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Sample records for english wetlands implications

  1. Pluricentric Views towards English and Implications for ELT in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jianli, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of the classifications or models of English language have been proposed by a number of scholars who attempt to explain the differences in the ways English is used in different localities. This paper reviews three models of classification of English language, with an aim of drawing implications on how English Language Teaching (ELT) in…

  2. Regulatory Implications of Using Constructed Wetlands to Treat Selenium-Laden Wastewater

    Treesearch

    A. Dennis Lemly; Harry M. Ohlendorf

    2002-01-01

    The practice of using constructed wetlands to treat selenium-laden wastewater is gaining popularity in the linited States and elsewhere. However, proponents of treatment wetlands often overlook important ecological liabilities and regulatory implications when developing new methods and applications. Their research studies typically seek to answer a basic performance...

  3. Water source to four U.S. wetlands: Implications for wetland management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Buso, D.C.; Merk, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Results of long-term field studies of wetlands in four different hydrogeologic and climatic settings in the United States indicate that each has considerably different sources of water, which affects their response to climate variability and land-use practices. A fen wetland in New Hampshire is supplied almost entirely by ground water that originates as seepage from Mirror Lake; therefore, stream discharge from the fen closely follows the pattern of Mirror Lake stage fluctuations. A fen wetland in northern Minnesota is supplied largely by discharge from a regional ground-water flow system that has its recharge area 1 to 2 km to the east. Because of the size of this wetland's ground-water watershed, stream discharge from the fen has little variability. A prairie-pothole wetland in North Dakota receives more than 90 percent of its water from precipitation and loses more than 90 percent of its water to evapotranspiration, resulting in highly variable seasonal and annual water levels. A wetland in the sandhills of Nebraska lies in a regional ground-water flow field that extends for tens of kilometers and that contains numerous lakes and wetlands. The wetland receives water that moves through the ground-water system from the upgradient lakes and from ground water in local flow systems that are recharged between the lakes. The difference in sources of water to these wetlands implies that they would require different techniques to protect their water supply and water quality.

  4. Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Patricia L.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests studying New York's wetlands, both in the classroom and in the field, to illustrate ecological concepts of diversity, succession, and adaptation and to learn about their importance in controlling flooding, erosion, and pollution. (NEC)

  5. Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Patricia L.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests studying New York's wetlands, both in the classroom and in the field, to illustrate ecological concepts of diversity, succession, and adaptation and to learn about their importance in controlling flooding, erosion, and pollution. (NEC)

  6. Agricultural Encroachment: Implications for Carbon Sequestration in Tropical African Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. B.; Saunders, M.; Kansiime, F.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical wetlands have been shown to exhibit high rates of net primary productivity and may therefore play an important role in global climate change mitigation through carbon assimilation and sequestration. Many permanently flooded areas of tropical East Africa are dominated by the highly productive C4 emergent macrophyte sedge, Cyperus papyrus L. (papyrus). However, increasing population densities around wetland margins in East Africa are reducing the extent of papyrus coverage due to the planting of subsistence crops such as Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta). We have assessed the impact of this land use change on the carbon cycle in theis wetland environment. Eddy covariance techniques were used, on a campaign basis, to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide over both papyrus and cocoyam dominated wetlands located on the Ugandan shore of Lake Victoria. The integration of flux data over the annual cycle shows that papyrus wetlands have the potential to act as a sink for significant amounts of carbon, in the region of 10 t C ha-1 yr-1. The cocoyam vegetation was found to assimilate ~7 t C ha-1 yr-1 but when carbon exports from crop biomass removal were taken into account these wetlands represent a significant net loss of carbon of similar magnitude. The development of sustainable wetland management strategies are therefore required in order to promote the dual wetland function of crop production and the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions especially under future climate change scenarios.

  7. Botswana English: Implications for English Language Teaching and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alimi, Modupe

    2011-01-01

    Concerted efforts to characterise Botswana English (BE), though still referred to as "a variety in development", have validated its existence. However, the teaching and assessment of English in the high schools do not seem to have responded to the development of this variety. This paper discusses the viability of using Standard British…

  8. Botswana English: Implications for English Language Teaching and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alimi, Modupe

    2011-01-01

    Concerted efforts to characterise Botswana English (BE), though still referred to as "a variety in development", have validated its existence. However, the teaching and assessment of English in the high schools do not seem to have responded to the development of this variety. This paper discusses the viability of using Standard British…

  9. Implications of agricultural encroachment on the carbon and greenhouse gas dynamics in tropical African wetlands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Matthew; Kansiime, Frank; Jones, Michael

    2015-04-01

    the production and emission of methane (CH4), and plant-facilitated emissions of up to 32 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 were measured from mature papyrus plants grown in a constructed wetland, suggesting that these wetlands may make a significant contribution to regional methane emissions. The conversion of the papyrus wetlands to agricultural land use has significant implications for the carbon budgets of these systems, as the decomposition of detrital material in addition to the carbon exported in the crop biomass resulted in a net loss of carbon of ~10 t C ha-1 yr-1. The development of sustainable wetland management strategies are therefore required to maintain and enhance the services provided by these ecosystems especially under increasing population pressures and future climatic scenarios.

  10. Hydraulic characteristics of a constructed wetland: Implications for pollutant removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachniew, P.; Czuprynski, P.; Maloszewski, P.; Ozimek, T.

    2003-04-01

    Constructed wetlands are built in order to treat wastewaters of various origin with some degree of control over purification processes. Treatment wetlands improve water quality through removal of suspended solids, organics, nitrogen, phosphorus, pathogens (bacteria, parasites, viruses) and metals. Transformation and removal of pollutants from wastewaters occur via numerous interrelated physical, chemical and biological processes. The efficiency of soluble pollutants removal is related to the degree of contact between wastewaters and the reactive surfaces. Therefore knowledge of hydraulic phenomena is crucial in studies of wetland functioning. A subsurface flow wetland in Nowa Slupia, Poland was studied in order to find out relationships between hydraulic phenomena and wetland performance. The wetland consists of three parallel gravel beds overgrown by common reed with a total surface area of 6400 sq m, total active volume of around 900 cubic m and the average loading of around 4 l/s. Three tracer tests with bromide and tritium accompanied by observations of water quality, plant distribution and biomass were performed in summer and winter conditions. Tracer breakthrough curves obtained from tracer tests were used to identify sub-systems within the wetland and to infer their hydraulic properties (water residence times, active volumes, dispersive characteristics). Three reed beds receive different wastewater loadings and show different water residence times and dispersive characteristics. Wastewater flow occurs partly via surface overflow with apparent stagnant zones and preferential flow pathways. These flow patterns are reflected in complex structure of breakthrough curves. Inhomogenous wastewater distribution within the wetland is due to operation practices and clogging of the gravel beds with refractory organic matter. Observations of effluent water quality, plant distribution and biomass reflect these apparent inhomogenities in wastewater flow patterns. This work

  11. Dormitory English: Implications for the Classroom Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Gina Cantoni

    Navaho Indians learning English tend to use two versions of the language: classroom English and an informal dialect spoken outside school. The sounds of Navaho are imposed on spoken English, and the phonological deviations produce morphological and syntactical errors. Mistakes in verb tense and in singular and plural suffixes are common. The value…

  12. Remarkable amphibian biomass and abundance in an isolated wetland: implications for wetland conservation.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, J Whitfield; Winne, Christopher T; Scott, David E; Willson, John D; Glaudas, Xavier; Andrews, Kimberly M; Todd, Brian D; Fedewa, Luke A; Wilkinson, Lucas; Tsaliagos, Ria N; Harper, Steven J; Greene, Judith L; Tuberville, Tracey D; Metts, Brian S; Dorcas, Michael E; Nestor, John P; Young, Cameron A; Akre, Tom; Reed, Robert N; Buhlmann, Kurt A; Norman, Jason; Croshaw, Dean A; Hagen, Cris; Rothermel, Betsie B

    2006-10-01

    Despite the continuing loss of wetland habitats and associated declines in amphibian populations, attempts to translate wetland losses into measurable losses to ecosystems have been lacking. We estimated the potential productivity from the amphibian community that would be compromised by the loss of a single isolated wetland that has been protected from most industrial, agricultural, and urban impacts for the past 54 years. We used a continuous drift fence at Ellenton Bay, a 10-ha freshwater wetland on the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina (U.S.A.), to sample all amphibians for 1 year following a prolonged drought. Despite intensive agricultural use of the land surrounding Ellenton Bay prior to 1951, we documented 24 species and remarkably high numbers and biomass of juvenile amphibians (>360,000 individuals; >1,400 kg) produced during one breeding season. Anurans (17 species) were more abundant than salamanders (7 species), comprising 96.4% of individual captures. Most (95.9%) of the amphibian biomass came from 232095 individuals of a single species of anuran (southern leopard frog[Rana sphenocephala]). Our results revealed the resilience of an amphibian community to natural stressors and historical habitat alteration and the potential magnitude of biomass and energy transfer from isolated wetlands to surrounding terrestrial habitat. We attributed the postdrought success of amphibians to a combination of adult longevity (often >5 years), a reduction in predator abundance, and an abundance of larval food resources. Likewise, the increase of forest cover around Ellenton Bay from <20% in 1951 to >60% in 2001 probably contributed to the long-term persistence of amphibians at this site. Our findings provide an optimistic counterpoint to the issue of the global decline of biological diversity by demonstrating that conservation efforts can mitigate historical habitat degradation.

  13. Implications of hydrologic variability on the succession of plants in Great Lakes wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Primary succession of plant communities directed toward a climax is not a typical occurrence in wetlands because these ecological systems are inherently dependent on hydrology, and temporal hydrologic variability often causes reversals or setbacks in succession. Wetlands of the Great Lakes provide good examples for demonstrating the implications of hydrology in driving successional processes and for illustrating potential misinterpretations of apparent successional sequences. Most Great Lakes coastal wetlands follow cyclic patterns in which emergent communities are reduced in area or eliminated by high lake levels and then regenerated from the seed bank during low lake levels. Thus, succession never proceeds for long. Wetlands also develop in ridge and swale terrains in many large embayments of the Great Lakes. These formations contain sequences of wetlands of similar origin but different age that can be several thousand years old, with older wetlands always further from the lake. Analyses of plant communities across a sequence of wetlands at the south end of Lake Michigan showed an apparent successional pattern from submersed to floating to emergent plants as water depth decreased with wetland age. However, paleoecological analyses showed that the observed vegetation changes were driven largely by disturbances associated with increased human settlement in the area. Climate-induced hydrologic changes were also shown to have greater effects on plant-community change than autogenic processes. Other terms, such as zonation, maturation, fluctuations, continuum concept, functional guilds, centrifugal organization, pulse stability, and hump-back models provide additional means of describing organization and changes in vegetation; some of them overlap with succession in describing vegetation processes in Great Lakes wetlands, but each must be used in the proper context with regard to short- and long-term hydrologic variability.

  14. English in ASEAN: Implications for Regional Multilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The Charter of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was officially adopted in February 2009. Article 34 of the Charter states that, "The working language of ASEAN shall be English". In this article, I first briefly trace the development of English in ASEAN and demonstrate that, even in those countries of the ASEAN group…

  15. Wildlife health implications of sewage disposal in wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.; Godfrey, P.J.; Kaynor, E.R.; Pelczarski, S.

    1985-01-01

    Wildlife health concerns associated with disposal of sewage effluent in wetlands are of three primary types: (1) introduction of pathogens, (2) introduction of pollutants that adversely impact on host body defense mechanisms, and (3) changes in the physical and chemical properties of wetlands that favor the development and maintenance of disease problems. Unlike the situation with human health concerns, introduction of pathogens is not the major concern regarding wildlife health. Instead, the focus of attention needs to be directed at environmental changes likely to take place as a result of effluent discharges into different types of wetlands. Unless these changes are adequately addressed from a disease perspective, marshes utilized for sewage disposal could become disease incubators and wildlife death traps. This result would be unfortunate because the backlash would likely negate the potentially beneficial aspects of the use of sewage wastewater for the creation of new wetlands and have a severe impact on progress being made towards evaluation of the compatibility of wildlife and sewage effluents.

  16. Modeling the hydrologic response of groundwater dominated wetlands to transient boundary conditions: Implications for wetland restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boswell, James S.; Olyphant, Greg A.

    2007-01-01

    SummaryA variably-saturated groundwater model, based on that of Freeze [Freeze, R.A., 1971. Three-dimensional, transient, saturated-unsaturated flow in a groundwater basin. Water Resources Research 7, 347-366.], was used to analyze the details of surface-groundwater interaction and resulting hydroperiods of a site undergoing wetland restoration (the Lake Station Wetland Restoration Site in Northwest Indiana, USA). The three-dimensional groundwater flow model couples the saturated and unsaturated zones through the use of van Genuchten's [van Genuchten, M.T., 1980. A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 44, 892-898.] characteristic equations. Initial estimates of hydraulic parameters were refined through a calibration exercise aimed at minimizing the discrepancy between simulated and measured water levels in seven wells within the study. Numerical simulations using the calibrated model, and driven by annual time series of rainfall and potential evaporation, were used to generate hydroperiod maps of surface saturation and root-zone saturation over a three-year period of study. This allowed identification of regularly saturated areas that would support hydric plants, as well as more rarely saturated areas that would require more dry tolerant species or additional hydrological remediation. The simulations also revealed the critical roles that topography, rainfall history, and antecedent conditions play in the hydrology of degraded wetlands that have been targeted for restoration.

  17. Regulatory implications of using constructed wetlands to treat selenium-laden wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lemly, A Dennis; Ohlendorf, Harry M

    2002-05-01

    The practice of using constructed wetlands to treat selenium-laden wastewater is gaining popularity in the United States and elsewhere. However, proponents of treatment wetlands often overlook important ecological liabilities and regulatory implications when developing new methods and applications. Their research studies typically seek to answer a basic performance question--are treatment wetlands effective in improving water quality--rather than answering an implicit safety question-are they hazardous to wildlife. Nevertheless, wetland owners are responsible for both the operational performance of treatment wetlands and the health of animals that use them. This is true even if wetlands were not created with the intent of providing wildlife habitat; the owner is still legally responsible for toxic hazards. If poisoning of fish and wildlife occurs, the owner can be prosecuted under a variety of federal and state laws, for example, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and the Endangered Species Act. In considering this type of treatment technology it is important to document the selenium content of the wastewater, understand how it cycles and accumulates in the environment, and evaluate the threat it may pose to fish and wildlife before deciding whether or not to proceed with construction. Many of the potential hazards may not be obvious to project planners, particularly if there is no expressed intention for the wetland to provide wildlife habitat. Ecological risk assessment provides an approach to characterizing proposed treatment wetlands with respect to wildlife use, selenium contamination, and possible biological impacts. Proper application of this approach can reveal potential problems and the associated liabilities, and form the basis for selection of an environmentally sound treatment option.

  18. Mapping of West Siberian taiga wetland complexes using Landsat imagery: Implications for methane emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentieva, Irina; Sabrekov, Alexander; Glagolev, Mikhail; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2017-04-01

    area. Depressed environments as different types of hollows contribute 96% to the methane regional flux, covering 50% of the wetland area in the region. Applying the new map resulted in total methane emissions of 4.62 TgCH4/yr, which is 72% higher than the earlier estimate based on the same emission dataset and the less detailed map by Peregon et al. (2009). The revision resulted from the changes in fractional coverages of methane emitting ecosystems due to the better spatial resolution of the new map. The new Landsat-based map of WSL wetlands provides a benchmark for validation of coarse-resolution global land cover products and wetland datasets in high latitudes. Terentieva, I.E., Glagolev, M.V., Lapshina, E.D., Sabrekov, A.F., Maksyutov, S. Mapping of West Siberian taiga wetland complexes using Landsat imagery: implications for methane emissions // Biogeosciences. 2016. V. 13. № 16. P. 4615-4626.

  19. Biotransformation of chlorpyrifos in riparian wetlands in agricultural watersheds: implications for wetland management.

    PubMed

    Karpuzcu, M Ekrem; Sedlak, David L; Stringfellow, William T

    2013-01-15

    Biodegradation of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl) phosphorothioate) in sediments from wetlands and agricultural drains in San Joaquin Valley, CA was investigated. Sediments were collected monthly, spiked with chlorpyrifos, and rates of chlorpyrifos degradation were measured using a standardized aerobic biodegradation assay. Phosphoesterase enzyme activities were measured and phosphotriesterase activity was related to observed biodegradation kinetics. First-order biodegradation rates varied between 0.02 and 0.69 day(-1), after accounting for abiotic losses. The average rate of abiotic chlorpyrifos hydrolysis was 0.02 d(-1) at pH 7.2 and 30 °C. Sediments from the site exhibiting the highest chlorpyrifos degradation capacity were incubated under anaerobic conditions to assess the effect of redox conditions on degradation rates. Half-lives were 5 and 92 days under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. There was a consistent decrease in observed biodegradation rates at one site due to permanently flooded conditions prevailing during one sampling year. These results suggest that wetland management strategies such as allowing a wet-dry cycle could enhance degradation rates. There was significant correlation between phosphotriesterase (PTE) activity and the chlorpyrifos biotransformation rates, with this relationship varying among sites. PTE activities may be useful as an indicator of biodegradation potential with reference to the previously established site-specific correlations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Freshwater Wetland Habitat Loss and Fragmentation: Implications for Aquatic Biodiversity Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolaver, B. D.; Pierre, J. P.; Labay, B. J.; Ryberg, W. A.; Hibbits, T. J.; Prestridge, H. L.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic land use changes have caused widespread wetland loss and fragmentation. This trend has important implications for aquatic biota conservation, including the semi-aquatic Western Chicken Turtle (Deirochelys reticularia miaria). This species inhabits seasonally inundated, ephemeral water bodies and adjacent uplands in the southeastern U.S. However, wetland conversion to agriculture and urbanization is thought to cause the species' decline, particularly in Texas, which includes the westernmost part of its range. Because the species moves only a few kilometers between wetlands, it particularly sensitive to habitat loss and fragmentation. Thus, as part of the only state-funded species research program, this study provides the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) with scientific data to determine if the species warrants protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We use a species distribution model to map potentially suitable habitat for most of East Texas. We evaluate landscape-scale anthropogenic activities in this region which may be contributing to the species' decline. We identify areas of urbanization, agricultural expansion, forestry, and resulting wetland loss. We find that between 2001 and 2011 approximately 80 km2 of wetlands were lost in potentially suitable habitat, including the urbanizing Houston area. We use spatial geostatistics to quantify wetland habitat fragmentation. We also introduce the Habitat Alteration Index (HAI), which calculates total landscape alteration and mean probability of occurrence to identify high-quality habitat most at risk of recent anthropogenic alteration. Population surveys by biologists are targeting these areas and future management actions may focus on mitigating anthropogenic activities there. While this study focuses on D. r. miaria, this approach can evaluate wetland habitat of other aquatic organisms.

  1. English as a Lingua Franca: Concepts, Use, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogo, Alessia

    2012-01-01

    Sowden's article raises a number of questions concerning English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) and criticizes it as a simplified and culturally neutral means of communication. In this response, I address the issues concerning the conceptualization and use of ELF as well as the implications for ELT. I provide up-to-date evidence of ELF research and show…

  2. English as a Lingua Franca: Concepts, Use, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogo, Alessia

    2012-01-01

    Sowden's article raises a number of questions concerning English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) and criticizes it as a simplified and culturally neutral means of communication. In this response, I address the issues concerning the conceptualization and use of ELF as well as the implications for ELT. I provide up-to-date evidence of ELF research and show…

  3. The Concept of "World English" and its Implications for ELT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2004-01-01

    World English (WE) belongs to everybody who speaks it, but it is nobody's mother tongue. Although today ever more people accept the idea that there is such a thing as WE, very few of them seem to have realized that the full implications of admitting it are much more far reaching than they had hitherto imagined. It may be that some of these…

  4. Effects of salinity on dynamics of soil carbon in degraded coastal wetlands: Implications on wetland restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qingqing; Bai, Junhong; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhang, Guangliang

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effects of salinity on dynamics of soil carbon contents and stocks, soil samples were collected at a depth of 30 cm at four sampling sites (Sites B, T, S and P) along a salinity gradient in a drained coastal wetland, the Yellow River Delta, China. The salinity of these four sites ranked in the order: B (8.68 ± 4.25 ms/cm) > T (5.89 ± 3.17 ms/cm) > S (3.19 ± 1.01 ms/cm) > P (2.26 ± 0.39 ms/cm). Soil total carbon (TC), soil organic carbon (SOC), and soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were measured. Based on these data, soil organic carbon density (SOCD) and soil microbial biomass carbon density (MBCD) were calculated at four sites. The results showed that the mean concentrations of TC and MBC showed a general deceasing tendency with increasing salinities in the top 30 cm of soils. The values of SOCD and MBCD exhibited similar tendency along the salinity gradient. As for profile distribution pattern, The C/N ratios ranged from 8.28 to 56.51. The microbial quotient values at four sampling sites were quite low, ranging from 0.06 to 0.19. Higher C/N ratios were found in samples with high salinity. Correlation analysis showed that the concentrations of TC and MBC at four sampling sites were significantly negatively correlated with salinity (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), indicating that salinity could inhibit soil carbon accumulation and microbial activities.

  5. Enhanced detection of wetland-stream connectivity using lidar:Implications for improved wetland conservation and management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The importance of wetland–stream connectivity has been heightened due to the current dependence of wetland regulatory status on this connectivity, although the importance of wetland function to adjacent stream health has been and will continue to be substantial regardless of government policies and ...

  6. The hydrologic implications of alternative prioritizations of landscape-scale geographically isolated wetlands conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenson, G. R.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; D'Amico, E.

    2016-12-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), defined as upland embedded wetlands, provide an array of ecosystem goods and services. Wetland conservation efforts aim to protect GIWs in the face of continued threats from anthropogenic activities. Given limited conservation resources, there is a critical need for methods capable of evaluating the watershed-scale hydrologic implications of alternative approaches to GIW conservation. Further, there is a need for methods that quantify the watershed-scale aggregate effects of GIWs to determine their regulatory status within the United States. We applied the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a popular watershed-scale hydrologic model, to represent the 1,700 km2 Pipestem Creek watershed in North Dakota, USA. We modified the model to incorporate an improved representation of GIW hydrologic processes via hydrologic response unit (HRU) redefinition and modifications to the model source code. We then used the model to evaluate the hydrologic effects of alternative approaches to GIW conservation prioritization by simulating the destruction/removal of GIWs by sub-classes defined by their relative position within the simulated fill-spill GIW network and their surface area characteristics. We evaluated the alternative conservation approaches as impacting (1) simulated streamflow at the Pipestem Creek watershed outlet; (2) simulated water-levels within the GIWs; and (3) simulated hydrologic connections between the GIWs. Our approach to modifying SWAT and evaluating alternative GIW conservation strategies may be replicated in different watersheds and physiographic regions to aid the development of GIW conservation priorities.

  7. Remote Sensing of Wetland Hydrology: Implications for Water Quality Management in Agricultural Landscapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the substantial effect of agriculture on the ability of wetlands to function, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) serves a key role in wetland conservation and restoration. In order for the USDA to allocate funds to best manage wetlands, a better understanding of wetland functioning is ...

  8. Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from an artificially drained coastal wetland during a flood: Implications for wetland global warming potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatland, J. R.; Santos, I. R.; Maher, D. T.; Duncan, T. M.; Erler, D. V.

    2014-08-01

    Floods frequently produce deoxygenation and acidification in waters of artificially drained coastal acid sulfate soil (CASS) wetlands. These conditions are ideal for carbon dioxide and methane production. We investigated CO2 and CH4 dynamics and quantified carbon loss within an artificially drained CASS wetland during and after a flood. We separated the system into wetland soils (inundated soil during flood and exposed soil during post flood period), drain water, and creek water and performed measurements of free CO2 ([CO2*]), CH4, dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC), stable carbon isotopes, and radon (222Rn: natural tracer for groundwater discharge) to determine aquatic carbon loss pathways. [CO2*] and CH4 values in the creek reached 721 and 81 μM, respectively, 2 weeks following a flood during a severe deoxygenation phase (dissolved oxygen ~ 0% saturation). CO2 and CH4 emissions from the floodplain to the atmosphere were 17-fold and 170-fold higher during the flooded period compared to the post-flood period, respectively. CO2 emissions accounted for about 90% of total floodplain mass carbon losses during both the flooded and post-flood periods. Assuming a 20 and 100 year global warming potential (GWP) for CH4 of 105 and 27 CO2-equivalents, CH4 emission contributed to 85% and 60% of total floodplain CO2-equivalent emissions, respectively. Stable carbon isotopes (δ13C in dissolved CO2 and CH4) and 222Rn indicated that carbon dynamics within the creek were more likely driven by drainage of surface floodwaters from the CASS wetland rather than groundwater seepage. This study demonstrated that >90% of CO2 and CH4 emissions from the wetland system occurred during the flood period and that the inundated wetland was responsible for ~95% of CO2-equivalent emissions over the floodplain.

  9. Radar monitoring of wetland hydrology: Water quality implications for the Chesapeake Bay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wetlands are hydrologically dynamic ecosystems which have the potential to improve water quality. Unfortunately, many of the Chesapeake Bay’s wetlands, especially forested wetlands, have been lost or degraded due to human impacts primarily associated with agriculture and urban/suburban development. ...

  10. Quantifying groundwater discharge through fringing wetlands to estuaries: Seasonal variability, methods comparison, and implications for wetland-estuary exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tobias, C.R.; Harvey, J.W.; Anderson, I.C.

    2001-01-01

    Because groundwater discharge along coastal shorelines is often concentrated in zones inhabited by fringing wetlands, accurately estimating discharge is essential for understanding its effect on the function and maintenance of these ecosystems. Most previous estimates of groundwater discharge to coastal wetlands have been temporally limited and have used only a single approach to estimate discharge. Furthermore, groundwater input has not been considered as a major mechanism controlling pore-water flushing. We estimated seasonally varying groundwater discharge into a fringing estuarine wetland using three independent methods (Darcy's Law, salt balance, and Br- tracer). Seasonal patterns of discharge predicted by both Darcy's Law and the salt balance yielded similar seasonal patterns with discharge maxima and minima in spring and early fall, respectively. They differed, however, in the estimated magnitude of discharge by two- to fourfold in spring and by 10-fold in fall. Darcy estimates of mean discharge ranged between -8.0 and 80 L m-2 d-1, whereas the salt balance predicted groundwater discharge of 0.6 to 22 L m-2 d-1. Results from the Br- tracer experiment estimated discharge at 16 L m-2 d-t, or nearly equal to the salt balance estimate at that time. Based upon the tracer test, pore-water conductivity profiles, and error estimates for the Darcy and salt balance approaches, we concluded that the salt balance provided a more certain estimate of groundwater discharge at high flow (spring). In contrast, the Darcy method provided a more reliable estimate during low flow (fall). Groundwater flushing of pore water in the spring exported solutes to the estuary at rates similar to tidally driven surface exchange seen in previous studies. Based on pore-water turnover times, the groundwater-driven flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and NH4+ to the estuary was 11.9, 1.6, and 1.3 g C or g N m-2 wetland for the 90 d encompassing peak

  11. Mapping of West Siberian taiga wetland complexes using Landsat imagery: implications for methane emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evgenievna Terentieva, Irina; Vladimirovich Glagolev, Mikhail; Dmitrievna Lapshina, Elena; Faritovich Sabrekov, Alexandr; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2016-08-01

    High-latitude wetlands are important for understanding climate change risks because these environments sink carbon dioxide and emit methane. However, fine-scale heterogeneity of wetland landscapes poses a serious challenge when generating regional-scale estimates of greenhouse gas fluxes from point observations. In order to reduce uncertainties at the regional scale, we mapped wetlands and water bodies in the taiga zone of The West Siberia Lowland (WSL) on a scene-by-scene basis using a supervised classification of Landsat imagery. Training data consist of high-resolution images and extensive field data collected at 28 test areas. The classification scheme aims at supporting methane inventory applications and includes seven wetland ecosystem types comprising nine wetland complexes distinguishable at the Landsat resolution. To merge typologies, mean relative areas of wetland ecosystems within each wetland complex type were estimated using high-resolution images. Accuracy assessment based on 1082 validation polygons of 10 × 10 pixel size indicated an overall map accuracy of 79 %. The total area of the WSL wetlands and water bodies was estimated to be 52.4 Mha or 4-12 % of the global wetland area. Ridge-hollow complexes prevail in WSL's taiga zone accounting for 33 % of the total wetland area, followed by pine bogs or "ryams" (23 %), ridge-hollow-lake complexes (16 %), open fens (8 %), palsa complexes (7 %), open bogs (5 %), patterned fens (4 %), and swamps (4 %). Various oligotrophic environments are dominant among wetland ecosystems, while poor fens cover only 14 % of the area. Because of the significant change in the wetland ecosystem coverage in comparison to previous studies, a considerable reevaluation of the total CH4 emissions from the entire region is expected. A new Landsat-based map of WSL's taiga wetlands provides a benchmark for validation of coarse-resolution global land cover products and wetland data sets in high latitudes.

  12. Surface elevation change and vegetation distribution dynamics in a subtropical coastal wetland: Implications for coastal wetland response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kerrylee; Saintilan, Neil; Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2014-08-01

    The response of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise is receiving global attention and observed changes in the distribution of mangrove and salt marsh are increasingly associated with global climate change, particularly sea-level and temperature rise, and potentially elevated carbon dioxide. Processes operating over smaller-spatial scales, such as rainfall variability and nutrient enrichment are also proposed as possible short-term drivers of changes in the distribution of mangrove and salt marsh. We consider the response of mangrove and salt marsh in a subtropical estuary to changes in environmental variables over a 12 year period by comparing rates of surface elevation change and vegetation distribution dynamics to hydrological and climatic variables, specifically water level and rainfall. This period of analysis captured inter-annual variability in sea level and rainfall associated with different phases of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We found that the mangrove and salt marsh trend of increasing elevation was primarily controlled by position within the tidal prism, in this case defined by inundation depth and distance to the tidal channel. Rainfall was not a primary driver of elevation trends in mangrove and salt marsh, but rainfall and water level variability did influence variability in elevation over the study period, though cross-correlation of these factors confounds identification of a single process driving this variability. These results highlight the scale-dependence of coastal wetland vegetation distribution dynamics; the longer-term trend of surface elevation increase and mangrove encroachment of salt marsh correlated with global sea-level trends, while short-term variability in surface elevation was related to local variability in water level and rainfall. Rates of surface elevation increase were found to lag behind rates of water level change within the Tweed River, which may facilitate further expansion of mangrove into salt marsh. This

  13. Historical wetlands in Oregon's Willamette Valley: Implications for restoration of winter waterbird habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taft, Oriane W.; Haig, Susan M.

    2003-01-01

    Before agricultural expansion in the 19th century, river valleys of North America supported expanses of wetland habitat. In restoring these landscapes, it is important to understand their historical condition and biological function. Synthesizing historical primary accounts (from explorers, travelers, settlers, and farmers) with contemporary knowledge of these wetland systems, we developed a profile of the wetlands and their use by nonbreeding waterbirds (e.g., waterfowl, wading birds, and shorebirds) within the Willamette Valley, Oregon, ca. 1840. We found evidence for three types of wetlands used by non-breeding waterbirds in fall, winter, and spring: emergent wetlands, riverine wetlands, and wetland prairie. The most extensive wetland type was wetland prairie, which functioned as fall/winter habitat for waterbirds, but only while native Kalapuyans managed the region with fire. Since the mid-1800s, four species, in particular, have decreased their use of the Willamette Valley: trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator), snow goose (Chen caerulescens), sandhill crane (Grus canadensis), and long-billed curlew (Numenius americanus). Information suggests that ca. 1840, waterbirds and their habitats were more abundant in the Willamette Valley than today. Restoration of the Willamette Valley landscape is warranted, and today's agricultural wetlandsa??former wetland prairiea??hold highest restoration potential.

  14. Business and Technology Students' Preferences for English-Language Accents: Implications for Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert; Green, Diana J.; Rosewarne, David

    1997-01-01

    Multiple recordings of a message in various accents were heard by 218 college students, including 26 nonnative English speakers. Ranked English accents in descending order were General American, British, Australian, Indian, Estuary, and Japanese. Perceptual differences were related to gender, ethnicity, nationality, and region. Implications for…

  15. Business and Technology Students' Preferences for English-Language Accents: Implications for Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert; Green, Diana J.; Rosewarne, David

    1997-01-01

    Multiple recordings of a message in various accents were heard by 218 college students, including 26 nonnative English speakers. Ranked English accents in descending order were General American, British, Australian, Indian, Estuary, and Japanese. Perceptual differences were related to gender, ethnicity, nationality, and region. Implications for…

  16. The role of protected area wetlands in waterfowl habitat conservation: implications for protected area network design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    The principal goal of protected area networks is biodiversity preservation, but efficacy of such networks is directly linked to animal movement within and outside area boundaries. We examined wetland selection patterns of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) during non-breeding periods from 2010 to 2012 to evaluate the utility of protected areas to migratory waterfowl in North America. We tracked 33 adult females using global positioning system (GPS) satellite transmitters and implemented a use-availability resource selection design to examine mallard use of wetlands under varying degrees of protection. Specifically, we examined effects of proximities to National Wildlife Refuges, private land, state wildlife management areas, Wetland Reserve Program easements (WRP), and waterfowl sanctuaries on mallard wetland selection. In addition, we included landscape-level variables that measured areas of sanctuary and WRP within the surrounding landscape of each used and available wetland. We developed 8 wetland selection models according to season (autumn migration, winter, spring migration), hunting season (present, absent), and time period (diurnal, nocturnal). Model averaged parameter estimates indicated wetland selection patterns varied across seasons and time periods, but ducks consistently selected wetlands with greater areas of sanctuary and WRP in the surrounding landscape. Consequently, WRP has the potential to supplement protected area networks in the midcontinent region. Additionally, seasonal variation in wetland selection patterns indicated considering the effects of habitat management and anthropogenic disturbances on migratory waterfowl during the non-breeding period is essential in designing protected area networks.

  17. Benthic diatom composition in wet and dry isolated forested wetlands: implications for monitoring and assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of bioindicators for wetlands, especially ephemerally hydrated depressional and isolated wetlands, can be problematic because of seasonal changes in hydrology and target organism biology. To determine if benthic diatoms could be used as a year-round biological ind...

  18. Benthic diatom composition in isolated forested wetlands subject to drying: implications for monitoring and assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of bioindicators for wetlands, especially ephemerally hydrated depressional and isolated wetlands, can be problematic because of seasonal hydrology and target organism biology. To determine if benthic diatoms could be used as a year-round biological indicator of w...

  19. Benthic diatom composition in wet and dry isolated forested wetlands: implications for monitoring and assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of bioindicators for wetlands, especially ephemerally hydrated depressional and isolated wetlands, can be problematic because of seasonal changes in hydrology and target organism biology. To determine if benthic diatoms could be used as a year-round biological ind...

  20. Benthic diatom composition in isolated forested wetlands subject to drying: implications for monitoring and assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of bioindicators for wetlands, especially ephemerally hydrated depressional and isolated wetlands, can be problematic because of seasonal hydrology and target organism biology. To determine if benthic diatoms could be used as a year-round biological indicator of w...

  1. The removal of pathogens in surface-flow constructed wetlands and its implications for water reuse.

    PubMed

    Ghermandi, A; Bixio, D; Traverso, P; Cersosimo, I; Thoeye, C

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological quality represents the biggest concern to the reuse of treated wastewater. This paper reports and discusses the results of an international survey on the removal of indicators of microbiological contamination in surface-flow constructed wetlands. Constructed wetlands consistently provide a reduction of 90-99% (1-2 log-removal) in the concentration of indicators such as coliform bacteria and faecal streptococci. This removal is found in wetlands treating water from different types of pretreatment (primary sedimentation, activated sludge, trickling filter, maturation ponds). On the other hand, when the influent is of high microbiological quality, wetlands act as sources of pathogenic contamination. The final water quality, however, is still compatible with medium to no-contact recreational activities and other final water uses. High variability in the effluent quality and seasonality might limit the opportunities for reuse. The role of constructed wetlands in different treatment schemes and the remaining open questions concerning removal mechanisms and reference pathogens are discussed.

  2. The Changing Landscape of English: Implications for Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lynda

    2006-01-01

    This article offers a response to the comments and claims made in Jennifer Jenkins' article, "The spread of English as an International Language: a testing time for testers." It examines some assumptions underpinning her views and responds to claims about current policy and practice in English language testing. It goes on to explain the key…

  3. Pedagogic Implications of Regionally-Determined Varieties of Cameroon English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubanako, Valentine Njende

    2011-01-01

    With much regional variation in Cameroon English, language learning and teaching becomes very much affected in Cameroon. As the same users make use of the various forms of English as the changing circumstances require, it becomes more and more difficult for them to make clear distinctions between the varieties, and somehow all of these varieties…

  4. English as a Lingua Franca: Implications for Pedagogy and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    The English language functions as a global language that facilitates communication among people of different lingua-cultures. This background leads to the question of whether the traditional language assessment still fulfils the needs of the majority of language learners who will use English for various purposes with people from different…

  5. [Book review] Wetland birds: Habitat resources and conservation implications, by Milton W. Weller

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Milton Weller's love of wetlands and their inhabitants comes through in this book, and he continues a leadership role in a world of field ecologists where fewer and fewer are really experiencing the wet and wild.

  6. Patterns in Habitat and Fish Assemblages within Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands and Implications for Sampling Design

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discerning fish - habitat associations at a variety of spatial scales is relevant to evaluating stressor responses and assessment protocols in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. NMDS ordination of electrofishing catch-per-effort data identified an overriding influence of geography an...

  7. Patterns in Habitat and Fish Assemblages within Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands and Implications for Sampling Design

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discerning fish - habitat associations at a variety of spatial scales is relevant to evaluating stressor responses and assessment protocols in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. NMDS ordination of electrofishing catch-per-effort data identified an overriding influence of geography an...

  8. Needs Analysis of Business English Undergraduates and the Implications to Business English Curriculum Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Needs Analysis is a valuable and irreplaceable tool in the curriculum design of Business English courses. It ensures a focused and efficient curriculum design responsive to the learners' needs. This paper analyses the needs of Business English undergraduates and the information obtained may offer some helpful suggestions to the setting of the…

  9. Rhythm in Ethiopian English: Implications for the Teaching of English Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gashaw, Anegagregn

    2017-01-01

    In order to verify that English speeches produced by Ethiopian speakers fall under syllable-timed or stress-timed rhythm, the study tried to examine the nature of stress and rhythm in the pronunciation of Ethiopian speakers of English by focusing on one language group speaking Amharic as a native language. Using acoustic analysis of the speeches…

  10. Impacts of the creation, expansion and management of English wetlands on mosquito presence and abundance - developing strategies for future disease mitigation.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander G C

    2015-03-03

    The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases is increasing in Europe, partly due to the incursion of a number of invasive species known to be vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses, but also due to the involvement of native species in the transmission of West Nile virus and malaria. For some of these pathogens, there is a risk of the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases that were once widespread in Europe, but declined partly due to large-scale land-drainage projects. Some mosquito species exploit container habitats as breeding sites in urban areas; an adaptation to human-made micro-habitats resulting from increased urbanisation. However, many species thrive in natural wetland ecosystems. Owing to the impacts of climate change there is an urgent need for environmental adaptation, such as the creation of new wetlands to mitigate coastal and inland flooding. In some cases, these initiatives can be coupled with environmental change strategies to protect a range of endangered flora and fauna species by enhancing and extending wetland landscapes, which may by driven by European legislation, particularly in urban areas. This paper reviews field studies conducted in England to assess the impact of newly created wetlands on mosquito colonisation in a) coastal, b) urban and c) arable reversion habitats. It also considers the impact of wetland management on mosquito populations and explores the implications of various water and vegetation management options on the range of British mosquito species. Understanding the impact of wetland creation and management strategies on mosquito prevalence and the potential risk of increasing the levels of nuisance or disease vector species will be crucial in informing health and well-being risk assessments, guiding targeted control, and anticipating the social effects of extreme weather and climate change. Although new wetlands will certainly extend aquatic habitats for mosquitoes, not all species will become a major nuisance or a vector

  11. Reprint of Ecological health status of the Lagos wetland ecosystems: Implications for coastal risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboola, Julius I.; Ndimele, Prince E.; Odunuga, Shakirudeen; Akanni, Adeniran; Kosemani, Bosede; Ahove, Michael A.

    2016-12-01

    Lagos, a major urban agglomeration in the world is characterized by wetlands and basin for upstream rivers such as Ogun, Oshun and Yewa Rivers. Ongoing environmental pressures exerted by large-scale land reclamation for residential quarters, refuse and sewage dumping, and other uses, however, are suspected to have had a substantial impact on ecological health of the Lagos wetland ecosystems over the last few decades. To determine the impact of these pressures, we examined spatial changes in three wetlands areas- Badore/Langbasa (BL), Festac/Iba/Ijegun (FI) and Ologe/Otto-Awori (OO) through field sample collection and analyses of surface water, sediments, air-water interface gas fluxes and vegetations. Surface water conductivity, total suspended solids (TSS), alkalinity, chloride, biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrate, phosphate and heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Fe, Na, Mn, Pb, Cd, K and Ni) exhibited relative spatial stability while other water quality parameters varied significantly (P < 0.05) across the wetland areas. Also, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) contributed to most of the total dissolved solids (TDS) since only DIC correlated significantly with TDS (r = 0.889; P = 0.05, n = 12) and TS (r = 0.891; P = 0.05, n = 12), suggesting a strong capacity for carbon sequestration and carbon sink across the wetland areas. None of the encountered vegetation species are in the vulnerable category of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). There are indications of steady rise in greenhouse gas levels in Lagos since air CO2 value at BL have reached global threshold of 400 ppm with OO and FI closely approaching. We conclude that the Lagos wetland ecosystems, especially OO and FI still have some semblance of natural habitat. However, further destruction and unwise use of the resources could cause damage to physical, chemical, geological and biological processes in nature, which could result to grave socio-economic and cultural consequences to the local

  12. Ecological health status of the Lagos wetland ecosystems: Implications for coastal risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboola, Julius I.; Ndimele, Prince E.; Odunuga, Shakirudeen; Akanni, Adeniran; Kosemani, Bosede; Ahove, Michael A.

    2016-12-01

    Lagos, a major urban agglomeration in the world is characterized by wetlands and basin for upstream rivers such as Ogun, Oshun and Yewa Rivers. Ongoing environmental pressures exerted by large-scale land reclamation for residential quarters, refuse and sewage dumping, and other uses, however, are suspected to have had a substantial impact on ecological health of the Lagos wetland ecosystems over the last few decades. To determine the impact of these pressures, we examined spatial changes in three wetlands areas- Badore/Langbasa (BL), Festac/Iba/Ijegun (FI) and Ologe/Otto-Awori (OO) through field sample collection and analyses of surface water, sediments, air-water interface gas fluxes and vegetations. Surface water conductivity, total suspended solids (TSS), alkalinity, chloride, biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrate, phosphate and heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Fe, Na, Mn, Pb, Cd, K and Ni) exhibited relative spatial stability while other water quality parameters varied significantly (P < 0.05) across the wetland areas. Also, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) contributed to most of the total dissolved solids (TDS) since only DIC correlated significantly with TDS (r = 0.889; P = 0.05, n = 12) and TS (r = 0.891; P = 0.05, n = 12), suggesting a strong capacity for carbon sequestration and carbon sink across the wetland areas. None of the encountered vegetation species are in the vulnerable category of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). There are indications of steady rise in greenhouse gas levels in Lagos since air CO2 value at BL have reached global threshold of 400 ppm with OO and FI closely approaching. We conclude that the Lagos wetland ecosystems, especially OO and FI still have some semblance of natural habitat. However, further destruction and unwise use of the resources could cause damage to physical, chemical, geological and biological processes in nature, which could result to grave socio-economic and cultural consequences to the local

  13. Stimulating a Great Lakes coastal wetland seed bank using portable cofferdams: implications for habitat rehabilitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowalski, K.P.; Wilcox, D.A.; Wiley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetland seed banks exposed by low lake levels or through management actions fuel the reestablishment of emergent plant assemblages (i.e., wetland habitat) critical to Great Lakes aquatic biota. This project explored the effectiveness of using portable, water-filled cofferdams as a management tool to promote the natural growth of emergent vegetation from the seed bank in a Lake Erie coastal wetland. A series of dams stretching approximately 450??m was installed temporarily to isolate hydrologically a 10-ha corner of the Crane Creek wetland complex from Lake Erie. The test area was dewatered in 2004 to mimic a low-water year, and vegetation sampling characterized the wetland seed bank response at low, middle, and high elevations in areas open to and protected from bird and mammal herbivory. The nearly two-month drawdown stimulated a rapid seed-bank-driven response by 45 plant taxa. Herbivory had little effect on plant species richness, regardless of the location along an elevation gradient. Inundation contributed to the replacement of immature emergent plant species with submersed aquatic species after the dams failed and were removed prematurely. This study revealed a number of important issues that must be considered for effective long-term implementation of portable cofferdam technology to stimulate wetland seed banks, including duration of dewatering, product size, source of clean water, replacement of damaged dams, and regular maintenance. This technology is a potentially important tool in the arsenal used by resource managers seeking to rehabilitate the functions and values of Great Lakes coastal wetland habitats.

  14. Dry down impacts on apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) demography: Implications for wetland water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.; Percival, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa Say) are prey for several wetland-dependent predators, most notably for the endangered Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis Vieillot). Management concerns for kites have been raised regarding the impacts of wetland dry downs on snails, but little data exists to validate these concerns. We simulated drying events in experimental tanks, where we observed that snail survival patterns, regardless of hydrology, were driven by a post-reproductive die off. In contrast to earlier reports of little to no dry down tolerance, we found that 70% of pre-reproductive adult-sized snails survived a 12-week dry down. Smaller size classes of snails exhibited significantly lower survival rates (< 50% after eight weeks dry). Field surveys showed that 77% of egg production occurs in April-June. Our hydrologic analyses of six peninsular Florida wetlands showed that most dry downs overlapped a portion of the peak snail breeding season, and 70% of dry downs were ??? 12 weeks in duration. Dry down timing can affect recruitment by truncating annual egg production and stranding juveniles. Dry down survival rates and seasonal patterns of egg cluster production helped define a range of hydrologic conditions that support robust apple snail populations, and illustrate why multiple characteristics of dry down events should be considered in developing target hydrologic regimes for wetland fauna. ?? 2008, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  15. Changes in wetland sediment elevation following major storms: implications for estimating trends in relative sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Hurricanes can be important agents of geomorphic change in coastal marshes and mangrove forests. Hurricanes can cause large-scale redistribution of sediments within the coastal environment resulting in sedimentation, erosion, disruption of vegetated substrates, or some combination of these processes in coastal wetlands. It has been proposed that such sediment pulsing events are important at maintaining wetland sediment elevations in sediment-poor settings with high rates of relative sea-level rise, such as the Mississippi River Delta. But do these pulsing events result in a net gain in sediment elevation even when substantial amounts of sediment are deposited? Clearly sediment erosion and scour would result in a loss of elevation. But will a substantial sediment deposit on poorly consolidated sediments always result in a net gain in elevation? If the wetland vegetation is killed by wind, tidal surge, or the introduction of saline water, will there be a collapse of sediment elevation in the absence of root production and ongoing decomposition of root matter? During the past decade several wetlands where my colleagues and I have monitored sedimentation and elevation change have been struck by one to several hurricanes. This paper describes the range of sediment elevation responses to hurricane strikes, the suggested mechanisms driving those responses, the implications for estimating long-term trends in relative sea-level rise, and future research needs for improving our understanding of the role that major storms play in wetland sediment elevation dynamics. For many wetlands the change in sediment elevation was directly proportional to the amount of sediment deposited by the storm. But surprisingly, there was a loss of elevation in some wetlands with substantial sediment deposits. In these wetlands, the impact of the storm was either direct (sedimentation and compaction) or indirect (vegetation death), and the effect on sediment elevation was either permanent or

  16. River and Wetland Food Webs in Australia's Wet-Dry Tropics: General Principles and Implications for Management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, M. M.; Bunn, S. E.; Davies, P. M.

    2005-05-01

    The tropical rivers of northern Australia are internationally recognised for their high ecological and cultural values. They have largely unmodified flow regimes and are comparatively free of the impacts associated with intensive land use. However, there is growing demand for agricultural development and existing pressures, such as weeds and feral animals, threaten their ecological integrity. Using the international literature to provide a conceptual framework and drawing on limited published and unpublished data on rivers in northern Australia, we have derived five general principles about food webs and related ecosystem processes that both characterise tropical rivers of northern Australia and have important implications for their management. These are: (1) Seasonal hydrology is a strong driver of ecosystem processes and food web structure; (2) Hydrological connectivity is largely intact and underpins important terrestrial-aquatic food web subsidies; (3) River and wetland food webs are strongly dependent on algal production; (4) A few common macroconsumers species have a strong influence on benthic food webs; (5) Omnivory is widespread and food chains are short. These principles have implications for the management and protection of tropical rivers and wetlands of northern Australia and provide a framework for the formation of testable hypotheses in future research programs.

  17. Mathematical versus English Meaning in Implication and Disjunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    As mathematicians, we assign rigid meanings to words that may have a variety of interpretations in common language. This article considers meanings of "if" and "or" from everyday English that have caused students to misinterpret mathematical statements, and that are consistently overlooked by instructional materials in addressing students'…

  18. Aboriginal English: Some Grammatical Features and Their Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal English has been documented in widely separated parts of Australia and, despite some stylistic and regional variation, is remarkably consistent across the continent, and provides a vehicle for the common expression of Aboriginal identity. There is, however, some indeterminacy in the way in which the term is used in much academic and…

  19. Aboriginal English: Some Grammatical Features and Their Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal English has been documented in widely separated parts of Australia and, despite some stylistic and regional variation, is remarkably consistent across the continent, and provides a vehicle for the common expression of Aboriginal identity. There is, however, some indeterminacy in the way in which the term is used in much academic and…

  20. African American English: Implications for School Counseling Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.

    2009-01-01

    African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…

  1. The Ideological and Cultural Implications of the English Telecourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accetta, Randy

    Teaching via technology, whether using computers, the Internet, television, or video networks, is a growing field that is a Pandora's box of benefits and dangers. A one-way, non-interactive English telecourse combines televised lessons with textbooks and study guides but does not allow students to interrupt in real-time to interact with the…

  2. Spatiotemporal dynamics of prairie wetland networks: power-law scaling and implications for conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Wright, Christopher K

    2010-07-01

    Although habitat networks show promise for conservation planning at regional scales, their spatiotemporal dynamics have not been well studied, especially in climate-sensitive landscapes. Here I use satellite remote sensing to compile wetland habitat networks from the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America. An ensemble of networks assembled across a hydrologic gradient from deluge to drought and a range of representative dispersal distances exhibits power-law scaling of important topological parameters. Prairie wetland networks are "meso-worlds" with mean topological distance increasing faster with network size than small-world networks, but slower than a regular lattice (or "large world"). This scaling implies rapid dispersal through wetland networks without some of the risks associated with "small worlds" (e.g., extremely rapid propagation of disease or disturbance). Retrospective analysis of wetland networks establishes a climatic envelope for landscape connectivity in the PPR, where I show that a changing climate might severely impact metapopulation viability and restrict long-distance dispersal and range shifts. More generally, this study demonstrates an efficient approach to conservation planning at a level of abstraction addressing key drivers of the global biodiversity crisis: habitat fragmentation and climatic change.

  3. Hydrogen isotope variability in prairie wetland systems: implications for studies of migratory connectivity.

    PubMed

    Bortolotti, Lauren E; Clark, Robert G; Wassenaar, Leonard I

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopes (delta2H) are often used to infer the origins of migratory animals based on the strong correlation between deuterium content of tissues and long-term patterns of precipitation. However, the extreme flood and drought dynamics of surface waters in prairie wetland systems could mask these expected correlations. We investigated H isotopic variability in an aquatic food web associated with Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) that rely heavily on wetland-derived aerial insects for food. We evaluated isotopic turnover and incorporation of environmental water into tissue, processes that could affect H isotopic composition. Wetland water and aquatic invertebrates showed intra- and interannual H isotopic variation mainly related to evaporation and the amount and timing of precipitation. Snails showed rapid turnover of tissue deuterium and a large contribution of environmental water to their tissues. Swallow feather deuterium (delta2Hf) was variable but did not clearly follow changes in any of the food web compartments measured. Instead, isotopic variability may have been driven by shifts in the type or relative amounts of grey consumed and types of wetlands used. Nevertheless, despite relatively high variance in delta2Hf, the majority of birds fell within the predicted range of delta2Hf for the study area, revealing that significant trophic averaging occurred. However, both (presumed) diet shifts and variable hydrological conditions have the potential to greatly increase variance that must be considered when assigning origins of migratory animals based on delta2H.

  4. Variation in growth for Hecate Strait English sole ( Parophrys vetulus) with implications for stock assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargo, J.; Kronlund, A. R.

    2000-10-01

    In this study we analysed length-at-age data to characterise the growth of English sole ( Parophrys vetulus) and to examine the implications of incorporating uncertainty about growth into English sole stock assessment. Unlike previous analyses of English sole that employed Von Bertalanffy growth, we used a flexible parameterisation of growth after Schnute (1981) that better accommodated observed patterns in the length-at-age data. The model parameters always exist, even when the most appropriate growth form does not include a maximum size asymptote, and they have statistically stable properties. Also, the model parameters are expressed as quantities that have direct biological interpretation. Based on examination of annual growth parameter estimates, we concluded that a change in ageing methodology, sample bias and low sample size precluded analysis of the response of growth to environment and density-dependent effects. We also discuss the implications of uncertainty in the growth parameters on a yield per recruit analysis.

  5. Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in coastal wetlands: implications for coastal conservation in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, R; Soulsby, C

    2001-01-29

    Groundwater in a shallow coastal aquifer in north east Scotland was monitored over the hydrological year October 1996-September 1997. Groundwater flow from inland areas sustained freshwater conditions in a dune-wetland complex of conservation importance. In particular, seasonal flooding of the coastal wetlands due to water table rise provided important roosting and breeding habitats for waterfowl. Hydrogeochemical analysis revealed that groundwater in the shallow sand aquifer was circum-neutral, and non-saline, despite being within 50 m of the sea and only 1 m above the mean high water mark. Calcium and HCO3 were the dominant cation and anion respectively, reflecting weathering processes in the aquifer. Use of the geochemical code NETPATH indicated that calcite weathering in shell fragments within the sand was the primary source of Ca and alkalinity generation. The concentrations of Na and Cl were also important, though these can be explained primarily by atmospheric inputs from precipitation. In detail, the spatial and temporal variation in groundwater chemistry was remarkably complex for what intuitively appeared a simple aquifer system. Temporal variations in groundwater chemistry mainly related to the seasonal event of groundwater recharge. Thus, the main period of rising groundwater levels resulted in a marked dilution of solutes in the aquifer, implying that water storage greatly increased in a relatively short period. A period of several weeks appeared to be required for dissolution processes to proceed to equilibrium. Spatial variation in groundwater chemistry appears to relate to the spatial distribution of geochemical processes in different hydrogeological units. Sulphate reduction, alkalinity generation and Fe precipitation appear to be locally important processes. The chemistry of groundwater maintains the wetland habitat by providing freshwater conditions that allow populations of various plant species to flourish. The potentially large recharge

  6. First Nations English Dialects in Canada: Implications for Speech-Language Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Jessica; Bernhardt, B. May

    2008-01-01

    The current study reports preliminary information gathered about First Nations English dialects in Canada and considers implications for speech-language pathology practice. Information was gathered from literature searches and forums of First Nations and non-First Nations speech-language pathologists, developmentalists, and linguists. The…

  7. A Quantitative Corpus-Based Approach to English Spatial Particles: Conceptual Symmetry and Its Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Alvin Cheng-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate how conceptual symmetry plays a role in the use of spatial particles in English and to further examine its pedagogical implications via a corpus-based evaluation of the course books in senior high schools in Taiwan. More specifically, we adopt a quantitative corpus-based approach to investigate whether bipolar…

  8. Implications of Second Language Acquisition Theory for Business English Teaching in Current China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzhong, Zhu; Muchun, Wan

    2015-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) as a sub-branch of applied linguistics has been researched by Chinese and foreign scholars for over 40 years, but few researches have been done on its implications for Business English teaching which needs more language teaching theories to support. This paper makes a review of related studies, and puts forward a…

  9. High Stakes Testing: Issues, Implications, and Remedies for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solorzano, Ronald W.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the issues and implications of high stakes tests on English language learners (ELLs). As ELLs are being included in all high stakes assessments tied to accountability efforts (e.g., No Child Left Behind), it is crucial that issues related to the tests be critically evaluated relative to their use. In this case, academic…

  10. First Nations English dialects in Canada: implications for speech-language pathology.

    PubMed

    Ball, Jessica; Bernhardt, B May

    2008-08-01

    The current study reports preliminary information gathered about First Nations English dialects in Canada and considers implications for speech-language pathology practice. Information was gathered from literature searches and forums of First Nations and non-First Nations speech-language pathologists, developmentalists, and linguists. The exploratory findings suggest that First Nations English dialects are shaped both by transference of features from the ancestral languages and by cultural patterns of communication. The dialects likely represent late stages of depidginization and decreolization. Examples of phonological and syntactic dialectal features illustrate the importance of recognizing non-standard varieties of English when assessing speakers of First Nations communities and setting up goals and strategies for treatment. Research is urgently needed to identify features of First Nations English dialects both for linguistic documentation and to help speech-language pathologists and other educators to distinguish between language impairments and dialect differences and to develop culturally relevant assessment and intervention practices.

  11. Analyzing the Micro Coherence in English Writing and Implications for the Teaching of English Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sui, Dan-ni; Chen, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Based on LSA's (Latent Semantic Analysis) measuring textual coherence and Halliday and Hasan's cohesive concepts and their categorization of cohesive devices, this paper analyzes coherent relatedness and cohesive devices of 100 Chinese students' English writings. The results indicate that (1) LSA is proved to be an objective and appropriate method…

  12. English Genitives Derived from Predications: Implications for Teaching English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeish, Andrew

    1970-01-01

    This paper attempts to demonstrate the concept and method of deriving various English "true possessives" by nominalizing sentences of the form "X has Y." First considered is the motivation for deriving genetives from underlying sentences rather than for treating only the surface form of such genitives: the use of auxiliary…

  13. Rapid changes in small fish mercury concentrations in estuarine wetlands: Implications for wildlife risk and monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Ackerman, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Small fish are commonly used to assess mercury (Hg) risk to wildlife and monitor Hg in wetlands. However, limited research has evaluated short-term Hg variability in small fish, which can have important implications for monitoring programs and risk assessment. We conducted a time-series study of Hg concentrations in two small fish species representing benthic (longjaw mudsuckers [Gillichthys mirabilis]) and pelagic (threespine sticklebacks [Gasterosteus aculeatus]) food-webs within three wetland habitats in San Francisco Bay Estuary. We simultaneously monitored prey deliveries, nest initiation, and chick hatching dates of breeding Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), the most abundant nesting piscivore in the region. Mudsuckers and sticklebacks were the predominant prey fish, comprising 36% and 25% of tern diet, and Hg concentrations averaged (geometric mean ?? SE, ??g/g dw) 0.44 ?? 0.01 and 0.68 ?? 0.03, respectively. Fish Hg concentrations varied substantially over time following a quadratic form in both species, increasing 40% between March and May then decreasing 40% between May and July. Importantly, Forster's terns initiated 68% of nests and 31% of chicks hatched during the period of peak Hg concentrations in prey fish. These results illustrate the importance of short-term temporal variation in small fish Hg concentrations for both Hg monitoring programs and assessing wildlife risk.

  14. Isotopic composition of methane released from wetlands: Implications for the increase in atmospheric methane

    SciTech Connect

    Quay, P.D.; King, S.L.; Lansdown, J.M.; Wilbur, D.O. )

    1988-12-01

    Measurements of the delta-C{sup 13} of methane released from tropical, temperate, and arctic wetland sites are reported. The mean delta C{sup 13} values (relative to PDB carbonate standard) for peat bogs and Alaskan tundra are {minus}53 + or{minus}8, {minus}66 + or{minus}5 and {minus}64 + or{minus}5{per thousand}, respectively. These measurements combined with methane flux estimates yield a flux-weighted global average delta-C{sup 13} value of {minus}59 + or{minus}6{per thousand} for methane released from wetlands, a major natural methane source. The agreement between the measured delta-C{sup 13} for methane emitted from wetlands and the calculated steady state value of approximately {minus}6{per thousand} for the delta-C{sup 13} of preindustrial methane sources suggests that methane was predominantly produced biogenically in the preindustrial era. The industrial era time rate of change of the delta-C{sup 13} of the global methane flux is calculated from estimates of the growth rate of the major anthropogenically derived methane sources and the C{sup 13} composition of these sources, and compared to the measured change in the delta-C{sup 13} of methane during the last 300 years. Based on these results, it is estimated that 13 + or{minus}8% of the current global methane flux is derived abiogenically from natural gas and biomass burning, whereas the remainder is derived biogenically primarily from wetlands, rice paddies, and livestock. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Implications of discontinuous elevation gradients on fragmentation and restoration in patterned wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zweig, Christa L.; Reichert, Brian E.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2011-01-01

    Large wetlands around the world face the possibility of degradation, not only from complete conversion, but also from subtle changes in their structure and function. While fragmentation and isolation of wetlands within heterogeneous landscapes has received much attention, the disruption of spatial patterns/processes within large wetland systems and the resulting fragmentation of community components are less well documented. A greater understanding of pattern/process relationships and landscape gradients, and what occurs when they are altered, could help avoid undesirable consequences of restoration actions. The objective of this study is to determine the amount of fragmentation of sawgrass ridges due to artificial impoundment of water and how that may be differentially affected by spatial position relative to north and south levees. We also introduce groundbreaking evidence of landscape-level discontinuous elevation gradients within WCA3AS by comparing generalized linear and generalized additive models. These relatively abrupt breaks in elevation may have non-linear effects on hydrology and vegetation communities and would be crucial in restoration considerations. Modeling suggests there are abrupt breaks in elevation as a function of northing (Y-coordinate). Fragmentation indices indicate that fragmentation is a function of elevation and easting (X-coordinate), and that fragmentation has increased from 1988-2002. When landscapes change and the changes are compounded by non-linear landscape variables that are described herein, the maintenance processes change with them, creating a degraded feedback loop that alters the system's response to structuring variables and diminishes our ability to predict the effects of restoration projects or climate change. Only when these landscape variables and linkages are clearly defined can we predict the response to potential perturbations and apply the knowledge to other landscape-level wetland systems in need of future

  16. Postbreeding movements of American Avocets and implications for wetland connectivity in the western Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plissner, Jonathan H.; Haig, Susan M.; Oring, L.W.

    2000-01-01

    Wetlands in the western Great Basin of the United States are patchily distributed and undergo extensive seasonal and annual variation in water levels. The American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana) is one of many shorebird species that use these wetlands as breeding and migratory stopover sites and must adjust to variable conditions. We used radio telemetry to determine postbreeding, premigratory movement patterns of avocets throughout the region. In 1996 and 1997, 185 breeding adults were captured and fitted with radio transmitters at five breeding areas in Oregon, California, and Nevada. Regular aerial and ground surveys were conducted at the five main study areas from June through September, or until all avocets had left a site. Other wetlands in the western Great Basin also were surveyed by aircraft for the presence of radio-marked birds. Fifty-six percent of radio-marked avocets were still detected in the region at least eight weeks after capture. Each of these individuals was detected at an average of 2.1 lakes (range 0 to 6), with 74% found at more than one lake system. Forty radio-marked individuals moved at least 200 km between wetlands prior to migration, most of which dispersed northward. Male and female patterns did not differ significantly. Overall, movements may be associated with a prebasic molt, exploitation of a superabundant food source in northern lakes, and reconnaissance for future breeding efforts or staging sites. These results also demonstrate wide-ranging patterns of dispersal in this species and suggest a need for the consideration of large-scale habitat connectivity issues in establishing conservation strategies for shorebirds in the western Great Basin.

  17. Mechanical resistance properties of gravel used in subsurface flow constructed wetlands: implications for clogging.

    PubMed

    Pedescoll, Anna; Passos, Fabiana; Alba, Elisenda; García, Joan; Puigagut, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Gravel constitutes the filter medium in subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) and its porosity and hydraulic conductivity decrease over time (clogging), limiting the lifespan of the systems. Using gravel of poor quality accelerates clogging in wetlands. In this study, gravel samples from six different wetland systems were compared with regards to their mineral composition and mechanical resistance properties. Results showed that both mineralogy and texture are related to mechanical resistance. Accordingly, gravel with high content of quartz (> 80%) showed a lower percentage of broken particles (0.18-1.03%) than those with lower content of quartz (2.42-4.56% media broken). Although granite is formed by high durability minerals, its non-uniform texture results in a lower resistance to abrasion (ca. 10% less resistance than calcareous gravel). Therefore, it is recommended to use gravels composed mainly of quartz or, when it is not available, limestone gravels (rounded and uniform) are recommended instead. The resistance to abrasion (LAA test) seems to be a good indicator to determine the mechanical properties of gravels used in CWs. It is recommended to use gravels with LAA below 30% in order to avoid a rapid clogging due to gravel crumbling and subsequent mineral solids accumulation.

  18. Implications of climate change for wetland-dependent birds in the Prairie Pothole Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steen, Valerie; Skagen, Susan; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2016-01-01

    The habitats and food resources required to support breeding and migrant birds dependent on North American prairie wetlands are threatened by impending climate change. The North American Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) hosts nearly 120 species of wetland-dependent birds representing 21 families. Strategic management requires knowledge of avian habitat requirements and assessment of species most vulnerable to future threats. We applied bioclimatic species distribution models (SDMs) to project range changes of 29 wetland-dependent bird species using ensemble modeling techniques, a large number of General Circulation Models (GCMs), and hydrological climate covariates. For the U.S. PPR, mean projected range change, expressed as a proportion of currently occupied range, was −0.31 (± 0.22 SD; range − 0.75 to 0.16), and all but two species were projected to lose habitat. Species associated with deeper water were expected to experience smaller negative impacts of climate change. The magnitude of climate change impacts was somewhat lower in this study than earlier efforts most likely due to use of different focal species, varying methodologies, different modeling decisions, or alternative GCMs. Quantification of the projected species-specific impacts of climate change using species distribution modeling offers valuable information for vulnerability assessments within the conservation planning process.

  19. Iron and manganese removal in wetland treatment systems: rates, processes and implications for management.

    PubMed

    Batty, Lesley; Lesley, Batty; Hooley, Daniel; Daniel, Hooley; Younger, Paul; Paul, Younger

    2008-05-01

    Mine water drainage is a significant environmental problem throughout the world and constructed wetlands are being increasingly used to treat such contaminating discharges. Iron and manganese removal within a wetland treatment system at Whittle Colliery, UK which receives alkaline waters, was monitored to determine rates and processes within the different components of the system. In addition hourly samples were taken for a period of 24 h to determine the effect of photosynthetic organisms on metal removal. Significant iron removal occurred, with removal rates of 98% at Whittle. Oxidation of iron to form iron hydroxide precipitates was the dominant removal process in the proximal sections of the treatment system (i.e. oxidation ponds and initial reaches of the wetland), whereas biotic removal processes appeared to become more important in distal parts of the systems, where iron concentrations were much lower. Significant manganese removal was also observed, although this did not become substantial until iron concentrations had fallen below 5 mg/L. The process by which manganese was removed is not clear, but bacterially-mediated oxidation may be involved. Further elucidation of the relative importance of abiotic and biotic removal processes within treatment systems is important in the design and long-term management of constructed systems.

  20. Mangrove expansion in the Gulf of Mexico with climate change: Implications for wetland health and resistance to rising sea levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comeaux, Rebecca S.; Allison, Mead A.; Bianchi, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    Black mangroves ( Avicennia spp.) are hypothesized to expand their latitudinal range with global climate change in the 21st century, induced by a reduction in the frequency and severity of coastal freezes, which are known to limit mangrove colony extent and individual tree size. The Gulf of Mexico is a prime candidate for population expansion to occur because it is located at the northward limit of black mangrove habitat. This may come at the expense of existing coastal saline wetlands that are dominantly Spartina spp. marsh grasses. The present study was conducted to focus on the implications of a marsh to mangrove transition in Gulf wetlands, specifically: (1) wetland resistance to accelerating eustatic sea level rise (ESLR) rates; (2) resistance to wave attack in large storms (increased cyclonic storm frequency/intensity is predicted with future climate warming); and (3) organic carbon sequestration and wetland soil geochemistry. Field sites of adjacent and inter-grown Avicennia germinans mangrove and Spartina marsh populations in similar geomorphological setting were selected in back-barrier areas near Port Aransas and Galveston, TX. Elevation surveys in the more mature Port Aransas site indicate mangrove vegetated areas are 4 cm higher in elevation than surrounding marsh on an average regional scale, and 1-2 cm higher at the individual mangrove scale. 210Pb and 137Cs accumulation rates and loss on ignition data indicate that mineral trapping is 4.1 times higher and sediment organics are 1.7 times lower in mangroves at Port Aransas. This additional mineral trapping does not differ in grain size character from marsh accumulation. Elevation change may also be effected by soil displacement of higher root volumes in mangrove cores. Port Aransas porosities are lower in mangrove rooted horizons, with a corresponding increase in sediment strength, suggesting mangrove intervals are more resistant to wave-induced erosion during storm events. Port Aransas mangroves

  1. Pore Water Circulation in Isolated Wetlands: Implications to Internal Nutrient Loading.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Perkins, D. B.; Jawitz, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    The potential of wetland soils to accumulate and release pollutants including nutrients has been the motivation for numerous studies related to measuring the concentration, fate, and transport mechanisms of these substances in soils. While external nutrient loading from anthropogenic sources such as agricultural and cattle areas can be addressed through the implementation of Best Management Practices (BMPs), and interception strategies such as construction of storm-water treatment areas (STAs) in Florida, internal loading through shallow sediments has prevented the rapid improvement of water quality in numerous watersheds in South Florida, including the Lake Okeechobee drainage basin. The internal release of nutrients can occur via two different yet equally important mechanisms: advection and diffusion. These processes may mix the pore water not only within the sediment but also with the overlying water column over short periods of time (e.g., days or weeks). This provides sufficient time for diagenesis to alter the reactive chemical components of nutrients that may ultimately increase the nutrient fluxes to the overlying water column. The objectives of this research are to present a plausible and testable technique to collect pore water samples from saturated wetland soils, and to evaluate the importance of pore water circulation as a mechanism for mobilizing nutrients into the water column from within shallow sediments in isolated wetlands. Pore water sampling can be a difficult task to perform in low permeable wetland soils using standard sampling devices such as pore water equilibrators (peepers) and mechanical vises (Rheeburg squeezers). However, our attempt at using Multisamplers, which is in fact a multi-level piezometer capable of collecting up to ten pore water samples to a depth of 110 cm below the soil-water interface in a single deployment, proved to be a success. The ability to collect samples from multiple depths from a single location is an important

  2. Discover Wetlands. A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Brian

    Teaching about wetlands fits well into curriculum goals for science, social studies, environmental education, and even English/language arts. Given their numerous ecological values, the history of their losses and the fact that they are a current, often controversial environmental issue, wetlands provide an ideal topic for a variety of…

  3. Discover Wetlands. A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Brian

    Teaching about wetlands fits well into curriculum goals for science, social studies, environmental education, and even English/language arts. Given their numerous ecological values, the history of their losses and the fact that they are a current, often controversial environmental issue, wetlands provide an ideal topic for a variety of…

  4. Application of fish index of biological integrity (FIBI) in the Sanmenxia Wetland with water quality implications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Shan, Baoqing; Ao, Liang

    2014-08-01

    Long-term changes of fish biotic integrity in the Sanmenxia Wetland, North China, since the 1950s were assessed using the fish index of biological integrity (FIBI). The water and sediment quality was evaluated by the water quality index (WQI) and sediment pollution index (SPI). The results showed that FIBI continuously decreased from 46 to 20 during the past 5 decades, which indicated that the fish community state shifted from fair to very poor conditions, and damming by itself did not affect the fish biotic integrity. At the same time, WQI fell from 83 to 44.1, and SPI increased from 0.99 to 2.14 since the 1960s, resulting from fast regional socio-economic development and insufficient wastewater treatment. Correlation analysis suggested that water quality significantly affected biotic integrity (r=0.867, p<0.05) through direct effects on the fish community. As a representative example of many wetlands in North China, our study clearly demonstrated that the biological integrity was degraded, induced both by water quality deterioration and sediment pollution, further driven by the contradiction between rapid development of regional economy and lagging development of sewage treatment facilities, which were thought to be the main factor responsible for the degradation of biological integrity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Prey preferences of aquatic insects: potential implications for the regulation of wetland mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Saha, N; Aditya, G; Saha, G K

    2014-03-01

    Wetlands are potential sites for mosquito breeding and are thus important in the context of public health. The use of chemical and microbial controls is constrained in wetlands in view of their potential impact on the diverse biota. Biological control using generalist aquatic insects can be effective, provided a preference for mosquito larvae is exhibited. The mosquito prey preferences of water bugs and larvae of odonate species were evaluated using chironomid larvae, fish fingerlings and tadpoles as alternative prey. Manly's selectivity (αi ) values with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to judge prey preference patterns. Multivariate analysis of variance (manova) and standardized canonical coefficients were used to test the effects of density on prey selectivity. The αi values indicated a significant preference (P < 0.05) in all of the insect predators tested for mosquito larvae over the alternative prey as a density-dependent function. On a comparative scale, chironomid larvae had the highest impact as alternative prey. In a multiple-prey experiment, predators showed a similar pattern of preference for mosquito larvae over alternative prey, reflecting a significant (P < 0.05) niche overlap. The results suggest that, in a laboratory setting, these insect predators can effectively reduce mosquito density in the presence of multiple alternative prey.

  6. Seed germination of cirsium arvense and Lepidium latifolium: Implications for management of montane wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laubhan, M.K.; Shaffer, T.L.

    2006-01-01

    Cirsium arvense and Lepidium latifolium are species that can aggressively invade wetland margins and potentially reduce biodiversity and alter ecosystem function. Although expansion of these species primarily occurs via rhizomatous growth, seeds are thought to be important in initial establishment. We conducted this study to investigate differences in seed germination of C. arvense and L. latifolium in montane wetlands of Colorado and Wyoming, USA. We used germination chambers to simulate environmental conditions (photoperiod, day/night temperature) during three periods of the growing season at each site and evaluated seed germination in relation to three soil moisture levels and two soil depths. A combination of shallow (<1 cm) seed burial and wet conditions resulted in the greatest germination probability of C. arvense (x = 63.0%), 95% CI = 41.2-80.5%), whereas deep (2-3 cm) seed burial and saturated moisture conditions resulted in almost no germination (x?? = 0.3%, 95% CI = 0.1-1.3%). The maximum germination probability of 44.0% (CI = 28.1-61.4%) for L. latifolium also occurred in the shallow burial and wet treatment; however, only effects of seed burial were significant (P < 0.05). The estimated mean germination probability of deeply buried seeds was <1.0% (CI = 0.3-1.4%) compared to 32% (CI = 19.7-47.9%) for shallowly buried seeds. Our results suggest that each species has the ability to germinate at similar rates throughout the growing season and across a large portion of the moisture gradient. This suggests that management actions, including water-level manipulations, at any time during the growing season may stimulate germination. Although burial of seed to depths of 2-3 cm reduced the germination potential of both species, the use of mechanical implements may be problematic in established stands because new plants of both species easily sprout from root buds. Further, disturbance resulting from such actions diminishes the density and vigor of other plants

  7. Constructed Wetlands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  8. Radar monitoring of hydrology in Maryland's forested coastal plain wetlands: Implications for predicted climate change and improved mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner Lang, Megan

    Wetlands provide important services to society but Mid-Atlantic wetlands are at high risk for loss, with forested wetlands being especially vulnerable. Hydrology (flooding and soil moisture) controls wetland function and extent but it may be altered due to changes in climate and anthropogenic influence. Wetland hydrology must better understood in order to predict and mitigate the impact of these changes. Broad-scale forested wetland hydrology is difficult to monitor using ground-based and traditional remote sensing methods. C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data could improve the capability to monitor forested wetland hydrology but the abilities and limitations of these data need further investigation. This study examined: (1) the link between climate and wetland hydrology; (2) the ability of ENVISAT SAR (C-HH and C-VV) data to monitor inundation and soil moisture in forested wetlands; (3) limitations inherent to C-band data (incidence angle, polarization, and phenology) when monitoring forested wetland hydrology; and (4) the accuracy of forested wetland maps produced using SAR data. The study was primarily conducted near the Patuxent River in Maryland but the influence of incidence angle was considered along the Roanoke River in North Carolina. This study showed: (1) climate was highly correlated with wetland inundation; (2) significant differences in C-VV and C-HH backscatter existed between forested areas of varying hydrology (uplands and wetlands) throughout the year; (3) C-HH backscatter was better correlated to hydrology than C-VV backscatter; (4) correlations were stronger during the leaf-off season; (5) the difference in backscatter between flooded and non-flooded areas did not sharply decline with incidence angle, as predicted; and (6) maps produced using SAR data had relatively high accuracy levels. Based on these findings, I concluded that hydrology is influenced by climate at the study site, and C-HH data should be able to monitor changes in

  9. The Relationship between Mathematics and Language: Academic Implications for Children with Specific Language Impairment and English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary; Arizmendi, Genesis D.; Beal, Carole R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the relationship between mathematics and language to better understand the nature of the deficit and the academic implications associated with specific language impairment (SLI) and academic implications for English language learners (ELLs). Method: School-age children (N = 61; 20 SLI, 20 ELL, 21 native…

  10. Environmental impacts and regulatory policy implications of spray disposal of dredged material in Louisiana wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.; Cowan, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The capabilities of a new wetland dredging technology were assessed along with associated newly developed state and federal regulatory policies to determine if policy expectations realistically match the technological achievement. Current regulatory practices require amelioration of spoil bank impacts upon abandonment of an oil/gas well, but this may not occur for many years or decades, if at all. Recently, a dreding method (high-pressure spray spoil disposal) was developed that does not create a spoil bank in the traditional sense. Its potential for reducing environmental impacts was recognized immediately by regulatory agencies for whom minimizing spoil bank impacts is a major concern. The use of high-pressure spray disposal as a suitable alternative to traditional dreding technology has been adopted as policy even though its value as a management tool has never been tested or verified. A qualitative evaluation at two spoil disposal sites in saline marsh indicates that high-pressure spray disposal may indeed have great potential to minimize impacts, but most of this potential remains unverified. Also, some aspects of current regulatory policy may be based on unrealistic expectations as to the ability of this new technology to minimize or eliminate spoil bank impacts.

  11. Variations in tidal level in the Gulf of Mexico and implications for tidal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, R.P.; Haines, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Tidal wetland environments have an ecological zonation that corresponds with tide levels, in particular with mean high water. However, mean sea level (MSL), which has shown a persistent rise in the Gulf of Mexico during this century, is the most common reference for water level change. We examine here the relationship between mean sea level and mean high water in describing water level changes in the Gulf of Mexico. The records of monthly mean water level for four stations, Galveston, Pensacola, Cedar Key and Key West, are partitioned into the annual cycle, the long-term trend, and a low-frequency (> 10 year period) fluctuation. The trend is the same for MSL and mean higher high water (MHHW) for all stations investigated except Cedar Key, Florida, where MHHW has increased more rapidly than MSL. The low-frequency fluctuations are similar between the stations and the tidal datums. MSL can predict MHHW with discrepancies of up to 5 cm owing to the lunar nodal cycle and an annual tidal signal. Low-frequency climatic fluctuations produce greater variations than the nodal cycle, but the difference in frequency can lead to interference between the two in MHHW. The combination of the two can produce sea-level rises in excess of 1 cm year-1 over several year periods, even in areas having long-term trends of 0.2 cm year-1 or less.

  12. Accumulation of impact markers in desert wetlands and implications for the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Latorre, Claudio; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Martinez, Katherine E.; Budahn, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis contends that an extraterrestrial object exploded over North America at 12.9 ka, initiating the Younger Dryas cold event, the extinction of many North American megafauna, and the demise of the Clovis archeological culture. Although the exact nature and location of the proposed impact or explosion remain unclear, alleged evidence for the fallout comes from multiple sites across North America and a site in Belgium. At 6 of the 10 original sites (excluding the Carolina Bays), elevated concentrations of various "impact markers" were found in association with black mats that date to the onset of the Younger Dryas. Black mats are common features in paleowetland deposits and typically represent shallow marsh environments. In this study, we investigated black mats ranging in age from approximately 6 to more than 40 ka in the southwestern United States and the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. At 10 of 13 sites, we found elevated concentrations of iridium in bulk and magnetic sediments, magnetic spherules, and/or titanomagnetite grains within or at the base of black mats, regardless of their age or location, suggesting that elevated concentrations of these markers arise from processes common to wetland systems, and not a catastrophic extraterrestrial impact event.

  13. Keep wetlands wet: the myth of sustainable development of tropical peatlands - implications for policies and management.

    PubMed

    Evers, Stephanie; Yule, Catherine M; Padfield, Rory; O'Reilly, Patrick; Varkkey, Helena

    2017-02-01

    Pristine tropical peat swamp forests (PSFs) represent a unique wetland ecosystem of distinctive hydrology which support unique biodiversity and globally significant stores of soil carbon. Yet in Indonesia and Malaysia, home to 56% of the world's tropical peatland, they are subject to considerable developmental pressures, including widespread drainage to support agricultural needs. In this article, we review the ecology behind the functioning and ecosystem services provided by PSFs, with a particular focus on hydrological processes as well as the role of the forest itself in maintaining those services. Drawing on this, we review the suitability of current policy frameworks and consider the efficacy of their implementation. We suggest that policies in Malaysia and Indonesia are often based around the narrative of oil palm and other major monocrops as drivers of prosperity and development. However, we also argue that this narrative is also being supported by a priori claims concerning the possibility of sustainability of peat swamp exploitation via drainage-based agriculture through the adherence to best management practices. We discuss how this limits their efficacy, uptake and the political will towards enforcement. Further, we consider how both narratives (prosperity and sustainability) clearly exclude important considerations concerning the ecosystem value of tropical PSFs which are dependent on their unimpacted hydrology. Current research clearly shows that the actual debate should be focused not on how to develop drainage-based plantations sustainably, but on whether the sustainable conversion to drainage-based systems is possible at all.

  14. Accumulation of impact markers in desert wetlands and implications for the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pigati, Jeffrey S; Latorre, Claudio; Rech, Jason A; Betancourt, Julio L; Martínez, Katherine E; Budahn, James R

    2012-05-08

    The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis contends that an extraterrestrial object exploded over North America at 12.9 ka, initiating the Younger Dryas cold event, the extinction of many North American megafauna, and the demise of the Clovis archeological culture. Although the exact nature and location of the proposed impact or explosion remain unclear, alleged evidence for the fallout comes from multiple sites across North America and a site in Belgium. At 6 of the 10 original sites (excluding the Carolina Bays), elevated concentrations of various "impact markers" were found in association with black mats that date to the onset of the Younger Dryas. Black mats are common features in paleowetland deposits and typically represent shallow marsh environments. In this study, we investigated black mats ranging in age from approximately 6 to more than 40 ka in the southwestern United States and the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. At 10 of 13 sites, we found elevated concentrations of iridium in bulk and magnetic sediments, magnetic spherules, and/or titanomagnetite grains within or at the base of black mats, regardless of their age or location, suggesting that elevated concentrations of these markers arise from processes common to wetland systems, and not a catastrophic extraterrestrial impact event.

  15. Accumulation of impact markers in desert wetlands and implications for the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Latorre, Claudio; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Martínez, Katherine E.; Budahn, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis contends that an extraterrestrial object exploded over North America at 12.9 ka, initiating the Younger Dryas cold event, the extinction of many North American megafauna, and the demise of the Clovis archeological culture. Although the exact nature and location of the proposed impact or explosion remain unclear, alleged evidence for the fallout comes from multiple sites across North America and a site in Belgium. At 6 of the 10 original sites (excluding the Carolina Bays), elevated concentrations of various “impact markers” were found in association with black mats that date to the onset of the Younger Dryas. Black mats are common features in paleowetland deposits and typically represent shallow marsh environments. In this study, we investigated black mats ranging in age from approximately 6 to more than 40 ka in the southwestern United States and the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. At 10 of 13 sites, we found elevated concentrations of iridium in bulk and magnetic sediments, magnetic spherules, and/or titanomagnetite grains within or at the base of black mats, regardless of their age or location, suggesting that elevated concentrations of these markers arise from processes common to wetland systems, and not a catastrophic extraterrestrial impact event. PMID:22529347

  16. Two science communities and coastal wetlands policy

    SciTech Connect

    LeVine, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    This study compares the attitudes of academic and government wetlands scientists about wetlands science and policy. Analysis of one thousand seven hundred responses to Delphi-type questions posed to twenty California scientists on a wide range of issues about California coastal wetlands found significant differences between academic and government scientists about wetlands definitions, threats to wetlands, wetlands policies, wetlands health, and wetlands mitigation strategies. These differences were consistent with descriptive models of political sociology developed by D. Price and C.P. Snow and with normative models of the philosophy of science developed in the renaissance by F. Bacon and R. Descartes. Characteristics, preferences, and personality attributes consistent with group functions and roles have been described in these models. These findings have serious implications for policy. When academic and government wetlands scientists act as advisors to the major parties in land use conflicts, basic differences in perspective have contributed to costly contention over the future use of wetlands.

  17. Communicative English in the Primary Classroom: Implications for English-in-Education Policy and Practice in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamid, M. Obaidul; Honan, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation and the global spread of English have led nation-states to introduce English into the early years of schooling to equip their citizens with communicative competence in order to compete within a global economy for individual and national development. In teaching English as a Second/Foreign Language, nations have adopted…

  18. The Effects of the Use of English in Polish Product Advertisements: Implications for English for Business Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planken, Brigitte; van Meurs, Frank; Radlinska, Ania

    2010-01-01

    English has come to be widely used for the specific purpose of advertising to reach international target groups in various countries. However, few studies to date have investigated the use--and effects of--English in advertising in Eastern European countries. This study investigated the effect of English in advertisements from Polish glossy…

  19. Strategies for Building Social Connection through English: Challenges for Immigrants and Implications for Teaching English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry; Yates, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic data from a longitudinal study of newly-arrived immigrants of non English-speaking background in the Australian Adult Migrant English Program to investigate their opportunities for using English and the language learning strategies (LLS) they used to make the most of these opportunities. Analysis of their reports…

  20. Strategies for Building Social Connection through English: Challenges for Immigrants and Implications for Teaching English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry; Yates, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic data from a longitudinal study of newly-arrived immigrants of non English-speaking background in the Australian Adult Migrant English Program to investigate their opportunities for using English and the language learning strategies (LLS) they used to make the most of these opportunities. Analysis of their reports…

  1. The Effects of the Use of English in Polish Product Advertisements: Implications for English for Business Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planken, Brigitte; van Meurs, Frank; Radlinska, Ania

    2010-01-01

    English has come to be widely used for the specific purpose of advertising to reach international target groups in various countries. However, few studies to date have investigated the use--and effects of--English in advertising in Eastern European countries. This study investigated the effect of English in advertisements from Polish glossy…

  2. Plant growth under salinity and inundation stress: implications for sea-level rise on tidal wetland function

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change and sea-level rise (SLR) may increase salinity or inundation duration for tidal wetland organisms. To test the effects of these stressors on wetland productivity, we transplanted seedlings of seven common plant species to polyhaline, mesohaline and oligohaline tida...

  3. Plant growth under salinity and inundation stress: implications for sea-level rise on tidal wetland function

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change and sea-level rise (SLR) may increase salinity or inundation duration for tidal wetland organisms. To test the effects of these stressors on wetland productivity, we transplanted seedlings of seven common plant species to polyhaline, mesohaline and oligohaline tida...

  4. Wetlands postcard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Lianne C.

    2016-05-25

    Research conducted by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey provides reliable scientific information for the management of wetlands ranging from small freshwater alpine lakes in the Western United States to coastal wetlands of the Great Lakes and salt marshes along the Southeastern coast. Learn more about USGS wetlands research at: http://www.usgs.gov/ecosystems/environments/wetlands.html.

  5. A multi-year comparison of IPCI scores for prairie pothole wetlands: implications of temporal and spatial variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.

    2011-01-01

    In the prairie pothole region of North America, development of Indices of Biotic Integrity (IBIs) to detect anthropogenic impacts on wetlands has been hampered by naturally dynamic inter-annual climate fluctuations. Of multiple efforts to develop IBIs for prairie pothole wetlands, only one, the Index of Plant Community Integrity (IPCI), has reported success. We evaluated the IPCI and its ability to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic variation using plant community data collected from 16 wetlands over a 4-year-period. We found that under constant anthropogenic influence, IPCI metric scores and condition ratings varied annually in response to environmental variation driven primarily by natural climate variation. Artificially forcing wetlands that occur along continuous hydrologic gradients into a limited number of discrete classes (e.g., temporary, seasonal, and semipermanent) further confounded the utility of IPCI metrics. Because IPCI scores vary significantly due to natural climate dynamics as well as human impacts, methodology must be developed that adequately partitions natural and anthropogenically induced variation along continuous hydrologic gradients. Until such methodology is developed, the use of the IPCI to evaluate prairie pothole wetlands creates potential formisdirected corrective or regulatory actions, impairment of natural wetland functional processes, and erosion of public confidence in the wetland sciences.

  6. A multi-year comparison of IPCI scores for prairie pothole wetlands: implications of temporal and spatial variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.

    2011-01-01

    In the prairie pothole region of North America, development of Indices of Biotic Integrity (IBIs) to detect anthropogenic impacts on wetlands has been hampered by naturally dynamic inter-annual climate fluctuations. Of multiple efforts to develop IBIs for prairie pothole wetlands, only one, the Index of Plant Community Integrity (IPCI), has reported success. We evaluated the IPCI and its ability to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic variation using plant community data collected from 16 wetlands over a 4-year-period. We found that under constant anthropogenic influence, IPCI metric scores and condition ratings varied annually in response to environmental variation driven primarily by natural climate variation. Artificially forcing wetlands that occur along continuous hydrologic gradients into a limited number of discrete classes (e.g., temporary, seasonal, and semi-permanent) further confounded the utility of IPCI metrics. Because IPCI scores vary significantly due to natural climate dynamics as well as human impacts, methodology must be developed that adequately partitions natural and anthropogenically induced variation along continuous hydrologic gradients. Until such methodology is developed, the use of the IPCI to evaluate prairie pothole wetlands creates potential for misdirected corrective or regulatory actions, impairment of natural wetland functional processes, and erosion of public confidence in the wetland sciences.

  7. Reconstructing Mississippi River Deltaic Wetland Hydrostratigraphy Using Compositional Kriging Method - Implications for Groundwater, Groundwater-River Water Interaction, Subsidence and Deltaic Wetland Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, A.; Tsai, F. T. C.; White, C.; Wang, J.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.

    2016-12-01

    River deltaic wetlands are formed along coastal area where sediment-laden river water reaches ocean. A river deltaic wetland is a complex system that mainly consists of groundwater, soil and vegetation components. Groundwater makes up a large portion of the system. The wetlands are important to human being and wild life. This research focuses on hydrostratigraphic architecture of the Mississippi River deltaic wetland. Research area includes lower Barataria Bay and lower Breton Sound that located on the Mississippi River Delta in southern Louisiana. In this study, a three dimensional hydrostratigraphy model is constructed using coring survey grain size data and geostatistics approach. A three-dimensional grid system is firstly constructed to cover the whole research domain. Each cell of the grid has a dimension of 100 meters by 100 meters by 1 centimeter (length by width by depth). Then Compositional Kriging and Gaussian Sequential Simulation methods are adopted to estimate soil composition (sand, silt and clay fractions) for each cell. A result has been generated to reveal spatial hydro facies variation by cutting cross sections and extracting soil texture maps at different locations. In the result, bay silt makes a large portion of the sediments body and sandy sediments are shown at different depths in both sides of the river. In Barataria Bay, sand bodies are lenticular, relatively thick and vertical continuous, however, in Breton Sound, sand bodies are sheet-like, relatively thin and vertical non-continuous. It is likely that the sandy sediments in Barataria Bay and Breton Sound are deposited in distal distributary and overbank flow respectively. Larger sandy bodies are prone to form in the distal distributary than in the overbank flow. Sandy units formed in the distal distributary can provide better interconnection between river water and groundwater than that formed in the overbank flow. Larger sandy bodies also provides more space to store groundwater. More

  8. Hindcasting Historical Breeding Conditions for an Endangered Salamander in Ephemeral Wetlands of the Southeastern USA: Implications of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Houston C.; Rypel, Andrew L.; Jiao, Yan; Haas, Carola A.; Gorman, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    The hydroperiod of ephemeral wetlands is often the most important characteristic determining amphibian breeding success, especially for species with long development times. In mesic and wet pine flatwoods of the southeastern United States, ephemeral wetlands were a common landscape feature. Reticulated flatwoods salamanders (Ambystoma bishopi), a federally endangered species, depend exclusively on ephemeral wetlands and require at least 11 weeks to successfully metamorphose into terrestrial adults. We empirically modeled hydroperiod of 17 A. bishopi breeding wetlands by combining downscaled historical climate-model data with a recent 9-year record (2006–2014) of observed water levels. Empirical models were subsequently used to reconstruct wetland hydrologic conditions from 1896–2014 using the downscaled historical climate datasets. Reconstructed hydroperiods for the 17 wetlands were highly variable through time but were frequently unfavorable for A. bishopi reproduction (e.g., only 61% of years, using a conservative estimate of development time [12 weeks], were conducive to larval development and metamorphosis). Using change-point analysis, we identified significant shifts in average hydroperiod over the last century in all 17 wetlands. Mean hydroperiods were shorter in recent years than at any other point since 1896, and thus less suitable for A. bishopi reproduction. We suggest that climate change will continue to impact the reproductive success of flatwoods salamanders and other ephemeral wetland breeders by reducing the number of years these wetlands have suitable hydroperiods. Consequently, we emphasize the importance of conservation and management for mitigating other forms of habitat degradation, especially maintenance of high quality breeding sites where reproduction can occur during appropriate environmental conditions. PMID:26910245

  9. Hindcasting Historical Breeding Conditions for an Endangered Salamander in Ephemeral Wetlands of the Southeastern USA: Implications of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Houston C; Rypel, Andrew L; Jiao, Yan; Haas, Carola A; Gorman, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    The hydroperiod of ephemeral wetlands is often the most important characteristic determining amphibian breeding success, especially for species with long development times. In mesic and wet pine flatwoods of the southeastern United States, ephemeral wetlands were a common landscape feature. Reticulated flatwoods salamanders (Ambystoma bishopi), a federally endangered species, depend exclusively on ephemeral wetlands and require at least 11 weeks to successfully metamorphose into terrestrial adults. We empirically modeled hydroperiod of 17 A. bishopi breeding wetlands by combining downscaled historical climate-model data with a recent 9-year record (2006-2014) of observed water levels. Empirical models were subsequently used to reconstruct wetland hydrologic conditions from 1896-2014 using the downscaled historical climate datasets. Reconstructed hydroperiods for the 17 wetlands were highly variable through time but were frequently unfavorable for A. bishopi reproduction (e.g., only 61% of years, using a conservative estimate of development time [12 weeks], were conducive to larval development and metamorphosis). Using change-point analysis, we identified significant shifts in average hydroperiod over the last century in all 17 wetlands. Mean hydroperiods were shorter in recent years than at any other point since 1896, and thus less suitable for A. bishopi reproduction. We suggest that climate change will continue to impact the reproductive success of flatwoods salamanders and other ephemeral wetland breeders by reducing the number of years these wetlands have suitable hydroperiods. Consequently, we emphasize the importance of conservation and management for mitigating other forms of habitat degradation, especially maintenance of high quality breeding sites where reproduction can occur during appropriate environmental conditions.

  10. AMPHIBIAN OCCURRENCE AND AQUATIC INVADERS IN A CHANGING LANDSCAPE: IMPLICATIONS FOR WETLAND MITIGATION IN THE WILLAMETTE VALLEY, OREGON, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite concern about the conservation status of amphibians in western North America, few field studies have documented occurrence patterns of amphibians relative to potential stressors. We surveyed wetland fauna in Oregon Willamette Valley and used an information theoretic appro...

  11. AMPHIBIAN OCCURRENCE AND AQUATIC INVADERS IN A CHANGING LANDSCAPE: IMPLICATIONS FOR WETLAND MITIGATION IN THE WILLAMETTE VALLEY, OREGON, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite concern about the conservation status of amphibians in western North America, few field studies have documented occurrence patterns of amphibians relative to potential stressors. We surveyed wetland fauna in Oregon Willamette Valley and used an information theoretic appro...

  12. Wetlands stewardship

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, J.M.

    1992-04-01

    Wetlands have important ecological values and functions. It is estimated that 80 percent of the Nation's coastal fisheries are dependent on wetlands for spawning, nursery areas, and food sources. Both coastal and inland wetlands provide essential breeding, nesting, feeding, and predator escape habitats for millions of waterfowl, other birds, mammals, and reptiles. Well over one-third of the 564 plant and animal species listed as threatened or endangered in the United States utilize wetland habitats during some portion of their life cycle. Wetlands Stewardship is intended as a resource for everyone interested in wetlands protection.

  13. Colonization of a newly constructed urban wetland by mosquitoes in England: implications for nuisance and vector species.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander G C

    2014-12-01

    Urban wetlands are being created in the UK as part of sustainable urban drainage strategies, to create wetland habitats lost during development, to provide a habitat for protected species, and to increase the public's access to 'blue-space' for the improvement of health and well-being. Sewage treatment reedbeds are also being incorporated into newly constructed wetlands to offer an alternative approach to dealing with sewage. This field study aims to provide the first UK evidence of how such newly constructed aquatic habitats are colonized by mosquitoes. A number of new aquatic habitats were surveyed for immature mosquitoes every fortnight over the first two years following wetland construction. The majority of mosquitoes collected were Culex sp. and were significantly associated with the sewage treatment reedbed system, particularly following storm events and sewage inflow. Other more natural aquatic habitats that were subject to cycles of drying and re-wetting contributed the majority of the remaining mosquitoes colonizing. Colonization of permanent habitats was slow, particularly where fluctuations in water levels inhibited emergent vegetation growth. It is recommended that during the planning process for newly constructed wetlands consideration is given on a case-by-case basis to the impact of mosquitoes, either as a cause of nuisance or as potential vectors. Although ornithophagic Culex dominated in this wetland, their potential role as enzootic West Nile virus vectors should not be overlooked.

  14. The concentrations of five heavy metals in components of an economically important urban coastal wetland in Ghana: public health and phytoremediation implications.

    PubMed

    Gbogbo, Francis; Otoo, Samuel D

    2015-10-01

    Sakumo II is an urban wetland and a receptacle for domestic and industrial wastes from two cities in Ghana. It however supports viable populations of fish and crabs, is cultivated for food crops and grazed by farm animals. Components of the wetland can therefore accumulate pollutants, but the public health and phytoremediation implications of this are yet to be evaluated. We analysed Cd, As, Hg, Cu and Pb in the lagoon water, sediment, green algae, eight species of aquatic macrophytes, seven species of arthropods and one species of fish. The concentrations of Pb were generally below detection limit whilst Cu was detected only in the lagoon water and Pheropsophus vertialis. Cadmium ranged from 21 ± 4 ppb in algae to 69 ± 12 ppb in Typha domingensis and was generally higher than As and Hg. The highest concentration of As was 11.7 ± 2.1 ppb in Pistia stratiotes whilst Hg was highest in lagoon water (4 ± 2 ppb). The Cd concentrations generally, and Hg concentrations in macrophytes, were higher than US EPA guidelines indicating the wetland's resources were unsafe for regular consumption. Among the emergent aquatic macrophytes, T. domingensis, Ludwigia sp. and Paspalum vaginatum, respectively, had the highest accumulation capacity for Cd, As and Hg, but the floating aquatic plant P. stratiotes appeared to be a better accumulator of Cd and As.

  15. English as a Multicultural Language: Implications from a Study of Japan's Junior High Schools' English Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Mieko

    2010-01-01

    Applying Kachru and Nelson's model of English spread and their categorisation into Inner/Outer/Expanding Circles, this content analysis of English as a Foreign Language textbooks used in Japanese junior high schools investigates which countries were introduced and further studies how Japan's domestic diversity was constructed in those textbooks.…

  16. English as a Multicultural Language: Implications from a Study of Japan's Junior High Schools' English Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Mieko

    2010-01-01

    Applying Kachru and Nelson's model of English spread and their categorisation into Inner/Outer/Expanding Circles, this content analysis of English as a Foreign Language textbooks used in Japanese junior high schools investigates which countries were introduced and further studies how Japan's domestic diversity was constructed in those textbooks.…

  17. Zambia Wetland

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Floodwaters Renew Zambia's Kafue Wetland     View Larger Image ... roundish shape of the Lukanga Swamp, another important wetland. The images along the left are natural color views from MISR's ...

  18. Sedimentary Features of the Coastal Wetlands of Breton Sound and Barataria Bay in the Mississippi River Delta and their Implications for Sediment Transport and Coastal Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C.; Chen, Q. J.; Karimpour, A.; Bentley, S. J.; White, C.; Xu, K.; Wang, J.; Fanguy, M.

    2016-02-01

    Louisiana is experiencing some of the highest land loss rates in the world. The majority of this occurs in its coastal wetlands and is partly attributed to exacerbated conditions which influence erosive mechanisms, e.g. increased fetch, reduced sediment delivery, ecosystem stress. Wetland soils and their underlying substrates are an integral component of these systems' morphological response to erosional forcing, but one that is notoriously difficult to characterize. To this end, a multi-disciplinary field campaign was undertaken to capture essential soil mechanical and geological data over a wide expanse of coastal wetlands in both Barataria Bay and Breton Sound in Louisiana. Here we present the results of our data collection and a synthesis focused on elucidating the study area's subsurface geotechnical features with reference to the Mississippi's deltaic depositional environment. A total of 100 data collection sites were subjected to vibracore sampling and in-situ tests to determine bulk density, organic content, water content, grain size, undrained shear strength, and erosive critical shear stress at discrete subsurface intervals up to a maximum depth of 6 meters. The sites in total encompassed approximately 500 km2 and are distributed on the eastern side of Barataria Bay, LA and the western portion of Breton Sound, LA. Two general landscape features, i.e. bay bottom and vegetated marsh edge, were sampled. In general, this controlled the vertical distribution of our data and influenced the observed stratigraphic sequence. Typically, the muddy bay bottom cores exhibited less variability, displayed interbedded sand layers less frequently, and lacked the upper organic layer seen in the marsh edge cores. This confirms the conversion of marsh to open water model proposed by Wilson et al. (2008) for eroding coastal wetlands. This study has implications for the sediment diversions planned in the region. It is likely that the increased hydrodynamic forcing and sediment

  19. Functional and phylogenetic relatedness in temporary wetland invertebrates: current macroecological patterns and implications for future climatic change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Ruhí, Albert; Boix, Dani; Gascón, Stéphanie; Sala, Jordi; Batzer, Darold P

    2013-01-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, species compositions are known to be determined hierarchically by large to small‑scale environmental factors, based on the biological traits of the organisms. However, in ephemeral habitats this heuristic framework remains largely untested. Although temporary wetland faunas are constrained by a local filter (i.e., desiccation), we propose its magnitude may still depend on large-scale climate characteristics. If this is true, climate should be related to the degree of functional and taxonomic relatedness of invertebrate communities inhabiting seasonal wetlands. We tested this hypothesis in two ways. First, based on 52 biological traits for invertebrates, we conducted a case study to explore functional trends among temperate seasonal wetlands differing in the harshness (i.e., dryness) of their dry season. After finding evidence of trait filtering, we addressed whether it could be generalized across a broader climatic scale. To this end, a meta-analysis (225 seasonal wetlands spread across broad climatic categories: Arid, Temperate, and Cold) allowed us to identify whether an equivalent climate-dependent pattern of trait richness was consistent between the Nearctic and the Western Palearctic. Functional overlap of invertebrates increased from mild (i.e., Temperate) to harsher climates (i.e., Arid and Cold), and phylogenetic clustering (using taxonomy as a surrogate) was highest in Arid and lowest in Temperate wetlands. We show that, (i) as has been described in streams, higher relatedness than would be expected by chance is generally observed in seasonal wetland invertebrate communities; and (ii) this relatedness is not constant but climate-dependent, with the climate under which a given seasonal wetland is located determining the functional overlap and the phylogenetic clustering of the community. Finally, using a space-for-time substitution approach we suggest our results may anticipate how the invertebrate biodiversity embedded in these

  20. Functional and Phylogenetic Relatedness in Temporary Wetland Invertebrates: Current Macroecological Patterns and Implications for Future Climatic Change Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Ruhí, Albert; Boix, Dani; Gascón, Stéphanie; Sala, Jordi; Batzer, Darold P.

    2013-01-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, species compositions are known to be determined hierarchically by large to small‑scale environmental factors, based on the biological traits of the organisms. However, in ephemeral habitats this heuristic framework remains largely untested. Although temporary wetland faunas are constrained by a local filter (i.e., desiccation), we propose its magnitude may still depend on large-scale climate characteristics. If this is true, climate should be related to the degree of functional and taxonomic relatedness of invertebrate communities inhabiting seasonal wetlands. We tested this hypothesis in two ways. First, based on 52 biological traits for invertebrates, we conducted a case study to explore functional trends among temperate seasonal wetlands differing in the harshness (i.e., dryness) of their dry season. After finding evidence of trait filtering, we addressed whether it could be generalized across a broader climatic scale. To this end, a meta-analysis (225 seasonal wetlands spread across broad climatic categories: Arid, Temperate, and Cold) allowed us to identify whether an equivalent climate-dependent pattern of trait richness was consistent between the Nearctic and the Western Palearctic. Functional overlap of invertebrates increased from mild (i.e., Temperate) to harsher climates (i.e., Arid and Cold), and phylogenetic clustering (using taxonomy as a surrogate) was highest in Arid and lowest in Temperate wetlands. We show that, (i) as has been described in streams, higher relatedness than would be expected by chance is generally observed in seasonal wetland invertebrate communities; and (ii) this relatedness is not constant but climate-dependent, with the climate under which a given seasonal wetland is located determining the functional overlap and the phylogenetic clustering of the community. Finally, using a space-for-time substitution approach we suggest our results may anticipate how the invertebrate biodiversity embedded in these

  1. Late Quaternary dynamics of a South African floodplain wetland and the implications for assessing recent human impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooth, S.; Rodnight, H.; McCarthy, T. S.; Duller, G. A. T.; Grundling, A. T.

    2009-05-01

    Knowledge of the long-term geomorphological dynamics of wetlands is limited, so currently there is an inadequate scientific basis for assessing anthropogenically induced changes and for developing conservation, remediation, and/or sustainable management guidelines for these fragile ecosystems. Along the upper Klip River, eastern South Africa, geomorphological and sedimentological investigations, geochronology, and remote sensing have been used to establish the late Quaternary dynamics of some internationally important floodplain wetlands, thus providing a reference condition against which to assess the extent of recent human impacts. Optically stimulated luminescence dating reveals that the wetlands have developed over at least the last 30 ky as a result of slow meander migration (< 0.2 m y - 1 ), irregular cutoff events, and infrequent avulsions (approximately one every 3-6 ky) that have occurred autogenically as a natural part of meander-belt development. Following European settlement in the Klip valley (late nineteenth century), however, modifications to local flora and fauna, as well as the initiation of local wetland drainage schemes, have had major impacts. In particular, proliferation of exotic willows and associated debris jams, and the artificial excavation of a 1.2-km-long channel section across the wetlands have initiated an ongoing avulsion that is characterised by failure (gradual abandonment) of the main channel and rapid incision of a headcutting channel. Compared to the pre-settlement condition, little change in lateral migration activity has occurred, but this avulsion provides a clear example of anthropogenically accelerated change, occurring only ~ 1 ky after the last natural avulsion and in a part of the wetlands where avulsions have not occurred previously. Subsequent human interventions have included installing weirs in an attempt to control the resulting erosion and promote reflooding, but ongoing maintenance has been required. In areas that

  2. Amphibian occurrence and aquatic invaders in a changing landscape: Implications for wetland mitigation in the Willamette Valley, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Adams, Michael J.; Leuthold, N.; Bury, R. Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Despite concern about the conservation status of amphibians in western North America, few field studies have documented occurrence patterns of amphibians relative to potential stressors. We surveyed wetland fauna in Oregon's Willamette Valley and used an information theoretic approach (AIC) to rank the associations between native amphibian breeding occurrence and wetland characteristics, non-native aquatic predators, and landscape characteristics in a mixed urban-agricultural landscape. Best predictors varied among the five native amphibians and were generally consistent with life history differences. Pacific tree frog (Pseudacris regilla) and long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) occurrence was best predicted by the absence of non-native fish. Northern red-legged frog (Rana a. aurora) and northwestern salamander (Ambystoma gracile) were most strongly related to wetland vegetative characteristics. The occurrence of rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa), a migratory species that makes extensive use of terrestrial habitats, was best predicted by greater forest cover within 1 km. The absence of non-native fish was a strong predictor of occurrence for four of the five native species. In contrast, amphibians were not strongly related to native fish presence. We found little evidence supporting negative effects of the presence of breeding populations of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) on any native species. Only the two Ambystoma salamanders were associated with wetland permanence. Northwestern salamanders (which usually have a multi-year larval stage) were associated with permanent waters, while long-toed salamanders were associated with temporary wetlands. Although all the species make some use of upland habitats, only one (rough-skinned newt) was strongly associated with surrounding landscape conditions. Instead, our analysis suggests that within-wetland characteristics best predict amphibian occurrence in this region. We recommend that wetland preservation and

  3. Response of an invasive native wetland plant to environmental flows: implications for managing regulated floodplain ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Vivian, Lyndsey M; Marshall, David J; Godfree, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    The natural flow regimes of rivers underpin the health and function of floodplain ecosystems. However, infrastructure development and the over-extraction of water has led to the alteration of natural flow regimes, resulting in the degradation of river and floodplain habitats globally. In many catchments, including Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, environmental flows are seen as a potentially useful tool to restore natural flow regimes and manage the degradation of rivers and their associated floodplains. In this paper, we investigated whether environmental flows can assist in controlling an invasive native floodplain plant in Barmah Forest, south-eastern Australia. We experimentally quantified the effects of different environmental flow scenarios, including a shallow (20 cm) and deeper (50 cm) flood of different durations (12 and 20 weeks), as well as drought and soil-saturated conditions, on the growth and survival of seedlings of Juncus ingens, a native emergent macrophyte that has become invasive in some areas of Barmah Forest following river regulation and alteration of natural flow regimes. Three height classes of J. ingens (33 cm, 17 cm and 12 cm) were included in the experiment to explicitly test for relationships between treatments, plant survival and growth, and plant height. We found that seedling mortality occurred in the drought treatment and in the 20-week flood treatments of both depths; however, mortality rates in the flood treatments depended on initial plant height, with medium and short plants (initial heights of ≤17 cm) exhibiting the highest mortality rates. Both the 20 cm and 50 cm flood treatments of only 12 weeks duration were insufficient to cause mortality in any of the height classes; indeed, shoots of plants in the 20 cm flood treatment were able to elongate through the water surface at rapid rates. Our findings have important implications for management of Barmah Forest and floodplain ecosystems elsewhere, as it demonstrates

  4. Language Policy, Teacher Beliefs, and Practice: Implications for English Language Learners in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llamas-Flores, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, Arizona voters passed House Bill (HB) 2064, a law that fundamentally restructured the Structured English Immersion (SEI) program, putting into place a 4-hour English language development (ELD) block for educating English language learners (ELLs). Under this new language policy, ELL students are segregated from their English-speaking peers…

  5. Language Policy, Teacher Beliefs, and Practice: Implications for English Language Learners in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llamas-Flores, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, Arizona voters passed House Bill (HB) 2064, a law that fundamentally restructured the Structured English Immersion (SEI) program, putting into place a 4-hour English language development (ELD) block for educating English language learners (ELLs). Under this new language policy, ELL students are segregated from their English-speaking peers…

  6. Rapid Stable Isotope Turnover of Larval Fish in a Lake Superior Coastal Wetland: Implications for Diet and Life History Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trophic linkages of larval fish in Lake Superior coastal wetlands, rivers and embayments can be identified using naturally occurring differences in the stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (15N:14N, ?15N) and carbon (13C:12C, ?13C). We sampled pelagic fish larvae weekly during sprin...

  7. Rapid Stable Isotope Turnover of Larval Fish in a Lake Superior Coastal Wetland: Implications for Diet and Life History Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trophic linkages of larval fish in Lake Superior coastal wetlands, rivers and embayments can be identified using naturally occurring differences in the stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (15N:14N, ?15N) and carbon (13C:12C, ?13C). We sampled pelagic fish larvae weekly during sprin...

  8. The oral core vocabulary of typically developing English-speaking school-aged children: implications for AAC practice.

    PubMed

    Boenisch, Jens; Soto, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the core vocabulary used by typically developing school-aged English-speaking children in the United States while participating in a variety of school activities. The language of typically developing children, some of whom spoke English as a second language was recorded, transcribed and analyzed to identify the most frequently used words across samples. An inventory of oral core vocabulary of typically developing school-aged children resulted from this analysis. This inventory can be used as a source list for vocabulary selection for school-aged children with AAC needs. Implications for vocabulary selection are discussed.

  9. Variation of energy and carbon fluxes from a restored temperate freshwater wetland and implications for carbon market verification protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Frank E.; Bergamaschi, Brian; Sturtevant, Cove; Knox, Sara; Hastings, Lauren; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Detto, Matteo; Hestir, Erin L.; Drexler, Judith; Miller, Robin L.; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; Verfaillie, Joseph; Baldocchi, Dennis; Snyder, Richard L.; Fujii, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Temperate freshwater wetlands are among the most productive terrestrial ecosystems, stimulating interest in using restored wetlands as biological carbon sequestration projects for greenhouse gas reduction programs. In this study, we used the eddy covariance technique to measure surface energy carbon fluxes from a constructed, impounded freshwater wetland during two annual periods that were 8 years apart: 2002-2003 and 2010-2011. During 2010-2011, we measured methane (CH4) fluxes to quantify the annual atmospheric carbon mass balance and its concomitant influence on global warming potential (GWP). Peak growing season fluxes of latent heat and carbon dioxide (CO2) were greater in 2002-2003 compared to 2010-2011. In 2002, the daily net ecosystem exchange reached as low as -10.6 g C m-2 d-1, which was greater than 3 times the magnitude observed in 2010 (-2.9 g C m-2 d-1). CH4 fluxes during 2010-2011 were positive throughout the year and followed a strong seasonal pattern, ranging from 38.1 mg C m-2 d-1 in the winter to 375.9 mg C m-2 d-1 during the summer. The results of this study suggest that the wetland had reduced gross ecosystem productivity in 2010-2011, likely due to the increase in dead plant biomass (standing litter) that inhibited the generation of new vegetation growth. In 2010-2011, there was a net positive GWP (675.3 g C m-2 yr-1), and when these values are evaluated as a sustained flux, the wetland will not reach radiative balance even after 500 years.

  10. Variation of energy and carbon fluxes from a restored temperate freshwater wetland and implications for carbon market verification protocols

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Frank; Bergamaschi, Brian; Sturtevant, Cove; Knox, Sarah; Hastings, Lauren; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Detto, Matteo; Hestir, Erin L.; Drexler, Judith; Miller, Robin L.; Matthes, Jaclyn; Verfaillie, Joseph; Baldocchi, Dennis; Snyder, Richard L.; Fujii, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Temperate freshwater wetlands are among the most productive terrestrial ecosystems, stimulating interest in using restored wetlands as biological carbon sequestration projects for greenhouse gas reduction programs. In this study, we used the eddy covariance technique to measure surface energy carbon fluxes from a constructed, impounded freshwater wetland during two annual periods that were 8 years apart: 2002–2003 and 2010–2011. During 2010–2011, we measured methane (CH4) fluxes to quantify the annual atmospheric carbon mass balance and its concomitant influence on global warming potential (GWP). Peak growing season fluxes of latent heat and carbon dioxide (CO2) were greater in 2002–2003 compared to 2010–2011. In 2002, the daily net ecosystem exchange reached as low as −10.6 g C m−2 d−1, which was greater than 3 times the magnitude observed in 2010 (−2.9 g C m−2 d−1). CH4 fluxes during 2010–2011 were positive throughout the year and followed a strong seasonal pattern, ranging from 38.1 mg C m−2 d−1 in the winter to 375.9 mg C m−2 d−1 during the summer. The results of this study suggest that the wetland had reduced gross ecosystem productivity in 2010–2011, likely due to the increase in dead plant biomass (standing litter) that inhibited the generation of new vegetation growth. In 2010–2011, there was a net positive GWP (675.3 g C m−2 yr−1), and when these values are evaluated as a sustained flux, the wetland will not reach radiative balance even after 500 years.

  11. Wetlands: Tidal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conner, William H.; Krauss, Ken W.; Baldwin, Andrew H.; Hutchinson, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Tidal wetlands are some of the most dynamic areas of the Earth and are found at the interface between the land and sea. Salinity, regular tidal flooding, and infrequent catastrophic flooding due to storm events result in complex interactions among biotic and abiotic factors. The complexity of these interactions, along with the uncertainty of where one draws the line between tidal and nontidal, makes characterizing tidal wetlands a difficult task. The three primary types of tidal wetlands are tidal marshes, mangroves, and freshwater forested wetlands. Tidal marshes are dominated by herbaceous plants and are generally found at middle to high latitudes of both hemispheres. Mangrove forests dominate tropical coastlines around the world while tidal freshwater forests are global in distribution. All three wetland types are highly productive ecosystems, supporting abundant and diverse faunal communities. Unfortunately, these wetlands are subject to alteration and loss from both natural and anthropogenic causes.

  12. Coastal wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, H.H.; d'Itri, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents an overview of coastal wetlands, mainly focusing on the Great Lakes ecosystem. Topics covered include the following: the effects of water level fluctuations on Great Lakes coastal marshes; environmental influences on the distribution and composition of wetlands in the Great Lakes Basin; vegetation dynamics, buried seeds, and water level fluctuations on the shorelines of the Great Lakes; preliminary observations on the flux of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous in a Great Lakes coastal marsh; nutrient cycling by wetlands and possible effects of water levels; and Avain wetland habitat functions affected by water level fluctuations.

  13. Language Ability of Young English Language Learners: Definition, Configuration, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    In this study I examined the dimensionality of the latent ability underlying language use that is needed to fulfill the demands young learners face in English-medium instructional environments, where English is used as the means of instruction for teaching subject matters. Previous research on English language use by school-age children provided…

  14. Language Ability of Young English Language Learners: Definition, Configuration, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    In this study I examined the dimensionality of the latent ability underlying language use that is needed to fulfill the demands young learners face in English-medium instructional environments, where English is used as the means of instruction for teaching subject matters. Previous research on English language use by school-age children provided…

  15. The Perceptions of Japanese Students toward Academic English Reading: Implications for Effective ESL Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwai, Yuko

    2008-01-01

    The population of English as a Second Language (ESL) learners has increased significantly in higher education settings in the United States today. It has been reported that Japanese ESL students are generally unsuccessful when studying in English speaking countries. The typical way of reading in English for Japanese students is the…

  16. Patterns in the Initial Teaching Assignments of Secondary English Teachers: Implications for Teacher Agency and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieler, Deborah; Holmes, Stephen; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the teaching assignments of English teachers in 13 Mid-Atlantic high schools across five states. Data on the experience levels of 175 English teachers teaching 246 classes and surveys from 85 teacher participants were collected. Findings reveal that major agency-thwarting challenges face new English teachers: They typically are…

  17. Patterns in the Initial Teaching Assignments of Secondary English Teachers: Implications for Teacher Agency and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieler, Deborah; Holmes, Stephen; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the teaching assignments of English teachers in 13 Mid-Atlantic high schools across five states. Data on the experience levels of 175 English teachers teaching 246 classes and surveys from 85 teacher participants were collected. Findings reveal that major agency-thwarting challenges face new English teachers: They typically are…

  18. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region.

    PubMed

    Maltchik, Leonardo; Dalzochio, Marina Schmidt; Stenert, Cristina; Rolon, Ana Silvia

    2012-03-01

    The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (approximately 280 000km2), and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera) in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from different ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.

  19. Wetland Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Marilyn

    1994-01-01

    Examines what wetland conservation means to different groups of Louisiana's coastal residents. Describes coastal resources, reasons for their deterioration, conservation efforts, and the impact of a public perception that conservation of wetlands is closely tied to conservation of the existing lifestyle. (LZ)

  20. Exploring Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Elizabeth; Harrison, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Presents a wetlands education model for secondary education students. Students monitor a wetland, participate in decision-making, and take actions to protect it. In a series of six steps, the model guides students through the process of defining a problem; envisioning solutions; evaluating appropriate solutions based on environmental, economic and…

  1. Freshwater Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions about freshwater wetlands, such as marshes, swamps, and bogs. Contains three learning activities which deal with unusual wetland plants, the animals and plants in a typical marsh, and the effects of a draught on a swamp. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

  2. Wetland Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Marilyn

    1994-01-01

    Examines what wetland conservation means to different groups of Louisiana's coastal residents. Describes coastal resources, reasons for their deterioration, conservation efforts, and the impact of a public perception that conservation of wetlands is closely tied to conservation of the existing lifestyle. (LZ)

  3. Exploring Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Elizabeth; Harrison, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Presents a wetlands education model for secondary education students. Students monitor a wetland, participate in decision-making, and take actions to protect it. In a series of six steps, the model guides students through the process of defining a problem; envisioning solutions; evaluating appropriate solutions based on environmental, economic and…

  4. Freshwater Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions about freshwater wetlands, such as marshes, swamps, and bogs. Contains three learning activities which deal with unusual wetland plants, the animals and plants in a typical marsh, and the effects of a draught on a swamp. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

  5. Wetland Hydrology

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefit...

  6. Train-borne Measurements of Enhanced Wet Season Methane Emissions in Northern Australia - Implications for Australian Tropical Wetland Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutscher, N. M.; Griffith, D. W.; Paton-Walsh, C.

    2008-12-01

    We present the first transect measurements of CH4, CO2, CO and N2O taken on the Ghan railway travelling on a N-S transect of the Australian continent between Adelaide (34.9°S, 138.6°E) and Darwin (12.5°S, 130.9°E). The Ghan crosses Australia from the mainly agricultural mid-latitude south through the arid interior to the wet-dry tropical savannah south of and around Darwin. In the 2008 wet season (February) we observed a significant latitudinal gradient of CH4 increasing towards the north. The same pattern was observed in the late 2008 wet season (March-April), with a smaller latitudinal gradient. These will be compared with a dry season transect, to be undertaken in September/October 2008. The Air Pollution Model (TAPM), a regional scale prognostic meteorological model, is used to estimate the surface methane source strength required to explain the observed latitudinal gradient in CH4 in the wet season, and investigate the source type. Fluxes from cattle and termites together contribute up to 25% of the enhancements seen, leaving wetlands as the major source of wet season methane in the Australian tropics. Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere, and tropical wetlands are responsible for the majority of the interannual variation in methane source strength. We attempt to quantify the annual methane flux contributed by anaerobic organic breakdown due to wet- season flooding in tropical Northern Territory.

  7. Three Decades of Landsat-derived Spring Surface Water Dynamics in an Agricultural Wetland Mosaic; Implications for Migratory Shorebirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer-Smith, D.; Swenson, J. J.; Barbaree, B. A.; Reiter, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    To balance human demand for limited freshwater with biodiversity and other ecosystem values, it is critical that we develop a more thorough understanding of the spatial and temporal extent of surface water resources. Satellite measurements of surface water dynamics offer promise for understanding wetland habitat availability and quality at broad spatial scales. We used an innovative approach combining random forest models and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to systematically identify a mid-infrared (1.5-1.7 µm) threshold for classification of water and non-water areas at an important stopover site for shorebirds during spring migration. We analyzed water extent dynamics for a 1983-2015 Landsat time series, using a customized data interpolation to fill missing data gaps in classifications of SLC-off Landsat 7 imagery. Combined with a simple masking procedure, our approach identifies inundation in wetlands and agricultural fields in the Sacramento Valley of California at 30-m resolution with an average of 92% accuracy across the time series, which is comparable to other approaches that require more intensive user input. We found substantial variability in interannual and within-season water extent. Flood-irrigated agriculture provided the greatest potential habitat area for shorebirds; however, herbaceous wetlands on federal state and private lands provided the most reliable habitat. Spring water extent has been most limited during the peak of shorebird migration; on average we detected open water on 26,000 ha ( 3% of the study area) in early April, which is only 18% of the average extent in late May. Furthermore, the water extent on the landscape in late March, leading into peak migration, has significantly declined over time. Our findings provide important information that can be used directly in water and wildlife management under climate change. The unique classification and interpolation methods that we developed for this study could be adapted

  8. Rapid wetland expansion during European settlement and its implication for marsh survival under modern sediment delivery rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Murray, A. Brad; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Corbett, D. Reide

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in sea-level rise rates are thought to dominate the formation and evolution of coastal wetlands. Here we demonstrate a contrasting scenario in which land-use-related changes in sediment delivery rates drive the formation of expansive marshland, and vegetation feedbacks maintain their morphology despite recent sediment supply reduction. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon dating in the Plum Island Estuary (Massachusetts, United States) suggest that salt marshes expanded rapidly during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries due to increased rates of sediment delivery following deforestation associated with European settlement. Numerical modeling coupled with the stratigraphic observations suggests that existing marshland could survive, but not form under the low suspended sediment concentrations observed in the estuary today. These results suggest that many of the expansive marshes that characterize the modern North American coast are metastable relicts of high nineteenth century sediment delivery rates, and that recent observations of degradation may represent a slow return to pre-settlement marsh extent. In contrast to ecosystem management practices in which restoring pre-anthropogenic conditions is seen as a way to increase ecosystem services, our results suggest that widespread efforts to restore valuable coastal wetlands actually prevent some systems from returning to a natural state.

  9. Aquatic adventitious roots of the wetland plant Meionectes brownii can photosynthesize: implications for root function during flooding.

    PubMed

    Rich, Sarah Meghan; Ludwig, Martha; Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy David

    2011-04-01

    • Many wetland plants produce aquatic adventitious roots from submerged stems. Aquatic roots can form chloroplasts, potentially producing endogenous carbon and oxygen. Here, aquatic root photosynthesis was evaluated in the wetland plant Meionectes brownii, which grows extensive stem-borne aquatic roots during submergence. • Underwater photosynthetic light and CO(2) response curves were determined for aquatic-adapted leaves, stems and aquatic roots of M. brownii. Oxygen microelectrode and (14)CO(2)-uptake experiments determined shoot inputs of O(2) and photosynthate into aquatic roots. • Aquatic adventitious roots contain a complete photosynthetic pathway. Underwater photosynthetic rates are similar to those of stems, with a maximum net photosynthetic rate (P(max)) of 0.38 μmol O(2) m(-2) s(-1); however, this is c. 30-fold lower than that of aquatic-adapted leaves. Under saturating light with 300 mmol m(-3) dissolved CO(2), aquatic roots fix carbon at 0.016 μmol CO(2) g(-1) DM s(-1). Illuminated aquatic roots do not rely on exogenous inputs of O(2). • The photosynthetic ability of aquatic roots presumably offers an advantage to submerged M. brownii as aquatic roots, unlike sediment roots, need little O(2) and carbohydrate inputs from the shoot when illuminated. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Toward a Confluent Theory of the Teaching of English, with Implications for Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeomans, Thomas Ramsay

    This dissertation describes a comprehensive model for the confluent teaching of English and English Education, focusing specifically on the education of late adolescents (ages 16-20) and treating the areas of human development, curriculum, methodology, and teacher education. Chapter one examines the research on adolescent psychology, particularly…

  11. Space Lexicalized: Its Linguistic Impacts in English and Its Implications for EFL Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadarisman, A. Effendi

    2010-01-01

    Our sense of space is part of our experiential universals. However, the incorporation of space into words differs across languages. This paper argues that "space" is lexicalized in English but not in Indonesian. English encodes the sense of location and direction into "adverbial particles," producing language-specific…

  12. Fostering Awareness of the Pedagogical Implications of World Englishes and ELF in Teacher Education in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vettorel, Paola; Corrizzato, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Teacher education represents an essential step to raise awareness of the sociolinguistic changes brought about by the current pluralization of English and by its lingua franca role. Within the pre-service teacher education programs run at the Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, University of Verona, Italy, part of the English language…

  13. Learning through Standard English: Cognitive Implications for Post-Pidgin/-Creole Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite their (albeit limited) access to Standard Australian English through education, Australian Indigenous communities have maintained their own dialect (Aboriginal English) for intragroup communication and are increasingly using it as a medium of cultural expression in the wider community. Most linguists agree that the most significant early…

  14. The Development of English as a Second Language with and without Specific Language Impairment: Clinical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of typical and atypical development of English as a second language (L2) and to present strategies for clinical assessment with English language learners (ELLs). Method: A review of studies examining the lexical, morphological, narrative, and verbal memory abilities of…

  15. Equitable Education of English Learners in the Common Core Age: Implications for Principal Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitenack, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of school principals in English Learners' academic achievement in the age of the Common Core State Standards. Revising the curriculum of administrator preparation programs to include a greater emphasis on curriculum and instruction is one approach to enhancing principal leadership for English Leaners. Another…

  16. Pre-Service Education for Primary School English Teachers in Indonesia: Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zein, Subhan

    2016-01-01

    Although English is only an extra-curricular subject at primary level in Indonesia, expectations over the improved quality of the teachers are exceptionally high. This is the case in the past few years in which the low proficiency of primary English teachers and their lack of teaching competencies have repeatedly been pointed out as major…

  17. Negative Concord in Child African American English: Implications for Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles-White, D'Jaris

    2004-01-01

    In this study, African American English (AAE)-speaking children's comprehension of 2 different types of double negative sentences was examined and contrasted with that of a comparison group of Standard American English (SAE)-speaking children. The first type of double negative, negative concord, involves 2 negative elements in a sentence that are…

  18. The Development of English as a Second Language With and Without Specific Language Impairment: Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Johanne

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of typical and atypical development of English as a second language (L2) and to present strategies for clinical assessment with English language learners (ELLs). A review of studies examining the lexical, morphological, narrative, and verbal memory abilities of ELLs is organized around 3 topics: timeframe and characteristics of typical English L2 development, comparison of the English L2 development of children with and without specific language impairment (SLI), and strategies for more effective assessment with ELLs. ELLs take longer than 3 years to converge on monolingual norms and approach monolingual norms asynchronously across linguistic subdomains. Individual variation is predicted by age, first language, language learning aptitude, length of exposure to English in school, maternal education, and richness of the English environment outside school. ELLs with SLI acquire English more slowly than ELLs with typical development; their morphological and nonword repetition abilities differentiate them the most. Use of strategies such as parent questionnaires on first language development and ELL norm referencing can result in accurate discrimination of ELLs with SLI. Variability in the language abilities of ELLs presents challenges for clinical practice. Increased knowledge of English language learning development with and without SLI together with evidence-based alternative assessment strategies can assist in overcoming these challenges.

  19. Space Lexicalized: Its Linguistic Impacts in English and Its Implications for EFL Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadarisman, A. Effendi

    2010-01-01

    Our sense of space is part of our experiential universals. However, the incorporation of space into words differs across languages. This paper argues that "space" is lexicalized in English but not in Indonesian. English encodes the sense of location and direction into "adverbial particles," producing language-specific…

  20. The Monitor Hypothesis and English Teachers in Botswana: Problems, Varieties and Implications for Language Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Ria; Kasule, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a brief investigation into what non-native English-speaking teachers (non-NESTs) perceive to be their difficulties with the English language. It was hypothesised that the confidence of such teachers, which affects the effectiveness with which they teach, would be low. Results from 15 randomly selected interviewees…

  1. The Development of English as a Second Language with and without Specific Language Impairment: Clinical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of typical and atypical development of English as a second language (L2) and to present strategies for clinical assessment with English language learners (ELLs). Method: A review of studies examining the lexical, morphological, narrative, and verbal memory abilities of…

  2. The Monitor Hypothesis and English Teachers in Botswana: Problems, Varieties and Implications for Language Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Ria; Kasule, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a brief investigation into what non-native English-speaking teachers (non-NESTs) perceive to be their difficulties with the English language. It was hypothesised that the confidence of such teachers, which affects the effectiveness with which they teach, would be low. Results from 15 randomly selected interviewees…

  3. English in the Primary Classroom in Vietnam: Students' Lived Experiences and Their Social and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Lan Chi; Hamid, M. Obaidul; Renshaw, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Although the teaching of English as a foreign language in primary schools has emerged as one of the major language-in-education policy decisions, students' perspectives on primary English have received very little research attention. Drawing on data from a larger study, this paper depicts primary school students' lived experiences in the English…

  4. Pre-Service Education for Primary School English Teachers in Indonesia: Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zein, Subhan

    2016-01-01

    Although English is only an extra-curricular subject at primary level in Indonesia, expectations over the improved quality of the teachers are exceptionally high. This is the case in the past few years in which the low proficiency of primary English teachers and their lack of teaching competencies have repeatedly been pointed out as major…

  5. [Sedimentological Implications of the change in the coverage of mangrove forest in Boca Zacate, Térraba-Sierpa National Wetlands, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Silva Benavides, Ana Margarita; Picado Barboza, Jorge; Mora Rodríguez, Fernando; González Gairaud, Carmen

    2015-09-01

    In the last sixty years many geomorphological changes have occurred in Costa Rica's Térraba-Sierpe National Wetlands. Changes in coastal geomorphology are generally associated with erosion or accretion of sediment, which has led to the removal of sections of mangrove forests or sediment banks colonized by mangroves. The aim of this study was to analyze sedimentation as a leading process in the dynamics of coastal morphology and its implications for mangrove forest cover in the Boca Zacate area of Térraba-Sierpe wetlands. The study was conducted in the sectors of Bocón, Brujo and Coco Island in Boca Zacate, from 2008 to 2013. The research was based on a multi-temporal analysis of coastal morphology using aerial photographs from the years 1948, 1960, 1974, 1978, 1984, 1992 and 2011. The following measurements were also performed: monthly sedimentation rate (g/cm2/day), and granulometric composition and content of chemical elements in the sediments of the study area. These last two measurements were performed once each in the dry and rainy seasons during the years of study. The results indicated that over the past 60 years, Boca Zacate has witnessed a process of sustained erosion; from 1948 through 2001, losing 10.6 % of its land and approximately 8.9 % of its forest cover. It has also experienced accretion in the area of Coco Island. The Brujo sector showed the highest sedimentation rate and the Camibar estuary, the lowest. The dominant type of sediment in all study sites was sand, followed by clay and silt. The most widespread chemical elements (mg/L) included magnesium, calcium and potassium; others, such as manganese, iron, aluminum, phosphorus, zinc and copper, were measured in smaller amounts. Transport, composition and quantity of sediment in Boca Zacate are crucial to the changes that have occurred on the coastal area of La Boca, where the presence of dead trees was evident. This geomorphological analysis holds great importance for future guidelines and

  6. What Makes a Wetland a Wetland?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions of and activities about various kinds of wetlands. Contains seven learning activities ranging from creating wetland scenes with picture cutouts to actually exploring a wetland. Includes reproducible handouts and worksheets for several of the activities. (TW)

  7. What Makes a Wetland a Wetland?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions of and activities about various kinds of wetlands. Contains seven learning activities ranging from creating wetland scenes with picture cutouts to actually exploring a wetland. Includes reproducible handouts and worksheets for several of the activities. (TW)

  8. Hydraulic Geometry and Microtopography of Tidal Freshwater Forested Wetlands and Implications for Restoration, Columbia River, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Coleman, Andre M.; Borde, Amy B.; Sinks, Ian A.

    2008-01-01

    The hydrologic reconnection of tidal channels, riverine floodplains, and main stem channels are among responses by ecological restoration practitioners to the increasing fragmentation and land conversion occurring in coastal and riparian zones. Design standards and monitoring of such ecological restoration depend upon the characterization of reference sites that vary within and among regions. Few locales, such as the 235 km tidal portion of the Columbia River on the West Coast U.S.A., remain in which the reference conditions and restoration responses of tidal freshwater forested wetlands on temperate zone large river floodplains can be compared. This study developed hydraulic geometry relationships for Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce) dominated tidal forests (swamps) in the vicinity of Grays Bay on the Columbia River some 37 km from the Pacific Coast using field surveys and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Scaling relationships between catchment area and the parameters of channel cross-sectional area at outlet and total channel length were comparable to tidally influenced systems of San Francisco Bay and the United Kingdom. Dike breaching, culvert replacement, and tide gate replacement all affected channel cross-sectional geometry through changes in the frequency of over-marsh flows. Radiocarbon dating of buried wood provided evidence of changes in sedimentation rates associated with diking, and restoration trajectories may be confounded by historical subsidence behind dikes rendering topographical relationships with water level incomparable to reference conditions. At the same time, buried wood is influencing the development of channel morphology toward characteristics resembling reference conditions. Ecological restoration goals and practices in tidal forested wetland regions of large river floodplains should reflect the interactions of these controlling factors.

  9. Wetland restoration, flood pulsing, and disturbance dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    1999-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics are critical to wetland viability, there is as yet no consensus among those responsible for wetland restoration about how best to plan for those phenomena or even whether it is really necessary to do so at all. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Beth Middleton draws upon the latest research from around the world to build a strong case for making flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics integral to the wetland restoration planning process.While the initial chapters of the book are devoted to laying the conceptual foundations, most of the coverage is concerned with demonstrating the practical implications for wetland restoration and management of the latest ecological theory and research. It includes a fascinating case history section in which Dr. Middleton explores the restoration models used in five major North American, European, Australian, African, and Asian wetland projects, and analyzes their relative success from the perspective of flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics planning.Wetland Restoration also features a wealth of practical information useful to all those involved in wetland restoration and management, including: * A compendium of water level tolerances, seed germination, seedling recruitment, adult survival rates, and other key traits of wetland plant species * A bibliography of 1,200 articles and monographs covering all aspects of wetland restoration * A comprehensive directory of wetland restoration ftp sites worldwide * An extensive glossary of essential terms

  10. Intraspecific variation in growth of marsh macrophytes in response to salinity and soil type: Implications for wetland restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic diversity within plant populations can influence plant community structure along environmental gradients. In wetland habitats, salinity and soil type are factors that can vary along gradients and therefore affect plant growth. To test for intraspecific growth variation in response to these factors, a greenhouse study was conducted using common plants that occur in northern Gulf of Mexico brackish and salt marshes. Individual plants of Distichlis spicata, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus californicus, and Schoenoplectus robustus were collected from several locations along the coast in Louisiana, USA. Plant identity, based on collection location, was used as a measure of intraspecific variability. Prepared soil mixtures were organic, silt, or clay, and salinity treatments were 0 or 18 psu. Significant intraspecific variation in stem number, total stem height, or biomass was found in all species. Within species, response to soil type varied, but increased salinity significantly decreased growth in all individuals. Findings indicate that inclusion of multiple genets within species is an important consideration for marsh restoration projects that include vegetation plantings. This strategy will facilitate establishment of plant communities that have the flexibility to adapt to changing environmental conditions and, therefore, are capable of persisting over time. ?? Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation 2009.

  11. Community structure of fishes inhabiting aquatic refuges in a threatened Karst wetland and its implications for ecosystem management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kobza, Robert M.; Trexler, J.C.; Loftus, W.F.; Perry, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    We illustrate the importance of subsurface refuges for conservation of aquatic fauna with our studies of karstic wetlands in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. Managers have proposed that water levels there should not fall more than 46 cm below ground level for more than 90 days annually. In four areas, 84% of solution holes were less than 46 cm deep and holes deeper than lm were rare (<3 km-2). Null-model analysis indicated no "structure" in the solution-hole fish communities early in the dry season, but that structure emerged as drying progressed. Native cyprinodontiforms were abundant in shallow solution holes that dry annually under current management, while predatory species (often non-native) tended to dominate deeper holes. Water quality was correlated with hole volume and with composition of late dry-season fish communities. Tremendous losses of fish biomass occurred when water levels fell below 46 cm from ground surface. Most native taxa were unlikely to survive in the deep refuges that held predatory non-native taxa. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatiotemporal patterns of wetland occurrence in the prairie pothole region of eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kahara, S.N.; Mockler, R.M.; Higgins, K.F.; Chipps, S.R.; Johnson, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated changes in wetland abundance, size, and classification between average (19791986) and above-average (19951999) precipitation periods for two physiographic regions in eastern South Dakota. Temporal shifts in wetland numbers, area, and class varied by topographic location. In high wetland density areas (> 8 wetlands/100 ha), our data suggests that larger, semipermanent wetlands expanded and absorbed nearby wetland basins into their margins, resulting in a net "loss" or disappearance of temporary and seasonal wetlands in above-average water condition years. "Losses" described here are not deemed permanent as in cases of draining or filling, and wetlands may re-form when water conditions return to normal. Nevertheless, temporary disappearance of smaller more isolated wetlands may have implications for breeding waterfowl and other fauna. Percent change of semipermanent basin numbers was positively correlated with wetland density, whereas the opposite was true for seasonal wetlands. Loss of temporary wetlands was correlated with wetland aggregation within the sample area. However, in low wetland density areas, the number and size of seasonal and temporary wetlands generally increased following above-average precipitation. We suggest that wetlands' spatial arrangement be considered along with traditional wetland quantification techniques to better account for shifts in wetland habitat in dry versus wet years. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  13. The relationship between mathematics and language: academic implications for children with specific language impairment and English language learners.

    PubMed

    Alt, Mary; Arizmendi, Genesis D; Beal, Carole R

    2014-07-01

    The present study examined the relationship between mathematics and language to better understand the nature of the deficit and the academic implications associated with specific language impairment (SLI) and academic implications for English language learners (ELLs). School-age children (N = 61; 20 SLI, 20 ELL, 21 native monolingual English [NE]) were assessed using a norm-referenced mathematics instrument and 3 experimental computer-based mathematics games that varied in language demands. Group means were compared with analyses of variance. The ELL group was less accurate than the NE group only when tasks were language heavy. In contrast, the group with SLI was less accurate than the groups with NE and ELLs on language-heavy tasks and some language-light tasks. Specifically, the group with SLI was less accurate on tasks that involved comparing numerical symbols and using visual working memory for patterns. However, there were no group differences between children with SLI and peers without SLI on language-light mathematics tasks that involved visual working memory for numerical symbols. Mathematical difficulties of children who are ELLs appear to be related to the language demands of mathematics tasks. In contrast, children with SLI appear to have difficulty with mathematics tasks because of linguistic as well as nonlinguistic processing constraints.

  14. Japanese Media in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

  15. Evidence and implications of the background phosphorus concentration of submerged aquatic vegetation wetlands in Stormwater Treatment Areas for Everglades restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juston, John M.; Debusk, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The limits of phosphorus (P) removal from the 18,120 ha Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs) for Everglades restoration depend largely on the performance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) wetlands, as SAV treatment cells now provide final stage treatment for 85% of the STA project. A long-term internal P profile in STA-2 cell 3 (STA2C3), one of the longest-running and best performing SAV cells, demonstrated no further net removal in the back quarter of the cell once total P (TP) levels approached 15 μg L-1. Inflow-outflow performance data from STA2C3 were analyzed at monthly and annual scales and were pooled with data from an additional eight STA SAV treatment cells. The pooled data allowed inference of background TP concentrations in SAV treatment cells using existing Bayesian methods. Results showed a central tendency of 16 μg L-1 (13-17, 90% bounds), insensitivity to P loads less than ˜1.7 g m-2 yr-1, and interannual variability outside these bounds. Internal data from the STA2C3 profile provided validation. Background P concentrations of 7 and 6 μg L-1 were identified for dissolved organic and particulate P fractions in the data pool, respectively, again similar to values in the STA2C3 gradient. Existing simulation modeling approaches for STA evaluations were identified as ineffective at or near background TP concentrations. Instead, we use an empirical and probabilistic approach based on full-scale data from STAs that produces annual risk of exceedance statistics and is easy to update. The current analysis suggests tangible risks for exceeding proposed annual discharge criteria from the STAs in the range of 16-20 μg L-1.

  16. A landscape-scale assessment of above- and belowground primary production in coastal wetlands: Implications for climate change-induced community shifts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stagg, Camille L.; Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Snedden, Gregg; Steyer, Gregory D.; Fischenich, Craig J; McComas, Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    Above- and belowground production in coastal wetlands are important contributors to carbon accumulation and ecosystem sustainability. As sea level rises, we can expect shifts to more salt-tolerant communities, which may alter these ecosystem functions and services. Although the direct influence of salinity on species-level primary production has been documented, we lack an understanding of the landscape-level response of coastal wetlands to increasing salinity. What are the indirect effects of sea-level rise, i.e., how does primary production vary across a landscape gradient of increasing salinity that incorporates changes in wetland type? This is the first study to measure both above- and belowground production in four wetland types that span an entire coastal gradient from fresh to saline wetlands. We hypothesized that increasing salinity would limit rates of primary production, and saline marshes would have lower rates of above- and belowground production than fresher marshes. However, along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast in Louisiana, USA, we found that aboveground production was highest in brackish marshes, compared with fresh, intermediate, and saline marshes, and belowground production was similar among all wetland types along the salinity gradient. Multiple regression analysis indicated that salinity was the only significant predictor of production, and its influence was dependent upon wetland type. We concluded that (1) salinity had a negative effect on production within wetland type, and this relationship was strongest in the fresh marsh (0–2 PSU) and (2) along the overall landscape gradient, production was maintained by mechanisms at the scale of wetland type, which were likely related to plant energetics. Regardless of wetland type, we found that belowground production was significantly greater than aboveground production. Additionally, inter-annual variation, associated with severe drought conditions, was observed exclusively for belowground

  17. Saltwater Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides information about saltwater wetlands. Contains seven learning activities which deal with "making" a mud snail, plants and animals of mangroves, and the effects of tides on salt marshes. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for several of the activities. (TW)

  18. Coastal Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Area Cooperative Educational Services, New Haven, CT. Environmental Education Center.

    This material includes student guide sheets, reference materials, and tape script for the audio-tutorial unit on Inland Wetlands. A set of 35mm slides and an audio tape are used with the materials. The material is designed for use with Connecticut schools, but it can be adapted to other localities. The unit materials emphasize the structure,…

  19. Saltwater Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides information about saltwater wetlands. Contains seven learning activities which deal with "making" a mud snail, plants and animals of mangroves, and the effects of tides on salt marshes. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for several of the activities. (TW)

  20. Inland Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Area Cooperative Educational Services, New Haven, CT. Environmental Education Center.

    This material includes student guide sheets, reference materials, and tape script for the audio-tutorial unit on Inland Wetlands. A set of 35mm slides and an audio tape are used with the material. The material is designed for use with Connecticut schools, but it can be adapted to other localities. The materials emphasize characteristics of inland…

  1. Learners in the English Learning and Skills Sector: The Implications of Half-Right Policy Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ann; Steer, Richard; Spours, Ken; Edward, Sheila; Coffield, Frank; Finlay, Ian; Gregson, Maggie

    2007-01-01

    The English Learning and Skills Sector (LSS) contains a highly diverse range of learners and covers all aspects of post-16 learning with the exception of higher education. In the research on which this paper is based we are concerned with the effects of policy on three types of learners--unemployed adults attempting to improve their basic skills…

  2. The Transition to College of English Learner and Undocumented Immigrant Students: Resource and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Gloria M.; Cruz, Lisceth

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: The analysis contained in this article was commissioned by the Social Science Research Council's Transitions to College project. Although the historical context and contemporary issues associated with English learners (ELs) and undocumented immigrant students are in many ways distinct, the project team strongly believed that…

  3. Promoting College Access among Latina/o English Language Learners: Implications for Professional School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Amy L.; Pérusse, Rachelle; Rojas, Eliana D.

    2015-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Education (2010), Latina/o English language learners (ELL students) are less likely to complete high school and attend college compared to their White non-Latina/o peers. Numerous factors affect Latina/o ELL students' academic achievement, including insufficient resources, acculturation issues, attitudinal…

  4. Mathematics, Power, and Language: Implications from Lived Experiences to Empower English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uribe-Flórez, Lida J.; Araujo, Blanca; Franzak, Mark; Haynes Writer, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    Because the English learners' (ELs) population is growing in the United States, teacher candidates should be provided with experiences that prepare them to effectively teach and empower linguistically/culturally diverse students. Teacher candidates should be provided with opportunities to learn skills that engage ELs in mathematics. In this…

  5. Educational Implications of Language Diversity: A Consideration of Black English Vernacular.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Florence

    An exploration of issues in language diversity addressing the nature of dialect, features of the dialect, features of black English Vernacular (BEV), linguistic phenomena in the black urban community, theories of the origins of BEV, and its social, economic, and political ramifications suggest that BEV, like other dialects, meets the needs of its…

  6. Linguistic Perspectives on African American Vernacular English and Implications for the Language Arts Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, J. Evelyn

    This article outlines some basic linguistic principles that provide a foundation for the recognition of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) as a legitimate language system that is not only an asset to its speakers, but has also made valuable contributions to American society in terms of artistic expression of identity and community. The way…

  7. More than Just Language Advising: Rapport in University English Writing Consultations and Implications for Tutor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a case study approach with multiple data sources, this paper explores the ways in which rapport is built, and its impact on the learning process based on five successive writing support consultations between a native English-speaking (NES) tutor and her second language (L2) tutee in a Hong Kong university. With reference to the prepared…

  8. Studies of Braille Reading Rates and Implications for the Unified English Braille Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Robin; Knowlton, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Reading rate data was collected from both print and braille readers in the areas of mathematics and literary braille. Literary braille data was collected for contracted and uncontracted braille text with dropped whole-word contractions and part-word contractions as they would appear in the Unified English Braille Code. No significant differences…

  9. Focus Group Research on the Implications of Adopting the Unified English Braille Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Robin; Knowlton, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Five focus groups explored concerns about adopting the Unified English Braille Code. The consensus was that while the proposed changes to the literary braille code would be minor, those to the mathematics braille code would be much more extensive. The participants emphasized that "any code that reduces the number of individuals who can access…

  10. "Bearing Down" on Student Non-Completion: Implications and Consequences for English Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longden, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    This article traces recent policy developments relating to full-time undergraduate student retention within the English higher education system. It focuses specifically on the changing government policies and strategies designed to influence institutional behavior to promote widening participation while attending to the student experience and…

  11. Analogical Transfer by Spanish-English Bilinguals: Implications for Educational and Employment Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukumine, Eri; Kennison, Shelia M.

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigated analogical transfer during problem solving by bilinguals. In a study with 50 Spanish-English bilinguals, participants solved a target problem whose solution was similar to that of a preceding source problem. The source problem was always presented in the 2nd language; the target problem was always presented in the…

  12. A Comparative Study of English and Spanish Vowel Systems: Theoretical and Practical Implications for Teaching Pronunciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odisho, Edward Y.

    A study examines two major types of vowel systems in languages, centripetal and centrifugal. English is associated with the centripetal system, in which vowel quality and quantity (rhythm) are heavily influenced by stress. In this system, vowels have a strong tendency to move toward the center of the vowel area. Spanish is associated with the…

  13. Sociological Implications of English as an International Language in Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Internationalization and globalization have created a global music education community which is not only linked by similar ideas, but also shares a common language. English functions as a global language and facilitates the international discourse in music education. While it is good to have a common language supporting international dialogue, it…

  14. "Bearing Down" on Student Non-Completion: Implications and Consequences for English Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longden, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    This article traces recent policy developments relating to full-time undergraduate student retention within the English higher education system. It focuses specifically on the changing government policies and strategies designed to influence institutional behavior to promote widening participation while attending to the student experience and…

  15. American PARCC and SBAC and Their Implications on the Construction of English Assessment System in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Haiyan; Kang, Kai

    2017-01-01

    The Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) and Smarter Balanced Assessment Systems (SBAC) started in the 2014-2015 academic year and has been regarded by many in the field as a radical effort to improve the American English Language Art (ELA) educational standards. These two consortia, being aligned with Common…

  16. Analogical Transfer by Spanish-English Bilinguals: Implications for Educational and Employment Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukumine, Eri; Kennison, Shelia M.

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigated analogical transfer during problem solving by bilinguals. In a study with 50 Spanish-English bilinguals, participants solved a target problem whose solution was similar to that of a preceding source problem. The source problem was always presented in the 2nd language; the target problem was always presented in the…

  17. The Use of Video Self-Modeling with English Language Learners: Implications for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Jennifer; Burlingame, Cheryl; Onuegbulem, Cybeles; Yoshikawa, Koichi; Rojas, Eliana D.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of video self-modeling (VSM) to improve reading fluency for English language learners (ELLs) is explored. A review of the literature demonstrates the success of VSM in improving non-ELL students' fluency. Preliminary research with culturally and linguistically diverse students implies that the intervention can be equally effective…

  18. The Transition to College of English Learner and Undocumented Immigrant Students: Resource and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Gloria M.; Cruz, Lisceth

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: The analysis contained in this article was commissioned by the Social Science Research Council's Transitions to College project. Although the historical context and contemporary issues associated with English learners (ELs) and undocumented immigrant students are in many ways distinct, the project team strongly believed that…

  19. The Most Frequently Used Spoken American English Idioms: A Corpus Analysis and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dilin

    2003-01-01

    Most teaching and reference materials on English idioms are primarily intuition based. As such, they often include seldom-used idioms and incorrect descriptions of the meaning and use of some idioms, hence limiting their usefulness to ESOL students. This article demonstrates how this problem can be addressed through a corpus-based study of the…

  20. English by Radio: Implications for Non-Formal Language Education. Occasional Paper #12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhoof, Maurice; And Others

    A 5-year research and development program, known as the Radio Language Arts Project (RLAP), was conducted in Kenya to develop, implement, and test the effectiveness of an instructional system that uses radio to teach English as a foreign language in the first three grades of primary school. The initial project year was spent in establishing and…

  1. Ethnic Identity and Acculturation of English as Second Language Learners: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Jose M.; Kushner, Jason D.; Barr, Jason; Korz, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic identity and acculturation are significant issues of English as Second Language students in the intermediate grades. Research has encompassed acculturation and ethnic identity as two distinct elements that differentiate particular ethnic groups. The present study investigates acculturation and ethnic identity and their correlation across…

  2. Sociological Implications of English as an International Language in Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Internationalization and globalization have created a global music education community which is not only linked by similar ideas, but also shares a common language. English functions as a global language and facilitates the international discourse in music education. While it is good to have a common language supporting international dialogue, it…

  3. No ESL in English Schools: Language Policy in Quebec and Implications for TESL Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winer, Lise

    2007-01-01

    In this article, various aspects of official language policy in Quebec are seen as interacting with contested and contesting ideologies, as experienced by novice teachers in teaching English as a second or other language within the majority French school system. The context of TESL training in Quebec is described, focusing on legislative policy…

  4. Measures for Determining English Language Proficiency and the Resulting Implications for Instructional Provision and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Craig A.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Boals, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    Although numerous English language proficiency (ELP) measures currently exist, many were developed prior to the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). These pre-NCLB measures typically focused on social language proficiency, whereas post-NCLB measures are linked to ELP standards and focus on academic language proficiency (ALP). ELP measures are…

  5. The Implications of a Conversation Analysis Approach To Request Sequences for English Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Pamela J.

    This study examines through Conversation Analysis (CA) the way requests for action are interactionally accomplished in naturally occurring spontaneous conversation, and uses the findings as the basis for an evaluation of the way requests are presented in published English language teaching (ELT) materials. The following areas are discussed: (1)…

  6. Mathematics, Power, and Language: Implications from Lived Experiences to Empower English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uribe-Flórez, Lida J.; Araujo, Blanca; Franzak, Mark; Haynes Writer, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    Because the English learners' (ELs) population is growing in the United States, teacher candidates should be provided with experiences that prepare them to effectively teach and empower linguistically/culturally diverse students. Teacher candidates should be provided with opportunities to learn skills that engage ELs in mathematics. In this…

  7. The Politics of ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages): Implications for Citizenship and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Christine; Starkey, Hugh; Green, Andy

    2010-01-01

    A number of countries in Europe, including the UK, have adopted language and citizenship tests or courses as a requirement for granting citizenship to immigrants. To acquire citizenship, immigrants to the UK must pass a test on British society and culture, or demonstrate progress in the English language. For those with an insufficient command of…

  8. More than Just Language Advising: Rapport in University English Writing Consultations and Implications for Tutor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a case study approach with multiple data sources, this paper explores the ways in which rapport is built, and its impact on the learning process based on five successive writing support consultations between a native English-speaking (NES) tutor and her second language (L2) tutee in a Hong Kong university. With reference to the prepared…

  9. Conjunctive Cohesion in English Language EU Documents--A Corpus-Based Analysis and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trebits, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study which forms part of a larger-scale research project investigating the use of English in the documents of the European Union (EU). The documents of the EU show various features of texts written for legal, business and other specific purposes. Moreover, the translation services of the EU institutions often…

  10. Complex Text and New Common Standards in the United States: Pedagogical Implications for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, George C.; Walqui, Aída; Pearson, P. David

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, new common state standards in English language arts and disciplinary literacy require K-12 students to "read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently." Issues of text complexity have spurred debates in the mainstream literacy, educational practice, and policy…

  11. The Graeco-Latin Vocabulary of Formal English: Some Pedagogical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Corson's argument regarding points of difficulty about the Graeco-Latin vocabulary (morphological complexity and form/meaning relationship "opacity") are the basis of a proposal that much of the Graeco-Latin vocabulary of formal English can be shown to be quite regular and can be systematically taught. (Contains 10 references.) (LB)

  12. "The Babel Myth": The English-Only Movement and Its Implications for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Ingrid

    1992-01-01

    Discusses attempts to make English the official language of the United States, examines the pros and cons, and describes the impact of these efforts on libraries. An example at the Monterey Park Public Library (California) is examined; meeting the needs of all members of the community is addressed; and possible future outlooks are suggested. (four…

  13. Ethnic Identity and Acculturation of English as Second Language Learners: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Jose M.; Kushner, Jason D.; Barr, Jason; Korz, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic identity and acculturation are significant issues of English as Second Language students in the intermediate grades. Research has encompassed acculturation and ethnic identity as two distinct elements that differentiate particular ethnic groups. The present study investigates acculturation and ethnic identity and their correlation across…

  14. Now You See Them, Now You Don't: Temporal Change in the Mode and Extent of Connected and Disconnected Boreal Wetlands and Implications for Streamflow Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, C.; Stadnyk, T. A.; Smith, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    In northern Boreal catchments the presence of a multitude of connected and disconnected wetland complexes is commonly believed to play a controlling role on the source and timing of streamflow, effective simulation of which is critical to flow forecasting in changing climates. A key factor in this control is the mode of connectivity between wetlands and downstream rivers, and temporal distribution thereof. The local Lower Nelson River basin, Manitoba, Canada, has an area of approximately 90,000 km2, of which 25% is estimated to be covered by wetlands. Assessment of a decade of aerial imagery indicates variation in the spatial extent of wetlands of up to 50% of the surface area of individual headwater basins on both an inter- and intra-annual basis. Aerial and ground reconnaissance of selected areas indicates that using generalised aerial-based reflectance imagery for land cover classification is hampered by the presence of a number of types of wetlands (treed, shrubby, grassed, open) and shallow groundwater in this flat landscape. The large, remote, catchment area renders detailed ground-truthing impractical. As an alternative, five headwater basins and the main stem of the river are gauged and monitored for stable isotopes of water. In this study linear regression is used to assess linkages between isotopic and wetland extent variation and dominant environmental variables. Mass balance modelling is used to assess the relative merits of a detailed re-analysis of wetland delineation using refined reflectance analysis, soil and isotopic data, and simply assigning wetland extent as a calibration variable. Results indicate that aerial imagery provides a useful tool to assess surface connectivity, but that explicit identification and representation of temporal variation in surface and subsurface connectivity is necessary to adequately estimate timing of streamflow in this flat, wetland-dominated catchment.

  15. English Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

    2009-01-01

    In this column Manyak and Bauer summarize key research addressing the English vocabulary development of English learners (ELs) and distill implications for instructional practice. First, the authors discuss several key studies that demonstrate the limitation of many ELs' English vocabulary knowledge and the negative impact of this limitation on…

  16. English Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

    2009-01-01

    In this column Manyak and Bauer summarize key research addressing the English vocabulary development of English learners (ELs) and distill implications for instructional practice. First, the authors discuss several key studies that demonstrate the limitation of many ELs' English vocabulary knowledge and the negative impact of this limitation on…

  17. Our Valuable Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    1988-01-01

    Defines wetlands and lists several types of wetland habitat. Describes explorations that can be done with secondary school students including the baby boom, a food pyramid, and microenvironments. Includes a classroom poster with text on the variety of wetlands. (CW)

  18. Our Valuable Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    1988-01-01

    Defines wetlands and lists several types of wetland habitat. Describes explorations that can be done with secondary school students including the baby boom, a food pyramid, and microenvironments. Includes a classroom poster with text on the variety of wetlands. (CW)

  19. Riparian Wetlands: Mapping

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian wetlands are critical systems that perform functions and provide services disproportionate to their extent in the landscape. Mapping wetlands allows for better planning, management, and modeling, but riparian wetlands present several challenges to effective mapping due t...

  20. Riparian Wetlands: Mapping

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian wetlands are critical systems that perform functions and provide services disproportionate to their extent in the landscape. Mapping wetlands allows for better planning, management, and modeling, but riparian wetlands present several challenges to effective mapping due t...

  1. Epilogue: implications of research on English language learners for classroom and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Stephanie M; McCardle, Peggy; Leos, Kathleen

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the present article is to provide the closing context for this clinical forum that showcases prereading and reading development research with Spanish-speaking English language learning children. Background information, including legislation, judicial review, and past research, are used to interpret the results of the studies in the clinical forum. Suggestions for practitioners and future research are presented based on the clinical forum and background information.

  2. Biogeochemical Characterization of Constructed Wetland Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalzell, B. J.; Parker, G. R.; Filley, T. R.

    2001-12-01

    Agricultural productions areas of the Midwestern United States are recognized as significant contributors of nonpoint source pollution and influence many aspects of water quality at both local and regional scales. In addition, ambitious land "improvement" programs stemming back to the mid-1800s have resulted in widespread loss of wetlands throughout the U.S., including heavy losses in agricultural production areas of the Mississippi River Basin. The combination of these two factors has been directly implicated as a contributing factor to high-profile environmental problems such as exacerbation of the zone of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Constructed wetlands are recognized for their potential to help mitigate the effects of agricultural nonpoint source pollution and previous loss of wetlands. The vast majority of previous studies of constructed wetlands have focused on the bulk movement of water quality constituents such as nitrogen, phosphorus, total carbon and sediment. While insightful, these studies do not address more detailed aspects of wetland function as it pertains to carbon flux and storage. In this study, we present results from biogeochemical analyses of influent and effluent of an experimental wetland constructed near row crop and animal production facilities in North-central Indiana. Cross flow utrafiltration and chemolytic techniques were used to collect and characterize organic components of wetland influent and effluent. Biomarker molecules were used to describe functions of the constructed wetland.

  3. Foreword: function, classification and management of Asian wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Middleton, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    Asian wetland conservation is critical for future environmental protection in the region, but these wetlands are understudied. In particular, there is a lack of research studies published in English due to the limited access of Asian researchers to western scientific journals. This special feature of Wetlands showcases primary research conducted in Asian wetlands and was sponsored by various agencies of the U.S. and Chinese governments including the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of State, and The State Forestry Administration of the People’s Republic of China. The featured articles should be of great value to wetland scientists, managers and policy-makers with an interest in the conservation of Asian wetlands.

  4. Ecosystem level methane fluxes from tidal freshwater and brackish marshes of the Mississippi River Delta: Implications for coastal wetland carbon projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holm, Guerry O.; Perez, Brian C.; McWhorter, David E.; Krauss, Ken W.; Johnson, Darren J.; Raynie, Richard C.; Killebrew, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfate from seawater inhibits methane production in tidal wetlands, and by extension, salinity has been used as a general predictor of methane emissions. With the need to reduce methane flux uncertainties from tidal wetlands, eddy covariance (EC) techniques provide an integrated methane budget. The goals of this study were to: 1) establish methane emissions from natural, freshwater and brackish wetlands in Louisiana based on EC; and 2) determine if EC estimates conform to a methane-salinity relationship derived from temperate tidal wetlands with chamber sampling. Annual estimates of methane emissions from this study were 62.3 g CH4/m2/yr and 13.8 g CH4/m2/yr for the freshwater and brackish (8–10 psu) sites, respectively. If it is assumed that long-term, annual soil carbon sequestration rates of natural marshes are ~200 g C/m2/yr (7.3 tCO2e/ha/yr), healthy brackish marshes could be expected to act as a net radiative sink, equivalent to less than one-half the soil carbon accumulation rate after subtracting methane emissions (4.1 tCO2e/ha/yr). Carbon sequestration rates would need case-by-case assessment, but the EC methane emissions estimates in this study conformed well to an existing salinity-methane model that should serve as a basis for establishing emission factors for wetland carbon offset projects.

  5. The distribution of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from iSimangaliso Wetland Park: Ecological risks and implications for conservation in a biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Buah-Kwofie, Archibold; Humphries, Marc S

    2017-10-01

    The iSimangaliso Wetland Park World Heritage site, located on the east coast of South Africa, spans ∼3300 km(2) and constitutes the largest protected estuarine environment for hippopotami, crocodiles and aquatic birds in Africa. Given the ecological importance of this site and continued use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the region, this study focused on the nature, distribution and potential sources of organochlorine contamination within iSimangaliso Wetland Park. OCPs were widely distributed in surface sediment samples obtained from the four main Ramsar wetland systems within the park (Lake St Lucia, Mkhuze, Lake Sibaya and Kosi Bay). ∑HCH and ∑DDT were the dominant contaminants detected with concentrations in the range of 26.29-282.5 ng/g and 34.49-262.4 ng/g, respectively. ∑DDT concentrations revealed a distinctive gradient, with significantly higher concentrations at Kosi Bay and Lake Sibaya attributed to the application of DDT for malaria control. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were the dominant isomers detected, but the detection of p,p'-DDT in a number of samples reflects recent inputs of technical DDT. Highest concentrations of HCH, endosulfan and heptachlor were detected in sediments from Mkhuze and reflect the substantial residue load these wetlands receive from agricultural activities within the catchment area. Isomeric compositions indicate that endosulfan and heptachlor residues are derived mainly from historical application, while inputs of HCH, aldrin and endrin could be attributed to more recent usage at several sites. OCP sediment concentrations from iSimangaliso represent the highest yet recorded in South Africa and some of the highest reported globally this century. Sediments found within the lakes and wetlands of iSimangaliso represent large reservoirs of contaminants that pose ecotoxicological threats to this globally important biodiversity hotspot. Detailed investigation into the bioaccumulation and toxicological risks of OCPs within

  6. Ohio Uses Wetlands Program Development Grants to Protect Wetlands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The wetland water quality standards require the use of ORAM score to determine wetland quality. OEPA has also used these tools to evaluate wetland mitigation projects, develop performance standards for wetland mitigation banks and In Lieu Fee programs an.

  7. Who treats limited English proficient patients? Implications for linguistic access initiatives.

    PubMed

    Seiber, Eric E; Smith, Christen M; Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2009-01-01

    Growing linguistic diversity in the United States brings serious challenges for healthcare providers. Federal civil rights policy requires that physicians participating in Medicaid and State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) provide meaningful access for their limited English proficient (LEP) patients. Key to compliance is the criterion that the provider's responsibility is proportional to the number of LEP patients likely to be served. This article identifies which physicians are most likely to treat LEP patients and the source of payment for these visits in a traditionally low immigration state. The study utilizes 2006-2007 survey data from a random sample of 202 South Carolina physicians' practices. Descriptive statistics establish a profile for practitioners who most frequently treat LEP patients, and ordinary least squares models determine the salient characteristics for providers treating LEP patients. This study finds that public and community clinics and, to a lesser degree, OB/GYN practices, in counties with over 6% Hispanic population provide a disproportionate share of care to LEP patients. Furthermore, 54.7% of LEP visits were uninsured or self-pay, with the result that LEP patients concentrate in practices that serve the uninsured. Proposals seeking to increase linguistic access by requiring insurers to cover interpretation services are unlikely to achieve more than a limited impact due to the low insurance coverage rates among LEP patients. The burden of compliance with current linguistic access regulations is heaviest for practices that treat the highest proportion of uninsured and that have the fewest resources to meet regulatory requirements.

  8. The Most Frequent Phrasal Verbs in English Language EU Documents--A Corpus-Based Analysis and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trebits, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the use of phrasal verbs in English language documents of the European Union (EU) as part of a larger-scale project examining the use of English in EU texts from various aspects including lexical, lexico-grammatical and textual features. Phrasal verbs, known to represent one of the most difficult aspects of learning English,…

  9. The Most Frequent Phrasal Verbs in English Language EU Documents--A Corpus-Based Analysis and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trebits, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the use of phrasal verbs in English language documents of the European Union (EU) as part of a larger-scale project examining the use of English in EU texts from various aspects including lexical, lexico-grammatical and textual features. Phrasal verbs, known to represent one of the most difficult aspects of learning English,…

  10. Wonderful Wetlands: An Environmental Education Curriculum Guide for Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King County Parks Div., Redmond, WA.

    This curriculum guide was designed to give teachers, students, and society a better understanding of wetlands in the hope that they learn why wetlands should be valued and preserved. It explores what is meant by wetlands, functions and values of wetlands, wetland activities, and wetland offerings which benefit animal and plant life, recreation,…

  11. A review of basin morphology and pool hydrology of isolated ponded wetlands: implications for seasonal forest pools of the northeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Robert T. Brooks; Robert T. Brooks

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal forest pools (SFPs) are geographically- and hydrologically- isolated ponded wetlands, in that they are topographically isolated from other surface waters. SFPs occur commonly throughout the temperate forests of the eastern United States and adjacent Canada. SFPs are ephemeral in occurrence, typically drying annually. The regular drying of SFPs excludes fish...

  12. Sap flow of black ash in wetland forests of northern Minnesota, USA: Hydrologic implications of tree mortality due to emerald ash borer

    Treesearch

    Andrew C. Telander; Robert A. Slesak; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Kenneth N. Brooks; Christian F. Lenhart

    2015-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) mortality caused by the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) is of concern to land managers in the upper Great Lakes region, given the large areas of ash-dominated forest and potential alteration of wetland hydrology following loss of this foundation tree species. The importance of changes in evapotranspiration (ET) following...

  13. Widespread rocky reef occurrence in the central English Channel and the implications for predictive habitat mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diesing, Markus; Coggan, Roger; Vanstaen, Koen

    2009-08-01

    Reefs are one of the marine habitats listed in Annex I of the European Union's Habitats Directive, which aims to establish a coherent European ecological network of Special Areas of Conservation. EU Member States are required to prepare and propose a national list of sites for evaluation under the scheme, but currently the occurrence of reefs in the United Kingdom's nearshore and offshore areas is not well documented. Here we report on our search for rocky reefs in the central English Channel, which unexpectedly revealed an extensive reef system covering an area of 1100 km 2. Prior to our work, it was generally perceived that the seabed in this area comprised mostly gravel, with a few isolated rock outcrops. Our approach to determining the location, extent and character of these reefs incorporated broad, medium and fine-scale analyses over a 3200 km 2 area of seabed, using single- and multi-beam acoustic data, ground-truthed by underwater video and stills imagery. A benthic terrain model was developed in ArcGIS to map topographic features at the broad and medium scales. Biotope assignments were made at the fine scale through detailed analysis of video footage obtained from 30 sampling stations. The study area has a complex geological history and lies at the centre of a major bedload-parting zone. Together, these strongly influence the seabed character and the distribution of biotopes. An integrated assessment of the physical and biological features was used to map the study area to level 4 of the EUNIS habitat classification system. Similar physical conditions exist in other areas of the UK continental shelf, raising the prospect of predicting where other rocky reef systems might occur. In the absence of a co-ordinated national seabed survey programme, such predictions, coupled with interpretation of existing single-beam bathymetry data, can help prioritise areas where limited survey resources could be most effectively deployed.

  14. HYDROLOGY OF COASTAL WETLANDS OF LAKE SUPERIOR: LAKE AND TRIBUTARY ROLES IN MIXING REGIME AND TURNOVER TIMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our work on coastal wetlands of western Lake Superior indicates that hydrological linkages to the lake and watershed are highly dynamic, with potentially significant implications for wetland ecosystem structure and function. Time series data on tributary discharges and seiche amp...

  15. Acquisition of the stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Mexican Spanish–English speaking children: Theoretical and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Oglivie, Trianna; Maiefski, Olivia; Schertz, Jessamyn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of typical acquisition of the Mexican Spanish stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Spanish–English speaking children and to shed light on the theoretical debate over which sound is the underlying form in the stop-spirant allophonic relationship. We predicted that bilingual children would acquire knowledge of this allophonic relationship by the time they reach age 5;0 (years;months) and would demonstrate higher accuracy on the spirants, indicating their role as the underlying phoneme. This quasi-longitudinal study examined children’s single word samples in Spanish from ages 2;4–8;2. Samples were phonetically transcribed and analyzed for accuracy, substitution errors and acoustically for intensity ratios. Bilingual children demonstrated overall higher accuracy on the voiced stops as compared to the spirants. Differences in substitution errors across ages were found and acoustic analyses corroborated perceptual findings. The clinical implication of this research is that bilingual children may be in danger of overdiagnosis of speech sound disorders because acquisition of this allophonic rule in bilinguals appears to differ from what has been found in previous studies examining monolingual Spanish speakers. PMID:25118791

  16. Acquisition of the stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Mexican Spanish-English speaking children: theoretical and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Oglivie, Trianna; Maiefski, Olivia; Schertz, Jessamyn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of typical acquisition of the Mexican Spanish stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children and to shed light on the theoretical debate over which sound is the underlying form in the stop-spirant allophonic relationship. We predicted that bilingual children would acquire knowledge of this allophonic relationship by the time they reach age 5;0 (years;months) and would demonstrate higher accuracy on the spirants, indicating their role as the underlying phoneme. This quasi-longitudinal study examined children's single word samples in Spanish from ages 2;4-8;2. Samples were phonetically transcribed and analyzed for accuracy, substitution errors and acoustically for intensity ratios. Bilingual children demonstrated overall higher accuracy on the voiced stops as compared to the spirants. Differences in substitution errors across ages were found and acoustic analyses corroborated perceptual findings. The clinical implication of this research is that bilingual children may be in danger of overdiagnosis of speech sound disorders because acquisition of this allophonic rule in bilinguals appears to differ from what has been found in previous studies examining monolingual Spanish speakers.

  17. Spatio-temporal dynamics of evapotranspiration from forested, ephemeral wetlands and its implication for hydrologic connectivity in the Western Boreal Plain in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Alexander; Kettridge, Nicholas; Devito, Kevin; Hokanson, Kelly; Leonard, Rhoswen; Krause, Stefan; Waddington, James Michael

    2017-04-01

    In catchments where hydrologic connectivity is predominantly controlled by storage-threshold dynamics, landscape units promoting water transmission can be crucial for overall ecohydrological functioning. In Canada's Western Boreal Plain, ephemeral wetlands surrounded by upland forests on deep and coarse, glacial deposits are examples of such units. In the sub-humid climate, their importance is exacerbated due to regional, multi-year water deficits, resulting from high evapotranspirative (ET) demand coinciding with most of the annual precipitation and its variability between years. Yet, these ephemeral wetlands frequently saturate during small rain events; hence, they likely play a key role in supplying water to adjacent and downstream systems in both dry and wet periods. We assess factors controlling water losses from these wetlands to the atmosphere (via the soil surface and vegetation), how they change over time (i.e. throughout the growing season), and the extent to which they vary in space. Our goal is to generate process-based understanding of ET dynamics and to determine potential feedbacks that reduce ET losses, maximizing the magnitude and period over which these landscape units may act as water sources. We hypothesize that the following mechanisms enhance the ascribed water transmitting function: (1) external and internal shading reduces incident radiation and therefore available energy to drive ET; this effect increases with leaf area, but is counter-acted by interception. (2) Vegetation structure reduces turbulent exchange with air masses above the canopy, thereby decreasing humidity gradients driving ET. (3) High, near-surface soil tensions during periods of drying limit rates of evaporation. We applied a combined measurement approach to assess spatial and temporal dynamics of ET in the 2016 growing season (May - August) and gathered additional data to assess abiotic and biotic controls on ET rates. We continuously measured ET from the wetland's surface

  18. Geographically isolated wetlands: Rethinking a misnomer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Cohen, Matthew J.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie G.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Walls, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the category “geographically isolated wetlands” (GIWs; i.e., wetlands completely surrounded by uplands at the local scale) as used in the wetland sciences. As currently used, the GIW category (1) hampers scientific efforts by obscuring important hydrological and ecological differences among multiple wetland functional types, (2) aggregates wetlands in a manner not reflective of regulatory and management information needs, (3) implies wetlands so described are in some way “isolated,” an often incorrect implication, (4) is inconsistent with more broadly used and accepted concepts of “geographic isolation,” and (5) has injected unnecessary confusion into scientific investigations and discussions. Instead, we suggest other wetland classification systems offer more informative alternatives. For example, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classes based on well-established scientific definitions account for wetland functional diversity thereby facilitating explorations into questions of connectivity without an a priori designation of “isolation.” Additionally, an HGM-type approach could be used in combination with terms reflective of current regulatory or policymaking needs. For those rare cases in which the condition of being surrounded by uplands is the relevant distinguishing characteristic, use of terminology that does not unnecessarily imply isolation (e.g., “upland embedded wetlands”) would help alleviate much confusion caused by the “geographically isolated wetlands” misnomer.

  19. Species composition, distribution and habitat types of Odonata in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and the associated conservation implications.

    PubMed

    Hart, Lorinda A; Bowker, Meyrick B; Tarboton, Warwick; Downs, Colleen T

    2014-01-01

    Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany, South Africa has been identified as a biodiversity hotspot and centre for endemism. Odonata make good indicators of freshwater ecosystem health. Consequently we compiled a list of Odonata species recorded to date in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park. We then detailed important species in terms of endemism, conservation status, and potential as indicator species. Finally, we compared Odonata assemblages of different sites sampled within the park to illustrate habitat importance. Species identified during two formal surveys and incidental observations made during the study period were combined with an existing database to compile an accurate and up to date species list for the iSimangaliso Wetland Park. Data from this study were then analyzed to determine which water bodies had the most similar species composition. The Dragonfly Biotic Index (DBI) value of each study area was also determined. We recorded 68 odonate species in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, adding 13 species to the Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife database for the area. This brings the total number of Odonata species for the iSimangaliso Wetland Park to 86. Eight species are red-listed, 12 are restricted in South Africa to the coastal plains of northern KwaZulu-Natal, and the remainder occurs widely across the southern African savanna. Analyses indicate that species odonate assemblages were most similar in water bodies with comparable habitats. iSimangaliso Wetland Park is identified as an important area for Odonata diversity and endemism, a trend also reflected by the DBI values. Shifts in the existing species assemblages would indicate changes within the ecosystem and thus this species account provides necessary baseline data for the area. Species Conservation efforts should thus target water bodies of varying habitat types to protect greater species diversity.

  20. Species Composition, Distribution and Habitat Types of Odonata in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and the Associated Conservation Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Lorinda A.; Bowker, Meyrick B.; Tarboton, Warwick; Downs, Colleen T.

    2014-01-01

    Maputaland–Pondoland–Albany, South Africa has been identified as a biodiversity hotspot and centre for endemism. Odonata make good indicators of freshwater ecosystem health. Consequently we compiled a list of Odonata species recorded to date in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park. We then detailed important species in terms of endemism, conservation status, and potential as indicator species. Finally, we compared Odonata assemblages of different sites sampled within the park to illustrate habitat importance. Species identified during two formal surveys and incidental observations made during the study period were combined with an existing database to compile an accurate and up to date species list for the iSimangaliso Wetland Park. Data from this study were then analyzed to determine which water bodies had the most similar species composition. The Dragonfly Biotic Index (DBI) value of each study area was also determined. We recorded 68 odonate species in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, adding 13 species to the Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife database for the area. This brings the total number of Odonata species for the iSimangaliso Wetland Park to 86. Eight species are red-listed, 12 are restricted in South Africa to the coastal plains of northern KwaZulu-Natal, and the remainder occurs widely across the southern African savanna. Analyses indicate that species odonate assemblages were most similar in water bodies with comparable habitats. iSimangaliso Wetland Park is identified as an important area for Odonata diversity and endemism, a trend also reflected by the DBI values. Shifts in the existing species assemblages would indicate changes within the ecosystem and thus this species account provides necessary baseline data for the area. Species Conservation efforts should thus target water bodies of varying habitat types to protect greater species diversity. PMID:24662948

  1. Biotic wetland connectivity—supporting a new approach for wetland policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amezaga, J. M.; Santamaría, L.; Green, A. J.

    2002-06-01

    Wetlands are key habitats connected physically and socially with processes occurring over a much wider territory. The biotic connection through dispersal mechanisms among wetlands is of primary importance to wetland management and policies. However, traditional wetland conservation approaches are based on the preservation of isolated sites considered to be of special importance (typically owing to their importance for concentrations of migratory waterbirds). Research linking local species richness and bird migration suggests that the effect of wetland loss on regional diversity might be much larger than what would be expected from direct habitat loss. Since the biotic connection among wetlands serviced by waterbirds appears to be more efficient within a limited range, the distribution of wetlands in space is a key aspect determining wetland connectedness even in the absence of direct hydrologic links. Protected areas should thus be defined with regard to waterfowl movements and waterbird migration as functional processes contributing to aquatic species migration and local species richness. This calls for a regional approach to wetland management within a continental context. This paper aims at defining an operational view of the dispersion function of wetlands and its implication for conservation policies. For this purpose, we examined the conservation policies of the Ramsar Convention (the international treaty that protects wetlands) and the European Union (as an example of relevant continental level policy-making) from the viewpoint of bird-mediated dispersal of aquatic organisms. We propose nine specific avenues for the inclusion of bird-mediated dispersal in the policy documents examined. Non-governmental organisations and other organisations working in waterbird conservation should also recognise the importance of their policies for aquatic biodiversity at broader levels and avoid compartmentalising their conservation activities.

  2. Hydrogeology of wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.; Llamas, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    A collection of 10 papers presented at the Hydrogeology of Wetlands Symposium, 28th International Geological Congress in Washington, DC, in July 1989. The purpose of the symposium was to assemble papers describing hydrogeologic studies of wetlands representative of different geographic regions, wetland types, and study approaches. The papers presented at the Symposium ranged geographically from wetlands in the Arctic to the Subtropics. Different wetland types included coastal, riverine, depressional glacial terrane, and dunal depressions. Different study approaches included regional syntheses, analyses of groundwater flow systems, wetland-river interaction, and geomorphology-vegetation interaction. -from Editors

  3. Replacing natural wetlands with stormwater management facilities: Biophysical and perceived social values.

    PubMed

    Rooney, R C; Foote, L; Krogman, N; Pattison, J K; Wilson, M J; Bayley, S E

    2015-04-15

    Urban expansion replaces wetlands of natural origin with artificial stormwater management facilities. The literature suggests that efforts to mimic natural wetlands in the design of stormwater facilities can expand the provision of ecosystem services. Policy developments seek to capitalize on these improvements, encouraging developers to build stormwater wetlands in place of stormwater ponds; however, few have compared the biophysical values and social perceptions of these created wetlands to those of the natural wetlands they are replacing. We compared four types of wetlands: natural references sites, natural wetlands impacted by agriculture, created stormwater wetlands, and created stormwater ponds. We anticipated that they would exhibit a gradient in biodiversity, ecological integrity, chemical and hydrologic stress. We further anticipated that perceived values would mirror measured biophysical values. We found higher biophysical values associated with wetlands of natural origin (both reference and agriculturally impacted). The biophysical values of stormwater wetlands and stormwater ponds were lower and indistinguishable from one another. The perceived wetland values assessed by the public differed from the observed biophysical values. This has important policy implications, as the public are not likely to perceive the loss of values associated with the replacement of natural wetlands with created stormwater management facilities. We conclude that 1) agriculturally impacted wetlands provide biophysical values equivalent to those of natural wetlands, meaning that land use alone is not a great predictor of wetland value; 2) stormwater wetlands are not a substantive improvement over stormwater ponds, relative to wetlands of natural origin; 3) stormwater wetlands are poor mimics of natural wetlands, likely due to fundamental distinctions in terms of basin morphology, temporal variation in hydrology, ground water connectivity, and landscape position; 4) these

  4. Characterizing wetland change at landscape scale in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chi; Sheng, Sheng; Zhou, Wen; Cui, Lijuan; Liu, Maosong

    2011-08-01

    Human activities produced great impacts on wetlands worldwide. Taking Jiangsu Province, China, as a representative wetland region subject to extensive human activities, the aim of this study is to understand the conversion trajectory and spatial differentiation in wetland change from a multi-scale perspective. Based on multi-temporal Landsat images, it was found that the natural wetlands decreased by 11.2% from 1990 to 2006 in Jiangsu Province. Transition matrices showed that the conversion of natural wetlands to human-made wetlands (mostly aquaculture ponds) was the major form of natural wetland reduction, accounting for over 60% of the reduction. Percentage reduction and area reduc tion of natural wetlands were respectively quantified within different wetland cover zones using a moving window analysis. Average percentage reduction showed a decreasing tendency with increasing wetland cover. The high-cover and mid-cover zone presented the largest area reduction at the scales of 1-2 km and 4-8 km, respectively. Local hotspots of natural wetland reduction were mapped using the equal-interval and quantile classification schemes. The hotspots were mostly concentrated in the Lixiahe marshes and the coastal wetland areas. For the area reduction hotspots, the quantile classification presented larger area and more patches than the equal-interval classification; while an opposite result was shown for the percentage reduction hotspots. With respect to the discontinuous distribution of the natural wetlands, area reduction could be more appropriate to represent reduction hotspots than percentage reduction in the study area. These findings could have useful implications to wetland conservation.

  5. Wetland Characteristics and Denitrification

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation serves as an initial summary of our wetland field work's watershed characteristics hydrologic characteristics, water quality measurements, and denitrification assays. We present our measurement results in the context of wetland type (Estuarine, Freshwater Mars...

  6. Why are wetlands important?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, comparable to rain forests and coral reefs. An immense variety of species of microbes, plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish, and mammals can be part of a wetland ecosystem.

  7. Nitrogen removal capacity of wetlands: sediment versus epiphytic biofilms.

    PubMed

    Bourgues, S; Hart, B T H

    2007-01-01

    Wetlands are important sinks for nutrients and constructed wetlands are current practice for stormwater treatment. For nitrogen, the main removal process is denitrification (microbial reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas). The bacteria responsible for this process are mostly found in the sediments and in epiphytic biofilms growing on wetland macrophytes. This paper reports on a project which aimed at measuring denitrification potential in sediments and epiphyton in urban wetlands. This study showed that wetland sediments could support high rates of denitrification. Interestingly, the most polluted of the wetlands studied had the highest denitrification potential. The management implication from this result is that indicators of pollution, such as hydrocarbon levels, will not necessarily reflect the ability of a wetland to denitrify. Two of the wetlands were studied in more detail. Here the denitrification potential of the epiphyton on dominant macrophytes and sediments were measured. The results indicated that the potential denitrification activity of the epiphyton was comparable to those measured in the sediments. Hence, biofilms could play a significant part in removing nitrogen loads. This work contributes to a better knowledge of the functioning of wetlands. This will lead to improved design and management of wetlands used for treating stormwater.

  8. Are isolated wetlands isolated?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Haukos, David A.

    2011-01-01

    While federal regulations during the past 10 years have treated isolated wetlands as unconnected to aquatic resources protected by the Clean Water Act, they provide critical ecosystem services to society that extend well beyond their wetland boundaries. The authors offer well-documented examples from the scientific literature on some of the ecosystem services provided by isolated wetlands to society and other ecosystems.

  9. Sedimentation of prairie wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleason, Robert A.; Euliss, Ned H.

    1998-01-01

    Many wetlands in the prairie pothole region are embedded within an agricultural landscape where they are subject to varying degrees of siltation. Cultivation of wetland catchment areas has exacerbated soil erosion; wetlands in agricultural fields receive more sediment from upland areas than wetlands in grassland landscapes and hence are subject to premature filling (i.e., they have shorter topographic lives). Associated impacts from increased turbidity, sediment deposition, and increased surface water input likely have impaired natural wetland functions. Although trapping of sediments by wetlands is often cited as a water quality benefit, sediment input from agricultural fields has potential to completely fill wetlands and shorten their effective life-span. Thus, the value placed on wetlands to trap sediments is in conflict with maximizing the effective topographic life of wetlands. Herein, we provide an overview of sedimentation, identify associated impacts on wetlands, and suggest remedial management strategies. We also highlight the need to evaluate the impact of agricultural practices on wetland functions from an interdisciplinary approach to facilitate development of best management practices that benefit both wetland and agricultural interests.

  10. Wetlands: An Interdisciplinary Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2004-01-01

    The topic of wetlands provides a rich context for curriculum integration. This unit contains seven activities that integrate environmental science with math, technology, social studies, language arts, and other disciplines. In this series, students will identify plants and animals found in wetlands, understand the function of wetlands through the…

  11. Gulf Coast Wetlands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wetlands of the Gulf Coast     ... web of estuarine channels and extensive coastal wetlands that provide important habitat for fisheries. The city of New Orleans ... or below sea level. The city is protected by levees, but the wetlands which also function as a buffer from storm surges have been ...

  12. Wetlands, Wildlife, and People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the problems created when wetlands are drained or altered by humans. Provides a brief case study of the Everglades as an example of the effects of human intervention. Presents four learning activities (along with reproducible worksheets) that deal with the benefits of wetlands, and some debated issues over wetlands. (TW)

  13. Wetlands, Wildlife, and People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the problems created when wetlands are drained or altered by humans. Provides a brief case study of the Everglades as an example of the effects of human intervention. Presents four learning activities (along with reproducible worksheets) that deal with the benefits of wetlands, and some debated issues over wetlands. (TW)

  14. Wetlands: An Interdisciplinary Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2004-01-01

    The topic of wetlands provides a rich context for curriculum integration. This unit contains seven activities that integrate environmental science with math, technology, social studies, language arts, and other disciplines. In this series, students will identify plants and animals found in wetlands, understand the function of wetlands through the…

  15. Designing Email Tasks for the Business English Classroom: Implications from a Study of Hong Kong's Key Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Email has revolutionised the way in which professionals work and companies operate, and yet has received surprisingly little scholarly attention in English for Specific Purposes and has an unexpectedly muted presence in many Business English textbooks. The dearth of research into email use in globalised business settings may be one of the factors…

  16. English-Language Learners: Implications of Limited Vocabulary for Cross-Language Transfer of Phonemic Awareness with Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwill, Kim; Blanchard, Jay; Christie, James; Gorin, Joanna S.; Garcia, Herman S.

    2010-01-01

    Research examined the influence of native vocabulary development on cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness. Participants were Spanish-speaking kindergartners learning English in immersion classrooms. Results indicated that limited Spanish vocabulary development negatively influenced cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness to English.…

  17. English-Language Learners: Implications of Limited Vocabulary for Cross-Language Transfer of Phonemic Awareness with Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwill, Kim; Blanchard, Jay; Christie, James; Gorin, Joanna S.; Garcia, Herman S.

    2010-01-01

    Research examined the influence of native vocabulary development on cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness. Participants were Spanish-speaking kindergartners learning English in immersion classrooms. Results indicated that limited Spanish vocabulary development negatively influenced cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness to English.…

  18. Designing Email Tasks for the Business English Classroom: Implications from a Study of Hong Kong's Key Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Email has revolutionised the way in which professionals work and companies operate, and yet has received surprisingly little scholarly attention in English for Specific Purposes and has an unexpectedly muted presence in many Business English textbooks. The dearth of research into email use in globalised business settings may be one of the factors…

  19. Language Ideologies: Critical Perspectives on the Official English Movement. Volume 1: Education and the Social Implications of Official Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Roseann Duenas, Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses the complicated and divisive issues at the heart of the debate over language diversity and the English Only movement in United States public education. Blending social, political, and legal analyses of the ideologies of language with perspectives on the impact of the English Only movement on education and in…

  20. Anthropomorphism--Matters or Not? On Agent Modality and Its Implications for Teaching English Idioms and Design Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Sahragard, Rahman; Babaie Shalmani, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine whether agent-based instruction would privilege English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners any better than mainstream approaches (e.g. analogical reasoning, guessing from context, image formation, semantic analysis, etc.) when it comes to the teaching of English idioms. It also sought to explore whether…

  1. National Wetlands Inventory products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    control. These predominantly wet areas, or wetlands as they are commonly called, now represent only about 5 percent of the land surface of the lower 48 States. Out of 221 million acres of wetlands that once existed in the conterminous United States, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) estimates that only about 103.3 million acres remain. Each year, development, drainage, and agriculture eliminate another 290,000 acres-an area a little less than half the size of Rhode Island. From the 1950's to the 1970's, conversion of wetlands to farmland caused 87 percent of all wetland losses. The FWS has long recognized the importance of America's wetlands because they form breeding and wintering grounds for great numbers of migratory birds. In 1977, the FWS began the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI), a systematic effort to classify and map America's remaining wetlands.

  2. Phosphorus transformations during decomposition of wetland macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Cheesman, Alexander W; Turner, Benjamin L; Inglett, Patrick W; Reddy, K Ramesh

    2010-12-15

    The microbially mediated transformation of detrital P entering wetlands has important implications for the cycling and long-term sequestration of P in wetland soils. We investigated changes in P forms in sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense Crantz) and cattail (Typha domingensis Pers.) leaf litter during 15 months of decomposition at two sites of markedly different nutrient status within a hard-water subtropical wetland (Water Conservation Area 2A, Florida). Leaf litter decomposition at the nutrient enriched site resulted in net sequestration of P from the environment in forms characteristic of microbial cells (i.e., phosphodiesters and pyrophosphate). In contrast, low P concentrations at the unenriched site resulted in little or no net sequestration of P, with changes in P forms limited to the loss of compounds present in the initial leaf litter. We conclude that under nutrient-rich conditions, P sequestration occurs through the accumulation of microbially derived compounds and the presumed concentration of endogenous macrophyte P. Under nutrient-poor conditions, standing P pools within wetland soils appear to be independent of the heterotrophic decomposition of macrophyte leaf litter. These conclusions have important implications for our ability to predict the nature, stability, and rates of P sequestration in wetlands in response to changes in nutrient loading.

  3. Factors influencing stable isotope ratios in CH4 and CO2 within subenvironments of freshwater wetlands: implications for delta-signatures of emissions.

    PubMed

    Hornibrook, E R; Longstaffe, F J; Fyfe, W S

    2000-01-01

    Much uncertainty still exists regarding spatial and temporal variability of stable isotope ratios (13C/12C and D/H) in different CH4-emission sources. Such variability is especially prevalent in freshwater wetlands where a range of processes can influence stable isotope compositions, resulting in variations of up to approximately 50% for delta13C-CH4 and approximately 50% for deltaD-CH4 values. Within a temperate-zone bog and marsh situated in southwestern Ontario, Canada, gas bubbles in pond sediments exhibit only minor seasonal and spatial variation in delta13C-CH4, deltaD-CH4 and delta13C-CO2 values. In pond sediments, CO2 appears to be the main source of carbon during methanogenesis either directly via CO2 reduction or indirectly through dissimilation of autotrophic acetate. In contrast, CH4 production occurs primarily via acetate fermentation at shallow depths in peat soils adjacent to ponds at each wetland. At greater depths within soils, sigmaCO2 and H2O increasingly exert an influence on delta13C- and deltaD-CH4 values. Secondary alteration processes (e.g., methanotrophy or diffusive transport) are unlikely to be responsible for depth-related changes in stable isotope values of CH4. Recent models that attempt to predict deltaD-CH4 values in freshwater environments from D/H ratios in local precipitation do not adequately account for such changes with depth. Subenvironments (i.e., soil-forming and open water areas) in wetlands should be considered separately with respect to stable isotope signatures in CH4 emission models.

  4. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of…

  5. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of…

  6. Carbon storage in US wetlands | Science Inventory | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Nature Communications article is a product of legacy work that contributes to Safe and Sustainable Water Resources research on technical support and research on the enhancement of Office of Water’s National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) (SSWR 3.01A). The research is also potentially relevant to SHC and ACE research program questions. The research was conducted under USEPA cooperative agreement number 83422601 with Michigan State University in association with Kenyon College. USEPA 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment data used for this research are publically available from https://www.epa.gov/national-aquatic-resource-surveys/data-national-aquatic-resource-surveys. ***This is article is clearing for completion ONLY*** The research and conclusions in this article highlight the role of wetland soils in storing carbon and the implications of disturbance to wetlands for climate change. Specifically, we provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales using field data from the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA). This research also describes how soil carbon stocks vary by wetland type and soil depth, and by anthropogenic disturbance to the wetland. We find that wetlands in the conterminous US store a total of 11.52 PgC – roughly equivalent to four years of annual carbon emissions by the US. Freshwater inland wetlands, in part due to their substantial areal extent, hold nearly ten-fol

  7. Carbon storage in US wetlands | Science Inventory | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Nature Communications article is a product of legacy work that contributes to Safe and Sustainable Water Resources research on technical support and research on the enhancement of Office of Water’s National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) (SSWR 3.01A). The research is also potentially relevant to SHC and ACE research program questions. The research was conducted under USEPA cooperative agreement number 83422601 with Michigan State University in association with Kenyon College. USEPA 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment data used for this research are publically available from https://www.epa.gov/national-aquatic-resource-surveys/data-national-aquatic-resource-surveys. ***This is article is clearing for completion ONLY*** The research and conclusions in this article highlight the role of wetland soils in storing carbon and the implications of disturbance to wetlands for climate change. Specifically, we provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales using field data from the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA). This research also describes how soil carbon stocks vary by wetland type and soil depth, and by anthropogenic disturbance to the wetland. We find that wetlands in the conterminous US store a total of 11.52 PgC – roughly equivalent to four years of annual carbon emissions by the US. Freshwater inland wetlands, in part due to their substantial areal extent, hold nearly ten-fol

  8. Temperature effects in treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Kadlec, R H; Reddy, K R

    2001-01-01

    Several biogeochemical processes that regulate the removal of nutrients in wetlands are affected by temperature, thus influencing the overall treatment efficiency. In this paper, the effects of temperature on carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling processes in treatment wetlands and their implications to water quality are discussed. Many environmental factors display annual cycles that mediate whole system performance. Water temperature is one of the important cyclic stimuli, but inlet flow rates and concentrations, and several features of the annual biogeochemical cycle, also can contribute to the observed patterns of nutrient and pollutant removal. Atmospheric influences, including rain, evapotranspiration, and water reaeration, also follow seasonal patterns. Processes regulating storages in wetlands are active throughout the year and can act as seasonal reservoirs of nutrients, carbon, and pollutants. Many individual wetland processes, such as microbially mediated reactions, are affected by temperature. Response was much greater to changes at the lower end of the temperature scale (< 15 degrees C) than at the optimal range (20 to 35 degrees C). Processes regulating organic matter decomposition are affected by temperature. Similarly, all nitrogen cycling reactions (mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification) are affected by temperature. The temperature coefficient (theta) varied from 1.05 to 1.37 for carbon and nitrogen cycling processes during isolated conditions. Phosphorus sorption reactions are least affected by temperature, with theta values of 1.03 to 1.12. Physical processes involved in the removal of particulate carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus are not affected much by temperature. In contrast, observed wetland removals may have different temperature dependence. Design models are oversimplified because of limitations of data for calibration. The result of complex system behavior and the simple model is the need to interpret whole ecosystem data

  9. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. ); Isaacson, H.R. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  10. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  11. Draft Wetlands Rule Released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers released on 28 March a draft of a new rule to guide compensatory mitigation for when wetlands are unavoidably lost due to development. However, whether the rule is successful in preventing a net loss in wetlands will depend largely on its implementation, according to two wetlands scientists who evaluated the issue for the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) in 2001. Under the federal Clean Water Act, developers who seek to build on wetlands must compensate for any wetlands loss if they are unable to avoid or minimize the loss. Such compensation is covered under the newly proposed compensatory mitigation rule. Benjamin Grumbles, EPA assistant administrator for water, called the rule an ``innovative new standard that will accelerate the pace of wetlands conservation and restoration.''

  12. Norm Comparisons of the Spanish-language and English-language WAIS-III: Implications for Clinical Assessment and Test Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Funes, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Juventino Hernandez; Lopez, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a systematic comparison of the norms of three Spanish-language WAIS-III batteries from Mexico, Spain and Puerto Rico, and the US English-language WAIS-III battery. Specifically, we examined the performance of the four normative samples on two identical subtests (Digit Span and Digit Symbol-Coding) and one nearly identical subtest (Block Design). We found that across most age groups the means associated with the Spanish-language versions of the three subtests were lower than the means of the US English-language version. In addition, we found that for most age ranges the Mexican subsamples scored lower than the Spanish subsamples. Lower educational levels of Mexicans and Spaniards compared to US residents are consistent with the general pattern of findings. These results suggest that because of the different norms, applying any of the three Spanish-language versions of the WAIS-III generally risks underestimating deficits, and that applying the English-language WAIS-III norms risks overestimating deficits of Spanish-speaking adults. There were a few exceptions to these general patterns. For example, the Mexican subsample aged 70 and above performed significantly better on the Digit Symbol and Block Design than the US and Spanish subsamples. Implications for the clinical assessment of US Spanish-speaking Latinos and test adaptation are discussed with an eye toward improving the clinical care for this community. PMID:26950442

  13. Discrepancies between bilinguals' performance on the Spanish and English versions of the WAIS Digit Span task: Cross-cultural implications.

    PubMed

    López, Enrique; Steiner, Alexander J; Hardy, David J; IsHak, Waguih W; Anderson, W Brantley

    2016-01-01

    This study explored within-subjects differences in the performance of 40 bilingual participants on the English and Spanish versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Digit Span task. To test the linguistic hypothesis that individuals would perform worse in Spanish because of its syllabic demand, we compared the number of syllables correctly recalled by each participant for every correct trial. Our analysis of the correct number of syllables remembered per trial showed that participants performed significantly better (i.e., recalling more syllables) in Spanish than in English on the total score. Findings suggest the Spanish version of the Digit Span (total score) was significantly more difficult than the English version utilizing traditional scoring methods. Moreover, the Forward Trial, rather than the Backward Trial, was more likely to show group differences between both language versions. Additionally, the Spanish trials of the Digit Span were correlated with language comprehension and verbal episodic memory measures, whereas the English trials of the Digit Span were correlated with confrontational naming and verbal fluency tasks. The results suggest that more research is necessary to further investigate other cognitive factors, rather than just syllabic demand, that might contribute to performance and outcome differences on the WAIS Digit Span in Spanish-English bilinguals.

  14. Wetlands and Paleolakes in the Hyperarid Atacama Desert During the Late Quaternary and Their Implications for Early Human Occupation of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, M.; Latorre Hidalgo, C.; Santoro, C.; Gayo, E.; McRostie, V.; Finstad, K. M.; Amundson, R.

    2016-12-01

    The hyperarid Atacama Desert has long been considered a natural barrier to human dispersal. However, several archaeological sites dating from the late Pleistocene have been recently reported on, and other as yet unpublished evidence is rapidly accumulating. It has been established that these occupations were facilitated by increased fluvial activity and biologically productive riparian ecosystems along the western slope of the Andes, and that the presence of humans disappeared with declines in this water flow. The considerable evidence for regional stream flow suggests that basins and lowlands should have contained lakes or wetlands contemporaneous with the ages of the fluvial activity, but there has been no published data on late Quaternary lakes in the region. Here, we report on our observations that possibly many present day salars (salt covered basins) were fresh water lakes and marshlands during the Central Andean Pluvial Event (CAPE) that occurred during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. We performed radiocarbon analysis of described stratigraphic profiles on paleo-shorelines or in paleo-lake basins that lie within the Pampa del Tamarugal (PDT) basin. We additionally described gastropods, plant remnants, phytoliths and diatomea, which provide a reliable source for paleoenvironmental facies interpretation. These data indicate that a paleolake existed at the location of the present-day Salar de Bellavista, and that wetlands (and possibly lakes) were present at the Salar de Llamara and Pintados. These past aquatic systems are coeval with the activation of the riparian systems of the PDT reported by previous studies. Furthermore, they would have contributed to a starkly different set of resource constraints for early inhabitants than the inhospitable conditions existing today. Additionally, the presence of these water sources provides guidance in the search for additional evidence of human occupation in the region, and for understanding the geographical

  15. Hydrologic Influence and Function of Naturally-occurring Isolated Wetlands in the Lake Okeechobee Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, D. B.; Jawitz, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    Wetland restoration has become an area of interest for reduction of watershed discharges of nutrients and other solutes, as well as reduction of hydrograph peak discharges. Nutrient loading from agricultural land uses in the Lake Okeechobee Basin has been implicated as a source of increased trophic levels of receiving rivers and Lake Okeechobee. Potential mitigation strategies for these water quality impacts include the management of naturally-occurring isolated wetlands (IWs), which cover an estimated 16% the basin landscape. Restoration of IWs within these pastures is hypothesized to promote water and nutrient retention and a reduction of nutrient loading to receiving water bodies. Four head-of-ditch isolated wetlands have been monitored for two years with emphases on wetland water and nutrient budgets. A water balance approach was used to estimate the size of the hydrologic capture zone for each wetland. Significant system characterization included water table elevation, ground surface slope, and rainfall. Results indicated that water entered the wetlands primarily via saturation excess overland flow and was subsequently discharged from the wetlands primarily via subsurface outflow. The wetlands were found to be recharging groundwater the vast majority of the time that the wetlands were saturated, resulting in a net yearly of 100 to 150 cm of wetland surface water. These results have important implications for how isolated wetlands are viewed within watershed-scale restoration schemes.

  16. Removal processes for arsenic in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Lizama A, Katherine; Fletcher, Tim D; Sun, Guangzhi

    2011-08-01

    Arsenic pollution in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its toxicity and chronic effects on human health. This concern has generated increasing interest in the use of different treatment technologies to remove arsenic from contaminated water. Constructed wetlands are a cost-effective natural system successfully used for removing various pollutants, and they have shown capability for removing arsenic. This paper reviews current understanding of the removal processes for arsenic, discusses implications for treatment wetlands, and identifies critical knowledge gaps and areas worthy of future research. The reactivity of arsenic means that different arsenic species may be found in wetlands, influenced by vegetation, supporting medium and microorganisms. Despite the fact that sorption, precipitation and coprecipitation are the principal processes responsible for the removal of arsenic, bacteria can mediate these processes and can play a significant role under favourable environmental conditions. The most important factors affecting the speciation of arsenic are pH, alkalinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, the presence of other chemical species--iron, sulphur, phosphate--,a source of carbon, and the wetland substrate. Studies of the microbial communities and the speciation of arsenic in the solid phase using advanced techniques could provide further insights on the removal of arsenic. Limited data and understanding of the interaction of the different processes involved in the removal of arsenic explain the rudimentary guidelines available for the design of wetlands systems.

  17. Redox Transformations of Mercury in Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amyot, M.

    2007-12-01

    Wetlands are valued for their high biodiversity and for their ecosystem services. However, we still have a poor understanding of their role in the redox transformation of contaminants such as mercury. We first propose a brief overview of past studies conducted on wetlands from different latitudes. In most instances, photochemical processes are determinant in the upper portion of the water column. At the sediment/water interface, evidence is currently supporting a significant contribution of bacterial communities, as promoters of Hg(II) reduction, particularly in the presence of anoxia. A multi-year study was recently conducted on Hg redox cycling in a fluvial wetland of the St. Lawrence River, where wetland restoration could have unintended consequences. In addition to photochemistry and bacterial reduction, Hg redox cycling was affected by epiphytes living on macrophytes, through adsorption/absorption processes. Redox studies such as this one have been historically seen as having implication for water/air flux studies, since Hg(0) is volatile. We here also discuss the potential bioavailability of Hg(0) towards bacteria. An emerging axis of our wetland research effort deals with beaver dams, which are in expansion and shown to produce high levels of methylHg

  18. Gas Research Institute wetland research program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkey, P.L.; Zimmerman, R.E. ); Isaacson, H.R. )

    1992-01-01

    As part of three ongoing research projects, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) is studying the natural gas industry's impacts on wetlands and how to manage operations so that impacts can be minimized or eliminated. The objective of the first project is to gain a better understanding of the causes and processes of wetland loss in the Louisiana deltaic plain and what role gas pipeline canals play in wetland loss. On the basis of information gathered from the first projects, management and mitigation implications for pipeline construction and maintenance will be evaluated. The objective of the second project is to assess the floral and faunal communities on existing rights-of-way (ROWs) that pass through numerous types of wetlands across the United States. The emphasis of the project is on pipelines that were installed within the past five years. The objective of the third project is to evaluate the administrative, jurisdictional, technical, and economic issues of wetland mitigation banking. This paper discusses these projects, their backgrounds, some of the results to date, and the deliverables.

  19. Gas Research Institute wetland research program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkey, P.L.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-12-01

    As part of three ongoing research projects, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) is studying the natural gas industry`s impacts on wetlands and how to manage operations so that impacts can be minimized or eliminated. The objective of the first project is to gain a better understanding of the causes and processes of wetland loss in the Louisiana deltaic plain and what role gas pipeline canals play in wetland loss. On the basis of information gathered from the first projects, management and mitigation implications for pipeline construction and maintenance will be evaluated. The objective of the second project is to assess the floral and faunal communities on existing rights-of-way (ROWs) that pass through numerous types of wetlands across the United States. The emphasis of the project is on pipelines that were installed within the past five years. The objective of the third project is to evaluate the administrative, jurisdictional, technical, and economic issues of wetland mitigation banking. This paper discusses these projects, their backgrounds, some of the results to date, and the deliverables.

  20. Wetlands: Earth's Kidneys

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands are unique, diverse, and productive habitats that emerge at the fringe of aquatic and upland land systems. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines wetlands as "areas that are regularly inundated by surface water or groundwater and characterized by a preva...

  1. Percent Wetland Cover

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be indicate cleaner surface water. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  2. Wetlands and Web Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisone-Bartels, Dede

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the preservation of areas like the Shoreline Park (California) wetlands depends on educating students about the value of natural resources. Describes the creation of a Web page on the wetlands for third-grade students by seventh-grade art and ecology students. Outlines the technical process of developing a Web page. (DSK)

  3. Wetlands: Earth's Kidneys

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands are unique, diverse, and productive habitats that emerge at the fringe of aquatic and upland land systems. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines wetlands as "areas that are regularly inundated by surface water or groundwater and characterized by a preva...

  4. Wetlands and Web Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisone-Bartels, Dede

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the preservation of areas like the Shoreline Park (California) wetlands depends on educating students about the value of natural resources. Describes the creation of a Web page on the wetlands for third-grade students by seventh-grade art and ecology students. Outlines the technical process of developing a Web page. (DSK)

  5. Profiling the Phonological Processes Shaping the Fossilized IL of Adult Learners of English as a Foreign Language: Some Theoretical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroy, Rafael

    2001-01-01

    Describes the frozen interlanguage (IL) of adult learners of English in a natural setting to profile phonological processes that underlie their output. Also examines the impact on learners' oral behavior and the role played by transfer and developmental processes in such behavior. Analysis yields 10 processes shaping learners' IL that are…

  6. A Multi-Perspective Investigation of Attitudes towards English Accents in Hong Kong: Implications for Pronunciation Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jim Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    The study reported in this article examined Hong Kong students' attitudes towards English accents from three interrelated perspectives: (1) their awareness of accents, (2) their perception of accents in relation to the dimensions of status and solidarity, and (3) their choice of accents in various local language-using contexts. By means of the…

  7. How Language Proficiency Tests Mislead Us about Ability: Implications for English Language Learner Placement in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macswan, Jeff; Rolstad, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    The authors argue that English language learner (ELL) language assessment policy and poor language tests partly account for ELLs' disproportionate representation in special education. Previous research indicates that many states routinely assess ELLs' first language (L1) at initial enrollment and that ELLs identified as limited in both languages…

  8. Measuring English Linguistic Proficiency and Functional Health Literacy Levels in Two Languages: Implications for Reaching Latino Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; Britigan, Denise H.; Murnan, Judy; King, Keith; Vaughn, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to determine the health literacy levels of Latinos in the Greater Cincinnati Area in both English and Spanish by utilizing two standardized quantitative measures of health literacy, and to undertake an assessment of the relationship between language, health literacy and acculturation in this community. Given a rapid…

  9. An Analysis of Social Network Websites for Language Learning: Implications for Teaching and Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, M.; Abe, K.; Cao, M. W.; Liu, S.; Ok, D. U.; Park, J.; Parrish, C.; Sardegna, V. G.

    2015-01-01

    Although educators are excited about the potential of social network sites for language learning (SNSLL), there is a lack of understanding of how SNSLL can be used to facilitate teaching and learning for English as Second language (ESL) instructors and students. The purpose of this study was to examine the affordances of four selected SNSLL…

  10. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish-English Bilinguals from 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Senor, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish-English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method: Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to…

  11. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish-English Bilinguals from 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Senor, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish-English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method: Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to…

  12. The Intersection of Mathematics and Language in the Post-Secondary Environment: Implications for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jean; Milburn, Rebecca; Reynolds, Brett; Marcoccia, Philip; Silva, Patrick Justin; Panag, Sikander

    2013-01-01

    Given the increasing number of English Language Learners (ELLs) in post-secondary environments (Roessingh & Douglas, 2012), educational practices such as availability of language support for mathematics should be assessed to ensure that all students' needs are met. To explore the effects of language on mathematics in ELLs, mathematical test…

  13. How Language Proficiency Tests Mislead Us about Ability: Implications for English Language Learner Placement in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macswan, Jeff; Rolstad, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    The authors argue that English language learner (ELL) language assessment policy and poor language tests partly account for ELLs' disproportionate representation in special education. Previous research indicates that many states routinely assess ELLs' first language (L1) at initial enrollment and that ELLs identified as limited in both languages…

  14. East Asian International Student Experiences as Learners of English as an Additional Language: Implications for School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popadiuk, Natalee E.; Marshall, Steve

    2011-01-01

    In the school counselling literature, little focus is placed on international students who are learners of English as an Additional Language (EAL) and on school counselling support related to their language acquisition. Using the Critical Incident Technique, we analyzed transcripts of 21 international EAL students from China, Japan, and Korea who…

  15. An Evaluation of Online Machine Translation of Arabic into English News Headlines: Implications on Students' Learning Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadhim, Kais A.; Habeeb, Luwaytha S.; Sapar, Ahmad Arifin; Hussin, Zaharah; Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, online Machine Translation (MT) is used widely with translation software, such as Google and Babylon, being easily available and downloadable. This study aims to test the translation quality of these two machine systems in translating Arabic news headlines into English. 40 Arabic news headlines were selected from three online sources,…

  16. Assessment Planning within the Context of University English Language Teaching (ELT) in China: Implications for Teacher Assessment Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yueting

    2016-01-01

    Teacher assessment literacy (AL) is a concern for both educational assessment and teacher education research. As part of teacher AL, teacher competency of assessment planning has remained underexplored. To address this gap, this study explored how a group of 20 contest-winning university English teachers in China planned for assessment through…

  17. Grammatical morphology in children learning English as a second language: implications of similarities with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Johanne

    2005-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine whether the expressive language characteristics of typically developing (TD) children learning English as a second language (ESL) have similarities to the characteristics of the English that is spoken by monolingual children with specific language impairment (SLI), and whether this could result in the erroneous assessment of TD English-language learners (ELLs) as language impaired. Twenty-four TD language-minority children who had been learning ESL for an average of 9.5 months participated in the study. The children's accuracy and error types in production of the following grammatical morphemes were examined in spontaneous and elicited speech: third person singular [-s], past tense [-ed], irregular past tense, BE as a copula and auxiliary verb, DO as an auxiliary verb, progressive [-ing], prepositions in and on, plural [-s], and determiners a and the. The elicitation probes were part of a recently developed standardized test for identifying language impairment, the Test of Early Grammatical Impairment (TEGI; M. Rice & K. Wexler, 2001). The ELLs' accuracy rates and error patterns with the grammatical morphemes were similar to those that have been reported for same-age monolingual children with SLI, in both spontaneous and elicited speech. In addition, the ELL's elicitation probe scores were compared to the criterion scores and group means from the sample of monolingual children used to develop the TEGI and their performance on the TEGI was in the range of the clinical population even though there is no reason to suspect that any of these children is language impaired. Both analyses point to the possibility that TD ELLs could be mistaken as language impaired. The results provide information that can be used to set appropriate expectations of error patterns and rate of grammatical development in the early stages of ESL learning. The results also emphasize how the use of English standardized tests with nonnative English-speakers is

  18. Remote sensing of wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roller, N. E. G.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of using remote sensing to inventory wetlands and the related topics of proper inventory design and data collection are discussed. The material presented shows that aerial photography is the form of remote sensing from which the greatest amount of wetlands information can be derived. For extensive, general-purpose wetlands inventories, however, the use of LANDSAT data may be more cost-effective. Airborne multispectral scanners and radar are, in the main, too expensive to use - unless the information that these sensors alone can gather remotely is absolutely required. Multistage sampling employing space and high altitude remote sensing data in the initial stages appears to be an efficient survey strategy for gathering non-point specific wetlands inventory data over large areas. The operational role of remote sensing insupplying inventory data for application to several typical wetlands management problems is illustrated by summary descriptions of past ERIM projects.

  19. Forested wetland habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duberstein, Jamie A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennish, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A forested wetland (swamp) is a forest where soils are saturated or flooded for at least a portion of the growing season, and vegetation, dominated by trees, is adapted to tolerate flooded conditions. A tidal freshwater forested wetland is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity of soil porewater less than 0.5 g/l. It is known locally as tidal várzea in the Amazon delta, Brazil. A tidal saltwater forested wetland (mangrove forest) is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity often exceeding 3 g/l and reaching levels that can exceed seawater. Mangrove ecosystems are composed of facultative halophytes that generally experience better growth at moderate salinity concentrations.

  20. HISTORIC WETLANDS OF PRUDENCE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten wetland sites around Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island have been selected for a multidisciplinary study. These wetland sites are being studied to develop indicators of "wetland health." The study includes assessing the ecological conditions of the wetlands in the past, and the c...

  1. HISTORIC WETLANDS OF PRUDENCE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten wetland sites around Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island have been selected for a multidisciplinary study. These wetland sites are being studied to develop indicators of "wetland health." The study includes assessing the ecological conditions of the wetlands in the past, and the c...

  2. Simulated storm surge effects on freshwater coastal wetland soil porewater salinity and extractable ammonium levels: Implications for marsh recovery after storm surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, M.; White, J. R.; Putnam-Duhon, L. A.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal wetland systems experience both short-term changes in salinity, such as those caused by wind-driven tides and storm surge, and long-term shifts caused by sea level rise. Salinity increases associated with storm surge are known to have significant effects on soil porewater chemistry, but there is little research on the effect of flooding length on salt penetration depth into coastal marsh soils. A simulated storm surge was imposed on intact soil columns collected from a non-vegetated mudflat and a vegetated marsh site in the Wax Lake Delta, LA. Triplicate intact cores were continuously exposed to a 35 salinity water column (practical salinity scale) for 1, 2, and 4 weeks and destructively sampled in order to measure porewater salinity and extractable NH4sbnd N at two cm depth intervals. Salinity was significantly higher in the top 8 cm for both the marsh and mudflat cores after one week of flooding. After four weeks of flooding, salinity was significantly higher in marsh and mudflat cores compared to the control (no salinity) cores throughout the profile for both sites. Extractable ammonium levels increased significantly in the marsh cores throughout the experiment, but there was only a marginally (p < 0.1) significant increase seen in the mudflat cores. Results indicate that porewater salinity levels can become significantly elevated within a coastal marsh soil in just one week. This vertical intrusion of salt can potentially negatively impact macrophytes and associated microbial communities for significantly longer term post-storm surge.

  3. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Sand Lake Wetland Management District, SD; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No... assessment (EA) involving Huron, Madison, and Sand Lake Wetland Management Districts (Districts). In this..., Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District final CCP'' in the subject...

  4. Norm comparisons of the Spanish-language and English-language WAIS-III: Implications for clinical assessment and test adaptation.

    PubMed

    Funes, Cynthia M; Rodriguez, Juventino Hernandez; Lopez, Steven Regeser

    2016-12-01

    This study provides a systematic comparison of the norms of 3 Spanish-language Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS-III) batteries from Mexico, Spain, and Puerto Rico, and the U.S. English-language WAIS-III battery. Specifically, we examined the performance of the 4 normative samples on 2 identical subtests (Digit Span and Digit Symbol-Coding) and 1 nearly identical subtest (Block Design). We found that across most age groups the means associated with the Spanish-language versions of the 3 subtests were lower than the means of the U.S. English-language version. In addition, we found that for most age ranges the Mexican subsamples scored lower than the Spanish subsamples. Lower educational levels of Mexicans and Spaniards compared to U.S. residents are consistent with the general pattern of findings. These results suggest that because of the different norms, applying any of the 3 Spanish-language versions of the WAIS-III generally risks underestimating deficits, and that applying the English-language WAIS-III norms risks overestimating deficits of Spanish-speaking adults. There were a few exceptions to these general patterns. For example, the Mexican subsample ages 70 years and above performed significantly better on the Digit Symbol and Block Design than did the U.S. and Spanish subsamples. Implications for the clinical assessment of U.S. Spanish-speaking Latinos and test adaptation are discussed with an eye toward improving the clinical care for this community. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Language, foreign nationality and ethnicity in an English prison: implications for the quality of health and social research.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Can; Bartlett, Annie

    2011-10-01

    More than one in 10 of all prisoners in England and Wales are Foreign Nationals. This article discusses whether the research applications to one London prison are aimed at understanding a prisoner population characterised by significant multinational and multilingual complexity. We studied all accessible documents relating to research undertaken at a women's prison between 2005 and 2009 to assess the involvement of Foreign National prisoners and women with limited English. The source of information was prison research applications and protocols. We also looked at available final research reports and journal articles. Two key findings emerged from this study. First, studies at this prison frequently excluded Foreign National prisoners and women with limited English. Second, Foreign National prisoners were often clustered as a homogeneous category in the research reports reviewed. This is despite their diverse cultural backgrounds, their variable immigration status and their differing competence in English, all of which affect their lives. The failure to include and/or identify social subgroups of the population can undermine the value of research, including, in the case of the study prison, funded health research. This can compromise associated needs assessments and service delivery, particularly important in already disadvantaged populations; this may encourage and/or perpetuate a range of health inequalities. There is a pressing need to examine cultural exclusion in other health and criminal justice settings, to assess the ways in which-and the extent to which-such exclusion may compromise the merit of proposed and completed health and social research.

  6. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish–English Bilinguals From 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Señor, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish–English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to measure mean vocabulary size and growth in 47 Spanish–English bilingually developing children from 22 to 30 months of age based on results from the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI; Fenson et al., 1993) and the Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (Jackson-Maldonado et al., 2003). Bilingual children’s scores of total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were compared with CDI scores for a control group of 56 monolingual children. Results The total vocabulary measure resulted in mean vocabulary scores and average rate of growth similar to monolingual growth, whereas conceptual vocabulary scores were significantly smaller and grew at a slower rate than total vocabulary scores. Total vocabulary identified the same proportion of bilingual children below the 25th percentile on monolingual norms as the CDI did for monolingual children. Conclusion These results support the use of total vocabulary as a means of assessing early language development in young bilingual Spanish–English speaking children. PMID:24023382

  7. Total and conceptual vocabulary in Spanish-English bilinguals from 22 to 30 months: implications for assessment.

    PubMed

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Señor, Melissa

    2013-10-01

    Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish-English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to measure mean vocabulary size and growth in 47 Spanish-English bilingually developing children from 22 to 30 months of age based on results from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI; Fenson et al., 1993) and the Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas ( Jackson-Maldonado et al., 2003). Bilingual children's scores of total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were compared with CDI scores for a control group of 56 monolingual children. The total vocabulary measure resulted in mean vocabulary scores and average rate of growth similar to monolingual growth, whereas conceptual vocabulary scores were significantly smaller and grew at a slower rate than total vocabulary scores. Total vocabulary identified the same proportion of bilingual children below the 25th percentile on monolingual norms as the CDI did for monolingual children. These results support the use of total vocabulary as a means of assessing early language development in young bilingual Spanish-English speaking children.

  8. National Wetlands Inventory products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    Marshes, swamps, ponds, and bogs are teeming biological nurseries for migratory birds, fish, and aquatic plants. They also provide natural flood and erosion control. These predominantly wet areas, or wetlands as they are commonly called, now represent only about 5 percent of the land surface of the lower 48 States. Out of 221 million acres of wetlands that once existed in the conterminous United States, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) estimates that only about 103.3 million acres remain. Each year, development, drainage, and agriculture eliminate another 290,000 acres - an area a little less than half the size of Rhode Island. From the 1950's to the 1970's, conversion of wetlands to farmland caused 87 percent of all wetland losses. The FWS has long recognized the importance of America's wetlands because they form breeding and wintering grounds for great numbers of migratory birds. In 1977, the FWS began the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI), a systematic effort to classify and map America's remaining wetlands.

  9. Neotropical coastal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Karen L.; Batzer, Darold P.; Baldwin, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical region, which includes the tropical Americas, is one of the world's eight biogeographic zones. It contains some of the most diverse and unique wetlands in the world, some of which are still relatively undisturbed by humans. This chapter focuses on the northern segment of the Neotropics (south Florida, the Caribbean islands, Mexico, and Central America), an area that spans a latitudinal gradient from about 7 N to 29 N and 60 W to 112 W. Examples of coastal wetlands in this realm include the Everglades (Florida, USA), Ten Thousand Islands (Florida, USA), Laguna de Terminos (Mexico), Twin Cays (Belize), and Zapata Swamp (Cuba). Coastal wetlands are dominated by mangroves, which will be emphasized here, but also include freshwater swamps and marshes, saline marshes, and seagrass beds. The aim of this chapter is to provide a broad overview of Neotropical coastal wetlands of the North American continent, with an emphasis on mangroves, since this is the dominant vegetation type and because in-depth coverage of all wetland types is impossible here. Instead, the goal is to describe the environmental settings, plant and animal communities, key ecological controls, and some conservation concerns, with specific examples. Because this book deals with wetlands of North America, this chapter excludes coastal wetlands of South America. However, much of the information is applicable to mangrove, marsh, and seagrass communities of other tropicaI regions.

  10. Sediment record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Liaohe River Delta wetland, Northeast China: Implications for regional population migration and economic development.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chuanliang; Lin, Tian; Ye, Siyuan; Ding, Xigui; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-03-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of a (210)Pb-dated sediment core extracted from the Liaohe River Delta wetland were measured to reconstruct the sediment record of PAHs and its response to human activity for the past 300 years in Northeast China. The concentrations of the 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs (∑16PAHs) ranged from 46 to 1167 ng g(-1) in this sediment core. The concentrations of the 16 PAHs (especially 4- and 5+6-ring PAHs) after the 1980s (surface sediments 0-6 cm) were one or two orders of magnitudes higher than those of the down-core samples. The exponential growth of 4-ring and 5+6-ring PAH concentrations after the 1980s responded well to the increased energy consumption and number of civil vehicles resulting from the rapid economic development in China. Prior to 1950, relatively low levels of the 16 PAHs and a high proportion of 2+3-ring PAHs was indicative of biomass burning as the main source of the PAHs. A significant increase in the 2 + 3 ring PAH concentration from the 1860s-1920s was observed and could be attributed to a constant influx of population migration into Northeast China. It was suggested that the link between historical trend of PAHs and population or energy use involves two different economic stages. Typically, in an agricultural economy, the greater the population size, the greater the emission of PAHs from biomass burning, while in an industrial economy, the increase in sedimentary PAH concentrations is closely related to increasing energy consumption of fossil fuels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Linking soil O2, CO2, and CH4 concentrations in a Wetland soil: implications for CO2 and CH4 fluxes.

    PubMed

    Elberling, Bo; Askaer, Louise; Jørgensen, Christian J; Joensen, Hans P; Kühl, Michael; Glud, Ronnie N; Lauritsen, Frants R

    2011-04-15

    Oxygen (O(2)) availability and diffusivity in wetlands are controlling factors for the production and consumption of both carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) in the subsoil and thereby potential emission of these greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. To examine the linkage between high-resolution spatiotemporal trends in O(2) availability and CH(4)/CO(2) dynamics in situ, we compare high-resolution subsurface O(2) concentrations, weekly measurements of subsurface CH(4)/CO(2) concentrations and near continuous flux measurements of CO(2) and CH(4). Detailed 2-D distributions of O(2) concentrations and depth-profiles of CO(2) and CH(4) were measured in the laboratory during flooding of soil columns using a combination of planar O(2) optodes and membrane inlet mass spectrometry. Microsensors were used to assess apparent diffusivity under both field and laboratory conditions. Gas concentration profiles were analyzed with a diffusion-reaction model for quantifying production/consumption profiles of O(2), CO(2), and CH(4). In drained conditions, O(2) consumption exceeded CO(2) production, indicating CO(2) dissolution in the remaining water-filled pockets. CH(4) emissions were negligible when the oxic zone was >40 cm and CH(4) was presumably consumed below the depth of detectable O(2). In flooded conditions, O(2) was transported by other mechanisms than simple diffusion in the aqueous phase. This work demonstrates the importance of changes in near-surface apparent diffusivity, microscale O(2) dynamics, as well as gas transport via aerenchymous plants tissue on soil gas dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions following marked changes in water level.

  12. Wetland functional health assessment using remote sensing and other techniques: Literature search and overview. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Patience, N.; Klemas, V.

    1993-03-01

    Contents: introduction; remote sensing of wetland biomass and other wetland condition indicators; conceptual approaches in wetland assessment; wetland extent and type; landscape and wetland patterns; wetland biomass and productivity; wetland vegetation; wetland habitat quality; wetland hydrology; and conclusions and recommendations.

  13. Avian utilization of subsidence wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrot, J.R.; Conley, P.S.; Smout, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    Diverse and productive wetlands have resulted from coal mining in the midwest. The trend from surface to underground mining has increased the potential for subsidence. Planned subsidence of longwall mining areas provides increased opportunities for wetland habitat establishment. Planned subsidence over a 180 meter (590 foot) deep longwall mine in southern Illinois during 1984 to 1986 produced three subsidence wetlands totaling 15 hectares (38 acres). The resulting palustrine emergent wetlands enhanced habitat diversity within the surrounding palustrine forested unsubsided area. Habitat assessments and evaluations of avian utilization of the subsidence wetlands were conducted during February 1990 through October 1991. Avian utilization was greatest within the subsided wetlands. Fifty-three bird species representing seven foraging guilds utilized the subsidence wetlands. Wading/fishing, dabbling waterfowl, and insectivorous avian guilds dominated the subsidence wetlands. The subsidence wetlands represented ideal habitat for wood ducks and great blue herons which utilized snags adjacent to and within the wetlands for nesting (19 great blue heron nests produced 25 young). Dense cover and a rich supply of macroinvertebrates provide excellent brood habitat for wood ducks, while herpetofauna and ichthyofauna provided abundant forage in shallow water zones for great blue herons and other wetland wading birds. The diversity of game and non-game avifauna utilizing the subsidence areas demonstrated the unique value of these wetlands. Preplanned subsidence wetlands can help mitigate loss of wetland habitats in the midwest.

  14. Principles of Wetland Restoration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    the return of a degraded ecosystem to a close approximation of its remaining natural potential - is experiencing a groundswell of support across the United States. The number of stream, river, lake, wetland and estuary restoration projects grows yearly

  15. Excellence in Wetland Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    States and tribes play important roles in protecting and restoring wetlands and other water resources by adopting practices within our Core Elements Framework (CEF) to complete various projects. restoration and protection, monitoring and assessment

  16. National Wetland Condition Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NWCA is a collaborative, statistical survey of the nation's wetlands. It is one of four national surveys that EPA and its partners conduct to assess the condition and health of the nation's water resources.

  17. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Jiang, Yi; Lee, Gordon; Kokabian, Bahareh; Fast, Sara; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L; Magbanua, Benjamin S; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides a review of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment. In particular, this paper primarily focuses on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (single and multiple pollutants, and metals), and emerging pollutant removal (pharmaceuticals). A summary of studies involving the plant (vegetation) effects, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included.

  18. Isolated wetlands of the southeastern United States: abundance and expected condition

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the wake of two U.S. Supreme Court decisions that severely curtailed federal protection for isolated wetlands in the U.S. (i.e., those completely surrounded by uplands), the true extent of the wetlands impacted, and thus, the implications of the decisions, is unknown. Best pro...

  19. Global wetlands: Potential distribution, wetland loss, and status.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shengjie; Niu, Zhenguo; Chen, Yanfen; Li, Lifeng; Zhang, Haiying

    2017-05-15

    Even though researchers have paid a great deal of attention to wetland loss and status, the actual extent of wetland loss on a global scale, especially the loss caused directly by human activities, and the actual extent of currently surviving wetlands remains uncertain. This paper simulated the potential distribution of global wetlands by employing a new Precipitation Topographic Wetness Index (PTWI) and global remote sensing training samples. The results show earth would have approximately 29.83millionkm(2) of wetlands, if humans did not interfere with wetland ecosystems. By combining datasets related to global wetlands, we found that at least 33% of global wetlands had been lost as of 2009, including 4.58millionkm(2) of non-water wetlands and 2.64millionkm(2) of open water. The areal extent of wetland loss has been greatest in Asia, but Europe has experienced the most serious losses. Wetland-related datasets suffer from major inconsistencies, and estimates of the areal extent of the remaining global wetlands ranged from 1.53 to 14.86millionkm(2). Therefore, although it is challenging, thematic mapping of global wetlands is necessary and urgently needed.

  20. Cancer Counseling of Low-Income Limited English Proficient Latina Women Using Medical Interpreters: Implications for Shared Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Kamara, Daniella; Weil, Jon; Youngblom, Janey; Guerra, Claudia; Joseph, Galen

    2017-08-09

    In cancer genetic counseling (CGC), communication across language and culture challenges the model of practice based on shared decision-making. To date, little research has examined the decision-making process of low-income, limited English proficiency (LEP) patients in CGC. This study identified communication patterns in CGC sessions with this population and assessed how these patterns facilitate or inhibit the decision-making process during the sessions. We analyzed 24 audio recordings of CGC sessions conducted in Spanish via telephone interpreters at two public hospitals. Patients were referred for risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer; all were offered genetic testing. Audio files were coded by two bilingual English-Spanish researchers and analyzed using conventional content analysis through an iterative process. The 24 sessions included 13 patients, 6 counselors, and 18 interpreters. Qualitative data analyses identified three key domains - Challenges Posed by Hypothetical Explanations, Misinterpretation by the Medical Interpreter, and Communication Facilitators - that reflect communication patterns and their impact on the counselor's ability to facilitate shared decision-making. Overall, we found an absence of patient participation in the decision-making process. Our data suggest that when counseling LEP Latina patients via medical interpreter, prioritizing information with direct utility for the patient and organizing information into short- and long-term goals may reduce information overload and improve comprehension for patient and interpreter. Further research is needed to test the proposed counseling strategies with this population and to assess how applicable our findings are to other populations.

  1. Coastal wetlands of Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Andrew H.; Kangas, Patrick J.; Megonigal, J. Patrick; Perry, Matthew C.; Whigham, Dennis F.; Batzer, Darold P.; Batzer, Darold P.; Baldwin, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are prominent landscapes throughout North America. The general characteristics of wetlands are controversial, thus there has not been a systematic assessment of different types of wetlands in different parts of North America, or a compendium of the threats to their conservation. Wetland Habitats of North America adopts a geographic and habitat approach, in which experts familiar with wetlands from across North America provide analyses and syntheses of their particular region of study. Addressing a broad audience of students, scientists, engineers, environmental managers, and policy makers, this book reviews recent, scientifically rigorous literature directly relevant to understanding, managing, protecting, and restoring wetland ecosystems of North America.

  2. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  3. Trapping carbon in small ponds and wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, J. N.; Ockenden, M. C.; Deasy, C.; Favaretto, N.

    2012-04-01

    There is no doubt that carbon (C) is on the move. Recent estimates have suggested that the global sediment flux in agricultural landscapes due to water and tillage erosion is 35±10 Pg C y-1. Some of this C is oxidised and lost to the atmosphere, other material may be deposited and burried in colluvium and some may be delivered through both surface and subsurface flow paths to surface waters. In many agricultural landscapes these surface waters may take the form of small ponds and wetlands (field wetlands). In this paper we explore the potential of field wetlands to trap particulate C and influence the fate of dissolved organic carbon within the context of a small agricultural catchments in England. Since 2008 the mitigation options for phosphorus and sediment project (MOPS) has established ten monitored field wetlands across three catchments in the UK at Crake Trees, Cumbria (silt soils, rainfall 1500 mm y-1), Whinton Hill Cumbria (sandy soils, rainfall 1200 mm y-1), Newton Rigg, Cumbria (Silt soils, rainfall c1200 mm y-1) and Loddington, Leicestershire (Clay soils, rainfall 650 mm y-1). Although originally designed to capture sediment and phosphorus, their potential for influencing catchment scale C dynamics is becoming apparent. The C contents of sediments from the three catchments are typically in the range of 1.8 - 3.0% at Crake Trees Catchment, 2.5 to 9% at Whinton Hill and 2.0 to 3.1 % at Crake Trees. At the high rainfall sites the wetlands trap upwards of 20 t y-1 of sediment equating to several hundred kilograms of C. There is also some evidence that the ponds and wetlands may influence DOC, with DOC concentrations falling from approximately 35 mg l-1 to 15 mg l-1 at the Whinton Hill site as water passes through a series of field wetlands. In this paper we will present data from the last two years of monitoring and consider the wider implications for C sequestration by ponds and wetlands in agricultural landscapes.

  4. The Militarisation of English Schools: Troops to Teaching and the Implications for Initial Teacher Education and Race Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the implications of the Troops to Teaching (TtT) programme, to be introduced in England in autumn 2013, for Initial Teacher Education (ITE) and race equality. TtT will fast-track ex-armed service members to teach in schools, without necessarily the requirement of a university degree. Employing theories of white supremacy,…

  5. The Militarisation of English Schools: Troops to Teaching and the Implications for Initial Teacher Education and Race Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the implications of the Troops to Teaching (TtT) programme, to be introduced in England in autumn 2013, for Initial Teacher Education (ITE) and race equality. TtT will fast-track ex-armed service members to teach in schools, without necessarily the requirement of a university degree. Employing theories of white supremacy,…

  6. Do created wetlands replace the wetlands that are destroyed?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall J.

    1997-01-01

    Wetlands, once perceived as worthless land, are now recognized as a necessary component of a vital landscape. However, due to draining and filling we have lost many of our wetlands. The loss of wetlands can have undesirable effects on the landscape, such as erosion, flooding, habitat loss and deterioration of water quality. While natural wetland systems are being destroyed nationwide, the wetlands restored or created to compensate for these losses are commonly not evaluated or contain large percentages of non-wetland acreage. At the present time we do not have established methodology that can uniformly evaluate a wetland's function, or that is useful for providing guidelines that enhance wetland restoration/creation success.

  7. Wetland InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowinski, S.; Kim, S.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T.

    2006-12-01

    Wetlands are transition zones where the flow of water, the nutrient cycling, and the sun energy meet to produce a unique and very productive ecosystem. They provide critical habitat for a wide variety of plant and animal species, including the larval stages of many ocean fish. Wetlands also have a valuable economical importance, as they filter nutrients and pollutants from fresh water used by human and provide aquatic habitats for outdoor recreation, tourism, and fishing. Globally, many such regions are under severe environmental stress, mainly from urban development, pollution, and rising sea level. However, there is increasing recognition of the importance of these habitats, and mitigation and restoration activities have begun in a few regions. A key element in wetlands conservation, management, and restoration involves monitoring its hydrologic system, as the entire ecosystem depends on its water supply. Heretofore, hydrologic monitoring of wetlands are conducted by stage (water level) stations, which provide good temporal resolution, but suffer from poor spatial resolution, as stage station are typically distributed several, or even tens of kilometers, from one another. Wetland application of InSAR provides the needed high spatial resolution hydrological observations, complementing the high temporal resolution terrestrial observations. Although conventional wisdom suggests that interferometry does not work in vegetated areas, several studies have shown that both L- and C-band interferograms with short acquisition intervals (1-105 days) can maintain excellent coherence over wetlands. In this study we explore the usage of InSAR for detecting water level changes in various wetland environments around the world, including the Everglades (south Florida), Louisiana Coast (southern US), Chesapeake Bay (eastern US), Pantanal (Brazil), Okavango Delta (Botswana), and Lena Delta (Siberia). Our main study area is the Everglades wetland (south Florida), which is covered by

  8. Association between wetland disturbance and biological attributes in floodplain wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chipps, S.R.; Hubbard, D.E.; Werlin, K.B.; Haugerud, N.J.; Powell, K.A.; Thompson, John; Johnson, T.

    2006-01-01

    We quantified the influence of agricultural activities on environmental and biological conditions of floodplain wetlands in the upper Missouri River basin. Seasonally-flooded wetlands were characterized as low impact (non-disturbed) or high impact (disturbed) based on local land use. Biological data collected from these wetlands were used to develop a wetland condition index (WCI). Fourteen additional wetlands were sampled to evaluate the general condition of seasonally-flooded floodplain wetlands. Structural and functional attributes of macrophyte, algae, and macroinvertebrate communities were tested as candidate metrics for assessing biotic responses. The WCI we developed used six biological metrics to discriminate between disturbed and non-disturbed wetlands: 1) biomass of Culicidae larvae, 2) abundance of Chironomidae larvae, 3) macroinvertebrate diversity, 4) total number of plant species, 5) the proportion of exotic plant species, and 6) total number of sensitive diatom species. Disturbed wetlands had less taxa richness and species diversity and more exotic and nuisance (e.g., mosquitoes) species. Environmental differences between low and high impact wetlands included measures of total potassium, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, alkalinity, conductance, and sediment phosphorus concentration. Canonical analyses showed that WCI scores were weakly correlated (P = 0.057) with environmental variables in randomly selected wetlands. In addition, mean WCI score for random wetlands was higher than that for high impact wetlands, implying that floodplain wetlands were less impacted by the types of agricultural activities affecting high impact sites. Inter-year sampling of some wetlands revealed that WCI metrics were correlated in 2000 and 2001, implying that biological metrics provided useful indicators of disturbance in floodplain wetlands. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  9. Soil-Gas Identification of Environmental Factors Affecting CO2 Concentrations Beneath a Playa Wetland: Implications for Soil-Gas Monitoring at Carbon Storage Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanak, K.; Bennett, P.

    2009-12-01

    Strategies for identifying and interpreting the effects of environmental factors on near-surface CO2 concentrations are essential to developing accurate monitoring protocols at carbon storage sites. Based on the results of a three-year study of a natural analogue we present, 1) a method for using soil-gas to identify near-surface CO2 cycling, and 2) a framework for developing monitoring protocols and site evaluation for near-surface monitoring. Near-surface CO2 production, consumption, and re-distribution was observed in the vadose-zone of a highly CO2-reactive playa wetland in the Texas High Plains. Atmospheric conditions, organic and inorganic soil carbon, subsurface pressure, water flux, and surface and groundwater chemistry were compared to real-time background measurements of CO2, CH4, O2+Ar, and N2 from depths up to 45 feet. Carbon isotopes and spatially and temporally variable concentrations of CO2 ≤ 17%, CH4 ≤ 2%, and O2 from 21-0% indicate CO2 and CH4 are produced by microbes. Molar gas ratios of O2 and CO2 distinguish between oxidation of organic matter (CH2O + O2 → CO2 + H2O), CH4 oxidation (CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O), and potentially acetate fermentation (CH3COOH → CH4 + CO2). O2 consumption and distribution is regulated by water flux that supplies dissolved organics to microbes at depth and regulates oxygen supply by blocking vertical permeability and atmospheric gas exchange. A surface flux experiment indicates that when playa floors are dry, subsurface wetting fronts from rain events or previous ponding periods block vertical permeability resulting in surface flux measurements that do not represent subsurface conditions. Samples with CO2+O2 < 21% and N2 > 78% identify dissolution of CO2 and carbonate minerals into recharging groundwater resulting in loss of pore pressure and chemically-induced advection of atmosphere into pores. Inverse geochemical reaction modeling (PHREEQC) of playa surface water and perched groundwater in high PCO2 zones

  10. North Atlantic Coastal Tidal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter provides college instructors, researchers, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, and environmental consultants interested in wetlands with foundation information on the ecology and conservation concerns of North Atlantic coastal wetlands. The book c...

  11. Hydrologic functions of prairie wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBaugh, J.W.; Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.

    1998-01-01

    Wetlands in the prairie known as potholes or sloughs represent an ever-changing mosaic of surface waters interacting with the atmosphere, groundwater, and each other in a variety of ways. Studies of groups of adjacent wetlands in different parts of the glaciated North American prairie have enabled some connections to be made between hydrologic processes, biological communities, and use of these wetlands by wetland-dependent wildlife. Understanding controls on variability in water levels, water volume, and salinity in these wetlands sets the stage for understanding controls on biological communities utilizing these wetlands. The role that natural variability in water and salinity plays in making these wetlands an important resource for waterfowl will provide an important context for those who are responsible for artificially altering the variability of water and salinity in prairie wetlands.

  12. National Wetlands Mitigation Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On December 26, 2002, EPA and the Corps of Engineers announced the release of a comprehensive, interagency National Wetlands Mitigation Action Plan to further achievement of the goal of no net loss of wetlands.

  13. North Atlantic Coastal Tidal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter provides college instructors, researchers, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, and environmental consultants interested in wetlands with foundation information on the ecology and conservation concerns of North Atlantic coastal wetlands. The book c...

  14. Wetlands Restoration Definitions and Distinctions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecological restoration is a valuable endeavor that has proven very difficult to define. The term indicates that degraded and destroyed natural wetland systems will be reestablished to sites where they once existed. But, what wetland ecosystems are we talki

  15. Uptake of heavy metals by Typha capensis from wetland sites polluted by effluent from mineral processing plants: implications of metal-metal interactions.

    PubMed

    Zaranyika, M F; Nyati, W

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to demonstrate the existence of metal-metal interactions in plants and their implications for the absorption of toxic elements like Cr. Typha capensis, a good accumulator of heavy metals, was chosen for the study. Levels of Fe, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were determined in the soil and roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves of T. capensis from three Sites A, B and C polluted by effluent from a chrome ore processing plant, a gold ore processing plant, and a nickel ore processing plant, respectively. The levels of Cr were extremely high at Site A at 5415 and 786-16,047 μg g(-1) dry weight in the soil and the plant, respectively, while the levels of Ni were high at Site C at 176 and 24-891 μg g(-1) in the soil and the plant, respectively. The levels of Fe were high at all three sites at 2502-7500 and 906-13,833 μg g(-1) in the soil and plant, respectively. For the rest of the metals, levels were modest at 8.5-148 and 2-264 μg g(-1) in the soil and plant, respectively. Pearson's correlation analysis confirmed mutual synergistic metal-metal interactions in the uptake of Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Fe, and Cr, which are attributed to the similarity in the radii and coordination geometry of the cations of these elements. The implications of such metal-metal interactions (or effects of one metal on the behaviour of another) on the uptake of Cr, a toxic element, and possible Cr detoxification mechanism within the plant, are discussed.

  16. Fish assemblages, connectivity, and habitat rehabilitation in a diked Great Lakes coastal wetland complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Fish and plant assemblages in the highly modified Crane Creek coastal wetland complex of Lake Erie were sampled to characterize their spatial and seasonal patterns and to examine the implications of the hydrologic connection of diked wetland units to Lake Erie. Fyke netting captured 52 species and an abundance of fish in the Lake Erie–connected wetlands, but fewer than half of those species and much lower numbers and total masses of fish were captured in diked wetland units. Although all wetland units were immediately adjacent to Lake Erie, there were also pronounced differences in water quality and wetland vegetation between the hydrologically isolated and lake-connected wetlands. Large seasonal variations in fish assemblage composition and biomass were observed in connected wetland units but not in disconnected units. Reestablishment of hydrologic connectivity in diked wetland units would allow coastal Lake Erie fish to use these vegetated habitats seasonally, although connectivity does appear to pose some risks, such as the expansion of invasive plants and localized reductions in water quality. Periodic isolation and drawdown of the diked units could still be used to mimic intermediate levels of disturbance and manage invasive wetland vegetation.

  17. Wetlands: water, wildlife, plants, & people

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Wetlands are part of all our lives. They can generally be described as transitional areas between land and deepwater habitats. There are many different kinds of wetlands, and they can be found in many different habitat types, from forests to deserts; some are maintained by saltwater, others by freshwater. This poster shows general types of diverse wetlands and demonstrates how people and wetlands can benefit by living together. The diversity of plants and animals is shown in cartooned pictures. As with plants and animals, there are many different common names for the various wetland types. The common names used on this poster were used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the publication "Wetlands-Status and Trends in the Conterminous United States, Mid-1970's to Mid-1980's." Estuarine wetland types--salt marshes and mangrove swamps--are labeled in red letters. The estuary is where ocean saltwater and river freshwater mix. The estuary is labeled in orange letters. The inland wetland types-inland marshes and wet meadows, forested wetlands, and shrub wetlands-are labeled in yellow. Other wetlands are present in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. The water bodies associated with these wetlands are labeled in black. The poster is folded into 8.5" x 11" panels; front and back panels can easily be photocopied.

  18. Developing a New Wetland Habitat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rosalie

    2006-01-01

    This article features a project at Ohio's Miami Valley Career Technology Center (MVCTC) which has made a real difference in the wetland environment on campus. The goals of the wetland project were to replace a poorly functioning tile system and develop two wetland areas for local and migratory wildlife. The environmental/natural resources students…

  19. Developing a New Wetland Habitat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rosalie

    2006-01-01

    This article features a project at Ohio's Miami Valley Career Technology Center (MVCTC) which has made a real difference in the wetland environment on campus. The goals of the wetland project were to replace a poorly functioning tile system and develop two wetland areas for local and migratory wildlife. The environmental/natural resources students…

  20. Wetland soils, hydrology and geomorphology

    Treesearch

    C. Rhett Jackson; James A. Thompson; Randall K. Kolka

    2014-01-01

    The hydrology, soils, and watershed processes of a wetland all interact with vegetation and animals over time to create the dynamic physical template upon which a wetland's ecosystem is based (Fig. 2.1). With respect to many ecosystem processes, the physical factors defining a wetland environment at any particular time are often treated as independent variables,...

  1. America's disappearing wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.

    1983-08-19

    Environmentalists oppose changes in wetlands protection policies and in the way the Corps of Engineers is issuing permits to dredge and fill under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. The administration argues that relaxed regulation streamlines the permit process and saves money. A key provision in legislation proposed by Interior Secretary Watt eliminates federal subsidies for draining wetlands, but environmentalists point out that Watt exempts agriculture activities that account for most drainage. Realtors are opposed because the bill also eliminates subsidies for flood insurance, sewer grants, and construction loans. Wetlands protection is a recent government activity because the ecological importance was not recognized. The courts will decide whether the protection continues or is allowed to erode. 18 references, 6 figures. (DCK)

  2. Wetland and water supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, John Augustus

    1960-01-01

    The Geological Survey has received numerous inquiries about the effects of proposed changes in the wetland environment. The nature of the inquiries suggests a general confusion in the public mind as to wetland values and an increasing concern by the public with the need for facts as a basis for sound decisions when public action is required. Perhaps the largest gap in our knowledge is in regard to the role played by the wetland in the natural water scheme. Specialists in such fields as agriculture and conservation have studied the wetland in relation to its special uses and values for farming and as a habitat for fish and wildlife. However, except as studied incidentally by these specialists, the role of the wetland with respect to water has been largely neglected. This facet of the wetland problem is of direct concern to the Geological Survey. We commonly speak of water in terms of its place in the hydrologic environment---as, for example, surface water or ground water. These terms imply that water can be neatly pigeonholed. With respect to the wetland environment nothing can be further from the truth. In fact, one objective of this discussion is to demonstrate that for the wetland environment surface water, ground water, and soil water cannot be separated realistically, but are closely interrelated and must be studied together. It should be noted that this statement holds true for the hydrologic environment in general, and that the wetland environment is by no means unique in this respect. Our second and principal objective is to identify some of the problems that must be studied in order to clarify the role of the wetland in relation to water supply. We have chosen to approach these objectives by briefly describing one area for which we have some information, and by using this example to point out some of the problems that need study. First, however, let us define what we, as geohydrologists, mean by wetland and briefly consider wetland classifications. For our

  3. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gnaneswar Gude, Veera; Magbanua, Benjamin; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L

    2016-10-01

    An update on the current research and development of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment, is provided in this paper. The main focus is on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (metals, industrial and emerging pollutants including pharmaceutical compounds). A summary of studies involving the effects of vegetation, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included.

  4. Teaching English in Untracked Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Sarah Warshauer; Delp, Verda; Crawford, Suzanne Mills

    2005-01-01

    This teacher-researcher/university-researcher collaboration focuses on teaching and learning in untracked English classes, but has implications for all classrooms where students have different needs. We primarily examine the teacher-researcher's (Delp's) eighth-grade untracked English class but also include data from a group of beginning teachers…

  5. Teaching English in Untracked Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Sarah Warshauer; Delp, Verda; Crawford, Suzanne Mills

    2005-01-01

    This teacher-researcher/university-researcher collaboration focuses on teaching and learning in untracked English classes, but has implications for all classrooms where students have different needs. We primarily examine the teacher-researcher's (Delp's) eighth-grade untracked English class but also include data from a group of beginning teachers…

  6. FGD liner experiments with wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsch, W.J.; Ahn, C.; Wolfe, W.E.

    1999-07-01

    The construction of artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment often requires impermeable liners not only to protect groundwater resources but also to ensure that there is adequate water in the wetland to support appropriate aquatic life, particularly wetland vegetation. Liners or relatively impervious site soils are very important to the success of constructed treatment wetlands in areas where ground water levels are typically close to the ground surface. This study, carried out at the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, investigated the use of FGD material from sulfur scrubbers as a possible liner material for constructed wetlands. While several studies have investigated the use of FGD material to line ponds, no studies have investigated the use of this material as a liner for constructed wetlands. They used experimental mesocosms to see the effect of FGD liner materials in constructed wetlands on water quality and on wetland plant growth. This paper presents the results of nutrient analyses and physicochemical investigation of leachate and surface outflow water samples collected from the mesocosms. Plant growth and biomass of wetland vegetation are also included in this paper. First two year results are reported by Ahn et al. (1998, 1999). The overall goal of this study is the identification of advantages and disadvantages of using FGD by-product as an artificial liner in constructed wetlands.

  7. Carbon storage in US wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Nahlik, A. M.; Fennessy, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in our remaining wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. Here we use field data from the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment to provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales. We find that wetlands in the conterminous United States store a total of 11.52 PgC, much of which is within soils deeper than 30 cm. Freshwater inland wetlands, in part due to their substantial areal extent, hold nearly ten-fold more carbon than tidal saltwater sites—indicating their importance in regional carbon storage. Our data suggest a possible relationship between carbon stocks and anthropogenic disturbance. These data highlight the need to protect wetlands to mitigate the risk of avoidable contributions to climate change. PMID:27958272

  8. Carbon storage in US wetlands.

    PubMed

    Nahlik, A M; Fennessy, M S

    2016-12-13

    Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in our remaining wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. Here we use field data from the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment to provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales. We find that wetlands in the conterminous United States store a total of 11.52 PgC, much of which is within soils deeper than 30 cm. Freshwater inland wetlands, in part due to their substantial areal extent, hold nearly ten-fold more carbon than tidal saltwater sites-indicating their importance in regional carbon storage. Our data suggest a possible relationship between carbon stocks and anthropogenic disturbance. These data highlight the need to protect wetlands to mitigate the risk of avoidable contributions to climate change.

  9. Carbon storage in US wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahlik, A. M.; Fennessy, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in our remaining wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. Here we use field data from the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment to provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales. We find that wetlands in the conterminous United States store a total of 11.52 PgC, much of which is within soils deeper than 30 cm. Freshwater inland wetlands, in part due to their substantial areal extent, hold nearly ten-fold more carbon than tidal saltwater sites--indicating their importance in regional carbon storage. Our data suggest a possible relationship between carbon stocks and anthropogenic disturbance. These data highlight the need to protect wetlands to mitigate the risk of avoidable contributions to climate change.

  10. Ensuring Disaster Risk Reduction via Sustainable Wetland Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, S. W.; Lindborg, R.; Nyström, S.; Silengo, M.; Tumbo, M.; Koutsouris, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems around the world are increasingly being targeted as land use development 'hotspots' under growing concerns of climate variability and food security. Anthropogenic encroachment on natural wetland ecosystems can have direct consequences locally through loss of biodiversity and regionally through increased disaster risks associated with, for example, flooding. We consider two regionally-relevant wetland ecosystems in eastern Africa, namely Zambia's Lukanga Swamps and Tanzania's Kilombero Valley, experiencing varying trajectories of development under climatic variations. These regions have been targeted for inclusive, multi-stakeholder initiatives that aim at developing agricultural potential through combinations of large and small scale irrigation schemes. Through our data-driven analysis we highlight the potential for shifts in hydrologic regime of each wetland ecosystem which can have significant regional impacts on disaster risks. In the case of the Lukanga Swamps, wetlands maintain water table fluctuations that help mitigate water cycling with implications for the downstream flooding impact of annual rains. With regards to Kilombero Valley, understanding seasonal changes in hydrological processes and storages provides the cornerstone for managing future water resource impacts/feedbacks under different scenarios of land management. This work emphasizes the need to tailor strategies towards sustainable uses of wetlands that reduce disaster risks regionally while contributing to improved community health and wellbeing. It remains an open (and fundamental) question of how to best define management recommendations and activities that not only achieve climate resiliency but also are acceptable for stakeholders without compromising the balance between ecosystem service supply and biodiversity conservation.

  11. Highlights and overview of the 2011 National Wetland ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation is for a webinar sponsored by the Society of Wetland Scientists. It is tailored to a technical audience with research interests in wetland ecology and management. The talk will introduce the National Aquatic Resource Surveys and then transition to a discussion of the methods, results, and applications of the National Wetland Condition Assessment. It is tailored The first National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) was completed in 2011 and the results will be released to the public in 2016. A team of scientists from ORD played a major role in designing the survey, analyzing the data, and reporting on the results of the assessment in cooperation with the Office of Water. The analysis team also developed quantitative national and regional definitions of reference in terms of least disturbed condition. This presentation provides a summary of the major results, examples of their utility to resource management and implications to wetland policy. About 50% of the wetland area nationally was found to be in good biological condition while about 30% was in poor condition. The stressors with the greatest areal extent nationally were vegetation removal, hardening (e.g., roads, paths, extreme soil compaction), and ditching. A relative risk analysis indicated a strong relationship between high levels of nearly all the stressors measured (i.e., vegetation removal, hardening, ditching, damming, filling/erosion, and vegetation replacement) and poor bi

  12. ISOLATED WETLANDS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS: AN ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recent U.S. Supreme Court case of Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (SWANCC) has had profound implications on the legal status of isolated wetlands. As a result of this decision, policymakers need ecological information on the definit...

  13. ISOLATED WETLANDS: STATE-OF-THE-SCIENCE AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Supreme Court case of Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (SWANCC) has had profound implications on the legal status of isolated wetlands. As a result of this decision, policymakers and regulators need information on the ecological...

  14. Art English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Art English is a combination of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL)/English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) and art content. As a new instructional area, it faces several challenges: as with all English for Special Purposes (ESP), exchange of information among programs; development of a suitable combination of art content and ESL, due to lack of…

  15. Art English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Art English is a combination of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL)/English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) and art content. As a new instructional area, it faces several challenges: as with all English for Special Purposes (ESP), exchange of information among programs; development of a suitable combination of art content and ESL, due to lack of…

  16. Wetland biogeochemistry and ecological risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Gao, Haifeng; Zhang, Guangliang

    2017-02-01

    Wetlands are an important ecotone between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and can provide great ecological service functions. Soils/sediments are one of the important components of wetland ecosystems, which support wetland plants and microorganisms and influence wetland productivity. Moreover, wetland soils/sediments serve as sources, sinks and transfers of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and chemical contaminants such as heavy metals. In natural wetland ecosystems, wetland soils/sediments play a great role in improving water quality as these chemical elements can be retained in wetland soils/sediments for a long time. Moreover, the biogeochemical processes of the abovementioned elements in wetland soils/sediments can drive wetland evolution and development, and their changes will considerably affect wetland ecosystem health. Therefore, a better understanding of wetland soil biogeochemistry will contribute to improving wetland ecological service functions.

  17. ELT Documents. English as an International Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Mark; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This issue contains articles ranging from a theoretical discussion of the nature of an international language to an assessment of the implications of teaching a local form of English. The following articles are included: (1) "International English and Language Variation," by M. Lester; (2) "The English Language, Ideology, and…

  18. First- and Second-Language English Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Peter V.

    1996-01-01

    Through a review of the research, this article demonstrates that developing literacy in English as a first language is essentially similar to developing literacy in English as a Second Language for both students with normal hearing and students with hearing impairments. The implications for teaching literacy skills in English are discussed. (CR)

  19. Wetlands Mitigation Banking Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    the financial risk associated with are normally established in advance, mitigation permitted activities. banks eliminate the lag time between loss and...management natural state or to an enhanced condition and techniques. None of the traditional wetlands begin to amass bankable credits has also been management

  20. Wetlands, Chapter 17

    Treesearch

    T.L. Greaver; L. Liu; R. Bobbink

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Clean Water Act defines wetlands as "those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions".

  1. Wading into Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Wading into Wetlands." Contents are organized into the following…

  2. Wading into Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Wading into Wetlands." Contents are organized into the following…

  3. Inland wetland mineral soils

    Treesearch

    Kimberly P. Wickland; Alex V. Krusche; Randall K. Kolka; Ayaka W. Kishimoto-Mo; Rodney A. Chimner; Stephen Ogle; Nalin. Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides supplementary guidance for estimating and reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals from managed lands with Inland Wetland Mineral Soils (IWMS) for all land-use categories (see Chapter 1 and decision tree in Chapter 1 in this supplement for what is specifically covered in this chapter in relationship to other chapters in this...

  4. 7 CFR 12.33 - Use of wetland and converted wetland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of wetland and converted wetland. 12.33 Section 12.33 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.33 Use of wetland and converted wetland. (a) The provisions of § 12.32(b)(2)...

  5. 7 CFR 12.33 - Use of wetland and converted wetland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of wetland and converted wetland. 12.33 Section 12.33 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.33 Use of wetland and converted wetland. (a) The provisions of § 12.32(b)(2)...

  6. 7 CFR 12.33 - Use of wetland and converted wetland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of wetland and converted wetland. 12.33 Section 12.33 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.33 Use of wetland and converted wetland. (a) The provisions of § 12.32(b)(2)...

  7. 7 CFR 12.33 - Use of wetland and converted wetland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of wetland and converted wetland. 12.33 Section 12.33 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.33 Use of wetland and converted wetland. (a) The provisions of § 12.32(b)(2)...

  8. A Wetland Camp for Upland Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soniat, Lyle; Duggan, Suzanne

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a workshop to provide an opportunity for north Louisiana teachers to learn firsthand about Louisiana's coastal wetlands. The multidisciplinary sessions focused on coastal wetland ecosystems, covering wetland productivity, the functions and value of wetlands, current wetland issues, water quality, botany, geology, fisheries management,…

  9. A Wetland Camp for Upland Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soniat, Lyle; Duggan, Suzanne

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a workshop to provide an opportunity for north Louisiana teachers to learn firsthand about Louisiana's coastal wetlands. The multidisciplinary sessions focused on coastal wetland ecosystems, covering wetland productivity, the functions and value of wetlands, current wetland issues, water quality, botany, geology, fisheries management,…

  10. Fundamental frequency in monolingual English, bilingual English/Russian, and bilingual English/Cantonese young adult women.

    PubMed

    Altenberg, Evelyn P; Ferrand, Carole T

    2006-03-01

    Mean F0 of nine young adult English/Russian female bilinguals and nine young adult English/Cantonese female bilinguals were examined from samples of connected speech in each language. Mean F0 were compared in each language and in English with those of a monolingual English control group of ten young adult female speakers. Acoustic measurements were analyzed with the Kay Elemetrics Multispeech program (Kay Elemetrics, Lincoln Park, NJ). The results indicate that the English/Russian bilinguals consistently had a higher mean F0 in Russian than in English. Mean F0 did not change with language switch for the English/Cantonese speakers. There were no significant differences between the groups in their English production. Clinical implications regarding norms for both monolingual and bilingual persons, as well as implications for understanding the nature of bilingualism, in particular code-switching, are discussed.

  11. Phosphorus Dynamic in Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2010-12-01

    The projected greater warming at higher/northern latitudes in the coming decades due to global climatic changes can mineralize substantial amount of the organic matter and supply massive amount of phosphorus (P) to the water column, and cause the collapse of freshwater wetlands. Thus, the rates and duration of organic matter accumulations/decompositions under rising global temperatures are critical determinants of how a freshwater wetland functions as an ecological unit within a landscape. Phosphorus is a limiting nutrient and a primary controller of eutrophication. Once the external P loads are curtailed, internal P regeneration, resulting from decompositions of detritus and soil/sediment organic matter determine the productivity, as well as the water quality of a wetland. Thus, global rise in temperature not only causes hydro-climatic fluctuations but can also change the composition of aquatic/semi-aquatic communities, in turn, could lead to adverse effect on human food chain to collapse of the ecosystem. While P enrichment may lead to immediate algal blooms in wetlands/aquatic systems, decreased in P input from external sources may not be able to stop the blooms for a considerable period of time depending on the P loading from within. The extent of P mineralization under changing conditions, enzymatic hydrolysis, and estimation of different P pools using 31P NMR in sediments and the water columns showed that the stability and bioavailability of P can greatly be influenced by rise in temperature and fluctuations in water level, thus, are crucial in determining the fate of the freshwater wetlands.

  12. English Leadership Quarterly. 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent the quarterly for 1991. Articles in number 1 deal with whole language and include: "CEL: Shorter and Better" (Myles D. Eley); "Toward a New Philosophy of Language Learning" (Kathleen Strickland); "Whole Language: Implications for Secondary Classrooms"…

  13. English for American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slager, William R., Ed.; Madsen, Betty M., Ed.

    The present issue of "English for American Indians" follows the format and approach of the Spring 1970 issue. (See ED 040 396.) In the lead article, Evelyn Hatch surveys some of the research in first language acquisition and points out its implications for second language teaching. Her main thesis is that with the best of intentions,…

  14. Providing low-budget estimations of carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Colin R.; Rebelo, Lisa-Maria; Finlayson, C. Max

    2013-03-01

    The conversion of wetlands to agriculture through drainage and flooding, and the burning of wetland areas for agriculture have important implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) production and changing carbon stocks. However, the estimation of net GHG changes from mitigation practices in agricultural wetlands is complex compared to dryland crops. Agricultural wetlands have more complicated carbon and nitrogen cycles with both above- and below-ground processes and export of carbon via vertical and horizontal movement of water through the wetland. This letter reviews current research methodologies in estimating greenhouse gas production and provides guidance on the provision of robust estimates of carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural wetlands through the use of low cost reliable and sustainable measurement, modelling and remote sensing applications. The guidance is highly applicable to, and aimed at, wetlands such as those in the tropics and sub-tropics, where complex research infrastructure may not exist, or agricultural wetlands located in remote regions, where frequent visits by monitoring scientists prove difficult. In conclusion, the proposed measurement-modelling approach provides guidance on an affordable solution for mitigation and for investigating the consequences of wetland agricultural practice on GHG production, ecological resilience and possible changes to agricultural yields, variety choice and farming practice.

  15. Hydrological management for improving nutrient assimilative capacity in plant-dominated wetlands: A modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhihao; Yang, Zhifeng; Yin, Xinan; Cai, Yanpeng; Sun, Tao

    2016-07-15

    Wetland eutrophication is a global environmental problem. Besides reducing pollutant emissions, improving nutrient assimilative capacity in wetlands is also significant for preventing eutrophication. Hydrological management can improve nutrient assimilative capacity in wetlands through physical effects on the dilution capacity of water body and ecological effects on wetland nutrient cycles. The ecological effects are significant while were rarely considered in previous research. This study focused on the ecological effects of hydrological management on two crucial nutrient removal processes, plant uptake and biological denitrification, in plant-dominated wetlands. A dual-objective optimization model for hydrological management was developed to improve wetland nitrogen and phosphorus assimilative capacities, using upstream reservoir release as water regulating measure. The model considered the interactions between ecological processes and hydrological cycles in wetlands, and their joint effects on nutrient assimilative capacity. Baiyangdian Wetland, the largest freshwater wetland in northern China, was chosen as a case study. The results found that the annual total assimilative capacity of nitrogen (phosphorus) was 4754 (493) t under the optimal scheme for upstream reservoir operation. The capacity of nutrient removal during the summer season accounted for over 80% of the annual total removal capacity. It was interesting to find that the relationship between water inflow and nutrient assimilative capacity in a plant-dominated wetland satisfied a dose-response relationship commonly describing the response of an organism to an external stressor in the medical field. It illustrates that a plant-dominated wetland shows similar characteristics to an organism. This study offers a useful tool and some fresh implications for future management of wetland eutrophication prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mapping hydrologic connectivity of geographically isolated wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameli, Ali; Creed, Irena

    2016-04-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) are characterized as depressional landscape features completely surrounded by uplands. These small and typically circular landscape features represent a vast majority of wetlands in various landscapes in North America (98% of all wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region). Geographical isolation, however, does not imply the hydrological isolation. Although geospatial data (e.g., aerial photos) suggested that GIWs lack a persistent surface water connection, the groundwater connection between GIWs and navigable downstream waters can be substantial with large fluxes at the regional scales. The surface/subsurface connections among GIWs and between GIWs and navigable waters are difficult to map and quantify. This is intimately tied to the fact that an efficient incorporation of these small geometric features and characterization of the mechanisms behind these connectivities are challenging within grid-based simulators. We used a physically-based grid-free groundwater-surface water interaction and surface flow routing schemes to map and assess the watershed-scale GIWs connectivity within an extensively studied watershed at the Canadian prairie pothole region with high density of GIWs. The results showed that there is a persistent subsurface connectivity among GIWs and between GIWs and navigable waters. Surface connection was rare and only occurred during extreme events. The results of this paper have significant implications for developing scientifically grounded environmental policy for protection of GIWs within North American Prairie.

  17. Gas exchange in wetlands: Controls and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    This project was directed toward the quantification of fluxes of gaseous biogenic sulfur compounds from freshwater wetlands. These compounds (primarily hydrogen sulfide (H2S), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS)) have been implicated in the regulation of planetary albedo by the formation of microscopic atmospheric aerosols when they oxidize, and the further role of these aerosols as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The role of continental sources and sinks for these compounds is poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to quantify the source and sink strength of high latitude wetlands, and to delineate factors that regulate this flux.

  18. Assessing and measuring wetland hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Hayashi, Masaki; Anderson, James T.; Davis, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all ecological processes that occur in wetlands are influenced by the water that flows to, from, and within these wetlands. This chapter provides the “how-to” information for quantifying the various source and loss terms associated with wetland hydrology. The chapter is organized from a water-budget perspective, with sections associated with each of the water-budget components that are common in most wetland settings. Methods for quantifying the water contained within the wetland are presented first, followed by discussion of each separate component. Measurement accuracy and sources of error are discussed for each of the methods presented, and a separate section discusses the cumulative error associated with determining a water budget for a wetland. Exercises and field activities will provide hands-on experience that will facilitate greater understanding of these processes.

  19. An Urgent Challenge: Enhancing Academic Speaking Opportunities for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jane; Fang, Chloe; Rollins, Jenice; Valadez, Destinee

    2016-01-01

    This project sought to gain a closer look at the contrast of oral language opportunities experienced by English learners and native speakers of English in order to draw implications for practicing teachers. Specifically, the authors explored how often and when English learners and native speakers of English engage in academic speaking in K-8…

  20. An Urgent Challenge: Enhancing Academic Speaking Opportunities for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jane; Fang, Chloe; Rollins, Jenice; Valadez, Destinee

    2016-01-01

    This project sought to gain a closer look at the contrast of oral language opportunities experienced by English learners and native speakers of English in order to draw implications for practicing teachers. Specifically, the authors explored how often and when English learners and native speakers of English engage in academic speaking in K-8…

  1. Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams.

    PubMed

    Crawford, John T; Stanley, Emily H; Spawn, Seth A; Finlay, Jacques C; Loken, Luke C; Striegl, Robert G

    2014-11-01

    Stream and river carbon dioxide emissions are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emissions from streams could also contribute to regional or global greenhouse gas cycling, but there are relatively few data regarding stream and river methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble-mediated) pathway, instead focusing on emission of dissolved methane by diffusion or convection. Here, we show the importance of ebullitive methane emissions from small streams in the regional greenhouse gas balance of a lake and wetland-dominated landscape in temperate North America and identify the origin of the methane emitted from these well-oxygenated streams. Stream methane flux densities from this landscape tended to exceed those of nearby wetland diffusive fluxes as well as average global wetland ebullitive fluxes. Total stream ebullitive methane flux at the regional scale (103 Mg C yr(-1) ; over 6400 km(2) ) was of the same magnitude as diffusive methane flux previously documented at the same scale. Organic-rich stream sediments had the highest rates of bubble release and higher enrichment of methane in bubbles, but glacial sand sediments also exhibited high bubble emissions relative to other studied environments. Our results from a database of groundwater chemistry support the hypothesis that methane in bubbles is produced in anoxic near-stream sediment porewaters, and not in deeper, oxygenated groundwaters. Methane interacts with other key elemental cycles such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, which has implications for ecosystem changes such as drought and increased nutrient loading. Our results support the contention that streams, particularly those draining wetland landscapes of the northern hemisphere, are an important component of the global methane cycle.

  2. Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, John T.; Stanley, Emily H.; Spawn, Seth A.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Stream and river carbon dioxide emissions are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emissions from streams could also contribute to regional or global greenhouse gas cycling, but there are relatively few data regarding stream and river methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble-mediated) pathway, instead focusing on emission of dissolved methane by diffusion or convection. Here, we show the importance of ebullitive methane emissions from small streams in the regional greenhouse gas balance of a lake and wetland-dominated landscape in temperate North America and identify the origin of the methane emitted from these well-oxygenated streams. Stream methane flux densities from this landscape tended to exceed those of nearby wetland diffusive fluxes as well as average global wetland ebullitive fluxes. Total stream ebullitive methane flux at the regional scale (103 Mg C yr−1; over 6400 km2) was of the same magnitude as diffusive methane flux previously documented at the same scale. Organic-rich stream sediments had the highest rates of bubble release and higher enrichment of methane in bubbles, but glacial sand sediments also exhibited high bubble emissions relative to other studied environments. Our results from a database of groundwater chemistry support the hypothesis that methane in bubbles is produced in anoxic near-stream sediment porewaters, and not in deeper, oxygenated groundwaters. Methane interacts with other key elemental cycles such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, which has implications for ecosystem changes such as drought and increased nutrient loading. Our results support the contention that streams, particularly those draining wetland landscapes of the northern hemisphere, are an important component of the global methane cycle.

  3. USDA Forest Service wetlands research

    SciTech Connect

    Bartuska, A.M. )

    1993-05-01

    Wetland and riparian systems play a major role in flood control, water quality, and food chain support. Timber production, fisheries, and recreation vie economically as primary uses of forested wetlands. This article reviews current Forest Service research in the Intermountain Region, North Central Region, Northeast Region, Pacific Northwest Region, Rocky Mountain Region, and Southern Region. Future research areas are discussed: ecosystem processes, restoration and rehabilitation, management of the wetland resource, socioeconomic values, and landscape-scale links. 8 refs.

  4. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Yam, Rita S W; Fan, Yen-Tzu; Wang, Tzu-Ting

    2016-02-24

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents.

  5. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Yam, Rita S. W.; Fan, Yen-Tzu; Wang, Tzu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents. PMID:26927135

  6. The implications of using large ensembles of climate scenarios for the management of river ecology in an English chalk stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, C. F.; Lopez, A.; New, M.

    2009-04-01

    Climate change is likely to impact on freshwater ecology, the delivery of regulatory commitments to ecological status and the management of water resources. It is becoming increasingly important for European environment agencies to use and develop methods to aid planning and abstraction licensing procedures and policies in the face of climate change and with the introduction of the Water Framework Directive. Studies have been carried out in the past to investigate the implications of climate change for biodiversity. However, predicting the future is fraught with uncertainty, an area which has not been dealt with in great depth in the past. This study has been undertaken to draw on the results of new methodologies to address the uncertainties inherent in modelling future climate and assess their usability for decision-making in water resources allocations specifically in considering interactions between flow and invertebrate communities The River Itchen was chosen as the case study catchment on the strength of having a long-term coupled ecological and flow dataset and having been an area of intensive study in the past. It is a chalk stream located in the south of England and a candidate Special Area of Conservation. It has also been designated a Special Site of Scientific Interest achieved due to the number of rare species, and the richness of the macro-invertebrate community in the river catchment. An ensemble of 246 transient simulations for future climate was obtained from ClimatePrediction.net which were then used to drive a rainfall-runoff model. In order to link the modelled river flow to ecology, the Lotic Invertebrate Flow Evaluation score has been used where the invertebrate community is linked to flow largely through sensitivity to water velocity and siltation, driven by flow variability at sites with fixed channel dimensions The large ensemble of climate scenarios and thereby flow and ecological indices allows the exploration of the risk of the river of

  7. Restoration of Ailing Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Oswald J.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes) can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide. PMID:22291573

  8. Management of wetlands for wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matthew J. Gray,; Heath M. Hagy,; J. Andrew Nyman,; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands are highly productive ecosystems that provide habitat for a diversity of wildlife species and afford various ecosystem services. Managing wetlands effectively requires an understanding of basic ecosystem processes, animal and plant life history strategies, and principles of wildlife management. Management techniques that are used differ depending on target species, coastal versus interior wetlands, and available infrastructure, resources, and management objectives. Ideally, wetlands are managed as a complex, with many successional stages and hydroperiods represented in close proximity. Managing wetland wildlife typically involves manipulating water levels and vegetation in the wetland, and providing an upland buffer. Commonly, levees and water control structures are used to manipulate wetland hydrology in combination with other management techniques (e.g., disking, burning, herbicide application) to create desired plant and wildlife responses. In the United States, several conservation programs are available to assist landowners in developing wetland management infrastructure on their property. Managing wetlands to increase habitat quality for wildlife is critical, considering this ecosystem is one of the most imperiled in the world.

  9. An Analysis of Written Discourse of North Korean Second Language Speakers of English: Its Linguistic Features and Their Discursive Functions with Pragmatic Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seung Hwa

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examined linguistic and pragmatic characteristics of written discourse of North Korean second language speakers of English comparing it with that of North American native speakers of English by analyzing linguistic features used in the two sets of texts and their discursive functions based on Biber's (1995) and Hinkel's (2002)…

  10. Exporting the European Idea of a National Language: Some Educational Implications of the Use of English and Indigenous Languages in the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolicz, Jerzy J.; Nical, Illuminado

    1999-01-01

    Presents the findings of a survey of high school students on their attitudes toward English, Filipino, and their home language. Notes that two-thirds of the population do not have English or Filipino as their first language. Concludes that Filipinos can be literate in their first language and still be fluent in Filipino. Contains 27 references.…

  11. An English-Speaking Prekindergarten Teacher for Young Latino Children: Implications of the Teacher-Child Relationship on Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillanders, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    This case study was designed to describe how an effective English-speaking prekindergarten teacher develops strategies for communicating with and teaching young English language learners. The teacher's classroom practices to enhance her own relationship with the children promoted opportunities for the Latino children to become full participants in…

  12. Researching the Uses of the English Language in the Law Job Market in the Sultanate of Oman: Implications for Policy-Practice Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Issa, Ali S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman is a developing country that has accepted the English language as a significant tool for modernization. This was best interpreted in the opening of Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in 1986, which has delivered its different academic programmes totally or partially through the English language. One of the colleges of SQU has…

  13. English-lus Multilingualism as the New Linguistic Capital? Implications of University Students' Attitudes towards Languages of Instruction in a Multilingual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapwijk, Nanda; Van der Walt, Christa

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates university students' attitudes and perceptions about language in a multilingual country where most instruction is in English and annual national literacy results have been declining for at least 15 years. Despite this decline, English seems to be entrenched as the language of instruction, and at university it seems a…

  14. English-lus Multilingualism as the New Linguistic Capital? Implications of University Students' Attitudes towards Languages of Instruction in a Multilingual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapwijk, Nanda; Van der Walt, Christa

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates university students' attitudes and perceptions about language in a multilingual country where most instruction is in English and annual national literacy results have been declining for at least 15 years. Despite this decline, English seems to be entrenched as the language of instruction, and at university it seems a…

  15. Researching the Uses of the English Language in the Law Job Market in the Sultanate of Oman: Implications for Policy-Practice Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Issa, Ali S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman is a developing country that has accepted the English language as a significant tool for modernization. This was best interpreted in the opening of Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in 1986, which has delivered its different academic programmes totally or partially through the English language. One of the colleges of SQU has…

  16. Application of wetland valuation techniques: Examples from Great Lakes Coastal wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Amacher, G.S.; Brazee, R.J.; Bulkley, J.W.; Moll, R.A.

    1989-04-01

    Proper wetland valuation procedures have not been applied in the past to Michigan's coastal wetlands. Previous valuation studies fail to value individual wetland ecological functions and use improper techniques to derive wetland values. The results of previous studies hence undervalue Michigan wetlands. This report uses existing Michigan wetland data and proper economic methods to illustrate the utilization of proper economic methods to value recreational fishing, commercial, fishing, and real-estate benefits for Lake St. Clair and Saginaw Bay wetlands.

  17. Exporting the European Idea of a National Language: Some Educational Implications of the Use of English and Indigenous Languages in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolicz, Jerzy J.; Nical, Illuminado

    1997-09-01

    The Philippines has a bilingual education policy, using English and a major indigenous language, Tagalog, renamed "Filipino". This article describes a study on the problem facing approximately two thirds of the population who do not have English or Filipino as their first or home language. Senior secondary school students were asked abut their attitudes towards English, Filipino and their home language (Cebuana, Ilocano or Waray). Attitudes to the three languages differed. Some respondents favoured Filipino over English, others vice versa. Most respondents showed attachment to their home languages. The study concluded that it is possible for Filipinos to be literate in their mother tongue and still be fluent in Filipino, as the national language of the country, with English continuing in its role as the international language.

  18. Nationalism and English as an International Language: The History of English Textbooks in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hino, Nobuyuki

    1988-01-01

    Examines the cultural contents of English textbooks in Japan over the past 120 years. When Anglo-American culture was admired, textbooks reflected British and American values. When Japanese culture was admired, English textbooks reflected traditional Japanese values. Implications for the role of nationalism in teaching English for cross-cultural…

  19. Who Speaks English to Whom? The Question of Teaching English Pronunciation for Global Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, David S.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a problem involved in teaching English pronunciation--the question of intelligibility. Previously intelligibility has meant that nonnative speakers were intelligible to native speakers; the increase in the use of English for communication between nonnative English speakers has complicated this issue. Implications for teaching and study…

  20. Current Perspectives on Teaching World Englishes and English as a Lingua Franca

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore recent research into World Englishes (henceforth WEs) and English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), focusing on its implications for TESOL, and the extent to which it is being taken into account by English language teachers, linguists, and second language acquisition researchers. After a brief introduction…

  1. Common Ground and Different Realities: World Englishes and English as a Lingua Franca

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidlhofer, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the "world Englishes paradigm" and English as a lingua franca (ELF) research, despite important differences, have much in common. Both share the pluricentric assumption that "English" belongs to all those who use it, and both are concerned with the sociolinguistic, socio-psychological, and applied linguistic implications of…

  2. Greenhouse effect, sea level rise, and coastal wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J.G.

    1988-07-01

    To further society's understanding of how to rationally respond to the possibility of a substantial rise in level, EPA has undertaken assessments of the impacts of sea level rise on economic development, beach erosion control strategies, salinity of estuaries and aquifers, and coastal drainage and sewage systems. Those studies have generally found that even a one-foot rise in a sea level has important implications for the planning and design of coastal facilities. This report examines the potential impacts of sea level on coastal wetlands in the United States. Coastal marshes and swamps are generally within a few feet of sea level, and hence could be lost if seal level rises significantly. Although new wetlands could form where new areas are flooded, this cannot happen where the land adjacent to today's wetlands is developed and protected from the rising sea. Once built, neighborhoods can be expected to last a century or longer. Therefore, todays coastal development could limit the ability of coastal wetlands to survive sea level in the next century. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the greenhouse effect, projections of future sea level rise, the basis for expecting significant impacts on coastal wetlands, and possible responses. Chapters 2 and 3 present case studies of the potential impacts on wetlands around Charleston, South Carolina, and Long Beach Island, New Jersey, based on field surveys. Chapter 4 presents a first attempt to estimate the nationwide impact, based on topographic maps. Finally, Chapter 5 describes measures that wetland protection officials can take today. This report neither examines the impact of sea level rise on specific federal programs nor recommends specific policy changes.

  3. Teaching English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemanich, Donald, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Articles in this volume of the "Illinois English Bulletin" include "Competencies in Teaching English" by Alan C. Purves, which sets forth a tentative model for planning competency-based instruction and certification based on concepts, teaching acts, skills, and strategies; "Passing the Buck Versus the Teaching of English" by Dennis Q. McInerny,…

  4. Earphone English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Francisca

    2002-01-01

    Describes Earphone English, a student club sponsored through a partnership between Berkeley High School and the Berkeley Public Library that offers students whose primary language is not English to practice their spoken and aural English skills. Discusses the audiobooks used in the program and the importance of multicultural content and age…

  5. Earphone English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Francisca

    2002-01-01

    Describes Earphone English, a student club sponsored through a partnership between Berkeley High School and the Berkeley Public Library that offers students whose primary language is not English to practice their spoken and aural English skills. Discusses the audiobooks used in the program and the importance of multicultural content and age…

  6. EPA METHODS FOR EVALUATING WETLAND CONDITION, WETLANDS CLASSIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began work on this series of reports entitled Methods for Evaluating Wetland Condition. The purpose of these reports is to help States and Tribes develop methods to evaluate 1) the overall ecological condition of wetlands us...

  7. Association Between Wetland Disturbance and Biological Attributes in Floodplain Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our study explored the relationship between agricultural related disturbance and variation in wetland biota. Our results are intended to provide resource managers with information and tools to asess the condition of floodplain wetlands and make better decisions in terms of their...

  8. Chesapeake Bay subsidence monitored as wetlands loss continues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerem, R. S.; van Dam, T. M.; Schenewerk, M. S.

    Fragile wetland ecosystems, which support an abundance of wildlife, are being lost around the Chesapeake Bay at an alarming rate due to an increase in sea level. For example, one third of the total area of the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (Figure 1) (approximately 20 km2) was lost between 1938 and 1979 [Leatherman, 1992]. Approximately 4,100 km2 of the perimeter of the Chesapeake Bay are covered by wetlands of which 58% forested wetlands and 28% are salt marshes. It is likely that many factors are responsible for the wetlands loss, some that have global implications, and some that reflect local phenomena.Understanding the mechanisms responsible for wetlands deterioration and loss, however, has been impeded by the lack of adequate data including quantitative monitoring of the types and distribution of flora, Tthe boundaries of specific habitat types, and data on the spatial variations in sea level and land subsidence. This article focuses on the latter problem, which is to determine the relative roles of sea level rise and land subsidence in the region. Over the past four years, a small network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers have been installed near tide gauges in the Chesapeake Bay to help determine the cause of relative sea level rise in this region. These receivers are just beginning to yield results.

  9. Contrasting ecosystem CO2 fluxes of inland and coastal wetlands: a meta-analysis of eddy covariance data.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weizhi; Xiao, Jingfeng; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Chang'an; Lin, Guanghui

    2017-03-01

    Wetlands play an important role in regulating the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentrations and thus affecting the climate. However, there is still lack of quantitative evaluation of such a role across different wetland types, especially at the global scale. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to compare ecosystem CO2 fluxes among various types of wetlands using a global database compiled from the literature. This database consists of 143 site-years of eddy covariance data from 22 inland wetland and 21 coastal wetland sites across the globe. Coastal wetlands had higher annual gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Re ), and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) than inland wetlands. On a per unit area basis, coastal wetlands provided large CO2 sinks, while inland wetlands provided small CO2 sinks or were nearly CO2 neutral. The annual CO2 sink strength was 93.15 and 208.37 g C m(-2) for inland and coastal wetlands, respectively. Annual CO2 fluxes were mainly regulated by mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). For coastal and inland wetlands combined, MAT and MAP explained 71%, 54%, and 57% of the variations in GPP, Re , and NEP, respectively. The CO2 fluxes of wetlands were also related to leaf area index (LAI). The CO2 fluxes also varied with water table depth (WTD), although the effects of WTD were not statistically significant. NEP was jointly determined by GPP and Re for both inland and coastal wetlands. However, the NEP/Re and NEP/GPP ratios exhibited little variability for inland wetlands and decreased for coastal wetlands with increasing latitude. The contrasting of CO2 fluxes between inland and coastal wetlands globally can improve our understanding of the roles of wetlands in the global C cycle. Our results also have implications for informing wetland management and climate change policymaking, for example, the efforts being made by international organizations and enterprises to restore coastal wetlands for

  10. Space-based detection of wetlands' surface water level changes from L-band SAR interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wdowinski, S.; Kim, S.-W.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T.H.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; Sonenshein, R.

    2008-01-01

    Interferometric processing of JERS-1 L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data acquired over south Florida during 1993-1996 reveals detectable surface changes in the Everglades wetlands. Although our study is limited to south Florida it has implication for other large-scale wetlands, because south Florida wetlands have diverse vegetation types and both managed and natural flow environments. Our analysis reveals that interferometric coherence level is sensitive to wetland vegetation type and to the interferogram time span. Interferograms with time spans less than six months maintain phase observations for all wetland types, allowing characterization of water level changes in different wetland environments. The most noticeable changes occur between the managed and the natural flow wetlands. In the managed wetlands, fringes are organized, follow patterns related to some of the managed water control structures and have high fringe-rate. In the natural flow areas, fringes are irregular and have a low fringe-rate. The high fringe rate in managed areas reflects dynamic water topography caused by high flow rate due to gate operation. Although this organized fringe pattern is not characteristic of most large-scale wetlands, the high level of water level change enables accurate estimation of the wetland InSAR technique, which lies in the range of 5-10??cm. The irregular and low rate fringe pattern in the natural flow area reflects uninterrupted flow that diffuses water efficiently and evenly. Most of the interferograms in the natural flow area show an elongated fringe located along the transitional zone between salt- and fresh-water wetlands, reflecting water level changes due to ocean tides. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Controls on wetland loss during large magnitude storms: a case study in Breton Sound, LA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, N. C.; Hughes, Z. J.; Fitzgerald, D.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Kulp, M. A.; Miner, M. D.; Smith, J. M.; Barras, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    In 2005, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km^2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained largely intact and unchanged. Field studies were undertaken in Breton Sound, Louisiana, where both the low and high salinity wetlands experienced very similar hydrodynamic conditions during Hurricane Katrina. This site provides a natural case to study the causes of the observed land loss patterns. We observe geotechnical differences between soil profiles in high and low salinity wetlands, as controlled by vegetation, and which result in differential erosion. Low salinity wetlands contain a weak zone at a depth of ~30 cm below the marsh surface; this coincides with the base of rooting and has shear strengths as low as 500-1450 Pa. High salinity wetlands display deeper rooting, have no identifiable weak zone, and shear strengths exceed 4500 Pa throughout the upper soil profile. Results from a model (STWAVE-ADCIRC) are used to establish the hydrodynamic conditions during Hurricane Katrina (storm surge, wave height, and wave period). We calculate the potential shear stresses exerted by waves, accounting for the interaction between the oscillatory flow and the vegetation. Calculated shear stresses were in the range 425-3600 Pa, values sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands, but not the high salinity wetlands, corresponding with the observed patterns of land loss. A conceptual model is developed to illustrate the influence of rooting type and depth on the strength profile of wetlands soils and their susceptibility to erosion during large magnitude storms. These findings have implications for wetland restoration schemes involving freshwater diversions.

  12. Wetland indicators. A guide to wetland identification, delineation, classification, and mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Tiner, R.W.

    1999-07-01

    Understand the current concept of wetland and methods for identifying, describing, classifying, and delineating wetlands with ``Wetland Indicators'' capturing the current state of science's role in wetland recognition and mapping. Environmental scientists and others involved with wetland regulations can strengthen their knowledge about wetlands, and the use of various indicators, to support their decisions on difficult wetland determinations. professor Tiner primarily focuses on plants, soils, and other signs of wetland hydrology in the soil, or on the surface of wetlands in his discussion of the book.

  13. Critical Questions in Wetland Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands are transitional between terrestrial and aquatic environments. As such, they perform important ecological functions (e.g., nutrient cycling, flood abatement) providing a variety of ecosystem services on which humans rely. Wetlands are also one of the world’s most e...

  14. North Dakota Wetlands Discovery Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Nancy J., Ed.; Aadland, Hope, Ed.

    This guide facilitates and promotes awareness, appreciation, and knowledge of North Dakota's wetland resources. It is an interdisciplinary wetland activity guide for kindergarten through 12th grade teachers. It was developed specifically for North Dakota educators by North Dakota education and natural resource professionals about North Dakota's…

  15. Carbon Storage in US Wetlands.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in US wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. ...

  16. Processes contributing to resilience of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stagg, Camille L.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cormier, Nicole; Conner, William H.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify processes that contribute to resilience of coastal wetlands subject to rising sea levels and to determine whether the relative contribution of these processes varies across different wetland community types. We assessed the resilience of wetlands to sea-level rise along a transitional gradient from tidal freshwater forested wetland (TFFW) to marsh by measuring processes controlling wetland elevation. We found that, over 5 years of measurement, TFFWs were resilient, although some marginally, and oligohaline marshes exhibited robust resilience to sea-level rise. We identified fundamental differences in how resilience is maintained across wetland community types, which have important implications for management activities that aim to restore or conserve resilient systems. We showed that the relative importance of surface and subsurface processes in controlling wetland surface elevation change differed between TFFWs and oligohaline marshes. The marshes had significantly higher rates of surface accretion than the TFFWs, and in the marshes, surface accretion was the primary contributor to elevation change. In contrast, elevation change in TFFWs was more heavily influenced by subsurface processes, such as root zone expansion or compaction, which played an important role in determining resilience of TFFWs to rising sea level. When root zone contributions were removed statistically from comparisons between relative sea-level rise and surface elevation change, sites that previously had elevation rate deficits showed a surplus. Therefore, assessments of wetland resilience that do not include subsurface processes will likely misjudge vulnerability to sea-level rise.

  17. Influence of wetland size on aquatic communities within wetland reservoir subirrigation systems in northwestern Ohio.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Establishment of a water management system known as the wetland-reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Specifically, each WRSIS consists of one wetland designed to process agricultural chemicals (WRSIS wetlands) and one wetland to ...

  18. Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Pauline M.; Adam, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change. PMID:24832670

  19. Climate change and intertidal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Ross, Pauline M; Adam, Paul

    2013-03-19

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause-the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the "squeeze" experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  20. Applied wetlands science and technology. 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The book provides the fundamentals for defining and regulating wetlands, as well as identifying and delineating wetlands. Functions and values, ecological assessments, and minimization of impacts to wetlands are covered as is background information on wetland enhancement, restoration, creation, and monitoring.

  1. Hydrology of Mid-Atlantic Freshwater Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrology is a key variable in the structure and function of a wetland; it is a primary determinant of wetland type, and it drives many of the functions a wetland performs and in turn the services it provides. However, wetland hydrology has been understudied. Efforts by Riparia s...

  2. Hydrology of Mid-Atlantic Freshwater Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrology is a key variable in the structure and function of a wetland; it is a primary determinant of wetland type, and it drives many of the functions a wetland performs and in turn the services it provides. However, wetland hydrology has been understudied. Efforts by Riparia s...

  3. 40 CFR 230.41 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wetlands. 230.41 Section 230.41... Aquatic Sites § 230.41 Wetlands. (a)(1) Wetlands consist of areas that are inundated or saturated by...) Where wetlands are adjacent to open water, they generally constitute the transition to upland....

  4. Wetlands: Water, Wildlife, Plants, and People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Describes wetlands and explains their importance to man and ecology. Delineates the role of water in wetlands. Describes how wetlands are classified: estuarine, riverine, lacustrine, palustrine, and marine. Accompanying article is a large, color poster on wetlands. Describes an activity where metaphors are used to explore the functions of…

  5. 40 CFR 230.41 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wetlands. 230.41 Section 230.41... Aquatic Sites § 230.41 Wetlands. (a)(1) Wetlands consist of areas that are inundated or saturated by...) Where wetlands are adjacent to open water, they generally constitute the transition to upland....

  6. Wetlands: Water, Wildlife, Plants, and People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Describes wetlands and explains their importance to man and ecology. Delineates the role of water in wetlands. Describes how wetlands are classified: estuarine, riverine, lacustrine, palustrine, and marine. Accompanying article is a large, color poster on wetlands. Describes an activity where metaphors are used to explore the functions of…

  7. Measured and Calculated Volumes of Wetland Depressions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Measured and calculated volumes of wetland depressionsThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Wu, Q., and C. Lane. Delineation and quantification of wetland depressions in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota. WETLANDS. The Society of Wetland Scientists, McLean, VA, USA, 36(2): 215-227, (2016).

  8. Learning English from signed English: an impossible task?

    PubMed

    Power, Des; Hyde, Merv; Leigh, Greg

    2008-01-01

    A sample of elementary school- and high school-age deaf students in special education programs in the Australian state of Queensland using Australasian Signed English (ASE) took the Test of Syntactic Abilities (Quigley, Steinkamp, Power, & Jones, 1978) and wrote a story in response to a wordless picture sequence. Several analyses of the students' test scores and of the written language of their stories were undertaken. It was found that classroom use of ASE was of benefit to these students in developing English and telling a story in writing, but that there were complex aspects of syntax that required special teaching. The implications for the use of Signed English systems and the teaching of English to deaf students who use Signed English communication are examined.

  9. Wetland Program Development Grants: Building State and Tribal Capacity to Protect Wetlands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This brochure highlights just a few examples of the progress being made by states and tribes through the use of the Wetland Program Development Grant funds. Wetland Program Development Grants: Building State and Tribal Capacity to Protect Wetlands

  10. Rainwater lenses in wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, S. C.; Schot, P. P.; Bootsma, M. C.

    2003-04-01

    In the Netherlands, drainage and groundwater abstraction in wetlands has lead to deterioration of fen vegetation through lowering of the phreatic level. This enables recharge of local, acid precipitation and the development of rainwater lenses which float on alkaline groundwater. These lenses prevent upward seeping of the groundwater reaching the fen root zone. In the nature reserve Ilperveld (The Netherlands), a ditch/trench system was dug for the purpose of creating run-off for acid rainwater in wet periods, and to enable neutral surface water in dry periods. Sods were removed to decrease the evapotranspiration. Knowledge of the form and behaviour of rainwater lenses in the root zone of wetlands is a prerequisite in fen restoration projects in order to design effective and cost-efficient measures. With a saturated-unsaturated solute transport model (HYDRUS-2D), numerical simulations were performed. Model results are compared with temporal and spatial measurements of electrical conductivity measured in the Ilperveld. Furthermore, results of temporal dynamics of rainwater lenses are shown as function of (i) the phreatic level, (ii) the number of drainage canals and (iii) the groundwater inflow fluxes.

  11. Atrazine remediation in wetland microcosms.

    PubMed

    Runes, H B; Bottomley, P J; Lerch, R N; Jenkins, J J

    2001-05-01

    Laboratory wetland microcosms were used to study treatment of atrazine in irrigation runoff by a field-scale-constructed wetland under controlled conditions. Three experiments, in which 1 ppm atrazine was added to the water column of three wetland, one soil control, and one water control microcosm, were conducted. Atrazine dissipation from the water column and degradate formation (deethylatrazine [DEA]; deisopropylatrazine [DIA]; and hydroxyatrazine [HA]) were monitored. Atrazine dissipation from the water column of wetland microcosms was biphasic. Less than 12% of the atrazine applied to wetland microcosms remained in the water column on day 56. Atrazine degradates were observed in water and sediment, with HA the predominant degradate. Analysis of day 56 sediment samples indicated that a significant portion of the initial application was detected as the parent compound and HA. Most probable number (MPN) assays demonstrated that atrazine degrader populations were small in wetland sediment. Wetland microcosms were able to reduce atrazine concentration in the water column via sorption and degradation. Based on results from this study, it is hypothesized that plant uptake contributed to atrazine dissipation from the water column.

  12. Methane Fluxes from Subtropical Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucia, N.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is well documented that green house gas concentrations have risen at unequivocal rates since the industrial revolution but the disparity between anthropogenic sources and natural sources is uncertain. Wetlands are one example of a natural ecosystem that can be a substantial source or sink for methane (CH4) depending on climate conditions. Due to strict anaerobic conditions required for CH4-generating microorganisms, natural wetlands are one of the main sources for biogenic CH4. Although wetlands occupy less than 5% of total land surface area, they contribute approximately 20% of total CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. The processes regulating CH4 emissions are sensitive to land use and management practices of areas surrounding wetlands. Variation in adjacent vegetation or grazing intensity by livestock can, for example, alter CH4 fluxes from wetland soils by altering nutrient balance, carbon inputs and hydrology. Therefore, understanding how these changes will affect wetland source strength is essential to understand the impact of wetland management practices on the global climate system. In this study we quantify wetland methane fluxes from subtropical wetlands on a working cattle ranch in central Florida near Okeechobee Lake (27o10'52.04'N, 81o21'8.56'W). To determine differences in CH4 fluxes associated with land use and management, a replicated (n = 4) full factorial experiment was designed for wetlands where the surrounding vegetation was (1) grazed or un-grazed and (2) composed of native vegetation or improved pasture. Net exchange of CH4 and CO2 between the land surface and the atmosphere were sampled with a LICOR Li-7700 open path CH4 analyzer and Li-7500A open path CO2/H20 analyzer mounted in a 1-m3 static gas-exchange chamber. Our results showed and verified that CH4 emissions from subtropical wetlands were larger when high soil moisture was coupled with high temperatures. The presence of cattle only amplified these results. These results help quantify

  13. Stream Dissolved Organic Matter Quantity and Quality Along a Wetland-Cropland Catchment Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonough, O.; Hosen, J. D.; Lang, M. W.; Oesterling, R.; Palmer, M.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands may be critical sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to stream networks. Yet, more than half of wetlands in the continental United States have been lost since European settlement, with the majority of loss attributed to agriculture. The degree to which agricultural loss of wetlands impacts stream DOM is largely unknown and may have important ecological implications. Using twenty headwater catchments on the Delmarva Peninsula (Maryland, USA), we investigated the seasonal influence of wetland and cropland coverage on downstream DOM quantity and quality. In addition to quantifying bulk downstream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, we used a suite of DOM UV-absorbance metrics and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) modeling of excitation-emission fluorescence spectra (EEMs) to characterize DOM composition. Percent bioavailable DOC (%BDOC) was measured during the Spring sampling using a 28-day incubation. Percent wetland coverage and % cropland within the watersheds were significantly negatively correlated (r = -0.93, p < 0.001). Results show that % wetland coverage was positively correlated with stream DOM concentration, molecular weight, aromaticity, humic-like fluorescence, and allochthonous origin. Conversely, increased wetland coverage was negatively correlated with stream DOM protein-like fluorescence. Percent BDOC decreased with DOM humic-like fluorescence and increased with protein-like fluorescence. We observed minimal seasonal interaction between % wetland coverage and DOM concentration and composition across Spring, Fall, and Winter sampling seasons. However, principal component analysis suggested more pronounced seasonal differences exist in stream DOM. This study highlights the influence of wetlands on downstream DOM in agriculturally impacted landscapes where loss of wetlands to cultivation may significantly alter stream DOM quantity and quality.

  14. Effects of climate on numbers of northern prairie wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.

    1995-01-01

    The amount of water held in individual wetland basins depends not only on local climate patterns but also on groundwater flow regime, soil permeability, and basin size. Most wetland basins in the northern prairies hold water in some years and are dry in others. To assess the potential effect of climate change on the number of wetland basins holding water in a given year, one must first determine how much of the variability in number of wet basins is accounted for by climatic variables. I used multiple linear regression to examine the relationship between climate variables and percentage of wet basins throughout the Prairie Pothole Region of Canada and the United States. The region was divided into three areas: parkland, Canadian grassland, and United States grassland (i.e., North Dakota and South Dakota). The models - which included variables for spring and fall temperature, yearly precipitation, the previous year's count of wet basins, and for grassland areas, the previous fall precipitation - accounted for 63 to 65% of the variation in the number of wet basins. I then explored the sensitivities of the models to changes in temperature and precipitation, as might be associated with increased greenhouse gas concentrations. Parkland wetlands are shown to be much more vulnerable to increased temperatures than are wetlands in either Canadian or United States grasslands. Sensitivity to increased precipitation did not vary geographically. These results have implications for waterfowl and other wildlife populations that depend on availability of wetlands in the parklands for breeding or during periods of drought in the southern grasslands.

  15. Small and Large-scale Drivers of Denitrification Patterns in "Accidental" Urban Wetlands in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchy, A. K.; Palta, M. M.; Childers, D. L.; Stromberg, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of microbial conversion of nitrate (NO3-) to nitrogen (N) gas (denitrification) is important for predicting permanent losses of reactive N from systems. In many landscapes, wetlands serve as hotpots of denitrification by providing optimal condition for denitrifiers (sub-oxic, carbon-rich sediments). Much research on denitrification has occurred in non-urban or highly managed urban wetlands. However, in urban landscapes N-rich stormwater is often discharged into areas not designed or managed to reduce N loads. "Accidental" wetlands forming at these outfalls may have the capacity to remove NO3-; however, these "accidental" urban wetlands can contain novel soils and vegetation, and are subject to unique hydrologic conditions that could create spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification that differ from those predicted in non-urban counterparts. We performed denitrification enzyme assays (measuring denitrification potential, or DP) on soil samples taken from nine wetlands forming at storm drain outfalls in Phoenix, AZ. The wetlands ranged from perennially flooded, to intermittently flooded (~9 months/year), to ephemerally flooded (2-3 weeks/year). To assess spatial variation in carbon availability to denitrifiers, samples were taken from 3-4 dominant vegetation patch types within each wetland. To assess temporal variation in DP, samples were taken across three seasons differing in rainfall pattern. We found small- and large-scale spatiotemporal patterns in DP that have important implications for management of urban wetlands for stormwater quality. DP varied among plant patches and was typically highest in patches of Ludwigia peploides, indicating that plant species type may mediate within-wetland variations in carbon availability, and therefore NO3- removal capacity. We found a range of responses in DP among wetlands to season, which appeared to be driven in part by flood regime: DP in perennially-flooded wetlands was

  16. Integrating geographically isolated wetlands into land management decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands across the globe provide extensive ecosystem services. However, many wetlands – especially those surrounded by uplands, often referred to as geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) – remain poorly protected. Protection and restoration of wetlands frequently r...

  17. SPECIAL ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Language Services, Inc., Washington, DC.

    THIS 14-VOLUME SERIES OF TECHNICAL ENGLISH TEXTS IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE PRACTICE IN TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY FOR NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH. LANGUAGE FLUENCY LEVEL IS UPPER-INTERMEDIATE/ADVANCED. THE VARIOUS FIELDS OF INDUSTRY WHICH THE TEXTS DEAL WITH ARE AS FOLLOWS--(1) AGRICULTURE--BOOK 1, SOILS (2) AGRICULTURE--BOOK 2, FIELD CROPS (3)…

  18. Maori English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclagan, Margaret; King, Jeanette; Gillon, Gail

    2008-01-01

    The Maori language is the language of the indigenous people of New Zealand. Today, not all Maori speak the Maori language, and many Maori as well as non-Maori speak Maori English, the fastest growing of the main varieties of New Zealand English. This paper provides a background to the linguistic situation of the Maori populace in New Zealand,…

  19. SPECIAL ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Language Services, Inc., Washington, DC.

    THIS 14-VOLUME SERIES OF TECHNICAL ENGLISH TEXTS IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE PRACTICE IN TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY FOR NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH. LANGUAGE FLUENCY LEVEL IS UPPER-INTERMEDIATE/ADVANCED. THE VARIOUS FIELDS OF INDUSTRY WHICH THE TEXTS DEAL WITH ARE AS FOLLOWS--(1) AGRICULTURE--BOOK 1, SOILS (2) AGRICULTURE--BOOK 2, FIELD CROPS (3)…

  20. REMOTE SENSING AND GIS WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Learn how photographs and computer sensor generated images can illustrate conditions of hydrology, extent, change over time, and impact of events such as hurricanes and tornados. Other topics include: information storage and modeling, and evaluation of wetlands for managing reso...

  1. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Constructed wetlands have been demonstrated effective in removing organic, metal, and nutrient elements including nitrogen and phosphorus from municipal wastewaters, mine drainage, industrial effluents, and agricultural runoff. The technology is waste stream-specific, requiring...

  2. REMOTE SENSING AND GIS WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Learn how photographs and computer sensor generated images can illustrate conditions of hydrology, extent, change over time, and impact of events such as hurricanes and tornados. Other topics include: information storage and modeling, and evaluation of wetlands for managing reso...

  3. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Constructed wetlands have been demonstrated effective in removing organic, metal, and nutrient elements including nitrogen and phosphorus from municipal wastewaters, mine drainage, industrial effluents, and agricultural runoff. The technology is waste stream-specific, requiring...

  4. 76 FR 22785 - Wetland Conservation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... 7 CFR Part 12 RIN 0578-AA58 Wetland Conservation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, United States... concerning the Natural Resources Conservation Service's (NRCS) coordination responsibilities. DATES..., Director, Ecological Sciences Division, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources...

  5. Ecohydraulics and Estuarine Wetland Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. F.; Howe, A.; Saintilan, N.; Spencer, J.

    2004-12-01

    The hydraulics or water flow in wetlands is known to be a key factor influencing ecosystem development in estuarine wetland environments. The relationship is indirect, with the hydraulics of wetlands influencing a host of factors including soil salinity, waterlogging, sediment transport, sediment chemistry, vegetation dispersal and growth and nutrient availability and cycling. The relationship is also not one way, with the hydraulics of wetlands being influenced by plant and animal activity. Understanding these complex interactions is fundamental for the adequate management of estuarine wetlands. Listed as a Wetland of International Importance under the 1971 Ramsar Convention, the Hunter River estuary is regarded as the most significant site for migratory shorebirds in New South Wales, Australia. Over the past 20 years, the number of migratory shorebirds in the estuary has sharply declined from 8,000 to 4,000 approx. Alteration of bird habitat is believed to be one of the reasons for this alarming trend. In 2004 we started a three-year program to investigate the links between hydraulics, sediment, benthic invertebrates, vegetation and migratory shorebird habitat in the estuary. During the first year we have focused on a highly disturbed part of the Hunter estuary wetlands located on Ash Island. The area is one of the major roosting sites in the estuary and is characterized by a complex hydraulic regime due to a restricted tidal interchange with the Hunter River and the presence of infrastructure for the maintenance of power lines (i.e., roads, bridges, culverts). Salt marshes, mudflat and mangroves are the dominant vegetation types. The monitoring program includes measurements of water levels, salinity, discharge, velocity, turbulence, sediment transport and deposition, plant species and density, soil composition and benthic invertebrates coordinated with observations of bird habitat utilization on a number of locations throughout the wetland and for different flow

  6. Study of natural wetlands associated with acid mine drainage. Final research report Jul 87-Dec 90

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, L.R.

    1990-12-01

    Thirty-five natural wetlands impacted by acid mine drainage (mostly in western PA) were surveyed for abiotic and biotic parameters in relation to water quality. Using treatment efficiency and area-adjusted mass retention as wetland performance indices, correlation analyses and multiple regression techniques were employed to evaluate the influence of the wetland parameters on the mitigation of pH, Fe, Mn, and Al. Elevation of pH was correlated with large, broad, low-flow wetlands with shallow, non-channelized surface water, inlet alkalinity, and dense populations of vascular plants and bryophytes. Moderate and high iron concentrations interfered with the mitigation of pH. High Fe treatment efficiencies were correlated to low flows, large areas, broad shapes, non-channelized flows, exposed locations, a diverse and dense vegetative cover, and inlet alkalinity. Large wetlands having lush vascular plant cover and receiving alkaline waters low in total iron concentrations were implicated in significant Mn treatment. Outlet Fe concentrations were usually in compliance in wetlands that significantly lowered Mn concentrations. Algae tolerate manganese but probably do not play an active role in its elimination. Reliable indices of wetland performance include area-adjusted mass retention (for pH) and treatment efficiency (for metals).

  7. Hydrologic indices for nontidal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lent, R.M.; Weiskel, P.K.; Lyford, F.P.; Armstrong, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Two sets of hydrologic indices were developed to characterize the water-budget components of nontidal wetlands. The first set consisted of six water-budget indices for input and output variables, and the second set consisted of two hydrologic interaction indices derived from the water-budget indices. The indices then were applied to 19 wetlands with previously published water-budget data. Two trilinear diagrams for each wetland were constructed, one for the three input indices and another for the three output indices. These two trilinear diagrams then were combined with a central quadrangle to form a Piper-type diagram, with data points from the trilinear diagrams projected onto the quadrangle. The quadrangle then was divided into nine fields that summarized the water-budget information. Two quantitative "interaction indices" were calculated from two of the six water-budget indices (precipitation and evapotranspiration). They also were obtained graphically from the water-budget indices, which were first projected to the central quadrangle of a Piper-type diagram from the flanking trilinear plots. The first interaction index (l) defines the strength of interaction between a wetland and the surrounding ground- and surface-water system. The second interaction index (S) defines the nature of the interaction between the wetland and the surrounding ground- and surface-water system (source versus sink). Evaluation of these indices using published wetland water-budget data illustrates the usefulness of the technique.

  8. Airport expansion requires major wetlands mitigation project

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the steps taken to mitigate the impact to existing wetlands by creating new wetlands in an airport expansion project. The project addressed maintaining suitable amounts of wetlands to accommodate peak waterfowl populations, moving of high voltage power transmission towers, and maintaining agricultural and hunting interests. This project involved recreating of open water areas, marsh habitat, mud flat habitat, saline meadow habitat, maintaining two existing wetlands in the area of the new wetlands without disturbing them, and improving upland habitat surrounding the new wetlands.

  9. Teaching of Languages Other Than English (LOTE): Implications for Teacher Education and Teacher Registration. Conference Proceedings (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, November 8, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queensland Dept. of Education, Brisbane (Australia).

    The purpose of the workshop conference reported in this publication was to provide: recommendations on developments in preservice teacher education and professional development for teachers of languages other than English (LOTE), advice to the Board of Teacher Registration and universities on issues related to the preparation and registration of…

  10. The Implications of Expanding the Instruction Time for the English Language Teaching Policy Implementation in the Sultanate of Oman: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Issa, Ali S. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study asks questions and elicits answers about the importance of English language teaching (ELT) instruction time on the national curriculum in the Sultanate of Oman from an ideological perspective. It triangulates data from semi-structured interviews made with different agents involved in the Omani ELT system and representing different…

  11. The Implications of Expanding the Instruction Time for the English Language Teaching Policy Implementation in the Sultanate of Oman: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Issa, Ali S. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study asks questions and elicits answers about the importance of English language teaching (ELT) instruction time on the national curriculum in the Sultanate of Oman from an ideological perspective. It triangulates data from semi-structured interviews made with different agents involved in the Omani ELT system and representing different…

  12. Language specificity in the perception of voiceless sibilant fricatives in Japanese and English: Implications for cross-language differences in speech-sound development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fangfang; Munson, Benjamin; Edwards, Jan; Yoneyama, Kiyoko; Hall, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Both English and Japanese have two voiceless sibilant fricatives, an anterior fricative ∕s∕ contrasting with a more posterior fricative ∕∫∕. When children acquire sibilant fricatives, English children typically substitute [s] for ∕∫∕, whereas Japanese children typically substitute [∫] for ∕∫∕. This study examined English- and Japanese-speaking adults’ perception of children’s productions of voiceless sibilant fricatives to investigate whether the apparent asymmetry in the acquisition of voiceless sibilant fricatives reported previously in the two languages was due in part to how adults perceive children’s speech. The results of this study show that adult speakers of English and Japanese weighed acoustic parameters differently when identifying fricatives produced by children and that these differences explain, in part, the apparent cross-language asymmetry in fricative acquisition. This study shows that generalizations about universal and language-specific patterns in speech-sound development cannot be determined without considering all sources of variation including speech perception. PMID:21361456

  13. Characteristics of Limited English Proficient Hispanic Students in Programs for the Learning Disabled: Implications for Policy, Practice and Research. Part I. Report Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Alba A., Ed.; Polyzoi, Eleoussa, Ed.

    An exploratory and descriptive study is reviewed which examined the identification and placement of 334 limited English proficient Hispanic students (grades 2-5) in learning disability programs. Ss' eligibility folders were examined to determine why they had been referred initially, how they were assessed, and to document the initial placement…

  14. Spanish-Speaking Mexican-American Families' Involvement in School-Based Activities and Their Children's Literacy: The Implications of Having Teachers Who Speak Spanish and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Sandra; Dearing, Eric; Weiss, Heather B.

    2012-01-01

    For a sample of low-income, Spanish-speaking Mexican-American families (n = 72), we investigated associations between family involvement in school-based activities and children's literacy in their preferred language (English or Spanish) during early elementary school. We gave special attention to the potential moderating role of teacher fluency in…

  15. Landscape characteristics of a stream and wetland mitigation banking program.

    PubMed

    BenDor, Todd; Sholtes, Joel; Doyle, Martin W

    2009-12-01

    In the United States, stream restoration is an increasing part of environmental and land management programs, particularly under the auspices of compensatory mitigation regulations. Markets and regulations surrounding stream mitigation are beginning to mirror those of the well-established wetland mitigation industry. Recent studies have shown that wetland mitigation programs commonly shift wetlands across space from urban to rural areas, thereby changing the functional characteristics and benefits of wetlands in the landscape. However, it is not yet known if stream mitigation mirrors this behavior, and if so, what effects this may have on landscape-scale ecological and hydrological processes. This project addresses three primary research questions. (1) What are the spatial relationships between stream and wetland impact and compensation sites as a result of regulations requiring stream and wetland mitigation in the State of North Carolina? (2) How do stream impacts come about due to the actions of different types of developers, and how do the characteristics of impacts sites compare with compensation sites? (3) To what extent does stream compensation relocate high-quality streams within the river network, and how does this affect localized (intrawatershed) loss or gain of aquatic resources? Using geospatial data collected from the North Carolina Division of Water Quality and the Army Corps of Engineers' Wilmington District, we analyzed the behavior of the North Carolina Ecosystem Enhancement Program in providing stream and wetland mitigation for the State of North Carolina. Our results suggest that this program provides mitigation (1) in different ways for different types of permittees; (2) at great distances (both Euclidean and within the stream network) from original impacts; (3) in significantly different places than impacts within watersheds; and (4) in many cases, in different watersheds from original impacts. Our analysis also reveals problems with regulator

  16. Identity, Literacy, and English-Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Bonny

    2010-01-01

    In the field of English-language teaching, there has been increasing interest in how literacy development is influenced by institutional and community practice and how power is implicated in language-learners' engagement with text. In this article, I trace the trajectory of my research on identity, literacy, and English-language teaching informed…

  17. Identity, Literacy, and English-Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Bonny

    2010-01-01

    In the field of English-language teaching, there has been increasing interest in how literacy development is influenced by institutional and community practice and how power is implicated in language-learners' engagement with text. In this article, I trace the trajectory of my research on identity, literacy, and English-language teaching informed…

  18. English and Nepali Monophthongs: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giri, Ram Ashish

    British English and Nepali monophthongs (pure vowels) are analyzed and compared in terms of their distinctive features, and pedagogical implications for Nepali learners of English as a Second Language are discussed. First, the two vowel systems are outlined and described in terms of eight distinctive features: vowel height, backness, lip rounding,…

  19. Identity, Literacy, and English Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Bonny

    2013-01-01

    In the field of English language teaching, there has been increasing interest in the way literacy development is influenced by institutional and community practices, and the way power is implicated in language learners' engagement with text. In this paper, I trace the trajectory of my research on identity, literacy, and English language teaching,…

  20. Spatial pattern analysis for water quality in free-surface constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, Reza; Shaharuddin, Syafiq; Chang, Chun Kiat; Zakaria, Nor Azazi; Ab Ghani, Aminuddin

    2014-01-01

    Free-surface constructed wetlands are known as a low-energy green technique to highly decrease a wide range of pollutants in wastewater and stormwater before discharge into natural water. In this study, two spatial analyses, principal factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis (HACA), were employed to interpret the effect of wetland on the water quality variables (WQVs) and to classify the wetland into groups with similar characteristics. Eleven WQVs were collected at the 17 sampling stations twice a month for 13 months. All sampling stations were classified by HACA into three clusters, with high, moderate, and low pollution areas. To improve the water quality, the performance of Cluster-III (micropool) is more significant than Cluster-I and Cluster-II. Implications of this study include potential savings of time and cost for long-term data monitoring purposes in the free-constructed wetland.

  1. Comparison of carbon sequestration and methane emissions in different hydrologic and disturbance conditions in subtropical wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsch, William; Villa, Jorge; Li, Xiaoyu; Marchio, Daniel; Pereyra, Andrea; Cabezas, Alvaro; Zhang, Li

    2017-04-01

    Wetlands are among the best ecosystems for long-term sequestration of carbon from the atmosphere yet they continue to be viewed by many as primarily sources of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. While these carbon fluxes have been compared extensively in boreal and temperate zone wetlands, there are relatively few summaries of field studies of the relative importance of these two carbon fluxes in tropical and subtropical wetlands This study summarizes a half-decade of studies in south Florida where methane emissions and carbon sequestration are compared in in different hydrologic and disturbance conditions using similar field and laboratory methods. A previously published model is updated and used to compare the relative importance of these fluxes for net radiative forcing. Implications of the combined effects of continued human development causing wetland disturbance along with climate-change-induced sea level rise in south Florida will be discussed.

  2. Wetland Hydrology | Science Inventory | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefits and types, and explains the role and importance of hydrology on wetland functioning. The chapter continues with the description of wetland hydrologic terms and related estimation and modeling techniques. The chapter provides a quick but valuable information regarding hydraulics of surface and subsurface flow, groundwater seepage/discharge, and modeling groundwater/surface water interactions in wetlands. Because of the aggregated effects of the wetlands at larger scales and their ecosystem services, wetland hydrology at the watershed scale is also discussed in which we elaborate on the proficiencies of some of the well-known watershed models in modeling wetland hydrology. This chapter can serve as a useful reference for eco-hydrologists, wetland researchers and decision makers as well as watershed hydrology modelers. In this chapter, the importance of hydrology for wetlands and their functional role are discussed. Wetland hydrologic terms and the major components of water budget in wetlands and how they can be estimated/modeled are also presented. Although this chapter does not provide a comprehensive coverage of wetland hydrology, it provides a quick understanding of the basic co

  3. Methylmercury Bioaccumulation in Rice and Wetland Biota: employing integrated indices of processes that drive methylmercury risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagles-Smith, C.; Ackerman, J.; Windham-Myers, L.; Fleck, J.

    2013-12-01

    concentrations increased across rice fields from inlets to outlets indicating that in situ processes enhanced MeHg production rice fields, whereas concentrations decreased from inlets to outlets in managed wetlands. Finally, our preliminary results suggest organic carbon associated with rice plants was an important contributor to fish Hg concentrations, whereas plants in managed wetlands were not strongly linked to fish Hg concentrations. Our preliminary findings suggest that there are strong linkages between biogeochemical processes inherent in rice wetlands and MeHg cycling and bioaccumulation, which are further described in a companion presentation by Windham-Myers (this session). These results have important implications for managing MeHg risk in areas with extensive rice agriculture.

  4. Michigan Wetlands: Yours To Protect. A Citizen's Guide to Local Involvement in Wetland Protection. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwikiel, Wilfred

    This guidebook is designed to assist concerned Michigan citizens, local governments, conservation organizations, landowners, and others in their efforts to initiate wetlands protection activities. Chapter 1 focuses on wetland functions, values, losses, and the urgent need to protect wetland resources. Chapter 2 discusses wetland identification and…

  5. A Framework for Wetlands Research: Development of a Wetlands Data Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Issues related to the assembly of a comprehensive global wetlands data base are presented. A strategy to collect relevant data for wetland ecosystems through remote sensing inventories of wetland distribution was discussed. Elements of a research program on biogenic gas fluxes were identified. The major wetland parameters and their functional importance to material exchange mechanisms are summarized.

  6. Vegetation of Upper Coastal Plain Depression Wetlands: Environmental Templates and Wetland Dynamics Within A Landscape Framework

    Treesearch

    Diane De Steven; Maureen M. Toner

    2004-01-01

    Reference wetlands play an important role in efforts to protect wetlands and assess wetland condition. Because wetland vegetation integrates the influence of many ecological factors, a useful reference system would identify natural vegetation types and include models relating vegetation to important regional geomorphic, hydrologic, and geochemical properties. Across...

  7. Accommodating World Englishes in Developing EFL Learners' Oral Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukminatien, Nur

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to discuss issues of World Englishes (WEs) and the implications in ELT. It explores the extent to which WEs are taken into account as emerging English varieties different from inner circle varieties, how WEs should be accommodated by English teachers, and which standard to adopt to accommodate learner's linguistic needs for…

  8. Accommodating World Englishes in Developing EFL Learners' Oral Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukminatien, Nur

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to discuss issues of World Englishes (WEs) and the implications in ELT. It explores the extent to which WEs are taken into account as emerging English varieties different from inner circle varieties, how WEs should be accommodated by English teachers, and which standard to adopt to accommodate learner's linguistic needs for…

  9. English and Identity in Multicultural Contexts: Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lie, Anita

    2017-01-01

    The increasing dominance of English has brought implications in language policy and the teaching of English in the multicultural Indonesia. A high power language such as English is taught in schools as a language of modern communication, while the national language is regarded as a force of unifying the nation and local languages as carriers of…

  10. Bilingual Creativity in Chinese English: Ha Jin's "In the Pond."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hang

    2002-01-01

    Addresses issues related to bilingual creativity in Chinese English and their implications for world Englishes in the Chinese context. The language examined is drawn from Ha Jin's novella, "In the Pond, in which the author's use of English is nativized in the Chinese context in order to recast the cultural meanings of the language.…

  11. English Only: The Creation and Maintenance of an Academic Underclass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Candace

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I address the present-day political and pedagogical implications of the imposition of one year of English only immersion on limited English proficient (LEP) students. The article also presents a case study of an inner-city community in Massachusetts during the early years -- 1968-1974 -- of transition from English only to…

  12. Influence of wetland type, hydrology, and wetland destruction on aquatic communities within wetland reservoir subirrigation systems in northwestern Ohio

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Establishment of an agricultural water recycling system known as the wetland reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of two different types of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Each WRSIS consists of one treatment wetland designed to process agricultural contaminants (...

  13. Mycorrhizae in Bottomland Hardwood (BLH) Wetland Forests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    This technical note describes the distribution of mycorrhizae in several BLH wetland forests of the Southeast and their potential importance in restoration of BLH wetland forests from agricultural lands.

  14. [Wetland landscape ecological classification: research progress].

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Mo, Li-jiang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Wen-mei

    2009-12-01

    Wetland landscape ecological classification, as a basis for the studies of wetland landscape ecology, directly affects the precision and effectiveness of wetland-related research. Based on the history, current status, and latest progress in the studies on the theories, indicators, and methods of wetland landscape classification, some scientific wetland classification systems, e.g., NWI, Ramsar, and HGM, were introduced and discussed in this paper. It was suggested that a comprehensive classification method based on HGM and on the integral consideration of wetlands spatial structure, ecological function, ecological process, topography, soil, vegetation, hydrology, and human disturbance intensity should be the major future direction in this research field. Furthermore, the integration of 3S technologies, quantitative mathematics, landscape modeling, knowledge engineering, and artificial intelligence to enhance the automatization and precision of wetland landscape ecological classification would be the key issues and difficult topics in the studies of wetland landscape ecological classification.

  15. Quantifying The Water Quality Services Of Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands are well recognized for their potential for providing a wide range of important ecological services including their ability to provide water quality protection. Watershed-scale water quality trading could create market driven incentives to restore and construct wetlands...

  16. Quantifying The Water Quality Services Of Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands are well recognized for their potential for providing a wide range of important ecological services including their ability to provide water quality protection. Watershed-scale water quality trading could create market driven incentives to restore and construct wetlands...

  17. Elemental composition of native wetland plants in constructed mesocosm treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Collins, Beverly S; Sharitz, Rebecca R; Coughlin, Daniel P

    2005-05-01

    Plants that accumulate a small percentage of metals in constructed treatment wetlands can contribute to remediation of acidic, metal contaminated runoff waters from coal mines or processing areas. We examined root and shoot concentrations of elements in four perennial wetland species over two seasons in mesocosm wetland systems designed to remediate water from a coal pile runoff basin. Deep wetlands in each system contained Myriophyllum aquaticum and Nymphaea odorata; shallow wetlands contained Juncus effusus and Pontederia cordata. Shoot elemental concentrations differed between plants of deep and shallow wetlands, with higher Zn, Al, and Fe concentrations in plants in shallow wetlands and higher Na, Mn, and P concentrations in plants in deep wetlands. Root and shoot concentrations of most elements differed between species in each wetland type. Over two seasons, these four common wetland plants did help remediate acidic, metal-contaminated runoff from a coal storage pile.

  18. English as a Lingua Franca: Reflections on ELF-Related Issues by Pre-Service English Language Teachers in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Esma Biricik; Özkan, Yonca; Bayyurt, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The leading position of English as a global language has evidently been continuing for several decades. This pivotal role has inevitably been influencing the agenda of English language teaching and teacher education in most domains of the profession. Although English as a lingua franca (ELF) implications and practices on teaching and teacher…

  19. English as a Lingua Franca: Reflections on ELF-Related Issues by Pre-Service English Language Teachers in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Esma Biricik; Özkan, Yonca; Bayyurt, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The leading position of English as a global language has evidently been continuing for several decades. This pivotal role has inevitably been influencing the agenda of English language teaching and teacher education in most domains of the profession. Although English as a lingua franca (ELF) implications and practices on teaching and teacher…

  20. Spanish-speaking Mexican-American Families' Involvement in School-based Activities and their Children's Literacy: The Implications of Having Teachers who Speak Spanish and English.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sandra; Dearing, Eric; Weiss, Heather B

    2012-06-01

    For a sample of low-income, Spanish-speaking Mexican-American families (n = 72), we investigated associations between family involvement in school-based activities and children's literacy in their preferred language (English or Spanish) during early elementary school. We gave special attention to the potential moderating role of teacher fluency in Spanish. Between kindergarten and third grade, family involvement in school-based activities increased for children who displayed early literacy problems. The rate of increase was greater for children who consistently had bilingual teachers than for children who did not. In turn, increased family involvement predicted better literacy skills at third grade, particularly for children who struggled early. We discuss these results in light of recent recommendations to increase the number of elementary school teachers who are fluent in Spanish and English.

  1. The Implications of Orthographic Intraference for the Teaching and Description of ESL: The Educated Nigerian English Examples (Implicaciones de la Intraferencia Ortográfica para la Enseñanza y Descripción del Inglés como Segunda Lengua: Ejemplos Inglés Nigeriano Formal)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekundayo, Omowumi Steve Bode

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines orthographic intraference and its implications for teaching and describing English as a second language (ESL). Orthographic intraference is used here to denote instances of single word spelling, acronyms, mix up of homophones, homonyms and compound word spelling arising not from interference but from orthographic rules and…

  2. Defining Hydrophytes for Wetland Identification and Delineation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    and Development Center 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, NH 03755 ERDC/CRREL CR-12-1 ii Abstract: The presence of hydrophytic vegetation is an essential...vegetation, hydric soils, and wetland hydrology) to verify the presence of wetlands (Regional supplements to the Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation...vegetation has been and is being addressed through regional wetland supplements . For this purpose, plant communities dominated by OBL, FACW, and FAC

  3. Competition among thiols and inorganic sulfides and polysulfides for Hg and MeHg in wetland soils and sediments under suboxic conditions: Illumination of controversies and implications for MeHg net production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skyllberg, Ulf

    2008-12-01

    Current research focus in mercury biogeochemistry is on the net production and accumulation of methyl mercury (MeHg) in organisms. The activity of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) has been identified as important for MeHg production. There are indications of a passive uptake of neutral Hg-sulfides by SRB, as well as of a facilitated bacterial uptake of Hg complexed by small organic molecules. In order to understand these processes, the chemical speciation of Hg and MeHg, and most important, the competition among organic thiols and inorganic sulfides and polysulfides, needs to be clarified under suboxic conditions (nM to low μM range of total sulfide concentrations) in wetland soils and sediments. In this paper the chemical speciation of Hg and MeHg is modeled at pH 4.0 and 7.0 in a conceptual wetland soil/sediment with typical concentrations of thiols, sulfides, Hg, and MeHg. Effects of precipitated HgS(s), the formation of Hg-polysulfides, and the size of the controversial stability constant for the formation of HOHgSH0 (aq) are emphasized. The outcome of the modeling is discussed in light of chosen stability constants for Hg complexes with thiols, sulfides, and polysulfides. It is concluded that organic thiols are competitive with inorganic sulfides in the approximate total sulfide concentration range 0-1 μm. It is also concluded that increases in absolute aqueous concentrations of MeHg, or the molar ratio of dissolved MeHg/Hg, are not appropriate as indirect measures of MeHg net production, unless changes and differences in solubility of MeHg and Hg are corrected for.

  4. North Dakota Wetlands Discovery Guide. Photocopy Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Nancy J., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet contains games and activities that can be photocopied for classroom use. Activities include Wetland Terminology, Putting on the Map, Erosional Forces, Water in...Water out, Who Lives Here?, Wetlands in Disguise, Dichotomous Plant Game, Algae Survey, Conducting an Algal Survey, Water Quality Indicators Guide, Farming Wetlands, Wetlands…

  5. 40 CFR 258.12 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wetlands. 258.12 Section 258.12... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.12 Wetlands. (a) New MSWLF units and lateral expansions shall not be located in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the...

  6. 40 CFR 257.9 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wetlands. 257.9 Section 257.9... Location Restrictions § 257.9 Wetlands. (a) Owners or operators of new units and lateral expansions shall not locate such units in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following...

  7. 40 CFR 257.9 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Wetlands. 257.9 Section 257.9... Location Restrictions § 257.9 Wetlands. (a) Owners or operators of new units and lateral expansions shall not locate such units in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following...

  8. 40 CFR 258.12 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Wetlands. 258.12 Section 258.12... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.12 Wetlands. (a) New MSWLF units and lateral expansions shall not be located in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the...

  9. 40 CFR 257.9 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wetlands. 257.9 Section 257.9... Location Restrictions § 257.9 Wetlands. (a) Owners or operators of new units and lateral expansions shall not locate such units in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following...

  10. 40 CFR 258.12 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wetlands. 258.12 Section 258.12... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.12 Wetlands. (a) New MSWLF units and lateral expansions shall not be located in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the...

  11. Using hydrogeology to site wetland compensation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael V.; Fucciolo, Christine S.; Miner, James J.

    1998-01-01

    The Illinois State Geological Survey has designed an initial site evaluation (ISE) procedure to rapidly separate candidate sites that have favorable hydrogeologic characteristics for wetland restoration or creation from sites where success is doubtful or difficult. ISE aims to focus compensation efforts on sites where former wetland hydrology can be restored or where the hydrogeology of wetlands in similar landscape positions can be reproduced.

  12. North Dakota Wetlands Discovery Guide. Photocopy Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Nancy J., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet contains games and activities that can be photocopied for classroom use. Activities include Wetland Terminology, Putting on the Map, Erosional Forces, Water in...Water out, Who Lives Here?, Wetlands in Disguise, Dichotomous Plant Game, Algae Survey, Conducting an Algal Survey, Water Quality Indicators Guide, Farming Wetlands, Wetlands…

  13. Conservation of Louisiana's coastal wetland forests

    Treesearch

    Jim L. Chambers; Richard F. Keim; William H. Conner; John W. Jr. Day; Stephen P. Faulkner; Emile S. Gardiner; Melinda s. Hughes; Sammy L. King; Kenneth W. McLeod; Craig A. Miller; J. Andrew Nyman; Gary P. Shaffer

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale efforts to protect and restore coastal wetlands and the concurrent renewal of forest harvesting in cypress-tupelo swamps have brought new attention to Louisiana's coastal wetland forests in recent years. Our understanding of these coastal wetland forests has been limited by inadequate data and the lack of a comprehensive review of existing information...

  14. 40 CFR 257.9 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wetlands. 257.9 Section 257.9... Location Restrictions § 257.9 Wetlands. (a) Owners or operators of new units and lateral expansions shall not locate such units in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following demonstrations...

  15. 40 CFR 257.9 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wetlands. 257.9 Section 257.9... Location Restrictions § 257.9 Wetlands. (a) Owners or operators of new units and lateral expansions shall not locate such units in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following demonstrations...

  16. 40 CFR 258.12 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wetlands. 258.12 Section 258.12... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.12 Wetlands. (a) New MSWLF units and lateral expansions shall not be located in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following...

  17. 40 CFR 258.12 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wetlands. 258.12 Section 258.12... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.12 Wetlands. (a) New MSWLF units and lateral expansions shall not be located in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following...

  18. Hydrology of a natural hardwood forested wetland

    Treesearch

    George M. Chescheir; Devendra M. Amatya; R. Wayne Skaggs

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents the hydrology of a natural forested wetland near Plymouth, NC, USA. The research site was located on one of the few remaining, undrained non-riverine, palustrine forested hardwood wetlands on the lower coastal plain of North Carolina. A 137 ha watershed within the 350ha wetland was selected for intensive field study. Water balance components...

  19. Landscape context mediates influence of local food abundance on wetland use by wintering shorebirds in an agricultural valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taft, Oriane W.; Haig, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    While it is widely understood that local abundance of benthic invertebrates can greatly influence the distribution and abundance of wetland birds, no studies have examined if wetland landscape context can mediate this relationship. We studied the influence of wetland food abundance and landscape context on use of agricultural wetlands by wintering dunlin (Calidris alpina) and killdeer (Charadrius vociferus) in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, USA, over two winters (1999a??2000, 2000a??2001) of differing rainfall and subsequent habitat distribution. We monitored bird use (frequency of occurrence and abundance) at a sample of wetlands differing in local food abundance (density and biomass) and landscape context [adjacent shorebird habitat (defined as ha of wet habitat with less than 50% vegetative cover and within a 2-km radius) and nearest neighbor distance]. We evaluated predictive models for bird use using linear regression and the Cp criterion to select the most parsimonious model. During the dry winter (2000a??2001), dunlin exhibited greater use of sites with higher invertebrate density and biomass but also with more adjacent shorebird habitat and closest to a wetland neighbor. However, neither landscape context nor food abundance were important predictors of dunlin use during the wet winter (1999a??2000). Use of sites by killdeer was unrelated to either local food abundance or landscape context measures during both winters. Our findings contribute to a growing recognition of the importance of landscape structure to wetland birds and highlight a number of implications for the spatial planning and enhancement of wetlands using a landscape approach.

  20. Microbial Community Structure in Lake and Wetland Sediments from a High Arctic Polar Desert Revealed by Targeted Transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Stoeva, Magdalena K.; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Chételat, John; Hintelmann, Holger; Pelletier, Philip; Poulain, Alexandre J.

    2014-01-01

    While microbial communities play a key role in the geochemical cycling of nutrients and contaminants in anaerobic freshwater sediments, their structure and activity in polar desert ecosystems are still poorly understood, both across heterogeneous freshwater environments such as lakes and wetlands, and across sediment depths. To address this question, we performed targeted environmental transcriptomics analyses and characterized microbial diversity across three depths from sediment cores collected in a lake and a wetland, located on Cornwallis Island, NU, Canada. Microbial communities were characterized based on 16S rRNA and two functional gene transcripts: mcrA, involved in archaeal methane cycling and glnA, a bacterial housekeeping gene implicated in nitrogen metabolism. We show that methane cycling and overall bacterial metabolic activity are the highest at the surface of lake sediments but deeper within wetland sediments. Bacterial communities are highly diverse and structured as a function of both environment and depth, being more diverse in the wetland and near the surface. Archaea are mostly methanogens, structured by environment and more diverse in the wetland. McrA transcript analyses show that active methane cycling in the lake and wetland corresponds to distinct communities with a higher potential for methane cycling in the wetland. Methanosarcina spp., Methanosaeta spp. and a group of uncultured Archaea are the dominant methanogens in the wetland while Methanoregula spp. predominate in the lake. PMID:24594936