road terrain, both on foot and in combat vehicles, often use 2D viewing devices (such as a driver's thermal viewer, or biocular or monocular night-vision goggles) for tactical mobility under low-light conditions. Perceptual errors can occur when 2D displays fail to convey adequately the contours of terrain. Some off-road driving accidents have been attributed to inadequate perception of terrain features due to using 2D displays (which do not provide binocular-parallax cues to depth perception). In this study, photographic images of terrain scenes were presented first in conventional 2D video, and then in stereoscopic 3D video. The percentage of possible correct answers for 2D and 3D were: 2D pretest equals 52%, 3D pretest equals 80%, 2D posttest equals 48%, 3D posttest equals 78%. Other recent studies conducted at the US Army Research Laboratory's Human Research and Engineering Directorate also show that stereoscopic 3D displays can significantly improve visual evaluation of terrain features, and thus may improve the safety and effectiveness of military off-road mobility operation, both on foot and in combat vehicles.
Fediai, Artem; Ryndyk, Dmitry A; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio
2016-10-05
Up to now, the electrical properties of the contacts between 3D metals and 2D materials have never been computed at a fully ab initio level due to the huge number of atomic orbitals involved in a current path from an electrode to a pristine 2D material. As a result, there are still numerous open questions and controversial theories on the electrical properties of systems with 3D/2D interfaces-for example, the current path and the contact length scalability. Our work provides a first-principles solution to this long-standing problem with the use of the modular approach, a method which rigorously combines a Green function formalism with the density functional theory (DFT) for this particular contact type. The modular approach is a general approach valid for any 3D/2D contact. As an example, we apply it to the most investigated among 3D/2D contacts-metal/graphene contacts-and show its abilities and consistency by comparison with existing experimental data. As it is applicable to any 3D/2D interface, the modular approach allows the engineering of 3D/2D contacts with the pre-defined electrical properties.
Reconstruction-based 3D/2D image registration.
Tomazevic, Dejan; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo
2005-01-01
In this paper we present a novel 3D/2D registration method, where first, a 3D image is reconstructed from a few 2D X-ray images and next, the preoperative 3D image is brought into the best possible spatial correspondence with the reconstructed image by optimizing a similarity measure. Because the quality of the reconstructed image is generally low, we introduce a novel asymmetric mutual information similarity measure, which is able to cope with low image quality as well as with different imaging modalities. The novel 3D/2D registration method has been evaluated using standardized evaluation methodology and publicly available 3D CT, 3DRX, and MR and 2D X-ray images of two spine phantoms, for which gold standard registrations were known. In terms of robustness, reliability and capture range the proposed method outperformed the gradient-based method and the method based on digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs).
Orbifold reduction and 2d (0,2) gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franco, Sebastián; Lee, Sangmin; Seong, Rak-Kyeong
2017-03-01
We introduce Orbifold Reduction, a new method for generating 2 d (0 , 2) gauge theories associated to D1-branes probing singular toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds starting from 4 d N=1 gauge theories on D3-branes probing toric Calabi-Yau 3-folds. The new procedure generalizes dimensional reduction and orbifolding. In terms of T-dual configurations, it generates brane brick models starting from brane tilings. Orbifold reduction provides an agile approach for generating 2 d (0 , 2) theories with a brane realization. We present three practical applications of the new algorithm: the connection between 4 d Seiberg duality and 2 d triality, a combinatorial method for generating theories related by triality and a 2 d (0 , 2) generalization of the Klebanov-Witten mass deformation.
Studying Zeolite Catalysts with a 2D Model System
Boscoboinik, Anibal
2016-12-07
Anibal Boscoboinik, a materials scientist at Brookhaven’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials, discusses the surface-science tools and 2D model system he uses to study catalysis in nanoporous zeolites, which catalyze reactions in many industrial processes.
Materials science: Screen printing of 2D semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Young Duck; Hone, James
2017-04-01
Atomically thin semiconductors have been made by transferring the oxide 'skin' of a liquid metal to substrates. This opens the way to the low-cost mass production of 2D semiconductors at the sizes needed for electronics applications.
Exact Solution of Ising Model in 2d Shortcut Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shanker, O.
We give the exact solution to the Ising model in the shortcut network in the 2D limit. The solution is found by mapping the model to the square lattice model with Brascamp and Kunz boundary conditions.
Recovering 3D particle size distributions from 2D sections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Olson, Daniel M.
2017-03-01
We discuss different ways to convert observed, apparent particle size distributions from 2D sections (thin sections, SEM maps on planar surfaces, etc.) into true 3D particle size distributions. We give a simple, flexible, and practical method to do this; show which of these techniques gives the most faithful conversions; and provide (online) short computer codes to calculate both 2D-3D recoveries and simulations of 2D observations by random sectioning. The most important systematic bias of 2D sectioning, from the standpoint of most chondrite studies, is an overestimate of the abundance of the larger particles. We show that fairly good recoveries can be achieved from observed size distributions containing 100-300 individual measurements of apparent particle diameter.
Negative Terahertz Photoconductivity in 2D Layered Materials.
Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Hongwei; Sun, Jing
2017-09-13
The remarkable specialties of 2D layered materials like the wide spectral coverage, high strength and great flexibility endow ultrathin 2D layered materials the potential to meet the criteria of next generation optoelectronic devices. Photoconductivity is one of the critical parameters of materials applied to optoelectronics. Different to the traditional semiconductors, specific ultrathin 2D layers present anomalous negative photoconductivity. This opens a new avenue for designing novel optoelectronic devices. Deep understanding of the fundamentals in this anomalous response is important for design and optimization of devices. In this review, we provide an overview into the observation of negative photoconductivity in 2D layered materials including graphene, topological insulators and transitional mental dichalcogenides. We also summarize the recent reports about the investigations of the fundamental mechanism using ultrafast terahertz spectroscopies. Finally, we conclude the review by discussing the existing challenges and proposing the possible prospects of this research direction. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Phonon thermal conduction in novel 2D materials.
Xu, Xiangfan; Chen, Jie; Li, Baowen
2016-12-07
Recently, there has been increasing interest in phonon thermal transport in low-dimensional materials, due to the crucial importance of dissipating and managing heat in micro- and nano-electronic devices. Significant progress has been achieved for one-dimensional (1D) systems, both theoretically and experimentally. However, the study of heat conduction in two-dimensional (2D) systems is still in its infancy due to the limited availability of 2D materials and the technical challenges of fabricating suspended samples that are suitable for thermal measurements. In this review, we outline different experimental techniques and theoretical approaches for phonon thermal transport in 2D materials, discuss the problems and challenges of phonon thermal transport measurements and provide a comparison between existing experimental data. Special attention will be given to the effects of size, dimensionality, anisotropy and mode contributions in novel 2D systems, including graphene, boron nitride, MoS2, black phosphorous and silicene.
Phonon thermal conduction in novel 2D materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xiangfan; Chen, Jie; Li, Baowen
2016-12-01
Recently, there has been increasing interest in phonon thermal transport in low-dimensional materials, due to the crucial importance of dissipating and managing heat in micro- and nano-electronic devices. Significant progress has been achieved for one-dimensional (1D) systems, both theoretically and experimentally. However, the study of heat conduction in two-dimensional (2D) systems is still in its infancy due to the limited availability of 2D materials and the technical challenges of fabricating suspended samples that are suitable for thermal measurements. In this review, we outline different experimental techniques and theoretical approaches for phonon thermal transport in 2D materials, discuss the problems and challenges of phonon thermal transport measurements and provide a comparison between existing experimental data. Special attention will be given to the effects of size, dimensionality, anisotropy and mode contributions in novel 2D systems, including graphene, boron nitride, MoS2, black phosphorous and silicene.
Dominant 2D magnetic turbulence in the solar wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bieber, John W.; Wanner, Wolfgang; Matthaeus, William H.
1995-01-01
There have been recent suggestions that solar wind magnetic turbulence may be a composite of slab geometry (wavevector aligned with the mean magnetic field) and 2D geometry (wavevectors perpendicular to the mean field). We report results of two new tests of this hypothesis using Helios measurements of inertial ranged magnetic spectra in the solar wind. The first test is based upon a characteristic difference between perpendicular and parallel reduced power spectra which is expected for the 2D component but not for the slab component. The second test examines the dependence of power spectrum density upon the magnetic field angle (i.e., the angle between the mean magnetic field and the radial direction), a relationship which is expected to be in opposite directions for the slab and 2D components. Both tests support the presence of a dominant (approximately 85 percent by energy) 2D component in solar wind magnetic turbulence.
Double resonance rotational spectroscopy of CH2D+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Töpfer, Matthias; Jusko, Pavol; Schlemmer, Stephan; Asvany, Oskar
2016-09-01
Context. Deuterated forms of CH are thought to be responsible for deuterium enrichment in lukewarm astronomical environments. There is no unambiguous detection of CH2D+ in space to date. Aims: Four submillimetre rotational lines of CH2D+ are documented in the literature. Our aim is to present a complete dataset of highly resolved rotational lines, including millimetre (mm) lines needed for a potential detection. Methods: We used a low-temperature ion trap and applied a novel IR-mm-wave double resonance method to measure the rotational lines of CH2D+. Results: We measured 21 low-lying (J ≤ 4) rotational transitions of CH2D+ between 23 GHz and 1.1 THz with accuracies close to 2 ppb.
From weakly to strongly interacting 2D Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyke, Paul; Fenech, Kristian; Lingham, Marcus; Peppler, Tyson; Hoinka, Sascha; Vale, Chris
2014-05-01
We study ultracold 2D Fermi gases of 6Li formed in a highly oblate trapping potential. The potential is generated by a cylindrically focused, blue detuned TEM01 mode laser beam. Weak magnetic field curvature provides highly harmonic confinement in the radial direction and we can readily produce single clouds with an aspect ratio of 230. Our experiments investigate the dimensional crossover from 3D to 2D for a two component Fermi gas in the Bose-Einstein Condensate to Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer crossover. Observation of an elbow in measurements of the cloud width vs. atom number is consistent with populating only the lowest transverse harmonic oscillator state for weak attractive interactions. This measurement is extended to the strongly interacting region using the broad Feshbach resonance at 832 G. We also report our progress towards measurement of the 2D equation of state for an interacting 2D Fermi gas via in-situ absorption imaging.
Recent developments in 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials for sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kannan, Padmanathan Karthick; Late, Dattatray J.; Morgan, Hywel; Rout, Chandra Sekhar
2015-08-01
Two dimensional layered inorganic nanomaterials (2D-LINs) have recently attracted huge interest because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties and potential technological applications. The properties of these layered materials can be tuned via both physical and chemical processes. Some 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials like MoS2, WS2 and SnS2 have been recently developed and employed in various applications, including new sensors because of their layer-dependent electrical properties. This article presents a comprehensive overview of recent developments in the application of 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials as sensors. Some of the salient features of 2D materials for different sensing applications are discussed, including gas sensing, electrochemical sensing, SERS and biosensing, SERS sensing and photodetection. The working principles of the sensors are also discussed together with examples.
Emerging and potential opportunities for 2D flexible nanoelectronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Weinan; Park, Saungeun; Akinwande, Deji
2016-05-01
The last 10 years have seen the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and black phosphorus (BP) among the growing portfolio of layered van der Waals thin films. Graphene, the prototypical 2D material has advanced rapidly in device, circuit and system studies that has resulted in commercial large-area applications. In this work, we provide a perspective of the emerging and potential translational applications of 2D materials including semiconductors, semimetals, and insulators that comprise the basic material set for diverse nanosystems. Applications include RF transceivers, smart systems, the so-called internet of things, and neurotechnology. We will review the DC and RF electronic performance of graphene and BP thin film transistors. 2D materials at sub-um channel length have so far enabled cut-off frequencies from baseband to 100GHz suitable for low-power RF and sub-THz concepts.
ORION96. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor
Sanford, L.A.; Hallquist, J.O.
1992-02-02
ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.
Generating a 2D Representation of a Complex Data Structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, Mark
2006-01-01
A computer program, designed to assist in the development and debugging of other software, generates a two-dimensional (2D) representation of a possibly complex n-dimensional (where n is an integer >2) data structure or abstract rank-n object in that other software. The nature of the 2D representation is such that it can be displayed on a non-graphical output device and distributed by non-graphical means.
phase_space_cosmo_fisher: Fisher matrix 2D contours
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stark, Alejo
2016-11-01
phase_space_cosmo_fisher produces Fisher matrix 2D contours from which the constraints on cosmological parameters can be derived. Given a specified redshift array and cosmological case, 2D marginalized contours of cosmological parameters are generated; the code can also plot the derivatives used in the Fisher matrix. In addition, this package can generate 3D plots of qH^2 and other cosmological quantities as a function of redshift and cosmology.
A simultaneous 2D/3D autostereo workstation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chau, Dennis; McGinnis, Bradley; Talandis, Jonas; Leigh, Jason; Peterka, Tom; Knoll, Aaron; Sumer, Aslihan; Papka, Michael; Jellinek, Julius
2012-03-01
We present a novel immersive workstation environment that scientists can use for 3D data exploration and as their everyday 2D computer monitor. Our implementation is based on an autostereoscopic dynamic parallax barrier 2D/3D display, interactive input devices, and a software infrastructure that allows client/server software modules to couple the workstation to scientists' visualization applications. This paper describes the hardware construction and calibration, software components, and a demonstration of our system in nanoscale materials science exploration.
Supported and Free-Standing 2D Semimetals
2015-01-15
of this effort on focusing on rare- earth arsenides (RE-A), although not a van der Waals 2D solid, nonetheless, exhibits substantial 2D quantum size...this effort on focusing on rare- earth arsenides (RE- A), although not a van der Waals 20 solid, nonetheless, exhibits substantial 20 quantum size...Brongersma and S.R. Bank, "Rare- earth monopnictide alloys for tunable, epitaxial metals" in preparation. iii. S. Rahimi, E. M. Krivoy, J. Lee, M. E
RNA folding pathways and kinetics using 2D energy landscapes.
Senter, Evan; Dotu, Ivan; Clote, Peter
2015-01-01
RNA folding pathways play an important role in various biological processes, such as (i) the hok/sok (host-killing/suppression of killing) system in E. coli to check for sufficient plasmid copy number, (ii) the conformational switch in spliced leader (SL) RNA from Leptomonas collosoma, which controls trans splicing of a portion of the '5 exon, and (iii) riboswitches--portions of the 5' untranslated region of messenger RNA that regulate genes by allostery. Since RNA folding pathways are determined by the energy landscape, we describe a novel algorithm, FFTbor2D, which computes the 2D projection of the energy landscape for a given RNA sequence. Given two metastable secondary structures A, B for a given RNA sequence, FFTbor2D computes the Boltzmann probability p(x, y) = Z(x,y)/Z that a secondary structure has base pair distance x from A and distance y from B. Using polynomial interpolationwith the fast Fourier transform,we compute p(x, y) in O(n(5)) time and O(n(2)) space, which is an improvement over an earlier method, which runs in O(n(7)) time and O(n(4)) space. FFTbor2D has potential applications in synthetic biology, where one might wish to design bistable switches having target metastable structures A, B with favorable pathway kinetics. By inverting the transition probability matrix determined from FFTbor2D output, we show that L. collosoma spliced leader RNA has larger mean first passage time from A to B on the 2D energy landscape, than 97.145% of 20,000 sequences, each having metastable structures A, B. Source code and binaries are freely available for download at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/FFTbor2D. The program FFTbor2D is implemented in C++, with optional OpenMP parallelization primitives.
Anisotropic 2D Materials for Tunable Hyperbolic Plasmonics.
Nemilentsau, Andrei; Low, Tony; Hanson, George
2016-02-12
Motivated by the recent emergence of a new class of anisotropic 2D materials, we examine their electromagnetic modes and demonstrate that a broad class of the materials can host highly directional hyperbolic plasmons. Their propagation direction can be manipulated on the spot by gate doping, enabling hyperbolic beam reflection, refraction, and bending. The realization of these natural 2D hyperbolic media opens up a new avenue in dynamic control of hyperbolic plasmons not possible in the 3D version.
Application of 2-D graphical representation of DNA sequence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Bo; Tan, Mingshu; Ding, Kequan
2005-10-01
Recently, we proposed a 2-D graphical representation of DNA sequence [Bo Liao, A 2-D graphical representation of DNA sequence, Chem. Phys. Lett. 401 (2005) 196-199]. Based on this representation, we consider properties of mutations and compute the similarities among 11 mitochondrial sequences belonging to different species. The elements of the similarity matrix are used to construct phylogenic tree. Unlike most existing phylogeny construction methods, the proposed method does not require multiple alignment.
Phylogenetic tree construction based on 2D graphical representation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Bo; Shan, Xinzhou; Zhu, Wen; Li, Renfa
2006-04-01
A new approach based on the two-dimensional (2D) graphical representation of the whole genome sequence [Bo Liao, Chem. Phys. Lett., 401(2005) 196.] is proposed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of genomes. The evolutionary distances are obtained through measuring the differences among the 2D curves. The fuzzy theory is used to construct phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic relationships of H5N1 avian influenza virus illustrate the utility of our approach.
Regulation of NKG2D ligand gene expression.
Eagle, Robert A; Traherne, James A; Ashiru, Omodele; Wills, Mark R; Trowsdale, John
2006-03-01
The activating immunoreceptor NKG2D has seven known host ligands encoded by the MHC class I chain-related MIC and ULBP/RAET genes. Why there is such diversity of NKG2D ligands is not known but one hypothesis is that they are differentially expressed in different tissues in response to different stresses. To explore this, we compared expression patterns and promoters of NKG2D ligand genes. ULBP/RAET genes were transcribed independent of each other in a panel of cell lines. ULBP/RAET gene expression was upregulated on infection with human cytomegalovirus; however, a clinical strain, Toledo, induced expression more slowly than did a laboratory strain, AD169. ULBP4/RAET1E was not induced by infection with either strain. To investigate the mechanisms behind the similarities and differences in NKG2D ligand gene expression a comparative sequence analysis of NKG2D ligand gene putative promoter regions was conducted. Sequence alignments demonstrated that there was significant sequence diversity; however, one region of high similarity between most of the genes is evident. This region contains a number of potential transcription factor binding sites, including those involved in shock responses and sites for retinoic acid-induced factors. Promoters of some NKG2D ligand genes are polymorphic and several sequence alterations in these alleles abolished putative transcription factor binding.
CYP2D6 variability in populations from Venezuela.
Moreno, Nancy; Flores-Angulo, Carlos; Villegas, Cecilia; Mora, Yuselin
2016-12-01
CYP2D6 is an important cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of about 25% of currently prescribed drugs. The presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may modulate enzyme level and activity, thereby affecting individual responses to pharmacological treatments. The most prevalent diseases in the admixed population from Venezuela are cardiovascular and cancer, whereas viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, particularly malaria, are prevalent in Amerindian populations; in the treatment of these diseases, several drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 are used. In this work, we reviewed the data on CYP2D6 variability and predicted metabolizer phenotypes, in healthy volunteers of two admixed and five Amerindian populations from Venezuela. The Venezuelan population is very heterogeneous as a result of the genetic admixture of three major ethnical components: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians. There are noticeable inter-regional and inter-population differences in the process of mixing of this population. Hitherto, there are few published studies in Venezuela on CYP2D6; therefore, it is necessary to increase research in this regard, in particular to develop studies with a larger sample size. There is a considerable amount of work remaining before CYP2D6 is integrated into clinical practice in Venezuela.
Dirac Magnon Nodal Loops in Quasi-2D Quantum Magnets.
Owerre, S A
2017-07-31
In this report, we propose a new concept of one-dimensional (1D) closed lines of Dirac magnon nodes in two-dimensional (2D) momentum space of quasi-2D quantum magnetic systems. They are termed "2D Dirac magnon nodal-line loops". We utilize the bilayer honeycomb ferromagnets with intralayer coupling J and interlayer coupling J L , which is realizable in the honeycomb chromium compounds CrX3 (X ≡ Br, Cl, and I). However, our results can also exist in other layered quasi-2D quantum magnetic systems. Here, we show that the magnon bands of the bilayer honeycomb ferromagnets overlap for J L ≠ 0 and form 1D closed lines of Dirac magnon nodes in 2D momentum space. The 2D Dirac magnon nodal-line loops are topologically protected by inversion and time-reversal symmetry. Furthermore, we show that they are robust against weak Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction Δ DM < J L and possess chiral magnon edge modes.
[2D:4D finger ratio and language development].
Albores-Gallo, L; Fernández-Guasti, A; Hernández-Guzmán, L; List-Hilton, C
A possible hormonal influence in language development has been suggested in the recent years. The 2D:4D finger ratio is an indirect measure for prenatal androgen exposure. It is negatively related to prenatal testosterone and positively related to prenatal estrogen, resulting in a lower ratio for men and a larger ratio for women. It can be explored in children as young as 2 years old. To study if an association exists between the 2D:4D finger ratio and language development (vocabulary) and/or language problems. The lengths of the second digit (index finger) (2D) and the fourth digit (ring finger) (4D) were measured in 97 preschoolers and the Language Development Survey was administered to the parents. A weak negative correlation between language development (vocabulary) and right 2D:4D ratio was found in both sexes for children aged 4 or less years, significant only in boys. A strong negative correlation between language articulation problems and right 2D:4D ratio in both sexes for children aged 3 or less years, and a lower negative correlation between articulation problems and right 2D:4D ratio were found for boys aged 4 or less years. Findings suggest an important role for testosterone in language development (vocabulary) and a possible influence on articulation problems, probably through higher testosterone levels.
2D microscopic model of graphene fracture properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hess, Peter
2015-05-01
An analytical two-dimensional (2D) microscopic fracture model based on Morse-type interaction is derived containing no adjustable parameter. From the 2D Young’s moduli and 2D intrinsic strengths of graphene measured by nanoindentation based on biaxial tension and calculated by density functional theory for uniaxial tension the widely unknown breaking force, line or edge energy, surface energy, fracture toughness, and strain energy release rate were determined. The simulated line energy agrees well with ab initio calculations and the fracture toughness of perfect graphene sheets is in good agreement with molecular dynamics simulations and the fracture toughness evaluated for defective graphene using the Griffith relation. Similarly, the estimated critical strain energy release rate agrees well with result of various theoretical approaches based on the J-integral and surface energy. The 2D microscopic model, connecting 2D and three-dimensional mechanical properties in a consistent way, provides a versatile relationship to easily access all relevant fracture properties of pristine 2D solids.
Modeling Physiological Events in 2D vs. 3D Cell Culture.
Duval, Kayla; Grover, Hannah; Han, Li-Hsin; Mou, Yongchao; Pegoraro, Adrian F; Fredberg, Jeffery; Chen, Zi
2017-07-01
Cell culture has become an indispensable tool to help uncover fundamental biophysical and biomolecular mechanisms by which cells assemble into tissues and organs, how these tissues function, and how that function becomes disrupted in disease. Cell culture is now widely used in biomedical research, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and industrial practices. Although flat, two-dimensional (2D) cell culture has predominated, recent research has shifted toward culture using three-dimensional (3D) structures, and more realistic biochemical and biomechanical microenvironments. Nevertheless, in 3D cell culture, many challenges remain, including the tissue-tissue interface, the mechanical microenvironment, and the spatiotemporal distributions of oxygen, nutrients, and metabolic wastes. Here, we review 2D and 3D cell culture methods, discuss advantages and limitations of these techniques in modeling physiologically and pathologically relevant processes, and suggest directions for future research. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
gpuSPHASE-A shared memory caching implementation for 2D SPH using CUDA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winkler, Daniel; Meister, Michael; Rezavand, Massoud; Rauch, Wolfgang
2017-04-01
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshless Lagrangian method that has been successfully applied to computational fluid dynamics (CFD), solid mechanics and many other multi-physics problems. Using the method to solve transport phenomena in process engineering requires the simulation of several days to weeks of physical time. Based on the high computational demand of CFD such simulations in 3D need a computation time of years so that a reduction to a 2D domain is inevitable. In this paper gpuSPHASE, a new open-source 2D SPH solver implementation for graphics devices, is developed. It is optimized for simulations that must be executed with thousands of frames per second to be computed in reasonable time. A novel caching algorithm for Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) shared memory is proposed and implemented. The software is validated and the performance is evaluated for the well established dambreak test case.
Modeling Physiological Events in 2D vs. 3D Cell Culture
Duval, Kayla; Grover, Hannah; Han, Li-Hsin; Mou, Yongchao; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Fredberg, Jeffery
2017-01-01
Cell culture has become an indispensable tool to help uncover fundamental biophysical and biomolecular mechanisms by which cells assemble into tissues and organs, how these tissues function, and how that function becomes disrupted in disease. Cell culture is now widely used in biomedical research, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and industrial practices. Although flat, two-dimensional (2D) cell culture has predominated, recent research has shifted toward culture using three-dimensional (3D) structures, and more realistic biochemical and biomechanical microenvironments. Nevertheless, in 3D cell culture, many challenges remain, including the tissue-tissue interface, the mechanical microenvironment, and the spatiotemporal distributions of oxygen, nutrients, and metabolic wastes. Here, we review 2D and 3D cell culture methods, discuss advantages and limitations of these techniques in modeling physiologically and pathologically relevant processes, and suggest directions for future research. PMID:28615311
A Polyhedral Object's CSG-Rep Reconstruction From a Single 2D Line Drawing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Weidong; Grinstein, Georges G.
1990-03-01
The interpretation of a 2D line drawing as a 3D scene is an important area of study within the fields of artificial intelligence and machine vision. In the area of CAD/CAM, research has focused on the reconstruction of a 3D solid from its engineering drawings, either with two views or three views, or from its wireframe representation. We have been working on the problem of automatically reconstructing a 3D solid object's Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) representation from a single 2D line drawing of the object. This paper describes our approach as well as some preliminary results. We validate our approach on a restricted set of objects consisting of simple rectilinear polyhedra. Using the Huffman-Clowes labeling scheme we are able to successfully identify the primitive blocks necessary for the CSG tree generation, as well as the set operations that must be applied to them. Extension to general polyhedra is also discussed.
2D Hexagonal Boron Nitride (2D-hBN) Explored for the Electrochemical Sensing of Dopamine.
Khan, Aamar F; Brownson, Dale A C; Randviir, Edward P; Smith, Graham C; Banks, Craig E
2016-10-04
Crystalline 2D hexagonal boron nitride (2D-hBN) nanosheets are explored as a potential electrocatalyst toward the electroanalytical sensing of dopamine (DA). The 2D-hBN nanosheets are electrically wired via a drop-casting modification process onto a range of commercially available carbon supporting electrodes, including glassy carbon (GC), boron-doped diamond (BDD), and screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPEs). 2D-hBN has not previously been explored toward the electrochemical detection/electrochemical sensing of DA. We critically evaluate the potential electrocatalytic performance of 2D-hBN modified electrodes, the effect of supporting carbon electrode platforms, and the effect of "mass coverage" (which is commonly neglected in the 2D material literature) toward the detection of DA. The response of 2D-hBN modified electrodes is found to be largely dependent upon the interaction between 2D-hBN and the underlying supporting electrode material. For example, in the case of SPEs, modification with 2D-hBN (324 ng) improves the electrochemical response, decreasing the electrochemical oxidation potential of DA by ∼90 mV compared to an unmodified SPE. Conversely, modification of a GC electrode with 2D-hBN (324 ng) resulted in an increased oxidation potential of DA by ∼80 mV when compared to the unmodified electrode. We explore the underlying mechanisms of the aforementioned examples and infer that electrode surface interactions and roughness factors are critical considerations. 2D-hBN is utilized toward the sensing of DA in the presence of the common interferents ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). 2D-hBN is found to be an effective electrocatalyst in the simultaneous detection of DA and UA at both pH 5.0 and 7.4. The peak separations/resolution between DA and UA increases by ∼70 and 50 mV (at pH 5.0 and 7.4, respectively, when utilizing 108 ng of 2D-hBN) compared to unmodified SPEs, with a particularly favorable response evident in pH 5.0, giving rise to a
Rozanas, Christine R; Loyland, Stacey M
2008-01-01
The use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for differential analysis in proteomics was revolutionized by the introduction of 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE). This fluorescence-based technique allows the use of multiplexed samples and an internal standard that virtually eliminates gel-to-gel variability, resulting in increased confidence that differences found between samples are due to real induced changes, rather than inherent biological variation or experimental variability. 2-D DIGE has quickly become the "gold standard" for gel-based proteomics for studying tissues, as well as cell culture and bodily fluids such as serum or plasma. This chapter will describe the basic 2-D DIGE technique using minimal labeling, image acquisition using high-quality fluorescence scanners, and software capable of analyzing the multiplexed images and normalizing the data using the internal standard.
Digit ratio (2D:4D) and postoperative pain perception.
Kasielska-Trojan, Anna; Stabryła, Piotr; Antoszewski, Bogusław
2017-07-01
It has not been established whether sex differences in pain perception are influenced by prenatal sex hormones. Digit ratio as an indicator of prenatal hormone exposure can be used as a simple measure of the influence of prenatal hormones on pain sensitivity or perception in adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between the 2D:4D ratio and pain perception in the postoperative period after rhinoplasty. A prospective cohort study of 100 patients (50 women of the mean age of 30.74±8.09years and 50 men of the mean age of 30.98±10.86years) who underwent posttraumatic rhinoplasty due to the nose trauma in Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Clinic. The following measurements were taken the day before a surgery: body height, waist and hip circumference, II and IV digits' lengths and body weight. All subjects filled in a questionnaire including 0-10-point VAS scales to assess postoperative pain 1h after an operation (AO), 6h AO, 12h AO, 24h AO and 48h AO. Women with low 2D:4D reported significantly more pain 1h after an operation than women with high 2D:4D. Similar correlation was observed for low 2D:4D in women 48h AO. In men, low 2D:4D was associated with lower postoperative pain 12h AO (p=0.029). In conclusion, we showed that low 2D:4D in women was associated with high postoperative pain, and low right 2D:4D in men was associated with low postoperative pain. This may suggest that intrauterine estrogen exposure makes women more resistant to pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
An automated pipeline to screen membrane protein 2D crystallization
Kim, Changki; Vink, Martin; Hu, Minghui; Love, James; Stokes, David L.; Ubarretxena-Belandia, Iban
2011-01-01
Electron crystallography relies on electron cryomicroscopy of two-dimensional (2D) crystals and is particularly well suited for studying the structure of membrane proteins in their native lipid bilayer environment. To obtain 2D crystals from purified membrane proteins, the detergent in a protein-lipid-detergent ternary mixture must be removed, generally by dialysis, under conditions favoring reconstitution into proteoliposomes and formation of well-ordered lattices. To identify these conditions a wide range of parameters such as pH, lipid composition, lipid-to-protein ratio, ionic strength and ligands must be screened in a procedure involving four steps: crystallization, specimen preparation for electron microscopy, image acquisition, and evaluation. Traditionally, these steps have been carried out manually and, as a result, the scope of 2D crystallization trials has been limited. We have therefore developed an automated pipeline to screen the formation of 2D crystals. We employed a 96-well dialysis block for reconstitution of the target protein over a wide range of conditions designed to promote crystallization. A 96-position magnetic platform and a liquid handling robot were used to prepare negatively stained specimens in parallel. Robotic grid insertion into the electron microscope and computerized image acquisition ensures rapid evaluation of the crystallization screen. To date, 38 2D crystallization screens have been conducted for 15 different membrane proteins, totaling over 3000 individual crystallization experiments. Three of these proteins have yielded diffracting 2D crystals. Our automated pipeline outperforms traditional 2D crystallization methods in terms of throughput and reproducibility. PMID:20349145
Upgraded immersive input display device (I2D2)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tremper, David; Brosky, Andy
2007-04-01
In an effort to reduce the effects of ambient light on the read-ability of military displays, the Naval Research Lab began investigating and developing advanced hand-held displays. Analysis and research of display technologies with consideration for vulnerability to environmental conditions resulted in the complete design and fabrication of the handheld Immersive Input Display Device (I2D2) monocular. The I2D2 combines an OLED SVGA micro-display with an optics configuration and a rubber pressure-eyecup which allows view-ability only when the eyecup is depressed. This feature allows the I2D2 to be used during the day, while not allowing ambient light to affect the readability. It simultaneously controls light leakage, effectively eliminating the illumination, and thus preserving the tactical position, of the user in the dark. This paper will focus on the upgraded I2D2 system as it compares to the I2D2 presented at SPIE 2006.
Mermin-Wagner fluctuations in 2D amorphous solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Illing, Bernd; Fritschi, Sebastian; Kaiser, Herbert; Klix, Christian L.; Maret, Georg; Keim, Peter
2017-02-01
In a recent commentary, J. M. Kosterlitz described how D. Thouless and he got motivated to investigate melting and suprafluidity in two dimensions [Kosterlitz JM (2016) J Phys Condens Matter 28:481001]. It was due to the lack of broken translational symmetry in two dimensions—doubting the existence of 2D crystals—and the first computer simulations foretelling 2D crystals (at least in tiny systems). The lack of broken symmetries proposed by D. Mermin and H. Wagner is caused by long wavelength density fluctuations. Those fluctuations do not only have structural impact, but additionally a dynamical one: They cause the Lindemann criterion to fail in 2D in the sense that the mean squared displacement of atoms is not limited. Comparing experimental data from 3D and 2D amorphous solids with 2D crystals, we disentangle Mermin-Wagner fluctuations from glassy structural relaxations. Furthermore, we demonstrate with computer simulations the logarithmic increase of displacements with system size: Periodicity is not a requirement for Mermin-Wagner fluctuations, which conserve the homogeneity of space on long scales.
2D nanostructures for water purification: graphene and beyond.
Dervin, Saoirse; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Pillai, Suresh C
2016-08-18
Owing to their atomically thin structure, large surface area and mechanical strength, 2D nanoporous materials are considered to be suitable alternatives for existing desalination and water purification membrane materials. Recent progress in the development of nanoporous graphene based materials has generated enormous potential for water purification technologies. Progress in the development of nanoporous graphene and graphene oxide (GO) membranes, the mechanism of graphene molecular sieve action, structural design, hydrophilic nature, mechanical strength and antifouling properties and the principal challenges associated with nanopore generation are discussed in detail. Subsequently, the recent applications and performance of newly developed 2D materials such as 2D boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, graphyne, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), tungsten chalcogenides (WS2) and titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) are highlighted. In addition, the challenges affecting 2D nanostructures for water purification are highlighted and their applications in the water purification industry are discussed. Though only a few 2D materials have been explored so far for water treatment applications, this emerging field of research is set to attract a great deal of attention in the near future.
2D Materials for Optical Modulation: Challenges and Opportunities.
Yu, Shaoliang; Wu, Xiaoqin; Wang, Yipei; Guo, Xin; Tong, Limin
2017-02-21
Owing to their atomic layer thickness, strong light-material interaction, high nonlinearity, broadband optical response, fast relaxation, controllable optoelectronic properties, and high compatibility with other photonic structures, 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus, have been attracting increasing attention for photonic applications. By tuning the carrier density via electrical or optical means that modifies their physical properties (e.g., Fermi level or nonlinear absorption), optical response of the 2D materials can be instantly changed, making them versatile nanostructures for optical modulation. Here, up-to-date 2D material-based optical modulation in three categories is reviewed: free-space, fiber-based, and on-chip configurations. By analysing cons and pros of different modulation approaches from material and mechanism aspects, the challenges faced by using these materials for device applications are presented. In addition, thermal effects (e.g., laser induced damage) in 2D materials, which are critical to practical applications, are also discussed. Finally, the outlook for future opportunities of these 2D materials for optical modulation is given.
Rotation invariance principles in 2D/3D registration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Wirth, Joachim; Burgstaller, Wolfgang; Baumann, Bernard; Staedele, Harald; Hammer, Beat; Gellrich, Niels C.; Jacob, Augustinus L.; Regazzoni, Pietro; Messmer, Peter
2003-05-01
2D/3D patient-to-computed tomography (CT) registration is a method to determine a transformation that maps two coordinate systems by comparing a projection image rendered from CT to a real projection image. Applications include exact patient positioning in radiation therapy, calibration of surgical robots, and pose estimation in computer-aided surgery. One of the problems associated with 2D/3D registration is the fast that finding a registration includes sovling a minimization problem in six degrees-of-freedom in motion. This results in considerable time expenses since for each iteration step at least one volume rendering has to be computed. We show that by choosing an appropriate world coordinate system and by applying a 2D/2D registration method in each iteration step, the number of iterations can be grossly reduced from n6 to n5. Here, n is the number of discrete variations aroudn a given coordinate. Depending on the configuration of the optimization algorithm, this reduces the total number of iterations necessary to at least 1/3 of its original value. The method was implemented and extensively tested on simulated x-ray images of a pelvis. We conclude that this hardware-indepenent optimization of 2D/3D registration is a step towards increasing the acceptance of this promising method for a wide number of clinical applications.
Regulation of ligands for the activating receptor NKG2D
Mistry, Anita R; O'Callaghan, Chris A
2007-01-01
The outcome of an encounter between a cytotoxic cell and a potential target cell depends on the balance of signals from inhibitory and activating receptors. Natural Killer group 2D (NKG2D) has recently emerged as a major activating receptor on T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. In both humans and mice, multiple different genes encode ligands for NKG2D, and these ligands are non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. The NKG2D–ligand interaction triggers an activating signal in the cell expressing NKG2D and this promotes cytotoxic lysis of the cell expressing the ligand. Most normal tissues do not express ligands for NKG2D, but ligand expression has been documented in tumour and virus-infected cells, leading to lysis of these cells. Tight regulation of ligand expression is important. If there is inappropriate expression in normal tissues, this will favour autoimmune processes, whilst failure to up-regulate the ligands in pathological conditions would favour cancer development or dissemination of intracellular infection. PMID:17614877
Sparse radar imaging using 2D compressed sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Qingkai; Liu, Yang; Chen, Zengping; Su, Shaoying
2014-10-01
Radar imaging is an ill-posed linear inverse problem and compressed sensing (CS) has been proved to have tremendous potential in this field. This paper surveys the theory of radar imaging and a conclusion is drawn that the processing of ISAR imaging can be denoted mathematically as a problem of 2D sparse decomposition. Based on CS, we propose a novel measuring strategy for ISAR imaging radar and utilize random sub-sampling in both range and azimuth dimensions, which will reduce the amount of sampling data tremendously. In order to handle 2D reconstructing problem, the ordinary solution is converting the 2D problem into 1D by Kronecker product, which will increase the size of dictionary and computational cost sharply. In this paper, we introduce the 2D-SL0 algorithm into the reconstruction of imaging. It is proved that 2D-SL0 can achieve equivalent result as other 1D reconstructing methods, but the computational complexity and memory usage is reduced significantly. Moreover, we will state the results of simulating experiments and prove the effectiveness and feasibility of our method.
Mermin-Wagner fluctuations in 2D amorphous solids.
Illing, Bernd; Fritschi, Sebastian; Kaiser, Herbert; Klix, Christian L; Maret, Georg; Keim, Peter
2017-02-21
In a recent commentary, J. M. Kosterlitz described how D. Thouless and he got motivated to investigate melting and suprafluidity in two dimensions [Kosterlitz JM (2016) J Phys Condens Matter 28:481001]. It was due to the lack of broken translational symmetry in two dimensions-doubting the existence of 2D crystals-and the first computer simulations foretelling 2D crystals (at least in tiny systems). The lack of broken symmetries proposed by D. Mermin and H. Wagner is caused by long wavelength density fluctuations. Those fluctuations do not only have structural impact, but additionally a dynamical one: They cause the Lindemann criterion to fail in 2D in the sense that the mean squared displacement of atoms is not limited. Comparing experimental data from 3D and 2D amorphous solids with 2D crystals, we disentangle Mermin-Wagner fluctuations from glassy structural relaxations. Furthermore, we demonstrate with computer simulations the logarithmic increase of displacements with system size: Periodicity is not a requirement for Mermin-Wagner fluctuations, which conserve the homogeneity of space on long scales.
Mermin–Wagner fluctuations in 2D amorphous solids
Illing, Bernd; Fritschi, Sebastian; Kaiser, Herbert; Klix, Christian L.; Maret, Georg; Keim, Peter
2017-01-01
In a recent commentary, J. M. Kosterlitz described how D. Thouless and he got motivated to investigate melting and suprafluidity in two dimensions [Kosterlitz JM (2016) J Phys Condens Matter 28:481001]. It was due to the lack of broken translational symmetry in two dimensions—doubting the existence of 2D crystals—and the first computer simulations foretelling 2D crystals (at least in tiny systems). The lack of broken symmetries proposed by D. Mermin and H. Wagner is caused by long wavelength density fluctuations. Those fluctuations do not only have structural impact, but additionally a dynamical one: They cause the Lindemann criterion to fail in 2D in the sense that the mean squared displacement of atoms is not limited. Comparing experimental data from 3D and 2D amorphous solids with 2D crystals, we disentangle Mermin–Wagner fluctuations from glassy structural relaxations. Furthermore, we demonstrate with computer simulations the logarithmic increase of displacements with system size: Periodicity is not a requirement for Mermin–Wagner fluctuations, which conserve the homogeneity of space on long scales. PMID:28137872
Mean flow and anisotropic cascades in decaying 2D turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2015-11-01
Many large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows are decaying 2D turbulent flows embedded in a non-uniform mean flow. Despite its importance for large-scale weather systems, the affect of non-uniform mean flows on decaying 2D turbulence remains unknown. In the absence of mean flow it is well known that decaying 2D turbulent flows exhibit the enstrophy cascade. More generally, for any 2D turbulent flow, all computational, experimental and field data amassed to date indicate that the spectrum of longitudinal and transverse velocity fluctuations correspond to the same cascade, signifying isotropy of cascades. Here we report experiments on decaying 2D turbulence in soap films with a non-uniform mean flow. We find that the flow transitions from the usual isotropic enstrophy cascade to a series of unusual and, to our knowledge, never before observed or predicted, anisotropic cascades where the longitudinal and transverse spectra are mutually independent. We discuss implications of our results for decaying geophysical turbulence.
2D DIGE saturation labeling for minute sample amounts.
Arnold, Georg J; Fröhlich, Thomas
2012-01-01
The 2D DIGE technique, based on fluorophores covalently linked to amino acid side chain residues and the concept of an internal standard, has significantly improved reproducibility, sensitivity, and the dynamic range of protein quantification. In saturation DIGE, sulfhydryl groups of cysteines are labeled with cyanine dyes to completion, providing a so far unraveled sensitivity for protein detection and quantification in 2D gel-based proteomic experiments. Only a few micrograms of protein per 2D gel facilitate the analysis of about 2,000 analytes from complex mammalian cell or tissue samples. As a consequence, 2D saturation DIGE is the method of choice when only minute sample amounts are available for quantitative proteome analysis at the level of proteins rather than peptides. Since very low amounts of samples have to be handled in a reproducible manner, saturation DIGE-based proteomic experiments are technically demanding. Moreover, successful saturation DIGE approaches require a strict adherence to adequate reaction conditions at each step. This chapter is dedicated to colleagues already experienced in 2D PAGE protein separation and intends to support the establishment of this ultrasensitive technique in proteomic workgroups. We provide basic guidelines for the experimental design and discuss crucial aspects concerning labeling chemistry, sample preparation, and pitfalls caused by labeling artifacts. A detailed step-by-step protocol comprises all aspects from initial sample preparation to image analysis and statistical evaluation. Furthermore, we describe the generation of preparative saturation DIGE gels necessary for mass spectrometry-based spot identification.
2-D Clinostat for Simulated Microgravity Experiments with Arabidopsis Seedlings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hui; Li, Xugang; Krause, Lars; Görög, Mark; Schüler, Oliver; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Kircher, Stefan; Lasok, Hanna; Haser, Thomas; Rapp, Katja; Schmidt, Jürgen; Yu, Xin; Pasternak, Taras; Aubry-Hivet, Dorothée; Tietz, Olaf; Dovzhenko, Alexander; Palme, Klaus; Ditengou, Franck Anicet
2016-04-01
Ground-based simulators of microgravity such as fast rotating 2-D clinostats are valuable tools to study gravity related processes. We describe here a versatile g-value-adjustable 2-D clinostat that is suitable for plant analysis. To avoid seedling adaptation to 1 g after clinorotation, we designed chambers that allow rapid fixation. A detailed protocol for fixation, RNA isolation and the analysis of selected genes is described. Using this clinostat we show that mRNA levels of LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), MIZU-KUSSEI 1 (MIZ1) and microRNA MIR163 are down-regulated in 5-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana roots after 3 min and 6 min of clinorotation using a maximal reduced g-force of 0.02 g, hence demonstrating that this 2-D clinostat enables the characterization of early transcriptomic events during root response to microgravity. We further show that this 2-D clinostat is able to compensate the action of gravitational force as both gravitropic-dependent statolith sedimentation and subsequent auxin redistribution (monitoring D R5 r e v :: G F P reporter) are abolished when plants are clinorotated. Our results demonstrate that 2-D clinostats equipped with interchangeable growth chambers and tunable rotation velocity are suitable for studying how plants perceive and respond to simulated microgravity.
Perspective: Echoes in 2D-Raman-THz spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamm, Peter; Shalit, Andrey
2017-04-01
Recently, various spectroscopic techniques have been developed, which can measure the 2D response of the inter-molecular degrees of freedom of liquids in the THz regime. By employing hybrid Raman-THz pulse sequences, the inherent experimental problems of 2D-Raman spectroscopy are circumvented completely, culminating in the recent measurement of the 2D-Raman-THz responses of water and aqueous salt solutions. This review article focuses on the possibility to observe echoes in such experiments, which would directly reveal the inhomogeneity of the typically extremely blurred THz bands of liquids, and hence the heterogeneity of local structures that are transiently formed, in particular, in a hydrogen-bonding liquid such as water. The generation mechanisms of echoes in 2D-Raman-THz spectroscopy are explained, which differ from those in "conventional" 2D-IR spectroscopy in a subtle but important manner. Subsequently, the circumstances are discussed, under which echoes are expected, revealing a physical picture of the information content of an echo. That is, the echo decay reflects the lifetime of local structures in the liquid on a length scale that equals the delocalization length of the intermolecular modes. Finally, recent experimental results are reviewed from an echo perspective.
Alignment of a 3-D Sensor and a 2-D Sensor Measuring Azimuth and Elevation
1992-04-01
alignment algorithm discussed in this report were developed by the Combat System Technologies Branch (N35) of the Engineering and Technology Division ( N30 ...removal of alignment errors in dissimilar sensors (e.g., active and passive sensors, 2-D and 3-D sensors, etc.). However, the alignment of dissimilar...G21 (CARSOLA) 1 G70 1 G71 1 G71 (BLAIR) 1 G71 (PALEN) 1 G71 (RICE) 10 G73 (FONTANA) 1 N 1 N05 (GASTON) 1 N24 (HENDERSON) 1 N30 1 N33 (ERVIN) 1 N33
Chemical vapour deposition: Transition metal carbides go 2D
Gogotsi, Yury
2015-08-17
Here, the research community has been steadily expanding the family of few-atom-thick crystals beyond graphene, discovering new materials or producing known materials in a 2D state and demonstrating their unique properties1, 2. Recently, nanometre-thin 2D transition metal carbides have also joined this family3. Writing in Nature Materials, Chuan Xu and colleagues now report a significant advance in the field, showing the synthesis of large-area, high-quality, nanometre-thin crystals of molybdenum carbide that demonstrate low-temperature 2D superconductivity4. Moreover, they also show that other ultrathin carbide crystals, such as tungsten and tantalum carbides, can be grown by chemical vapour deposition with a highmore » crystallinity and very low defect concentration.« less
Optoelectronics based on 2D TMDs and heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huo, Nengjie; Yang, Yujue; Li, Jingbo
2017-03-01
2D materials including graphene and TMDs have proven interesting physical properties and promising optoelectronic applications. We reviewed the growth, characterization and optoelectronics based on 2D TMDs and their heterostructures, and demonstrated their unique and high quality of performances. For example, we observed the large mobility, fast response and high photo-responsivity in MoS2, WS2 and WSe2 phototransistors, as well as the novel performances in vdW heterostructures such as the strong interlayer coupling, am-bipolar and rectifying behaviour, and the obvious photovoltaic effect. It is being possible that 2D family materials could play an increasingly important role in the future nano- and opto-electronics, more even than traditional semiconductors such as silicon.
Splashing transients of 2D plasmons launched by swift electrons
Lin, Xiao; Kaminer, Ido; Shi, Xihang; Gao, Fei; Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Zhen; Buljan, Hrvoje; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng; Zhang, Baile
2017-01-01
Launching of plasmons by swift electrons has long been used in electron energy–loss spectroscopy (EELS) to investigate the plasmonic properties of ultrathin, or two-dimensional (2D), electron systems. However, the question of how a swift electron generates plasmons in space and time has never been answered. We address this issue by calculating and demonstrating the spatial-temporal dynamics of 2D plasmon generation in graphene. We predict a jet-like rise of excessive charge concentration that delays the generation of 2D plasmons in EELS, exhibiting an analog to the hydrodynamic Rayleigh jet in a splashing phenomenon before the launching of ripples. The photon radiation, analogous to the splashing sound, accompanies the plasmon emission and can be understood as being shaken off by the Rayleigh jet–like charge concentration. Considering this newly revealed process, we argue that previous estimates on the yields of graphene plasmons in EELS need to be reevaluated. PMID:28138546
IUPAP Award: Ion transport in 2D materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, Wenzhong
Intercalation in 2D materials drastically influences both physical and chemical properties, which leads to a new degree of freedom for fundamental studies and expands the potential applications of 2D materials. In this talk, I will discuss our work in the past two years related to ion intercalation of 2D materials, including insertion of Li and Na ions in graphene and MoS2. We focused on both fundamental mechanism and potential application, e.g. we measured in-situ optical transmittance spectra and electrical transport properties of few-layer graphene (FLG) nanostructures upon electrochemical lithiation/delithiation. By observing a simultaneous increase of both optical transmittance and DC conductivity, strikingly different from other materials, we proposed its application as a next generation transparent electrode.
Available information in 2D motional Stark effect imaging.
Creese, Mathew; Howard, John
2010-10-01
Recent advances in imaging techniques have allowed the extension of the standard polarimetric 1D motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic to 2D imaging of the internal magnetic field of fusion devices [J. Howard, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 125003 (2008)]. This development is met with the challenge of identifying and extracting the new information, which can then be used to increase the accuracy of plasma equilibrium and current density profile determinations. This paper develops a 2D analysis of the projected MSE polarization orientation and Doppler phase shift. It is found that, for a standard viewing position, the 2D MSE imaging system captures sufficient information to allow imaging of the internal vertical magnetic field component B(Z)(r,z) in a tokamak.
Secretory pathways generating immunosuppressive NKG2D ligands
Baragaño Raneros, Aroa; Suarez-Álvarez, Beatriz; López-Larrea, Carlos
2014-01-01
Natural Killer Group 2 member D (NKG2D) activating receptor, present on the surface of various immune cells, plays an important role in activating the anticancer immune response by their interaction with stress-inducible NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL) on transformed cells. However, cancer cells have developed numerous mechanisms to evade the immune system via the downregulation of NKG2DL from the cell surface, including the release of NKG2DL from the cell surface in a soluble form. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in the production of soluble NKG2DL (sNKG2DL) and the potential therapeutic strategies aiming to block the release of these immunosuppressive ligands. Therapeutically enabling the NKG2D-NKG2DL interaction would promote immunorecognition of malignant cells, thus abrogating disease progression. PMID:25050215
Rapid-scan coherent 2D fluorescence spectroscopy.
Draeger, Simon; Roeding, Sebastian; Brixner, Tobias
2017-02-20
We developed pulse-shaper-assisted coherent two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in liquids using fluorescence detection. A customized pulse shaper facilitates shot-to-shot modulation at 1 kHz and is employed for rapid scanning over all time delays. A full 2D spectrum with 15 × 15 pixels is obtained in approximately 6 s of measurement time (plus further averaging if needed). Coherent information is extracted from the incoherent fluorescence signal via 27-step phase cycling. We exemplify the technique on cresyl violet in ethanol and recover literature-known oscillations as a function of population time. Signal-to-noise behavior is analyzed as a function of the amount of averaging. Rapid scanning provides a 2D spectrum with a root-mean-square error of < 0.05 after 1 min of measurement time.
2d-retrieval For Mipas-envisat
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steck, T.; von Clarmann, T.; Grabowski, U.; Höpfner, M.
Limb sounding of the Earth's atmosphere provides vertically high resolved profiles of geophysical parameters. The long ray path through the atmosphere makes limb sounders sensitive to even little abundant species. On the other hand, horizontal in- homogeneities, if not taken into account properly, can cause systematic errors within the retrieval process. Especially for limb emission measurements in the mid IR, at- mopheric temperature gradients result in considerable vmr retrieval errors if they are neglected. We present a dedicated method of taking full 2D fields of state parameters (indepen- dent of tangent points) into account in the forward model and in the retrieval. The basic idea is that the 2D state vector is updated sequentially for each limb scan. This method is applied to the 2D retrieval of temperature and vmr for simulated radiances as expected from MIPAS-ENVISAT.
The Wigner distribution and 2D classical maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakhr, Jamal
2017-07-01
The Wigner spacing distribution has a long and illustrious history in nuclear physics and in the quantum mechanics of classically chaotic systems. In this paper, a novel connection between the Wigner distribution and 2D classical mechanics is introduced. Based on a well-known correspondence between the Wigner distribution and the 2D Poisson point process, the hypothesis that typical pseudo-trajectories of a 2D ergodic map have a Wignerian nearest-neighbor spacing distribution (NNSD) is put forward and numerically tested. The standard Euclidean metric is used to compute the interpoint spacings. In all test cases, the hypothesis is upheld, and the range of validity of the hypothesis appears to be robust in the sense that it is not affected by the presence or absence of: (i) mixing; (ii) time-reversal symmetry; and/or (iii) dissipation.
Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom
2015-09-01
Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed.
2D-3D transition of gold cluster anions resolved
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johansson, Mikael P.; Lechtken, Anne; Schooss, Detlef; Kappes, Manfred M.; Furche, Filipp
2008-05-01
Small gold cluster anions Aun- are known for their unusual two-dimensional (2D) structures, giving rise to properties very different from those of bulk gold. Previous experiments and calculations disagree about the number of gold atoms nc where the transition to 3D structures occurs. We combine trapped ion electron diffraction and state of the art electronic structure calculations to resolve this puzzle and establish nc=12 . It is shown that theoretical studies using traditional generalized gradient functionals are heavily biased towards 2D structures. For a correct prediction of the 2D-3D crossover point it is crucial to use density functionals yielding accurate jellium surface energies, such as the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) functional or the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional modified for solids (PBEsol). Further, spin-orbit effects have to be included, and large, flexible basis sets employed. This combined theoretical-experimental approach is promising for larger gold and other metal clusters.
Focusing surface wave imaging with flexible 2D array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Shiyuan; Fu, Junqiang; Li, Zhe; Xu, Chunguang; Xiao, Dingguo; Wang, Shaohan
2016-04-01
Curved surface is widely exist in key parts of energy and power equipment, such as, turbine blade cylinder block and so on. Cycling loading and harsh working condition of enable fatigue cracks appear on the surface. The crack should be found in time to avoid catastrophic damage to the equipment. A flexible 2D array transducer was developed. 2D Phased Array focusing method (2DPA), Mode-Spatial Double Phased focusing method (MSDPF) and the imaging method using the flexible 2D array probe are studied. Experiments using these focusing and imaging method are carried out. Surface crack image is obtained with both 2DPA and MSDPF focusing method. It have been proved that MSDPF can be more adaptable for curved surface and more calculate efficient than 2DPA.
Perception-based reversible watermarking for 2D vector maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Men, Chaoguang; Cao, Liujuan; Li, Xiang
2010-07-01
This paper presents an effective and reversible watermarking approach for digital copyright protection of 2D-vector maps. To ensure that the embedded watermark is insensitive for human perception, we only select the noise non-sensitive regions for watermark embedding by estimating vertex density within each polyline. To ensure the exact recovery of original 2D-vector map after watermark extraction, we introduce a new reversible watermarking scheme based on reversible high-frequency wavelet coefficients modification. Within the former-selected non-sensitive regions, our watermarking operates on the lower-order vertex coordinate decimals with integer wavelet transform. Such operation further reduces the visual distortion caused by watermark embedding. We have validated the effectiveness of our scheme on our real-world city river/building 2D-vector maps. We give extensive experimental comparisons with state-of-the-art methods, including embedding capability, invisibility, and robustness over watermark attacking.
Applications of Doppler Tomography in 2D and 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richards, M.; Budaj, J.; Agafonov, M.; Sharova, O.
2010-12-01
Over the past few years, the applications of Doppler tomography have been extended beyond the usual calculation of 2D velocity images of circumstellar gas flows. This technique has now been used with the new Shellspec spectrum synthesis code to demonstrate the effective modeling of the accretion disk and gas stream in the TT Hya Algol binary. The 2D tomography procedure projects all sources of emission onto a single central (Vx, Vy) velocity plane even though the gas is expected to flow beyond that plane. So, new 3D velocity images were derived with the Radioastronomical Approach method by assuming a grid of Vz values transverse to the central 2D plane. The 3D approach has been applied to the U CrB and RS Vul Algol-type binaries to reveal substantial flow structures beyond the central velocity plane.
Chemical vapour deposition: Transition metal carbides go 2D
Gogotsi, Yury
2015-08-17
Here, the research community has been steadily expanding the family of few-atom-thick crystals beyond graphene, discovering new materials or producing known materials in a 2D state and demonstrating their unique properties^{1, 2}. Recently, nanometre-thin 2D transition metal carbides have also joined this family^{3}. Writing in Nature Materials, Chuan Xu and colleagues now report a significant advance in the field, showing the synthesis of large-area, high-quality, nanometre-thin crystals of molybdenum carbide that demonstrate low-temperature 2D superconductivity^{4}. Moreover, they also show that other ultrathin carbide crystals, such as tungsten and tantalum carbides, can be grown by chemical vapour deposition with a high crystallinity and very low defect concentration.
2D:4D Ratio and its Implications in Medicine.
Jeevanandam, Saravanakumar; Muthu, Prathibha K
2016-12-01
Digit ratios, especially 2D:4D ratio, a potential proxy marker for prenatal androgen exposure shows sexual dimorphism. Existing literature and recent research show accumulating evidence on 2D:4D ratio showing correlations with various phenotypic traits in humans. Ratio of 2D:4D is found to correlate negatively to testosterone and positively to oestrogen in the foetus. Interestingly, it is constant since birth and not influenced by the adult hormone levels. Usually, males have lower ratios when compared to females. Prenatal androgen exposure and therefore, digit ratios have been reported to be associated with numerical competencies, spatial skills, handedness, cognitive abilities, academic performance, sperm counts, personalities and prevalence of obesity, migraine, eating disorders, depression, myopia, autism etc. The authors have attempted to write a brief account on the digit ratios and the dimorphism observed in various physiological, psychological and behavioural traits. Also, the authors have discussed the relevant molecular basics and the methods of measurement of digit ratios.
Determination of slope failure using 2-D resistivity method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muztaza, Nordiana Mohd; Saad, Rosli; Ismail, Nur Azwin; Bery, Andy Anderson
2017-07-01
Landslides and slope failure may give negative economic effects including the cost to repair structures, loss of property value and medical costs in the event of injury. To avoid landslide, slope failure and disturbance of the ecosystem, good and detailed planning must be done when developing hilly area. Slope failure classification and various factors contributing to the instability using 2-D resistivity survey conducted in Selangor, Malaysia are described. The study on landslide and slope failure was conducted at Site A and Site B, Selangor using 2-D resistivity method. The implications of the anticipated ground conditions as well as the field observation of the actual conditions are discussed. Nine 2-D resistivity survey lines were conducted in Site A and six 2-D resistivity survey lines with 5 m minimum electrode spacing using Pole-dipole array were performed in Site B. The data were processed using Res2Dinv and Surfer10 software to evaluate the subsurface characteristics. 2-D resistivity results from both locations show that the study areas consist of two main zones. The first zone is alluvium or highly weathered with the resistivity of 100-1000 Ωm at 20-70 m depth. This zone consists of saturated area (1-100 Ωm) and boulders with resistivity value of 1200-3000 Ωm. The second zone with resistivity values of > 3000 Ωm was interpreted as granitic bedrock. The study area was characterized by saturated zones, highly weathered zone, highly contain of sand and boulders that will trigger slope failure in the survey area. Based on the results obtained from the study findings, it can be concluded that 2-D resistivity method is useful method in determination of slope failure.
Substrate effects and dielectric integration in 2D electronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamlagain, Bhim Prasad
The ultra-thin body of monolayer (and few-layer) two dimensional (2D) semiconducting materials such as transitional metal dichalconiges (TMDs), black phosphorous (BP) has demonstrated tremendous beneficial physical, transport, and optical properties for a wide range of applications. Because of their ultrathin bodies, the properties of 2D materials are highly sensitive to environmental effects. Particularly, the performance of 2D semiconductor electronic devices is strongly dependent on the substrate/dielectric properties, extrinsic impurities and absorbates. In this work, we systematically studied the transport properties of mechanically exfoliated few layer TMD field-effect transistors (FETs) consistently fabricated on various substrates including SiO2,Parylene -C, Al2O3, SiO2 modified by octadecyltrimethoxysilane (OTMS) self-assembled monolayer (SAMs), and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). We performed variable temperature transport measurements to understand the effects of various scattering mechanisms such as remote surface phonon scattering, coulomb scattering, surface roughness scattering on the mobility of these devices. To reveal the intrinsic channel properties, we also investigated TMD devices encapsulated by h-BN. To further optimize the dielectric interface and electrostatic control of the TMD channels, we developed a novel thermal-oxidation method to turn few-layer 2D metals into ultrathin and atomically flat high -kappa dielectrics. In order to optimize the performance of TMD electronic devices, it is also critical to fabricate low resistance ohmic contacts required for effectively injecting charge carriers into the TMD channel. Along this direction, we developed a new contact strategy to minimize the contact resistance for a variety of TMDs by van der Waals assembly of doped TMDs as contacts and undoped TMDs as channel materials. The developed unique method for low-resistance ohmic contacts achieved using the 2D/2D contact strategy and novel technique
Real-time 2-D temperature imaging using ultrasound.
Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S
2010-01-01
We have previously introduced methods for noninvasive estimation of temperature change using diagnostic ultrasound. The basic principle was validated both in vitro and in vivo by several groups worldwide. Some limitations remain, however, that have prevented these methods from being adopted in monitoring and guidance of minimally invasive thermal therapies, e.g., RF ablation and high-intensity-focused ultrasound (HIFU). In this letter, we present first results from a real-time system for 2-D imaging of temperature change using pulse-echo ultrasound. The front end of the system is a commercially available scanner equipped with a research interface, which allows the control of imaging sequence and access to the RF data in real time. A high-frame-rate 2-D RF acquisition mode, M2D, is used to capture the transients of tissue motion/deformations in response to pulsed HIFU. The M2D RF data is streamlined to the back end of the system, where a 2-D temperature imaging algorithm based on speckle tracking is implemented on a graphics processing unit. The real-time images of temperature change are computed on the same spatial and temporal grid of the M2D RF data, i.e., no decimation. Verification of the algorithm was performed by monitoring localized HIFU-induced heating of a tissue-mimicking elastography phantom. These results clearly demonstrate the repeatability and sensitivity of the algorithm. Furthermore, we present in vitro results demonstrating the possible use of this algorithm for imaging changes in tissue parameters due to HIFU-induced lesions. These results clearly demonstrate the value of the real-time data streaming and processing in monitoring, and guidance of minimally invasive thermotherapy.
Towards functional assembly of 3D and 2D nanomaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, Christopher B.; Wang, Kai; Ievlev, Anton V.; Muckley, Eric S.; Ivanov, Ilia N.
2016-09-01
Functional assemblies of materials can be realized by tuning the work function and band gap of nanomaterials by rational material selection and design. Here we demonstrate the structural assembly of 2D and 3D nanomaterials and show that layering a 2D material monolayer on a 3D metal oxide leads to substantial alteration of both the surface potential and optical properties of the 3D material. A 40 nm thick film of polycrystalline NiO was produced by room temperature rf-sputtering, resulting in a 3D nanoparticle assembly. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown 10-30 μm WS2 flakes (2D material) were placed on the NiO surface using a PDMS stamp transfer technique. The 2D/3D WS2/NiO assembly was characterized using confocal micro Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the vibrational properties and using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) to evaluate the surface potential. Raman maps of the 2D/3D assembly show spatial non-uniformity of the A1g mode ( 418 cm-1) and the disorder-enhanced longitudinal acoustic mode, 2LA(M) ( 350 cm-1), suggesting that the WS2 exists in a strained condition on when transferred onto 3D polycrystalline NiO. KPFM measurements show that single layer WS2 on SiO2 has a surface potential 75 mV lower than that of SiO2, whereas the surface potential of WS2 on NiO is 15 mV higher than NiO, indicating that WS2 could act as electron donor or acceptor depending on the 3D material it is interfaced with. Thus 2D and 3D materials can be organized into functional assemblies with electron flow controlled by the WS2 either as the electron donor or acceptor.
Laboratory Experiments On Continually Forced 2d Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wells, M. G.; Clercx, H. J. H.; Van Heijst, G. J. F.
There has been much recent interest in the advection of tracers by 2D turbulence in geophysical flows. While there is a large body of literature on decaying 2D turbulence or forced 2D turbulence in unbounded domains, there have been very few studies of forced turbulence in bounded domains. In this study we present new experimental results from a continuously forced quasi 2D turbulent field. The experiments are performed in a square Perspex tank filled with water. The flow is made quasi 2D by a steady background rotation. The rotation rate of the tank has a small (<8 %) sinusoidal perturbation which leads to the periodic formation of eddies in the corners of the tank. When the oscillation period of the perturbation is greater than an eddy roll-up time-scale, dipole structures are observed to form. The dipoles can migrate away from the walls, and the interior of the tank is continually filled with vortexs. From experimental visualizations the length scale of the vortexs appears to be largely controlled by the initial formation mechanism and large scale structures are not observed to form at large times. Thus the experiments provide a simple way of cre- ating a continuously forced 2D turbulent field. The resulting structures are in contrast with most previous laboratory experiments on 2D turbulence which have investigated decaying turbulence and have observed the formations of large scale structure. In these experiments, decaying turbulence had been produced by a variety of methods such as the decaying turbulence in the wake of a comb of rods (Massen et al 1999), organiza- tion of vortices in thin conducting liquids (Cardoso et al 1994) or in rotating systems where there are sudden changes in angular rotation rate (Konijnenberg et al 1998). Results of dye visualizations, particle tracking experiments and a direct numerical simulation will be presented and discussed in terms of their oceanographic application. Bibliography Cardoso,O. Marteau, D. &Tabeling, P
Noninvasive deep Raman detection with 2D correlation analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyung Min; Park, Hyo Sun; Cho, Youngho; Jin, Seung Min; Lee, Kang Taek; Jung, Young Mee; Suh, Yung Doug
2014-07-01
The detection of poisonous chemicals enclosed in daily necessaries is prerequisite essential for homeland security with the increasing threat of terrorism. For the detection of toxic chemicals, we combined a sensitive deep Raman spectroscopic method with 2D correlation analysis. We obtained the Raman spectra from concealed chemicals employing spatially offset Raman spectroscopy in which incident line-shaped light experiences multiple scatterings before being delivered to inner component and yielding deep Raman signal. Furthermore, we restored the pure Raman spectrum of each component using 2D correlation spectroscopic analysis with chemical inspection. Using this method, we could elucidate subsurface component under thick powder and packed contents in a bottle.
Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy
Pachón, Leonardo A.; Marcus, Andrew H.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2015-06-07
Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.
Experimental validation of equations for 2D DIC uncertainty quantification.
Reu, Phillip L.; Miller, Timothy J.
2010-03-01
Uncertainty quantification (UQ) equations have been derived for predicting matching uncertainty in two-dimensional image correlation a priori. These equations include terms that represent the image noise and image contrast. Researchers at the University of South Carolina have extended previous 1D work to calculate matching errors in 2D. These 2D equations have been coded into a Sandia National Laboratories UQ software package to predict the uncertainty for DIC images. This paper presents those equations and the resulting error surfaces for trial speckle images. Comparison of the UQ results with experimentally subpixel-shifted images is also discussed.
Scale Invariance in 2D BCS-BEC Crossover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sensarma, Rajdeep; Taylor, Edward; Randeria, Mohit
2013-03-01
In 2D BCS-BEC crossover, the frequency of the breathing mode in a harmonic trap, as well as the lower edge of the radio frequency spectroscopy response, show remarkable scale-invariance throughout the crossover regime, i.e. they are independent of the coupling constant. Using functional integral methods, we study the behaviour of these quantities in the 2D BCS-BEC crossover and comment on the possible reasons for this scale independence. RS was supported by DAE, Govt. of India. MR was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-1006532. ET was supported by NSERC and the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.
Closed-shell and open-shell 2D nanographenes.
Sun, Zhe; Wu, Jishan
2014-01-01
This chapter describes a series of two-dimensional (2D) expanded arene networks, also known as nanographenes, with either closed-shell or open-shell electronic structure in the ground state. These systems are further categorized into three classes on a basis of different edge structures: those with zigzag edges only, those with armchair edges only, and those possessing both. Distinctive physical properties of these 2D aromatic systems are closely related to their structural characteristics and provide great potential for them as materials for different applications.
Using 2-D arrays for sensing multimodal Lamb waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engholm, Marcus; Stepinski, Tadeusz
2010-04-01
Monitoring structural integrity of large planar structures requires normally a relatively dense network of uniformly distributed ultrasonic sensors. A 2-D ultrasonic phased array with all azimuth angle coverage would be extremely useful for the structural health monitoring (SHM) of such structures. Known techniques for estimating direction of arriving (DOA) waves cannot efficiently cope with dispersive and multimodal Lamb waves (LWs). In the paper we propose an adaptive spectral estimation technique capable of handling broadband LWs sensed by 2-D arrays, the modified Capon method. Performance of the technique is evaluated using simulated multiple-mode LWs, and verified using experimental data.
Evaluation of 2D ceramic matrix composites in aeroconvective environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riccitiello, Salvatore R.; Love, Wendell L.; Balter-Peterson, Aliza
1992-01-01
An evaluation is conducted of a novel ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) material system for use in the aeroconvective-heating environments encountered by the nose caps and wing leading edges of such aerospace vehicles as the Space Shuttle, during orbit-insertion and reentry from LEO. These CMCs are composed of an SiC matrix that is reinforced with Nicalon, Nextel, or carbon refractory fibers in a 2D architecture. The test program conducted for the 2D CMCs gave attention to their subsurface oxidation.
Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials.
Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang-Kong; Dalvit, Diego A R
2015-06-03
We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.
Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials
Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang -Kong; Dalvit, Diego A. R.
2015-05-12
We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. In conclusion, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.
Spreading dynamics of 2D dipolar Langmuir monolayer phases.
Heinig, P; Wurlitzer, S; Fischer, Th M
2004-07-01
We study the spreading of a liquid 2D dipolar droplet in a Langmuir monolayer. Interfacial tensions (line tensions) and microscopic contact angles depend on the scale on which they are probed and obey a scaling law. Assuming rapid equilibration of the microscopic contact angle and ideal slippage of the 2D solid/liquid and solid/gas boundary, the driving force of spreading is merely expressed by the shape-dependent long-range interaction integrals. We obtain good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations using this theory.
Recording 2-D Nutation NQR Spectra by Random Sampling Method
Sinyavsky, Nikolaj; Jadzyn, Maciej; Ostafin, Michal; Nogaj, Boleslaw
2010-01-01
The method of random sampling was introduced for the first time in the nutation nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy where the nutation spectra show characteristic singularities in the form of shoulders. The analytic formulae for complex two-dimensional (2-D) nutation NQR spectra (I = 3/2) were obtained and the condition for resolving the spectral singularities for small values of an asymmetry parameter η was determined. Our results show that the method of random sampling of a nutation interferogram allows significant reduction of time required to perform a 2-D nutation experiment and does not worsen the spectral resolution. PMID:20949121
Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials
Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang -Kong; Dalvit, Diego A. R.
2015-05-12
We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. In conclusion, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.
Recording 2-D Nutation NQR Spectra by Random Sampling Method.
Glotova, Olga; Sinyavsky, Nikolaj; Jadzyn, Maciej; Ostafin, Michal; Nogaj, Boleslaw
2010-10-01
The method of random sampling was introduced for the first time in the nutation nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy where the nutation spectra show characteristic singularities in the form of shoulders. The analytic formulae for complex two-dimensional (2-D) nutation NQR spectra (I = 3/2) were obtained and the condition for resolving the spectral singularities for small values of an asymmetry parameter η was determined. Our results show that the method of random sampling of a nutation interferogram allows significant reduction of time required to perform a 2-D nutation experiment and does not worsen the spectral resolution.
2dF grows up: Echidna for the AAT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGrath, Andrew; Barden, Sam; Miziarski, Stan; Rambold, William; Smith, Greg
2008-07-01
We present the concept design of a new fibre positioner and spectrograph system for the Anglo-Australian Telescope, as a proposed enhancement to the Anglo-Australian Observatory's well-known 2dF facility. A four-fold multiplex enhancement is accomplished by replacing the 400-fibre 2dF fibre positioning robot with a 1600-fibre Echidna unit, feeding three clones of the AAOmega optical spectrograph. Such a facility has the capability of a redshift 1 survey of a large fraction of the southern sky, collecting five to ten thousand spectra per night for a million-galaxy survey.
2D Log-Gabor Wavelet Based Action Recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ning; Xu, De
The frequency response of log-Gabor function matches well the frequency response of primate visual neurons. In this letter, motion-salient regions are extracted based on the 2D log-Gabor wavelet transform of the spatio-temporal form of actions. A supervised classification technique is then used to classify the actions. The proposed method is robust to the irregular segmentation of actors. Moreover, the 2D log-Gabor wavelet permits more compact representation of actions than the recent neurobiological models using Gabor wavelet.
Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Fearn, Jamie M; Brownson, Dale A C; Smith, Graham C; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E
2016-08-21
Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm(-2) modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tønning, Erik; Polders, Daniel; Callaghan, Paul T.; Engelsen, Søren B.
2007-09-01
This paper demonstrates how the multi-linear PARAFAC model can with advantage be used to decompose 2D diffusion-relaxation correlation NMR spectra prior to 2D-Laplace inversion to the T2- D domain. The decomposition is advantageous for better interpretation of the complex correlation maps as well as for the quantification of extracted T2- D components. To demonstrate the new method seventeen mixtures of wheat flour, starch, gluten, oil and water were prepared and measured with a 300 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer using a pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) pulse sequence followed by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse echo train. By varying the gradient strength, 2D diffusion-relaxation data were recorded for each sample. From these double exponentially decaying relaxation data the PARAFAC algorithm extracted two unique diffusion-relaxation components, explaining 99.8% of the variation in the data set. These two components were subsequently transformed to the T2- D domain using 2D-inverse Laplace transformation and quantitatively assigned to the oil and water components of the samples. The oil component was one distinct distribution with peak intensity at D = 3 × 10 -12 m 2 s -1 and T2 = 180 ms. The water component consisted of two broad populations of water molecules with diffusion coefficients and relaxation times centered around correlation pairs: D = 10 -9 m 2 s -1, T2 = 10 ms and D = 3 × 10 -13 m 2 s -1, T2 = 13 ms. Small spurious peaks observed in the inverse Laplace transformation of original complex data were effectively filtered by the PARAFAC decomposition and thus considered artefacts from the complex Laplace transformation. The oil-to-water ratio determined by PARAFAC followed by 2D-Laplace inversion was perfectly correlated with known oil-to-water ratio of the samples. The new method of using PARAFAC prior to the 2D-Laplace inversion proved to have superior potential in analysis of diffusion-relaxation spectra, as it
Peters, Dana C.; Nezafat, Reza; Eggers, Holger; Stehning, Christian; Manning, Warren J.
2008-01-01
Purpose To develop and validate a free-breathing cardiac cine acquisition, with potential to simplify cardiac MR studies, provide registered slices and increase spatial resolution. Materials and Methods A 2D free-breathing (FB) navigator-gated cine radial acquisition for cardiac function was developed which used two navigators (one placed prior to the QRS, and another 500 ms after the QRS complex, after systole) to provide complete motion-compensated assessment of systole, without loss of end-diastole. Eleven subjects were studied. Results The 2D FB method provided results visually and quantitatively similar to the 2D breath-hold (BH) methods. Comparison of volumes measured with the free-breathing to those measured by standard 2D BH cine resulted in mean bias ± 2 standard deviations of 1.0 ml ± 13.7 ml, 1.1 ml ± 7.6 ml, 3.0 g ± 18.8 g, and 0.3 %± 2.5%, for end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and left-ventricular mass, and ejection fraction, respectively. Slice misregistration was identified in 4 (36%) of the BH studies, but none (0%) of the FB studies. In subjects with slice misregistration, there was greater discordance in LV volume measurements (P<0.05 for end-diastolic mass). Conclusion The free-breathing cine acquisition provided results qualitatively and quantitatively similar to 2D breath-hold methods with improved slice registration. PMID:18777547
Peters, Dana C; Nezafat, Reza; Eggers, Holger; Stehning, Christian; Manning, Warren J
2008-09-01
To develop and validate a free-breathing cardiac cine acquisition, with potential to simplify cardiac MR studies, provide registered slices, and increase spatial resolution. A 2D free-breathing (FB) navigator-gated cine radial acquisition for cardiac function was developed that used two navigators (one placed prior to the QRS, and another 500 msec after the QRS complex, after systole) to provide complete motion-compensated assessment of systole, without loss of end-diastole. Eleven subjects were studied. The 2D FB method provided results visually and quantitatively similar to the 2D breath-hold (BH) methods. Comparison of volumes measured with FB to those measured by standard 2D BH cine resulted in mean bias+/-2 standard deviations of 1.0 mL+/-13.7 mL, 1.1 mL+/-7.6 mL, 3.0 g+/-18.8 g, and 0.3%+/-2.5%, for end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, left ventricular (LV) mass, and ejection fraction, respectively. Slice misregistration was identified in four (36%) of the BH studies, but none (0%) of the FB studies. In subjects with slice misregistration, there was greater discordance in LV volume measurements (P<0.05 for end-diastolic mass). The FB cine acquisition provided results qualitatively and quantitatively similar to 2D BH methods with improved slice registration. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elinski, Meagan B.; Liu, Zhuotong; Spear, Jessica C.; Batteas, James D.
2017-03-01
The use of 2D nanomaterials for controlling friction and wear at interfaces has received increased attention over the past few years due to their unique structural, thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. These materials proffer potential critical solutions to challenges in boundary lubrication across numerous platforms ranging from engines, to biomedical implants and micro- and nano-scaled machines that will play a major role in the Internet of Things. There has been significant work on a range of 2D nanomaterials, such as graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). From these studies, their frictional properties have been shown to be highly dependent on numerous factors, such as substrate structure, strain, and competing chemical interactions between the interfaces in sliding contact. Moreover, when considering real contacts in machined interfaces, these surfaces are often composed of nanoscaled asperities, whose intermittent contact dominates the tribochemical processes that result in wear. In this review we aim to capture recent work on the tribological properties of graphene and MoS2 and to discuss the impacts of surface roughness (from the atomic scale to the nanoscale) and chemical interactions at interfaces on their frictional properties, and their use in designing advanced boundary lubrication schemes.
FPGA implementation of 3D-displacement measurement based on 2D-DIC and FPP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Zhenkun; Zhang, Fangxu; Li, Xuan
2014-07-01
Nondestructive optical techniques have been widely used to satisfy engineering applicat ion. 2D digital image correlation (DIC) method has superiority of convenient manipulation and high accuracy in measuring planar displacement. Moreover, fringe pattern profilometry (FPP) method has become a highly developed technique to measure surface profile. Combined with 2D-DIC method, FPP method can be applied to measure three-dimensional displacements conveniently. As a semi-custom integrated circuit, Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) has been popular for its powerful programming performance on controlling experimental instrument. Furthermore, Labview, an efficient graphical programming language which excels in instrument communication, can be used to program FPGA. In this paper, a corrected dynamic FPP method combined with 2D-DIC method has been presented and achieved by Labview programming to measure dynamic deformation. An experimental system including a projector and a camera is used to project fringe patterns and acquire images alternately at a high speed. By the referred method a series of spatial-discrete displacement data in equal intervals of time are obtained. Then a four-dimensional interpolation is adopted to get full-field and continuous-time displacement data. Thus, the planar and out-plane displacements can be simultaneously measured. Experiments were performed and verified the feasibility of proposed method.
Numerical Simulation of Slinger Combustor Using 2-D Axisymmetric Computational Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Semin; Park, Soo Hyung; Lee, Donghun
2010-06-01
Small-size turbojet engines have difficulties in maintaining the chemical reaction due to the limitation of chamber size. The combustion chamber is generally designed to improve the reaction efficiency by the generation of vortices in the chamber and to enhance air-fuel mixing characteristics. In the initial stage of designing the combustor, analysis of the 3-D full configuration is not practical due to the huge time consuming computation and grid generation followed by modifications of the geometry. In the present paper, an axisymmetric model maintaining geometric similarity and flow characteristic of 3-D configuration is developed. Based on numerical results from the full 3-D configuration, model reduction is achieved toward 2-D axisymmetric configuration. In the modeling process, the area and location of each hole in 3-D full configuration are considered reasonably and replaced to the 2-D axisymmetric model. By using the 2-D axisymmetric model, the factor that can affect the performance is investigated with the assumption that the flow is non-reacting and turbulent. Numerical results from the present model show a good agreement with numerical results from 3-D full configuration model such as existence of vortex pair in forward region and total pressure loss. By simplifying the complex 3-D model, computing time can be remarkably reduced and it makes easy to find effects of geometry modification.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Cheng; Efetov, Dmitri; Shiue, Ren-Jye; Nanot, Sebastien; Hempel, Marek; Kong, Jing; Koppens, Frank; Englund, Dirk
Strong spatial tunability of the charge carrier density at nanoscale is essential to many 2D-material-based electronic and optoelectronic applications. As an example, plasmonic metamaterials with nanoscale dimensions would make graphene plasmonics at visible and near-infrared wavelengths possible. However, existing gating techniques based on conventional dielectric gating geometries limit the spatial resolution and achievable carrier concentration, strongly restricting the available wavelength, geometry, and quality of the devices. Here, we present a novel spatially selective electrolyte gating approach that allows for in-plane spatial Fermi energy modulation of 2D materials of more than 1 eV (carrier density of n = 1014 cm-2) across a length of 2 nm. We present electrostatic simulations as well as electronic transport, photocurrent, cyclic voltammetry and optical spectroscopy measurements to characterize the performance of the gating technique applied to graphene devices. The high spatial resolution, high doping capacity, full tunability and self-aligned device geometry of the presented technique opens a new venue for nanoscale metamaterial engineering of 2D materials for complete optical absorption, nonlinear optics and sensing, among other applications.
DYNA2D: A nonlinear, explicit, two-dimensional finite element code for solid mechanics: User manual
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whirley, R. G.; Engelmann, B. E.
1992-04-01
This report is the User Manual for the 1992 version of DYNA2D, and also serves as an interim User Guide. DYNA2D is a nonlinear, explicit, finite element code for analyzing the transient dynamic response of two-dimensional solids. The code is fully vectorized and is available on several computer platforms. DYNA2D incorporates a large deformation formulation to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many material models are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Also, a variety of equations of state are available for modeling the hydrodynamic response of many materials, including explosives and propellants. In addition, DYNA2D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact, and a new automatic contact option. DYNA2D contains a rezoner to allow nodes to be repositioned when the finite element mesh becomes excessively distorted during a calculation. This rezoner can be used in either an interactive graphics mode or an automatic mode. In addition, DYNA2D now contains a general remeshing option which allows a completely new mesh to be defined for a body during an analysis. A real-time analysis display option allows the analyst to view an evolving graphical display of the analysis results as they are calculated. A material model driver with interactive graphics display is incorporated into DYNA2D to permit accurate modeling of complex material response based on experimental data. This document provides the information necessary to apply DYNA2D to solve a wide range of engineering analysis problems.
The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: Preliminary Results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maddox, Steve; 2DF Galaxy Redshift Survey Team; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Cannon, Russell; Cole, Shaun; Colless, Matthew; Collins, Chris; Couch, Warrick; Dalton, Gavin; Driver, Simon; Ellis, Richard; Efstathiou, George; Folkes, Simon; Frenk, Carlos; Glazebrook, Karl; Kaiser, Nick; Lahav, Ofer; Lumsden, Stuart; Peterson, Bruce; Peacock, John; Sutherland, Will; Taylor, Keith
Spectroscopic observations for a new survey of 250 000 galaxy redshifts are underway, using the 2dF instrument at the AAT. The input galaxy catalogue and commissioning data are described. The first result from the preliminary data is a new estimate of the galaxy luminosity function at
The chemistry of H2D(+) in cold clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pagani, L.; Salez, M.; Wannier, P. G.
1992-05-01
A simple gas-phase, steady-state chemical model of H2D(+) is presented where the ortho/para ratio is investigated in detail. We show that thermal equilibrium should prevail above 20 K but that it is in cold clouds that the ortho form should be the most abundant contrarily to what is expected from thermal equilibrium alone, its abundance being several orders of magnitude larger than previously thought, in which case, cold clouds with high column densities should be the best places to search for this species. We discuss the upper limits derived from our observations (Pagani et al., 1992) in comparison with our model and also reexamine the relations between H2D(+) measurements, the DCO(+)/HCO(+) ratio and the abundances of H3(+), H2D(+), and of electrons in dark clouds. Recent findings in observational, theoretical and laboratory astrochemistry make it difficult to derive H3 and e(-) abundances from these measurements and thus make it difficult to derive the important H2D(+)/H3(+) ratio.
Rheological Properties of Quasi-2D Fluids in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stannarius, Ralf; Trittel, Torsten; Eremin, Alexey; Harth, Kirsten; Clark, Noel; Maclennan, Joseph; Glaser, Matthew; Park, Cheol; Hall, Nancy; Tin, Padetha
2015-01-01
In recent years, research on complex fluids and fluids in restricted geometries has attracted much attention in the scientific community. This can be attributed not only to the development of novel materials based on complex fluids but also to a variety of important physical phenomena which have barely been explored. One example is the behavior of membranes and thin fluid films, which can be described by two-dimensional (2D) rheology behavior that is quite different from 3D fluids. In this study, we have investigated the rheological properties of freely suspended films of a thermotropic liquid crystal in microgravity experiments. This model system mimics isotropic and anisotropic quasi 2D fluids [46]. We use inkjet printing technology to dispense small droplets (inclusions) onto the film surface. The motion of these inclusions provides information on the rheological properties of the films and allows the study of a variety of flow instabilities. Flat films have been investigated on a sub-orbital rocket flight and curved films (bubbles) have been studied in the ISS project OASIS. Microgravity is essential when the films are curved in order to avoid sedimentation. The experiments yield the mobility of the droplets in the films as well as the mutual mobility of pairs of particles. Experimental results will be presented for 2D-isotropic (smectic-A) and 2D-nematic (smectic-C) phases.
Optoelectronics of supported and suspended 2D semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolotin, Kirill
2014-03-01
Two-dimensional semiconductors, materials such monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are characterized by strong spin-orbit and electron-electron interactions. However, both electronic and optoelectronic properties of these materials are dominated by disorder-related scattering. In this talk, we investigate approaches to reduce scattering and explore physical phenomena arising in intrinsic 2D semiconductors. First, we discuss fabrication of pristine suspended monolayer MoS2 and use photocurrent spectroscopy measurements to study excitons in this material. We observe band-edge and van Hove singularity excitons and estimate their binding energies. Furthermore, we study dissociation of these excitons and uncover the mechanism of their contribution to photoresponse of MoS2. Second, we study strain-induced modification of bandstructures of 2D semiconductors. With increasing strain, we find large and controllable band gap reduction of both single- and bi-layer MoS2. We also detect experimental signatures consistent with strain-induced transition from direct to indirect band gap in monolayer MoS2. Finally, we fabricate heterostructures of dissimilar 2D semiconductors and study their photoresponse. For closely spaced 2D semiconductors we detect charge transfer, while for separation larger than 10nm we observe Forster-like energy transfer between excitations in different layers.
Optimal light harvesting in 2D semiconductor heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhesheng; Biscaras, Johan; Shukla, Abhay
2017-06-01
Optoelectronics with two dimensional (2D) heterostructures combining transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and other semiconductors in hybrid stacks is potentially promising because of the possibility of fabricating devices with high efficiency and new properties. Ultrafast charge transfer across the interface and long lifetime of carriers makes the vertical geometry attractive with respect to traditional bulk heterostructures. In such ultrathin structures, the multiple boundaries and the thickness of each material play a key role in the interaction of light with the device and can strongly influence the device performance. In this article we study light harvesting in 2D InSe/MoS2 semiconductor heterostructures by measuring Raman enhancement or attenuation as a function of layer thicknesses. Measurements are precisely reproduced by the calculation of the light emission, and the field distribution inside the heterostructure. Optimizing layer thickness and material interfaces has a significant effect on the light distribution in such 2D heterostructures with layer thickness in the region of a few tens of nanometers, providing a means to enhance the performance of emerging 2D semiconductor-heterostructure optoelectronics.
Volume Calculation of Venous Thrombosis Using 2D Ultrasound Images.
Dhibi, M; Puentes, J; Bressollette, L; Guias, B; Solaiman, B
2005-01-01
Venous thrombosis screening exams use 2D ultrasound images, from which medical experts obtain a rough idea of the thrombosis aspect and infer an approximate volume. Such estimation is essential to follow up the thrombosis evolution. This paper proposes a method to calculate venous thrombosis volume from non-parallel 2D ultrasound images, taking advantage of a priori knowledge about the thrombosis shape. An interactive ellipse fitting contour segmentation extracts the 2D thrombosis contours. Then, a Delaunay triangulation is applied to the set of 2D segmented contours positioned in 3D, and the area that each contour defines, to obtain a global thrombosis 3D surface reconstruction, with a dense triangulation inside the contours. Volume is calculated from the obtained surface and contours triangulation, using a maximum unit normal component approach. Preliminary results obtained on 3 plastic phantoms and 3 in vitro venous thromboses, as well as one in vivo case are presented and discussed. An error rate of volume estimation inferior to 4,5% for the plastic phantoms, and 3,5% for the in vitro venous thromboses was obtained.
ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python
Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.
2001-03-22
The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.
Discrepant Results in a 2-D Marble Collision
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalajian, Peter
2013-01-01
Video analysis of 2-D collisions is an excellent way to investigate conservation of linear momentum. The often-desired experimental design goal is to minimize the momentum loss in order to demonstrate the conservation law. An air table with colliding pucks is an ideal medium for this experiment, but such equipment is beyond the budget of many…
Yang, Yingchao; Li, Xing; Wen, Minru; ...
2016-11-03
An in situ quantitative tensile testing platform is developed in this paper to enable the uniform in-plane loading of a freestanding membrane of 2D materials inside a scanning electron microscope. The in situ tensile testing reveals the brittle fracture of large-area MoSe2 crystals and measures their fracture strength for the first time.
Generic Theory for Majorana Zero Modes in 2D Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Cheung; Zhang, Lin; Poon, Ting Fung Jeffrey; He, Ying-Ping; Wang, Yan-Qi; Liu, Xiong-Jun
2017-07-01
It is well known that non-Abelian Majorana zero modes (MZM) are located at vortex cores in a px+𝒾 py topological superconductor, which can be realized in a 2D spin-orbit coupled system with a single Fermi surface and by proximity coupling to an s -wave superconductor. Here we show that the existence of non-Abelian MZMs is unrelated to the bulk topology of a 2D superconductor, and propose that such exotic modes can result in a much broader range of superconductors, being topological or trivial. For a generic 2D system with multiple Fermi surfaces that is gapped out by superconducting pairings, we show that at least a single MZM survives if there are only an odd number of Fermi surfaces of which the corresponding superconducting orders have vortices; such a MZM is protected by an emergent Chern-Simons invariant, irrespective of the bulk topology of the superconductor. This result enriches new experimental schemes for realizing non-Abelian MZMs. In particular, we propose a minimal scheme to realize the MZMs in a 2D superconducting Dirac semimetal with trivial bulk topology, which can be well achieved based on recent cold-atom experiments.
Validation and testing of the VAM2D computer code
Kool, J.B.; Wu, Y.S. )
1991-10-01
This document describes two modeling studies conducted by HydroGeoLogic, Inc. for the US NRC under contract no. NRC-04089-090, entitled, Validation and Testing of the VAM2D Computer Code.'' VAM2D is a two-dimensional, variably saturated flow and transport code, with applications for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal. The computer code itself is documented in a separate NUREG document (NUREG/CR-5352, 1989). The studies presented in this report involve application of the VAM2D code to two diverse subsurface modeling problems. The first one involves modeling of infiltration and redistribution of water and solutes in an initially dry, heterogeneous field soil. This application involves detailed modeling over a relatively short, 9-month time period. The second problem pertains to the application of VAM2D to the modeling of a waste disposal facility in a fractured clay, over much larger space and time scales and with particular emphasis on the applicability and reliability of using equivalent porous medium approach for simulating flow and transport in fractured geologic media. Reflecting the separate and distinct nature of the two problems studied, this report is organized in two separate parts. 61 refs., 31 figs., 9 tabs.
Development of a MEMS 2D separations device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bloschock, Kristen P.; Flyer, Jonathan N.; Schneider, Thomas W.; Hussam, Abul; Van Keuren, Edward R.
2004-12-01
A polymer based biochip for rapid 2D separations of peptides, proteins, and other biomedically relevant molecules was designed and fabricated. Like traditional 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) methods, the device will allow molecules to separate based on isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight (MW). Our design, however, integrates both an initial capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) step followed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) in multiple parallel channels, all on a single microfluidic chip. Not only is the "lab-on-a-chip" design easier to use and less expensive, but the miniaturization of the device produces very rapid separations. Compared to traditional 2D-PAGE, which can take hours to complete, we estimate separation times on the order of seconds. Fluorescence detection will be used in the preliminary stages of testing, but the device also is equipped with integrated electrodes in the electrophoresis channels to perform multiplexed electrochemical detection for quantitative analysis. We will present preliminary results of the chip development and testing.
Studying Zeolite Catalysts with a 2D Model System
Boscoboinik, Anibal
2016-12-14
Anibal Boscoboinik, a materials scientist at Brookhavenâs Center for Functional Nanomaterials, discusses the surface-science tools and 2D model system he uses to study catalysis in nanoporous zeolites, which catalyze reactions in many industrial processes.
2D signature for detection and identification of drugs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Shen, Jingling; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei
2011-06-01
The method of spectral dynamics analysis (SDA-method) is used for obtaining the2D THz signature of drugs. This signature is used for the detection and identification of drugs with similar Fourier spectra by transmitted THz signal. We discuss the efficiency of SDA method for the identification problem of pure methamphetamine (MA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Ketamine.
2-D Finite Element Cable and Box IEMP Analysis
Scivner, G.J.; Turner, C.D.
1998-12-17
A 2-D finite element code has been developed for the solution of arbitrary geometry cable SGEMP and box IEMP problems. The quasi- static electric field equations with radiation- induced charge deposition and radiation-induced conductivity y are numerically solved on a triangular mesh. Multiple regions of different dielectric materials and multiple conductors are permitted.
Promising Thermoelectric Bulk Materials with 2D Structures.
Zhou, Yiming; Zhao, Li-Dong
2017-07-24
Given that more than two thirds of all energy is lost, mostly as waste heat, in utilization processes worldwide, thermoelectric materials, which can directly convert waste heat to electricity, provide an alternative option for optimizing energy utilization processes. After the prediction that superlattices may show high thermoelectric performance, various methods based on quantum effects and superlattice theory have been adopted to analyze bulk materials, leading to the rapid development of thermoelectric materials. Bulk materials with two-dimensional (2D) structures show outstanding properties, and their high performance originates from both their low thermal conductivity and high Seebeck coefficient due to their strong anisotropic features. Here, the advantages of superlattices for enhancing the thermoelectric performance, the transport mechanism in bulk materials with 2D structures, and optimization methods are discussed. The phenomenological transport mechanism in these materials indicates that thermal conductivities are reduced in 2D materials with intrinsically short mean free paths. Recent progress in the transport mechanisms of Bi2 Te3 -, SnSe-, and BiCuSeO-based systems is summarized. Finally, possible research directions to enhance the thermoelectric performance of bulk materials with 2D structures are briefly considered. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
NKG2D ligands mediate immunosurveillance of senescent cells
Moshayev, Zhana; Vadai, Ezra; Wensveen, Felix; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Golani, Ofra; Polic, Bojan; Krizhanovsky, Valery
2016-01-01
Cellular senescence is a stress response mechanism that limits tumorigenesis and tissue damage. Induction of cellular senescence commonly coincides with an immunogenic phenotype that promotes self-elimination by components of the immune system, thereby facilitating tumor suppression and limiting excess fibrosis during wound repair. The mechanisms by which senescent cells regulate their immune surveillance are not completely understood. Here we show that ligands of an activating Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor (NKG2D), MICA and ULBP2 are consistently up-regulated following induction of replicative senescence, oncogene-induced senescence and DNA damage - induced senescence. MICA and ULBP2 proteins are necessary for efficient NK-mediated cytotoxicity towards senescent fibroblasts. The mechanisms regulating the initial expression of NKG2D ligands in senescent cells are dependent on a DNA damage response, whilst continuous expression of these ligands is regulated by the ERK signaling pathway. In liver fibrosis, the accumulation of senescent activated stellate cells is increased in mice lacking NKG2D receptor leading to increased fibrosis. Overall, our results provide new insights into the mechanisms regulating the expression of immune ligands in senescent cells and reveal the importance of NKG2D receptor-ligand interaction in protecting against liver fibrosis. PMID:26878797
Electron hopping transport in 2D zinc oxide nanoflakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jian, Dunliang; Lai, Jian-Jhong; Lin, Yen-Fu; Zhai, Jianpang; Li, Irene Ling; Tian, Feng; Wang, Shulin; Hua, Ping; Ku, Ming-Ming; Jian, Wen-Bin; Ruan, Shuangchen; Tang, Zikang
2017-06-01
A sequential hydrothermal process was used to synthesize ZnO nanostructures on Si substrates. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures were inspected and presented a morphology of 2D structures, named nanoflakes. These ZnO nanoflakes had a thickness of tens of nanometers. An energy dispersive x-ray spectrum revealed their composition of only Zn and O elements. In addition, its crystalline structure was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The nanoflakes were then dispersed for another morphology measurement using atomic force microscopy and their average thickness was determined. The dispersed nanoflakes were further contacted with metal electrodes for electron transport measurements. Through the analysis of temperature-dependent resistivity, it was confirmed that the electron transport in such ZnO nanoflakes agrees well with the theory of Mott’s 2D variable range hopping. The nature of the 2D electron system in the ZnO nanoflakes points to potential applications of this 2D semiconductor as a new channel material for electronics.
2D nanomaterials based electrochemical biosensors for cancer diagnosis.
Wang, Lu; Xiong, Qirong; Xiao, Fei; Duan, Hongwei
2017-03-15
Cancer is a leading cause of death in the world. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that early diagnosis holds the key towards effective treatment outcome. Cancer biomarkers are extensively used in oncology for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Electrochemical sensors play key roles in current laboratory and clinical analysis of diverse chemical and biological targets. Recent development of functional nanomaterials offers new possibilities of improving the performance of electrochemical sensors. In particular, 2D nanomaterials have stimulated intense research due to their unique array of structural and chemical properties. The 2D materials of interest cover broadly across graphene, graphene derivatives (i.e., graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide), and graphene-like nanomaterials (i.e., 2D layered transition metal dichalcogenides, graphite carbon nitride and boron nitride nanomaterials). In this review, we summarize recent advances in the synthesis of 2D nanomaterials and their applications in electrochemical biosensing of cancer biomarkers (nucleic acids, proteins and some small molecules), and present a personal perspective on the future direction of this area.
Graphene band structure and its 2D Raman mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narula, Rohit; Reich, Stephanie
2014-08-01
High-precision simulations are used to generate the 2D Raman mode of graphene under a range of screening conditions and laser energies EL. We reproduce the decreasing trend of the 2D mode FWHM vs EL and the nearly linearly increasing dispersion ∂ω2D/∂EL seen experimentally in freestanding (unscreened) graphene, and propose relations between these experimentally accessible quantities and the local, two-dimensional gradients |∇ | of the electronic and TO phonon bands. In light of state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations that acutely treat the long-range e-e interactions of isolated graphene and its experimentally observed 2D Raman mode, our calculations determine a 40% greater slope of the TO phonons about K than given by explicit phonon measurements performed in graphite or GW phonon calculations in graphene. We also deduce the variation of the broadening energy γ [EL] for freestanding graphene and find a nominal value γ ˜140 meV, showing a gradually increasing trend for the range of frequencies available experimentally.
2D Orthogonal Locality Preserving Projection for Image Denoising.
Shikkenawis, Gitam; Mitra, Suman K
2016-01-01
Sparse representations using transform-domain techniques are widely used for better interpretation of the raw data. Orthogonal locality preserving projection (OLPP) is a linear technique that tries to preserve local structure of data in the transform domain as well. Vectorized nature of OLPP requires high-dimensional data to be converted to vector format, hence may lose spatial neighborhood information of raw data. On the other hand, processing 2D data directly, not only preserves spatial information, but also improves the computational efficiency considerably. The 2D OLPP is expected to learn the transformation from 2D data itself. This paper derives mathematical foundation for 2D OLPP. The proposed technique is used for image denoising task. Recent state-of-the-art approaches for image denoising work on two major hypotheses, i.e., non-local self-similarity and sparse linear approximations of the data. Locality preserving nature of the proposed approach automatically takes care of self-similarity present in the image while inferring sparse basis. A global basis is adequate for the entire image. The proposed approach outperforms several state-of-the-art image denoising approaches for gray-scale, color, and texture images.
Discrepant Results in a 2-D Marble Collision
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalajian, Peter
2013-01-01
Video analysis of 2-D collisions is an excellent way to investigate conservation of linear momentum. The often-desired experimental design goal is to minimize the momentum loss in order to demonstrate the conservation law. An air table with colliding pucks is an ideal medium for this experiment, but such equipment is beyond the budget of many…
2-D Imaging of Electron Temperature in Tokamak Plasmas
T. Munsat; E. Mazzucato; H. Park; C.W. Domier; M. Johnson; N.C. Luhmann Jr.; J. Wang; Z. Xia; I.G.J. Classen; A.J.H. Donne; M.J. van de Pol
2004-07-08
By taking advantage of recent developments in millimeter wave imaging technology, an Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) instrument, capable of simultaneously measuring 128 channels of localized electron temperature over a 2-D map in the poloidal plane, has been developed for the TEXTOR tokamak. Data from the new instrument, detailing the MHD activity associated with a sawtooth crash, is presented.
Efficiency of Pareto joint inversion of 2D geophysical data using global optimization methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miernik, Katarzyna; Bogacz, Adrian; Kozubal, Adam; Danek, Tomasz; Wojdyła, Marek
2016-04-01
Pareto joint inversion of two or more sets of data is a promising new tool of modern geophysical exploration. In the first stage of our investigation we created software enabling execution of forward solvers of two geophysical methods (2D magnetotelluric and gravity) as well as inversion with possibility of constraining solution with seismic data. In the algorithm solving MT forward solver Helmholtz's equations, finite element method and Dirichlet's boundary conditions were applied. Gravity forward solver was based on Talwani's algorithm. To limit dimensionality of solution space we decided to describe model as sets of polygons, using Sharp Boundary Interface (SBI) approach. The main inversion engine was created using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm adapted to handle two or more target functions and to prevent acceptance of solutions which are non - realistic or incompatible with Pareto scheme. Each inversion run generates single Pareto solution, which can be added to Pareto Front. The PSO inversion engine was parallelized using OpenMP standard, what enabled execution code for practically unlimited amount of threads at once. Thereby computing time of inversion process was significantly decreased. Furthermore, computing efficiency increases with number of PSO iterations. In this contribution we analyze the efficiency of created software solution taking under consideration details of chosen global optimization engine used as a main joint minimization engine. Additionally we study the scale of possible decrease of computational time caused by different methods of parallelization applied for both forward solvers and inversion algorithm. All tests were done for 2D magnetotelluric and gravity data based on real geological media. Obtained results show that even for relatively simple mid end computational infrastructure proposed solution of inversion problem can be applied in practice and used for real life problems of geophysical inversion and interpretation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Fearn, Jamie M.; Brownson, Dale A. C.; Smith, Graham C.; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E.
2016-08-01
Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm-2 modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR.Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets
The NH2D hyperfine structure revealed by astrophysical observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daniel, F.; Coudert, L. H.; Punanova, A.; Harju, J.; Faure, A.; Roueff, E.; Sipilä, O.; Caselli, P.; Güsten, R.; Pon, A.; Pineda, J. E.
2016-02-01
Context. The 111-101 lines of ortho- and para-NH2D (o/p-NH2D) at 86 and 110 GHz, respectively, are commonly observed to provide constraints on the deuterium fractionation in the interstellar medium. In cold regions, the hyperfine structure that is due to the nitrogen (14N) nucleus is resolved. To date, this splitting is the only one that is taken into account in the NH2D column density estimates. Aims: We investigate how including the hyperfine splitting caused by the deuterium (D) nucleus affects the analysis of the rotational lines of NH2D. Methods: We present 30 m IRAM observations of the above mentioned lines and APEX o/p-NH2D observations of the 101-000 lines at 333 GHz. The hyperfine patterns of the observed lines were calculated taking into account the splitting induced by the D nucleus. The analysis then relies on line lists that either neglect or include the splitting induced by the D nucleus. Results: The hyperfine spectra are first analyzed with a line list that only includes the hyperfine splitting that is due to the 14N nucleus. We find inconsistencies between the line widths of the 101-000 and 111-101 lines, the latter being larger by a factor of ~1.6 ± 0.3. Such a large difference is unexpected because the two sets of lines probably originate from the same region. We next employed a newly computed line list for the o/p-NH2D transitions where the hyperfine structure induced by both nitrogen and deuterium nuclei was included. With this new line list, the analysis of the previous spectra leads to compatible line widths. Conclusions: Neglecting the hyperfine structure caused by D leads to overestimating the line widths of the o/p-NH2D lines at 3 mm. The error for a cold molecular core is about 50%. This error propagates directly to the column density estimate. We therefore recommend to take the hyperfine splittings caused by both the 14N and D nuclei into account in any analysis that relies on these lines. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM
Giaddui, T; Yu, J; Xiao, Y; Jacobs, P; Manfredi, D; Linnemann, N
2015-06-15
Purpose: 2D-2D kV image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) credentialing evaluation for clinical trial qualification was historically qualitative through submitting screen captures of the fusion process. However, as quantitative DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D image registration tools are implemented in clinical practice for better precision, especially in centers that treat patients with protons, better IGRT credentialing techniques are needed. The aim of this work is to establish methodologies for quantitatively reviewing IGRT submissions based on DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D image registration and to test the methodologies in reviewing 2D-2D and 2D-3D IGRT submissions for RTOG/NRG Oncology clinical trials qualifications. Methods: DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D automated and manual image registration have been tested using the Harmony tool in MIM software. 2D kV orthogonal portal images are fused with the reference digital reconstructed radiographs (DRR) in the 2D-2D registration while the 2D portal images are fused with DICOM planning CT image in the 2D-3D registration. The Harmony tool allows alignment of the two images used in the registration process and also calculates the required shifts. Shifts calculated using MIM are compared with those submitted by institutions for IGRT credentialing. Reported shifts are considered to be acceptable if differences are less than 3mm. Results: Several tests have been performed on the 2D-2D and 2D-3D registration. The results indicated good agreement between submitted and calculated shifts. A workflow for reviewing these IGRT submissions has been developed and will eventually be used to review IGRT submissions. Conclusion: The IROC Philadelphia RTQA center has developed and tested a new workflow for reviewing DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D IGRT credentialing submissions made by different cancer clinical centers, especially proton centers. NRG Center for Innovation in Radiation Oncology (CIRO) and IROC RTQA center continue their collaborative efforts to enhance
2D/3D Image Registration using Regression Learning
Chou, Chen-Rui; Frederick, Brandon; Mageras, Gig; Chang, Sha; Pizer, Stephen
2013-01-01
In computer vision and image analysis, image registration between 2D projections and a 3D image that achieves high accuracy and near real-time computation is challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel method that can rapidly detect an object’s 3D rigid motion or deformation from a 2D projection image or a small set thereof. The method is called CLARET (Correction via Limited-Angle Residues in External Beam Therapy) and consists of two stages: registration preceded by shape space and regression learning. In the registration stage, linear operators are used to iteratively estimate the motion/deformation parameters based on the current intensity residue between the target projec-tion(s) and the digitally reconstructed radiograph(s) (DRRs) of the estimated 3D image. The method determines the linear operators via a two-step learning process. First, it builds a low-order parametric model of the image region’s motion/deformation shape space from its prior 3D images. Second, using learning-time samples produced from the 3D images, it formulates the relationships between the model parameters and the co-varying 2D projection intensity residues by multi-scale linear regressions. The calculated multi-scale regression matrices yield the coarse-to-fine linear operators used in estimating the model parameters from the 2D projection intensity residues in the registration. The method’s application to Image-guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) requires only a few seconds and yields good results in localizing a tumor under rigid motion in the head and neck and under respiratory deformation in the lung, using one treatment-time imaging 2D projection or a small set thereof. PMID:24058278
Relaxation-Assisted 2D IR Using Weak Vibrational Modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurochkin, Dmitry V.; Naraharisetty, Sri Ram G.; Rubtsov, Igor V.
Implementation of weak IR modes as structural reporters via dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy is demonstrated. Prominent cross peaks originated from interactions of C≡N with C=O and C≡N with C=C modes were measured in 3-cyanocoumarin using heterodyned three-pulse photon-echo technique. In 4-acetylbenzonitrile, where the distance between CN and CO groups is over two times larger than in 3-cyanocoumarin, the direct coupling was just below the level of detectivity. A new method of measuring 2D spectra is proposed that utilizes vibrational relaxation phenomena. Using the new method the cross peaks at (ωCN, ωCO) has easily been detected; over six times increase of the cross-peak amplitude has been observed when the waiting time between the second and third pulses, T, was varied. Calculations show that using this approach vibrational modes separated by over 7-10 Å can be used as structural probes enhancing substantially detectable distances via 2D IR, especially when weak IR modes are used. We have also demonstrated implementation of C-D stretching modes as structural reporters. Although C-D modes have very small transition dipoles, interaction with C≡N mode has been cleanly detected in acetonitrile-D3. As C-H groups are widespread in organic molecules, the deuterium can be placed in the vicinity of virtually any group. Implementation of new labels, reinforced by vibrational-relaxation-assisted 2D IR method, provides universal labeling strategies for structure determination via 2D IR.
Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin
2016-10-01
Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule—CN—noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology.
Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks.
Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin
2016-10-26
Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule-CN-noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology.
2d-LCA - an alternative to x-wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puczylowski, Jaroslaw; Hölling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim
2014-11-01
The 2d-Laser Cantilever Anemometer (2d-LCA) is an innovative sensor for two-dimensional velocity measurements in fluids. It uses a micostructured cantilever made of silicon and SU-8 as a sensing element and is capable of performing mesurements with extremly high temporal resolutions up to 150 kHz. The size of the cantilever defines its spatial resolution, which is in the order of 150 μm only. Another big feature is a large angular range of 180° in total. The 2d-LCA has been developed as an alternative measurement method to x-wires with the motivation to create a sensor that can operate in areas where the use of hot-wire anemometry is difficult. These areas include measurements in liquids and in near-wall or particle-laden flows. Unlike hot-wires, the resolution power of the 2d-LCA does not decrease with increasing flow velocity, making it particularly suitable for measurements in high speed flows. Comparative measurements with the 2d-LCA and hot-wires have been carried out in order to assess the performance of the new anemometer. The data of both measurement techniques were analyzed using the same stochastic methods including a spectral analysis as well as an inspection of increment statistics and structure functions. Furthermore, key parameters, such as mean values of both velocity components, angles of attack and the characteristic length scales were determined from both data sets. The analysis reveals a great agreement between both anemometers and thus confirms the new approach.
Liquid-like 2D plasmonic waves (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Baile
2017-05-01
We predict some novel 2D plasmonic waves as analogues of corresponding hydrodynamic wave phenomena, including plasmonic splashing and V-shaped ship-wakes excited by a swift electron perpendicularly impacting upon and moving parallel above a graphene monolayer, respectively. 2D plasmons have fueled substantial research efforts in the past few years. Recent studies have identified that 2D plasmons exhibit peculiar dispersion that is formally analogous to hydrodynamic deep-water-waves on a 2D liquid surface. Logically, many intricate and intriguing hydrodynamic wave phenomena, such as the splashing stimulated by a droplet or stone impacting a calm liquid surface and the V-shaped ship-wakes generated behind a ship when it travels over a water surface, should have counterparts in 2D plasmons, but have not been studied. We fill this gap by investigating dynamic excitation of graphene plasmons when a monolayer graphene is perpendicularly impacted by a swift electron, as an analogue of hydrodynamic splashing. A central jet-like rise, called "Rayleigh jet" or "Worthington jet" as a hallmark in hydrodynamic splashing, is demonstrated as an excessive concentration of graphene plasmons, followed by plasmonic ripples dispersing like concentric ripples of deep-water waves. This plasmonic jet, serving as a monopole antenna, can generate radiation as analogue of splashing sound. This is also the first discussion on the space-time limitation on surface plasmon generation. We then demonstrate a V-shaped plasmonic wave pattern when a swift electron moves parallel above a graphene monolayer, as an analogue of hydrodynamic ship-wakes. The plasmonic wake angle is found to be the same with the Kelvin angle and thus insensitive to the electron velocity when the electron velocity is small. However, the wake angle gradually decreases by increasing the electron's velocity when the electron velocity is large, and thus transits into the Mach angle, being similar to recent development in fluid
2D/3D Image Registration using Regression Learning.
Chou, Chen-Rui; Frederick, Brandon; Mageras, Gig; Chang, Sha; Pizer, Stephen
2013-09-01
In computer vision and image analysis, image registration between 2D projections and a 3D image that achieves high accuracy and near real-time computation is challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel method that can rapidly detect an object's 3D rigid motion or deformation from a 2D projection image or a small set thereof. The method is called CLARET (Correction via Limited-Angle Residues in External Beam Therapy) and consists of two stages: registration preceded by shape space and regression learning. In the registration stage, linear operators are used to iteratively estimate the motion/deformation parameters based on the current intensity residue between the target projec-tion(s) and the digitally reconstructed radiograph(s) (DRRs) of the estimated 3D image. The method determines the linear operators via a two-step learning process. First, it builds a low-order parametric model of the image region's motion/deformation shape space from its prior 3D images. Second, using learning-time samples produced from the 3D images, it formulates the relationships between the model parameters and the co-varying 2D projection intensity residues by multi-scale linear regressions. The calculated multi-scale regression matrices yield the coarse-to-fine linear operators used in estimating the model parameters from the 2D projection intensity residues in the registration. The method's application to Image-guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) requires only a few seconds and yields good results in localizing a tumor under rigid motion in the head and neck and under respiratory deformation in the lung, using one treatment-time imaging 2D projection or a small set thereof.
Preliminary 2D numerical modeling of common granular problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wyser, Emmanuel; Jaboyedoff, Michel
2017-04-01
Granular studies received an increasing interest during the last decade. Many scientific investigations were successfully addressed to acknowledge the ubiquitous behavior of granular matter. We investigate liquid impacts onto granular beds, i.e. the influence of the packing and compaction-dilation transition. However, a physically-based model is still lacking to address complex microscopic features of granular bed response during liquid impacts such as compaction-dilation transition or granular bed uplifts (Wyser et al. in review). We present our preliminary 2D numerical modeling based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM) using nonlinear contact force law (the Hertz-Mindlin model) for disk shape particles. The algorithm is written in C programming language. Our 2D model provides an analytical tool to address granular problems such as i) granular collapses and ii) static granular assembliy problems. This provides a validation framework of our numerical approach by comparing our numerical results with previous laboratory experiments or numerical works. Inspired by the work of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005), we studied i) the axisymetric collapse of granular columns. We addressed the scaling between the initial aspect ratio and the final runout distance. Our numerical results are in good aggreement with the previous studies of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005). ii) Reproducing static problems for regular and randomly stacked particles provides a valid comparison to results of Egholm (2007). Vertical and horizontal stresses within the assembly are quite identical to stresses obtained by Egholm (2007), thus demonstating the consistency of our 2D numerical model. Our 2D numerical model is able to reproduce common granular case studies such as granular collapses or static problems. However, a sufficient small timestep should be used to ensure a good numerical consistency, resulting in higher computational time. The latter becomes critical
Beyond Graphene: Electronic and Mechanical Properties of Defective 2-D Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terrones, Humberto
One of the challenges in the production of 2-D materials is the synthesis of defect free systems which can achieve the desired properties for novel applications. However, the reality so far indicates that we need to deal with defective systems and understand their main features in order to perform defect engineering in such a way that we can engineer a new material. In this talk I discuss first, the introduction of defects in a hierarchic way starting from 2-D graphene to form giant Schwarzites or graphene foams, which also can exhibit further defects, thus we can have several levels of defectiveness. In this context, it will be shown that giant Schwarzites, depending on their symmetry, can exhibit Dirac-Fermion behavior and further, possess protected topological states as shown by other authors. Regarding the mechanical properties of these systems, it is possible to tune the Poisson Ratio by the addition of defects, thus shedding light to the explanation of the almost zero Poisson ratios in experimentally obtained graphene foams. Second, the idea of Haeckelites, a planar sp2 graphene-like structure with heptagons and pentagons, can be extended to transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with square and octagonal-like defects, finding semi-metallic behaviors with Dirac-Fermions, and even topological insulating properties. National Science Foundation (EFRI-1433311).
Three-dimensional reconstruction from multiple 2D views using trilinear tensor technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gershon, Ron; Benady, Meny; Shalom, Tamir
2001-04-01
This paper presents a novel system for reconstructing the 3D structure of free-form objects using three 2D images acquired simultaneously. The approach is to first describe the 3D-from-2D problem in projective space in which structure is defined relative to some virtual plane. The projective approach allows combining the two families of parameters into one set that can be recovered linearly in a straightforward manner. The linearity of the process also ensures a unique and stable solution, which is a key factor for obtaining automation of the measurement process. Moreover, the geometric and algebraic constraints of the 3D-from-2D problem, including the combination with photometric constraints, are described by a unique family of multi-linear equations whose coefficients form a tensor, known as the "tri-linear tensor". One of the key features of the tensor is that it describes the 3D-from-2D constraints under all possible situations, i.e., it is not subject to any form of singularities. The system has been implemented as a portable non-contact 3D-measurement device, which is capable of measuring objects with accuracy levels ranging from 30-100 microns for the entire object. Being a robust and portable system that can be placed close to the measured objects, it covers large areas with single digital images. The outputs provided by the system can be surfaces, edges, holes, cross-sections and other reports as requested by users. The system can be used for numerous applications such as design (digitization of clay models), die and mold correction, parts measurement, prototype assembly, quality control and reverse engineering. The benefits over previous techniques, such as contact measurement ones, are the portability, capability of operating in uncontrolled environments such as production lines and the much higher throughput.
2D-2D tunneling field-effect transistors using WSe2/SnSe2 heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Tania; Tosun, Mahmut; Hettick, Mark; Ahn, Geun Ho; Hu, Chenming; Javey, Ali
2016-02-01
Two-dimensional materials present a versatile platform for developing steep transistors due to their uniform thickness and sharp band edges. We demonstrate 2D-2D tunneling in a WSe2/SnSe2 van der Waals vertical heterojunction device, where WSe2 is used as the gate controlled p-layer and SnSe2 is the degenerately n-type layer. The van der Waals gap facilitates the regulation of band alignment at the heterojunction, without the necessity of a tunneling barrier. ZrO2 is used as the gate dielectric, allowing the scaling of gate oxide to improve device subthreshold swing. Efficient gate control and clean interfaces yield a subthreshold swing of ˜100 mV/dec for >2 decades of drain current at room temperature, hitherto unobserved in 2D-2D tunneling devices. The subthreshold swing is independent of temperature, which is a clear signature of band-to-band tunneling at the heterojunction. A maximum switching ratio ION/IOFF of 107 is obtained. Negative differential resistance in the forward bias characteristics is observed at 77 K. This work bodes well for the possibilities of two-dimensional materials for the realization of energy-efficient future-generation electronics.
Scanning-mode 2D acoustic radiation force impulse (s2D-ARFI) imaging based on GPU acceleration.
Wang, Congzhi; Zeng, Bo; Qiu, Weibao; Zheng, Hairong
2014-01-01
Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technique is a quantitative method for tissue stiffness assessment. It has been proved to be less operator dependent than the quasi-static elastography, and has more simple hardware architecture than the supersonic shearwave imaging (SSI) technique, which make it easier to be miniaturized for some special clinical applications. However, unlike the SSI, ARFI cannot provide real-time 2D images of tissue stiffness distribution mainly due to its data-intensive and time-consuming algorithms. In this study, the algorithms of ARFI were modified and improved to fit for the parallel computation on graphics processing unit (GPU), and the quasi-real-time scanning-mode 2D ARFI images (s2D-ARFI) were implemented on a self-developed compact system. High ratio of the time consumptions between the algorithms using CPU and using GPU has been verified, and it was also proved that there was no distinct difference between the stiffness images obtained by these two methods. The s2D-ARFI provides us an additional choice for quantitatively imaging the tissue stiffness, and has a potential to be miniaturized and used in the emergency treatments in field first-aid and the donor evaluation for organ transplantation.
A scanning-mode 2D shear wave imaging (s2D-SWI) system for ultrasound elastography.
Qiu, Weibao; Wang, Congzhi; Li, Yongchuan; Zhou, Juan; Yang, Ge; Xiao, Yang; Feng, Ge; Jin, Qiaofeng; Mu, Peitian; Qian, Ming; Zheng, Hairong
2015-09-01
Ultrasound elastography is widely used for the non-invasive measurement of tissue elasticity properties. Shear wave imaging (SWI) is a quantitative method for assessing tissue stiffness. SWI has been demonstrated to be less operator dependent than quasi-static elastography, and has the ability to acquire quantitative elasticity information in contrast with acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. However, traditional SWI implementations cannot acquire two dimensional (2D) quantitative images of the tissue elasticity distribution. This study proposes and evaluates a scanning-mode 2D SWI (s2D-SWI) system. The hardware and image processing algorithms are presented in detail. Programmable devices are used to support flexible control of the system and the image processing algorithms. An analytic signal based cross-correlation method and a Radon transformation based shear wave speed determination method are proposed, which can be implemented using parallel computation. Imaging of tissue mimicking phantoms, and in vitro, and in vivo imaging test are conducted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed system. The s2D-SWI system represents a new choice for the quantitative mapping of tissue elasticity, and has great potential for implementation in commercial ultrasound scanners.
2-D linear motion system. Innovative technology summary report
1998-11-01
The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program requires buildings to be decontaminated, decommissioned, and surveyed for radiological contamination in an expeditious and cost-effective manner. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. D and D workers must perform duties high off the ground, requiring the use of manlifts or scaffolding, often, in radiologically or chemically contaminated areas or in areas with limited access. Survey and decontamination instruments that are used are sometimes heavy or awkward to use, particularly when the worker is operating from a manlift or scaffolding. Finding alternative methods of performing such work on manlifts or scaffolding is important. The 2-D Linear Motion System (2-D LMS), also known as the Wall Walker{trademark}, is designed to remotely position tools and instruments on walls for use in such activities as radiation surveys, decontamination, and painting. Traditional (baseline) methods for operating equipment for these tasks require workers to perform duties on elevated platforms, sometimes several meters above the ground surface and near potential sources of contamination. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS significantly improves health and safety conditions by facilitating remote operation of equipment. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS performed well in a demonstration of its precision, accuracy, maneuverability, payload capacity, and ease of use. Thus, this innovative technology is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to standard methods of performing work on large, high walls, especially those that have potential contamination concerns. The Wall Walker was used to perform a final release radiological survey on over 167 m{sup 2} of walls. In this application, surveying using a traditional (baseline) method that employs an aerial lift for manual access was 64% of the total cost of the improved technology
Instantons in 2D U(1) Higgs model and 2D CP(N-1) sigma models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lian, Yaogang
2007-12-01
In this thesis I present the results of a study of the topological structures of 2D U(1) Higgs model and 2D CP N-1 sigma models. Both models have been studied using the overlap Dirac operator construction of topological charge density. The overlap operator provides a more incisive probe into the local topological structure of gauge field configurations than the traditional plaquette-based operator. In the 2D U(1) Higgs model, we show that classical instantons with finite sizes violate the negativity of topological charge correlator by giving a positive contribution to the correlator at non-zero separation. We argue that instantons in 2D U(1) Higgs model must be accompanied by large quantum fluctuations in order to solve this contradiction. In 2D CPN-1 sigma models, we observe the anomalous scaling behavior of the topological susceptibility chi t for N ≤ 3. The divergence of chi t in these models is traced to the presence of small instantons with a radius of order a (= lattice spacing), which are directly observed on the lattice. The observation of these small instantons provides detailed confirmation of Luscher's argument that such short-distance excitations, with quantized topological charge, should be the dominant topological fluctuations in CP1 and CP 2, leading to a divergent topological susceptibility in the continuum limit. For the CPN-1 models with N > 3 the topological susceptibility is observed to scale properly with the mass gap. Another topic presented in this thesis is an implementation of the Zolotarev optimal rational approximation for the overlap Dirac operator. This new implementation has reduced the time complexity of the overlap routine from O(N3 ) to O(N), where N is the total number of sites on the lattice. This opens up a door to more accurate lattice measurements in the future.
Gressier, F; Verstuyft, C; Hardy, P; Becquemont, L; Corruble, E
2015-01-01
The cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is involved in the metabolism of most antidepressants. Comedication with a potent CYP2D6 inhibitor can convert patients with extensive metabolizer (EM) or ultra-rapid metabolizer (UM) genotypes into poor metabolizer (PM) phenotypes. Since comedication is frequent in depressed patients treated with antidepressants, we investigated the effect of the CYP2D6 composite phenotype on antidepressant efficacy, taking into account both the CYP2D6 genotype and comedication with CYP2D6 inhibitors. 87 Caucasian in patients with a major depressive episode were prospectively treated with flexible doses of antidepressant monotherapy as well as comedications and genotyped for the major CYP2D6 alleles (CYP2D6*3 rs35742686, *4 rs3892097, *5 del, *6 rs5030655, and *2xN). They were classified for CYP2D6 composite phenotype and assessed for antidepressant response after 4 weeks. In terms of genotypes (g), 6 subjects were UMg, 6 PMg, and 75 EMg. Ten patients were coprescribed a CYP2D6 inhibitor, resulting in the following composite phenotypes (cp): 5 UMcp, 16 PMcp, and 66 EMcp. Whereas none of the CYP2D6 genotypes were significantly associated with antidepressant response, UMcp had a lower antidepressant response than PMcp or EMcp (respectively: 39.0 ± 17.9, 50.0 ± 26.0, and 61.6 ± 23.4, p = 0.02). Despite small sample size, this study suggests that a CYP2D6 composite phenotype, taking into account both genotype and comedications with CYP2D6 inhibitors, could predict CYP2D6 substrate antidepressants response. Thus, to optimize antidepressant response, CYP2D6 genotype could be performed and comedications with CYP2D6 inhibitors should be avoided, when prescribing CYP2D6 substrate antidepressants.
Enhanced automated platform for 2D characterization of RFID communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vuza, Dan Tudor; Vlǎdescu, Marian
2016-12-01
The characterization of the quality of communication between an RFID reader and a transponder at all expected positions of the latter on the reader antenna is of primal importance for the evaluation of performance of an RFID system. Continuing the line of instruments developed for this purpose by the authors, the present work proposes an enhanced version of a previously introduced automated platform for 2D evaluation. By featuring higher performance in terms of mechanical speed, the new version allows to obtain 2D maps of communication with a higher resolution that would have been prohibitive in terms of test duration with the previous version. The list of measurement procedures that can be executed with the platform is now enlarged with additional ones, such as the determination of the variation of the magnetic coupling between transponder and antenna across the antenna surface and the utilization of transponder simulators for evaluation of the quality of communication.
D2-D1 phase transition of columnar liquid crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Y. F.; Swift, J.
1986-04-01
The D2-D1 phase transition in columnar liquid crystals of the HAT series [e.g., HAT11 (triphenelene hexa-n-dodecanoate)] is discussed within the framework of Landau theory. The order parameters which describe the transition are abstracted from a tensor density function, and are associated with two irreducible representations of the symmetry group of the high-temperature D2 phase. A mechanism for a first-order transition is then suggested in accordance with both theoretical considerations and the experimental result for the D2-D1 transition. Two possible arrangements of the herringbone structure of the D1 phase are obtained, each of which gives six orientational states in the low-temperature D1 phase.
Calculation of wakefields in 2D rectangular structures
Zagorodnov, I.; Bane, K. L. F.; Stupakov, G.
2015-10-19
We consider the calculation of electromagnetic fields generated by an electron bunch passing through a vacuum chamber structure that, in general, consists of an entry pipe, followed by some kind of transition or cavity, and ending in an exit pipe. We limit our study to structures having rectangular cross section, where the height can vary as function of longitudinal coordinate but the width and side walls remain fixed. For such structures, we derive a Fourier representation of the wake potentials through one-dimensional functions. A new numerical approach for calculating the wakes in such structures is proposed and implemented in themore » computer code echo(2d). The computation resource requirements for this approach are moderate and comparable to those for finding the wakes in 2D rotationally symmetric structures. Finally, we present numerical examples obtained with the new numerical code.« less
Controlling avalanche criticality in 2D nano arrays.
Zohar, Y C; Yochelis, S; Dahmen, K A; Jung, G; Paltiel, Y
2013-01-01
Many physical systems respond to slowly changing external force through avalanches spanning broad range of sizes. Some systems crackle even without apparent external force, such as bursts of neuronal activity or charge transfer avalanches in 2D molecular layers. Advanced development of theoretical models describing disorder-induced critical phenomena calls for experiments probing the dynamics upon tuneable disorder. Here we show that isomeric structural transitions in 2D organic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) exhibit critical dynamics with experimentally tuneable disorder. The system consists of field effect transistor coupled through SAM to illuminated semiconducting nanocrystals (NCs). Charges photoinduced in NCs are transferred through SAM to the transistor surface and modulate its conductivity. Avalanches of isomeric structural transitions are revealed by measuring the current noise I(t) of the transistor. Accumulated surface traps charges reduce dipole moments of the molecules, decrease their coupling, and thus decrease the critical disorder of the SAM enabling its tuning during experiments.
Controlling avalanche criticality in 2D nano arrays
Zohar, Y. C.; Yochelis, S.; Dahmen, K. A.; Jung, G.; Paltiel, Y.
2013-01-01
Many physical systems respond to slowly changing external force through avalanches spanning broad range of sizes. Some systems crackle even without apparent external force, such as bursts of neuronal activity or charge transfer avalanches in 2D molecular layers. Advanced development of theoretical models describing disorder-induced critical phenomena calls for experiments probing the dynamics upon tuneable disorder. Here we show that isomeric structural transitions in 2D organic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) exhibit critical dynamics with experimentally tuneable disorder. The system consists of field effect transistor coupled through SAM to illuminated semiconducting nanocrystals (NCs). Charges photoinduced in NCs are transferred through SAM to the transistor surface and modulate its conductivity. Avalanches of isomeric structural transitions are revealed by measuring the current noise I(t) of the transistor. Accumulated surface traps charges reduce dipole moments of the molecules, decrease their coupling, and thus decrease the critical disorder of the SAM enabling its tuning during experiments. PMID:23677142
TRO-2D - A code for rational transonic aerodynamic optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, W. H., Jr.
1985-01-01
Features and sample applications of the transonic rational optimization (TRO-2D) code are outlined. TRO-2D includes the airfoil analysis code FLO-36, the CONMIN optimization code and a rational approach to defining aero-function shapes for geometry modification. The program is part of an effort to develop an aerodynamically smart optimizer that will simplify and shorten the design process. The user has a selection of drag minimization and associated minimum lift, moment, and the pressure distribution, a choice among 14 resident aero-function shapes, and options on aerodynamic and geometric constraints. Design variables such as the angle of attack, leading edge radius and camber, shock strength and movement, supersonic pressure plateau control, etc., are discussed. The results of calculations of a reduced leading edge camber transonic airfoil and an airfoil with a natural laminar flow are provided, showing that only four design variables need be specified to obtain satisfactory results.
FPCAS2D user's guide, version 1.0
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bakhle, Milind A.
1994-01-01
The FPCAS2D computer code has been developed for aeroelastic stability analysis of bladed disks such as those in fans, compressors, turbines, propellers, or propfans. The aerodynamic analysis used in this code is based on the unsteady two-dimensional full potential equation which is solved for a cascade of blades. The structural analysis is based on a two degree-of-freedom rigid typical section model for each blade. Detailed explanations of the aerodynamic analysis, the numerical algorithms, and the aeroelastic analysis are not given in this report. This guide can be used to assist in the preparation of the input data required by the FPCAS2D code. A complete description of the input data is provided in this report. In addition, four test cases, including inputs and outputs, are provided.
Users manual for the laser welding code WELD2D
Russo, A.J.
1984-04-01
The two-dimensional laser welding code, WELD2D, was developed to model the conduction mode welding (weld pool motions are not considered) of common metals. For butt welded configurations two dissimilar materials may be used. Either Gaussian or uniform laser beam power distributions may be selected and insulated or conducting ends can be treated. Specification of the laser wavelength, energy per pulse, pulse duration and repetition rate is required as input and the temperature field and molten pool shape are calculated as functions of time. Currently material parameters for six metals, aluminum, nickel, steel, molybdenum, copper and silicon are included in the code; however, these may be modified or expanded easily with simple changes to data records. This report is a users manual for WELD2D and contains a description of the models employed, code usage, and sample calculations.
Transition to chaos in an open unforced 2D flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pulliam, Thomas H.; Vastano, John A.
1993-01-01
The present numerical study of unsteady, low Reynolds number flow past a 2D airfoil attempts to ascertain the bifurcation sequence leading from simple periodic to complex aperiodic flow with rising Reynolds number, as well as to characterize the degree of chaos present in the aperiodic flow and assess the role of numerics in the modification and control of the observed bifurcation scenario. The ARC2D Navier-Stokes code is used in an unsteady time-accurate mode for most of these computations. The system undergoes a period-doubling bifurcation to chaos as the Reynolds number is increased from 800 to 1600; its chaotic attractors are characterized by estimates of the fractal dimension and partial Liapunov exponent spectra.
A Better 2-D Mechanical Energy Conservation Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paesler, Michael
2012-02-01
A variety of simple classical mechanics energy conservation experiments are used in teaching laboratories. Typical one-dimensional (1-D) setups may involve falling balls or oscillating springs. Many of these can be quite satisfying in that students can confirm—within a few percent—that mechanical energy is conserved. Students generally have little trouble identifying discrepancies such as the loss of a few percent of the gravitational potential energy due to air friction encountered by a falling ball. Two-dimensional (2-D) systems can require more sophisticated analysis for higher level laboratories, but such systems often incorporate complicating components that can make the exercise academically incomplete and experimentally less accurate. The following describes a simple 2-D energy conservation experiment based on the popular "Newton's Cradle" toy that allows students to account for nearly all of the mechanical energy in the system in an academically complete analysis.
Optimizing sparse sampling for 2D electronic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roeding, Sebastian; Klimovich, Nikita; Brixner, Tobias
2017-02-01
We present a new data acquisition concept using optimized non-uniform sampling and compressed sensing reconstruction in order to substantially decrease the acquisition times in action-based multidimensional electronic spectroscopy. For this we acquire a regularly sampled reference data set at a fixed population time and use a genetic algorithm to optimize a reduced non-uniform sampling pattern. We then apply the optimal sampling for data acquisition at all other population times. Furthermore, we show how to transform two-dimensional (2D) spectra into a joint 4D time-frequency von Neumann representation. This leads to increased sparsity compared to the Fourier domain and to improved reconstruction. We demonstrate this approach by recovering transient dynamics in the 2D spectrum of a cresyl violet sample using just 25% of the originally sampled data points.
Extreme Growth of Enstrophy on 2D Bounded Domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Protas, Bartosz; Sliwiak, Adam
2016-11-01
We study the vortex states responsible for the largest instantaneous growth of enstrophy possible in viscous incompressible flow on 2D bounded domain. The goal is to compare these results with estimates obtained using mathematical analysis. This problem is closely related to analogous questions recently considered in the periodic setting on 1D, 2D and 3D domains. In addition to systematically characterizing the most extreme behavior, these problems are also closely related to the open question of the finite-time singularity formation in the 3D Navier-Stokes system. We demonstrate how such extreme vortex states can be found as solutions of constrained variational optimization problems which in the limit of small enstrophy reduce to eigenvalue problems. Computational results will be presented for circular and square domains emphasizing the effect of geometric singularities (corners of the domain) on the structure of the extreme vortex states. Supported by an NSERC (Canada) Discovery Grant.
Transition to chaos in an open unforced 2D flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pulliam, Thomas H.; Vastano, John A.
1993-01-01
The present numerical study of unsteady, low Reynolds number flow past a 2D airfoil attempts to ascertain the bifurcation sequence leading from simple periodic to complex aperiodic flow with rising Reynolds number, as well as to characterize the degree of chaos present in the aperiodic flow and assess the role of numerics in the modification and control of the observed bifurcation scenario. The ARC2D Navier-Stokes code is used in an unsteady time-accurate mode for most of these computations. The system undergoes a period-doubling bifurcation to chaos as the Reynolds number is increased from 800 to 1600; its chaotic attractors are characterized by estimates of the fractal dimension and partial Liapunov exponent spectra.
Hard and Soft Physics with 2D Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McEuen, Paul
With their remarkable structural, thermal, mechanical, optical, chemical, and electronic properties, 2D materials are truly special. For example, a graphene sheet can be made into a high-performance transistor, but it is also the ultimate realization of a thin mechanical sheet. Such sheets, first studied in detail by August Föppl over a hundred years ago, are notoriously complex, since they can bend, buckle, and crumple in a variety of ways. In this talk, I will discuss a number of experiments to probe these unusual materials, from the effects of ripples on the mechanical properties of a graphene sheet, to folding with atomically thin bimorphs, to the electronic properties of bilayer graphene solitons. Finally, I discuss how the Japanese paper art of kirigami (kiru = `to cut', kami = `paper') applied to 2D materials offers a route to mechanical metamaterials and the construction of nanoscale machines.
Structural Complexity and Phonon Physics in 2D Arsenenes.
Carrete, Jesús; Gallego, Luis J; Mingo, Natalio
2017-03-15
In the quest for stable 2D arsenic phases, four different structures have been recently claimed to be stable. We show that, due to phonon contributions, the relative stability of those structures differs from previous reports and depends crucially on temperature. We also show that one of those four phases is in fact mechanically unstable. Furthermore, our results challenge the common assumption of an inverse correlation between structural complexity and thermal conductivity. Instead, a richer picture emerges from our results, showing how harmonic interactions, anharmonicity, and symmetries all play a role in modulating thermal conduction in arsenenes. More generally, our conclusions highlight how vibrational properties are an essential element to be carefully taken into account in theoretical searches for new 2D materials.
Strength design with 2-d triaxial braid textile composites
Smith, L.V.; Swanson, S.R.
1994-12-31
Textile preforms are currently being considered as a possible means for reducing the cost of advanced fiber composites. This paper presents a methodology for strength design of carbon/epoxy 2-d braid fiber composites under general conditions of biaxial stress loading. A comprehensive investigation into the in-plane strength properties of 2-d braids has been carried out, using tubular specimens of AS4/1895 carbon fiber/epoxy made with the RTM process. The biaxial loadings involved both compression-compression and tension-tension biaxial tests. The results showed that failure under biaxial loading could be based on procedures similar to those developed for laminates, using critical strain values in the axial and braid direction fibers, but with degraded strength properties because of the undulating nature of -the fiber paths. A significant loss of strength was observed in the braid directions.
Implementation of 2-D DCT based on FPGA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Bao-Zeng; Niu, Li; Liu, Zhi-Ming
2010-08-01
Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) plays an important role in the image and video compression, and it has been widely used in JPEG, MPEG, H.26x. DCT being implemented by hardware is crucial to improve the speed of image compression. This paper presents a method that 2-D DCT is implemented by FPGA, which is based on the algorithm of row-column decomposition, and the parallel structure is used to achieve high throughput. The design is achieved by top-down design methodology and described with Verilog HDL in RTL level. The hardware of 2-D DCT is implemented by the FPGA EP2C35F672C8 made by ALTERA. The experiment results show that the delay time is as low as 15 ns, and the clock frequency as high as 138.35 MHz, which can satisfy the requirements of the real-time video image compression.
Smooth 2D manifold extraction from 3D image stack
Shihavuddin, Asm; Basu, Sreetama; Rexhepaj, Elton; Delestro, Felipe; Menezes, Nikita; Sigoillot, Séverine M; Del Nery, Elaine; Selimi, Fekrije; Spassky, Nathalie; Genovesio, Auguste
2017-01-01
Three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy followed by image processing is routinely used to study biological objects at various scales such as cells and tissue. However, maximum intensity projection, the most broadly used rendering tool, extracts a discontinuous layer of voxels, obliviously creating important artifacts and possibly misleading interpretation. Here we propose smooth manifold extraction, an algorithm that produces a continuous focused 2D extraction from a 3D volume, hence preserving local spatial relationships. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by applying it to various biological applications using confocal and wide-field microscopy 3D image stacks. We provide a parameter-free ImageJ/Fiji plugin that allows 2D visualization and interpretation of 3D image stacks with maximum accuracy. PMID:28561033
High-capacity reversible watermarking for 2D vector data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voigt, Michael; Yang, Bian; Busch, Christoph
2005-03-01
This paper describes an efficient and high-capacity reversible 2-D vector data embedding method, which provides a promising solution to GIS (geographic information system) data hiding and authentication applications with a high requirement of fidelity or bit-by-bit exactness of the original 2-D vector data (point coordinates). All proposed methods are performed in the DCT-domain. For the realization of this task a bit-shift scheme is applied and a distortion limited scheme is used to guarantee a maximal deviation between the original map and the modified one. To achieve more capacity we combine the bit-shifting scheme with our former one which makes use of the strong correlation between geographic data.
2D FEM Heat Transfer & E&M Field Code
1992-04-02
TOPAZ and TOPAZ2D are two-dimensional implicit finite element computer codes for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ2D can also be used to solve electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The programs solve for the steady-state or transient temperature or electrostatic and magnetostatic potential field on two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature or potential-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. The programs can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.
Micro-structural Fluctuations in 2D Dusty Plasma Liquids
I Lin; Huang, Y.-H.; Teng, L.-W.
2007-07-13
We address structural fluctuations in a cold 2D dusty plasma liquid which is self-organized through the strong Coulomb coupling of the negatively charged micro-meter sized dust particles suspending in weakly ionized discharges. The 2D liquids consist of triangular type ordered domains surrounded by defect clusters, which can be reorganized through avalanche type hopping under the interplay of strong Coulomb coupling and thermal fluctuations. The spatio-temporal evolutions of the local bond-orientational order are directly tracked through digital optical microscopy. The power law scaling of the temporal persistence length of fluctuations is obtained for the cold liquid. The measurement of the conditional probability of the persistence lengths of the successive fluctuating cycles suggests certain types of the persistence length combinations are more preferred. The memory of persistence lasts a few fluctuating cycles.
2-D Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of A Pulsed Plasma Thruster
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, J. T.; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Experiments are being performed on the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) MK-1 pulsed plasma thruster. Data produced from the experiments provide an opportunity to further understand the plasma dynamics in these thrusters via detailed computational modeling. The detailed and accurate understanding of the plasma dynamics in these devices holds the key towards extending their capabilities in a number of applications, including their applications as high power (greater than 1 MW) thrusters, and their use for producing high-velocity, uniform plasma jets for experimental purposes. For this study, the 2-D MHD modeling code, MACH2, is used to provide detailed interpretation of the experimental data. At the same time, a 0-D physics model of the plasma initial phase is developed to guide our 2-D modeling studies.
Determination of yield stress of 2D (Yukawa) dusty plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bin; Goree, J.
2017-10-01
Elastic and plastic deformations of a two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasma crystal under shear stresses are investigated using a numerical simulation. Our simulation mimics experiments that start with a crystal that is then manipulated by a pair of laser beams separated by a gap. In a pair of rectangular regions, we apply two equal but oppositely directed forces, to induce a shear deformation in the gap between. These external forces are increased incrementally to examine the elastic behavior, plasticity, and liquid flows. In the low-force elastic limit, a measurement of the shear modulus is obtained, which agrees with a theoretical value based on a sound speed. For larger forces resulting in plastic deformation, we determine the yield stress, which is found to agree with a common theoretical model for the critical yield stress, after accounting for the dimensionality for 2D.
2D and 3D Traveling Salesman Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haxhimusa, Yll; Carpenter, Edward; Catrambone, Joseph; Foldes, David; Stefanov, Emil; Arns, Laura; Pizlo, Zygmunt
2011-01-01
When a two-dimensional (2D) traveling salesman problem (TSP) is presented on a computer screen, human subjects can produce near-optimal tours in linear time. In this study we tested human performance on a real and virtual floor, as well as in a three-dimensional (3D) virtual space. Human performance on the real floor is as good as that on a…
Numerical 2D-modeling of multiroll leveling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathieu, N.; Potier-Ferry, M.; Zahrouni, H.
2016-10-01
Multiroll leveling is a forming process used in the metals industries (aluminum, steel, …) in order to correct flatness defects and minimize residual stresses in strips thanks to alternating bending. This work proposes a Finite Element 2D model to simulate the metal sheet conveying through the machine. Obtained results (plastic strain and residual stress distributions through thickness) are analysed. Strip deformation, after elastic springback and potential buckling, is also predicted (residual curvatures).
FASTWO - A 2-D interactive algebraic grid generator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luh, Raymond Ching-Chung; Lombard, C. K.
1988-01-01
This paper presents a very simple and effective computational procedure, FASTWO, for generating patched composite finite difference grids in 2-D for any geometry. Major components of the interactive graphics based method that is closely akin to and borrows many tools from transfinite interpolation are highlighted. Several grids produced by FASTWO are shown to illustrate its powerful capability. Comments about extending the methodology to 3-D are also given.
FASTWO - A 2-D interactive algebraic grid generator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luh, Raymond Ching-Chung; Lombard, C. K.
1988-01-01
This paper presents a very simple and effective computational procedure, FASTWO, for generating patched composite finite difference grids in 2-D for any geometry. Major components of the interactive graphics based method that is closely akin to and borrows many tools from transfinite interpolation are highlighted. Several grids produced by FASTWO are shown to illustrate its powerful capability. Comments about extending the methodology to 3-D are also given.
Geometric properties of quasiperiodic orbits of 2D Hamiltonian systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adrover, A.; Giona, M.
1999-08-01
By enforcing the isomorphism between the group SL(2, R ) and linear fractional transforms, this letter shows that, for quasi-periodic orbits of 2D area-preserving maps possessing regions of chaotic behavior, the vector tangent to the quasiperiodic orbit can be obtained from the dynamics of the associated linear fractional transforms (obtained from the differential of the map), which is Cesaro convergent. Several implications of this geometric result are addressed.
[3D display of sequential 2D medical images].
Lu, Yisong; Chen, Yazhu
2003-12-01
A detailed review is given in this paper on various current 3D display methods for sequential 2D medical images and the new development in 3D medical image display. True 3D display, surface rendering, volume rendering, 3D texture mapping and distributed collaborative rendering are discussed in depth. For two kinds of medical applications: Real-time navigation system and high-fidelity diagnosis in computer aided surgery, different 3D display methods are presented.
2-D Signal Generation Using State-Space Formulation.
1985-12-01
published that have established nonoptical .~ -~ Iimage processing as a viable area of research. A large portion of this research emphasizes the linear...research and the study of time-discrete linear systems. This thesis develops the discrete model of Roesser [Ref. 5] for linear image processing which... THESIS 2-D SIGNAL GENERATION USING STATE-SPACE FORMULATION - • by (.) Evangelos Theofilou December 1985 • Thesis Advisor: Sydney R. Parker Approved
Energy level transitions of gas in a 2D nanopore
Grinyaev, Yurii V.; Chertova, Nadezhda V.; Psakhie, Sergei G.
2015-10-27
An analytical study of gas behavior in a 2D nanopore was performed. It is shown that the temperature dependence of gas energy can be stepwise due to transitions from one size-quantized subband to another. Taking into account quantum size effects results in energy level transitions governed by the nanopore size, temperature and gas density. This effect leads to an abrupt change of gas heat capacity in the nanopore at the above varying system parameters.
CBEAM. 2-D: a two-dimensional beam field code
Dreyer, K.A.
1985-05-01
CBEAM.2-D is a two-dimensional solution of Maxwell's equations for the case of an electron beam propagating through an air medium. Solutions are performed in the beam-retarded time frame. Conductivity is calculated self-consistently with field equations, allowing sophisticated dependence of plasma parameters to be handled. A unique feature of the code is that it is implemented on an IBM PC microcomputer in the BASIC language. Consequently, it should be available to a wide audience.
Parallel-pipeline 2-D DCT/IDCT processor chip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz, G. A.; Michell, J. A.; Buron, A.
2005-06-01
This paper describes the architecture of an 8x8 2-D DCT/IDCT processor with high throughput and a cost-effective architecture. The 2D DCT/IDCT is calculated using the separability property, so that its architecture is made up of two 1-D processors and a transpose buffer (TB) as intermediate memory. This transpose buffer presents a regular structure based on D-type flip-flops with a double serial input/output data-flow very adequate for pipeline architectures. The processor has been designed with parallel and pipeline architecture to attain high throughput, reduced hardware and maximum efficiency in all arithmetic elements. This architecture allows that the processing elements and arithmetic units work in parallel at half the frequency of the data input rate, except for normalization of transform which it is done in a multiplier operating at maximum frequency. Moreover, it has been verified that the precision analysis of the proposed processor meets the demands of IEEE Std. 1180-1990 used in video codecs ITU-T H.261 and ITU-T H.263. This processor has been conceived using a standard cell design methodology and manufactured in a 0.35-μm CMOS CSD 3M/2P 3.3V process. It has an area of 6.25 mm2 (the core is 3mm2) and contains a total of 11.7k gates, of which 5.8k gates are flip-flops. A data input rate frequency of 300MHz has been established with a latency of 172 cycles for the 2-D DCT and 178 cycles for the 2-D IDCT. The computing time of a block is close to 580ns. Its performances in computing speed as well as hardware complexity indicate that the proposed design is suitable for HDTV applications.
2D Hybrid Nanostructured Dirac Materials for Broadband Transparent Electrodes.
Guo, Yunfan; Lin, Li; Zhao, Shuli; Deng, Bing; Chen, Hongliang; Ma, Bangjun; Wu, Jinxiong; Yin, Jianbo; Liu, Zhongfan; Peng, Hailin
2015-08-05
Broadband transparent electrodes based on 2D hybrid nanostructured Dirac materials between Bi2 Se3 and graphene are synthesized using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Bi2 Se3 nanoplates are preferentially grown along graphene grain boundaries as "smart" conductive patches to bridge the graphene boundary. These hybrid films increase by one- to threefold in conductivity while remaining highly transparent over broadband wavelength. They also display outstanding chemical stability and mechanical flexibility.
Flow transitions in a 2D directional solidification model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larroude, Philippe; Ouazzani, Jalil; Alexander, J. Iwan D.
1992-01-01
Flow transitions in a Two Dimensional (2D) model of crystal growth were examined using the Bridgman-Stockbarger me thod. Using a pseudo-spectral Chebyshev collocation method, the governing equations yield solutions which exhibit a symmetry breaking flow tansition and oscillatory behavior indicative of a Hopf bifurcation at higher values of Ra. The results are discussed from fluid dynamic viewpoint, and broader implications for process models are also addressed.
Local Topological Order Inhibits Thermal Stability in 2D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landon-Cardinal, Olivier; Poulin, David
2013-03-01
We study the robustness of quantum information stored in the degenerate ground space of a local, frustration-free Hamiltonian with commuting terms on a 2D spin lattice. On one hand, a macroscopic energy barrier separating the distinct ground states under local transformations would protect the information from thermal fluctuations. On the other hand, local topological order would shield the ground space from static perturbations. Here we demonstrate that local topological order implies a constant energy barrier, thus inhibiting thermal stability.
Synchronization of semiconductor laser arrays with 2D Bragg structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baryshev, V. R.; Ginzburg, N. S.
2016-08-01
A model of a planar semiconductor multi-channel laser is developed. In this model two-dimensional (2D) Bragg mirror structures are used for synchronizing radiation of multiple laser channels. Coupling of longitudinal and transverse waves can be mentioned as the distinguishing feature of these structures. Synchronization of 20 laser channels is demonstrated with a semi-classical approach based on Maxwell-Bloch equations.
Report of the 1988 2-D Intercomparison Workshop, chapter 3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackman, Charles H.; Brasseur, Guy; Soloman, Susan; Guthrie, Paul D.; Garcia, Rolando; Yung, Yuk L.; Gray, Lesley J.; Tung, K. K.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Isaken, Ivar
1989-01-01
Several factors contribute to the errors encountered. With the exception of the line-by-line model, all of the models employ simplifying assumptions that place fundamental limits on their accuracy and range of validity. For example, all 2-D modeling groups use the diffusivity factor approximation. This approximation produces little error in tropospheric H2O and CO2 cooling rates, but can produce significant errors in CO2 and O3 cooling rates at the stratopause. All models suffer from fundamental uncertainties in shapes and strengths of spectral lines. Thermal flux algorithms being used in 2-D tracer tranport models produce cooling rates that differ by as much as 40 percent for the same input model atmosphere. Disagreements of this magnitude are important since the thermal cooling rates must be subtracted from the almost-equal solar heating rates to derive the net radiative heating rates and the 2-D model diabatic circulation. For much of the annual cycle, the net radiative heating rates are comparable in magnitude to the cooling rate differences described. Many of the models underestimate the cooling rates in the middle and lower stratosphere. The consequences of these errors for the net heating rates and the diabatic circulation will depend on their meridional structure, which was not tested here. Other models underestimate the cooling near 1 mbar. Suchs errors pose potential problems for future interactive ozone assessment studies, since they could produce artificially-high temperatures and increased O3 destruction at these levels. These concerns suggest that a great deal of work is needed to improve the performance of thermal cooling rate algorithms used in the 2-D tracer transport models.
Fully automated 2D-3D registration and verification.
Varnavas, Andreas; Carrell, Tom; Penney, Graeme
2015-12-01
Clinical application of 2D-3D registration technology often requires a significant amount of human interaction during initialisation and result verification. This is one of the main barriers to more widespread clinical use of this technology. We propose novel techniques for automated initial pose estimation of the 3D data and verification of the registration result, and show how these techniques can be combined to enable fully automated 2D-3D registration, particularly in the case of a vertebra based system. The initialisation method is based on preoperative computation of 2D templates over a wide range of 3D poses. These templates are used to apply the Generalised Hough Transform to the intraoperative 2D image and the sought 3D pose is selected with the combined use of the generated accumulator arrays and a Gradient Difference Similarity Measure. On the verification side, two algorithms are proposed: one using normalised features based on the similarity value and the other based on the pose agreement between multiple vertebra based registrations. The proposed methods are employed here for CT to fluoroscopy registration and are trained and tested with data from 31 clinical procedures with 417 low dose, i.e. low quality, high noise interventional fluoroscopy images. When similarity value based verification is used, the fully automated system achieves a 95.73% correct registration rate, whereas a no registration result is produced for the remaining 4.27% of cases (i.e. incorrect registration rate is 0%). The system also automatically detects input images outside its operating range.
Multicolor symbology for remotely scannable 2D barcodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.
2008-03-01
There has been much recent interest in mobile systems for augmented reality. However, existing visual tagging solutions are not robust at the low resolutions typical of current camera phones or at the low solid angles needed for "across-the-room" reality augmentation. In this paper, we propose a new 2D barcode symbology that uses multiple colors in order to address these challenges. We present preliminary results, showing the detection of example barcodes in this scheme over a range of angles.
2D Lattices of Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles as Supermagnetics
1999-06-18
Supermagnetics DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Availability: Hard copy only. This paper is part of the following report: TITLE...Technology" OAN.01 i St Petersburg, Russia, June 14-18, 1999 © 1999 loffe Institute 2D lattices of ferromagnetic nanoparticles as supermagnetics A. A...temperature the system became ordered due to the dipole interaction of particles. Such a state of the system was defined as supermagnetic [ ]. The critical
2D/ 3D Quantitative Ultrasound of the Breast
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasief, Haidy Gerges
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death of women in the United States, so breast cancer screening for early detection is common. The purpose of this dissertation is to optimize quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods to improve the specificity and objectivity of breast ultrasound. To pursue this goal, the dissertation is divided into two parts: 1) to optimize 2D QUS, and 2) to introduce and validate 3D QUS. Previous studies had validated these methods in phantoms. Applying our QUS analysis on subcutaneous breast fat demonstrated that QUS parameter estimates for subcutaneous fat were consistent among different human subjects. This validated our in vivo data acquisition methods and supported the use of breast fat as a clinical reference tissue for ultrasound BI-RADSRTM assessments. Although current QUS methods perform well for straightforward cases when assumptions of stationarity and diffuse scattering are well-founded, these conditions often are not present due to the complicated nature of in vivo breast tissue. Key improvements in QUS algorithms to address these challenges were: 1) applying a "modified least squares method (MLSM)" to account for the heterogeneous tissue path between the transducer and the region of interest, ROI; 2) detecting anisotropy in acoustic parameters; and 3) detecting and removing the echo sources that depart from diffuse and stationary scattering conditions. The results showed that a Bayesian classifier combining three QUS parameters in a biased pool of high-quality breast ultrasound data successfully differentiated all fibroadenomas from all carcinomas. Given promising initial results in 2D, extension to 3D acquisitions in QUS provided a unique capability to test QUS for the entire breast volume. QUS parameter estimates using 3D data were consistent with those found in 2D for phantoms and in vivo data. Extensions of QUS technology from 2D to 3D can improve the specificity of breast ultrasound, and thus, could lead to
[Volumetric CT scanning: 2D and 3D reconstruction].
Ferretti, G-R; Jankowski, A
2010-12-01
This review aims to present the 2D and 3D reconstructions derived from high-resolution volume CT acquisitions and to illustrate their thoracic applications, as well as showing the interest and limitations of these techniques. We present new applications for computer-assisted detection (CAD) and tools for quantification of pulmonary lesions. Copyright © 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
2D relaxation/diffusion correlations in porous media.
Godefroy, S; Callaghan, P T
2003-01-01
2D correlations between NMR relaxation and/or diffusion have been used to investigate water and oil dynamics in food and micro-emulsion systems. In the case of Mozzarella and Gouda cheese samples, a significant change in D/T2 correlation is appearing with cheese aging. In the case of a water/toluene micro-emulsion, some evidence for coalescence effects is suggested by D/D exchange spectra.
NASA High-Speed 2D Photogrammetric Measurement System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dismond, Harriett R.
2012-01-01
The object of this report is to provide users of the NASA high-speed 2D photogrammetric measurement system with procedures required to obtain drop-model trajectory and impact data for full-scale and sub-scale models. This guide focuses on use of the system for vertical drop testing at the NASA Langley Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) Facility.
Terahertz detection using mechanical resonators based on 2D materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassel, Juha; Oksanen, Mika; Elo, Teemu; Seppä, Heikki; Hakonen, Pertti J.
2017-06-01
We have investigated a THz detection scheme based on mixing of electrical signals in a voltage-dependent capacitance made out of suspended graphene. We have analyzed both coherent and incoherent detection regimes and compared their performance with the state of the art. Using a high-amplitude local oscillator, we anticipate potential for quantum limited detection in the coherent mode. The sensitivity stems from the extraordinary mechanical and electrical properties of atomically thin graphene or graphene-related 2D materials.
2D and 3D Traveling Salesman Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haxhimusa, Yll; Carpenter, Edward; Catrambone, Joseph; Foldes, David; Stefanov, Emil; Arns, Laura; Pizlo, Zygmunt
2011-01-01
When a two-dimensional (2D) traveling salesman problem (TSP) is presented on a computer screen, human subjects can produce near-optimal tours in linear time. In this study we tested human performance on a real and virtual floor, as well as in a three-dimensional (3D) virtual space. Human performance on the real floor is as good as that on a…
Valley and spin currents in 2D transition metal dichalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Wang
2015-03-01
In two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), carriers are indexed by both the spin and the valley pseudospin (labelling the degenerate band extrema in momentum space). 2D TMDs is therefore an ideal laboratory for exploring these internal quantum degrees of freedom for new electronics, and controlling the flow of spin and pseudospin is at the heart of such applications. We will discuss two mechanisms for generating spin and valley currents of electrons in 2D group-VIB TMDs: (I) the valley and spin Hall effects arising from the Berry curvatures; and (II) the nonlinear valley and spin currents arising from Fermi pocket anisotropy. The two effects have distinct scaling with the electric field, and different dependence of the current direction on the field direction and crystalline axis. We will discuss the possibility to observe and distinguish the two effects as distinct patterns of polarized electroluminescence at p-n junction in 2D TMDs. The nonlinear current response also makes possible the generation of pure spin and valley flows without net charge current, either by an AC bias or by an inhomogeneous temperature distribution. We will also discuss the valley Hall effect of charged excitons in monolayer TMDs, which arises from the effective coupling of the excitonic valley pseudospin to its center of mass motion by the exchange interaction between the electron and hole constituents. The work is supported by the Research Grant Council of Hong Kong SAR (HKU17305914P, HKU9/CRF/13G), and the Croucher Foundation under the Croucher Innovation Award.
Statistical analysis of quiet stance sway in 2-D.
Bakshi, Avijit; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R
2014-04-01
Subjects exposed to a rotating environment that perturbs their postural sway show adaptive changes in their voluntary spatially directed postural motion to restore accurate movement paths but do not exhibit any obvious learning during passive stance. We have found, however, that a variable known to characterize the degree of stochasticity in quiet stance can also reveal subtle learning phenomena in passive stance. We extended Chow and Collins (Phys Rev E 52(1):909-912, 1995) one-dimensional pinned-polymer model (PPM) to two dimensions (2-D) and then evaluated the model's ability to make analytical predictions for 2-D quiet stance. To test the model, we tracked center of mass and centers of foot pressures, and compared and contrasted stance sway for the anterior-posterior versus medio-lateral directions before, during, and after exposure to rotation at 10 rpm. Sway of the body during rotation generated Coriolis forces that acted perpendicular to the direction of sway. We found significant adaptive changes for three characteristic features of the mean square displacement (MSD) function: the exponent of the power law defined at short time scales, the proportionality constant of the power law, and the saturation plateau value defined at longer time scales. The exponent of the power law of MSD at a short time scale lies within the bounds predicted by the 2-D PPM. The change in MSD during exposure to rotation also had a power-law exponent in the range predicted by the theoretical model. We discuss the Coriolis force paradigm for studying postural and movement control and the applicability of the PPM model in 2-D for studying postural adaptation.
Vertical heterostructures based on graphene and other 2D materials
Antonova, I. V.
2016-01-15
Recent advances in the fabrication of vertical heterostructures based on graphene and other dielectric and semiconductor single-layer materials, including hexagonal boron nitride and transition-metal dichalcogenides, are reviewed. Significant progress in this field is discussed together with the great prospects for the development of vertical heterostructures for various applications, which are associated, first of all, with reconsideration of the physical principles of the design and operation of device structures based on graphene combined with other 2D materials.
Cross-correlating 2D and 3D galaxy surveys
Passaglia, Samuel; Manzotti, Alessandro; Dodelson, Scott
2017-06-08
Galaxy surveys probe both structure formation and the expansion rate, making them promising avenues for understanding the dark universe. Photometric surveys accurately map the 2D distribution of galaxy positions and shapes in a given redshift range, while spectroscopic surveys provide sparser 3D maps of the galaxy distribution. We present a way to analyse overlapping 2D and 3D maps jointly and without loss of information. We represent 3D maps using spherical Fourier-Bessel (sFB) modes, which preserve radial coverage while accounting for the spherical sky geometry, and we decompose 2D maps in a spherical harmonic basis. In these bases, a simple expression exists for the cross-correlation of the two fields. One very powerful application is the ability to simultaneously constrain the redshift distribution of the photometric sample, the sample biases, and cosmological parameters. We use our framework to show that combined analysis of DESI and LSST can improve cosmological constraints by factors ofmore » $${\\sim}1.2$$ to $${\\sim}1.8$$ on the region where they overlap relative to identically sized disjoint regions. We also show that in the overlap of DES and SDSS-III in Stripe 82, cross-correlating improves photo-$z$ parameter constraints by factors of $${\\sim}2$$ to $${\\sim}12$$ over internal photo-$z$ reconstructions.« less
Genetics, genomics, and evolutionary biology of NKG2D ligands.
Carapito, Raphael; Bahram, Seiamak
2015-09-01
Human and mouse NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) are absent or only poorly expressed by most normal cells but are upregulated by cell stress, hence, alerting the immune system in case of malignancy or infection. Although these ligands are numerous and highly variable (at genetic, genomic, structural, and biochemical levels), they all belong to the major histocompatibility complex class I gene superfamily and bind to a single, invariant, receptor: NKG2D. NKG2D (CD314) is an activating receptor expressed on NK cells and subsets of T cells that have a key role in the recognition and lysis of infected and tumor cells. Here, we review the molecular diversity of NKG2DLs, discuss the increasing appreciation of their roles in a variety of medical conditions, and propose several explanations for the evolutionary force(s) that seem to drive the multiplicity and diversity of NKG2DLs while maintaining their interaction with a single invariant receptor. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An Intercomparison of 2-D Models Within a Common Framework
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weisenstein, Debra K.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Scott, Courtney J.; Jackman, Charles H.; Fleming, Eric L.; Considine, David B.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Connell, Peter S.; Rotman, Douglas A.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A model intercomparison among the Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) 2-D model, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) 2-D model, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 2-D model allows us to separate differences due to model transport from those due to the model's chemical formulation. This is accomplished by constructing two hybrid models incorporating the transport parameters of the GSFC and LLNL models within the AER model framework. By comparing the results from the native models (AER and e.g. GSFC) with those from the hybrid model (e.g. AER chemistry with GSFC transport), differences due to chemistry and transport can be identified. For the analysis, we examined an inert tracer whose emission pattern is based on emission from a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) fleet; distributions of trace species in the 2015 atmosphere; and the response of stratospheric ozone to an HSCT fleet. Differences in NO(y) in the upper stratosphere are found between models with identical transport, implying different model representations of atmospheric chemical processes. The response of O3 concentration to HSCT aircraft emissions differs in the models from both transport-dominated differences in the HSCT-induced perturbations of H2O and NO(y) as well as from differences in the model represent at ions of O3 chemical processes. The model formulations of cold polar processes are found to be the most significant factor in creating large differences in the calculated ozone perturbations
Broadband THz Spectroscopy of 2D Nanoscale Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Lu; Tripathi, Shivendra; Huang, Mengchen; Hsu, Jen-Feng; D'Urso, Brian; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Irvin, Patrick; Levy, Jeremy
Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) have attracted intense research interest in the past decade. Their unique electronic and optical properties offer the promise of novel optoelectronic applications in the terahertz regime. Recently, generation and detection of broadband terahertz (10 THz bandwidth) emission from 10-nm-scale LaAlO3/SrTiO3 nanostructures created by conductive atomic force microscope (c-AFM) lithography has been demonstrated . This unprecedented control of THz emission at 10 nm length scales creates a pathway toward hybrid THz functionality in 2D-material/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. Here we report initial efforts in THz spectroscopy of 2D nanoscale materials with resolution comparable to the dimensions of the nanowire (10 nm). Systems under investigation include graphene, single-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and tungsten diselenide (WSe2) nanoflakes. 1. Y. Ma, et al., Nano Lett. 13, 2884 (2013). We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the following agencies and grants: AFOSR (FA9550-12-1-0268 (JL, PRI), FA9550-12-1-0342 (CBE)), ONR (N00014-13-1-0806 (JL, CBE), N00014-15-1-2847 (JL)), NSF DMR-1124131 (JL, CBE) and DMR-1234096 (CBE).
2D Cocrystallization from H-Bonded Organic Ferroelectrics.
Kunkel, Donna A; Hooper, James; Bradley, Benjamin; Schlueter, Lisa; Rasmussen, Tom; Costa, Paulo; Beniwal, Sumit; Ducharme, Stephen; Zurek, Eva; Enders, Axel
2016-02-04
The synthesis of 2D H-bonded cocrystals from the room-temperature ferroelectric organics croconic acid (CA) and 3-hydroxyphenalenone (3-HPLN) is demonstrated through self-assembly on a substrate under ultrahigh vacuum. 2D cocrystal polymorphs of varied stoichiometry were identified with scanning tunneling microscopy, and one of the observed structural building blocks consists of two CA and two 3-HPLN molecules. Computational analysis with density functional theory confirmed that the experimental (CA)2(3-HPLN)2 tetramers are lower in energy than single-component structures due to the ability of the tetramers to pack efficiently in two dimensions, the promotion of favorable electrostatic interactions between tetramers, and the optimal number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The structures investigated, especially the experimentally found tetrameric building blocks, are not polar. However, it is demonstrated computationally that cocrystallization can, in principle, result in heterogeneous structures with dipole moments that exceed those of homogeneous structures and that 2D structures with select stoichiometries could favor metastable polar structures.
A novel point cloud registration using 2D image features
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Chien-Chou; Tai, Yen-Chou; Lee, Jhong-Jin; Chen, Yong-Sheng
2017-01-01
Since a 3D scanner only captures a scene of a 3D object at a time, a 3D registration for multi-scene is the key issue of 3D modeling. This paper presents a novel and an efficient 3D registration method based on 2D local feature matching. The proposed method transforms the point clouds into 2D bearing angle images and then uses the 2D feature based matching method, SURF, to find matching pixel pairs between two images. The corresponding points of 3D point clouds can be obtained by those pixel pairs. Since the corresponding pairs are sorted by their distance between matching features, only the top half of the corresponding pairs are used to find the optimal rotation matrix by the least squares approximation. In this paper, the optimal rotation matrix is derived by orthogonal Procrustes method (SVD-based approach). Therefore, the 3D model of an object can be reconstructed by aligning those point clouds with the optimal transformation matrix. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the proposed method is close to the ICP, but the computation cost is reduced significantly. The performance is six times faster than the generalized-ICP algorithm. Furthermore, while the ICP requires high alignment similarity of two scenes, the proposed method is robust to a larger difference of viewing angle.
Murine cytomegalovirus regulation of NKG2D ligands.
Lenac, Tihana; Arapović, Jurica; Traven, Luka; Krmpotić, Astrid; Jonjić, Stipan
2008-06-01
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous pathogen that causes morbidity risk in immunologically suppressed and immunodeficient patients including congenital infections. Approaches to curb the consequences of HCMV infections are restricted by a lack of complete understanding of viral pathogenesis. The infection of mice with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) as a model of HCMV infection has been particularly useful in elucidating the role of innate and adaptive immune response mechanisms. A large number of cytomegalovirus genes modulate the innate and the adaptive host immune response. The products of several MCMV genes are involved in subverting the natural killer (NK) cell response by down-modulating cellular ligands for the NKG2D receptor expressed on NK cells and CD8(+) T cells. Mutant viruses lacking these immunoevasion genes are attenuated with respect to virus growth in vivo. Given the importance of the NKG2D receptor in controlling both NK- and T cell-mediated immunity, it is of tremendous importance to understand the molecular mechanisms and consequences of viral regulation of the NKG2D ligands.
Resolving 2D Amorphous Materials with Scanning Probe Microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burson, Kristen M.; Buechner, Christin; Lewandowski, Adrian; Heyde, Markus; Freund, Hans-Joachim
Novel two-dimensional (2D) materials have garnered significant scientific interest due to their potential technological applications. Alongside the emphasis on crystalline materials, such as graphene and hexagonal BN, a new class of 2D amorphous materials must be pursued. For amorphous materials, a detailed understanding of the complex structure is necessary. Here we present a structural study of 2D bilayer silica on Ru(0001), an insulating material which is weakly coupled to the substrate. Atomic structure has been determined with a dual mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) sensor in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) at low temperatures, revealing a network of different ring sizes. Liquid AFM measurements with sub-nanometer resolution bridge the gap between clean UHV conditions and the environments that many material applications demand. Samples are grown and characterized in vacuum and subsequently transferred to the liquid AFM. Notably, the key structural features observed, namely nanoscale ring networks and larger holes to the substrate, show strong quantitative agreement between the liquid and UHV microscopy measurements. This provides direct evidence for the structural stability of these silica films for nanoelectronics and other applications. KMB acknowledges support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
Design Application Translates 2-D Graphics to 3-D Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2007-01-01
Fabric Images Inc., specializing in the printing and manufacturing of fabric tension architecture for the retail, museum, and exhibit/tradeshow communities, designed software to translate 2-D graphics for 3-D surfaces prior to print production. Fabric Images' fabric-flattening design process models a 3-D surface based on computer-aided design (CAD) specifications. The surface geometry of the model is used to form a 2-D template, similar to a flattening process developed by NASA's Glenn Research Center. This template or pattern is then applied in the development of a 2-D graphic layout. Benefits of this process include 11.5 percent time savings per project, less material wasted, and the ability to improve upon graphic techniques and offer new design services. Partners include Exhibitgroup/Giltspur (end-user client: TAC Air, a division of Truman Arnold Companies Inc.), Jack Morton Worldwide (end-user client: Nickelodeon), as well as 3D Exhibits Inc., and MG Design Associates Corp.
Volumetric Elasticity Imaging with a 2D CMUT Array
Fisher, Ted G.; Hall, Timothy J.; Panda, Satchi; Richards, Michael S.; Barbone, Paul E.; Jiang, Jingfeng; Resnick, Jeff; Barnes, Steve
2010-01-01
This paper reports the use of a two-dimensional (2D) capacitive micro-machined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) to acquire radio frequency (RF) echo data from relatively large volumes of a simple ultrasound phantom to compare 3D elasticity imaging methods. Typical 2D motion tracking for elasticity image formation was compared to three different methods of 3D motion tracking, with sum-squared difference (SSD) used as the similarity measure. Differences among the algorithms were the degree to which they tracked elevational motion: not at all (2D search), planar search, combination of multiple planes, and plane independent guided search. The cross correlation between the pre-deformation and motion-compensated post-deformation RF echo fields was used to quantify motion tracking accuracy. The lesion contrast-to-noise ratio was used to quantify image quality. Tracking accuracy and strain image quality generally improved with increased tracking sophistication. When used as input for a 3D modulus reconstruction, high quality 3D displacement estimates yielded accurate and low noise modulus reconstruction. PMID:20510188
2D:4D Ratio and its Implications in Medicine
Jeevanandam, Saravanakumar
2016-01-01
Digit ratios, especially 2D:4D ratio, a potential proxy marker for prenatal androgen exposure shows sexual dimorphism. Existing literature and recent research show accumulating evidence on 2D:4D ratio showing correlations with various phenotypic traits in humans. Ratio of 2D:4D is found to correlate negatively to testosterone and positively to oestrogen in the foetus. Interestingly, it is constant since birth and not influenced by the adult hormone levels. Usually, males have lower ratios when compared to females. Prenatal androgen exposure and therefore, digit ratios have been reported to be associated with numerical competencies, spatial skills, handedness, cognitive abilities, academic performance, sperm counts, personalities and prevalence of obesity, migraine, eating disorders, depression, myopia, autism etc. The authors have attempted to write a brief account on the digit ratios and the dimorphism observed in various physiological, psychological and behavioural traits. Also, the authors have discussed the relevant molecular basics and the methods of measurement of digit ratios. PMID:28208851
Hybrid 3D-2D printing for bone scaffolds fabrication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seleznev, V. A.; Prinz, V. Ya
2017-02-01
It is a well-known fact that bone scaffold topography on micro- and nanometer scale influences the cellular behavior. Nano-scale surface modification of scaffolds allows the modulation of biological activity for enhanced cell differentiation. To date, there has been only a limited success in printing scaffolds with micro- and nano-scale features exposed on the surface. To improve on the currently available imperfect technologies, in our paper we introduce new hybrid technologies based on a combination of 2D (nano imprint) and 3D printing methods. The first method is based on using light projection 3D printing and simultaneous 2D nanostructuring of each of the layers during the formation of the 3D structure. The second method is based on the sequential integration of preliminarily created 2D nanostructured films into a 3D printed structure. The capabilities of the developed hybrid technologies are demonstrated with the example of forming 3D bone scaffolds. The proposed technologies can be used to fabricate complex 3D micro- and nanostructured products for various fields.
F-theory and 2d (0, 2) theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura; Weigand, Timo
2016-05-01
F-theory compactified on singular, elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds gives rise to two-dimensional gauge theories preserving N = (0 , 2) supersymmetry. In this paper we initiate the study of such compactifications and determine the dictionary between the geometric data of the elliptic fibration and the 2d gauge theory such as the matter content in terms of (0 , 2) superfields and their supersymmetric couplings. We study this setup both from a gauge-theoretic point of view, in terms of the partially twisted 7-brane theory, and provide a global geometric description based on the structure of the elliptic fibration and its singularities. Global consistency conditions are determined and checked against the dual M-theory compactification to one dimension. This includes a discussion of gauge anomalies, the structure of the Green-Schwarz terms and the Chern-Simons couplings in the dual M-theory supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Furthermore, by interpreting the resulting 2d (0 , 2) theories as heterotic worldsheet theories, we propose a correspondence between the geometric data of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds and the target space of a heterotic gauged linear sigma-model (GLSM). In particular the correspondence between the Landau-Ginsburg and sigma-model phase of a 2d (0 , 2) GLSM is realized via different T-branes or gluing data in F-theory.
2D optical beam splitter using diffractive optical elements (DOE)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Fung J.; Chung, Po S.
2006-09-01
A novel approach for optical beam distribution into a 2-dimensional (2-D) packaged fiber arrays using 2-D Dammann gratings is investigated. This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of the diffractive optical element (DOE) and investigates the coupling efficiencies of the beamlets into a packaged V-grooved 2x2 fibre array. We report for the first time experimental results of a 2-D optical signal distribution into a packaged 2x2 fibre array using Dammann grating. This grating may be applicable to the FTTH network as it can support sufficient channels with good output uniformity together with low polarization dependent loss (PDL) and acceptable insertion loss. Using an appropriate optimization algorithm (the steepest descent algorithm in this case), the optimum profile for the gratings can be calculated. The gratings are then fabricated on ITO glass using electron-beam lithography. The overall performance of the design shows an output uniformity of around 0.14 dB and an insertion loss of about 12.63 dB, including the DOE, focusing lens and the packaged fiber array.
Building 3D scenes from 2D image sequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cristea, Paul D.
2006-05-01
Sequences of 2D images, taken by a single moving video receptor, can be fused to generate a 3D representation. This dynamic stereopsis exists in birds and reptiles, whereas the static binocular stereopsis is common in mammals, including humans. Most multimedia computer vision systems for stereo image capture, transmission, processing, storage and retrieval are based on the concept of binocularity. As a consequence, their main goal is to acquire, conserve and enhance pairs of 2D images able to generate a 3D visual perception in a human observer. Stereo vision in birds is based on the fusion of images captured by each eye, with previously acquired and memorized images from the same eye. The process goes on simultaneously and conjointly for both eyes and generates an almost complete all-around visual field. As a consequence, the baseline distance is no longer fixed, as in the case of binocular 3D view, but adjustable in accordance with the distance to the object of main interest, allowing a controllable depth effect. Moreover, the synthesized 3D scene can have a better resolution than each individual 2D image in the sequence. Compression of 3D scenes can be achieved, and stereo transmissions with lower bandwidth requirements can be developed.
Volumetric elasticity imaging with a 2-D CMUT array.
Fisher, Ted G; Hall, Timothy J; Panda, Satchi; Richards, Michael S; Barbone, Paul E; Jiang, Jingfeng; Resnick, Jeff; Barnes, Steve
2010-06-01
This article reports the use of a two-dimensional (2-D) capacitive micro-machined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) to acquire radio-frequency (RF) echo data from relatively large volumes of a simple ultrasound phantom to compare three-dimensional (3-D) elasticity imaging methods. Typical 2-D motion tracking for elasticity image formation was compared with three different methods of 3-D motion tracking, with sum-squared difference (SSD) used as the similarity measure. Differences among the algorithms were the degree to which they tracked elevational motion: not at all (2-D search), planar search, combination of multiple planes and plane independent guided search. The cross-correlation between the predeformation and motion-compensated postdeformation RF echo fields was used to quantify motion tracking accuracy. The lesion contrast-to-noise ratio was used to quantify image quality. Tracking accuracy and strain image quality generally improved with increased tracking sophistication. When used as input for a 3-D modulus reconstruction, high quality 3-D displacement estimates yielded accurate and low noise modulus reconstruction.
Shear viscosity measurements in a 2D Yukawa liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nosenko, Volodymyr
2005-03-01
Shear viscosity was measured for a 2D strongly-coupled Yukawa liquid. First, we formed a dilute monolayer suspension of microspheres in a partially-ionized rarefied gas, i.e., a dusty plasma. In the absence of manipulation, the suspension forms a 2D triangular lattice. We used a new in-situ method of applying a shear stress using the scattering forces applied by counter-propagating laser beams. The lattice melted and a shear flow formed. Using digital video microscopy for direct imaging and particle tracking, the microscopic dynamics of the shear flow are observed. Averaging the velocities of individual microspheres, a velocity flow profile was calculated. Using the Navier-Stokes equation with an additional frictional term to account for gas drag, we fit the velocity profile. The fit yielded the value of the shear viscosity. The kinematic viscosity of our particle suspension is of order 1 mm^2s-1, which is comparable to that for liquid water. We believe this is the first report of a rheological measurement in a 2D dusty plasma. This talk is based on V. Nosenko and J. Goree, PRL 93, 155004 (2004).
Cross-correlating 2D and 3D galaxy surveys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Passaglia, Samuel; Manzotti, Alessandro; Dodelson, Scott
2017-06-01
Galaxy surveys probe both structure formation and the expansion rate, making them promising avenues for understanding the dark universe. Photometric surveys accurately map the 2D distribution of galaxy positions and shapes in a given redshift range, while spectroscopic surveys provide sparser 3D maps of the galaxy distribution. We present a way to analyse overlapping 2D and 3D maps jointly and without loss of information. We represent 3D maps using spherical Fourier-Bessel (sFB) modes, which preserve radial coverage while accounting for the spherical sky geometry, and we decompose 2D maps in a spherical harmonic basis. In these bases, a simple expression exists for the cross-correlation of the two fields. One very powerful application is the ability to simultaneously constrain the redshift distribution of the photometric sample, the sample biases, and cosmological parameters. We use our framework to show that combined analysis of DESI and LSST can improve cosmological constraints by factors of ˜1.2 to ˜1.8 on the region where they overlap relative to identically sized disjoint regions. We also show that in the overlap of DES and SDSS-III in Stripe 82, cross-correlating improves photo-z parameter constraints by factors of ˜2 to ˜12 over internal photo-z reconstructions.
2D DOST based local phase pattern for face recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moniruzzaman, Md.; Alam, Mohammad S.
2017-05-01
A new two dimensional (2-D) Discrete Orthogonal Stcokwell Transform (DOST) based Local Phase Pattern (LPP) technique has been proposed for efficient face recognition. The proposed technique uses 2-D DOST as preliminary preprocessing and local phase pattern to form robust feature signature which can effectively accommodate various 3D facial distortions and illumination variations. The S-transform, is an extension of the ideas of the continuous wavelet transform (CWT), is also known for its local spectral phase properties in time-frequency representation (TFR). It provides a frequency dependent resolution of the time-frequency space and absolutely referenced local phase information while maintaining a direct relationship with the Fourier spectrum which is unique in TFR. After utilizing 2-D Stransform as the preprocessing and build local phase pattern from extracted phase information yield fast and efficient technique for face recognition. The proposed technique shows better correlation discrimination compared to alternate pattern recognition techniques such as wavelet or Gabor based face recognition. The performance of the proposed method has been tested using the Yale and extended Yale facial database under different environments such as illumination variation and 3D changes in facial expressions. Test results show that the proposed technique yields better performance compared to alternate time-frequency representation (TFR) based face recognition techniques.
Absolute state-selected total cross sections for the ion-molecule reactions O + (4S,2D,2P)+H2(D2)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, X.; Huang, Y.-L.; Flesch, G. D.; Ng, C. Y.
1997-01-01
Absolute total cross sections for the state-selected reactions of O+(4S,2D,2P)+H2 (D2) have been measured in the center-of-mass collision energy (Ec.m.) range of 0.02-12 eV. The cross sections for OH+ (OD+) from O+(2D)+H2 (D2) are slightly higher than those from O+(4S)+H2 (D2), whereas the OH+ (OD+) cross sections from O+ (2P)+H2 (D2) are ≈40% lower than those from O+(4S)+H2 (D2) and O+ (2D)+H2 (D2). At Ec.m.<0.5 eV, the total cross sections for OH+ (OD+) from O+ (4S)+H2 (D2) and O+(2D)+H2 (D2) are in accord with those predicted by the Langevin-Gioumousis-Stevenson model. Significantly higher cross sections are observed for H+ (D+) and H2+ (D2+) from O+(2D)+H2 (D2) and O+(2P)+H2 (D2), as compared to those from O+(4S)+H2 (D2). The exothermic nature of the O+(2D,2P)+H2 (D2) charge transfer collisions accounts for the high cross sections observed for H2+ (D2+). While the H+ (D+) ions observed in the O+(4S)+H2 (D2) reaction are identified with the H+ (D+)+O+H channel, the H+ (D+) ions from the reactions involving O+(2D) and O+(2P) are associated mostly with the H+ (D+)+OH (OD) channel, the formation of which obeys the spin-conservation rule. The comparison of the sum (σT) of cross sections for OH+ (OD+), H2+ (D2+), and H+ (D+) from O+(4S)+H2 (D2) to those from O+(2D)+H2 (D2) and O+(2P)+H2 (D2) shows that the σTs for O+(4S)+H2 (D2), O+(2D)+H2 (D2), and O+(2P)+H2 (D2) at Ec.m.<0.5 eV are comparable. At Ec.m.>0.5 eV, the σTs for O+(2P)+H2 (D2) are greater than those for O+(2D)+H2 (D2), which in turn are greater than those for O+(4S)+H2 (D2). This observation is attributed to the increase in the number of accessible product channels for reactions involving the excited O+(2D) and O+(2P) reactant ions.
Simulation of 2D Fields of Raindrop Size Distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berne, A.; Schleiss, M.; Uijlenhoet, R.
2008-12-01
The raindrop size distribution (DSD hereafter) is of primary importance for quantitative applications of weather radar measurements. The radar reflectivity~Z (directly measured by radar) is related to the power backscattered by the ensemble of hydrometeors within the radar sampling volume. However, the rain rate~R (the flux of water to the surface) is the variable of interest for many applications (hydrology, weather forecasting, air traffic for example). Usually, radar reflectivity is converted into rain rate using a power law such as Z=aRb. The coefficients a and b of the Z-R relationship depend on the DSD. The variability of the DSD in space and time has to be taken into account to improve radar rain rate estimates. Therefore, the ability to generate a large number of 2D fields of DSD which are statistically homogeneous provides a very useful simulation framework that nicely complements experimental approaches based on DSD data, in order to investigate radar beam propagation through rain as well as radar retrieval techniques. The proposed approach is based on geostatistics for structural analysis and stochastic simulation. First, the DSD is assumed to follow a gamma distribution. Hence a 2D field of DSDs can be adequately described as a 2D field of a multivariate random function consisting of the three DSD parameters. Such fields are simulated by combining a Gaussian anamorphosis and a multivariate Gaussian random field simulation algorithm. Using the (cross-)variogram models fitted on data guaranties that the spatial structure of the simulated fields is consistent with the observed one. To assess its validity, the proposed method is applied to data collected during intense Mediterranean rainfall. As only time series are available, Taylor's hypothesis is assumed to convert time series in 1D range profile. Moreover, DSD fields are assumed to be isotropic so that the 1D structure can be used to simulate 2D fields. A large number of 2D fields of DSD parameters are
Graphene, other 2D atomic crystals and their heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novoselov, Kostya S.
2014-03-01
Probably the most important ``property'' of graphene is that it has opened a floodgate of experiments on many other 2D atomic crystals: BN, NbSe2, TaS2, MoS2, etc. One can use similar strategies to those applied to graphene and obtain new materials by mechanical or liquid phase exfoliation of layered materials or CVD growth. An alternative strategy to create new 2D crystals is to start with an existing one (like graphene) and use it as an atomic scaffolding to modify it by chemical means (graphane and fluorographene are good examples). The resulting pool of 2D crystals is huge, and they cover a massive range of properties: from the most insulating to the most conductive, from the strongest to the softest. If 2D materials provide a large range of different properties, sandwich structures made up of 2, 3, 4 ...different layers of such materials can offer even greater scope. Since these 2D-based heterostructures can be tailored with atomic precision and individual layers of very different character can be combined together, - the properties of these structures can be tuned to study novel physical phenomena (Coulomb drag, Hostadter butterfly, metal-insulator transition, etc) or to fit an enormous range of possible applications, with the functionality of heterostructure stacks is ``embedded'' in their design (tunnelling or hot-electron transistors, photovoltaic devices). Of particular interest are the tunnelling structures. Being able to control the thickness with atomic precision and having a variety of different material in disposal allows us to modify both the height and the width of the tunnelling barrier in the wide range. The use of graphene as electrodes and utilising insulating (BN) or semiconducting (MoS2, WS2) materials as the tunnelling barrier led to the creation of tunnelling transistors and tunnelling photovoltaic devices and the observation of the resonance tunnelling associated with momentum conservation. We will also consider tunnelling in magnetic
Cytochrome P450-2D6 Screening Among Elderly Using Antidepressants (CYSCE)
2017-08-15
Depression; Depressive Disorder; Poor Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant; Intermediate Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant; Ultrarapid Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant
Multifunctional Nanofluids with 2D Nanosheets for thermal management and tribological applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taha Tijerina, Jose Jaime
Conventional heat-transfer fluids such as water, ethylene glycol, standard oils and other lubricants are typically low-efficiency heat-transfer fluids. Thermal management plays a critical factor in many applications where these fluids can be used, such as in motors/engines, solar cells, biopharmaceuticals, fuel cells, high voltage power transmission systems, micro/nanoelectronics mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), and nuclear cooling among others. These insulating fluids require superb filler dispersion, high thermal conduction, and for certain applications as in electrical/electronic devices also electrical insulation. The miniaturization and high efficiency of electrical/electronic devices in these fields demand successful heat management and energy-efficient fluid-based heat-transfer systems. Recent advances in layered materials enable large scale synthesis of various two-dimensional (2D) structures. Some of these 2D materials are good choices as nanofillers in heat transfer fluids; mainly due to their inherent high thermal conductivity (TC) and high surface area available for thermal energy transport. Among various 2D-nanostructures, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene (G) exhibit versatile properties such as outstanding TC, excellent mechanical stability, and remarkable chemical inertness. The following research, even though investigate various conventional fluids, will focus on dielectric insulating nanofluids (mineral oil -- MO) with significant thermal performance. It is presented the plan for synthesis and characterization of stable high-thermal conductivity nanofluids using 2D-nanostructures of h-BN, which will be further incorporated at diverse filler concentrations to conventional fluids for cooling applications, without compromising its electrical insulating property. For comparison, properties of h-BN based fluids are compared with conductive fillers such as graphene; where graphene has similar crystal structure of h-BN and also has similar bulk
A 2D simulation model for urban flood management
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, Roland; van der Wielen, Jonathan; Velickov, Slavco; Galvao, Diogo
2014-05-01
The European Floods Directive, which came into force on 26 November 2007, requires member states to assess all their water courses and coast lines for risk of flooding, to map flood extents and assets and humans at risk, and to take adequate and coordinated measures to reduce the flood risk in consultation with the public. Flood Risk Management Plans are to be in place by 2015. There are a number of reasons for the promotion of this Directive, not least because there has been much urban and other infrastructural development in flood plains, which puts many at risk of flooding along with vital societal assets. In addition there is growing awareness that the changing climate appears to be inducing more frequent extremes of rainfall with a consequent increases in the frequency of flooding. Thirdly, the growing urban populations in Europe, and especially in the developing countries, means that more people are being put at risk from a greater frequency of urban flooding in particular. There are urgent needs therefore to assess flood risk accurately and consistently, to reduce this risk where it is important to do so or where the benefit is greater than the damage cost, to improve flood forecasting and warning, to provide where necessary (and possible) flood insurance cover, and to involve all stakeholders in decision making affecting flood protection and flood risk management plans. Key data for assessing risk are water levels achieved or forecasted during a flood. Such levels should of course be monitored, but they also need to be predicted, whether for design or simulation. A 2D simulation model (PriceXD) solving the shallow water wave equations is presented specifically for determining flood risk, assessing flood defense schemes and generating flood forecasts and warnings. The simulation model is required to have a number of important properties: -Solve the full shallow water wave equations using a range of possible solutions; -Automatically adjust the time step and
A nonrigid kernel-based framework for 2D-3D pose estimation and 2D image segmentation.
Sandhu, Romeil; Dambreville, Samuel; Yezzi, Anthony; Tannenbaum, Allen
2011-06-01
In this work, we present a nonrigid approach to jointly solving the tasks of 2D-3D pose estimation and 2D image segmentation. In general, most frameworks that couple both pose estimation and segmentation assume that one has exact knowledge of the 3D object. However, under nonideal conditions, this assumption may be violated if only a general class to which a given shape belongs is given (e.g., cars, boats, or planes). Thus, we propose to solve the 2D-3D pose estimation and 2D image segmentation via nonlinear manifold learning of 3D embedded shapes for a general class of objects or deformations for which one may not be able to associate a skeleton model. Thus, the novelty of our method is threefold: first, we present and derive a gradient flow for the task of nonrigid pose estimation and segmentation. Second, due to the possible nonlinear structures of one's training set, we evolve the pre-image obtained through kernel PCA for the task of shape analysis. Third, we show that the derivation for shape weights is general. This allows us to use various kernels, as well as other statistical learning methodologies, with only minimal changes needing to be made to the overall shape evolution scheme. In contrast with other techniques, we approach the nonrigid problem, which is an infinite-dimensional task, with a finite-dimensional optimization scheme. More importantly, we do not explicitly need to know the interaction between various shapes such as that needed for skeleton models as this is done implicitly through shape learning. We provide experimental results on several challenging pose estimation and segmentation scenarios.
Prinz, V Ya; Seleznev, Vladimir
2016-12-13
It is a well-known fact that bone scaffold topography on micro- and nanometer scale influences the cellular behavior. Nano-scale surface modification of scaffolds allows the modulation of biological activity for enhanced cell differentiation. To date, there has been only a limited success in printing scaffolds with micro- and nano-scale features exposed on the surface. To improve on the currently available imperfect technologies, in our paper we introduce new hybrid technologies based on a combination of 2D (nano imprint) and 3D printing methods. The first method is based on using light projection 3D printing and simultaneous 2D nanostructuring of each of the layers during the formation of the 3D structure. The second method is based on the sequential integration of preliminarily created 2D nanostructured films into a 3D printed structure. The capabilities of the developed hybrid technologies are demonstrated with the example of forming 3D bone scaffolds. The proposed technologies can be used to fabricate complex 3D micro- and nanostructured products for various fields. Copyright 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Garaud, Pascale; Brummell, Nicholas
2015-12-10
Fingering convection (otherwise known as thermohaline convection) is an instability that occurs in stellar radiative interiors in the presence of unstable compositional gradients. Numerical simulations have been used in order to estimate the efficiency of mixing induced by this instability. However, fully three-dimensional (3D) computations in the parameter regime appropriate for stellar astrophysics (i.e., low Prandtl number) are prohibitively expensive. This raises the question of whether two-dimensional (2D) simulations could be used instead to achieve the same goals. In this work, we address this issue by comparing the outcome of 2D and 3D simulations of fingering convection at low Prandtl number. We find that 2D simulations are never appropriate. However, we also find that the required 3D computational domain does not have to be very wide: the third dimension only needs to contain a minimum of two wavelengths of the fastest-growing linearly unstable mode to capture the essentially 3D dynamics of small-scale fingering. Narrow domains, however, should still be used with caution since they could limit the subsequent development of any large-scale dynamics typically associated with fingering convection.
Widom, Julia R; Johnson, Neil P; von Hippel, Peter H; Marcus, Andrew H
2013-02-01
We have observed the conformation-dependent electronic coupling between the monomeric subunits of a dinucleotide of 2-aminopurine (2-AP), a fluorescent analog of the nucleic acid base adenine. This was accomplished by extending two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D FS) - a fluorescence-detected variation of 2D electronic spectroscopy - to excite molecular transitions in the ultraviolet (UV) regime. A collinear sequence of four ultrafast laser pulses centered at 323 nm was used to resonantly excite the coupled transitions of 2-AP dinucleotide. The phases of the optical pulses were continuously swept at kilohertz frequencies, and the ensuing nonlinear fluorescence was phase-synchronously detected at 370 nm. Upon optimization of a point-dipole coupling model to our data, we found that in aqueous buffer the 2-AP dinucleotide adopts an average conformation in which the purine bases are non-helically stacked (center-to-center distance R12 = 3.5 Å ± 0.5 Å, twist angle θ12 = 5° ± 5°), which differs from the conformation of such adjacent bases in duplex DNA. These experiments establish UV-2D FS as a method for examining the local conformations of an adjacent pair of fluorescent nucleotides substituted into specific DNA or RNA constructs, which will serve as a powerful probe to interpret, in structural terms, biologically significant local conformational changes within the nucleic acid framework of protein-nucleic acid complexes.
Koh, Kwi Hye; Pan, Xian; Shen, Hong-Wu; Arnold, Samuel L M; Yu, Ai-Ming; Gonzalez, Frank J; Isoherranen, Nina; Jeong, Hyunyoung
2014-02-07
Substrates of a major drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP2D6 display increased elimination during pregnancy, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown in part due to a lack of experimental models. Here, we introduce CYP2D6-humanized (Tg-CYP2D6) mice as an animal model where hepatic CYP2D6 expression is increased during pregnancy. In the mouse livers, expression of a known positive regulator of CYP2D6, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), did not change during pregnancy. However, HNF4α recruitment to CYP2D6 promoter increased at term pregnancy, accompanied by repressed expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP). In HepG2 cells, SHP repressed HNF4α transactivation of CYP2D6 promoter. In transgenic (Tg)-CYP2D6 mice, SHP knockdown led to a significant increase in CYP2D6 expression. Retinoic acid, an endogenous compound that induces SHP, exhibited decreased hepatic levels during pregnancy in Tg-CYP2D6 mice. Administration of all-trans-retinoic acid led to a significant decrease in the expression and activity of hepatic CYP2D6 in Tg-CYP2D6 mice. This study provides key insights into mechanisms underlying altered CYP2D6-mediated drug metabolism during pregnancy, laying a foundation for improved drug therapy in pregnant women.
2D Seismic Reflection Data across Central Illinois
Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes
2014-09-30
In a continuing collaboration with the Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) on the Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins project, Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco acquired two-dimensional (2D) seismic data in the Illinois Basin. This work included the design, acquisition and processing of approximately 125 miles of (2D) seismic reflection surveys running west to east in the central Illinois Basin. Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco oversaw the management of the field operations (including a pre-shoot planning, mobilization, acquisition and de-mobilization of the field personnel and equipment), procurement of the necessary permits to conduct the survey, post-shoot closure, processing of the raw data, and provided expert consultation as needed in the interpretation of the delivered product. Three 2D seismic lines were acquired across central Illinois during November and December 2010 and January 2011. Traversing the Illinois Basin, this 2D seismic survey was designed to image the stratigraphy of the Cambro-Ordovician sections and also to discern the basement topography. Prior to this survey, there were no regionally extensive 2D seismic data spanning this section of the Illinois Basin. Between the NW side of Morgan County and northwestern border of Douglas County, these seismic lines ran through very rural portions of the state. Starting in Morgan County, Line 101 was the longest at 93 miles in length and ended NE of Decatur, Illinois. Line 501 ran W-E from the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) site to northwestern Douglas County and was 25 miles in length. Line 601 was the shortest and ran N-S past the IBDP site and connected lines 101 and 501. All three lines are correlated to well logs at the IBDP site. Originally processed in 2011, the 2D seismic profiles exhibited a degradation of signal quality below ~400 millisecond (ms) which made
Topologiacl Models of 2D Fractal Cellular Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Caër, G.; Delannay, R.
1995-11-01
In space-filling 2D cellular structures with trivalent vertices and in which each cell is constrained to share at most one side with any cell and no side with itself, the maximum fraction of three-sided cells is produced by a decoration of vertices of any initial structure by three-sided cells. Fractal cellular structures are obtained if the latter decoration process is iterated indefinitely. Other methods of constructions of fractal structures are also described. The probability distribution P(n) of the number n of cell sides and some two-cell topological properties of a 2D fractal cellular structure constructed from the triangular Sierpinski gasket are investigated. On the whole, the repartition of cells in 2D structures with n geq 3 and P(3) ne 0 evolve regularly when topological disorder, conveniently measured by the variance μ2 of P(n), increases. The strong correlations which exist among cells, in particular in natural structures (μ2lesssim 5), decrease progressively when μ2 increases, a cell repartition close to a random one being reached for μ2sim 12. We argue that the structures finally evolve to fractal structures (for which μ2 is infinite) but we have not characterized the latter transition. Dans des structures cellulaires 2D à sommets trivalents qui remplissent l'espace et dans lesquelles une cellule partage au plus un côté avec toute autre cellule et aucun avec elle-même, la proportion maximum admissible de cellules à trois côtés est obtenue par une décoration de tous les sommets d'une structure initiale quelconque par des cellules à trois côtés. Des structures cellulaires “fractales” 2D sont ainsi engendrées si le processus précédent est répété à l'infini. D'autres méthodes de constructions de structures fractales sont également décrites. La distribution de probabilité P(n) du nombre n de côtés des cellules ainsi que des corrélations de paires sont étudiées pour une structure cellulaire fractale construite à partir
Sun, Liyun; Gu, Shaohua; Sun, Yaqiong; Zheng, Dan; Wu, Qihan; Li, Xin; Dai, Jianfeng; Dai, Jianliang; Ji, Chaoneng; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin
2005-04-01
This study reports the cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 isoform cDNAs (PAP2d) from the foetal brain cDNA library. The PAP2d gene is localized on chromosome 1p21.3. It contains six exons and spans 112 kb of the genomic DNA. By large-scale cDNA sequencing we found two splice variants of PAP2d, PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 1722 bp in length and spans an open reading frame from nucleotide 56 to 1021, encoding a 321aa protein. The PAP2d_v2 cDNA is 1707 bp in length encoding a 316aa protein from nucleotide 56-1006. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 15 bp longer than the PAP2d_v2 cDNA in the terminal of the fifth exon and it creates different ORF. Both of the proteins contain a well-conserved PAP2 motif. The PAP2d_v1 is mainly expressed in human brain, lung, kidney, testis and colon, while PAP2d_v2 is restricted to human placenta, skeletal muscle, and kidney. The two splice variants are co-expressed only in kidney.
Quantitation of protein in samples prepared for 2-D electrophoresis.
Berkelman, Tom
2008-01-01
The concentration of protein in a sample prepared for two dimensional (2-D) electrophoretic analysis is usually determined by protein assay. Reasons for this include the following. (1) Protein quantitation ensures that the amount of protein to be separated is appropriate for the gel size and visualization method. (2) Protein quantitation facilitates comparison among similar samples, as image-based analysis is simplified when equivalent quantities of proteins have been loaded on the gels to be compared. (3) Quantitation is necessary in cases where the protein sample is labeled with dye before separation (1,2). The labeling chemistry is affected by the dye to protein ratio so it is essential to know the protein concentration before setting up the labeling reaction.A primary consideration with quantitating protein in samples prepared for 2-D electrophoresis is interference by nonprotein substances that may be present in the sample. These samples generally contain chaotropic solubilizing agents, detergents, reductants, buffers or carrier ampholytes, all of which potentially interfere with protein quantitation. The most commonly used protein assays in proteomics research are colorimetric assays in which the presence of protein causes a color change that can be measured spectrophotometrically (3). All protein assays utilize standards, a dilution series of a known concentration of a known protein, to create a standard curve. Two methods will be considered that circumvent some of the problems associated with interfering substances and are well suited for samples prepared for 2-D electrophoresis. The first method (4.1.1) relies on a color change that occurs upon binding of a dye to protein and the second (4.1.2) relies on binding and reduction of cupric ion (Cu2+) ion to cuprous ion (Cu+) by proteins.
Long-lived magnetoexcitons in 2D-fermion system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulik, L. V.; Zhuravlev, A. S.; Gorbunov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.; Kukushkin, I. V.
2017-01-01
The paper addresses the experimental technique that, when applied to a 2D-electron system in the integer quantum Hall regime with filling factor ν = 2 (the Hall insulating state), allows resonant excitation of magnetoexcitons, their detection, control of an ensemble of long-lived triplet excitons and investigation of their radiationless decay related to exciton spin relaxation into the ground state. The technique proposed enables independent control of photoexcited electrons and Fermi-holes using photoinduced resonance reflection spectra as well as estimate with a reasonable degree of accuracy the resulting density of photoinduced electron-hole pairs bound into magnetoexcitons. The mere existence of triplet excitons was directly established by inelastic light scattering spectra which were analyzed to determine the value of singlet-triplet exciton splitting. It was found that the lifetimes of triplet excitons conditioned by electron spin relaxation in highly perfect GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures with highly mobile 2D electrons are extremely long exceeding 100 μs at T < 1 K. The paper presents a qualitative explanation of the long-spin relaxation lifetimes which are unprecedented for translation-invariant 2D systems. This enabled us to create sufficiently high concentrations of triplet magnetoexcitons, electrically neutral excitations following Bose-Einstein statistics, in a Fermi electron system and investigate their collective properties. At sufficiently high densities of triplet magnetoexcitons and low temperatures, T < 1 K, the degenerate magnetofermionic system exhibits condensation of the triplet magnetoexcitons into a qualitatively new collective state with unusual properties which occurs in the space of generalized moments (magnetic translation vectors). The occurrence of a condensed phase is accompanied with a significant decrease in the viscosity of the photoexcited system, which is responsible for electron spin transport at macroscopic distances, as well
Human erythrocytes analyzed by generalized 2D Raman correlation spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Kozicki, Mateusz; Czepiel, Jacek; Łabanowska, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Grzegorz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Birczyńska, Malwina; Biesiada, Grażyna; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander
2014-07-01
The most numerous elements of the blood cells, erythrocytes, consist mainly of two components: homogeneous interior filled with hemoglobin and closure which is the cell membrane. To gain insight into their specific properties we studied the process of disintegration, considering these two constituents, and comparing the natural aging process of human healthy blood cells. MicroRaman spectra of hemoglobin within the single RBC were recorded using 514.5, and 785 nm laser lines. The generalized 2D correlation method was applied to analyze the collected spectra. The time passed from blood donation was regarded as an external perturbation. The time was no more than 40 days according to the current storage limit of blood banks, although, the average RBC life span is 120 days. An analysis of the prominent synchronous and asynchronous cross peaks allow us to get insight into the mechanism of hemoglobin decomposition. Appearing asynchronous cross-peaks point towards globin and heme separation from each other, while synchronous shows already broken globin into individual amino acids. Raman scattering analysis of hemoglobin "wrapping", i.e. healthy erythrocyte ghosts, allows for the following peculiarity of their behavior. The increasing power of the excitation laser induced alterations in the assemblage of membrane lipids. 2D correlation maps, obtained with increasing laser power recognized as an external perturbation, allows for the consideration of alterations in the erythrocyte membrane structure and composition, which occurs first in the proteins. Cross-peaks were observed indicating an asynchronous correlation between the senescent-cell antigen (SCA) and heme or proteins vibrations. The EPR spectra of the whole blood was analyzed regarding time as an external stimulus. The 2D correlation spectra points towards participation of the selected metal ion centers in the disintegration process.
Digit ratio (2D:4D), salivary testosterone, and handedness.
Beaton, Alan A; Rudling, Nick; Kissling, Christian; Taurines, Regine; Thome, Johannes
2011-03-01
The length of the index finger relative to that of the ring finger, the 2D:4D ratio, has been taken to be a marker of the amount of testosterone (T) that was present in the foetal environment (Manning, Scutt, Wilson, & Lewis-Jones, 1998). It has also been suggested (Geschwind & Galaburda, 1987) that elevated levels of foetal T are associated with left-handedness and that adult levels of circulating T might relate to foetal levels (Jamison, Meier, & Campbell, 1993). We used multiple regression analyses to investigate whether there is any relationship between either left or right hand 2D:4D ratio and handedness. We also examined whether adult levels of salivary T (or cortisol, used as a control hormone) predict digit ratio and/or handedness. Although the 2D:4D ratio of neither the left nor the right hand was related to handedness, the difference between the digit ratios of the right and left hands, D(R-L), was a significant predictor of handedness and of the performance difference between the hands on a peg-moving task, supporting previous findings (Manning & Peters, 2009; Manning et al., 1998; Manning, Trivers, Thornhill, & Singh, 2000; Stoyanov, Marinov, & Pashalieva, 2009). Adult circulating T levels did not predict the digit ratio of the left or right hand; nor was there a significant relationship between concentrations of salivary T (or cortisol) and either hand preference or asymmetry in manual skill. We suggest that the association between D(R-L) and hand preference arises because D(R-L) is a correlate of sensitivity to T in the developing foetus.
2D to 3D conversion implemented in different hardware
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos-Diaz, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Huitron, Victor; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Hernandez-Fragoso, Araceli
2015-02-01
Conversion of available 2D data for release in 3D content is a hot topic for providers and for success of the 3D applications, in general. It naturally completely relies on virtual view synthesis of a second view given by original 2D video. Disparity map (DM) estimation is a central task in 3D generation but still follows a very difficult problem for rendering novel images precisely. There exist different approaches in DM reconstruction, among them manually and semiautomatic methods that can produce high quality DMs but they demonstrate hard time consuming and are computationally expensive. In this paper, several hardware implementations of designed frameworks for an automatic 3D color video generation based on 2D real video sequence are proposed. The novel framework includes simultaneous processing of stereo pairs using the following blocks: CIE L*a*b* color space conversions, stereo matching via pyramidal scheme, color segmentation by k-means on an a*b* color plane, and adaptive post-filtering, DM estimation using stereo matching between left and right images (or neighboring frames in a video), adaptive post-filtering, and finally, the anaglyph 3D scene generation. Novel technique has been implemented on DSP TMS320DM648, Matlab's Simulink module over a PC with Windows 7, and using graphic card (NVIDIA Quadro K2000) demonstrating that the proposed approach can be applied in real-time processing mode. The time values needed, mean Similarity Structural Index Measure (SSIM) and Bad Matching Pixels (B) values for different hardware implementations (GPU, Single CPU, and DSP) are exposed in this paper.
Fracture surfaces of heterogeneous materials: A 2D solvable model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katzav, E.; Adda-Bedia, M.; Derrida, B.
2007-05-01
Using an elastostatic description of crack growth based on the Griffith criterion and the principle of local symmetry, we present a stochastic model describing the propagation of a crack tip in a 2D heterogeneous brittle material. The model ensures the stability of straight cracks and allows for the study of the roughening of fracture surfaces. When neglecting the effect of the nonsingular stress, the problem becomes exactly solvable and yields analytic predictions for the power spectrum of the paths. This result suggests an alternative to the conventional power law analysis often used in the analysis of experimental data.
2D/3D Synthetic Vision Navigation Display
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Sweeters, jason L.
2008-01-01
Flight-deck display software was designed and developed at NASA Langley Research Center to provide two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) terrain, obstacle, and flight-path perspectives on a single navigation display. The objective was to optimize the presentation of synthetic vision (SV) system technology that permits pilots to view multiple perspectives of flight-deck display symbology and 3D terrain information. Research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the concept. The concept has numerous unique implementation features that would permit enhanced operational concepts and efficiencies in both current and future aircraft.
The analyzation of 2D complicated regular polygon photonic lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Jing; Gao, Yuanmei
2017-06-01
We have numerically simulated the light intensity distribution, phase distribution, far-field diffraction of the two dimensional (2D) regular octagon and regular dodecagon lattices in detail. In addition, using the plane wave expansion (PWE) method, we numerically calculate the energy band of the two lattices. Both of the photonic lattices have the band gap. And the regular octagon lattice possesses the wide complete band gap while the regular dodecagon lattice has the incomplete gap. Moreover, we simulated the preliminary transmission image of photonic lattices. It may inspire the academic research both in light control and soliton.
Quantifying Therapeutic and Diagnostic Efficacy in 2D Microvascular Images
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.
2009-01-01
VESGEN is a newly automated, user-interactive program that maps and quantifies the effects of vascular therapeutics and regulators on microvascular form and function. VESGEN analyzes two-dimensional, black and white vascular images by measuring important vessel morphology parameters. This software guides the user through each required step of the analysis process via a concise graphical user interface (GUI). Primary applications of the VESGEN code are 2D vascular images acquired as clinical diagnostic images of the human retina and as experimental studies of the effects of vascular regulators and therapeutics on vessel remodeling.
Vortex dynamics and decay of supercurrent in 2-D superconductors
Ping Ao
1992-11-01
The decay of supercurrent in a 2-d superconductor through the homogeneous quantum nucleation of vortex-antivortex pairs is formulated as a (2 + 1)-d scalar quantum electrodynamic problem. The calculation of the quantum decay rate can then be simplified to the usual single particle WKB calculation. The authors show explicitly that the homogeneous quantum nucleation of vortex-antivortex pairs is incompatible to the existence of the magnus force in the absence of dissipation, and pint out more complicated nucleation processes needed to be studied by the vortex dynamics method in such case. 9 refs.
Calculation of 2D electronic band structure using matrix mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavelich, R. L.; Marsiglio, F.
2016-12-01
We extend previous work, applying elementary matrix mechanics to one-dimensional periodic arrays (to generate energy bands), to two-dimensional arrays. We generate band structures for the square-lattice "2D Kronig-Penney model" (square wells), the "muffin-tin" potential (circular wells), and Gaussian wells. We then apply the method to periodic arrays of more than one atomic site in a unit cell, specifically to the case of materials with hexagonal lattices like graphene. These straightforward extensions of undergraduate-level calculations allow students to readily determine band structures of current research interest.
Interplay between Anderson and Stark Localization in 2D Lattices
Kolovsky, A. R.
2008-11-07
This Letter studies the dynamics of a quantum particle in 2D lattices with on-site disorder in the presence of a static field. It is shown that the particle is localized along the field direction, while in the orthogonal direction to the field it shows diffusive dynamics for algebraically large times. For weak disorder an analytical expression for the diffusion coefficient is obtained by mapping the problem to a band random matrix. This expression is confirmed by numerical simulations of the particle's dynamics, which also indicate the existence of a universal equation for the diffusion coefficient, valid for an arbitrary disorder strength.
dada - a web-based 2D detector analysis tool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osterhoff, Markus
2017-06-01
The data daemon, dada, is a server backend for unified access to 2D pixel detector image data stored with different detectors, file formats and saved with varying naming conventions and folder structures across instruments. Furthermore, dada implements basic pre-processing and analysis routines from pixel binning over azimuthal integration to raster scan processing. Common user interactions with dada are by a web frontend, but all parameters for an analysis are encoded into a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) which can also be written by hand or scripts for batch processing.
2D Magneto-Optical Trapping of Diatomic Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hummon, Matthew T.; Yeo, Mark; Stuhl, Benjamin K.; Collopy, Alejandra L.; Xia, Yong; Ye, Jun
2013-04-01
We demonstrate one- and two-dimensional transverse laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping of the polar molecule yttrium (II) oxide (YO). In a 1D magneto-optical trap (MOT), we characterize the magneto-optical trapping force and decrease the transverse temperature by an order of magnitude, from 25 to 2 mK, limited by interaction time. In a 2D MOT, we enhance the intensity of the YO beam and reduce the transverse temperature in both transverse directions. The approach demonstrated here can be applied to many molecular species and can also be extended to 3D.
Quantum Oscillations in an Interfacial 2D Electron Gas.
Zhang, Bingop; Lu, Ping; Liu, Henan; Lin, Jiao; Ye, Zhenyu; Jaime, Marcelo; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Yuan, Huiqiu; Wu, Huizhen; Pan, Wei; Zhang, Yong
2016-01-01
Recently, it has been predicted that topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) may exist in SnTe and Pb_{1-x}Sn_{x}Te thin films [1]. To date, most studies on TCIs were carried out either in bulk crystals or thin films, and no research activity has been explored in heterostructures. We present here the results on electronic transport properties of the 2D electron gas (2DEG) realized at the interfaces of PbTe/ CdTe (111) heterostructures. Evidence of topological state in this interfacial 2DEG was observed.
Optical diffraction by ordered 2D arrays of silica microspheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shcherbakov, A. A.; Shavdina, O.; Tishchenko, A. V.; Veillas, C.; Verrier, I.; Dellea, O.; Jourlin, Y.
2017-03-01
The article presents experimental and theoretical studies of angular dependent diffraction properties of 2D monolayer arrays of silica microspheres. High-quality large area defect-free monolayers of 1 μm diameter silica microspheres were deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique under an accurate optical control. Measured angular dependencies of zeroth and one of the first order diffraction efficiencies produced by deposited samples were simulated by the rigorous Generalized Source Method taking into account particle size dispersion and lattice nonideality.
Black liquor gasification phase 2D final report
Kohl, A.L.; Stewart, A.E.
1988-06-01
This report covers work conducted by Rockwell International under Amendment 5 to Subcontract STR/DOE-12 of Cooperative Agreement DE-AC-05-80CS40341 between St. Regis Corporation (now Champion International) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The work has been designated Phase 2D of the overall program to differentiate it from prior work under the same subcontract. The overall program is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of and providing design data for the Rockwell process for gasifying Kraft black liquor. In this process, concentrated black liquor is converted into low-Btu fuel gas and reduced melt by reaction with air in a specially designed gasification reactor.
Spin relaxation anisotropy: microscopic mechanisms for 2D systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Averkiev, N. S.; Golub, L. E.
2008-11-01
Low symmetry of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor systems results in a dependence of the spin relaxation times on the spin orientation relative to crystallographic directions. It is demonstrated that a microscopic reason for this anisotropy is an interference of structure inversion asymmetry (SIA) and bulk inversion asymmetry (BIA). For the D'yakonov-Perel' spin relaxation mechanism the anisotropy is due to SIA and BIA interference in the spin splitting of energy spectrum. In the case of the Elliott-Yafet mechanism the spin relaxation anisotropy is caused by the interference of SIA and BIA in the spin-flip scattering probability.
Efficient 2d full waveform inversion using Fortran coarray
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Donghyun; Kim, ahreum; Ha, Wansoo
2016-04-01
We developed a time-domain seismic inversion program using the coarray feature of the Fortran 2008 standard to parallelize the algorithm. We converted a 2d acoustic parallel full waveform inversion program with Message Passing Interface (MPI) to a coarray program and examined performance of the two inversion programs. The results show that the speed of the waveform inversion program using the coarray is slightly faster than that of the MPI version. The standard coarray lacks features for collective communication; however, it can be improved in following standards since it is introduced recently. The parallel algorithm can be applied for 3D seismic data processing.
Ultrathin 2D Metal-Organic Framework Nanosheets.
Zhao, Meiting; Wang, Yixian; Ma, Qinglang; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Xiao; Ping, Jianfeng; Zhang, Zhicheng; Lu, Qipeng; Yu, Yifu; Xu, Huan; Zhao, Yanli; Zhang, Hua
2015-12-02
A facile surfactant-assisted bottom-up synthetic method to prepare a series of freestanding ultrathin 2D M-TCPP (M = Zn, Cu, Cd or Co, TCPP = tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin) nanosheets with a thickness of sub-10 nm is developed. As a proof-of-concept application, some of them are successfully used as new platforms for DNA detection. The Cu-TCPP nanosheet-based sensor shows excellent fluorescent sensing performance and is used for the simultaneous detection of multiple DNA targets.
Unitary matrix models and 2D quantum gravity
Dalley, S. . Joseph Henry Labs.); Johnson, C.V.; Morris, T.R. . Dept. of Physics); Watterstam, A. )
1992-09-21
In this paper the KdV and modified KdV integrable hierarchies are shown to be different descriptions of the same 2D gravitational system - open-closed string theory. Non-perturbative solutions of the multicritical unitary matrix models map to non-singular solutions of the renormalization group equation for the string susceptibility, [P, Q] = Q. The authors also demonstrate that the large-N solutions of unitary matrix integrals in external fields, studied by Gross and Newman, equal the non-singular pure closed-string solutions of [[bar P], Q] = Q.
Symmetries in non-perturbative 2-d quantum gravity
La, H. . Dept. of Physics)
1991-03-07
In this paper based on the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) hierarchy formulation of non-perturbative 2-d quantum gravity, the authors investigate the symmetries of the system. Particularly, it is shown that the recently found Virasoro constraints are due to the non-isospectral symmetries of KdV hierarchy, which can be interpreted as SL(2, C) invariance and the independence of the moduli of the auxiliary infinite genus hyperelliptic Riemann surfaces which appear in the Krichever construction of soliton solutions.
MHD instabilities in accretion mounds - I. 2D axisymmetric simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Mignone, Andrea
2013-04-01
We have performed stability analysis of axisymmetric accretion mounds on neutron stars in high-mass X-ray binaries by 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations with the PLUTO MHD code. We find that the mounds are stable with respect to interchange instabilities, but the addition of excess mass destabilizes the equilibria. Our simulations confirm that accretion mounds are unstable with respect to MHD instabilities beyond a threshold mass. We investigate both filled and hollow mounds and for the latter also compute the expected profile of cyclotron resonance scattering features (CRSF). In comparison to the CRSF from filled mounds reported in our earlier work, hollow mounds display wider and more complex line profiles.
2D photonic crystal and its angular reflective azimuthal spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senderakova, Dagmar; Drzik, Milan; Tomekova, Juliana
2016-12-01
Contemporary, attention is paid to photonic crystals, which can strongly modify light propagation through them and enable a controllable light manipulation. The contribution is focused on a sub-wavelength 2D structure formed by Al2O3 layer on silicon substrate, patterned with periodic hexagonal lattice of deep air holes. Using various laser sources of light at single wavelength, azimuthal angle dependence of the mirror-like reflected light intensity was recorded photo-electrically. The results obtained can be used to sample the band-structure of leaky modes of the photonic crystal more reliably and help us to map the photonic dispersion diagram.
NGMIX: Gaussian mixture models for 2D images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheldon, Erin
2015-08-01
NGMIX implements Gaussian mixture models for 2D images. Both the PSF profile and the galaxy are modeled using mixtures of Gaussians. Convolutions are thus performed analytically, resulting in fast model generation as compared to methods that perform the convolution in Fourier space. For the galaxy model, NGMIX supports exponential disks and de Vaucouleurs and Sérsic profiles; these are implemented approximately as a sum of Gaussians using the fits from Hogg & Lang (2013). Additionally, any number of Gaussians can be fit, either completely free or constrained to be cocentric and co-elliptical.
2-D FIR interferometry and polarimetry on TPX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geck, W. R.; Qin, X.; Liao, J.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.
1995-01-01
A multiple fan-beam approach to 2-D FIR interferometry and polarimetry is under investigation for use on next generation tokamaks such as TPX. The approach utilizes a small number (3-5) of inside launch fan beams, and a finite number (5-15) of receive horns positioned within the vacuum vessel on the outboard side of the plasma. Positioning of the horns is achieved with minimal penetration of internal structures, within the design constraints dictated by a highly restricted viewing access. The choice of operating frequency is discussed considering both physics and design issues.
Beam-Plasma Instabilities in a 2D Yukawa Lattice
Kyrkos, S.; Kalman, G. J.; Rosenberg, M.
2009-06-05
We consider a 2D Yukawa lattice of grains, with a beam of other charged grains moving in the lattice plane. In contrast to Vlasov plasmas, where the electrostatic instability excited by the beam is only longitudinal, here both longitudinal and transverse instabilities of the lattice phonons can develop. We determine and compare the transverse and longitudinal growth rates. The growth rate spectrum in wave number space exhibits remarkable gaps where no instability can develop. Depending on the system parameters, the transverse instability can be selectively excited.
Experimental validation of 2-D generalized geometric super resolved approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borkowski, Amikam; Zalevsky, Zeev; Cohen, Nadav; Hadas, Zadok; Marom, Emanuel; Javidi, Bahram
2014-01-01
In this paper, we generalize the method of using a 2-D moving binary random mask to overcome the geometrical resolution limitation of an imaging sensor. The spatial blurring is caused by the size of the imaging sensor pixels which yield insufficient spatial sampling. The mask is placed in an intermediate image plane and can be shifted in any direction while keeping the sensor as well as all other optical components fixed. Out of the set of images that are captured and registered, a high resolution image can be composed. In addition, this proposed approach reduces the amount of required computations and it has an improved robustness to spatial noise.
Numerical modelling of spallation in 2D hydrodynamics codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maw, J. R.; Giles, A. R.
1996-05-01
A model for spallation based on the void growth model of Johnson has been implemented in 2D Lagrangian and Eulerian hydrocodes. The model has been extended to treat complete separation of material when voids coalesce and to describe the effects of elevated temperatures and melting. The capabilities of the model are illustrated by comparison with data from explosively generated spall experiments. Particular emphasis is placed on the prediction of multiple spall effects in weak, low melting point, materials such as lead. The correlation between the model predictions and observations on the strain rate dependence of spall strength is discussed.
Quantization of a theory of 2D dilaton gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Alwis, S. P.
1992-09-01
We discuss the quantization of the 2D gravity theory of Callan, Giddings, Harvey, and Strominger (CGHS), following the procedure of David, and of Distler and Kawai. We find that the physics depends crucially on whether the number of matter fields is greater than or less than 24. In the latter case the singularity pointed out by several authors is absent but the physical interpretation is unclear. In the former case (the one studied by CGHS) the quantum theory which gives CGHS in the linear dilaton semi-classical limit, is different from that which gives CGHS in the extreme Liouville regime.
High Precision 2-D Grating Groove Density Measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ningxiao; McEntaffer, Randall; Tedesco, Ross
2017-08-01
Our research group at Penn State University is working on producing X-ray reflection gratings with high spectral resolving power and high diffraction efficiency. To estimate our fabrication accuracy, we apply a precise 2-D grating groove density measurement to plot groove density distributions of gratings on 6-inch wafers. In addition to plotting a fixed groove density distribution, this method is also sensitive to measuring the variation of the groove density simultaneously. This system can reach a measuring accuracy (ΔN/N) of 10-3. Here we present this groove density measurement and some applications.
Dynamics of Quarks in a 2D Flux Tube
Koshelkin, Andrey V.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin
2015-01-01
On the basis of a compactification of the (3+1) into (1+1) dimensional space-time [1], the quark states inside the 2D flux tube are studied for the case of a linear transverse confining potential. The derived states are classified by both the projections of the orbital momentum and the spin along the tube direction. The spectrum of the fermion states is evaluated. It is found that the energy eigenvalues of the quarks appear to be approximately related to the square root of the eigenvalues of the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator.
Transport Experiments on 2D Correlated Electron Physics in Semiconductors
Tsui, Daniel
2014-03-24
This research project was designed to investigate experimentally the transport properties of the 2D electrons in Si and GaAs, two prototype semiconductors, in several new physical regimes that were previously inaccessible to experiments. The research focused on the strongly correlated electron physics in the dilute density limit, where the electron potential energy to kinetic energy ratio rs>>1, and on the fractional quantum Hall effect related physics in nuclear demagnetization refrigerator temperature range on samples with new levels of purity and controlled random disorder.
76 FR 30819 - Special Conditions: Turbomeca Arriel 2D Turboshaft Engine
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-05-27
... power for search and rescue missions. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate... rating. This rating was requested by the applicant to support rotorcraft search and rescue missions that...
76 FR 18130 - Special Conditions: Turbomeca Arriel 2D Turboshaft Engine
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-04-01
... generally intended to be used for hovering at increased power for search and rescue missions. The applicable... a 30-minute power rating. This rating was requested by the applicant to support rotorcraft search... that for search and rescue, extended hovering maneuvers may require more than maximum continuous power...
Nayak, Sunita; Talukdar, Sarmistha; Kundu, Subhas C
2012-03-01
Silk sericin protein is a natural, hydrophilic, macromolecular glycoprotein mainly synthesized in the middle silk gland of the silkworm. It constitutes 25-30% of the silk cocoon. Sericin proteins have antioxidant, antimicrobial, UV-resistant properties, promote wound healing and support cell proliferation even in serum-free media. Most of the sericin is discarded as waste in silk processing industries. This study aims at improving the mechanical strength and stability of sericin extracted from the silk cocoons during processing and utilize it as a biocompatible natural biopolymer in biomedical applications. Crosslinked sericin membranes, from the cocoon of non-mulberry tropical silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, were prepared using gluteraldehyde as the crosslinking agent. Physical and structural characteristics of the membranes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction along with swelling and degradation studies. The secondary structure of the membrane indicates that crosslinking provides a more integrated structure that significantly improves the stability and mechanical strength of the membranes. In vitro cytocompatibility of the membranes was evaluated by MTT assay and cell cycle analysis of feline fibroblast cells. The adherence, growth and proliferation patterns of cells on membranes were assessed by confocal microscopy, which demonstrated that the latter is non-toxic and supports cell growth. Cell cycle analyses indicate cytocompatibility with normal cell cycle pattern. This study reveals that silk sericin protein can be used as a biocompatible natural biopolymer for various applications in the biomedical field.
Engineering of lead chalcogenide nanostructures for carrier multiplication: Core/shell, 1D, and 2D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Qianglu
Near infrared emitting semiconductors have been used widely in industry especially in solar-cell fabrications. The efficiency of single junction solar-cell can reach the Shockley-Queisser limit by using optimum band gap material such as silicon and cadmium telluride. The theoretical efficiency can be further enhanced through carrier multiplication, in which a high energy photon is absorbed and more than one electron-hole pair can be generated, reaching more than 100% quantum efficiency in the high energy region of sunlight. The realization of more than unity external quantum efficiency in lead selenide quantum dots solar cell has motivated vast investigation on lowering the carrier multiplication threshold and further improving the efficiency. This dissertation focuses on synthesis of lead chalcogenide nanostructures for their optical spectroscopy studies. PbSe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots were synthesized by cation exchange to obtain thick shells (up to 14 monolayers) for studies of visible and near infrared dual band emissions and carrier multiplication efficiency. By examining the reaction mechanism, a thermodynamic and a kinetic model are introduced to explain the vacancy driven cation exchange. As indicated by the effective mass model, PbSe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots has quasi-type-II band alignment, possessing electron delocalized through the entire quantum dot and hole localized in the core, which breaks down the symmetry of energy levels in the conduction and valence band, leading to hot-hole-assisted efficient multi-exciton generation and a lower carrier multiplication threshold to the theoretical value. For further investigation of carrier multiplication study, PbTe, possessing the highest efficiency among lead chalcogenides due to slow intraband cooling, is synthesized in one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanostructures. By using dodecanethiol as the surfactant, PbTe NRs can be prepared with high uniformity in width and resulted in fine quantum confinement features. The reaction can be explained by a soft-template assisted process, in which the lamellar lead-thiolate precursor transforms into rod-shape micelle in the existence of telluride anions by electrostatic attraction. Fine tuning the reaction condition by changing the solvent to oleylamine, lead telluride nanowires with length up to 200 nm can be prepared, which bundled together because of the strong dipole-dipole attraction between nanowires. Decreasing the amount of surfactant dodecanethiol in the synthesis produces lead telluride nanorings, which formed by attaching four small particles together, leaving the center void. To prepare two-dimensional nanoplatelets, mixture ligands containing two amines with different carbon chain length were used, which initiate oriented attachment of the nanoparticles to form square-shape nanoplatelets. By further adopting stronger binding ligands such as phosphonic acid, PbTe nanoplatelets with micrometer lateral dimension were prepared with extremely sharp near infrared photoluminescence (less than 40 meV), which has never be achieved in quantum dots and other nanostructures.
A 2-D oscillating flow analysis in Stirling engine heat exchangers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahn, Kyung H.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.
1991-01-01
A two dimensional oscillating flow analysis was conducted, simulating the gas flow inside Stirling heat exchangers. Both laminar and turbulent oscillating pipe flow were investigated numerically for Re(max) = 1920 (Va = 80), 10800 (Va = 272), 19300 (Va = 272), and 60800 (Va = 126). The results are compared with experimental results of previous investigators. Also, predictions of the flow regime on present oscillating flow conditions were checked by comparing velocity amplitudes and phase differences with those from laminar theory and quasi-steady profile. A high Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model was used for turbulent oscillating pipe flow. Finally, performance evaluation of the K-epsilon model was made to explore the applicability of quasi-steady turbulent models to unsteady oscillating flow analysis.
A 2-D oscillating flow analysis in Stirling engine heat exchangers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahn, Kyung H.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.
1991-01-01
A two-dimensional oscillating flow analysis was conducted, simulating the gas flow inside Stirling heat exchangers. Both laminar and turbulent oscillating pipe flow were investigated numerically for Re(max) = 1920 (Va = 80), 10800 (Va = 272), 19300 (Va = 272), and 60800 (Va = 126). The results are compared with experimental results of previous investigators. Also, predictions of the flow regime on present oscillating flow conditions were checked by comparing velocity amplitudes and phase differences with those from laminar theory and quasi-steady profile. A high Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model was used for turbulent oscillating pipe flow. Finally, performance evaluation of the K-epsilon model was made to explore the applicability of quasi-steady turbulent models to unsteady oscillating flow analysis.
An interactive 2-D power-line modeling and simulation tool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hull, David; Adelman, Ross
2012-06-01
The U.S. Army Research Laboratory's Power-Line unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) Modeling and Simulation (ARL-PLUMS) is a tool for estimating and analyzing quasi-static electric and magnetic fields due to power lines. This tool consists of an interactive 2-D graphical user interface (GUI) and a compute engine that can be used to calculate and visualize the E-Field and H-Field due to as many as seven conductors (two 3-phase circuits and a ground wire). ARL-PLUMS allows the user to set the geometry of the lines and the load conditions on those lines, and then calculate Ey, Ez, Hy, or Hz along a linear path or cutting plane, or in the form of a movie. The path can be along the ground or in the air to simulate the fields that might be observed, for example, by a robotic vehicle or a UAV. ARL-PLUMS makes several simplifying assumptions in order to allow simulations to be completed on a laptop PC interactively. In most cases, the results are excellent, providing a "90% solution" in just a few minutes of total modeling and simulation time. This paper describes the physics used by ARL-PLUMS, including the simplifying assumptions and the 2-D Method of Moments solver. Examples of electric and magnetic fields for different wire configurations, including typical 3-phase distribution and transmissions lines, are provided. Comparisons to similar results using a full 3-D model are also shown, and a discussion of errors that may be expected from the 2-D simulations is provided.
Defining an optimal surface chemistry for pluripotent stem cell culture in 2D and 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zonca, Michael R., Jr.
Surface chemistry is critical for growing pluripotent stem cells in an undifferentiated state. There is great potential to engineer the surface chemistry at the nanoscale level to regulate stem cell adhesion. However, the challenge is to identify the optimal surface chemistry of the substrata for ES cell attachment and maintenance. Using a high-throughput polymerization and screening platform, a chemically defined, synthetic polymer grafted coating that supports strong attachment and high expansion capacity of pluripotent stem cells has been discovered using mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells as a model system. This optimal substrate, N-[3-(Dimethylamino)propyl] methacrylamide (DMAPMA) that is grafted on 2D synthetic poly(ether sulfone) (PES) membrane, sustains the self-renewal of ES cells (up to 7 passages). DMAPMA supports cell attachment of ES cells through integrin beta1 in a RGD-independent manner and is similar to another recently reported polymer surface. Next, DMAPMA has been able to be transferred to 3D by grafting to synthetic, polymeric, PES fibrous matrices through both photo-induced and plasma-induced polymerization. These 3D modified fibers exhibited higher cell proliferation and greater expression of pluripotency markers of mouse ES cells than 2D PES membranes. Our results indicated that desirable surfaces in 2D can be scaled to 3D and that both surface chemistry and structural dimension strongly influence the growth and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. Lastly, the feasibility of incorporating DMAPMA into a widely used natural polymer, alginate, has been tested. Novel adhesive alginate hydrogels have been successfully synthesized by either direct polymerization of DMAPMA and methacrylic acid blended with alginate, or photo-induced DMAPMA polymerization on alginate nanofibrous hydrogels. In particular, DMAPMA-coated alginate hydrogels support strong ES cell attachment, exhibiting a concentration dependency of DMAPMA. This research provides a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bery, Andy Anderson; Nordiana, M. M.; Kiu, Y. C.; Amalina, M. K. A. Nur; Saidin, M.; Mohamamad-Afiq, A.; Nur-Amalina, A. M.
2017-07-01
There have been improvement in the subsurface investigation using non-destructive geophysical method. These were supported by improvement in data inversion method for 2-D resistivity imaging method. This geophysical method have been used for many environmental and engineering studies, such as slope monitoring, cavities detection, buried man-made structures and so on. This paper present the 2-D data inversion in electrical resistivity method which was carried out in Penang, Malaysia. This non-destructive method is used to image the subsurface for soil's lithology purpose. In addition, two inline boreholes were used to validate and verify the obtained results of electrical resistivity imaging. Based on the electrical resistivity imaging, the subsurface is made up of four type of materials. They are sandy silt, silty sand, sand and lastly weathered granite. Sandy silt and silty sand soils give resistivity values of 65-220 Ωm and 120-770 Ωm. Meanwhile for sand and weathered granite materials, their resistivity values are 220-1400 Ωm and 410-2600 Ω.m respectively. Beside than electrical resistivity imaging, this work also present the distribution of conductivity for the investigated subsurface via the 2-D conductivity model. In conclusion, the used of the non-destructive geophysical method in this study is successful in image the investigated subsurface lithology and the investigation coverage area is enhanced instead of information from two discrete points of the geotechnical boreh oles. Therefore, the joint-interpretation of these two technical methods is capable and reliable to give information about the Earth's subsurface lithology.
Polymer ultrapermeability from the inefficient packing of 2D chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rose, Ian; Bezzu, C. Grazia; Carta, Mariolino; Comesaña-Gándara, Bibiana; Lasseuguette, Elsa; Ferrari, M. Chiara; Bernardo, Paola; Clarizia, Gabriele; Fuoco, Alessio; Jansen, Johannes C.; Hart, Kyle E.; Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga P.; Colina, Coray M.; McKeown, Neil B.
2017-09-01
The promise of ultrapermeable polymers, such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), for reducing the size and increasing the efficiency of membranes for gas separations remains unfulfilled due to their poor selectivity. We report an ultrapermeable polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-TMN-Trip) that is substantially more selective than PTMSP. From molecular simulations and experimental measurement we find that the inefficient packing of the two-dimensional (2D) chains of PIM-TMN-Trip generates a high concentration of both small (<0.7 nm) and large (0.7-1.0 nm) micropores, the former enhancing selectivity and the latter permeability. Gas permeability data for PIM-TMN-Trip surpass the 2008 Robeson upper bounds for O2/N2, H2/N2, CO2/N2, H2/CH4 and CO2/CH4, with the potential for biogas purification and carbon capture demonstrated for relevant gas mixtures. Comparisons between PIM-TMN-Trip and structurally similar polymers with three-dimensional (3D) contorted chains confirm that its additional intrinsic microporosity is generated from the awkward packing of its 2D polymer chains in a 3D amorphous solid. This strategy of shape-directed packing of chains of microporous polymers may be applied to other rigid polymers for gas separations.
Soft tubular microfluidics for 2D and 3D applications.
Xi, Wang; Kong, Fang; Yeo, Joo Chuan; Yu, Longteng; Sonam, Surabhi; Dao, Ming; Gong, Xiaobo; Lim, Chwee Teck
2017-09-18
Microfluidics has been the key component for many applications, including biomedical devices, chemical processors, microactuators, and even wearable devices. This technology relies on soft lithography fabrication which requires cleanroom facilities. Although popular, this method is expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, current conventional microfluidic chips precludes reconfiguration, making reiterations in design very time-consuming and costly. To address these intrinsic drawbacks of microfabrication, we present an alternative solution for the rapid prototyping of microfluidic elements such as microtubes, valves, and pumps. In addition, we demonstrate how microtubes with channels of various lengths and cross-sections can be attached modularly into 2D and 3D microfluidic systems for functional applications. We introduce a facile method of fabricating elastomeric microtubes as the basic building blocks for microfluidic devices. These microtubes are transparent, biocompatible, highly deformable, and customizable to various sizes and cross-sectional geometries. By configuring the microtubes into deterministic geometry, we enable rapid, low-cost formation of microfluidic assemblies without compromising their precision and functionality. We demonstrate configurable 2D and 3D microfluidic systems for applications in different domains. These include microparticle sorting, microdroplet generation, biocatalytic micromotor, triboelectric sensor, and even wearable sensing. Our approach, termed soft tubular microfluidics, provides a simple, cheaper, and faster solution for users lacking proficiency and access to cleanroom facilities to design and rapidly construct microfluidic devices for their various applications and needs.
2D Quantum Transport Modeling in Nanoscale MOSFETs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, B.
2001-01-01
We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions, oxide tunneling and phase-breaking scattering are treated on an equal footing. Electron bandstructure is treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. We present the results of our simulations of MIT 25 and 90 nm "well-tempered" MOSFETs and compare them to those of classical and quantum corrected models. The important feature of quantum model is smaller slope of Id-Vg curve and consequently higher threshold voltage. These results are consistent with 1D Schroedinger-Poisson calculations. The effect of gate length on gate-oxide leakage and subthreshold current has been studied. The shorter gate length device has an order of magnitude smaller leakage current than the longer gate length device without a significant trade-off in on-current.
2D NMR-spectroscopic screening reveals polyketides in ladybugs.
Deyrup, Stephen T; Eckman, Laura E; McCarthy, Patrick H; Smedley, Scott R; Meinwald, Jerrold; Schroeder, Frank C
2011-06-14
Small molecules of biological origin continue to yield the most promising leads for drug design, but systematic approaches for exploring nature's cache of structural diversity are lacking. Here, we demonstrate the use of 2D NMR spectroscopy to screen a library of biorationally selected insect metabolite samples for partial structures indicating the presence of new chemical entities. This NMR-spectroscopic survey enabled detection of novel compounds in complex metabolite mixtures without prior fractionation or isolation. Our screen led to discovery and subsequent isolation of two families of tricyclic pyrones in Delphastus catalinae, a tiny ladybird beetle that is employed commercially as a biological pest control agent. The D. catalinae pyrones are based on 23-carbon polyketide chains forming 1,11-dioxo-2,6,10-trioxaanthracene and 4,8-dioxo-1,9,13-trioxaanthracene derivatives, representing ring systems not previously found in nature. This study highlights the utility of 2D NMR-spectroscopic screening for exploring nature's structure space and suggests that insect metabolomes remain vastly underexplored.
2D NMR-spectroscopic screening reveals polyketides in ladybugs
Deyrup, Stephen T.; Eckman, Laura E.; McCarthy, Patrick H.; Smedley, Scott R.; Meinwald, Jerrold; Schroeder, Frank C.
2011-01-01
Small molecules of biological origin continue to yield the most promising leads for drug design, but systematic approaches for exploring nature’s cache of structural diversity are lacking. Here, we demonstrate the use of 2D NMR spectroscopy to screen a library of biorationally selected insect metabolite samples for partial structures indicating the presence of new chemical entities. This NMR-spectroscopic survey enabled detection of novel compounds in complex metabolite mixtures without prior fractionation or isolation. Our screen led to discovery and subsequent isolation of two families of tricyclic pyrones in Delphastus catalinae, a tiny ladybird beetle that is employed commercially as a biological pest control agent. The D. catalinae pyrones are based on 23-carbon polyketide chains forming 1,11-dioxo-2,6,10-trioxaanthracene and 4,8-dioxo-1,9,13-trioxaanthracene derivatives, representing ring systems not previously found in nature. This study highlights the utility of 2D NMR-spectroscopic screening for exploring nature’s structure space and suggests that insect metabolomes remain vastly underexplored. PMID:21646540
Defect Dynamics and Zipping of 2D Colloidal Crystallites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowley, Chris; Smullin, Sylvia; Ling, Xinsheng
1998-03-01
We use video microscopy to study defect dynamics in 2D colloidal (charged polystyrene microspheres) crystallites formed at the water-air interface. For small 2D crystallites, one might expect to see free edge dislocations in such small systems since the cost of forming such defects scales logarithmically with the size of the crystallite. But we found that as soon as an edge dislocation forms, it quickly moves to the edge of the crystallite and disappears. This is due to an attraction with an image dislocation outside the edge. As a result, most crystallites are defect-free during most of the time. Interesting things happen when two crystallites try to bind to each other, or zip together. A sharp transition occurs at the shared edge of the two crystallites during the zipping process. This is clearly manifested by a sudden change in the relative velocity between two drifting crystallites or a sudden re-orientation of one of the crystallites relative to the other. This work was supported by the startup funds and a Richard Salomon Faculty Research Award from Brown University.
The unitary conformal field theory behind 2D Asymptotic Safety
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nink, Andreas; Reuter, Martin
2016-02-01
Being interested in the compatibility of Asymptotic Safety with Hilbert space positivity (unitarity), we consider a local truncation of the functional RG flow which describes quantum gravity in d > 2 dimensions and construct its limit of exactly two dimensions. We find that in this limit the flow displays a nontrivial fixed point whose effective average action is a non-local functional of the metric. Its pure gravity sector is shown to correspond to a unitary conformal field theory with positive central charge c = 25. Representing the fixed point CFT by a Liouville theory in the conformal gauge, we investigate its general properties and their implications for the Asymptotic Safety program. In particular, we discuss its field parametrization dependence and argue that there might exist more than one universality class of metric gravity theories in two dimensions. Furthermore, studying the gravitational dressing in 2D asymptotically safe gravity coupled to conformal matter we uncover a mechanism which leads to a complete quenching of the a priori expected Knizhnik-Polyakov-Zamolodchikov (KPZ) scaling. A possible connection of this prediction to Monte Carlo results obtained in the discrete approach to 2D quantum gravity based upon causal dynamical triangulations is mentioned. Similarities of the fixed point theory to, and differences from, non-critical string theory are also described. On the technical side, we provide a detailed analysis of an intriguing connection between the Einstein-Hilbert action in d > 2 dimensions and Polyakov's induced gravity action in two dimensions.
3D surface configuration modulates 2D symmetry detection.
Chen, Chien-Chung; Sio, Lok-Teng
2015-02-01
We investigated whether three-dimensional (3D) information in a scene can affect symmetry detection. The stimuli were random dot patterns with 15% dot density. We measured the coherence threshold, or the proportion of dots that were the mirror reflection of the other dots in the other half of the image about a central vertical axis, at 75% accuracy with a 2AFC paradigm under various 3D configurations produced by the disparity between the left and right eye images. The results showed that symmetry detection was difficult when the corresponding dots across the symmetry axis were on different frontoparallel or inclined planes. However, this effect was not due to a difference in distance, as the observers could detect symmetry on a slanted surface, where the depth of the two sides of the symmetric axis was different. The threshold was reduced for a hinge configuration where the join of two slanted surfaces coincided with the axis of symmetry. Our result suggests that the detection of two-dimensional (2D) symmetry patterns is subject to the 3D configuration of the scene; and that coplanarity across the symmetry axis and consistency between the 2D pattern and 3D structure are important factors for symmetry detection.
Electron-Phonon Scattering in Atomically Thin 2D Perovskites.
Guo, Zhi; Wu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Tong; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Huang, Libai
2016-11-22
Two-dimensional (2D) atomically thin perovskites with strongly bound excitons are highly promising for optoelectronic applications. However, the nature of nonradiative processes that limit the photoluminescence (PL) efficiency remains elusive. Here, we present time-resolved and temperature-dependent PL studies to systematically address the intrinsic exciton relaxation pathways in layered (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3)n-1PbnI3n+1 (n = 1, 2, 3) structures. Our results show that scatterings via deformation potential by acoustic and homopolar optical phonons are the main scattering mechanisms for excitons in ultrathin single exfoliated flakes, exhibiting a T(γ) (γ = 1.3 to 1.9) temperature dependence for scattering rates. We attribute the absence of polar optical phonon and defect scattering to efficient screening of Coulomb potential, similar to what has been observed in 3D perovskites. These results establish an understanding of the origins of nonradiative pathways and provide guidelines for optimizing PL efficiencies of atomically thin 2D perovskites.
A Hierarchical Control Strategy For 2-D Object Recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cullen, Mark F.; Kuszmaul, Christopher L.; Ramsey, Timothy S.
1988-02-01
A control strategy for 2-D object recognition has been implemented on a hardware configuration which includes a Symbolics Lisp Machine (TM) as a front-end processor to a 16,384 processor Connection Machine (TM). The goal of this ongoing research program is to develop an image analysis system as an aid to human image interpretation experts. Our efforts have concentrated on 2-D object recognition in aerial imagery specifically, the detection and identification of aircraft near the Danbury, CT airport. Image processing functions to label and extract image features are implemented on the Connection Machine for robust computation. A model matching function was also designed and implemented on the CM for object recognition. In this paper we report on the integration of these algorithms on the CM, with a hierarchical control strategy to focus and guide the object recognition task to particular objects and regions of interest in imagery. It will be shown that these tech-nigues may be used to manipulate imagery on the order of 2k x 2k pixels in near-real-time.