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Sample records for enhanced antitumor effects

  1. Pegfilgrastim Enhances the Antitumor Effect of Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Sébastien; Mathé, Doriane; Chettab, Kamel; Evesque, Anne; Matera, Eva-Laure; Trédan, Olivier; Dumontet, Charles

    2016-06-01

    Therapeutic mAbs exert antitumor activity through various mechanisms, including apoptotic signalization, complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) or phagocytosis (ADCP). G-CSF and GM-CSF have been reported to increase the activity of antibodies in preclinical models and in clinical trials. To determine the potential role of pegfilgrastim as an enhancer of anticancer antibodies, we performed a comparative study of filgrastim and pegfilgrastim. We found that pegfilgrastim was significantly more potent than filgrastim in murine xenograft models treated with mAbs. This was observed with rituximab in CD20(+) models and with trastuzumab in HER2(+) models. Stimulation with pegfilgrastim was associated with significant enhancement of leukocyte content in spleen as well as mobilization of activated monocytes/granulocytes from the spleen to the tumor bed. These results suggest that pegfilgrastim could constitute a potent adjuvant for immunotherapy with mAbs possessing ADCC/ADCP properties. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(6); 1238-47. ©2016 AACR.

  2. Valproic Acid Enhances the Anti-tumor Effect of (-)-gossypol to Burkitt Lymphoma Namalwa Cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi; Ni, Zhen Hong; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Xing Hua; Zou, Zhong Min

    2015-10-01

    Burkitt lymphoma is a highly aggressive B-cell neoplasm. New therapeutic methods are needed to overcome the adverse effect of intensive chemotherapy regimens. Valproic acid and (-)-gossypol are two kinds of chemical compounds used as new anti-tumor drugs in recent years. To investigate the anti-tumor effect of valproic acid and (-)-gossypol, Burkitt lymphoma Namalwa cells were cultured and treated with valproic acid and (-)-gossypol at different concentrations. The proliferation of Namalwa cells was dramatically suppressed after the combination treatment with 2 mmol/L valproic acid and 5 μmol/L (-)-gossypol. The combined treatment also enhanced intrinsic apoptosis by down-regulating anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Moreover, the autophagy flux significantly increased in Namalwa cells after combined treatment. However, the enhanced autophagy showed little effect on cell survival with present regimen. The results confirmed that combination of valproic acid and (-)-gossypol had synergistic anti-tumor effect to Burkitt lymphoma Namalwa cells. The related mechanisms might include the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and avianized pro-survival role of autophagy. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced antitumor effect of novel dual-targeted paclitaxel liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Shuyan; Su, Bo; Li, Wei; Ding, Yongmei; Tang, Liang; Zhou, Wei; Song, Yin; Li, Heyan; Zhou, Caicun

    2010-10-01

    A novel dual-targeted peptide containing an alpha V integrins specific ligand and a neuropilin-1 specific motif was developed which showed an increased specific targeting affinity to tumors. Active dual-targeted liposomes were then produced with this peptide and exhibited greater binding activity than single-targeted liposomes in vitro. Paclitaxel entrapped in this formulation greatly increased the uptake of paclitaxel in the targeting cells and significantly suppressed the growth of HUVEC and A549 cells compared with general paclitaxel injections (Taxol) and single-targeted paclitaxel liposomes. The treatment of tumor xenograft models with dual-targeted paclitaxel liposomes also resulted in better tumor growth inhibition than any other treatment groups. Therefore, the dual-targeted paclitaxel liposomes prepared in the present study might be a more promising drug for cancer treatment. Furthermore, the dual-targeting approach may produce synergistic effects that can be applied in the development of new targeted drug delivery systems.

  4. Targeting CD47 and autophagy elicited enhanced antitumor effects in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuyao; Fan, Jiajun; Wang, Shaofei; Li, Yubin; Wang, Yichen; Li, Song; Luan, Jingyun; Wang, Ziyu; Song, Ping; Chen, Qicheng; Tian, Wenzhi; Ju, Dianwen

    2017-03-28

    CD47-specific antibodies and fusion proteins that block CD47-SIRPα signaling are employed as antitumor agents for several cancers. Here, we investigated the synergistic antitumor effect of simultaneously targeting CD47 and autophagy in NSCLC. SIRPαD1-Fc, a novel CD47-targeting fusion protein, was generated and was found to increase the phagocytic and cytotoxic activities of macrophages against NSCLC cells. During this process, autophagy was markedly triggered, which was characterized by the three main stages of autophagic flux. including formation and accumulation of autophagosomes, fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes, and degradation of autophagosomes in lysosomes. Meanwhile, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inactivation of mTOR were shown to be involved in autophagy initiation in SIRPαD1-Fc-treated cells, indicating a probable mechanism for autophagy activation after targeting CD47 by SIRPαD1-Fc. Inhibition of autophagy enhanced macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and cytotoxicity against SIRPαD1-Fc-treated NSCLC cells. In addition, simultaneously targeting both CD47 and autophagy in NSCLC xenograft models elicited enhanced antitumor effects, with recruitment of macrophages, activated caspase 3, and over-production of ROS at the tumor site. Our data elucidated the cytoprotective role of autophagy in CD47-targeted therapy and highlighted the potential approach for NSCLC treatment by simultaneously targeting CD47 and autophagy.

  5. NK Cell–Mediated Antitumor Effects of a Folate-Conjugated Immunoglobulin are Enhanced by Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Kondadasula, SriVidya; Skinner, Cassandra C.; Mundy-Bosse, Bethany L.; Luedke, Eric; Jones, Natalie B.; Mani, Aruna; Roda, Julie; Karpa, Volodymyr; Li, Hong; Li, Jilong; Elavazhagan, Saranya; La Perle, Krista M.; Schmitt, Alessandra C.; Lu, Yanhui; Zhang, Xiaoli; Pan, Xueliang; Mao, Hsaioyin; Davis, Melanie; Jarjoura, David; Butchar, Jonathan P.; Poi, Ming; Phelps, Mitch; Tridandapani, Susheela; Byrd, John C.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Lee, Robert J.; Carson, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Optimally effective antitumor therapies would not only activate immune effector cells, but engage them at the tumor. Folate-conjugated to immunoglobulin (F-IgG) could direct innate immune cells with Fc receptors to folate receptor–expressing cancer cells. F-IgG bound to human KB and HeLa cells, as well as murine L1210JF, a folate receptor (FR) overexpressing cancer cell line, as determined by flow cytometry. Recognition of F-IgG by NK cell Fc receptors led to phosphorylation of the ERK transcription factor and increased NK cell expression of CD69. Lysis of KB tumor cells by NK cells increased about 5-fold after treatment with F-IgG, an effect synergistically enhanced by treatment with IL2, IL12, IL15, or IL21 (P < 0.001). F-IgG also enhanced the lysis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by autologous NK cells. NK cells significantly increased production of IFNγ, MIP-1α, and RANTES in response to F-IgG–coated KB target cells in the presence of the NK cell–activating cytokine IL12, and these coculture supernatants induced significant T cell chemotaxis P < 0.001). F-IgG–coated targets also stimulated FcR-mediated monocyte effector functions. Studies in a murine leukemia model confirmed the intratumoral localization and antitumor activity of F-IgG, as well as enhancement of its effects by IL12 (P = 0.05). The antitumor effect of this combination was dependent on NK cells and led to decreased tumor cell proliferation in vivo. Thus, F-IgG can induce an immune response against FR-positive tumor cells that is mediated by NK cells and can be augmented by cytokine therapy. PMID:26865456

  6. Cord blood T cells mediate enhanced antitumor effects compared with adult peripheral blood T cells.

    PubMed

    Hiwarkar, Prashant; Qasim, Waseem; Ricciardelli, Ida; Gilmour, Kimberly; Quezada, Sergio; Saudemont, Aurore; Amrolia, Persis; Veys, Paul

    2015-12-24

    Unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) without in vivo T-cell depletion is increasingly used to treat high-risk hematologic malignancies. Following T-replete CBT, naïve CB T cells undergo rapid peripheral expansion with memory-effector differentiation. Emerging data suggest that unrelated CBT, particularly in the context of HLA mismatch and a T-replete graft, may reduce leukemic relapse. To study the role of CB T cells in mediating graft-versus-tumor responses and dissect the underlying immune mechanisms for this, we compared the ability of HLA-mismatched CB and adult peripheral blood (PB) T cells to eliminate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven human B-cell lymphoma in a xenogeneic NOD/SCID/IL2rg(null) mouse model. CB T cells mediated enhanced tumor rejection compared with equal numbers of PB T cells, leading to improved survival in the CB group (P < .0003). Comparison of CB T cells that were autologous vs allogeneic to the lymphoma demonstrated that this antitumor effect was mediated by alloreactive rather than EBV-specific T cells. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes demonstrated that CB T cells mediated this enhanced antitumor effect by rapid infiltration of the tumor with CCR7(+)CD8(+) T cells and prompt induction of cytotoxic CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-helper (Th1) T cells in the tumor microenvironment. In contrast, in the PB group, this antilymphoma effect is impaired because of delayed tumoral infiltration of PB T cells and a relative bias toward suppressive Th2 and T-regulatory cells. Our data suggest that, despite being naturally programmed toward tolerance, reconstituting T cells after unrelated T-replete CBT may provide superior Tc1-Th1 antitumor effects against high-risk hematologic malignancies.

  7. Gold nanoparticles enhance anti-tumor effect of radiotherapy to hypoxic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Jae-Won; Chung, Ui Seok; Koh, Won-Gun; Keum, Ki Chang; Koom, Woong Sub

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hypoxia can impair the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy (RT). Therefore, a new strategy is necessary for enhancing the response to RT. In this study, we investigated whether the combination of nanoparticles and RT is effective in eliminating the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors. Materials and Methods Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) consisting of a silica core with a gold shell were used. CT26 colon cancer mouse model was developed to study whether the combination of RT and GNPs reduced hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) was used as a hypoxia marker. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining were conducted to evaluate cell death. Results Hypoxic tumor cells had an impaired response to RT. GNPs combined with RT enhanced anti-tumor effect in hypoxic tumor compared with RT alone. The combination of GNPs and RT decreased tumor cell viability compare to RT alone in vitro. Under hypoxia, tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed a higher response than that shown by tumors treated with RT alone. When a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger was added, the enhanced antitumor effect of GNPs + RT was diminished. Conclusion In the present study, hypoxic tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed favorable responses, which might be attributable to the ROS production induced by GNPs + RT. Taken together, GNPs combined with RT seems to be potential modality for enhancing the response to RT in hypoxic tumors. PMID:27730800

  8. Antitumor Effects of Immunotoxins are Enhanced by Lowering HCK or Treatment with Src Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiu-Fen; Xiang, Laiman; FitzGerald, David J.; Pastan, Ira

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant immunotoxins (RITs) are agents being developed for cancer treatment. They are composed of an Fv that binds to a cancer cell, fused to a 38-kDa fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A. SS1P is a RIT that targets mesothelin, a protein expressed on mesothelioma as well as pancreatic, ovarian, lung and other cancers. Because the protein tyrosine kinase (TK) family regulates a variety of cellular processes and pathways, we hypothesized that TKs might regulate susceptibility to immunotoxin killing. To investigate their role we used siRNAs to lower the level of expression of the 88 known TKs. We identified 5 TKs, INSR, HCK, SRC, PDGFRβ, and BMX that enhance the activity of SS1P when their level of expression is lowered by siRNAs. We further investigated the Src family member HCK in this study. Knocking down of SRC slightly increased SS1P killing in A431/H9 cells, but knocking down HCK substantially enhanced killing by SS1P. We investigated the mechanism of enhancement and found that HCK knock down enhanced SS1P cleavage by furin and lowered levels of Mcl-1 and raised Bax. We then found that Src inhibitors mimic the stimulatory effect of HCK knock down, both SU6656 and SKI-606 (Bosutinib) enhanced immunotoxin killing of mesothelin expressing cells by SS1P and CD22 expressing cells by HA22 (Moxetumomab pasudotox). SU6656 also enhanced the antitumor effects of SS1P and HA22 in mouse xenograft tumor models. Our data suggest that the combination of immunotoxin with TK inhibitors may be an effective way to treat some cancers. PMID:24145282

  9. Curcuma increasing antitumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins through absorptive enhancement of paridis saponins.

    PubMed

    Man, Shuli; Li, Yuanyuan; Fan, Wei; Gao, Wenyuan; Liu, Zhen; Li, Nan; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Changxiao

    2013-09-15

    Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS) played a good antitumor role in many clinical applications. However, low oral bioavailability limited its application. In this research, water extract of Curcuma (CW) significantly increased antitumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS). GC-MS was used to identify its polar composition. HPLC was applied for determination of the content of curcuminoids in CW. As a result, 47 analytes with 0.65% of curcuminoids were identified in CW. According to the in vivo anti-tumor data, the best proportion of curcuminoids in CW with RPS was 16:500 (w/w). Using this ratio, curcuminoids significantly increased absorption of RPS in the everted rat duodenum sac system. In addition, curcuminoids decreased the promotion of RPS on rhodamine 123 efflux. The effect of curcuminoids was similar to that of the P-gp inhibitor, cyclosporin A in combination with RPS. In conclusion, drug combination of water extract of Curcuma with RPS was a good method to increase the antitumor effect of RPS. This combination would be a potent anticancer agent used in the prospective application. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis of PEGylated fullerene-5-fluorouracil conjugates to enhance the antitumor effect of 5-fluorouracil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Zengpei; Xu, Yingying; Sun, Hongfang; Liu, Yuanfang

    2012-07-01

    Many drugs have been delivered by different types of nanoscale vehicles to enhance their therapeutic efficacy. 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) is a widely used antitumor drug, however its bioavailability still needs to be improved. Herein we synthesized a polyethylene glycol monomethylether-C60-5FU conjugate (mPEG-C60-5FU) and evaluated its antitumor efficacy in vitro. The results show that the inhibition abilities of mPEG-C60-5FU to the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and the human gastric carcinoma cell line BGC-823 are significantly higher than that of 5FU. The conjugate has good stability in murine serum for at least 24 h. Moreover, the PEGylated fullerene (mPEG-C60) vehicle is non-toxic to MCF-7 cells. These results demonstrate that mPEG-C60 is an efficient vehicle for the delivery of 5FU.

  11. Tamoxifen nanostructured lipid carriers: enhanced in vivo antitumor efficacy with reduced adverse drug effects.

    PubMed

    Shete, Harshad K; Selkar, Nilakash; Vanage, Geeta R; Patravale, Vandana B

    2014-07-01

    A novel approach of enhancing the Tamoxifen uptake via Intestinal Lymphatic System is executed by developing long chain lipid and oil based nanostructured lipid carrier system (Tmx-NLC). The aim was to achieve improved systemic bioavailability of Tamoxifen, prevent systemic and hepatotoxicity and enhance antitumor efficacy. Following the proof of concept achieved in cell culture experiments and in vivo pharmacokinetic and biodistribution study, the current work focuses on investigation of antitumor efficacy and treatment associated toxicity in murine mammary tumor mice model. The efficacy study demonstrated greater tumor suppression and 100% survival with 1.5 and 3 mg/kg Tmx-NLC compared to 3 mg/kg Tamoxifen suspension and Mamofen(®) (Khandelwal Pharmaceuticals, Mumbai, India). Tmx-NLC treatment for a month demonstrated improved systemic toxicity profile and no evidences of hepatotoxicity. Thus, developed Tmx-NLC could prove to be a promising delivery strategy to confer superior therapeutic efficacy and ability to address the biopharmaceutical and toxicity associated issues of drug. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Fruit Hull of Gleditsia sinensis Enhances the Anti-Tumor Effect of cis-Diammine Dichloridoplatinum II (Cisplatin).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyun Ha; Han, Chang-Woo; Yoon, Seong Hoon; Kim, Yun Seong; Kim, Jong-In; Joo, Myungsoo; Choi, Jun-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has substantial mortality worldwide, and chemotherapy is a routine regimen for the treatment of patients with lung cancer, despite undesirable effects such as drug resistance and chemotoxicity. Here, given a possible antitumor effect of the fruit hull of Gleditsia sinensis (FGS), we tested whether FGS enhances the effectiveness of cis-diammine dichloridoplatinum (II) (CDDP), a chemotherapeutic drug. We found that CDDP, when administered with FGS, significantly decreased the viability and increased the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells, which were associated with the increase of p21 and decreases of cyclin D1 and CDK4. Concordantly, when combined with FGS, CDDP significantly reduced the volume and weight of tumors derived from LLC subcutaneously injected into C57BL/6 mice, with concomitant increases of phosphor-p53 and p21 in tumor tissue. Together, these results show that FGS could enhance the antitumor activity of CDDP, suggesting that FGS can be used as a complementary measure to enhance the efficacy of a chemotherapeutic agent such as CDDP.

  13. The Fruit Hull of Gleditsia sinensis Enhances the Anti-Tumor Effect of cis-Diammine Dichloridoplatinum II (Cisplatin)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chang-Woo; Yoon, Seong Hoon; Kim, Yun Seong; Kim, Jong-In

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has substantial mortality worldwide, and chemotherapy is a routine regimen for the treatment of patients with lung cancer, despite undesirable effects such as drug resistance and chemotoxicity. Here, given a possible antitumor effect of the fruit hull of Gleditsia sinensis (FGS), we tested whether FGS enhances the effectiveness of cis-diammine dichloridoplatinum (II) (CDDP), a chemotherapeutic drug. We found that CDDP, when administered with FGS, significantly decreased the viability and increased the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells, which were associated with the increase of p21 and decreases of cyclin D1 and CDK4. Concordantly, when combined with FGS, CDDP significantly reduced the volume and weight of tumors derived from LLC subcutaneously injected into C57BL/6 mice, with concomitant increases of phosphor-p53 and p21 in tumor tissue. Together, these results show that FGS could enhance the antitumor activity of CDDP, suggesting that FGS can be used as a complementary measure to enhance the efficacy of a chemotherapeutic agent such as CDDP. PMID:27721894

  14. GSK-3 inhibition in vitro and in vivo enhances antitumor effect of sorafenib in renal cell carcinoma (RCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Kawazoe, Hisashi; Bilim, Vladimir N.; Ugolkov, Andrey V.; Yuuki, Kaori; Naito, Sei; Nagaoka, Akira; Kato, Tomoyuki; Tomita, Yoshihiko

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sorafenib treatment upregulated GSK-3{beta} levels in RCC cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pharmacologic inhibition of GSK-3 suppressed xenograft RCC tumor growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of GSK-3 enhanced antitumor effect of sorafenib in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor approved for the systemic treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, sorafenib treatment has a limited effect due to acquired chemoresistance of RCC. Previously, we identified glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) as a new therapeutic target in RCC. Here, we observed that sorafenib inhibits proliferation and survival of RCC cells. Significantly, we revealed that sorafenib enhances GSK-3 activity in RCC cells, which could be a potential mechanism of acquired chemoresistance. We found that pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3 potentiates sorafenib antitumor effect in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that combining GSK-3 inhibitor and sorafenib might be a potential new therapeutic approach for RCC treatment.

  15. Anti-PD-L1 treatment enhances antitumor effect of everolimus in a mouse model of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Yukiyoshi; Gi, Min; Yamano, Shotaro; Tachibana, Hirokazu; Okuno, Takahiro; Tamada, Satoshi; Nakatani, Tatsuya; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    Immunotherapy based on blockade of the programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis has shown promising clinical activity for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients; however, the most effective use of these agents in combination with conventional targeted therapy remains to be resolved. Here we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of the combination of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (EVE) and anti-PD-L1 using an immunocompetent mouse model of RCC. We first assessed the in vitro effect of EVE on PD-L1 expression in the human 786-O and mouse RENCA RCC cell lines and found that EVE upregulated PD-L1 expression in these RCC cell lines. We then treated RENCA tumor-bearing mice with EVE and found that PD-L1 expression was also increased in tumor cells after EVE treatment. To determine the antitumor effects of EVE alone, anti-PD-L1 alone, and EVE in combination with anti-PD-L1, we evaluated their antitumor effects on RENCA tumor-bearing mice. A significant decrease in the tumor burden was observed in the EVE alone but not in the anti-PD-L1 alone treatment group compared with the control group. Importantly, the combination of EVE with anti-PD-L1 significantly reduced tumor burden compared with the EVE alone treatment, increasing tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and the ratio of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells to TILs. The results of the present study demonstrated that anti-PD-L1 treatment enhanced the antitumor effect of EVE in a mouse model, supporting a direct translation of this combination strategy to the clinic for the treatment of RCC.

  16. Bisphosphonates Inhibit Stellate Cell Activity and Enhance Antitumor Effects of Nanoparticle Albumin Bound-Paclitaxel in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Villasana, Vianey; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Arumugam, Thiruvengadam; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida; Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Deng, Defeng; Hwang, Rosa F.; Wang, Huamin; Ivan, Cristina; Garza, Raul Joshua; Cohen, Evan; Gao, Hui; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Monroig-Bosque, Paloma del C.; Philip, Bincy; Rashed, Mohammed H.; Aslan, Burcu; Erdogan, Mumin Alper; Gutierrez-Puente, Yolanda; Ozpolat, Bulent; Reuben, James M.; Sood, Anil K.; Logsdon, Craig; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) have been recognized as the principal cells responsible for the production of fibrosis in PDAC. Recently PSCs have been noted to share characteristics with cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage (MML cells). Thus, we tested whether PSCs could be targeted with the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs) [pamidronate (Pam) or zoledronic acid (ZA)], which are potent MML cell inhibitors. In addition, we tested NBPs treatment combination with nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) to enhance antitumor activity. In vitro we observed that PSCs possess α-naphthyl butyrate esterase (ANBE) enzyme activity, a specific marker of MML cells. Moreover NBPs inhibited PSCs proliferation, activation, release of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and type I collagen expression. NBPs also induced PSC apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. In vivo, NBPs inactivated PSCs; reduced fibrosis; inhibited tumor volume, tumor weight, peritoneal dissemination, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation; and increased apoptosis in an orthotopic murine model of PDAC. These in vivo antitumor effects were enhanced when NBPs were combined with nab-paclitaxel but not gemcitabine (Gem). Our study suggests that targeting PSCs and tumor cells with NBPs in combination with nab-paclitaxel may be a novel therapeutic approach to PDAC. PMID:25193509

  17. Bisphosphonates inhibit stellate cell activity and enhance antitumor effects of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Villasana, Vianey; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Arumugam, Thiruvengadam; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida; Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Deng, Defeng; Hwang, Rosa F; Wang, Huamin; Ivan, Cristina; Garza, Raul Joshua; Cohen, Evan; Gao, Hui; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N; Del C Monroig-Bosque, Paloma; Philip, Bincy; Rashed, Mohammed H; Aslan, Burcu; Erdogan, Mumin Alper; Gutierrez-Puente, Yolanda; Ozpolat, Bulent; Reuben, James M; Sood, Anil K; Logsdon, Craig; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) have been recognized as the principal cells responsible for the production of fibrosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Recently, PSCs have been noted to share characteristics with cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage (MML cells). Thus, we tested whether PSCs could be targeted with the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBP; pamidronate or zoledronic acid), which are potent MML cell inhibitors. In addition, we tested NBPs treatment combination with nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) to enhance antitumor activity. In vitro, we observed that PSCs possess α-naphthyl butyrate esterase (ANBE) enzyme activity, a specific marker of MML cells. Moreover, NBPs inhibited PSCs proliferation, activation, release of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and type I collagen expression. NBPs also induced PSCs apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase. In vivo, NBPs inactivated PSCs; reduced fibrosis; inhibited tumor volume, tumor weight, peritoneal dissemination, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation; and increased apoptosis in an orthotopic murine model of PDAC. These in vivo antitumor effects were enhanced when NBPs were combined with nab-paclitaxel but not gemcitabine. Our study suggests that targeting PSCs and tumor cells with NBPs in combination with nab-paclitaxel may be a novel therapeutic approach to PDAC. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Ultrasound-targeted HSVtk and Timp3 gene delivery for synergistically enhanced antitumor effects in hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, B-F; Wu, J; Zhang, Y; Sung, H-W; Xie, J; Li, R-K

    2013-05-01

    Cancer gene therapy has great potential for decreasing tumor-induced mortality but has been clinically limited by non-targeted and insufficient gene transfer. We evaluated gene therapy targeting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSVtk/GCV) suicide gene system and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (Timp3) gene. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) targeted gene delivery to the tumor tissue, and the α-fetoprotein promoter targeted HSVtk expression to the HCC cells. Human HepG2 cells transfected with the HSVtk or Timp3 gene demonstrated a reduction in cell viability by >40% compared with the vector control. Cell viability was further inhibited by over 50% with co-transfection of the genes. HepG2 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into athymic mice to induce tumors. UTMD-mediated delivery of HSVtk or Timp3 suppressed tumor growth by >45% and increased survival of tumor-bearing animals (P<0.01 vs vector control). Co-delivery of the genes resulted in a further 30% improvement in tumor suppression and significant extension of animal survival (P<0.01 vs vector control). Targeted gene delivery increased the number of apoptotic cells and decreased the vascular density of the tumors. Targeted co-delivery of the genes synergistically improved the antitumor effects and may provide an effective therapy for HCC.

  19. STING activator c-di-GMP enhances the anti-tumor effects of peptide vaccines in melanoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zili; Celis, Esteban

    2015-08-01

    Therapeutic vaccines to induce anti-tumor CD8 T cells have been used in clinical trials for advanced melanoma patients, but the clinical response rate and overall survival time have not improved much. We believe that these dismal outcomes are caused by inadequate number of antigen-specific CD8 T cells generated by most vaccines. In contrast, huge CD8 T cell responses readily occur during acute viral infections. High levels of type-I interferon (IFN-I) are produced during these infections, and this cytokine not only exhibits anti-viral activity but also promotes CD8 T cell responses. The studies described here were performed to determine whether promoting the production of IFN-I could enhance the potency of a peptide vaccine. We report that cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP), which activates the stimulator of interferon genes, potentiated the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of a peptide vaccine against mouse B16 melanoma. The synergistic effects of c-di-GMP required co-administration of costimulatory anti-CD40 antibody, the adjuvant poly-IC, and were mediated in part by IFN-I. These findings demonstrate that peptides representing CD8 T cell epitopes can be effective inducers of large CD8 T cell responses in vaccination strategies that mimic acute viral infections.

  20. HB-EGF inhibition in combination with various anticancer agents enhances its antitumor effects in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Sanui, Ayako; Yotsumoto, Fusanori; Tsujioka, Hiroshi; Fukami, Tatsuya; Horiuchi, Shinji; Shirota, Kyoko; Yoshizato, Toshiyuki; Kawarabayashi, Tatsuhiko; Kuroki, Masahide; Miyamoto, Shingo

    2010-08-01

    Advanced gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most lethal malignancies. Although many anticancer agents exist for the treatment of GC, its prognosis remains extremely poor. Therefore, further development of targeted therapies is required for patients with GC. To assess the role of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) as a target for GC therapy, the expression of EGF receptor ligands in GC cell lines, and the antitumor effects of an HB-EGF inhibitor (CRM197) as a single agent and in combination with other anticancer agents was assessed in GC cells. HB-EGF was the predominantly expressed ligand among EGF receptor ligands in all the cells. CRM197 induced significant cell apoptosis. Anticancer agents augmented the secretion of HB-EGF into the medium and simultaneously induced cell apoptosis. Combination of CRM197 with other anticancer agents significantly enhanced cell apoptosis. Additionally, co-administration of CRM197 and paclitaxel resulted in synergistic antitumor effects. These results suggested that HB-EGF is a rational target for GC therapy.

  1. Preexisting antitumor immunity augments the antitumor effects of chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingbing; Feng, Dongdong; Yu, Lynda X; Tsung, Kangla; Norton, Jeffrey A

    2013-06-01

    Efficacy of cancer chemotherapy is generally believed to be the result of direct drug killing of tumor cells. However, increased tumor cell killing does not always lead to improved efficacy. Herein, we demonstrate that the status of antitumor immunity at the time of chemotherapy treatment is a critical factor affecting the therapeutic outcome in that tumor-bearing mice that possess preexisting antitumor immunity respond to chemotherapy much better than those that do not. Enhancing antitumor immunity before or at the time of chemotherapy-induced antigen release increases subsequent response to chemotherapy significantly. By in vitro and in vivo measurements of antitumor immunity, we found a close correlation between the intensity of antitumor immunity activated by chemotherapy and the efficacy of treatment. Immune intervention with interleukin-12 during the early phase of chemotherapy-induced immune activation greatly amplifies the antitumor response, often resulting in complete tumor eradication not only at the chemo-treated local site, but also systemically. These findings provide additional evidence for an immune-mediated antitumor response to chemotherapy. Further, our results show that timely immune modification of chemotherapy-activated antitumor immunity can result in enhanced antitumor-immune response and complete tumor eradication.

  2. Liposomal n-butylidenephthalide protects the drug from oxidation and enhances its antitumor effects in glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Ling; Chang, Kai-Fu; Huang, Xiao-Fan; Hung, Che-Lun; Chen, Shyh-Chang; Chao, Wan-Ru; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Tsai, Nu-Man

    2015-01-01

    Background The natural compound n-butylidenephthalide (BP) can pass through the blood–brain barrier to inhibit the growth of glioblastoma multiforme tumors. However, BP has an unstable structure that reduces its antitumor activity and half-life in vivo. Objective The aim of this study is to design a drug delivery system to encapsulate BP to enhance its efficacy by improving its protection and delivery. Methods To protect its structural stability against protein-rich and peroxide solutions, BP was encapsulated into a lipo-PEG-PEI complex (LPPC). Then, the cytotoxicity of BP/LPPC following preincubation in protein-rich, acid/alkaline, and peroxide solutions was analyzed by MTT. Cell uptake of BP/LPPC was also measured by confocal microscopy. The therapeutic effects of BP/LPPC were analyzed in xenograft mice following intratumoral and intravenous injections. Results When BP was encapsulated in LPPC, its cytotoxicity was maintained following preincubation in protein-rich, acid/alkaline, and peroxide solutions. The cytotoxic activity of encapsulated BP was higher than that of free BP (~4.5- to 8.5-fold). This increased cytotoxic activity of BP/LPPC is attributable to its rapid transport across the cell membrane. In an animal study, a subcutaneously xenografted glioblastoma multiforme mouse that was treated with BP by intratumoral and intravenous administration showed inhibited tumor growth. The same dose of BP/LPPC was significantly more effective in terms of tumor inhibition. Conclusion LPPC encapsulation technology is able to protect BP’s structural stability and enhance its antitumor effects, thus providing a better tool for use in cancer therapy. PMID:26451107

  3. Enhancement of anti-tumor activity of Newcastle disease virus by the synergistic effect of cytosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zheng; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Yin, Jie-Chao; Wang, Hui; Sun, Tian; Chen, Li-Qun; Bai, Fu-Liang; Wu, Wei; Ren, Gui-Ping; Li, De-Shan

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate enhancement of anti-tumor effects of the lentogenic Newcastle disease virus Clone30 strain (NDV rClone30) expressing cytosine deaminase (CD) gene against tumor cells and in murine groin tumor-bearing models. Cytotoxic effects of the rClone30-CD/5-FC on the HepG2 cell line were examined by an MTT method. Anti-tumor activity of rClone30-CD/5-FC was examined in H22 tumor-bearing mice. Compared to the rClone30-CD virus treatment alone, NDV rClone30-CD/5-FC at 0.1 and 1 MOIs exerted significant cytotoxic effects (P<0.05) on HepG2 cells. For treatment of H22 tumor-bearing mice, recombinant NDV was injected together with 5-FC given by either intra-tumor injection or tail vein injection. When 5-FC was administered by intra-tumor injection, survival for the rClone30-CD/5-FC-treated mice was 4/6 for 80 days period vs 1/6 , 0/6 and 0/6 for the mice treated with rClone30-CD, 5-FC and saline alone, respectively. When 5-FC was given by tail vein injection, survival for the rClone30-CD/5-FC-treated mice was 3/6 vs 2/6 , 0/6 and 0/6 for the mice treated with rClone30-CD, 5-FC or saline alone, respectively. In this study, NDV was used for the first time to deliver the suicide gene for cancer therapy. Incorporation of the CD gene in the lentogenic NDV genome together with 5-FC significantly enhances cell death of HepG2 tumor cells in vitro, decreases tumor volume and increases survival of H22 tumor-bearing mice in vivo.

  4. Endostatin enhances antitumor effect of tumor antigen-pulsed dendritic cell therapy in mouse xenograft model of lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jing; Liu, Xiaolin; Xie, Qi; Chen, Guoling; Li, Xingyu; Jia, Yanrui; Yin, Beibei; Qu, Xun; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    IL-17 in tumor tissue, and enhanced the expression of IFN-γ. Conclusions The study indicated the synergic antitumor effects between endostatin and tumor antigen-pulsed DC-T cells, which may be a prospective therapy strategy to achieve potent antitumor effects on lung cancer. PMID:27647974

  5. Honokiol inhibits EGFR signaling and enhances the antitumor effects of EGFR inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Leeman-Neill, Rebecca J.; Cai, Quan; Joyce, Sonali C.; Thomas, Sufi M.; Bhola, Neil E.; Neill, Daniel B.; Arbiser, Jack L.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the utility of honokiol, a naturally-occurring compound, in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) as well as its ability to target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a critical therapeutic target in HNSCC, and to enhance the effects of other EGFR-targeting therapies. Experimental Design Human HNSCC cell lines and the xenograft animal model of HNSCC were employed to test the effects of honokiol treatment. Results Honokiol was found to inhibit growth in human HNSCC cell lines, with EC50s ranging from 3.3-7.4 μM, and to induce apoptosis, as shown through annexin V staining. These effects were associated with inhibition of EGFR signaling, including downstream inhibition of MAPK, Akt and STAT3 and expression of STAT3 target genes, Bcl-XL and cyclin D1. Furthermore, honokiol enhanced the growth inhibitory and anti-invasion activity of the EGFR-targeting agent, erlotinib. While HNSCC xenograft models did not demonstrate significant inhibition of in vivo tumor growth with honokiol treatment alone, the combination of honokiol plus cetuximab, an FDA-approved EGFR inhibitor for this malignancy, significantly enhanced growth inhibition. Finally, HNSCC cells rendered resistant to erlotinib retained sensitivity to the growth inhibitory effects of honokiol. Conclusions These results suggest that honokiol may be an effective therapeutic agent in HNSCC where it can augment the effects of EGFR inhibitors and overcome drug resistance. PMID:20388852

  6. Ganoderma lucidum exerts anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and enhances their sensitivity to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sufen; Ye, Gang; Fu, Guodong; Cheng, Jian-Xin; Yang, Burton B; Peng, Chun

    2011-05-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a herbal mushroom known to have many health benefits, including the inhibition of tumor cell growth. However, the effect of Ganoderma lucidum on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the most fatal gynecological malignancy, has not yet been reported. In this study, we determined whether Ganoderma lucidum regulates EOC cell activity. Using several cell lines derived from EOC, we found that Ganoderma lucidum strongly decreased cell numbers in a dose-dependent manner. Ganoderma lucidum also inhibited colony formation, cell migration and spheroid formation. In particular, Ganoderma lucidum was effective in inhibiting cell growth in both chemosensitive and chemoresistant cells and the treatment with Ganoderma lucidum significantly enhanced the effect of cisplatin on EOC cells. Furthermore, Ganoderma lucidum induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and also induced apoptosis by activating caspase 3. Finally, Ganoderma lucidum increased p53 but inhibited Akt expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that Ganoderma lucidum exerts multiple anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and can enhance the sensitivity of EOC cells to cisplatin.

  7. Berberine inhibits EGFR signaling and enhances the antitumor effects of EGFR inhibitors in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junxiong; Yang, Shuo; Cai, Xiqiang; Dong, Jiaqiang; Chen, Zhangqian; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Song; Cao, Haichao; Lu, Di; Jin, Tong; Nie, Yongzhan; Hao, Jianyu; Fan, Daiming

    2016-01-01

    Cetuximab plus chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer (GC) shows an active result in phase 2 trials. Unfortunately, Combination of cetuximab does not provide enough benefit to chemotherapy alone in phase 3 trials. Studies have demonstrated that berberine can suppress the activation of EGFR in tumors. In this study, we evaluated whether berberine could enhance the effects of EGFR-TKIs in GC cell lines and xenograft models. Our data suggest that berberine could effectively enhance the activity of erlotinib and cetuximab in vitro and in vivo. Berberine was found to inhibit growth in GC cell lines and to induce apoptosis. These effects were linked to inhibition of EGFR signaling activation, including the phosphorylation of STAT3. The expressions of Bcl-xL and Cyclind1 proteins were decreased, whereas the levels of cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) were considerably increased in the cell lines in response to berberine treatment. These results suggest a potential role for berberine in the treatment of GC, particularly in combination with EGFR-TKIs therapy. Berberine may be a competent therapeutic agent in GC where it can enhance the effects of EGFR inhibitors. PMID:27738318

  8. Enhanced antitumor effect of anti-tissue factor antibody-conjugated epirubicin-incorporating micelles in xenograft models

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Hyodo, Ichinosuke; Koga, Yoshikatsu; Tsumura, Ryo; Sato, Ryuta; Obonai, Toshihumi; Fuchigami, Hirobumi; Furuya, Fumiaki; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Harada, Mitsunori; Kato, Yasuki; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Matsumura, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    For the creation of a successful antibody–drug conjugate (ADC), both scientific and clinical evidence has indicated that highly toxic anticancer agents (ACA) should be conjugated to a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to administer a reasonable amount of ADC to patients without compromising the affinity of the mAb. For ordinary ACA, the conjugation of a mAb to ACA-loaded micellar nanoparticles is clinically applicable. Tissue factor (TF) is often overexpressed in various cancer cells and tumor vascular endothelium. Accordingly, anti-TF-NC-6300, consisting of epirubicin-incorporating micelles (NC-6300) conjugated with the F(ab')2 of anti-TF mAb was developed. The in vitro and in vivo efficacy and pharmacokinetics of anti-TF-NC-6300 were compared to NC-6300 using two human pancreatic cancer cell lines, BxPC3 (high TF expression) and SUIT2 (low TF expression), and a gastric cancer cell line, 44As3 (high TF expression). The intracellular uptake of epirubicin was faster and greater in BxPC3 cells treated with anti-TF-NC-6300, compared with NC-6300. Anti-TF-NC-6300 showed a superior antitumor activity in BxPC3 and 44As3 xenografts, compared with NC-6300, while the activities of both micelles were similar in the SUIT2 xenograft. A higher tumor accumulation of anti-TF-NC-6300 compared to NC-6300 was seen, regardless of the TF expression levels. However, anti-TF-NC-6300 appeared to be localized to the tumor cells with high TF expression. These results indicated that the enhanced antitumor effect of anti-TF-NC6300 may be independent of the tumor accumulation but may depend on the selective intratumor localization and the preferential internalization of anti-TF-NC-6300 into high TF tumor cells. PMID:25711681

  9. Enhanced antitumor effect of anti-tissue factor antibody-conjugated epirubicin-incorporating micelles in xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Hyodo, Ichinosuke; Koga, Yoshikatsu; Tsumura, Ryo; Sato, Ryuta; Obonai, Toshihumi; Fuchigami, Hirobumi; Furuya, Fumiaki; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Harada, Mitsunori; Kato, Yasuki; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Matsumura, Yasuhiro

    2015-05-01

    For the creation of a successful antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), both scientific and clinical evidence has indicated that highly toxic anticancer agents (ACA) should be conjugated to a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to administer a reasonable amount of ADC to patients without compromising the affinity of the mAb. For ordinary ACA, the conjugation of a mAb to ACA-loaded micellar nanoparticles is clinically applicable. Tissue factor (TF) is often overexpressed in various cancer cells and tumor vascular endothelium. Accordingly, anti-TF-NC-6300, consisting of epirubicin-incorporating micelles (NC-6300) conjugated with the F(ab')2 of anti-TF mAb was developed. The in vitro and in vivo efficacy and pharmacokinetics of anti-TF-NC-6300 were compared to NC-6300 using two human pancreatic cancer cell lines, BxPC3 (high TF expression) and SUIT2 (low TF expression), and a gastric cancer cell line, 44As3 (high TF expression). The intracellular uptake of epirubicin was faster and greater in BxPC3 cells treated with anti-TF-NC-6300, compared with NC-6300. Anti-TF-NC-6300 showed a superior antitumor activity in BxPC3 and 44As3 xenografts, compared with NC-6300, while the activities of both micelles were similar in the SUIT2 xenograft. A higher tumor accumulation of anti-TF-NC-6300 compared to NC-6300 was seen, regardless of the TF expression levels. However, anti-TF-NC-6300 appeared to be localized to the tumor cells with high TF expression. These results indicated that the enhanced antitumor effect of anti-TF-NC6300 may be independent of the tumor accumulation but may depend on the selective intratumor localization and the preferential internalization of anti-TF-NC-6300 into high TF tumor cells. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  10. Honokiol exhibits enhanced antitumor effects with chloroquine by inducing cell death and inhibiting autophagy in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaoqin; Liu, Fang; Shang, Yue; Chen, Shu-Zhen

    2015-09-01

    Honokiol (HNK), a potential antitumor compound, has been widely studied in recent years. It induces apoptosis and affects autophagy in cancer cells, yet the mechanism of its antitumor efficacy remains obscure. Chloroquine (CQ), an autophagy inhibitor, is often applied to sensitize antitumor drugs in clinical trials. Here, we investigated the antitumor effect of HNK or CQ alone or in combination in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Using an experimental approach, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) or sulforhodamine B (SRB) was used to determine the cytotoxicity of the agents. The expression levels of proteins were detected by western blotting. Apoptosis was examined via Annexin V-FITC and PI staining. H460 cell xenografts in nude mice were used to study the effects of HNK and/or CQ in vivo. Transfection with siRNA was applied to knock down cathepsin D. The results demonstrated the enhanced effects of HNK combined with CQ on the inhibition of proliferation, induction of apoptosis in vitro and the reduction in growth in vivo. It was confirmed that HNK and/or CQ triggered apoptosis via a caspase-dependent manner. Furthermore, HNK significantly increased the expression of p62 and LC3-Ⅱ in the A549 and H460 cells and inhibited autophagy and induced apoptosis in a cathepsin D-involved manner. In conclusion, an enhanced antitumor effect was demonstrated following treatment with HNK combined with CQ by inhibiting autophagy and inducing apoptosis via a caspase-dependent and cathepsin D-involved manner. This combination may be a novel and useful antitumor approach for chemotherapy in NSCLC.

  11. Inhibition of iNOS activity enhances the anti-tumor effects of alpha-galactosylceramide in established murine cancer model.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroyasu; Ando, Tatsuya; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2015-12-08

    Alpha-garactosylceramide (GalCer) has been shown to have anti-tumor effect in the basic research and clinical studies. However, anti-tumor effect of GalCer is limited. The administration of GalCer increases the production of IFN-γ which is involved in the suppression of tumor growth. On the other hand, the enhancement of IFN-γ production increases immunosuppressive factors such as nitric oxide. This suppressive action might impair the anti-tumor effect of GalCer. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-tumor effect of GalCer in the absence of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In lung metastatic model, the number of tumor nodules in the lung of iNOS-KO mice treated with GalCer was significantly reduced compared with that of WT mice treated with GalCer. Moreover, L-NAME, which is the inhibitor for iNOS, enhanced the anti-tumor effect of GalCer in lung metastatic model. The frequency of CD8+ cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid increased in iNOS-KO mice treated with GalCer. The administration of GalCer increased the frequency of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the lung from tumor-bearing WT mice, but the increase of MDSCs in the lung was not induced in iNOS-KO mice. The subcutaneous tumor experiments revealed that the administration of GalCer in the absence of iNOS expression significantly enhanced the induction of tumor antigen-specific response. Finally, our results indicated that the inhibition of iNOS expression could enhance the therapeutic efficacy of GalCer via the increase of tumor antigen-specific immune response and the suppression of MDSCs.

  12. Melatonin enhances the anti-tumor effect of fisetin by inhibiting COX-2/iNOS and NF-κB/p300 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yi, Canhui; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Zhenlong; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Jingshu; Qiu, Huijuan; Yu, Wendan; Tang, Ranran; Yuan, Yuhui; Guo, Wei; Deng, Wuguo

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is a hormone identified in plants and pineal glands of mammals and possesses diverse physiological functions. Fisetin is a bio-flavonoid widely found in plants and exerts antitumor activity in several types of human cancers. However, the combinational effect of melatonin and fisetin on antitumor activity, especially in melanoma treatment, remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that melatonin could enhance the antitumor activity of fisetin in melanoma cells and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms. The combinational treatment of melanoma cells with fisetin and melatonin significantly enhanced the inhibitions of cell viability, cell migration and clone formation, and the induction of apoptosis when compared with the treatment of fisetin alone. Moreover, such enhancement of antitumor effect by melatonin was found to be mediated through the modulation of the multiply signaling pathways in melanoma cells. The combinational treatment of fisetin with melatonin increased the cleavage of PARP proteins, triggered more release of cytochrome-c from the mitochondrial inter-membrane, enhanced the inhibition of COX-2 and iNOS expression, repressed the nuclear localization of p300 and NF-κB proteins, and abrogated the binding of NF-κB on COX-2 promoter. Thus, these results demonstrated that melatonin potentiated the anti-tumor effect of fisetin in melanoma cells by activating cytochrome-c-dependent apoptotic pathway and inhibiting COX-2/iNOS and NF-κB/p300 signaling pathways, and our study suggests the potential of such a combinational treatment of natural products in melanoma therapy.

  13. Melatonin Enhances the Anti-Tumor Effect of Fisetin by Inhibiting COX-2/iNOS and NF-κB/p300 Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhenlong; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Jingshu; Qiu, Huijuan; Yu, Wendan; Tang, Ranran; Yuan, Yuhui; Guo, Wei; Deng, Wuguo

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is a hormone identified in plants and pineal glands of mammals and possesses diverse physiological functions. Fisetin is a bio-flavonoid widely found in plants and exerts antitumor activity in several types of human cancers. However, the combinational effect of melatonin and fisetin on antitumor activity, especially in melanoma treatment, remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that melatonin could enhance the antitumor activity of fisetin in melanoma cells and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms. The combinational treatment of melanoma cells with fisetin and melatonin significantly enhanced the inhibitions of cell viability, cell migration and clone formation, and the induction of apoptosis when compared with the treatment of fisetin alone. Moreover, such enhancement of antitumor effect by melatonin was found to be mediated through the modulation of the multiply signaling pathways in melanoma cells. The combinational treatment of fisetin with melatonin increased the cleavage of PARP proteins, triggered more release of cytochrome-c from the mitochondrial inter-membrane, enhanced the inhibition of COX-2 and iNOS expression, repressed the nuclear localization of p300 and NF-κB proteins, and abrogated the binding of NF-κB on COX-2 promoter. Thus, these results demonstrated that melatonin potentiated the anti-tumor effect of fisetin in melanoma cells by activating cytochrome-c-dependent apoptotic pathway and inhibiting COX-2/iNOS and NF-κB/p300 signaling pathways, and our study suggests the potential of such a combinational treatment of natural products in melanoma therapy. PMID:25000190

  14. Microbubbles Enhance the Antitumor Effects of Sinoporphyrin Sodium Mediated Sonodynamic Therapy both In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiping; Wang, Pan; Li, Li; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Quanhong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the anti-cancer effect of sonodynamic therapy combined with microbubbles both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Cell viability was measured by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and guava viacount assays. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining was adopted to analyze cell apoptosis rate. FD500 uptake assay was performed to assess cell membrane permeability changes. Tumor weight, mice weight and the visual image of tumor size were used to reflect the anti-tumor effect of this combined method. Histological change of tumor tissue after different treatments was measured through hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Results: Microbubbles can significantly enhance the cytotoxicity and necrocytosis rate induced by SDT treatment. Increased cell membrane permeability and more uptake of DVDMS were founded in SDT combined with microbubbles group. For in vivo experiments, SDT with microbubbles can significantly reduce tumor weight and size with pimping difference of mice weight compare with other treatment groups. In addition, microbubbles notably improved tumor tissue destruction caused by ultrasound and SDT treatment. Conclusion: The results suggest that microbubbles can markedly improve the anti-cancer effect of DVDMS mediate sonodynamic therapy both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26681919

  15. The effects of narrow-band middle infrared radiation in enhancing the antitumor activity of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Ru; Sheu, Bor-Ching; Huang, Pei-Shen; Lee, Si-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is used as an adjuvant to enhance the effectiveness of ionization radiation therapy; however, high-energy radiation often damages the healthy cells surrounding cancer cells. Low-energy, middle-infrared radiation (MIR) has been shown to prevent tissue damage, and recent studies have begun combining MIR with paclitaxel. However, the cytotoxic effects of this treatment combination remain unclear, and the mechanism underlying its effects on HeLa cells has yet to be elucidated. This study investigated the effectiveness of treating HeLa human cervical cancer cells with a combination of paclitaxel for 48 h in conjunction with narrow-band MIR from 3.0 to 5.0 μm. This combined treatment significantly inhibited the growth of HeLa cells. Specifically, results from Annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis detection and cell mitochondrial membrane potential analyses revealed an increase in apoptotic cell death and a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. One possible mechanism underlying cellular apoptosis is an increase in oxidative stress. These preliminary findings provide evidence to support the combination of narrow-band MIR with paclitaxel as an alternative approach in the treatment of human cervical cancer.

  16. Tranilast enhances the anti-tumor effects of tamoxifen on human breast cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tamoxifen is the most widely used anti-estrogen for the treatment of breast cancer. Studies show that the combination therapy with other substances that helps the activity of tamoxifen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of tamoxifen when used in combination with tranilast on human breast cancer cells. Results Two MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines were treated with tamoxifen and/or tranilast. The cell viability and cytotoxicity was assessed using MTT and LDH assays; the apoptotic effects were examined by TUNEL assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and DNA laddering, also the expression levels of bax and bcl-2 genes were detected by real-time RT-PCR. The mRNA expression of TGF-β ligands and receptors examined using real-time RT-PCR and TGF-β1 protein secretion levels were also evaluated by ELISA assay. Inhibitory effect of these drugs on invasion and metastasis were tested by wound healing and matrigel invasion assay. We found that combination of these drugs led to a marked increase in growth and proliferation inhibition compared to either agent alone. Furthermore, bax and bcl-2 affected by tamoxifen and/or tranilast and resulted in a significant increase in bax and decrease in bcl-2 mRNA expression. In addition, treatment with tamoxifen and/or tranilast resulted in significant decreased in TGF-β1, 2, 3, TGF-βRI and II mRNA and TGF-β1 protein levels while TGF-βRIII mRNA level was increased and invasion was also inhibited. Conclusions These findings indicate that tranilast, by synergistic effect, enhances the activity of tamoxifen and the TGF-β pathway is a target for this combination therapy, therefore; we propose that this combined treatment may be suitable selection in prevention of breast cancer. PMID:24143895

  17. Enhanced antitumor effects of BPD-MA-mediated photodynamic therapy combined with adriamycin on breast cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhong-sheng; Miao, Pei-tian; Liu, Ting-ting; Jia, Yong-sheng; Liu, Xiao-dong

    2012-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment used to eradicate premalignant and early-stage cancers and to reduce tumor size in end-stage cancers. In this study, we investigated the effects of a combination of benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA)-mediated PDT with adriamycin (ADM) on 4T1 breast carcinoma cells in vivo and the mechanisms underlying this effect. Normal BALA/c female mice bearing 4T1 breast carcinoma xenografts were tested. The animals were treated with PDT (BPD-MA 1 mg/kg, iv, plus single-dose laser irradiation) or ADM (5 mg/kg, iv) alone, or a combination of PDT with ADM. The tumor growth rate was determined by measuring the tumor weight. Cell apoptosis was measured with flow cytometry, and the expression of apoptosis-related molecules was assessed using Western blot. Microvessel density (MVD) was determined with immunohistochemical staining. Compared to PDT or ADM alone, PDT plus ADM produced a combined inhibition on the tumor growth, prolonged life span, and enhanced apoptosis in the mice bearing 4T1 subcutaneously xenografted tumors. The combination of PDT and ADM exerted additive effects on the upregulation of Bax and the downregulation of Bcl-2, and on the reduction of MVD in 4T1 xenografted tumors. Our results demonstrate that PDT plus ADM exerts enhanced in vivo antitumor effect on breast cancer, which is closely associated with the cooperative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic pathways and the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Thus, PDT plus ADM is a promising combined treatment strategy for breast carcinoma.

  18. Proanthocyanidin from grape seeds enhances anti-tumor effect of doxorubicin both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Bai, De-Cheng; Wu, Yong-Jie; Li, Wen-Guang; Liu, Nai-Fa

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the synergistic anti-tumor effect of proanthocyanidin (PA) and doxorubicin (DOX) on K562, A549 and CNE cells in vitro and experimental transplantation Sarcoma 180 (S180) and Hepatoma 22 (H22) in vivo and to explore the mechanism of its action. PA 12.5 approximately 100 mg/l inhibited proliferation of K562, A549, and CNE cells in vitro in a time- and concentration-dependent manner as determined by the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. A combination of PA 12.5, 25 mg/l with DOX 0.01 approximately 1 mg/l treatment synergistically inhibited proliferation of K562, A549, and CNE cells with decreased IC50 values. Under the confocal laser scanning microscope, intracellular DOX, Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentrations were greatly increased whereas pH value and mitochondrial membrane potential were markedly reduced in K562 cells after treatment with a combination of PA plus DOX. At the same time, K562 cells showed morphological changes of apoptosis following treatment with PA plus DOX, and the administration of PA 25 mg/l plus DOX 0.3 mg/l for 24 h resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of apoptosis by flow cytometry as compared with DOX 0.3 mg/l alone (p < 0.05). In vivo experiments showed that a combination of PA 200 mg/kg i.g. with DOX 2 mg/kg i.p. treatment displayed an inhibitory effect on the growth of transplantation tumor S180 and H22 in mice compared with the DOX only group (p < 0.01). Taken together, these results suggest that PA enhances the DOX-induced anti-tumor effect and its mechanism is attributed to the promotion of DOX-induced apoptosis through increasing intracellular DOX, Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations, and reducing pH value and mitochondrial membrane potential.

  19. Bisphosphonates enhance antitumor effect of EGFR-TKIs in patients with advanced EGFR mutant NSCLC and bone metastases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guowei; Cheng, Ruirui; Zhang, Zengli; Jiang, Tao; Ren, Shengxiang; Ma, Zhiyong; Zhao, Sha; Zhou, Caicun; Zhang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Whether bisphosphonates could enhance the effect of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with EGFR mutation and bone metastases (BM) remains unknown. EGFR mutation status were collected from 1560 patients with NSCLC and BM. 356 NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation and BM were identified. Among them, 91 patients received EGFR-TKIs alone and 105 patients received EGFR-TKIs plus bisphosphonates as first-line therapy. Comparing to TKIs alone, EGFR-TKIs plus bisphosphonates had a statistically significant longer progression-free survival (PFS: 11.6 vs. 9.3 months; HR = 0.68, P = 0.009), while a similar overall survival (OS: 20.5 vs. 19.5 months; HR = 0.95, P = 0.743) in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC and BM. The incidence of skeletal-related events in combined group was numerically lower than that in EGFR-TKIs alone group (29.7% vs. 39.4%, P = 0.147). In multivariate analysis, EGFR mutation was found to be a significant independent prognostic factor for OS in NSCLC patients with BM (HR = 0.710, P = 0.021). In conclusion, EGFR mutation was the significant independent prognostic factor for OS and the addition of bisphosphonates to EGFR-TKIs could enhance the antitumor effect of EGFR-TKIs in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC and BM. PMID:28211502

  20. Incorporation of lapatinib into human serum albumin nanoparticles with enhanced anti-tumor effects in HER2-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xu; Zheng, Xiaoyao; Pang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zheming; Zhang, Qizhi

    2015-12-01

    Lapatinib, a selective small-molecule dual-tyrosine kinase inhibitor of HER2 and EGFR, is effective in HER2-positive patients with advanced metastatic breast cancer. However, its low and variable oral absorption, large required daily dose and serious gastrointestinal side effects all limit its clinical use. Intravenous administration offers a good option to overcome these disadvantages. However, the poor solubility of lapatinib in water and organic solvents causes lapatinib to fail in a common injectable preparation. Considering lapatinib's high albumin binding ability (>99%), in this study, we developed human serum albumin nanoparticles loaded with lapatinib (LHNPs) by Nab technology for intravenous administration and investigated its efficacy against HER2-positive breast cancer. Raman shift, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies demonstrated that lapatinib was successfully incorporated into nanoparticles, and LHNPs exhibited good stability and sustained-release effect in vitro. LHNPs could be effectively taken up by SKBr3 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and the uptake was mediated by energy-dependent endocytosis, which involved clathrin-dependent pinocytosis. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo data indicated that LHNPs presented the strong ability to induce apoptosis and superior anti-tumor efficacy in tumor-bearing mice to the commercial tablet Tykerb through the inhibition of HER2 phosphorylation. Subchronic toxicity assays indicated that LHNPs had no hepatic or kidney toxicity. With mature technology for industrial production and enhanced therapeutic effects, LHNPs are likely to have great potential as a safe therapeutic candidate against HER2-positive breast cancer in the clinic.

  1. High Intra-abdominal Pressure Enhances the Penetration and Antitumor Effect of Intraperitoneal Cisplatin on Experimental Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Esquis, Philippe; Consolo, David; Magnin, Guy; Pointaire, Philippe; Moretto, Philippe; Ynsa, Maria Dolores; Beltramo, Jean-Luc; Drogoul, Carole; Simonet, Michel; Benoit, Laurent; Rat, Patrick; Chauffert, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on the intratumoral accumulation and the antitumor effect of intraperitoneal cisplatin in rats with advanced peritoneal carcinomatosis. To evaluate the tolerance of IAP in pigs, as it is a large animal with a body size equivalent to humans. Summary Background Data: To investigate if an active convection, driven by a positive IAP, increases cisplatin penetration and antitumor effectiveness in a model of advanced peritoneal carcinomatosis in rats. Experimental Design: BDIX rats with macroscopic peritoneal tumors received cisplatin administered as intravenous injection (IV), conventional intraperitoneal injection (IP), or sustained intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin given in a large volume of solvent for maintaining IAP for 1 hour. Platinum tissue concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and platinum distribution into the tumor nodules was assessed by the particular-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) method. The antitumor effect was assessed in a survival experiment. The hemodynamic, local, and systemic tolerance of IAP, with or without cisplatin, was evaluated in Large White pigs. Results: The maximum tolerated IAP was 22 mm Hg for 1 hour in nonventilated rats. IAP, in comparison with IV or conventional IP injections, resulted in the increased concentration and depth of diffusion of platinum into diaphragm and peritoneal tumor nodules. Consequently, IAP treatment induced an extended survival of rats treated at an advanced stage of carcinomatosis. In 7 50- to 70-kg ventilated pigs, a 40-mm Hg IAP was well tolerated when maintained stable for 2 hours. Renal failure occurred in pigs receiving a total dose of 200 and 400 mg of cisplatin with IAP, but a dose of 100 mg was well tolerated. Conclusions: Intraperitoneal chemotherapy with increased IAP, in comparison with conventional IP or IV chemotherapy, improved the tumor accumulation and the antitumor effect of

  2. Examples of adjuvant treatment enhancing the antitumor effect of photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Cecic, Ivana; Sun, Jinghai; Chaplin, David J.

    1999-07-01

    Strategies for improving the clinical efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in treatment of solid cancers include applications of different types of adjuvant treatments in addition to this modality that may result in superior therapeutic outcome. Examples of such an approach investigated using mouse tumor models are presented in this report. It is shown that the cures of PDT treated subcutaneous tumors can be substantially improved by adjuvant therapy with: metoclopramide (enhancement of cancer cell apoptosis), combretastatin A-4 (selective destruction of tumor neovasculature), Roussin's Black Salt (light activated tumor localized release of nitric oxide), or dendritic cell-based adoptive immunotherapy (immune rejection of treated tumor).

  3. Enhanced Antitumor Effect of Tirapazamine Delivered Intraperitoneally to VX2 Liver Tumor-Bearing Rabbits Subjected to Transarterial Hepatic Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Sonoda, Akinaga Nitta, Norihisa Ohta, Shinich Nitta-Seko, Ayumi Nagatani, Yukihiro Takahashi, Masashi Murata, Kiyoshi

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: We evaluated the effects of the combination of Tirapazamine (TPZ), activated preferentially under hypoxic conditions, and gelatin microspheres (GMS) on the tumor growth ratio in rabbits. Methods: We assigned 20 liver tumor-bearing Japanese white rabbits to 4 equal groups. Group 1 received 1 ml of saline intra-arterially (i.a.) and 20 ml of saline intraperitoneally (i.p.; saline group). Group 2 was injected with GMS i.a. and 20 ml saline i.p. (GMS group). Group 3 received 1 ml of saline i.a. and 300 mg/m{sup 2} of TPZ i.p. (TPZ group), and group 4 was treated with GMS i.a. and 300 mg/m{sup 2} of TPZ i.p. (GMS + TPZ group). The infusion of GMS was stopped when the blood flow stagnated. Before and 7 days after treatment, the liver tumor volumes were measured as the total number of pixels on 0.3Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Results: The tumor growth ratio (mean {+-} standard deviation) of the saline, GMS, TPZ, and GMS + TPZ groups was 519.15 {+-} 93.78, 279.24 {+-} 91.83, 369.78 {+-} 95.73, and 119.87 {+-} 17.62, respectively. The difference between the GMS + TPZ group and the other groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results show that the combination of TPZ i.p. and GMS i.a. enhanced the antitumor effect of TPZ. This procedure may represent a new alternative treatment for patients with hepatic cell carcinoma.

  4. Enhancement of Ad-CRT/E7-mediated antitumor effect by preimmunization with L. lactis expressing HPV-16 E7.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Colmenero, Blanca R; Gomez-Gutierrez, Jorge G; Villatoro-Hernández, Julio; Zavala-Flores, Laura M; Quistián-Martínez, Deyanira; Rojas-Martínez, Augusto; Arce-Mendoza, Alma Y; Guzmán-López, Santos; Montes-de-Oca-Luna, Roberto; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila

    2014-11-01

    Although current polyvalent vaccines can prevent development of cervical cancer, they cannot be used to treat patients who already have the disease. Adenovirus expressing calreticulin-E7 (Ad-CRT-E7) has shown promising results in the cervical cancer murine model. We also demonstrated that immunization with Lactococcus lactis encoding HPV-16 E7 (Ll-E7) anchored to its surface induces significant HPV-16 E7-specific immune response. Here, we assessed the combination of both approaches in the treatment of a cervical cancer animal model. Intranasal preimmunization of Ll-E7, followed by a single Ad-CRT/E7 application, induced ∼80% of tumor suppression in comparison with controls. Mice treated with a combination of Ll-E7 and Ad-CRT/E7 resulted in a 70% survival rate 300 days post-treatment, whereas 100% of the mice in the control groups died by 50 days. Significant CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes infiltration was detected in the tumors of mice treated with Ll-E7+Ad-CRT/E7. Tumors with regression showed a greater number of positive cells for in situ TUNEL staining than controls. Our results suggest that preimmunization with Ll-E7 enhances the Ad-CRT/E7-mediated antitumor effect. This treatment provides an enormous advantage over repeated applications of Ad-CRT/E7 by maintaining the effectiveness of the three-dose application of Ad-CRT/E7, but avoiding the high systemic toxicities associated with such repeat treatments.

  5. Blocking c-Met-mediated PARP1 phosphorylation enhances anti-tumor effects of PARP inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yi; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Wei, Yongkun; Hsu, Jennifer L.; Wang, Hung-Ling; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Chi; Yu, Wen-Hsuan; Leonard, Paul G.; Lee, Gilbert R.; Chen, Mei-Kuang; Nakai, Katsuya; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Chen, Chun-Te; Sun, Ye; Wu, Yun; Chang, Wei-Chao; Huang, Wen-Chien; Liu, Chien-Liang; Chang, Yuan-Ching; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Park, Morag; Jones, Philip; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2016-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have emerged as promising therapeutics for many diseases, including cancer, in clinical trials1. One PARP inhibitor, olaparib (Lynparza™, AstraZeneca), was recently approved by the FDA to treat ovarian cancer with BRCA mutations. BRCA1 and BRCA2 play essential roles in repairing DNA double strand breaks, and a deficiency of BRCA proteins sensitizes cancer cells to PARP inhibition2,3. Here we show that receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met associates with and phosphorylates PARP1 at Tyr907. Phosphorylation of PARP1 Tyr907 increases PARP1 enzymatic activity and reduces binding to a PARP inhibitor, thereby rendering cancer cells resistant to PARP inhibition. Combining c-Met and PARP1 inhibitors synergized to suppress growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and xenograft tumor models. Similar synergistic effects were observed in a lung cancer xenograft tumor model. These results suggest that PARP1 pTyr907 abundance may predict tumor resistance to PARP inhibitors, and that treatment with a combination of c-Met and PARP inhibitors may benefit patients bearing tumors with high c-Met expression who do not respond to PARP inhibition alone. PMID:26779812

  6. Antitumor effect of microbubbles enhanced by low frequency ultrasound cavitation on prostate carcinoma xenografts in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YU; HU, BING; DIAO, XUEHONG; ZHANG, JIZHEN

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effect induced by low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound (US) radiation combined with intravenous injection of microbubbles (Mbs) on prostate carcinoma Du145 xenografts in nude mice. Du145 prostate tumors were percutaneously implanted in 40 nude mice, which were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 each): US+Mbs, US, Mbs and control groups. The mice in the US+Mbs group were treated with 20 kHz, 200 mW/cm2 US radiation and with 0.2 ml Mbs injected intravenously. Mice in the US and Mbs groups were only treated with US radiation and injection of Mbs, respectively. Tumors were measured with sonography, and the ratio of antitumor growth was calculated. The mice were sacrificed 14 days after treatment. Specimens of the tumor tissues were observed pathologically using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Microvessel density and the average optical density of vascular endothelial growth factor were compared among groups by immunohistochemistry. The average gross tumor volume of the US+Mbs group was significantly reduced compared with the other groups following treatment (P<0.05). The ratio of the antitumor growth in the US+Mbs group was significantly greater than that of the US and Mbs group (P<0.05). Histological examination showed signs of tumor cell injury in the US+Mbs group. Examination by electron microscopy revealed vessel injury in the endothelium in the tumors treated with US+Mbs. Microvessel density and the average optical density of vascular endothelial growth factor in the US+Mbs group were significantly less than that of other groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, low frequency US of 20 kHz radiation combined with Mbs may be used to inhibit the growth of human prostate carcinoma xenografts in nude mice, and the effect is likely realized through microvessel destruction caused by cavitation. PMID:22969866

  7. Antitumor effect of microbubbles enhanced by low frequency ultrasound cavitation on prostate carcinoma xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Hu, Bing; Diao, Xuehong; Zhang, Jizhen

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effect induced by low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound (US) radiation combined with intravenous injection of microbubbles (Mbs) on prostate carcinoma Du145 xenografts in nude mice. Du145 prostate tumors were percutaneously implanted in 40 nude mice, which were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 each): US+Mbs, US, Mbs and control groups. The mice in the US+Mbs group were treated with 20 kHz, 200 mW/cm(2) US radiation and with 0.2 ml Mbs injected intravenously. Mice in the US and Mbs groups were only treated with US radiation and injection of Mbs, respectively. Tumors were measured with sonography, and the ratio of antitumor growth was calculated. The mice were sacrificed 14 days after treatment. Specimens of the tumor tissues were observed pathologically using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Microvessel density and the average optical density of vascular endothelial growth factor were compared among groups by immunohistochemistry. The average gross tumor volume of the US+Mbs group was significantly reduced compared with the other groups following treatment (P<0.05). The ratio of the antitumor growth in the US+Mbs group was significantly greater than that of the US and Mbs group (P<0.05). Histological examination showed signs of tumor cell injury in the US+Mbs group. Examination by electron microscopy revealed vessel injury in the endothelium in the tumors treated with US+Mbs. Microvessel density and the average optical density of vascular endothelial growth factor in the US+Mbs group were significantly less than that of other groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, low frequency US of 20 kHz radiation combined with Mbs may be used to inhibit the growth of human prostate carcinoma xenografts in nude mice, and the effect is likely realized through microvessel destruction caused by cavitation.

  8. Co-delivery of antigen and IL-12 by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles enhances antigen-specific immune responses and antitumor effects.

    PubMed

    Osada, Takuya; Berglund, Peter; Morse, Michael A; Hubby, Bolyn; Lewis, Whitney; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Yang, Xiao Yi; Hobeika, Amy; Burnett, Bruce; Devi, Gayathri R; Clay, Timothy M; Smith, Jonathan; Kim Lyerly, H

    2012-11-01

    We recently demonstrated that Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus-based replicon particle (VRPs) encoding tumor antigens could break tolerance in the immunomodulatory environment of advanced cancer. We hypothesized that local injection of VRP-expressing interleukin-12 (IL-12) at the site of injections of VRP-based cancer vaccines would enhance the tumor-antigen-specific T cell and antibody responses and antitumor efficacy. Mice were immunized with VRP encoding the human tumor-associated antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (VRP-CEA(6D)), and VRP-IL-12 was also administered at the same site or at a distant location. CEA-specific T cell and antibody responses were measured. To determine antitumor activity, mice were implanted with MC38-CEA-2 cells and immunized with VRP-CEA with and without VRP-IL-12, and tumor growth and mouse survival were measured. VRP-IL-12 greatly enhanced CEA-specific T cell and antibody responses when combined with VRP-CEA(6D) vaccination. VRP-IL-12 was superior to IL-12 protein at enhancing immune responses. Vaccination with VRP-CEA(6D) plus VRP-IL-12 was superior to VRP-CEA(6D) or VRP-IL-12 alone in inducing antitumor activity and prolonging survival in tumor-bearing mice. Importantly, local injection of VRP-IL-12 at the VRP-CEA(6D) injection site provided more potent activation of CEA-specific immune responses than that of VRP-IL-12 injected at a distant site from the VRP-CEA injections. Together, this study shows that VRP-IL-12 enhances vaccination with VRP-CEA(6D) and was more effective at activating CEA-specific T cell responses when locally expressed at the vaccine site. Clinical trials evaluating the adjuvant effect of VRP-IL-12 at enhancing the immunogenicity of cancer vaccines are warranted.

  9. Co-delivery of antigen and IL-12 by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles enhances antigen-specific immune responses and anti-tumor effects

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Takuya; Berglund, Peter; Morse, Michael A.; Hubby, Bolyn; Lewis, Whitney; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Hobeika, Amy; Burnett, Bruce; Devi, Gayathri R.; Clay, Timothy M.; Smith, Jonathan; Lyerly, H. Kim

    2013-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus-based replicon particles (VRP) encoding tumor antigens could break tolerance in the immunomodulatory environment of advanced cancer. We hypothesized that local injection of VRP expressing Interleukin-12 (IL-12) at the site of injections of VRP-based cancer vaccines would enhance the tumor-antigen-specific T cell and antibody responses and anti-tumor efficacy. Mice were immunized with VRP encoding the human tumor-associated antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (VRP-CEA(6D)) and VRP-IL-12 was also administered at the same site or at a distant location. CEA-specific T cell and antibody responses were measured. To determine antitumor activity, mice were implanted with MC38-CEA-2 cells and immunized with VRP-CEA with and without VRP-IL-12 and tumor growth and mouse survival were measured. VRP-IL-12 greatly enhanced CEA-specific T cell and antibody responses when combined with VRP-CEA(6D) vaccination. VRP IL-12 was superior to IL-12 protein at enhancing immune responses. Vaccination with VRP-CEA(6D) plus VRP-IL-12 was superior to VRP-CEA(6D) or VRP-IL-12 alone in inducing anti-tumor activity and prolonging survival in tumor-bearing mice. Importantly, local injection of VRP-IL-12 at the VRP-CEA(6D) injection site provided more potent activation of CEA-specific immune responses than VRP-IL-12 injected at a distant site from the VRP-CEA injections. Together, this study shows that VRP-IL-12 enhances vaccination with VRP-CEA(6D) and was more effective at activating CEA-specific T cell responses when locally expressed at the vaccine site. Clinical trials evaluating the adjuvant effect of VRP-IL-12 at enhancing the immunogenicity of cancer vaccines are warranted. PMID:22488274

  10. Inhibition of HIF-1α by PX-478 enhances the anti-tumor effect of gemcitabine by inducing immunogenic cell death in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Li; Chen, Jing; Xin, Wen; Yan, Fan; Li, Jing; Wang, Xiuchao; Gao, Song; Qian, Dong; Huang, Chongbiao; Hao, Jihui

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the worst prognoses among all the malignancies. Now, gemcitabine (Gem) is the first line chemotherapeutic drug for advanced pancreatic cancer. However, Gem is usually ineffective to the PDAC because of high degree of drug resistance. Hypoxia and immune suppressive milieu are the best-described hallmarks of PDAC; therefore, we investigated the impact of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) inhibitor, PX-478, in combination with Gem on the induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD). We verified that combined treatment with Gem/PX-478 significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effect and increased proportion of tumor infiltrating T-lymphocytes in Panc02-bearing immune-competent but not in immune-deficient mice. Vaccination using Panc02 cell line treated with single agent or in combination showed significant anti-tumor effects. Pancreatic cell lines treated with Gem and PX-478 can induce an increase in eIF2α phosphorylation was correlated with down-regulation of HIF-1α and elicited exposure of CRT and release of HMGB1 and ATP. Only co-treated cells induced DC maturation/phagocytosis and IFN-γ secretion by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Altogether, combined treatment with Gem/PX-478 showed significantly inhibition on tumor growth and anti-tumor immunization. We propose that inhibition HIF-1α elicits Gem-induced immune response and eliminates PDAC cells by inducing ICD. PMID:25544770

  11. Graphene oxide as a chemosensitizer: diverted autophagic flux, enhanced nuclear import, elevated necrosis and improved antitumor effects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Yu; Meng, Chia-Le; Lin, Kuan-Chen; Tuan, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Hong-Jie; Chen, Chiu-Ling; Li, Kuei-Chang; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2015-02-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a nanomaterial that provokes autophagy in CT26 colon cancer cells and confers antitumor effects. Here we demonstrated that both GO and the chemotherapy drug cisplatin (CDDP) induced autophagy but elicited low degrees of CT26 cell death. Strikingly, GO combined with CDDP (GO/CDDP) potentiated the CT26 cell killing via necrosis. GO/CDDP not only elicited autophagy, but induced the nuclear import of CDDP and the autophagy marker LC3. The nuclear LC3 did not co-localize with p62 or Lamp-2, neither did blocking autolysosome formation significantly hinder the nuclear import of LC3/CDDP and necrosis, indicating that autophagosome and autolysosome formation was dispensable. Conversely, suppressing phagophore formation and importin-α/β significantly alleviated the nuclear import of LC3/CDDP and necrosis. These data suggested that GO/CDDP diverted the LC3 flux in the early phase of autophagy, resulting in LC3 trafficking towards the nucleus in an importin-α/β-dependent manner, which concurred with the CDDP nuclear import and necrosis. Intratumoral injection of GO/CDDP into mice bearing CT26 colon tumors potentiated immune cell infiltration and promoted cell death, autophagy and HMGB1 release, thereby synergistically augmenting the antitumor effects. Altogether, we unveiled a mechanism concerning how nanomaterials chemosensitize cancer cells and demonstrated the potentials of GO as a chemosensitizer.

  12. Fusion protein of mutant B7-DC and Fc enhances the antitumor immune effect of GM-CSF-secreting whole-cell vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Masatsugu; Murata, Satoshi; Mekata, Eiji; Takebayashi, Katsushi; Jaffee, Elizabeth M; Tani, Tohru

    2014-04-01

    B7-DC [also known as programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2)] is a costimulatory molecule expressed predominantly on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. In addition to its coinhibitory receptor, programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1), evidence suggests that B7-DC interacts with an unidentified costimulatory receptor on T cells. B7-DC mutants with selective binding capacity for the costimulatory receptor may be effective in stimulating antitumor immune responses, while avoiding the inhibitory effects of PD-1. In this study, we concomitantly administered a GM-CSF-secreting whole-cell vaccine together with a fusion protein of mutant B7-DC and Fc portion (mB7-DC-Fc), which binds selectively to the costimulatory receptor. This lead to an increased number of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes both in the spleen and at the tumor site and complete elimination of established tumors in vivo. In addition, mB7-DC-Fc increased IFN-γ and IL-2 production and decreased IL-4 and IL-10 production in vitro, indicating that mB7-DC-Fc tips the Th1/Th2 balance toward Th1 dominance, which is more favorable for antitumor immunity. Furthermore, mB7-DC-Fc decreased the PD-1(+) proportion of CD8(+) T cells in vitro and tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells in vivo, suggesting that mB7-DC-Fc may maintain tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells in a nonexhausted state. In conclusion, mB7-DC-Fc administration during the T-cell priming phase enhances antitumor effects of vaccine by generating more tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and leading to their accumulation at the tumor site. We suggest that this combination approach may be a promising strategy for antitumor immunotherapy.

  13. An oncolytic adenovirus enhances antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects of a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding endostatin by rescuing its selective replication in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ran-yi; Zhou, Ling; Zhang, Yan-ling; Huang, Bi-jun; Ke, Miao-la; Chen, Jie-min; Li, Li-xia; Fu, Xiang; Wu, Jiang-xue; Huang, Wenlin

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •H101 promotes endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication. •H101 rescued Ad-Endo replication by supplying E1A and E1B19k proteins. •Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 in NPC cells. •Ad-Endo and oncolytic Ad H101 have synergistic antitumor effects on NPC. -- Abstract: A replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) encoding secreted human endostatin (Ad-Endo) has been demonstrated to have promising antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects. The E1B55k-deleted Ad H101 can selectively lyse cancer cells. In this study, we explored the antitumor effects and cross-interactions of Ad-Endo and H101 on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The results showed that H101 dramatically promoted endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication in NPC cells, and the expressed endostatin proteins significantly inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. E1A and E1B19k products are required for the rescuing of H101 to Ad-Endo replication in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells, but not in C666-1 cells. On the other hand, Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 by enhancing Ad replication in NPC cells. The combination of H101 and Ad-Endo significantly inhibited CNE-2 xenografts growth through the increased endostatin expression and Ad replication. These findings indicate that the combination of Ad-Endo gene therapy and oncolytic Ad therapeutics could be promising in comprehensive treatment of NPC.

  14. [Advances on antitumor effect of parasites].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su-wen; Sun, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Immune response induced by parasites could inhibit tumor growth and promote apoptosis of tumor cells. The investigation into this character will provide new insights on the anti-tumor effect of parasites. The mechanism of parasite immune evasion may provide a reference for tumor research. Furthermore, some anti-parasitic drugs have shown antitumor effect indicating that the development of antitumor drugs may get inspiration from anti-parasitic drug studies.

  15. Identification of Optimal Insertion Site in Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus (rNDV) Vector Expressing Foreign Gene to Enhance Its Anti-Tumor Effect

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ziye; He, Jinjiao; Rasoul, Lubna M.; Liu, Yunye; Che, Ruixiang; Ding, Yun; Guo, Xiaocheng; Yang, Jiarui; Zou, Dehua; Zhang, Hua; Li, Deshan; Cao, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) is tumor selective and intrinsically oncolytic, which has been developed as a vector to express exogenous genes to enhance its oncolytic efficacy. Our previous studies found that insertion sites of foreign gene in rNDV vector affected its expression and anti-tumor activities. However, the optimal insertion site for foreign genes remains unknown. In this study, we inserted the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) and IL2 genes into four different intergenic regions of the rNDV using reverse genetics technology. Recombinants rNDV-EGFPs and rNDV-IL2s were successfully rescued, which displayed the similar growth kinetics with parental virus. Both EGFP mRNA and protein levels were most abundant in HepG2 cells, when EGFP gene was inserted between the NP/P site of the rNDV. Similarly, the IL-2 expressed by HepG2 cells infected with rNDV-IL2 was highest, when IL2 was inserted into NP/P site. To test whether these rNDVs that express higher foreign genes could induce stronger anti-tumor response, we treated the H22-oxter-tumor-bearing C57BL/6J mice with rNDV-IL2s and then examined the oncolytic efficacy. The results showed that rNDV-IL2-NP/P had the strongest inhibition of murine hepatoma carcinoma tumors. The splenocytes isolated from the mice treated with rNDV-IL2-NP/P reached the highest degrees of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells. In addition, animals’ survival rate in rNDV-IL2-NP/P-treated group was higher than that of other groups. Taken together, these results demonstrate that NP and P gene junction in rNDV is the optimal insertion site for foreign genes expression to enhance rNDV’s anti-tumor effects. PMID:27736965

  16. Rare sugar D-allose enhances anti-tumor effect of 5-fluorouracil on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HuH-7.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Sanada, Keiko; Horii, Mariko; Dong, Youyi; Sui, Li; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2008-09-01

    d-Allose is a novel anti-tumor monosaccharide that causes cell growth inhibition, specifically of the cancer cells, by inducing the tumor suppressor gene thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP). The commonly used anti-tumor drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), blocks the cell cycle by inhibiting thymidylate synthase, and is also known to induce TXNIP gene expression. In this study, we examined the synergistic effect of d-allose and 5-FU and the role of TXNIP on cancer cell growth. The treatment of HuH-7 cells with d-allose or 5-FU inhibited the cell growth in a dose-dependent manner (75.2+/-2.7% with 50 mM d-allose and 66.1+/-2.7% with 0.5 mug/ml 5-FU) and d-allose enhanced the anti-tumor effect of 5-FU (55.3+/-1.1 %). TUNEL analysis did not show any evidence of apoptosis with either d-allose or 5-FU treatment. 5-FU suppressed the expression of p27(kip1), p53, and cyclin E, whereas d-allose induced p53 and reduced cyclins D, A, and E. The expression of p27(kip1) remained unchanged by d-allose at transcriptional level, but increased at the protein level suggesting an increase in protein stability by TXNIP. d-Allose and to a lesser extent 5-FU induced TXNIP expression significantly (808.4+/-122.9% and 186.8+/-32.9%, respectively) and the combination of both further enhanced TXNIP expression. As d-allose has no known side effects on normal cells, the combination of d-allose and 5-FU might be a potent candidate for cancer therapy.

  17. Immune Regulation and Antitumor Effect of TIM-1

    PubMed Central

    Du, Peng; Xiong, Ruihua; Li, Xiaodong; Jiang, Jingting

    2016-01-01

    T cells play an important role in antitumor immunity, and the T cell immunoglobulin domain and the mucin domain protein-1 (TIM-1) on its surface, as a costimulatory molecule, has a strong regulatory effect on T cells. TIM-1 can regulate and enhance type 1 immune response of tumor association. Therefore, TIM-1 costimulatory pathways may be a promising therapeutic target in future tumor immunotherapy. This review describes the immune regulation and antitumor effect of TIM-1. PMID:27413764

  18. Knockdown of HIF-1α by siRNA-expressing plasmid delivered by attenuated Salmonella enhances the antitumor effects of cisplatin on prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gu, Junlian; Li, Yang; Zeng, Jun; Wang, Bo; Ji, Kun; Tang, Yufeng; Sun, Qing

    2017-08-08

    Resistance to cisplatin (DDP) and dose-related toxicity remain two important obstacles in the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) patients with DDP-based chemotherapy. We have investigated whether the knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) by siRNA could enhance the antitumor activity of DDP, and aimed to determine the underlying mechanisms. Intravenous injection of attenuated Salmonella carrying a HIF-1α siRNA-expressing plasmid was used to knockdown HIF-1α in a PC-3 xenograft model. The in vitro and in vivo effects of HIF-1α siRNA treatment and/or DPP on PCa cell proliferation, apoptosis, glycolysis, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by examining molecular markers specific to each process. The results demonstrated that the treatment of tumor-bearing mice with attenuated Salmonella carrying the HIF-1α siRNA plasmid greatly enhanced the antitumor effects of low-dose DDP. Further mechanistic studies demonstrated that knockdown of HIF-1α improved the response of PCa cells to DDP by redirecting aerobic glycolysis toward mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, leading to cell death through overproduction of ROS. Our findings indicate that DDP-based chemotherapy combined with targeting the HIF-1α-regulated cancer metabolism pathway might be an ideal strategy to treat PCa.

  19. An oncolytic adenovirus enhances antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects of a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding endostatin by rescuing its selective replication in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran-Yi; Zhou, Ling; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Huang, Bi-Jun; Ke, Miao-la; Chen, Jie-Min; Li, Li-Xia; Fu, Xiang; Wu, Jiang-Xue; Huang, Wenlin

    2013-12-13

    A replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) encoding secreted human endostatin (Ad-Endo) has been demonstrated to have promising antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects. The E1B55k-deleted Ad H101 can selectively lyse cancer cells. In this study, we explored the antitumor effects and cross-interactions of Ad-Endo and H101 on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The results showed that H101 dramatically promoted endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication in NPC cells, and the expressed endostatin proteins significantly inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. E1A and E1B19k products are required for the rescuing of H101 to Ad-Endo replication in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells, but not in C666-1 cells. On the other hand, Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 by enhancing Ad replication in NPC cells. The combination of H101 and Ad-Endo significantly inhibited CNE-2 xenografts growth through the increased endostatin expression and Ad replication. These findings indicate that the combination of Ad-Endo gene therapy and oncolytic Ad therapeutics could be promising in comprehensive treatment of NPC.

  20. Enhanced antitumor effects by combining an IL-12/anti-DNA fusion protein with avelumab, an anti-PD-L1 antibody.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Jonathan K; Vandeveer, Amanda J; Schlom, Jeffrey; Greiner, John W

    2017-03-28

    The combined therapeutic potential of an immunocytokine designed to deliver IL-12 to the necrotic regions of solid tumors with an anti-PD-L1 antibody that disrupts the immunosuppressive PD-1/PD-L1 axis yielded a combinatorial benefit in multiple murine tumor models. The murine version of the immunocytokine, NHS-muIL12, consists of an antibody (NHS76) recognizing DNA/DNA-histone complexes, fused with two molecules of murine IL-12 (NHS-muIL12). By its recognition of exposed DNA, NHS-muIL12 targets IL-12 to the necrotic portions of tumors; it has a longer plasma half-life and better antitumor efficacy against murine tumors than recombinant murine IL-12. It is shown here that NHS-muIL12, in an IFN-γ‒dependent mechanism, upregulates mPD-L1 expression on mouse tumors, which could be construed as an immunosuppressive action. Yet concurrent therapy with NHS-muIL12 and an anti-PD-L1 antibody resulted in additive/synergistic antitumor effects in PD-L1‒expressing subcutaneously transplanted tumors (MC38, MB49) and in an intravesical bladder tumor model (MB49). Antitumor efficacy correlated with (a) with a higher frequency of tumor antigen-specific splenic CD8+ T cells and (b) enhanced T cell activation over a wide range of NHS-muIL12 concentrations. These findings suggest that combining NHS-muIL12 and an anti-PD-L1 antibody enhances T cell activation and T cell effector functions within the tumor microenvironment, significantly improving overall tumor regression. These results should provide the rationale to examine the combination of these agents in clinical studies.

  1. Metformin enhancing the antitumor efficacy of carboplatin against Ehrlich solid carcinoma grown in diabetic mice: Effect on IGF-1 and tumoral expression of IGF-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Ahmed, Eman A; Tawfik, Mona K; Helmy, Seham A

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes has been listed as a risk factor for various types of cancer. Cancer cell development can be promoted by increased levels of IGF-1 and hyperinsulinemia that are associated with diabetes type II. Metformin is an anti-diabetic agent and its potential antitumor impact has become the objective of numerous studies. In this vein, we hypothesize that using metformin in diabetes type II mice may synergistic with carboplatin for reducing the risk of cancer. Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate the in vivo antitumor activity of metformin against solid EAC tumor growth in female diabetic mice and its potential pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects with clarification of its inconclusive biological mechanisms. Mice were assigned into nine groups; normal control, diabetic control, diabetic plus EAC control, EAC control, and treated groups received carboplatin and/or metformin (100, 200mg/kg). Metformin administration especially with high dose potentiated the antitumor activity of carboplatin displayed by increased pro-apoptotic activators "caspase-3 and bax" and reduced anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2. This was confirmed by the histopathological scores. Moreover, the combination therapy was effective in attenuating the expression of the pro-angiogenic mediator "VEGF" and the microvessel density as revealed by the CD34. Additionally, this combination down-regulated the high levels of the mutagenic element "IGF-1" and its receptor expression, and attenuated the intensity of inflammatory mediators. In conclusion, it was found that metformin therapy could enhance apoptotic marker, and suppress the neovascularization and proliferation process. This clarified the ability of metformin to support carboplatin activity in reducing tumor progression in type II diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel combination of TRAIL and doxorubicin enhances antitumor effect based on passive tumor-targeting of liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liangran; Fan, Li; Ren, Jinfeng; Pang, Zhiqing; Ren, Yulong; Li, Jingwei; Wen, Ziyi; Jiang, Xinguo

    2011-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a novel anticancer agent for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, approximately half of NSCLC cell lines are highly resistant to TRAIL. Doxorubicin (DOX) can sensitize NSCLC cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, indicating the possibility of combination therapy. Unfortunately, the therapeutic effect of a DOX and TRAIL combination is limited by multiple factors including the short serum half-life of TRAIL, poor compliance and application difficulty in the clinic, chronic DOX-induced cardiac toxicity, and the multidrug resistance (MDR) property of NSCLC cells. To solve such problems, we developed the combination of TRAIL liposomes (TRAIL-LP) and DOX liposomes (DOX-LP). An in vitro cytotoxicity study indicated that DOX-LP sensitized the NSCLC cell line A-549 to TRAIL-LP-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, this combination therapy of TRAIL-LP and DOX-LP displayed a stronger antitumor effect on NSCLC in xenografted mice when compared with free drugs or liposomal drugs alone. Therefore, the TRAIL-LP and DOX-LP combination therapy has excellent potential to become a new therapeutic approach for patients with advanced NSCLC.

  3. Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 shows antitumor effects by enhancing the release of TRAIL from neutrophils through MMP-8.

    PubMed

    Shinnoh, Masahide; Horinaka, Mano; Yasuda, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Sae; Morita, Mie; Yamada, Takeshi; Miki, Tsuneharu; Sakai, Toshiyuki

    2013-03-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) intravesical therapy against superficial bladder cancer is one of the most successful immunotherapies in cancer, though the precise mechanism has not been clarified. Recent studies have demonstrated urinary tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) levels to be higher in BCG-responsive patients than non-responders and shown that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) migrating to the bladder after BCG instillation release large amounts of TRAIL. To establish a safer and more effective intravesical therapy than BCG, we examined whether other bacteria induced similar effects. We stimulated PMNs or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with BCG or other bacteria, and then aliquots of the culture supernatants or cell lysates were assayed for TRAIL. We examined the signaling pathway regulating the release of TRAIL from PMNs and evaluated the antitumor effects of BCG or other bacteria in vitro and in vivo. We have found that Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 (CBM588) induces the release of endogenous TRAIL from PMNs as well as BCG. In addition, we have shown that matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8) is one of the key factors responsible for the release. Interestingly, TLR2/4 signaling pathway has been suggested to be important for the release of TRAIL by MMP-8. CBM588 has been proven to be as effective as BCG against cancer cells by inducing apoptosis in vivo as well as in vitro. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that CBM588 is promising for a safer and more effective therapy against bladder cancer.

  4. Recombinant interleukin-2 enhanced the antitumor effect of ADV/RSV-HSV-tk/ACV therapy in a murine bladder cancer model.

    PubMed

    Terao, Shuji; Shirakawa, Toshiro; Goda, Kazumasa; Kamidono, Sadao; Fujisawa, Masato; Gotoh, Akinobu

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the antitumor effects of IL-2 and ADV/RSV-HSV-tk in bladder tumor models. In our study, we employed the intramuscular injection of recombinant IL-2 combined with ADV/RSV-HSV-tk gene therapy in the MBT-2 murine bladder tumor model. In the in vitro study, after adenoviral gene transduction efficiency had been assessed, the cytotoxicity of ADV/RSV-HSV-tk/ACV was examined. In the in vivo study, ADV/RSV-HSV-tk was injected into MBT-2 subcutaneous tumors, ACV was injected intraperitoneally daily for 13 days and recombinant IL-2 was injected intramuscularly daily for 10 days. The X-gal staining of MBT-2 cells infected with 125 multiplicity of injection (MOI) indicated > 20% adenoviral gene transduction efficiency. The cell growth of MBT-2 infected with 125 MOI was significantly inhibited by 40 microM of ACV. In the in vivo study, the combination therapy significantly inhibited tumor growth in the MBT-2 tumor model. The systemic administration of recombinant IL-2 in combination with HSV-tk gene therapy exhibited an enhanced antitumor effect.

  5. Synthetic RORγ agonists regulate multiple pathways to enhance antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao; Liu, Xikui; Moisan, Jacques; Wang, Yahong; Lesch, Charles A.; Spooner, Chauncey; Morgan, Rodney W.; Zawidzka, Elizabeth M.; Mertz, David; Bousley, Dick; Majchrzak, Kinga; Kryczek, Ilona; Taylor, Clarke; Van Huis, Chad; Skalitzky, Don; Hurd, Alexander; Aicher, Thomas D.; Toogood, Peter L.; Glick, Gary D.; Paulos, Chrystal M.; Zou, Weiping; Carter, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT RORγt is the key transcription factor controlling the development and function of CD4+ Th17 and CD8+ Tc17 cells. Across a range of human tumors, about 15% of the CD4+ T cell fraction in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are RORγ+ cells. To evaluate the role of RORγ in antitumor immunity, we have identified synthetic, small molecule agonists that selectively activate RORγ to a greater extent than the endogenous agonist desmosterol. These RORγ agonists enhance effector function of Type 17 cells by increasing the production of cytokines/chemokines such as IL-17A and GM-CSF, augmenting expression of co-stimulatory receptors like CD137, CD226, and improving survival and cytotoxic activity. RORγ agonists also attenuate immunosuppressive mechanisms by curtailing Treg formation, diminishing CD39 and CD73 expression, and decreasing levels of co-inhibitory receptors including PD-1 and TIGIT on tumor-reactive lymphocytes. The effects of RORγ agonists were not observed in RORγ−/− T cells, underscoring the selective on-target activity of the compounds. In vitro treatment of tumor-specific T cells with RORγ agonists, followed by adoptive transfer to tumor-bearing mice is highly effective at controlling tumor growth while improving T cell survival and maintaining enhanced IL-17A and reduced PD-1 in vivo. The in vitro effects of RORγ agonists translate into single agent, immune system-dependent, antitumor efficacy when compounds are administered orally in syngeneic tumor models. RORγ agonists integrate multiple antitumor mechanisms into a single therapeutic that both increases immune activation and decreases immune suppression resulting in robust inhibition of tumor growth. Thus, RORγ agonists represent a novel immunotherapy approach for cancer. PMID:28123897

  6. Near-infrared light triggers release of Paclitaxel from biodegradable microspheres: photothermal effect and enhanced antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    You, Jian; Shao, Ruping; Wei, Xin; Gupta, Sanjay; Li, Chun

    2010-05-07

    Despite advances in controlled drug delivery, reliable methods for activatable, high-resolution control of drug release are needed. The hypothesis that the photothermal effect mediated by a near-infrared (NIR) laser and hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNSs) could modulate the release of anticancer agents is tested with biodegradable and biocompatible microspheres (1-15 microm) containing the antitumor drug paclitaxel (PTX) and HAuNSs (approximately 35 nm in diameter), which display surface plasmon absorbance in the NIR region. HAuNS-containing microspheres exhibit a NIR-induced thermal effect similar to that of plain HAuNSs. Rapid, repetitive PTX release from the PTX/HAuNS-containing microspheres is observed upon irradiation with NIR light (808 nm), whereas PTX release is insignificant when the NIR light is switched off. The release of PTX from the microspheres is readily controlled by the output power of the NIR laser, duration of irradiation, treatment frequency, and concentration of HAuNSs embedded inside the microspheres. In vitro, cancer cells incubated with PTX/HAuNS-loaded microspheres and irradiated with NIR light display significantly greater cytotoxic effects than cells incubated with the microspheres alone or cells irradiated with NIR light alone, owing to NIR-light-triggered drug release. Treatment of human U87 gliomas and MDA-MB-231 mammary tumor xenografts in nude mice with intratumoral injections of PTX/HAuNS-loaded microspheres followed by NIR irradiation results in significant tumor-growth delay compared to tumors treated with HAuNS-loaded microspheres (no PTX) and NIR irradiation or with PTX/HAuNS-loaded microspheres alone. The data support the feasibility of a therapeutic approach in which NIR light is used for simultaneous modulation of drug release and induction of photothermal cell killing.

  7. Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract from Chrysanthemum indicum Enhances Anti-Tumor Effect and Reduces Toxicity of Bleomycin in Tumor-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hong-Mei; Sun, Chao-Yue; Liang, Jia-Li; Xu, Lie-Qiang; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Luo, Dan-Dan; Chen, Han-Bin; Huang, Yong-Zhong; Wang, Qi; Lee, David Yue-Wei; Yuan, Jie; Li, Yu-Cui

    2017-01-01

    Bleomycin (BLM), a family of anti-tumor drugs, was reported to exhibit severe side effects limiting its usage in clinical treatment. Therefore, finding adjuvants that enhance the anti-tumor effect and reduce the detrimental effect of BLM is a prerequisite. Chrysanthemum indicum, an edible flower, possesses abundant bioactivities; the supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract from flowers and buds of C. indicum (CISCFE) have strong anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and lung protective effects. However, the role of CISCFE combined with BLM treatment on tumor-bearing mice remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the potential synergistic effect and the underlying mechanism of CISCFE combined with BLM in the treatment of hepatoma 22 (H22) tumor-bearing mice. The results suggested that the oral administration of CISCFE combined with BLM could markedly prolong the life span, attenuate the BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6), tumor necrosis factor-α, activities of myeloperoxidase, and malondiadehyde. Moreover, CISCFE combined with BLM promoted the ascites cell apoptosis, the activities of caspases 3 and 8, and up-regulated the protein expression of p53 and down-regulated the transforming growth factor-β1 by activating the gene expression of miR-29b. Taken together, these results indicated that CISCFE could enhance the anti-cancer activity of BLM and reduce the BLM-induced pulmonary injury in H22 tumor-bearing mice, rendering it as a potential adjuvant drug with chemotherapy after further investigation in the future. PMID:28245556

  8. Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract from Chrysanthemum indicum Enhances Anti-Tumor Effect and Reduces Toxicity of Bleomycin in Tumor-Bearing Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Mei; Sun, Chao-Yue; Liang, Jia-Li; Xu, Lie-Qiang; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Luo, Dan-Dan; Chen, Han-Bin; Huang, Yong-Zhong; Wang, Qi; Lee, David Yue-Wei; Yuan, Jie; Li, Yu-Cui

    2017-02-24

    Bleomycin (BLM), a family of anti-tumor drugs, was reported to exhibit severe side effects limiting its usage in clinical treatment. Therefore, finding adjuvants that enhance the anti-tumor effect and reduce the detrimental effect of BLM is a prerequisite. Chrysanthemum indicum, an edible flower, possesses abundant bioactivities; the supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract from flowers and buds of C. indicum (CISCFE) have strong anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and lung protective effects. However, the role of CISCFE combined with BLM treatment on tumor-bearing mice remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the potential synergistic effect and the underlying mechanism of CISCFE combined with BLM in the treatment of hepatoma 22 (H22) tumor-bearing mice. The results suggested that the oral administration of CISCFE combined with BLM could markedly prolong the life span, attenuate the BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6), tumor necrosis factor-α, activities of myeloperoxidase, and malondiadehyde. Moreover, CISCFE combined with BLM promoted the ascites cell apoptosis, the activities of caspases 3 and 8, and up-regulated the protein expression of p53 and down-regulated the transforming growth factor-β1 by activating the gene expression of miR-29b. Taken together, these results indicated that CISCFE could enhance the anti-cancer activity of BLM and reduce the BLM-induced pulmonary injury in H22 tumor-bearing mice, rendering it as a potential adjuvant drug with chemotherapy after further investigation in the future.

  9. Combination of gambogic acid with cisplatin enhances the antitumor effects on cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells by downregulating MRP2 and LRP expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wendian; Zhou, Hechao; Yu, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Li, Haiwen; Jiang, Danxian; Chen, Zihong; Yang, Donghong; Xu, Zumin; Yu, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin resistance is a main clinical problem of lung cancer therapy. Gambogic acid (GA) could prohibit the proliferation of a variety of human cancer cells. However, the effects of GA on cisplatin-resistant lung cancer are still unclear. The objective of the present study was to find out the antitumor effects of GA on cisplatin-resistant human lung cancer A549/DDP cells and further explore its underlying mechanisms. Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to observe the impacts of GA and/or cisplatin on the proliferation of lung cancer cells; flow cytometry was used to detect the effects of GA on cell cycle and apoptosis; Western blot was used to examine the effects of GA on the expression of lung resistance protein (LRP) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) protein in A549/DDP cells. Our results showed that GA dose- and time-dependently prohibited the proliferation and induced significant cell apoptosis in A549 and A549/DDP cells. GA also induced G0/G1 arrest in both A549/DDP and A549 cells. Moreover, GA upregulated protein expression level of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax and downregulated protein expression level of pro-caspase-9 and Bcl-2 in time- and dose-dependent way in A549/DDP cells. GA combined with cisplatin enhanced the cells apoptotic rate and reduced the cisplatin resistance index in A549/DDP cells. In addition, GA reduced the MRP2 and LRP protein expression level in A549/DDP cells. GA inhibits the proliferation, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549/DDP cells. Combination of GA with cisplatin enhances the antitumor effects on cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells by downregulating MRP2 and LRP expression. PMID:27330316

  10. Inhibition of nuclear factor-κB enhances the antitumor effect of paclitaxel against gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination in mice.

    PubMed

    Haruki, Koichiro; Shiba, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Yuki; Furukawa, Kenei; Iwase, Ryota; Uwagawa, Tadashi; Misawa, Takeyuki; Ohashi, Toya; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of paclitaxel is useful for treating malignant tumors with peritoneal dissemination, but the therapeutic efficacy is limited. Chemoresistance due to paclitaxel-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation is an important cause of suboptimal therapeutic efficacy. The purpose of this study was to prove that addition of nafamostat mesilate (FUT-175), a synthetic serine protease inhibitor and an NF-κB inhibitor, to i.p. paclitaxel enhances antitumor effects of paclitaxel against gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination. In vitro, we assessed NF-κB activity and apoptosis in response to treatment with FUT-175 alone, paclitaxel alone, or a combination of FUT-175 and paclitaxel in a human gastric cancer cell line (MKN-45). In vivo, we established peritoneal dissemination in nude mice by i.p. injection of MKN-45 cells. The animals received i.p. injections of FUT-175 alone three times a week (FUT-175 group), of paclitaxel alone once a week (paclitaxel group), or a combination of FUT-175 and paclitaxel (combination group) three times and once a week, respectively. In the combination group, paclitaxel-induced NF-κB activation was inhibited and apoptosis was enhanced in comparison with those in the other groups both in vitro and in vivo. In the combination group, number and weight of peritoneal nodules were significantly lower than those in the paclitaxel group (p = 0.0009 and p = 0.0417, respectively). In the survival analysis, the combination group had a significantly better survival than the paclitaxel group (p = 0.0048). FUT-175 enhances the antitumor effect of i.p. paclitaxel against gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination by inhibiting NF-κB activation in mice.

  11. Antitumor effects of electrochemical treatment

    PubMed Central

    González, Maraelys Morales; Zamora, Lisset Ortíz; Cabrales, Luis Enrique Bergues; Sierra González, Gustavo Victoriano; de Oliveira, Luciana Oliveira; Zanella, Rodrigo; Buzaid, Antonio Carlos; Parise, Orlando; Brito, Luciana Macedo; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; Gomes, Marina das Neves; Moreno, Gleyce; Feo da Veiga, Venicio; Telló, Marcos; Holandino, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical treatment is an alternative modality for tumor treatment based on the application of a low intensity direct electric current to the tumor tissue through two or more platinum electrodes placed within the tumor zone or in the surrounding areas. This treatment is noted for its great effectiveness, minimal invasiveness and local effect. Several studies have been conducted worldwide to evaluate the antitumoral effect of this therapy. In all these studies a variety of biochemical and physiological responses of tumors to the applied treatment have been obtained. By this reason, researchers have suggested various mechanisms to explain how direct electric current destroys tumor cells. Although, it is generally accepted this treatment induces electrolysis, electroosmosis and electroporation in tumoral tissues. However, action mechanism of this alternative modality on the tumor tissue is not well understood. Although the principle of Electrochemical treatment is simple, a standardized method is not yet available. The mechanism by which Electrochemical treatment affects tumor growth and survival may represent more complex process. The present work analyzes the latest and most important research done on the electrochemical treatment of tumors. We conclude with our point of view about the destruction mechanism features of this alternative therapy. Also, we suggest some mechanisms and strategies from the thermodynamic point of view for this therapy. In the area of Electrochemical treatment of cancer this tool has been exploited very little and much work remains to be done. Electrochemical treatment constitutes a good therapeutic option for patients that have failed the conventional oncology methods. PMID:23592904

  12. Flt3-L gene therapy enhances immunocytokine-mediated antitumor effects and induces long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Neal, Zane C; Sondel, Paul M; Bates, Mary Kay; Gillies, Stephen D; Herweijer, Hans

    2007-11-01

    Therapeutic treatment with hu14.18-IL-2 immunocytokine (IC) or Flt3-L (FL) protein is initially effective at resolving established intradermal NXS2 neuroblastoma tumors in mice. However, many treated animals develop recurrent disease. We previously found that tumors recurring following natural killer (NK) mediated IC treatment show augmented MHC class I expression, while the tumors that recurred following T cell dependent Flt3-L treatment exhibited decreased MHC class I expression. We hypothesized that this divergent MHC modulation on recurrent tumors was due to therapy-specific immunoediting. We further postulated that combining IC and Flt3-L treatments might decrease the likelihood of recurrent disease by preventing MHC modulation as a mechanism for immune escape. We now report that combinatorial treatment of FL plus hu14.18-IL-2 IC provides greater antitumor benefit than treatment with either alone, suppressing development of recurrent disease. We administered FL by gene therapy using a clinically relevant approach: hydrodynamic limb vein (HLV) delivery of DNA for transgene expression by myofibers. Delivery of FL DNA by HLV injection in mice resulted in systemic expression of >10 ng/ml of FL in blood at day 3, and promoted up to a fourfold and tenfold increase in splenic NK and dendritic cells (DCs), respectively. Furthermore, the combination of FL gene therapy plus suboptimal IC treatment induced a greater expansion in the absolute number of splenic NK and DCs than achieved by individual component treatments. Mice that received combined FL gene therapy plus IC exhibited complete and durable resolution of established NXS2 tumors, and demonstrated protection from subsequent rechallenge with NXS2 tumor.

  13. Intratumoral hu14.18-IL-2 (IC) induces local and systemic antitumor effects that involve both activated T and NK cells as well as enhanced IC retention.

    PubMed

    Yang, Richard K; Kalogriopoulos, Nicholas A; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L; Ranheim, Erik A; Seo, Songwon; Kim, Kyungmann; Alderson, Kory L; Gan, Jacek; Reisfeld, Ralph A; Gillies, Stephen D; Hank, Jacquelyn A; Sondel, Paul M

    2012-09-01

    hu14.18-IL-2 (IC) is an immunocytokine consisting of human IL-2 linked to hu14.18 mAb, which recognizes the GD2 disialoganglioside. Phase 2 clinical trials of i.v. hu14.18-IL-2 (i.v.-IC) in neuroblastoma and melanoma are underway and have already demonstrated activity in neuroblastoma. We showed previously that intratumoral hu14.18-IL-2 (IT-IC) results in enhanced antitumor activity in mouse models compared with i.v.-IC. The studies presented in this article were designed to determine the mechanisms involved in this enhanced activity and to support the future clinical testing of intratumoral administration of immunocytokines. Improved survival and inhibition of growth of both local and distant tumors were observed in A/J mice bearing s.c. NXS2 neuroblastomas treated with IT-IC compared with those treated with i.v.-IC or control mice. The local and systemic antitumor effects of IT-IC were inhibited by depletion of NK cells or T cells. IT-IC resulted in increased NKG2D receptors on intratumoral NKG2A/C/E⁺ NKp46⁺ NK cells and NKG2A/C/E⁺ CD8⁺ T cells compared with control mice or mice treated with i.v.-IC. NKG2D levels were augmented more in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes compared with splenocytes, supporting the localized nature of the intratumoral changes induced by IT-IC treatment. Prolonged retention of IC at the tumor site was seen with IT-IC compared with i.v.-IC. Overall, IT-IC resulted in increased numbers of activated T and NK cells within tumors, better IC retention in the tumor, enhanced inhibition of tumor growth, and improved survival compared with i.v.-IC.

  14. Armed Oncolytic Adenovirus-Expressing PD-L1 Mini-Body Enhances Antitumor Effects of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells in Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Kiyonori; Rosewell Shaw, Amanda; Watanabe, Norihiro; Porter, Caroline; Rana, Bhakti; Gottschalk, Stephen; Brenner, Malcolm; Suzuki, Masataka

    2017-04-15

    Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells (CAR T cells) produce proinflammatory cytokines that increase expression of T-cell checkpoint signals such as PD-L1, which may inhibit their functionality against solid tumors. In this study, we evaluated in human tumor xenograft models the proinflammatory properties of an oncolytic adenovirus (Onc.Ad) with a helper-dependent Ad (HDAd) that expresses a PD-L1 blocking mini-antibody (mini-body; HDPDL1) as a strategy to enhance CAR T-cell killing. Coadministration of these agents (CAd-VECPDL1) exhibited oncolytic effects with production of PD-L1 mini-body locally at the tumor site. On their own, HDPDL1 exhibited no antitumor effect and CAd-VECPDL1 alone reduced tumors only to volumes comparable to Onc.Ad treatment. However, combining CAd-VECPDL1 with HER2.CAR T cells enhanced antitumor activity compared with treatment with either HER2.CAR T cells alone or HER2.CAR T cells plus Onc.Ad. The benefits of locally produced PD-L1 mini-body by CAd-VECPDL1 could not be replicated by infusion of anti-PD-L1 IgG plus HER2.CAR T cells and coadministration of Onc.Ad in an HER2(+) prostate cancer xenograft model. Overall, our data document the superiority of local production of PD-L1 mini-body by CAd-VECPDL1 combined with administration of tumor-directed CAR T cells to control the growth of solid tumors. Cancer Res; 77(8); 2040-51. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Endostar enhances the antitumor effects of radiation by affecting energy metabolism and alleviating the tumor microenvironment in a Lewis lung carcinoma mouse model

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, YONG-FA; GE, WEI; XU, HUI-LIN; CAO, DE-DONG; LIU, LIANG; MING, PING-PO; LI, CHANG-HU; XU, XI-MING; TAO, WEI-PING; TAO, ZE-ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have identified that an improvement in treatment efficacy was achieved using Endostar; however, the role of Endostar in lung cancer remains poorly understood. The present study investigated whether the enhanced antitumor effects of Endostar in combination with radiation involved changes in the metabolism and microenvironment in non-small cell lung cancer. A Lewis lung carcinoma mouse model was used, including the control, Endostar (ES), radiotherapy (RT) and Endostar plus radiotherapy (ES + RT) groups. The tumor inhibition rates and growth were described based on changes in tumor volume. In addition, ultraviolet enzymatic analysis was performed to determine the lactate level and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the mRNA expression of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). A Meph-3 pH meter was used to detect the ranges of tumor interstitial tissue pH, and immunohistochemical analysis was adopted to examine hypoxia within the tumor microenvironment. The tumor inhibition rate of the ES + RT group was significantly higher compared with the other three groups (P<0.05). Following treatment, the lactate levels decreased in all three treatment groups compared with the control, particularly in the ES + RT group (P<0.05). Reduced LDH expression and hypoxic fraction in the tumor microenvironment were also observed in the ES + RT group (P<0.05). Furthermore, changes from acidic to alkaline pH in the tumor microenvironment were detected in the ES + RT group. The present study suggested that Endostar is involved in the regulation of metabolism and tumor microenvironment hypoxia, which may be responsible for the enhanced antitumor effect of Endostar in combination with radiotherapy. PMID:26722291

  16. TRAIL mutant membrane penetrating peptide alike-MuR6-TR enhances the antitumor effects of TRAIL in pancreatic carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Chen, Chen; Zhu, Aijing; Huang, Ying; Zhu, Hong; Yi, Cheng

    2017-06-01

    To remedy the drug resistance of natural tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and enhance its antitumor effects, we prepared a type of TRAIL mutant membrane penetrating peptide alike (TMPPA)‑TRAIL mutant R6 (MuR6-TR) by mutating the N‑terminal of the soluble TRAIL gene sequence. The expressed MuR6‑TR protein was purified to treat pancreatic carcinoma cell lines BxPC‑3 and PANC‑1. The inhibitory effects on the proliferation of BxPC‑3 and PANC‑1 cells was assessed with CCK‑8 assay and compared with natural TRAIL. The antitumor effect of MuR6‑TR was assessed on implant tumors derived from PANC‑1 cells in nude mice and compared with gemcitabine. Finally, the soluble MuR6‑TR gene was successfully mutated with 4 amino acids in the N‑terminal of TRAIL and had a molecular size of 513 bp. The mutant MuR6‑TR was connected to pET32a and verified by enzymatic digestion and sequencing. The recombinant MuR6‑TR was transformed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The CCK‑8 assay results indicated that MuR6‑TR inhibited the growth of BxPC‑3 and PANC‑1 cells in a dose‑dependent manner, with IC50 values of 4.63 and 7.84 ng/ml, respectively, which were much lower than that of natural TRAIL. MuR6‑TR demonstrated a higher inhibitory effect on tumor growth (24.2%) than natural TRAIL (14.4%) and an effect similar to that of gemcitabine at an early period. Thus, the mutant MuR6‑TR exhibited a stronger antitumor effect than that of natural TRAIL both in vivo and in vitro and may have potential therapeutic value for pancreatic carcinoma, which requires further validation.

  17. Combination of lactate calcium salt with 5-indanesulfonamide and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid to enhance the antitumor effect on HCT116 cells via intracellular acidification.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Mander, Poonam; Sim, Jae Jun; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2016-03-01

    Maintenance of a neutral intracellular pH (pHi) is favorable for the survival of tumors, and maintenance of highly acidic extracellular pH (pHe) facilitates tumor invasiveness. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor effects of lactate calcium salt (CaLa), 5-indanesulfonamide (IS) and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CA) via pH regulation in colon cancer cells. HCT116 cells were treated with CaLa, IS, CA and combinations of the three. Subsequently, the concentration of intracellular lactate was determined. pHi and pHe were measured using cell lysates and culture media. Colony formation assay, cell viability assay and western blot analysis were additionally performed to analyze the consequences of the pH changes. CaLa, IS, CA and combination treatments induced an increase in the concentration of intracellular lactate. Lactate influx into the tumor microenvironment produced an acidic pHi in colon cancer cells. Consequently, colony formation and cell viability were significantly decreased, as well as poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase degradation. The tumor microenvironment may be exploited therapeutically by disrupting the mechanism that regulates pHi, leading to cell apoptosis. The present study indicated that treatment with CaLa, IS and CA induced intracellular acidification via lactate influx, causing apoptosis of colon cancer cells. Additionally, the findings suggested that the combination of CaLa with IS and CA may enhance antitumor activity, and may provide a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of colon cancer.

  18. Combination of lactate calcium salt with 5-indanesulfonamide and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid to enhance the antitumor effect on HCT116 cells via intracellular acidification

    PubMed Central

    JEONG, KEUN-YEONG; MANDER, POONAM; SIM, JAE JUN; KIM, HWAN MOOK

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of a neutral intracellular pH (pHi) is favorable for the survival of tumors, and maintenance of highly acidic extracellular pH (pHe) facilitates tumor invasiveness. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor effects of lactate calcium salt (CaLa), 5-indanesulfonamide (IS) and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CA) via pH regulation in colon cancer cells. HCT116 cells were treated with CaLa, IS, CA and combinations of the three. Subsequently, the concentration of intracellular lactate was determined. pHi and pHe were measured using cell lysates and culture media. Colony formation assay, cell viability assay and western blot analysis were additionally performed to analyze the consequences of the pH changes. CaLa, IS, CA and combination treatments induced an increase in the concentration of intracellular lactate. Lactate influx into the tumor microenvironment produced an acidic pHi in colon cancer cells. Consequently, colony formation and cell viability were significantly decreased, as well as poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase degradation. The tumor microenvironment may be exploited therapeutically by disrupting the mechanism that regulates pHi, leading to cell apoptosis. The present study indicated that treatment with CaLa, IS and CA induced intracellular acidification via lactate influx, causing apoptosis of colon cancer cells. Additionally, the findings suggested that the combination of CaLa with IS and CA may enhance antitumor activity, and may provide a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:26998091

  19. Low dose angiostatic treatment counteracts radiotherapy-induced tumor perfusion and enhances the anti-tumor effect

    PubMed Central

    Kleibeuker, Esther A.; Fokas, Emmanouil; Allen, Philip D.; Kersemans, Veerle; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Beech, John; Im, Jaehong H.; Smart, Sean C.; Castricum, Kitty C.; van den Berg, Jaap; Schulkens, Iris A.; Hill, Sally A.; Harris, Adrian L.; Slotman, Ben J.; Verheul, Henk M.

    2016-01-01

    The extent of tumor oxygenation is an important factor contributing to the efficacy of radiation therapy (RTx). Interestingly, several preclinical studies have shown benefit of combining RTx with drugs that inhibit tumor blood vessel growth, i.e. angiostatic therapy. Recent findings show that proper scheduling of both treatment modalities allows dose reduction of angiostatic drugs without affecting therapeutic efficacy. We found that whilst low dose sunitinib (20 mg/kg/day) did not affect the growth of xenograft HT29 colon carcinoma tumors in nude mice, the combination with either single dose RTx (1x 5Gy) or fractionated RTx (5x 2Gy/week, up to 3 weeks) substantially hampered tumor growth compared to either RTx treatment alone. To better understand the interaction between RTx and low dose angiostatic therapy, we explored the effects of RTx on tumor angiogenesis and tissue perfusion. DCE-MRI analyses revealed that fractionated RTx resulted in enhanced perfusion after two weeks of treatment. This mainly occurred in the center of the tumor and was accompanied by increased tissue viability and decreased hypoxia. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of the pro-angiogenic growth factors VEGF and PlGF. DCE-MRI and contrast enhanced ultrasonography showed that the increase in perfusion and tissue viability was counteracted by low-dose sunitinib. Overall, these data give insight in the dynamics of tumor perfusion during conventional 2 Gy fractionated RTx and provide a rationale to combine low dose angiostatic drugs with RTx both in the palliative as well as in the curative setting. PMID:27780936

  20. The enhanced inhibitory effect of different antitumor agents in self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems on human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Ujhelyi, Zoltán; Kalantari, Azin; Vecsernyés, Miklós; Róka, Eszter; Fenyvesi, Ferenc; Póka, Róbert; Kozma, Bence; Bácskay, Ildikó

    2015-07-21

    The aim of this study was to develop topical self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing antitumor agents (bleomycin, cisplatin and ifosfamide) and to investigate their inhibitory potential in SMEDDS on human cervical cancer HeLa cells. The physicochemical properties of cytostatic drug loaded SMEDDS were characterized. The cytotoxicity of main components of SMEDDS was also investigated. Their IC50 values were determined. HeLa cells were treated by different concentrations of cisplatin, bleomycin and ifosfamide alone and in various SMEDDS. The inhibitory effect on cell growth was analyzed by MTT cell viability assay. Inflammation is a driving force that accelerates cancer development. The inhibitory effect of these antitumor agents has also been tested on HeLa cells in the presence of inflammatory mediators (IL-1-β, TNF-α) as an in vitro model of inflamed human cervix. Significant differences in the cytotoxicity of cytostatic drugs alone and in SMEDDS have been found in a concentration-dependent manner. The self-micro emulsifying system may potentiate the effectiveness of bleomycin, cisplatin and ifosfamide topically. The effect of SMEDDS containing antitumor agents was decreased significantly in the presence of inflammatory mediators. According to our experiments, the optimal SMEDDS formulation is 1:1:2:6:2 ratios of Isopropyl myristate, Capryol 90, Kolliphor RH 40, Cremophor RH40, Transcutol HP and Labrasol. It can be concluded that SMEDDS may increase the inhibitory effect of bleomycin, ifosfamide and cisplatin on human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Inflammation on HeLa cells hinders the effectiveness of SMEDDS containing antitumor agents. Our results might ensure useful data for development of optimal antitumor formulations.

  1. Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors with Enhanced Enzymatic Inhibition Effects and Potent in vitro and in vivo Anti-tumor Activities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yingjie; Chou, C. James; Inks, Elizabeth S.; Wang, Xuejian; Li, Xiaoguang; Hou, Jinning; Xu, Wenfang

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, a series of small molecules were designed and synthesized based on structural optimization. Significant improvement in the enzymatic inhibition activity of the synthesized compounds was discovered. Moreover, tested compounds have moderate preference for class I HDACs over HDAC6 proved by enzymatic selectivity assay. The in vitro anti-proliferation assay reveals that representative compounds can selectively inhibit the growth of the non-solid lymphomatous cells and leukemic cells such as U937, K562 and HL60 cell lines. In the in vivo anti-tumor assay, molecule D17 showed better performance than SAHA in inhibition of U937 tumor growth. The western blot analysis revealed that representative molecules can block the function of both class I HDACs and HDAC6. More importantly, our western blot results revealed that the levels of some oncogenic proteins (p-Akt in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway, c-Raf and p-Erk in the MAPK signal pathway) were dramatically down-regulated by our compounds in U937 cell line rather than MDA-MB-231 cells. This cellular mechanism difference might be an important reason why U937 cell line was more sensitive to our HDACs inhibitors than MDA-MB-231 cell line. PMID:24227760

  2. Enhancing effect of new biological response modifier sulfoethylated (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan on antitumor activity of cyclophosphamide in the treatment of experimental murine leukoses.

    PubMed

    Khalikova, T A; Korolenko, T A; Zhanaeva, S Ya; Kaledin, V I; Kogan, G

    2006-12-01

    strongest inhibition of tumor growth. It is suggested that this phenomenon is due to the infiltration of the macrophages rich in the named enzymes into the tumor, where they phagocytize the apoptotic cells and tissue debris. Utilization of this polysaccharide BRM, sulfoethylated (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan, might potentially enhance efficiency of antitumor therapy with standard cytostatics without a need of substantial increase of their dosage and hence avoiding their toxic side-effects.

  3. Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition Enhances the Antitumor Effect of Radiation in the Treatment of Squamous Carcinoma Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Cardnell, Robert J. G.; Mikkelsen, Ross B.

    2011-01-01

    This study tests whether the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), combines favorably with ionizing radiation (IR) in controlling squamous carcinoma tumor growth. Animals bearing FaDu and A431 xenografts were treated with L-NNA in the drinking water. IR exposure was 10 Gy for tumor growth and survival studies and 4 Gy for ex vivo clonogenic assays. Cryosections were examined immunohistochemically for markers of apoptosis and hypoxia. Blood flow was assayed by fluorescent microscopy of tissue cryosections after i.v. injection of fluorospheres. Orally administered L-NNA for 24 hrs reduces tumor blood flow by 80% (p<0.01). Within 24 hrs L-NNA treatment stopped tumor growth for at least 10 days before tumor growth again ensued. The growth arrest was in part due to increased cell killing since a combination of L-NNA and a single 4 Gy IR caused 82% tumor cell killing measured by an ex vivo clonogenic assay compared to 49% by L-NNA or 29% by IR alone. A Kaplan-Meyer analysis of animal survival revealed a distinct survival advantage for the combined treatment. Combining L-NNA and IR was also found to be at least as effective as a single i.p. dose of cisplatin plus IR. In contrast to the in vivo studies, exposure of cells to L-NNA in vitro was without effect on clonogenicity with or without IR. Western and immunochemical analysis of expression of a number of proteins involved in NO signaling indicated that L-NNA treatment enhanced arginase-2 expression and that this may represent vasculature remodeling and escape from NOS inhibition. For tumors such as head and neck squamous carcinomas that show only modest responses to inhibitors of specific angiogenic pathways, targeting NO-dependent pro-survival and angiogenic mechanisms in both tumor and supporting stromal cells may present a potential new strategy for tumor control. PMID:21647438

  4. CRISPR knock out CTLA-4 enhances the anti-tumor activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Long; Meng, Tongyu; Zhao, Zhilong; Han, Jinsheng; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Fei; Cai, Jianhui

    2017-09-06

    T cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity plays a pivotal role in cancer immune surveillance. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is a protein receptor mainly expressed in activated T cells and regulatory T cells. CTLA-4 competes with CD28 for ligand binding and generates inhibitory signals to attenuate T cell activation. The blockade of CTLA-4 mediated immune inhibitory checkpoint has been associated with enhanced anti-tumor immunity. In this study, we use CRISPR-Cas9 system to knock out (KO) CTLA-4 from cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and evaluate its effect on the anti-tumor activity of the CTLs. CTLA-4 KO CTLs robustly enhanced tumor cell death by 40% compared to the control and facilitated apoptosis and caspase activities in tumor cells. The knockout of CTLA-4 also increased TNF-α and IFN-γ secretion of the CTLs by approximately 2-fold. The effectiveness of CTLA-4 KO in enhancing anti-tumor activity of the CTLs was verified in vivo using mouse xenograft model. The xenografted mice treated with CTLA-4 KO CTLs demonstrated repressed tumor growth and prolonged survival compared to the control group. Our data suggest that CRISPR targeting CTLA-4 immune checkpoint could significantly improve the anti-tumor activity of CTLs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Adjuvant Activity Enhanced by Cross-Linked CpG-Oligonucleotides in β-Glucan Nanogel and Its Antitumor Effect.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Noriko; Mochizuki, Shinichi; Fujii, Shota; Yoshida, Kenta; Sakurai, Kazuo

    2017-02-15

    Cancer vaccine has the ability to directly eradicate tumor cells by creating and activating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). To achieve efficient CTL activity and to induce Th1 responses, it is essential to administer an appropriate adjuvant as well as an antigen. CpG-ODN is known as a ligand of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and strongly induces Th1 responses. In our previous study, we developed a CpG-ODN delivery system by use of the formation of complexes between ODN and a β-glucan SPG, denoted as CpG/SPG, and demonstrated that CpG/SPG induces high Th1 responses. In this study, we created a nanogel made from CpG/SPG complexes through DNA-DNA hybridization (cross-linked (CL)-CpG). Immunization with CL-CpG induced much stronger antigen-specific Th1 responses in combination with the antigenic protein ovalbumin (OVA) than that with CpG/SPG. Mice preimmunized with CL-CpG and OVA exhibited a long delay in tumor growth and an improved survival rate after tumor inoculation. These immune inductions can be attributed to the improvement of cellular uptake by the combination of increased size and the cluster effect of the β-glucan recognition site in the nanogel structure. In other words, the particle nature of CL-CpG, instead of the semiflexible rod conformation of CpG/SPG, enhanced the efficacy of a cancer vaccine. The present results indicate that CL-CpG can be used as a potent vaccine adjuvant for the treatment of cancers and infectious diseases.

  6. PPARγ-Independent Antitumor Effects of Thiazolidinediones

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shuo; Yang, Jian; Lee, Su-Lin; Kulp, Samuel K.; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2009-01-01

    The thiazolidinedione (TZD) family of PPARγ agonists, especially troglitazone and ciglitazone, induce cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in cancer cells. Mounting evidence indicates that TZDs interfere with multiple signaling mechanisms independently of PPARγactivation, which affect many aspects of cellular functions governing cell cycle progression and survival of cancer cells. Here, we review the “off-target” mechanisms that underlie the antitumor effects of TZDs with emphasis on three key pathways, namely, inhibition of Bcl-2/Bcl-xL function, proteasomal degradation of cell cycle- and apoptosis-regulatory proteins, and transcriptional repression of androgen receptor (AR) through Sp1 degradation. Relative to tumor cells, nonmalignant cells are resistant to these PPARγ-independent antitumor effects, which underscores the translational potential of these agents. Furthermore, dissociation of these antitumor effects from their PPARγ agonist activity provides a rationale for using TZDs as scaffolds for lead optimization to develop a novel class of antitumor agents with a unique mode of mechanism. PMID:18790559

  7. Treatment of tumors with vitamin E suppresses myeloid derived suppressor cells and enhances CD8+ T cell-mediated antitumor effects.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae Heung; Knoff, Jayne; Yeh, Wei-Hsi; Yang, Benjamin; Wang, Chenguang; Kim, Young Seob; Kim, Tae Woo; Wu, Tzyy-Choou; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin E has been shown to have strong anticarcinogenic properties, including antioxidant characteristics, making it an ideal candidate for use in combination with immunotherapies that modify the tumor microenvironment. The tumor microenvironment contains immunosuppressive components, which can be diminished, and immunogenic components, which can be augmented by immunotherapies in order to generate a productive immune response. In the current study, we employ the α-tocopherol succinate isomer of vitamin E to reduce immunosuppression by myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) as well as adoptive transfer of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells to generate potent antitumor effects against the HPV16 E7-expressing TC-1 tumor model. We show that vitamin E alone induces necrosis of TC-1 cells and elicits antitumor effects in TC-1 tumor-bearing mice. We further demonstrate that vitamin E reverses the suppression of T cell activation by MDSCs and that this effect is mediated in part by a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. Additionally, treatment with vitamin E reduces the percentage of MDSCs in tumor loci, and induces a higher percentage of T cells, following T cell adoptive transfer. Finally, we demonstrate that treatment with vitamin E followed by E7-specific T cell adoptive transfer experience elicits potent antitumor effects in tumor-bearing mice. Our data provide additional evidence that vitamin E has anticancer properties and that it has promise for use as an adjuvant in combination with a variety of cancer therapies.

  8. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene delivery enhances antitumor effects of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system in a model of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Kagaya, T; Nakamoto, Y; Sakai, Y; Tsuchiyama, T; Yagita, H; Mukaida, N; Kaneko, S

    2006-04-01

    Suicide gene therapy using the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV-tk/GCV) system is a well-characterized tool for cancer gene therapy; however, it does not yet exhibit sufficient efficacy to cure patients of malignancies. We have reported that adenovirally delivered monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 augmented the antitumor effects of the HSV-tk/GCV system in an athymic nude mouse model. The current study, which uses an immunocompetent mouse model of colon cancer, was designed to evaluate the antitumor effects of MCP-1 gene delivery in conjunction with this suicide gene therapy system. Subcutaneous tumor foci were directly transduced with both recombinant adenoviruses (rAds) expressing an HSV-tk gene and either of the MCP-1, CD80 and LacZ genes, followed by GCV administration. The growth of tumors was markedly suppressed by codelivery of HSV-tk and MCP-1 genes, which was exclusively associated with the recruitment of monocytes/macrophages, T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine gene expression and cytotoxic activity of the splenocytes. Furthermore, the antitumor effects were more efficient than that obtained by the combination of HSV-tk and CD80 genes. These results suggest an immunomodulatory effect of MCP-1 in the context of suicide gene therapy of colon cancer via orchestration of innate and acquired immune responses.

  9. β-Carotene synergistically enhances the anti-tumor effect of 5-fluorouracil on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanting; Zhu, Xiangzhan; Huang, Tuanjie; Chen, Lei; Liu, Yanxia; Li, Qinghua; Song, Jishi; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Kun; Yang, Bo; Guan, Fangxia

    2016-11-02

    Recently, we reported that β-carotene exhibited anticancer activity against human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro. In the present study, we examined a novel therapeutic strategy by combining β-carotene with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in human esophageal cancer in vitro and in vivo, and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. We found that the combination of 5-FU and β-carotene displayed greater growth inhibitory effects than did either compound alone in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. In addition, the combination of 5-FU and β-carotene displayed greater tumor growth inhibition in an Eca109 xenograft mouse model than did a single agent with low systemic toxicity. β-Carotene enhanced 5-FU-induced apoptosis. TUNEL staining revealed that the rate of TUNEL-positive cells was markedly increased in tumor tissues after treatment with 5-FU and β-carotene. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed the down-regulation of Bcl-2 and PCNA and the up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 in tumor tissues. Further studies demonstrated that the combined administration of 5-FU and β-carotene significantly down-regulated the protein levels of Cav-1, p-AKT, p-NF-κB, p-mTOR and p-p70S6K in Eca109 cells more effectively than did 5-FU alone. These data suggested that the combined therapy of 5-FU and β-carotene exerted synergistic antitumor effects in vivo and in vitro and could constitute a novel therapeutic treatment for ESCC.

  10. Magnetic poly epsilon-caprolactone nanoparticles containing Fe3O4 and gemcitabine enhance anti-tumor effect in pancreatic cancer xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Gang, Jingu; Park, Seong-Bae; Hyung, Woochan; Choi, Eric H; Wen, Jing; Kim, Han-Soo; Shul, Young-Gun; Haam, Seungjoo; Song, Si Young

    2007-07-01

    We prepared magnetic (Fe(3)O(4)) poly epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles (mean diameter 164 +/- 3 nm) containing an anticancer drug (gemcitabine) using emulsion-diffusion method in order to develop more efficient drug delivery for cancer treatment. Nanoparticles were smooth, well individualized and homogeneous in size. The values of magnetizations for the magnetic PCL nanoparticles were observed around 10.2 emu/g at 2000 Oe magnetic field intensity and showed super-paramagnetic property. In case of the drug, the drug loading contents was 18.6% and entrapment efficiency was 52.2%. The anti-tumor effects caused by these particles were examined using nude mice bearing subcutaneous human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells (HPAC) in vivo. We divided that these mice were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups for experimental contrast. The antitumor effect was showed with 15-fold higher dose when compared to free gemcitabine. From the result, the magnetic PCL nanoparticles may provide a therapeutic benefit by delivering drugs efficiently to magnetically targeted tumor tissues, thus achieving safe and successful anti-tumor effects with low toxicity.

  11. Neoadjuvant anti-tumor vaccination prior to surgery enhances survival.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Scott A; Cleaver, Amanda; Lakhiani, Devina D; Khong, Andrea; Connor, Theresa; Wylie, Ben; Lesterhuis, W Joost; Robinson, Bruce W S; Lake, Richard A

    2014-09-04

    This study was conducted to determine if anti-tumor vaccination administered prior to partial debulking surgery could improve survival using a murine solid tumour model. Tumor incidence and survival rates were compared in mice bearing subcutaneous AB1-HA mesothelioma tumors that received either sham surgery, debulking surgery or vaccination prior to debulking surgery. Additionally, mice were depleted of CD4 and/or CD8 T lymphocytes during vaccination to assess their involvement in vaccine induced anti-tumor immunity. Flow cytometry was performed to characterise changes in the proportion and activation status of immune cells associated with anti-tumor immunity. Neoadjuvant vaccination combined with debulking surgery resulted in decreased tumor burden, increased survival and generation of tumor-specific immunity compared to surgery alone. Depletion of CD8 T cells completely abrogated any vaccine induced anti-tumor immune response. Conversely, CD4 depletion enhanced CD8 T cell activation resulting in complete tumor regression in 70% of mice treated with combined surgery and vaccination therapy. Tumor free survival was associated with established immunological memory as defined by the induction of effector memory T cells and resistance to rechallenge with parental AB1 mesothelioma cells. Neoadjuvant anti-cancer vaccination combined with partial debulking surgery induced CD8-dependent anti-tumor immunity that significantly delayed tumor outgrowth relative to surgery alone. Complete tumor eradication was observed when vaccination and surgery were performed in CD4 T cell depleted animals. This demonstrates that adjuvant immunotherapy can improve post-surgical survival following cancer debulking surgery and provides a scientific rational for clinical trials of such an approach.

  12. Improved in vivo anti-tumor effects of IgA-Her2 antibodies through half-life extension and serum exposure enhancement by FcRn targeting.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Saskia; Nederend, Maaike; Jansen, J H Marco; Reiding, Karli R; Jacobino, Shamir R; Meeldijk, Jan; Bovenschen, Niels; Wuhrer, Manfred; Valerius, Thomas; Ubink, Ruud; Boross, Peter; Rouwendal, Gerard; Leusen, Jeanette H W

    2016-01-01

    Antibody therapy is a validated treatment approach for several malignancies. All currently clinically applied therapeutic antibodies (Abs) are of the IgG isotype. However, not all patients respond to this therapy and relapses can occur. IgA represents an alternative isotype for antibody therapy that engages FcαRI expressing myeloid effector cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes. IgA Abs have been shown to effectively kill tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, due to the short half-life of IgA Abs in mice, daily injections are required to reach an effect comparable to IgG Abs. The relatively long half-life of IgG Abs and serum albumin arises from their capability of interacting with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). As IgA Abs lack a binding site for FcRn, we generated IgA Abs with the variable regions of the Her2-specific Ab trastuzumab and attached an albumin-binding domain (ABD) to the heavy or light chain (HCABD/LCABD) to extend their serum half-life. These modified Abs were able to bind albumin from different species in vitro. Furthermore, tumor cell lysis of IgA-Her2-LCABD Abs in vitro was similar to unmodified IgA-Her2 Abs. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice revealed that the serum exposure and half-life of the modified IgA-Her2 Abs was extended. In a xenograft mouse model, the modified IgA1 Abs exhibited a slightly, but significantly, improved anti-tumor response compared to the unmodified Ab. In conclusion, empowering IgA Abs with albumin-binding capacity results in in vitro and in vivo functional Abs with an enhanced exposure and prolonged half-life.

  13. Enhancing the antitumor cell proliferation and Cu(2+)-chelating effects of black soybeans through fermentation with Aspergillus awamori.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Fei; Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chou, Cheng-Chun; Lo, Yi-Chen

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, black soybeans were fermented with Aspergillus awamori at 30°C for 3 days. The effect of fermentation on the antiproliferative effect against human colon cancer cells, Caco-2 and HT-29 as well as Cu(2+)-chelating effect of black soybeans was investigated. It was found that the water, 80% methanol or 80% ethanol extract of fermented black soybeans showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) antiproliferative and Cu(2+)-chelating effect than did the respective extract of non-fermented black soybeans. Generally, the methanol extract and the ethanol extract of fermented black soybeans exerted higher antiproliferative effect on both Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. While water extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest Cu(2+)-chelating effect among the various extracts examined. Taking into account of extraction yields further revealed that bioactive principles that exhibit Cu(2+)-chelating effect could be extracted to the largest extent with water as the extraction solvent. With same amount of sample, water extract obtained from fermented black soybeans possesses the highest Cu(2+)-chelating abilities. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antitumor effects of nano-bubble hydrogen-dissolved water are enhanced by coexistent platinum colloid and the combined hyperthermia with apoptosis-like cell death.

    PubMed

    Asada, Ryoko; Kageyama, Katsuhiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Matsui, Hisakazu; Kimura, Masatsugu; Saitoh, Yasukazu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2010-12-01

    In order to erase reactive oxygen species (ROS) related with the proliferation of tumor cells by reducing activity of hydrogen, we developed functional water containing nano-bubbles (diameters: <900 nm for 71%/population) hydrogen of 1.1-1.5 ppm (the theoretical maximum: 1.6 ppm) with a reducing ability (an oxidation-reduction potential -650 mV, normal water: +100-200 mV) using a microporous-filter hydrogen-jetting device. We showed that hydrogen water erased ROS indispensable for tumor cell growth by ESR/spin trap, the redox indicator CDCFH-DA assay, and was cytotoxic to Ehrlich ascites tumor cells as assessed by WST-8 assay, crystal violet dye stain and scanning electron microscopy, after 24-h or 48-h incubation sequent to warming at 37°C or 42°C. Hydrogen water supplemented with platinum colloid (0.3 ppm Pt in 4% polyvinylpyrrolidone) had more antitumor activity than hydrogen water alone, mineral water alone (15.6%), hydrogen water plus mineral water, or platinum colloid alone as observed by decreased cell numbers, cell shrinkage and pycnosis (nuclear condensation)/karyorrhexis (nuclear fragmentation) indicative of apoptosis, together with cell deformation and disappearance of microvilli on the membrane surface. These antitumor effects were promoted by combination with hyperthermia at 42°C. Thus, the nano-bubble hydrogen water with platinum colloid is potent as an anti-tumor agent.

  15. Biodegradable Hollow Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Regulating Tumor Microenvironment and Enhancing Antitumor Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kong, Miao; Tang, Jiamin; Qiao, Qi; Wu, Tingting; Qi, Yan; Tan, Songwei; Gao, Xueqin; Zhang, Zhiping

    2017-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that regulating tumor microenvironment plays a vital role in improving antitumor efficiency. Herein, to remodel tumor immune microenvironment and elicit synergistic antitumor effects, lipid-coated biodegradable hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticle (dHMLB) was constructed with co-encapsulation of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), doxorubicin (DOX) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) for chemo-immunotherapy. The nanoparticle-mediated combinational therapy provided a benign regulation on tumor microenvironment through activation of tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, promotion of cytokines secretion of IFN-γ and IL-12, and down-regulation of immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells, cytokine IL-10 and TGF-β. ATRA/DOX/IL-2 co-loaded dHMLB demonstrated significant tumor growth and metastasis inhibition, and also exhibited favorable biodegradability and safety. This nanoplatform has great potential in developing a feasible strategy to remodel tumor immune microenvironment and achieve enhanced antitumor effect.

  16. Metformin enhances anti-tumor effect of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Seiji; Kimura, Toru; Yamaga, Takashi; Kawada, Akihiko; Ochiai, Toshiaki; Endou, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    In many cancer cells, L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) transports neutral amino acids with bulky side chain, which activate mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) to cause cell proliferation. An anti-diabetic drug, metformin, has been shown to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which leads to inhibition of mTOR. LAT1 inhibition in combination with metformin could result in more prominent suppression of mTOR activity. Anti-proliferative effect of a newly developed LAT1 specific inhibitor JPH203 in combination with metformin is evaluated in 2 head and neck cancer cell lines, Ca9-22 and HEp-2 cells and in nude mice inoculated with Ca9-22 cells. By MTT assay, 0.5 mM metformin inhibited proliferation of Ca9-22 cells to 70% of control. In the presence of 100 μM JPH203, proliferation of Ca9-22 cells was inhibited to 60% of control. By combining these 2 drugs, proliferation of Ca9-22 was significantly inhibited to 40% of control. However, this regimen was not very effective against HEp-2 cells. This combination also suppressed in vivo growth of Ca9-22 cells in a xenotransplant model. A combination of anti-LAT1 drug with metformin may be an effective anti-proliferative therapy for certain subsets of cancers. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Eltrombopag antitumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    KUROKAWA, TOMOHIRO; MURATA, SOICHIRO; ZHENG, YUN-WEN; IWASAKI, KENICHI; KOHNO, KEISUKE; FUKUNAGA, KIYOSHI; OHKOHCHI, NOBUHIRO

    2015-01-01

    Currently, sorafenib is the only available chemotherapeutic agent for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but it cannot be used in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) or thrombocytopenia. In these cases, sorafenib is likely effective if given in combination with treatments that increase the number of platelets, such as thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonists. Increasing the platelet count via TPO treatment resulted in reduction of LC. Eltrombopag (EP), a TPO receptor agonist, has been reported to have antitumor effects against certain cancers, despite their lack of TPO receptor expression. We hypothesized that EP may possess antitumor activity against HCC in addition to its ability to suppress hepatic fibrosis by increasing the platelet count. In the present study, the antitumor activity of EP was examined by assessing the inhibition of cell proliferation and then ascertaining the ability of iron supplementation to reverse these effects in HepG2, Hep3B and Huh7 cells. In addition, a cell cycle assay was performed using flow cytometry, and signal transduction was evaluated by analyzing cell cycle-related protein expression. The results of EP were compared with those of the most common iron chelator, deferoxamine (DFO). The combined effect of EP and sorafenib was also assessed. The results revealed that EP exerts antitumor activity in HCC that is mediated by the modulation of intracellular iron content. EP suppressed the expression of the cell cycle-related protein cyclin D1 and elicited cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The activity of EP was comparable to that of DFO in HCC, and EP did not compete with sorafenib at low concentrations. In conclusion, our findings suggest that EP is a good candidate chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of HCC in patients with LC and thrombocytopenia. PMID:26397763

  18. Targeting histone deacetylase 6 mediates a dual anti-melanoma effect: Enhanced antitumor immunity and impaired cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Villaroel, P.; Lee, C.; Cheng, F.; Knox, T.; Woods, D.M.; Barrios, K.; Powers, J.; Sahakian, E.; Wang, H.W.; Canales, J.; Marante, D.; Smalley, K.S.M.; Bergman, J.; Seto, E.; Kozikowski, A.; Pinilla-Ibarz, J.; Sarnaik, A.; Celis, E.; Weber, J.; Sotomayor, E.M.; Villagra, A.

    2015-01-01

    The median survival for metastatic melanoma is in the realm of 8–16 months and there are few therapies that offer significant improvement in overall survival. One of the recent advances in cancer treatment focuses on epigenetic modifiers to alter the survivability and immunogenicity of cancer cells. Our group and others have previously demonstrated that pan-HDAC inhibitors induce apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and changes in the immunogenicity of melanoma cells. Here we interrogated specific HDACs which may be responsible for this effect. We found that both genetic abrogation and pharmacologic inhibition of HDAC6 decreases in vitro proliferation and induces G1 arrest of melanoma cell lines without inducing apoptosis. Moreover, targeting this molecule led to an important upregulation in the expression of tumor associated antigens and MHC class I, suggesting a potential improvement in the immunogenicity of these cells. Of note, this anti-melanoma activity was operative regardless of mutational status of the cells. These effects translated into a pronounced delay of in vivo melanoma tumor growth which was, at least in part, dependent on intact immunity as evidenced by the restoration of tumor growth after CD4+ and CD8+ depletion. Given our findings, we provide the initial rationale for the further development of selective HDAC6 inhibitors as potential therapeutic anti-melanoma agents. PMID:25957812

  19. Enhanced antitumor effect of combining TRAIL and MnSOD mediated by CEA-controlled oncolytic adenovirus in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Ma, B; Xiao, B; Huang, F; Huang, P; Ying, C; Liu, T; Wang, Y

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a superb non-small-cell lung cancer marker candidate, showed a beneficial effect in cancer therapy with oncolytic adenovirus in recent studies. Cancer-targeting dual gene-virotherapy delivers two therapeutic genes, linked by a connexon, in the replication-deficient vector instead of one gene so that they can work in common. In this study, we constructed a tumor-specific oncolytic adenovirus, CD55-TRAIL-IETD-MnSOD. The virus has the fusion protein complementary DNAs for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and for manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) complementary DNA linked through a 4-amino acid caspase-8 cleavage site (IETD), and uses a CEA promoter to control virus E1A express. This is the first work to use a CEA promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus carrying two therapeutic genes for cancer research. Its targeting and anticancer capacity was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The results indicated that CD55-TRAIL-IETD-MnSOD caused more cell apoptosis than CD55-TRAIL or CD55-MnSOD alone, or their combination in vitro, with low cytotoxicity of normal cells. In the A549 tumor xenograft model in nude mice, data showed that CD55-TRAIL-IETD-MnSOD could effectively suppress tumor growth than single gene groups, with no histological damage in liver, spleen or kidney tissues. Thus, the CEA-regulated dual-gene oncolytic virus CD55-TRAIL-IETD-MnSOD may be a novel potential therapy for lung cancer.

  20. Enhanced antitumor effects by docetaxel/LL37-loaded thermosensitive hydrogel nanoparticles in peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rangrang; Tong, Aiping; Li, Xiaoling; Gao, Xiang; Mei, Lan; Zhou, Liangxue; Zhang, Xiaoning; You, Chao; Guo, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Intraperitoneal chemotherapy was explored in clinical trials as a promising strategy to improve the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. In this work, we developed a biodegradable and injectable drug-delivery system by coencapsulation of docetaxel (Doc) and LL37 peptide polymeric nanoparticles (Doc+LL37 NPs) in a thermosensitive hydrogel system for colorectal peritoneal carcinoma therapy. Firstly, polylactic acid (PLA)-Pluronic L35-PLA (PLA-L35-PLA) was explored to prepare the biodegradable Doc+LL37 NPs using a water-in-oil-in-water double-emulsion solvent-evaporation method. Then, biodegradable and injectable thermosensitive PLA-L64-PLA hydrogel with lower sol–gel transition temperature at around body temperature was also prepared. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the Doc+LL37 NPs formed with the PLA-L35-PLA copolymer were spherical. Fourier-transform infrared spectra certified that Doc and LL37 were encapsulated successfully. X-ray diffraction diagrams indicated that Doc was encapsulated amorphously. Intraperitoneal administration of Doc+LL37 NPs–hydrogel significantly suppressed the growth of HCT116 peritoneal carcinomatosis in vivo and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our results suggested that Doc+LL37 NPs–hydrogel may have potential clinical applications. PMID:26664119

  1. Enhanced antitumor effects by docetaxel/LL37-loaded thermosensitive hydrogel nanoparticles in peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rangrang; Tong, Aiping; Li, Xiaoling; Gao, Xiang; Mei, Lan; Zhou, Liangxue; Zhang, Xiaoning; You, Chao; Guo, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Intraperitoneal chemotherapy was explored in clinical trials as a promising strategy to improve the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. In this work, we developed a biodegradable and injectable drug-delivery system by coencapsulation of docetaxel (Doc) and LL37 peptide polymeric nanoparticles (Doc+LL37 NPs) in a thermosensitive hydrogel system for colorectal peritoneal carcinoma therapy. Firstly, polylactic acid (PLA)-Pluronic L35-PLA (PLA-L35-PLA) was explored to prepare the biodegradable Doc+LL37 NPs using a water-in-oil-in-water double-emulsion solvent-evaporation method. Then, biodegradable and injectable thermosensitive PLA-L64-PLA hydrogel with lower sol-gel transition temperature at around body temperature was also prepared. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the Doc+LL37 NPs formed with the PLA-L35-PLA copolymer were spherical. Fourier-transform infrared spectra certified that Doc and LL37 were encapsulated successfully. X-ray diffraction diagrams indicated that Doc was encapsulated amorphously. Intraperitoneal administration of Doc+LL37 NPs-hydrogel significantly suppressed the growth of HCT116 peritoneal carcinomatosis in vivo and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our results suggested that Doc+LL37 NPs-hydrogel may have potential clinical applications.

  2. The Antitumor Effect of Singlet Oxygen.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Georg

    2016-11-01

    Tumor cells are protected against intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling through expression of membrane-associated catalase and superoxide dismutase. Exogenous singlet oxygen derived from activated photosensitizers or from cold atmospheric plasma causes local inactivation of protective catalase which is followed by the generation of secondary extracellular singlet oxygen. This process is specific for tumor cells and is driven by a complex interaction between H2O2 and peroxynitrite. Secondary singlet oxygen has the potential for autoamplification of its generation, resulting in optimal inactivation of protective catalase and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling. An increase in the endogenous NO concentration also causes inactivation of catalase and autoamplificatory generation of secondary singlet oxygen. This principle is essential for the antitumor activity of secondary plant products, such as cyanidins and other inhibitors of NO dioxygenase. It seems that the action of the established chemotherapeutic taxol and the recently established antitumor effect of certain azoles are based on the same principles.

  3. Enhanced antitumor effects of an engineered measles virus Edmonston strain expressing the wild-type N, P, L genes on human renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xin; Nakamura, Takafumi; Okazaki, Toshihiko; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shohei; Sakaguchi, Gaku; Eto, Masatoshi; Naito, Seiji; Takeda, Makoto; Yanagi, Yusuke; Tani, Kenzaburo

    2010-03-01

    Measles virus Edmonston strain (MV-Edm) is thought to have remarkable oncolytic activity that selectively destroys human tumor cells. The P/V/C protein of wild-type MV was shown to resist the antiviral effects of interferon (IFN)-alpha. Here, we engineered new MVs by arming MV-Edm tag strain (a V-defective vaccine-lineage strain, MV-Etag) with the P or N, P, and L genes of wild-type MV (MV-P and MV-NPL, respectively). The oncolytic activities of the MVs were determined in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines and primary human RCC cells by the MTT assay. The antitumor efficacy of the MVs was evaluated in A-498 xenografts in nude mice. IFN-alpha effectively inhibited the replication of MV-Etag and MV-P, but not MV-NPL. MV-NPL more efficiently induced cytopathic effects (CPEs) in OS-RC-2 cells, even in the presence of human IFN-alpha. MV-NPL replicated more rapidly than MV-P and MV-Etag in A-498 cells. Apoptosis was induced earlier in A-498 cells by MV-NPL than MV-Etag and MV-P. MV-NPL showed more significant antitumoral effects and had prolonged replication compared to MV-Etag and MV-P. In this study, we demonstrated that the newly engineered MV-NPL has more effective oncolytic activity and may help establish an innovative cancer therapy.

  4. Requirements for effective antitumor responses of TCR transduced T cells.

    PubMed

    de Witte, Moniek A; Jorritsma, Annelies; Kaiser, Andrew; van den Boom, Marly D; Dokter, Maarten; Bendle, Gavin M; Haanen, John B A G; Schumacher, Ton N M

    2008-10-01

    Adoptive transfer of TCR gene-modified T cells has been proposed as an attractive approach to target tumors for which it is difficult or impossible to induce strong tumor-specific T cell responses by vaccination. Whereas the feasibility of generating tumor Ag-specific T cells by gene transfer has been demonstrated, the factors that determine the in vivo effectiveness of TCR-modified T cells are largely unknown. We have analyzed the value of a number of clinically feasible strategies to enhance the antitumor potential of TCR modified T cells. These experiments reveal three factors that contribute greatly to the in vivo potency of TCR-modified T cells. First, irradiation-induced host conditioning is superior to vaccine-induced activation of genetically modified T cells. Second, increasing TCR expression through genetic optimization of TCR sequences has a profound effect on in vivo antitumor activity. Third, a high precursor frequency of TCR modified T cells within the graft is essential. Tumors that ultimately progress in animals treated with this optimized regimen for TCR-based adoptive cell transfer invariably display a reduced expression of the target Ag. This suggests TCR gene therapy can achieve a sufficiently strong selective pressure to warrant the simultaneous targeting of multiple Ags. The strategies outlined in this study should be of value to enhance the antitumor activity of TCR-modified T cells in clinical trials.

  5. Ginsenoside Rh2 enhances the antitumor immunological response of a melanoma mice model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Yan, Shi-Ju; Zhang, Hong-Tao; Li, Nan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Ying-Long ; Li, Xiao-Xiang; Ma, Qiong; Qiu, Xiu-Chun; Fan, Qing-Yu; Ma, Bao-An

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of malignant tumors following surgery is important in preventing relapse. Among all the post-surgery treatments, immunomodulators have demonstrated satisfactory effects on preventing recurrence according to recent studies. Ginsenoside is a compound isolated from panax ginseng, which is a famous traditional Chinese medicine. Ginsenoside aids in killing tumor cells through numerous processes, including the antitumor processes of ginsenoside Rh2 and Rg1, and also affects the inflammatory processes of the immune system. However, the role that ginsenoside serves in antitumor immunological activity remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study aimed to analyze the effect of ginsenoside Rh2 on the antitumor immunological response. With a melanoma mice model, ginsenoside Rh2 was demonstrated to inhibit tumor growth and improved the survival time of the mice. Ginsenoside Rh2 enhanced T-lymphocyte infiltration in the tumor and triggered cytotoxicity in spleen lymphocytes. In addition, the immunological response triggered by ginsenoside Rh2 could be transferred to other mice. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that ginsenoside Rh2 treatment enhanced the antitumor immunological response, which may be a potential therapy for melanoma. PMID:28356946

  6. Advanced research on anti-tumor effects of amygdalin.

    PubMed

    Song, Zuoqing; Xu, Xiaohong

    2014-08-01

    Malignant tumors are the major disease that cause serious damage to human health, and have been listed as the premier diseases which seriously threatened human health by World Health Organization (WHO). In recent years the development of antitumor drugs has been gradually transformed from cytotoxic drugs to improving the selectivity of drugs, overcoming multidrug resistance, development of new targeted drugs and low toxicity with high specificity drugs. Amygdalin is a natural product that owns antitumor activity, less side effects, widely sourced and relatively low priced. All these features make the amygdalin a promising antitumor drugs, if combined with conditional chemotherapy drugs, which can produce synergistic effect. In this paper, we summarized the pharmacological activity, toxicity and antitumor activity of amygdalin, mainly focused on the advanced research of amygdalin on its antitumor effects in recent years, providing new insights for the development of new anticancer drugs, new targets searching and natural antitumor mechanism investigations.

  7. Enhanced antitumor activity of doxorubicin in breast cancer through the use of poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, Laura; Ortiz, Raúl; Arias, José L; Prados, Jose; Ruiz Martínez, Maria Adolfina; Entrena, José M; Luque, Raquel; Melguizo, Consolación

    2015-01-01

    The use of doxorubicin (DOX), one of the most effective antitumor molecules in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, is limited by its low tumor selectivity and its severe side effects. Colloidal carriers based on biodegradable poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles (PBCA NPs) may enhance DOX antitumor activity against breast cancer cells, thus allowing a reduction of the effective dose required for antitumor activity and consequently the level of associated toxicity. DOX loading onto PBCA NPs was investigated in this work via both drug entrapment and surface adsorption. Cytotoxicity assays with DOX-loaded NPs were performed in vitro using breast tumor cell lines (MCF-7 human and E0771 mouse cancer cells), and in vivo evaluating antitumor activity in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. The entrapment method yielded greater drug loading values and a controlled drug release profile. Neither in vitro nor in vivo cytotoxicity was observed for blank NPs. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of DOX-loaded PBCA NPs was significantly lower for MCF-7 and E0771 cancer cells (4 and 15 times, respectively) compared with free DOX. Furthermore, DOX-loaded PBCA NPs produced a tumor growth inhibition that was 40% greater than that observed with free DOX, thus reducing DOX toxicity during treatment. These results suggest that DOX-loaded PBCA NPs have great potential for improving the efficacy of DOX therapy against advanced breast cancers.

  8. Enhanced antitumor activity of doxorubicin in breast cancer through the use of poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cabeza, Laura; Ortiz, Raúl; Arias, José L; Prados, Jose; Ruiz Martínez, Maria Adolfina; Entrena, José M; Luque, Raquel; Melguizo, Consolación

    2015-01-01

    The use of doxorubicin (DOX), one of the most effective antitumor molecules in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, is limited by its low tumor selectivity and its severe side effects. Colloidal carriers based on biodegradable poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles (PBCA NPs) may enhance DOX antitumor activity against breast cancer cells, thus allowing a reduction of the effective dose required for antitumor activity and consequently the level of associated toxicity. DOX loading onto PBCA NPs was investigated in this work via both drug entrapment and surface adsorption. Cytotoxicity assays with DOX-loaded NPs were performed in vitro using breast tumor cell lines (MCF-7 human and E0771 mouse cancer cells), and in vivo evaluating antitumor activity in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. The entrapment method yielded greater drug loading values and a controlled drug release profile. Neither in vitro nor in vivo cytotoxicity was observed for blank NPs. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of DOX-loaded PBCA NPs was significantly lower for MCF-7 and E0771 cancer cells (4 and 15 times, respectively) compared with free DOX. Furthermore, DOX-loaded PBCA NPs produced a tumor growth inhibition that was 40% greater than that observed with free DOX, thus reducing DOX toxicity during treatment. These results suggest that DOX-loaded PBCA NPs have great potential for improving the efficacy of DOX therapy against advanced breast cancers. PMID:25709449

  9. Signaling through OX40 Enhances Anti-tumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Shawn M.; Maston, Levi D.; Gough, Michael J.; Ruby, Carl E.; Redmond, William L.; Crittenden, Marka; Li, Yuhuan; Puri, Sachin; Poehlein, Christian H.; Morris, Nick; Kovacsovics-Bankowski, Magdalena; Moudgil, Tarsem; Twitty, Chris; Walker, Edwin B.; Hu, Hong-Ming; Urba, Walter J.; Weinberg, Andrew D.; Curti, Brendan D; Fox, Bernard A.

    2010-01-01

    The existence of tumor-specific T cells, as well as their ability to be primed in cancer patients confirms that the immune response can be deployed to combat cancer. However, there are obstacles that must be overcome to convert the ineffective immune response commonly found in the tumor environment to one that leads to sustained destruction of tumor. Members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily direct diverse immune functions. OX40 and its ligand, OX40L, are key TNF members that augment T-cell expansion, cytokine production, and survival. OX40 signaling also controls regulatory T cell differentiation and suppressive function. Studies over the past decade have demonstrated that OX40 agonists enhance anti-tumor immunity in preclinical models using immunogenic tumors; however, treatment of poorly immunogenic tumors has been less successful. Combining strategies that prime tumor-specific T cells together with OX40 signaling could generate and maintain a therapeutic anti-tumor immune response. PMID:21074068

  10. Cisplatin pretreatment enhances anti-tumor activity of cytokine-induced killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiang; Chen, Yi-Tian; Song, Hai-Zhu; Huang, Gui-Chun; Chen, Long-Bang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether cisplatin (DDP) enhances the anti-tumor activity of cytokine- induced killer (CIK) cells in a murine colon adenocarcinoma model. METHODS: Tumor size and weight served as indicators of therapeutic response. Immunohistochemistry was performed to observe intratumoral lymphocyte infiltration and tumor microvessel density. Changes in the percentage of regulatory T (Treg) cells within the spleens of tumor-bearing mice preconditioned with DDP were monitored using flow cytometry. RESULTS: A marked T cell-dependent, synergistic anti-tumor effect of the combined therapy was observed (1968 ± 491 mm3 vs 3872 ± 216 mm3; P = 0.003). Preconditioning chemotherapy with DDP augmented the infiltration of CD3+ T lymphocytes into the tumor mass and reduced the percentage of both intratumoral and splenic Treg cells. CONCLUSION: Preconditioning with DDP markedly enhances the efficacy of adoptively transferred CIK cells, providing a potential clinical modality for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:21799646

  11. FASN Inhibition and Taxane Treatment Combine to Enhance Anti-tumor Efficacy in Diverse Xenograft Tumor Models through Disruption of Tubulin Palmitoylation and Microtubule Organization and FASN Inhibition-Mediated Effects on Oncogenic Signaling and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Timothy S; Ventura, Richard; Mordec, Kasia; Lai, Julie; Fridlib, Marina; Buckley, Douglas; Kemble, George

    2017-02-01

    Palmitate, the enzymatic product of FASN, and palmitate-derived lipids support cell metabolism, membrane architecture, protein localization, and intracellular signaling. Tubulins are among many proteins that are modified post-translationally by acylation with palmitate. We show that FASN inhibition with TVB-3166 or TVB-3664 significantly reduces tubulin palmitoylation and mRNA expression. Disrupted microtubule organization in tumor cells is an additional consequence of FASN inhibition. FASN inhibition combined with taxane treatment enhances inhibition of in vitro tumor cell growth compared to treatment with either agent alone. In lung, ovarian, prostate, and pancreatic tumor xenograft studies, FASN inhibition and paclitaxel or docetaxel combine to inhibit xenograft tumor growth with significantly enhanced anti-tumor activity. Tumor regression was observed in 3 of 6 tumor xenograft models. FASN inhibition does not affect cellular taxane concentration in vitro. Our data suggest a mechanism of enhanced anti-tumor activity of the FASN and taxane drug combination that includes inhibition of tubulin palmitoylation and disruption of microtubule organization in tumor cells, as well as a sensitization of tumor cells to FASN inhibition-mediated effects that include gene expression changes and inhibition of β-catenin. Together, the results strongly support investigation of combined FASN inhibition and taxane treatment as a therapy for a variety of human cancers. Copyright © 2016 3-V Biosciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antitumor effect of Bothrops jararaca venom.

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Reinaldo J; da Silva, Márcia G; Vilela, Lízia C; Fecchio, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Many experimental studies have been carried out using snake venoms for the treatment of animal tumors, with controversial results. While some authors have reported an antitumor effect of treatment with specific snake venom fractions, others have reported no effects after this treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) on Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells in vivo and in vitro. In the in vivo study, Swiss mice were inoculated with EAT cells by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route and treated with BjV venom (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.), on the 1st, 4th, 7th, 10th, and 13th days. Mice were evaluated for total and differential cells number on the 2nd, 5th, 8th, 11th and 14th days. The survival time was also evaluated after 60 days of tumor growth. In the in vitro study, EAT and normal peritoneal cells were cultivated in the presence of different BjV concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0, 40.0, and 80 microg) and viability was verified after 3, 6, 12 and 24 h of cultivation. Results were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey tests at the 5% level of significance. It was observed that in vivo treatment with BjV induced tumor growth inhibition, increased animal survival time, decreased mortality, increased the influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes on the early stages of tumor growth, and did not affect the mononuclear cells number. In vitro treatment with BjV produced a dose-dependent toxic effect on EAT and peritoneal cells, with higher effects against peritoneal cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that BjV has an important antitumor effect. This is the first report showing this in vivo effect for this venom. PMID:12061431

  13. The mTOR kinase inhibitor everolimus synergistically enhances the anti-tumor effect of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor PLS-123 on Mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Wang, Xiaogan; Xie, Yan; Ying, Zhitao; Liu, Weiping; Ping, Lingyan; Zhang, Chen; Pan, Zhengying; Ding, Ning; Song, Yuqin; Zhu, Jun

    2017-09-14

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive and incurable malignant disease. Despite of general chemotherapy, relapse and mortality are common, highlighting the need for the development of novel targeted drugs or combination of therapeutic regimens. Recently, several drugs that target the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway, especially the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib, have demonstrated notable therapeutic effects in relapsed/refractory patients, which indicate that pharmacological inhibition of BCR pathway holds promise in MCL treatment. Here, we have developed a novel irreversible BTK inhibitor, PLS-123, that has more potent and selective anti-tumor activity than ibrutinib in vitro and in vivo. Using in vitro screening, we discovered that the combination of PLS-123 and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, everolimus exert synergistic activity in attenuating proliferation and motility of MCL cell lines. Simultaneous inhibition of BTK and mTOR resulted in marked induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, which were accompanied by upregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins (cleaved Caspase-3, cleaved PARP and Bax), repression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Mcl-1, Bcl-xl and XIAP), and downregulation of regulators of the G1/S phase transition (CDK2, CDK4, CDK6 and Cyclin D1). Gene expression profile analysis revealed simultaneous treatment with these agents led to inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3, AKT/mTOR signaling pathways and SGK1 expression. Finally, the anti-tumor and pro-apoptotic activities of combination strategy have also been demonstrated using xenograft mice models. Taken together, simultaneous suppression of BTK and mTOR may be indicated as a potential therapeutic modality for the treatment of MCL. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 UICC.

  14. Enhanced antitumor efficacy with combined administration of astragalus and pterostilbene for melanoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin-Yan; Zhang, Song-Zhao; Wang, Wen-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Astragalus, a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, has exhibited antitumor actions in patients. In this study, in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of astragalus and synergistic antitumor efficacy in combination with pterostilbene were investigated. Melanoma cells were treated with pterostilbene (Pt), graduated doses of astragalus injection (AI), or these in combination. Cell viability was measured using a MTT assay. Released nucleosomes and caspase activity were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo was also assessed. Analysis of variance and t tests were used for statistical analysis. Significant reduction (p<0.05) in cellular proliferation were observed with AI and AI-Pt in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Apoptosis and caspase-3/7 activity were significantly increased by AI and AI-Pt treatment (p<0.05). In vivo, AI inhibited melanoma tumor growth, with inhibition rates ranging from 36.5 to 62.3%, by inducing apoptosis via up-regulation Bax expression and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and down-regulating Bcl-2 expression. AI significantly inhibits the growth of melanoma in vitro and in vivo by inducing apoptosis. These data suggest that combined treatment of astragalus with pterostilbene enhances antitumor efficacy.

  15. Enhanced antitumor reactivity of tumor-sensitized T cells by interferon alfa

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Woude, D.L.; Wagner, P.D.; Shu, S.; Chang, A.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Tumor-draining lymph node cells from mice bearing the methylcholanthrene-induced MCA 106 tumors can be sensitized in vitro to acquire antitumor reactivity. We examined the effect of interferon alfa on the function of cells that underwent in vitro sensitization in adoptive immunotherapy. Interferon alfa increased the antitumor reactivity of in vitro sensitized cells in the treatment of MCA 106 pulmonary metastases. This effect was evident in irradiated mice, indicating that a host response to the interferon alfa was not required. Interferon alfa treatment increased class I major histocompatibility complex antigen expression on tumor cells and increased their susceptibility to lysis by in vitro sensitized cells. These results suggest that interferon alfa enhancement of adoptive immunotherapy was mediated by its effect on tumor cells. Interferon alfa may be a useful adjunct to the adoptive immunotherapy of human cancer.

  16. Antitumor effect of sonodynamically activated pyrrolidine tris-acid fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Yumiko; Nishi, Koji; Fujimori, Junya; Fukai, Toshio; Yumita, Nagahiko; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Chen, Fu-shin; Momose, Yasunori; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the sonodynamically induced antitumor effect of pyrrolidine tris-acid fullerene (PTF) was investigated. Sonodynamically induced antitumor effects of PTF by focused ultrasound were investigated using isolated sarcoma-180 cells and mice bearing ectopically-implanted colon 26 carcinoma. Cell damage induced by ultrasonic exposure was enhanced by 5-fold in the presence of 80 µM PTF. The combined treatment of ultrasound and PTF suppressed the growth of the implanted colon 26 carcinoma. Ultrasonically induced 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone-1-oxyl (4oxoTEMPO) production in the presence and absence of PTF was assessed, and it was shown that 80 µM PTF enhanced 4oxoTEMPO production as measured by ESR spectroscopy. Histidine, a reactive oxygen scavenger, significantly reduced cell damage and 4oxoTEMPO generation caused by ultrasonic exposure in the presence of PTF. These results suggest that singlet oxygen is likely to be involved in the ultrasonically induced cell damage enhanced by PTF.

  17. Uric acid enhances the antitumor immunity of dendritic cell-based vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yihan; Ma, Xuelei; Su, Chao; Peng, Bin; Du, Jing; Jia, Hongyuan; Luo, Min; Fang, Chunju; Wei, Yuquan

    2015-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) released from dying cells has been recognized by the immune system as a danger signal. In response to UA, dendritic cells (DC) in the immune system mature and enhance the T cell response to foreign antigens. It is conceivable that the antitumor immunity of a tumor vaccine could be promoted by the administration of UA. To test this concept, we applied UA as an adjuvant to a DC-based vaccine, and discovered that the administration of UA as an adjuvant significantly enhanced the ability of the tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccine in delaying the tumor growth. The antitumor activity was achieved with adoptively transferred lymphocytes, and both CD8+ T cells and NK cells were required to achieve effective immunity. This resulted in an increased accumulation of activated CD8+ T cells and an elevated production of IFN-γ. Collectively, our study shows that the administration of UA enhances the antitumor activity of tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccine, thus providing the preclinical rationale for the application of UA in DC-based vaccine strategies. PMID:26553557

  18. Enhanced NK cell adoptive antitumor effects against breast cancer in vitro via blockade of the transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yue; Hu, Jinyue; Li, Rongguo; Song, Jian; Kang, Yujuan; Liu, Si; Zhang, Dongwei

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have great potential for improving cancer immunotherapy. Adoptive NK cell transfer, an adoptive immunotherapy, represents a promising nontoxic anticancer therapy. However, existing data indicate that tumor cells can effectively escape NK cell-mediated apoptosis through immunosuppressive effects in the tumor microenvironment, and the therapeutic activity of adoptive NK cell transfer is not as efficient as anticipated. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a potent immunosuppressant. Genetic and epigenetic events that occur during mammary tumorigenesis circumvent the tumor-suppressing activity of TGF-β, thereby permitting late-stage breast cancer cells to acquire an invasive and metastatic phenotype in response to TGF-β. To block the TGF-β signaling pathway, NK cells were genetically modified with a dominant-negative TGF-β type II receptor by optimizing electroporation using the Amaxa Nucleofector system. These genetically modified NK cells were insensitive to TGF-β and resisted the suppressive effect of TGF-β on MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro. Our results demonstrate that blocking the TGF-β signaling pathway to modulate the tumor microenvironment can improve the antitumor activity of adoptive NK cells in vitro, thereby providing a new rationale for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26124672

  19. Alocasia cucullata exhibits strong antitumor effect in vivo by activating antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qiuxian; Cai, Hongbing; Sun, Xuegang; Li, Xin; Mo, Zhixian; Shi, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicines have long been used to treat various illnesses by modulating the human immune response. In this study, we investigate the immuno-modulating effect and antitumor activity of Alocasia Cucullata (AC), a Chinese herb traditionally used to treat infection and cancer. We found that the whole water extract of AC roots could significantly attenuate tumor growth in mouse tumor models. The median survival time of the AC-treated mice was 43 days, 16 days longer than that of the control group. Moreover, the AC-treated mice showed substantially higher induction of key antitumor cytokines, such as IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, indicating that AC may exert antitumor effect by activating antitumor immunity. To further pinpoint the cellular and molecular mechanism of AC, we studied the dose response of a human monocytic cell line, THP-1, to the whole water extract of AC. Treatment of the AC extract significantly induced THP-1 differentiation into macrophage-like cells and the differentiated THP-1 showed expression of specific macrophage surface markers, such as CD11b and CD14, as well as productions of antitumor cytokines, e.g. IFN-γ and TNF-α. Our data thus point to AC as potentially a new, alternative immuno-modulating herbal remedy for anticancer treatment.

  20. Alocasia cucullata Exhibits Strong Antitumor Effect In Vivo by Activating Antitumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Qiuxian; Cai, Hongbing; Sun, Xuegang; Li, Xin; Mo, Zhixian; Shi, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicines have long been used to treat various illnesses by modulating the human immune response. In this study, we investigate the immuno-modulating effect and antitumor activity of Alocasia Cucullata (AC), a Chinese herb traditionally used to treat infection and cancer. We found that the whole water extract of AC roots could significantly attenuate tumor growth in mouse tumor models. The median survival time of the AC-treated mice was 43 days, 16 days longer than that of the control group. Moreover, the AC-treated mice showed substantially higher induction of key antitumor cytokines, such as IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, indicating that AC may exert antitumor effect by activating antitumor immunity. To further pinpoint the cellular and molecular mechanism of AC, we studied the dose response of a human monocytic cell line, THP-1, to the whole water extract of AC. Treatment of the AC extract significantly induced THP-1 differentiation into macrophage-like cells and the differentiated THP-1 showed expression of specific macrophage surface markers, such as CD11b and CD14, as well as productions of antitumor cytokines, e.g. IFN-γ and TNF-α. Our data thus point to AC as potentially a new, alternative immuno-modulating herbal remedy for anticancer treatment. PMID:24086508

  1. Transfer of in vitro-expanded naïve T cells after lymphodepletion enhances antitumor immunity through the induction of polyclonal antitumor effector T cells.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Satoshi; Takahashi, Miho; Sato, Ko; Saida, Yu; Baba, Junko; Arita, Masashi; Sato, Miyuki; Ohtsubo, Aya; Shoji, Satoshi; Nozaki, Koichiro; Ichikawa, Kosuke; Kondo, Rie; Aoki, Nobumasa; Ohshima, Yasuyoshi; Sakagami, Takuro; Abe, Tetsuya; Moro, Hiroshi; Koya, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junta; Kagamu, Hiroshi; Yoshizawa, Hirohisa; Kikuchi, Toshiaki

    2017-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of effector T cells combined with lymphodepletion has demonstrated promising antitumor effects in mice and humans, although the availability of tumor-specific T cells is limited. We and others have also demonstrated that the transfer of polyclonal naïve T cells induces tumor-specific effector T cells and enhances antitumor immunity after lymphodepletion. Because tumors have been demonstrated to induce immunosuppressive networks and regulate the function of T cells, obtaining a sufficient number of fully functional naïve T cells that are able to differentiate into tumor-specific effector T cells remains difficult. To establish culture methods to obtain a large number of polyclonal T cells that are capable of differentiating into tumor-specific effector T cells, naïve T cells were activated with anti-CD3 mAbs in vitro. These cells were stimulated with IL-2 and IL-7 for the CD8 subset or with IL-7 and IL-23 for the CD4 subset. Transfer of these hyperexpanded T cells after lymphodepletion showed significant antitumor efficacy, and tumor-specific effector T cells were primed from these expanded T cells in tumor-bearing hosts. Moreover, these ex vivo-expanded T cells maintained T cell receptor diversity and showed long-term persistence of memory against specific tumors. Further analyses revealed that combination therapy consisting of vaccination with dendritic cells that were co-cultured with irradiated whole tumor cells and the transfer of ex vivo-expanded T cells significantly enhanced antitumor immunity. These results indicate that the transfer of ex vivo-expanded polyclonal T cells can be combined with other immunotherapies and augment antitumor effects.

  2. Immunosuppression Enhances Oncolytic Adenovirus Replication and Antitumor Efficacy in the Syrian Hamster Model

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Maria A; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Toth, Karoly; Sagartz, John E; Phillips, Nancy J; Wold, William SM

    2012-01-01

    We recently described an immunocompetent Syrian hamster model for oncolytic adenoviruses (Ads) that permits virus replication in tumor cells as well as some normal tissues. This model allows exploration of interactions between the virus, tumor, normal organs, and host immune system that could not be examined in the immunodeficient or nonpermissive animal models previously used in the oncolytic Ad field. Here we asked whether the immune response to oncolytic Ad enhances or limits antitumor efficacy. We first determined that cyclophosphamide (CP) is a potent immunosuppressive agent in the Syrian hamster and that CP alone had no effect on tumor growth. Importantly, we found that the antitumor efficacy of oncolytic Ads was significantly enhanced in immunosuppressed animals. In animals that received virus therapy plus immunosuppression, significant differences were observed in tumor histology, and in many cases little viable tumor remained. Notably, we also determined that immunosuppression allowed intratumoral virus levels to remain elevated for prolonged periods. Although favorable tumor responses can be achieved in immunocompetent animals, the rate of virus clearance from the tumor may lead to varied antitumor efficacy. Immunosuppression, therefore, allows sustained Ad replication and oncolysis, which leads to substantially improved suppression of tumor growth. PMID:18665155

  3. Immunosuppression enhances oncolytic adenovirus replication and antitumor efficacy in the Syrian hamster model.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Maria A; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Toth, Karoly; Sagartz, John E; Phillips, Nancy J; Wold, William S M

    2008-10-01

    We recently described an immunocompetent Syrian hamster model for oncolytic adenoviruses (Ads) that permits virus replication in tumor cells as well as some normal tissues. This model allows exploration of interactions between the virus, tumor, normal organs, and host immune system that could not be examined in the immunodeficient or nonpermissive animal models previously used in the oncolytic Ad field. Here we asked whether the immune response to oncolytic Ad enhances or limits antitumor efficacy. We first determined that cyclophosphamide (CP) is a potent immunosuppressive agent in the Syrian hamster and that CP alone had no effect on tumor growth. Importantly, we found that the antitumor efficacy of oncolytic Ads was significantly enhanced in immunosuppressed animals. In animals that received virus therapy plus immunosuppression, significant differences were observed in tumor histology, and in many cases little viable tumor remained. Notably, we also determined that immunosuppression allowed intratumoral virus levels to remain elevated for prolonged periods. Although favorable tumor responses can be achieved in immunocompetent animals, the rate of virus clearance from the tumor may lead to varied antitumor efficacy. Immunosuppression, therefore, allows sustained Ad replication and oncolysis, which leads to substantially improved suppression of tumor growth.

  4. Potentiated antitumor effects of interleukin 12 and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat against B16F10 melanoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska, A; Giermasz, A; Marczak, M; Gołab, J; Jakóbisiak, M

    2000-01-01

    The application of antiangiogenic agents in cancer therapy has been studied extensively. Combination of agents with antiangiogenic properties could possibly enhance antitumor effects. Interleukin 12 is a cytokine with potent antitumor activity mediated also via antiangiogenic mechanisms. These effects are attributed to IFN-gamma production stimulated by IL-12. Since IFN-gamma has been reported to augment antitumor effects when combined with one of the metalloproteinase inhibitors--batimastat (BB-94), we have examined a combined treatment with IL-12 and BB-94 in a murine melanoma model. The administration of both agents showed potentiated antitumor activity. Furthermore, we have shown in a tumor-induced angiogenesis model that the combined application of IL-12 and batimastat inhibits the formation of new blood vessels to a greater extent than either agent alone. Our observations show that antiangiogenic effects are at least partly responsible for the enhanced antitumor effects of the combined treatment with IL-12 and BB-94.

  5. Biodegradable nanoassemblies of piperlongumine display enhanced anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Chang, Ying; Yang, Chao; Sang, Zitai; Yang, Tao; Ang, Wei; Ye, Weiwei; Wei, Yuquan; Gong, Changyang; Luo, Youfu

    2014-03-01

    Piperlongumine (PL) shows an inhibitory effect on tumor growth; however, lipophilicity has restricted its further applications. Nanotechnology provides an effective method to overcome the poor water solubility of lipophilic drugs. Polymeric micelles with small particle size can passively target tumors by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, thus improving their anti-tumor effects. In this study, to improve the water solubility and anti-tumor activity of PL, PL encapsulated polymeric micelles (PL micelles) were prepared by a solid dispersion method. The prepared PL micelles showed a small particle size and high encapsulation efficiency, which could be lyophilized into powder, and the re-dissolved PL micelles are homogenous and stable in water. In addition, a sustained release behavior of PL micelles was observed in vitro. Encapsulation of PL into polymeric micelles could increase the cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and reduce glutathione (GSH) levels in vitro. Encapsulation of PL into polymeric micelles enhanced its inhibitory effect on neovascularization both in vitro and in vivo. Compared with free PL, PL micelles showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Additionally, in a transgenic zebrafish model, embryonic angiogenesis was inhibited by PL micelles. Furthermore, PL micelles were more effective in inhibiting tumor growth and prolonging survival in a subcutaneous CT-26 murine tumor model in vivo. Therefore, our data revealed that the encapsulation of PL into biodegradable polymeric micelles enhanced its anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activities both in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Enhancing the circulating half-life and the antitumor effects of a tumor-selective cytotoxic peptide by exploiting endogenous serum albumin as a drug carrier.

    PubMed

    Su, Tao; Yang, Hao; Fan, Qing; Jia, Dianlong; Tao, Ze; Wan, Lin; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2016-02-29

    The elevated expression of bombesin receptors in many of the deadliest cancers has attracted special interest in developing bombesin-directed agents for tumor imaging and therapy. Previously, we constructed the chimeric peptide BB28 by fusing bombesin to a mitochondria-disrupting peptide. BB28 selectively induced the apoptosis of various tumor cells in vitro and showed promising in vivo antitumor effects. In general, a short circulating half-life limits the in vivo effect of peptides. To prolong the half-life of BB28, here, we generated the novel peptide ABB28 by fusing an albumin-binding domain (ABD) to the N-terminus of BB28. ABB28 exhibited much higher binding affinity for albumin than BB28, and this modification extended the peptide half-life from several minutes to 2 h. Optical imaging revealed that ABB28 accumulated in xenografted tumors within 1h post-injection and persisted at an evident level for up to 24 h. ABB28 exerted stronger tumor-suppressive effects than BB28. Significant differences in the tumor volumes (P<0.001) and the tumor weights (P=0.002) were observed between ABB28- and BB28-treated mice. Moreover, ABB28 exhibited tumor suppression comparable to that of PEGylated 5K-BB28 in vivo. These results suggest that half-life extension via ABD fusion represents a useful strategy for optimizing bombesin-directed pharmaceuticals for cancer-targeted therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. IL-12 Enhances the Antitumor Actions of Trastuzumab via NK Cell IFN-γ Production

    PubMed Central

    Jaime-Ramirez, Alena Cristina; Mundy-Bosse, Bethany L.; Kondadasula, SriVidya; Jones, Natalie B.; Roda, Julie M.; Mani, Aruna; Parihar, Robin; Karpa, Volodymyr; Papenfuss, Tracey L.; LaPerle, Krista M.; Biller, Elizabeth; Lehman, Amy; Chaudhury, Abhik Ray; Jarjoura, David; Burry, Richard W.; Carson, William E.

    2013-01-01

    The antitumor effects of therapeutic mAbs may depend on immune effector cells that express FcRs for IgG. IL-12 is a cytokine that stimulates IFN-γ production from NK cells and T cells. We hypothesized that coadministration of IL-12 with a murine anti-HER2/neu mAb (4D5) would enhance the FcR-dependent immune mechanisms that contribute to its antitumor activity. Thrice-weekly therapy with IL-12 (1 μg) and 4D5 (1 mg/kg) significantly suppressed the growth of a murine colon adenocarcinoma that was engineered to express human HER2 (CT-26HER2/neu) in BALB/c mice compared with the result of therapy with IL-12, 4D5, or PBS alone. Combination therapy was associated with increased circulating levels of IFN-γ, monokine induced by IFN-γ, and RANTES. Experiments with IFN-γ–deficient mice demonstrated that this cytokine was necessary for the observed antitumor effects of therapy with IL-12 plus 4D5. Immune cell depletion experiments showed that NK cells (but not CD4+ or CD8+ T cells) mediated the antitumor effects of this treatment combination. Therapy of HER2/neu-positive tumors with trastuzumab plus IL-12 induced tumor necrosis but did not affect tumor proliferation, apoptosis, vascularity, or lymphocyte infiltration. In vitro experiments with CT-26HER2/neu tumor cells revealed that IFN-γ induced an intracellular signal but did not inhibit cellular proliferation or induce apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggest that tumor regression in response to trastuzumab plus IL-12 is mediated through NK cell IFN-γ production and provide a rationale for the coadministration of NK cell-activating cytokines with therapeutic mAbs. PMID:21321106

  8. IL-12 enhances the antitumor actions of trastuzumab via NK cell IFN-γ production.

    PubMed

    Jaime-Ramirez, Alena Cristina; Mundy-Bosse, Bethany L; Kondadasula, SriVidya; Jones, Natalie B; Roda, Julie M; Mani, Aruna; Parihar, Robin; Karpa, Volodymyr; Papenfuss, Tracey L; LaPerle, Krista M; Biller, Elizabeth; Lehman, Amy; Chaudhury, Abhik Ray; Jarjoura, David; Burry, Richard W; Carson, William E

    2011-03-15

    The antitumor effects of therapeutic mAbs may depend on immune effector cells that express FcRs for IgG. IL-12 is a cytokine that stimulates IFN-γ production from NK cells and T cells. We hypothesized that coadministration of IL-12 with a murine anti-HER2/neu mAb (4D5) would enhance the FcR-dependent immune mechanisms that contribute to its antitumor activity. Thrice-weekly therapy with IL-12 (1 μg) and 4D5 (1 mg/kg) significantly suppressed the growth of a murine colon adenocarcinoma that was engineered to express human HER2 (CT-26(HER2/neu)) in BALB/c mice compared with the result of therapy with IL-12, 4D5, or PBS alone. Combination therapy was associated with increased circulating levels of IFN-γ, monokine induced by IFN-γ, and RANTES. Experiments with IFN-γ-deficient mice demonstrated that this cytokine was necessary for the observed antitumor effects of therapy with IL-12 plus 4D5. Immune cell depletion experiments showed that NK cells (but not CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells) mediated the antitumor effects of this treatment combination. Therapy of HER2/neu-positive tumors with trastuzumab plus IL-12 induced tumor necrosis but did not affect tumor proliferation, apoptosis, vascularity, or lymphocyte infiltration. In vitro experiments with CT-26(HER2/neu) tumor cells revealed that IFN-γ induced an intracellular signal but did not inhibit cellular proliferation or induce apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggest that tumor regression in response to trastuzumab plus IL-12 is mediated through NK cell IFN-γ production and provide a rationale for the coadministration of NK cell-activating cytokines with therapeutic mAbs.

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), enhances anti-tumor effects of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor olaparib in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Ahrum; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Debora Keunyoung; Song, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Jun; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Tae-Yong; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Kim, Tae-You; O'Connor, Mark J; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2015-03-07

    Olaparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, has been found to have therapeutic potential for treating cancers associated with impaired DNA repair capabilities, particularly those with deficiencies in the homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important for enabling functional HRR of DNA by regulating the expression of HRR-related genes and promoting the accurate assembly of HRR-directed sub-nuclear foci. Thus, HDAC inhibitors have recently emerged as a therapeutic agent for treating cancer by inhibiting DNA repair. Based on this, HDAC inhibition could be predicted to enhance the anti-tumor effect of PARP inhibitors in cancer cells by blocking the HRR pathway. We determined whether suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a HDAC inhibitor, could enhance the anti-tumor effects of olaparib on breast cancer cell lines using a cytotoxic assay, cell cycle analysis, and Western blotting. We evaluated how exposure to SAHA affects the expression of HRR-associated genes. The accumulation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by combination treatment was assessed. Induction of autophagy was monitored by imaging green fluorescent protein-tagged microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3) expression following co-treatment with olaparib and SAHA. These in vitro data were validated in vivo using a human breast cancer xenograft model. Triple-negative breast cancer cell (TNBC) lines showed heterogeneous responses to the PARP and HDAC inhibitors. Co-administration of olaparib and SAHA synergistically inhibited the growth of TNBC cells that expressed functional Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). This effect was associated with down-regulation of the proliferative signaling pathway, increased apoptotic and autophagic cell death, and accumulation of DNA damage. The combined anti-tumor effect of olaparib and SAHA was also observed in a xenograft model. These data suggest that PTEN expression in TNBC cells can

  10. Photodynamic effect on specific antitumor immune activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonarx-Coinsmann, Veronique; Foultier, Marie-Therese; Morlet, Laurent; de Brito, Leonor X.; Patrice, Thierry

    1995-03-01

    In this study the effect of PDT on the antitumoral specific immunologic response was evaluated. We compared the specific cytolytic activity (CLA) by a chromium release assay of primed mouse spleen T lymphocytes sensitized against syngeneic mastocytoma P511 cells. P511 cells, or lymphocytes, or both cells were treated or not with photofrin and/or light (514 nm). Photofrin II alone (1 (mu) g/ml, 2 hours) reduced CLA 59% when P511 were treated. Photofrin II (1 (mu) g/ml) followed by light (25 Joules/sq cm) also reduced CLA 35%. Photofrin II alone (0.5 (mu) g/ml, 2 hours) reduced CLA 8% when only lymphocytes were treated. And Photofrin II (0.5 (mu) g/ml) followed by light (25 Joules/sq cm) also reduced CLA 45%. When both cells were treated with Photofrin II alone or followed by light (25 Joules/sq cm) the CLA was also reduced respectively 19, 41%.

  11. A tumor-penetrating peptide modification enhances the antitumor activity of endostatin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hai-Tao, Zhang; Hui-Cheng, Li; Zheng-Wu, Li; Chang-Hong, Guo

    2011-06-01

    Many antitumor drugs have a limited ability to penetrate more than a few cell diameters from blood vessels into solid tumors, which limits their effectiveness. In this study, we investigated whether the biological activity of endostatin can be enhanced by the addition of an integrin-targeting and permeability-enhancing sequence. The internalization RGD (CRGDKGPDC; iRGD) sequence was added at the carboxyl terminus of endostatin. Modification of endostatin with the iRGD motif showed specific and increased binding to endothelial cells; the increased binding correlated with an improved antiangiogenic property. iRGD-modified endostatin was more effective than human endostatin in inhibiting liver cancer growth in athymic mice. The finding indicates that addition of a vascular targeting and permeability sequence can enhance the biological activity of an antiangiogenic molecule and tumor targeting.

  12. Aconitine-containing agent enhances antitumor activity of dichloroacetate against Ehrlich carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pyaskovskaya, O N; Boychuk, I V; Fedorchuk, A G; Kolesnik, D L; Dasyukevich, O I; Solyanik, G I

    2015-09-01

    Significant variability of anticancer efficacy of dichloroacetate (DCA) stimulated an active search for the agents capable to enhance it antitumor action. Therefore, the aim of this work is the study of capability of aconitine-containing antiangiogenic agent BC1 to enhance anticancer activity of DCA against Ehrlich carcinoma. DCA (total dose was 1.3 g/kg of b.w.) and BC1 (total dose was 0.9 mg/kg of b.w.) were administered per os starting from the 2(nd) and 3(rd) days, respectively (8 admini-strations for each agent). Antitumor efficacy of agents was estimated. Lactate level, LDH activity and the state of mitochondrial electron transport chain in tumor cells as well as phagocytic activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) were studied. Combined administration of DCA and ВС1 resulted in 89.8% tumor growth inhibition (p < 0.001), what is by 22.5% (p < 0.05) higher that that of DCA alone. This combined treatment was accompanied with a decrease of lactate level in tumor tissue by 30% (p < 0.05) and significant elevation of LDH activity by 70% (p < 0.01). Increased level of NO-Fe-S clusters and 2-fold reduction of Fe-S cluster content were revealed in tumor tissue of mice after DCA and BC1 administration. It was shown that combined therapy did not effect TAM quantity and their phagocytic activity but stimulated ROS production by TAMs by 78% (p < 0.05) compared to this index in control animals. Antiangiogenic agent ВС1 in combination with DCA considerably enhances antitumor activity of DCA via significant decrease of Fe-S-containing protein level resulted from substantial elevation of nitrosylation of these proteins.

  13. Detection and aggregation of the antitumoral drug parietin in ethanol/water mixture and on plasmonic metal nanoparticles studied by surface-enhanced optical spectroscopy: Effect of pH and ethanol concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Tobar, Eduardo; Verebova, Valeria; Blascakova, Ludmila; Jancura, Daniel; Fabriciova, Gabriela; Sanchez-Cortes, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper, we have investigated the effect of ethanol in aqueous media, the pH and the presence of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the aggregation processes of the antitumoral anthraquinone parietin in aqueous media and on the metal surface. UV-visible absorption, fluorescence and Raman spectra of parietin were used for such purpose. The present study provides information about the deprotonation and molecular aggregation processes occurring in parietin under different environments: ethanol/water mixture and when adsorbed onto Ag nanoparticles. The effect of ethanol on the optical properties of parietin in alcohol-water mixtures was also investigated at different ethanol concentrations with the time. For the case of the adsorption and organization of parietin molecules on the surface of Ag NPs, special attention was paid to the use of surface-enhanced optical techniques, SEF (surface-enhanced fluorescence) and SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering), for the characterization of the parietin aggregates and the ionization of the molecule on the surface. In particular, we have studied the variation of the SEF signal with the pH, which depends on the molecular organization of the molecule on the surface. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the SERS spectra at different pH was accomplished and the main Raman bands of the protonated, mono-deprotonated and di-deprotonated parietin were identified. Finally, the second ionization pK of parietin on metal NPs was deduced from the SERS spectra.

  14. Delivery of vincristine sulfate-conjugated gold nanoparticles using liposomes: a light-responsive nanocarrier with enhanced antitumor efficiency.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; He, Man; Niu, Mengmeng; Zhao, Yiqing; Zhu, Yuanzhang; Li, Zhenhua; Feng, Nianping

    2015-01-01

    Rapid drug release at the specific site of action is still a challenge for antitumor therapy. Development of stimuli-responsive hybrid nanocarriers provides a promising strategy to enhance therapeutic effects by combining the unique features of each component. The present study explored the use of drug-gold nanoparticle conjugates incorporated into liposomes to enhance antitumor efficiency. A model drug, vincristine sulfate, was physically conjugated with gold nanoparticles and verified by UV-visible and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The conjugates were incorporated into liposomes by film dispersion to yield nanoparticles (113.4 nm) with light-responsive release properties, as shown by in vitro release studies. Intracellular uptake and distribution was studied in HeLa cells using transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. This demonstrated liposome internalization and localization in endosomal-lysosomal vesicles. Fluorescence intensity increased in cells exposed to UV light, indicating that this stimulated intracellular drug release; this finding was confirmed by quantitative analyses using flow cytometry. Antitumor efficacy was evaluated in HeLa cells, both in culture and in implants in vivo in nude mice. HeLa cell viability assays showed that light exposure enhanced liposome cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment with the prepared liposomes coupled with UV light exposure produced greater antitumor effects in nude mice and reduced side effects, as compared with free vincristine sulfate.

  15. Delivery of vincristine sulfate-conjugated gold nanoparticles using liposomes: a light-responsive nanocarrier with enhanced antitumor efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; He, Man; Niu, Mengmeng; Zhao, Yiqing; Zhu, Yuanzhang; Li, Zhenhua; Feng, Nianping

    2015-01-01

    Rapid drug release at the specific site of action is still a challenge for antitumor therapy. Development of stimuli-responsive hybrid nanocarriers provides a promising strategy to enhance therapeutic effects by combining the unique features of each component. The present study explored the use of drug–gold nanoparticle conjugates incorporated into liposomes to enhance antitumor efficiency. A model drug, vincristine sulfate, was physically conjugated with gold nanoparticles and verified by UV-visible and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The conjugates were incorporated into liposomes by film dispersion to yield nanoparticles (113.4 nm) with light-responsive release properties, as shown by in vitro release studies. Intracellular uptake and distribution was studied in HeLa cells using transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. This demonstrated liposome internalization and localization in endosomal–lysosomal vesicles. Fluorescence intensity increased in cells exposed to UV light, indicating that this stimulated intracellular drug release; this finding was confirmed by quantitative analyses using flow cytometry. Antitumor efficacy was evaluated in HeLa cells, both in culture and in implants in vivo in nude mice. HeLa cell viability assays showed that light exposure enhanced liposome cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment with the prepared liposomes coupled with UV light exposure produced greater antitumor effects in nude mice and reduced side effects, as compared with free vincristine sulfate. PMID:25960649

  16. Binary-copolymer system base on low-density lipoprotein-coupled N-succinyl chitosan lipoic acid micelles for co-delivery MDR1 siRNA and paclitaxel, enhances antitumor effects via reducing drug.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Di; Zhu, Wen-Jing; Zhu, Qiao-Ling; Chen, Wei-Liang; Ren, Zhao-Xiang; Li, Fang; Yuan, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Ji-Zhao; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Xue-Nong

    2017-07-01

    The development of effective and stable carriers of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is important for treating cancer with multidrug resistance (MDR). We developed a new gene and drug co-delivery system and checked its characteristics. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was coupled with N-succinyl chitosan (NSC) Lipoic acid (LA) micelles and co-delivered MDR1 siRNA and paclitaxel (PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA) to enhance antitumor effects by silencing the MDR gene of tumors (Li et al., Adv Mater 2014;26:8217-8224). In our study, we developed a new type of containing paclitaxel-loaded micelles and siRNA-loaded LDL nanoparticle. This "binary polymer" is pH and reduction dual-sensitive core-crosslinked micelles. PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA had an average particle size of (171.6 ± 6.42) nm, entrapment efficiency of (93.92 ± 1.06) %, and drug-loading amount of (12.35% ± 0.87) %. In vitro, MCF-7 cells, high expressed LDL receptor, were more sensitive to this delivery system than to taxol(®) and cell activity was inhibited significantly. Fluorescence microscopy showed that PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA was uptaken very conveniently and played a key role in antitumor activity. PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA protected the siRNA from degradation by macrophage phagocytosis and evidently down-regulated the level of mdr1 mRNA as well as the expression of P-gp. We tested the target ability of PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA in vivo in tumor-bearing nude mice. Results showed that this system could directly deliver siRNA and PTX to cancer cells. Thus, new co-delivering siRNA and antitumor drugs should be explored for solving MDR in cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1114-1125, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Targeting Antitumor Immune Response for Enhancing the Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment, which can destroy local tumor cells and induce systemic antitumor immune response, whereas, focusing on improving direct cytotoxicity to tumor cells treated by PDT, there is growing interest in developing approaches to further explore the immune stimulatory properties of PDT. In this review we summarize the current knowledge of the innate and adaptive immune responses induced by PDT against tumors, providing evidence showing PDT facilitated-antitumor immunity. Various immunotherapeutic approaches on different cells are reviewed for their effectiveness in improving the treatment efficiency in concert with PDT. Future perspectives are discussed for further enhancing PDT efficiency via intracellular targetable drug delivery as well as optimized experimental model development associated with the study of antitumor immune response. PMID:27672421

  18. Antitumor effect of the novel sphingosine kinase 2 inhibitor ABC294640 is enhanced by inhibition of autophagy and by sorafenib in human cholangiocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiwei; Chaiteerakij, Roongruedee; Moser, Catherine D.; Shaleh, Hassan; Boakye, Jeffrey; Chen, Gang; Ndzengue, Albert; Li, Ying; Zhou, Yanling; Huang, Shengbing; Sinicrope, Frank A.; Zou, Xiaoping; Thomas, Melanie B.; Smith, Charles D.; Roberts, Lewis R.

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine kinase 2 (Sphk2) has an oncogenic role in cancer. A recently developed first-in-class Sphk2 specific inhibitor ABC294640 displays antitumor activity in many cancer models. However, the role of Sphk2 and the antitumor activity of its inhibitor ABC294640 are not known in cholangiocarcinoma. We investigated the potential of targeting Sphk2 for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. We found that Sphk2 is overexpressed in five established human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (WITT, HuCCT1, EGI-1, OZ and HuH28) and a new patient-derived cholangiocarcinoma cell line (LIV27) compared to H69 normal cholangiocytes. Inhibition of Sphk2 by ABC294640 inhibited proliferation and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that ABC294640 inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation, one of the key signaling pathways regulating cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation and survival. ABC294640 also induced autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 or chloroquine potentiated ABC294640-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. In addition, ABC294640 in combination with sorafenib synergistically inhibited cell proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Strong decreases in STAT3 phosphorylation were observed in WITT and HuCCT1 cells exposed to the ABC294640 and sorafenib combination. These findings provide novel evidence that Sphk2 may be a rational therapeutic target in cholangiocarcinoma. Combinations of ABC294640 with sorafenib and/or autophagy inhibitors may provide novel strategies for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:26956050

  19. IL-15 enhances the anti-tumor activity of trastuzumab against breast cancer cells but causes fatal side effects in humanized tumor mice (HTM)

    PubMed Central

    Wege, Anja K; Weber, Florian; Kroemer, Alexander; Ortmann, Olaf; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Brockhoff, Gero

    2017-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has been shown to enhance established treatment regimens. We evaluated the potential reinforcing effect of IL-15 in trastuzumab treated humanized tumor mice (HTM) which were generated by concurrent transplantation of neonatal NOD-scid IL2Rγnull mice with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and HER2 positive breast cancer cells (metastasizing SK-BR-3, solid tumor forming BT474). We found that trastuzumab treatment efficacy mainly depends on the immediate anti-tumorigenic cellular effect which is significantly enhanced by tumor interacting immune cells upon cotransplantion of HSC. However, trastuzumab treatment caused elevated CD44 expression on tumor cells that metastasized into the lung and liver but did not hinder tumor cell dissemination into the bone marrow. Moreover, in a number of SK-BR-3-transplanted animals disseminated CD44high/CD24low tumor cells lost trastuzumab sensitivity. Concerning the FcγRIIIa polymorphism, trastuzumab treatment efficiency in HTM was higher in mice with NK-cells harboring the high affinity FcγRIIIa compared to those with low affinity FcγRIIIa. In contrast, IL-15 caused the strongest NK-cell activation in heterozygous low affinity FcγRIIIa animals. Although IL-15 enhanced the trastuzumab mediated tumor defense, an unspecific immune stimulation resulted in preterm animal death due to systemic inflammation. Overall, treatment studies based on “patient-like” HTM revealed critical and adverse immune-related mechanisms which must be managed prior to clinical testing. PMID:27835865

  20. Blockade of programmed death-1/programmed death ligand pathway enhances the antitumor immunity of human invariant natural killer T cells.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Toshiko; Suzuki, Akane; Mise, Naoko; Ihara, Fumie; Takami, Mariko; Makita, Yuji; Horinaka, Atsushi; Harada, Kazuaki; Kunii, Naoki; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Yoshino, Ichiro; Nakayama, Toshinori; Motohashi, Shinichiro

    2016-12-01

    The role of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in antitumor immunity has been studied extensively, and clinical trials in patients with advanced cancer have revealed a prolonged survival in some cases. In recent years, humanized blocking antibodies against co-stimulatory molecules such as PD-1 have been developed. The enhancement of T cell function is reported to improve antitumor immunity, leading to positive clinical effects. However, there are limited data on the role of PD-1/programmed death ligand (PDL) molecules in human iNKT cells. In this study, we investigated the interaction between PD-1 on iNKT cells and PDL on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the context of iNKT cell stimulation. The blockade of PDL1 at the time of stimulation resulted in increased release of helper T cell (Th) 1 cytokines from iNKT cells, leading to the activation of NK cells. The direct antitumor function of iNKT cells was also enhanced after stimulation with anti-PDL1 antibody-treated APCs. According to these results, we conclude that the co-administration of anti-PDL1 antibody and alpha-galactosylceramide (αGalCer)-pulsed APCs enhances iNKT cell-mediated antitumor immunity.

  1. Crotoxin enhances the antitumor activity of gefinitib (Iressa) in SK-MES-1 human lung squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Hua; Xie, Yan; Wu, Jun-Chao; Han, Rong; Reid, Paul F; Qin, Zheng-Hong; He, Jing-Kang

    2012-05-01

    Crotoxin (CrTX), a neurotoxin, is isolated from the venom of South American rattlesnakes and has potent antitumor activity. Here, we investigated the antitumor effect of CrTX on the SK-MES-1 human lung squamous cell carcinoma cell line that has acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. CrTX caused G1 arrest and p-JNK protein upregulation that resulted in apoptosis of SK-MES-1 cells. SP600125, a specific inhibitor of p-JNK, could rescue SK-MES-1 cells from CrTX-induced apoptosis. CrTX and gefinitib (Iressa) both inhibited the viability and proliferation of SK-MES-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The combination of CrTX and Iressa significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of Iressa. In vivo studies revealed that CrTX caused increased damage to blood vessels and reduced tumor size when combined with Iressa. The present study showed that the JNK signal transduction pathway mediated the anti-apoptotic effect of CrTX, and furthermore, CrTX could enhance the antitumor effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in cells with acquired resistance.

  2. Antitumor effect of kigamicin D on mouse tumor models.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Toru; Ohba, Shunichi; Kawada, Manabu; Osono, Michiyo; Ikeda, Daishiro; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kunimoto, Setsuko

    2006-04-01

    Kigamicin D is a novel anticancer agent that was identified using a new screening strategy that targets the tolerance of cancer cells to nutrient starvation [1, 2]. Oral administration of kigamicin D was previously described to show a strong antitumor effect in human tumor xenograft models of pancreatic tumors [2]. In this paper we describe that kigamicin D shows the same selective cytotoxicity against normal human cells such as lung fibroblast and prostate stromal cells under nutrient starved condition as against cancer cells. Kigamicin D inhibited tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in a dorsal air sac assay. On the basis of these results we tested other human tumor xenograft models and transplantable syngeneic tumor models in order to determine the spectrum of activity of kigamicin D against various cancers. Kigamicin D showed a weak antitumor effect against LX-1 and DMS-273 lung cancers, but had no effect on DLD-1 colon cancers. When tested against syngeneic tumors, kigamicin D showed a weak antitumor effect against colon26, but showed augmentation of tumor growth on IMC carcinoma at a broad dosage level. Kigamicin D does not show good antitumor activity against human xenograft tumors except pancreatic tumors and murine syngeneic tumors. We found that kigamicin D has excellent antitumor effect specific to pancreatic cancers. Surprisingly, high dosage of kigamicin D increased tumor growth of IMC carcinoma by than 200%. The phenomenon suggests that kigamicin D may cause some immunological response to the tumor.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Gelonin-Melittin Fusion Biotoxin for Synergistically Enhanced Anti-Tumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Heesun; Moon, Cheol; Huang, Yongzhuo; He, Huining; Yang, Victor C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the applicability of fusion biotoxins combining pore-forming toxins (PFTs) and ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) for the anti-cancer treatment. Methods Membrane active PFTs tend to destabilize cell membranes of tumor cells, but lack a warhead inducing significant cause of cell death. Cell-impermeable RIPs possess a powerful warhead, yet not able to enter the tumor cells. To address these challenges for anti-tumor effects, we introduced a fusion strategy of conjugating melittin (a PFT) and gelonin (a type 1 RIP) via chemical and recombinant methods, followed by in vitro assays and in vivo animal studies. Results In vitro characterization results confirmed that the chimeric gelonin-melittin fusion proteins retained equivalent intrinsic activity to that of unmodified gelonin in inhibiting protein translation. However, chemically conjugated gelonin-melittin (cGel-Mel) and recombinant chimeric gelonin-melittin fusion (rGel-Mel) exhibited greater cell uptake, yielding a significantly enhanced cytotoxic activity over treatment of gelonin, melittin or physical mixture of gelonin and melittin. Remarkably, cGel-Mel and rGel-Mel displayed 32- and 10-fold lower IC50 than gelonin in the cell lines. The superior anti-tumor efficacy of multivalent cGel-Mel to monovalent rGel-Mel suggested that valency could be a crucial factor for the extent of melittin-mediated cell uptake. Tumoricidal effects observed from animal studies were in good accordance with our findings from the cellular assays. Conclusions This study successfully demonstrated that fusion of biotoxins could provide a simple yet effective way to synergistically augment their anti-tumor activity. PMID:27251414

  4. Oncolytic Adenovirus Loaded with L-carnosine as Novel Strategy to Enhance the Antitumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Mariangela; Iovine, Barbara; Kuryk, Lukasz; Capasso, Cristian; Hirvinen, Mari; Vitale, Andrea; Yliperttula, Marjo; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta; Cerullo, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Oncolytic viruses are able to specifically replicate, infect, and kill only cancer cells. Their combination with chemotherapeutic drugs has shown promising results due to the synergistic action of virus and drugs; the combinatorial therapy is considered a potential clinically relevant approach for cancer. In this study, we optimized a strategy to absorb peptides on the viral capsid, based on electrostatic interaction, and used this strategy to deliver an active antitumor drug. We used L-carnosine, a naturally occurring histidine dipeptide with a significant antiproliferative activity. An ad hoc modified, positively charged L-carnosine was combined with the capsid of an oncolytic adenovirus to generate an electrostatic virus-carnosine complex. This complex showed enhanced antitumor efficacy in vitro and in vivo in different tumor models. In HCT-116 colorectal and A549 lung cancer cell lines, the complex showed higher transduction ratio and infectious titer compared with an uncoated oncolytic adenovirus. The in vivo efficacy of the complex was tested in lung and colon cancer xenograft models, showing a significant reduction in tumor growth. Importantly, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of complex on tumor growth reduction. We found that complex induces apoptosis in both cell lines, by using two different mechanisms, enhancing viral replication and affecting the expression of Hsp27. Our system could be used in future studies also for delivery of other bioactive drugs. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(4); 651-60. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Evaluating strategies to enhance the anti-tumor immune response to a carbohydrate mimetic peptide vaccine.

    PubMed

    Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Jousheghany, Fariba; Artaud, Cecile; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    Carbohydrate mimetic peptides of tumor associated carbohydrate antigens (TACA) are T-cell-dependent antigens and, therefore, immunization with these surrogates is predicted to overcome the low immunogenicity of carbohydrate antigens. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that among the potential immune cells involved, peptide immunization led to an increase in T-cell populations. While peptide mimetics may also function as TLR binding ligands, we did not observe evidence of involvement of NK cells. Examining tumor challenged animals, we observed that peptide immunization and not tumor cells rendered IL-12 responsiveness to T-cells, as T-cells from peptide-immunized mice produced IFN-gamma upon stimulation with IL-12. Cyclophosphamide administration enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of the vaccine, which was achieved by enhancing T-cell responses with no effect on NK cell population. Prophylactic immunization of mice with a DNA construct encoding carbohydrate mimetic peptides indicated a specific role for the mimotope vaccine in anti-tumor immune responses. These data suggest a role for both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells induced by mimotopes of TACA in protective immunity against tumor cells.

  6. Enhanced tolerance and antitumor efficacy by docetaxel-loaded albumin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaolei; Wang, Guijun; Shi, Runjie; Jiang, Ke; Meng, Lingtong; Ren, Hao; Wu, Jinhui; Hu, Yiqiao

    2016-10-01

    Docetaxel is one of the most active chemotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment. The traditional docetaxel injection (TAXOTERE®) is currently formulated in the surfactant polysorbate 80, which has been associated with severe adverse reactions. To avoid the use of polysorbate 80 as well as to reduce the systemic toxicity of docetaxel, in this study, docetaxel-loaded albumin nanoparticles were fabricated by a novel simple self-assembly method. The resulting nanoparticles showed a mean diameter size of 150 nm. After being encapsulated into nanoparticles, docetaxel displayed similar cytotoxicity to traditional injection. Since polysorbate 80 was not involved in nanoparticles, the hemolysis was completely eliminated. The maximal tolerance dose of nanoparticles was also increased, which allowed a higher dose to be safely intravenously injected and produced ideal antitumor effects. The 150 nm diameter also allowed the nanoparticles to accumulate in tumor tissue via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. The passive targeting ability further caused the higher antitumor effects of nanoparticles than that of traditional injection at the same dose (7.5 mg/kg). Therefore, docetaxel-loaded albumin nanoparticles fabricated by our strategy showed higher promise in their safety and effectiveness than the traditional docetaxel injection.

  7. Antitumor effect of arabinogalactan and platinum complex.

    PubMed

    Starkov, A K; Zamay, T N; Savchenko, A A; Ingevatkin, E V; Titova, N M; Kolovskaya, O S; Luzan, N A; Silkin, P P; Kuznetsova, S A

    2016-03-01

    The article presents the results of investigation of antitumor properties of platinum-arabinogalactan complex. We showed the ability of the complex to inhibit the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. It is found that the distribution of the platinum-arabinogalactan complex is not specific only for tumor cells in mice. The complex was found in all tissues and organs examined (ascites cells, embryonic cells, kidney, and liver). The mechanism of action of the arabinogalactan-platinum complex may be similar to cisplatin as the complex is able to accumulate in tumor cells.

  8. Fibrinogen facilitates the anti-tumor effect of nonnative endostatin

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Huadong; Fu, Yan; Lei, Qingxin; Han, Qing; Ploplis, Victoria A.; Castellino, Francis J.; Li, Ling; Luo, Yongzhang

    2009-01-01

    Endostatin is a potent inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis. Interestingly, nonnative endostatin also exhibits an anti-tumor effect, which remains a mystery so far. Here we show that intravenous injection of nonnative endostatin results in tumor inhibition effect. Soluble and active endostatin is isolated from human blood after the addition of nonnative endostatin in vitro. By fractionation of the whole blood, we surprisingly identify fibrinogen specifically binding to and inhibiting the aggregation of nonnative endostatin. Moreover, the anti-tumor activity of nonnative endostatin is substantially impaired in fibrinogen-deficient mice. Our studies demonstrate that fibrinogen facilitates the anti-tumor effect of nonnative endostatin, which also provides new insights into the novel physiological function of fibrinogen. PMID:19167351

  9. Inhibition of heat-shock protein 90 sensitizes liver cancer stem-like cells to magnetic hyperthermia and enhances anti-tumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma-burdened nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui; Tang, Qiusha; Miao, Fengqin; An, Yanli; Li, Mengfei; Han, Yong; Wang, Xihui; Wang, Juan; Liu, Peidang; Chen, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the thermoresistance and expression of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) in magnetic hyperthermia-treated human liver cancer stem-like cells (LCSCs) and the effects of a heat-shock protein HSP90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxgeldanamycin (17-AAG) on hepatocellular carcinoma-burdened nude mice. Methods CD90+ LCSCs were isolated by magnetic-activated cell sorting from BEL-7404. Spheroid formation, proliferation, differentiation, drug resistance, and tumor formation assays were performed to identify stem cell characteristics. CD90-targeted thermosensitive magnetoliposomes (TMs)-encapsulated 17-AAG (CD90@17-AAG/TMs) was prepared by reverse-phase evaporation and its characteristics were studied. Heat tolerance in CD90+ LCSCs and the effect of CD90@17-AAG/TMs-mediated heat sensitivity were examined in vitro and in vivo. Results CD90+ LCSCs showed significant stem cell-like properties. The 17-AAG/TMs were successfully prepared and were spherical in shape with an average size of 128.9±7.7 nm. When exposed to magnetic hyperthermia, HSP90 was up-regulated in CD90+ LCSCs. CD90@17-AAG/TMs inhibited the activity of HSP90 and increased the sensitivity of CD90+ LCSCs to magnetic hyperthermia. Conclusion The inhibition of HSP90 could sensitize CD90+ LCSCs to magnetic hyperthermia and enhance its anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26677324

  10. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Enhances Ultrasound-mediated Antitumor Activity via Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Yoshiki; Tamatani, Dai; Kuniyasu, Syota; Mizuki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Takuma; Katsura, Hanayo; Yamada, Hisatsugu; Endo, Yoshio; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ishizuka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tohru; Yamanaka, Nobuyasu; Kurahashi, Tsukasa; Uto, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a precursor of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), is now used for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of pre-cancers of the skin and photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) of brain tumors. Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) of cancers with ultrasound has been studied using 5-ALA as a sonosensitizer. In this article, we evaluated the sonosensitizing activity and mode of action of 5-ALA/PpIX by using mouse mammary tumor EMT6 cells. 5-ALA-SDT showed significant antitumor effects toward EMT6 cells in vitro and in vivo. The fluorescence of MitoSOX Red, an indicator specific for mitochondrial superoxide, was significantly increased by 5-ALA-SDT. Moreover, the fluorescence derived from JC-1, an indicator of mitochondrial membrane potential, was also significantly increased by 5-ALA-SDT. These findings suggest that mitochondria are one of the target organelles of 5-ALA-SDT. PpIX enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP), suggesting that PpIX might stabilize or promote ROS generation from tBHP. 5-ALA-SDT showed an antitumor effect in mouse mammary tumor EMT6 cells through oxidation of the mitochondrial membrane via ROS production. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Zoledronic acid enhances Vδ2 T-lymphocyte antitumor response to human glioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cimini, E; Piacentini, P; Sacchi, A; Gioia, C; Leone, S; Lauro, G M; Martini, F; Agrati, C

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumor in humans, responds modestly to treatment: most patients survive less than one year after diagnosis, despite both classical and innovative treatment approaches. A recent paper focused on γδ T-cell response in GBM patients, suggesting the application of an immunomodulating strategy based on γδ T-cells which is already in clinical trials for other tumors. Human Vγ2 T-cells recognize changes in the mevalonate metabolic pathway of transformed cells by activating cytotoxic response, and by cytokine and chemokine release. Interestingly, this activation may also be induced in vivo by drugs, such as zoledronic acid, that induce the accumulation of Vγ2 T-cell ligand Isopentenyl-pyrophosphate by blocking the farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase enzyme. The aim of our work is to confirm whether bisphosphonate treatment would make glioma cell lines more susceptible to lysis by in vitro expanded γδ T-cells, improving their antitumor activity. We expanded in vitro human Vγ2 T-cells by phosphoantigen stimulation and tested their activity against glioma cell lines. Co-culture with glioma cells induced Vγ2 T-cell differentiation in effector/memory cells, killing glioma cells by the release of perforin. Interestingly, glioma cells were directly affected by zoledronic acid; moreover, treatment increased their activating ability on Vγ2 T-cells, inducing an effective antitumor cytotoxic response. Taken together, our results show that aminobisphosphonate drugs may play a dual role against GBM, by directly affecting tumor cells, and by enhancing the antitumor response of Vγ2 T-cells. Our results confirm the practicability of this approach as a new immunotherapeutic strategy for GBM treatment.

  12. Role of chitosan co-formulation in enhancing interleukin-12 delivery and antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lirong; Zaharoff, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Local delivery systems that provide sustained, high concentrations of antitumor cytokines in the tumor microenvironment while minimizing systemic dissemination are needed to realize the potential of cytokine-based immunotherapies. Recently, co-formulations of cytokines with chitosan solutions have been shown to increase local cytokine retention and bioactivity. In particular, intratumoral (i.t.) injections of chitosan/IL-12 can eliminate established tumors and generate tumor-specific immune responses. In the present study, we explored the mechanisms by which chitosan potentiated IL-12’s antitumor activity. The location of chitosan/IL-12 injection was found to be critical for optimal cytokine delivery. I.t. injections eliminated 9 of 10 MC38 adenocarcinomas while contralateral and peritumoral injections delayed tumor growth but could not eliminate tumors. Microdosing studies demonstrated that IL-12 depots, simulated through daily i.t. injections with IL-12 alone, were not as effective as weekly i.t. chitosan/IL-12. 50–75% of mice receiving daily IL-12 microdoses and 87.5% of mice receiving weekly chitosan/IL-12 were cured of MC38 tumors. Chitosan was found to increase IL-12-mediated leukocytic expansion in tumors and tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) by 40% and 100%, respectively. Immunophenotyping studies demonstrated that chitosan co-formulation amplified IL-12-induced increases in important effector populations, such as CD8+IFN-γ+ and NKT cells, in tumors and dendritic cell populations in TDLNs. Remarkable increases in Gr-1+CD11b+ tumor infiltrates were also observed in mice receiving chitosan or chitosan/IL-12. This population does not appear be suppressive and may facilitate the local antitumor response. Presented data suggest that chitosan-mediated depot formation and enhanced local cytokine retention is significantly, but not entirely, responsible for increased cytokine bioactivity. PMID:23453060

  13. Triphenyl Phosphine-Functionalized Chitosan Nanoparticles Enhanced Antitumor Efficiency Through Targeted Delivery of Doxorubicin to Mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jiahui; Yu, Xiwei; Shen, Yaping; Shi, Yijie; Su, Chang; Zhao, Liang

    2017-02-01

    Mitochondria as an important organ in eukaryotic cells produced energy through oxidative phosphorylation and also played an important role in regulating the apoptotic signal transduction process. Importantly, mitochondria like nuclei also contained the functional DNA and were very sensitive to anticancer drugs which could effectively inhibit the synthesis of nucleic acid, especially the production of DNA. In this work, we designed novel triphenyl phosphine (TPP)-conjugated chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NPs) for efficient drug delivery to cell mitochondria. The results showed that compared with free doxorubicin (Dox), Dox-loaded TPP-NPs were specifically distributed in mitochondria of tumor cells and interfered with the function of mitochondria, thus resulted in the higher cytotoxicity and induced the significant cell apoptosis effect. Taken together, triphenyl phosphine-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles may become a promising mitochondria-targeting nanocarrier candidate for enhancing antitumor effects.

  14. Triphenyl Phosphine-Functionalized Chitosan Nanoparticles Enhanced Antitumor Efficiency Through Targeted Delivery of Doxorubicin to Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jiahui; Yu, Xiwei; Shen, Yaping; Shi, Yijie; Su, Chang; Zhao, Liang

    2017-12-01

    Mitochondria as an important organ in eukaryotic cells produced energy through oxidative phosphorylation and also played an important role in regulating the apoptotic signal transduction process. Importantly, mitochondria like nuclei also contained the functional DNA and were very sensitive to anticancer drugs which could effectively inhibit the synthesis of nucleic acid, especially the production of DNA. In this work, we designed novel triphenyl phosphine (TPP)-conjugated chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NPs) for efficient drug delivery to cell mitochondria. The results showed that compared with free doxorubicin (Dox), Dox-loaded TPP-NPs were specifically distributed in mitochondria of tumor cells and interfered with the function of mitochondria, thus resulted in the higher cytotoxicity and induced the significant cell apoptosis effect. Taken together, triphenyl phosphine-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles may become a promising mitochondria-targeting nanocarrier candidate for enhancing antitumor effects.

  15. Co-expression of interleukin 12 enhances antitumor effects of a novel chimeric promoter-mediated suicide gene therapy in an immunocompetent mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yu; Liu, Zhengchun; Kong, Haiyan; Sun, Wenjie; Liao, Zhengkai; Zhou, Fuxiang; Xie, Conghua; and others

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} A novel chimeric promoter consisting of CArG element and hTERT promoter was developed. {yields} The promoter was characterized with radiation-inducibility and tumor-specificity. {yields} Suicide gene system driven by the promoter showed remarkable cytotoxicity in vitro. {yields} Co-expression of IL12 enhanced the promoter mediated suicide gene therapy in vivo. -- Abstract: The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter has been widely used in target gene therapy of cancer. However, low transcriptional activity limited its clinical application. Here, we designed a novel dual radiation-inducible and tumor-specific promoter system consisting of CArG elements and the hTERT promoter, resulting in increased expression of reporter genes after gamma-irradiation. Therapeutic and side effects of adenovirus-mediated horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/indole-3-acetic (IAA) system downstream of the chimeric promoter were evaluated in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma, combining with or without adenovirus-mediated interleukin 12 (IL12) gene driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter. The combination treatment showed more effective suppression of tumor growth than those with single agent alone, being associated with pronounced intratumoral T-lymphocyte infiltration and minor side effects. Our results suggest that the combination treatment with HRP/IAA system driven by the novel chimeric promoter and the co-expression of IL12 might be an effective and safe target gene therapy strategy of cancer.

  16. Doxycycline potentiates antitumor effect of cyclophosphamide in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Singh, Sandeep; Surve, Sachin V.; Vijayakumar, Maleppillil Vavachan; Bhat, Manoj Kumar . E-mail: manojkbhat@nccs.res.in

    2005-02-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CPA) is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug in neoplasias. It is a DNA and protein alkylating agent that has a broad spectrum of activity against variety of neoplasms including breast cancer. The therapeutic effectiveness of CPA is limited by the high-dose hematopoietic, renal, and cardiac toxicity that accompanies the systemic distribution of liver-derived activated drug metabolites. The present study examines the potential of combining well-tolerated antibiotic doxycycline (DOX) with CPA and understanding the mechanism of cell killing. Interestingly, we found that DOX significantly enhances the tumor regression activity of CPA on xenograft mice model bearing MCF-7 cells. DOX also potentiates MCF-7 cell killing by CPA in vitro. In presence of DOX (3 {mu}g/ml), the IC{sub 50} value of CPA decreased significantly from 10 to 2.5 mM. Additional analyses indicate that the tumor suppressor p53 and p53-regulated proapoptotic Bax were upregulated in vivo and in vitro following CPA treatment in combination with DOX, suggesting that upregulation of p53 may contribute to the enhancement of antitumor effect of CPA by DOX. Furthermore, downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 was observed in animals treated with CPA and CPA plus DOX when compared to untreated or DOX-treated groups. Our results raise the possibility that this combination chemotherapeutic regimen may lead to additional improvements in treatment of breast cancer.

  17. Poly(γ-glutamic acid)-coated lipoplexes loaded with Doxorubicin for enhancing the antitumor activity against liver tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Na; Tang, Bo; Liu, Guang; Liang, Xingsi

    2017-05-01

    The study was to develop poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA)-coated Doxorubicin (Dox) lipoplexes that enhance the antitumor activity against liver tumors. γ-PGA-coated lipoplexes were performed by electrostatistically attracting to the surface of cationic charge liposomes with anionic γ-PGA. With the increasing of γ-PGA concentration, the particle size of γ-PGA-coated Dox lipoplexes slightly increased, the zeta potential from positive shifted to negative, and the entrapment efficiency (EE) were no significant change. The release rate of γ-PGA-coated Dox lipoplexes slightly increased at acidic pH, the accelerated Dox release might be attributed to greater drug delivery to tumor cells, resulting in a higher antitumor activity. Especially, γ-PGA-coated Dox lipoplexes exhibited higher cellular uptake, significant in vitro cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells, and improved in vivo antitumor efficacy toward HepG2 hepatoma-xenografted nude models in comparison with Dox liposomes and free Dox solution. In addition, the analysis results via flow cytometry showed that γ-PGA-coated Dox lipoplexes induce S phase cell cycle arrest and significantly increased apoptosis rate of HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the presence of γ-PGA on the surface of Dox lipoplexes enhanced antitumor effects of liver tumors.

  18. Detection and aggregation of the antitumoral drug parietin in ethanol/water mixture and on plasmonic metal nanoparticles studied by surface-enhanced optical spectroscopy: Effect of pH and ethanol concentration.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Tobar, Eduardo; Verebova, Valeria; Blascakova, Ludmila; Jancura, Daniel; Fabriciova, Gabriela; Sanchez-Cortes, Santiago

    2016-04-15

    In the present paper, we have investigated the effect of ethanol in aqueous media, the pH and the presence of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the aggregation processes of the antitumoral anthraquinone parietin in aqueous media and on the metal surface. UV-visible absorption, fluorescence and Raman spectra of parietin were used for such purpose. The present study provides information about the deprotonation and molecular aggregation processes occurring in parietin under different environments: ethanol/water mixture and when adsorbed onto Ag nanoparticles. The effect of ethanol on the optical properties of parietin in alcohol-water mixtures was also investigated at different ethanol concentrations with the time. For the case of the adsorption and organization of parietin molecules on the surface of Ag NPs, special attention was paid to the use of surface-enhanced optical techniques, SEF (surface-enhanced fluorescence) and SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering), for the characterization of the parietin aggregates and the ionization of the molecule on the surface. In particular, we have studied the variation of the SEF signal with the pH, which depends on the molecular organization of the molecule on the surface. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the SERS spectra at different pH was accomplished and the main Raman bands of the protonated, mono-deprotonated and di-deprotonated parietin were identified. Finally, the second ionization pK of parietin on metal NPs was deduced from the SERS spectra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthetic vaccine nanoparticles target to lymph node triggering enhanced innate and adaptive antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Young; Noh, Young-Woock; Kang, Tae Heung; Kim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Sohyun; Um, Soong Ho; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Park, Yeong-Min; Lim, Yong Taik

    2017-06-01

    In this study, synthetic vaccine nanoparticles (SVNPs) that efficiently targeted lymph nodes, where immune responses against foreign antigens are primed, were developed to enhance antitumor immunity. The size (20-70 nm) and surface character (amination) of poly(γ-glutamic acid)-based SVNPs were selected for effective loading and delivery (i.e., migration and retention) of model tumor antigen (OVA) and toll-like receptor 3 agonist (poly (I:C)) to immune cells in lymph nodes. Antigen-presenting cells treated with SVNP-OVA and SVNP-IC showed higher uptake of OVA and poly (I:C) and higher secretion of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) and type I interferon (IFN-α, IFN-β) than those treated with OVA and poly (I:C) alone. In vivo analysis revealed higher levels of activation markers, inflammatory cytokines, and type I IFNs in the lymph nodes of mice immunized with SVNP-IC compared to those of mice in other groups. SVNP-IC-treated mice showed significantly greater in vivo natural killer cell expansion/activation (NK1.1(+) cells) and CD8(+) T cell response (CD8(+) INF-γ(+) cells) in innate and adaptive immunity, respectively. Both preventive and therapeutic vaccination of EG7-OVA tumor-bearing mice using the simultaneous injection of both SVNP-OVA and SVNP-IC induced higher antitumor immunity and inhibited tumor growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preconditioning chemotherapy with cisplatin enhances the antitumor activity of cytokine-induced killer cells in a murine melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Huang, Xiang; Huang, Guichun; Chen, Yitian; Chen, Longbang; Song, Haizhu

    2012-04-01

    Accumulating evidence has indicated that preconditioning chemotherapy could eliminate the suppressive factors in antitumor immune response, thereby leading to the full release of the efficacy of the subsequent immunotherapy. In this study, a single subtoxic dose (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) of cisplatin was chosen as the preconditioning chemotherapy in combination with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells (4×10(6), intravenously) to treat the murine B16 melanoma xenografts. It was found that cisplatin pretreatment could enhance the antitumor activity of CIK cells. To explore the potential mechanisms underlying the efficacy-enhancing effect of cisplatin, the in vivo trafficking and distribution of the infused CIK cells were traced. It was found that cisplatin could augment the homing ability of CIK cells into the tumor, tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs), and spleen tissues. The endogenous effector cells, CD3(+) T lymphocytes also had an increased accumulation in the tumor and TDLNs after cisplatin precondition. Moreover, cisplatin could also modulate the percentages of myeloid cells, thus encouraging immune responses by increasing the percentages of dendritic cells and relieving the immunosuppression by preferentially eliminating the myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In conclusion, our findings suggested that cisplatin preconditioning chemotherapy could enhance the antitumor activity of CIK cells in a murine melanoma model, and this efficacy-enhancing effect was attributed to the augmented homing ability of exogenous and endogenous effector cells and the modulation of the myeloid cells.

  1. Effect of linalool as a component of Humulus lupulus on doxorubicin-induced antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Michiko; Sadzuka, Yasuyuki

    2013-03-01

    As malignant neoplasm is a major public health problem, there is a need for the development of a novel modulator that enhances antitumor activity and reduces adverse reactions to antitumor agents. In this study, the effects of some volatile oil components in Humulus lupulus on doxorubicin (DOX) permeability in tumor cells and DOX-induced antitumor activity were examined. In vitro, DOX levels in tumor cells by combined linalool as its component significantly increased in the DOX influx system, and the increased effect by linalool on DOX cytotoxicity was shown. In vivo, the combination of DOX with linalool significantly decreased tumor weight compared with that of DOX alone treated group. The promotion of DOX influx level by combined linalool did not depend on energy, whereas it was suppressed by the absence of Na(+). This promoting effect was suppressed by the presence of S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine and inhibited dependently on phlorizin concentration. It is considered that linalool promoted DOX influx in tumor cells because of its action on DOX transport through concentrative Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporter 3, which increased DOX concentration in tumor cells and thus enhanced the antitumor activity of DOX. Therefore, linalool as a food component is anticipated to be an effective DOX modulator.

  2. Antitumor effect of synergistic contribution of nitrite and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma activated medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurake, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Kenji; Nakamura, Kae; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumiaki; Kondo, Takashi; Mizuno, Masaaki; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2015-09-01

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas (NEAPP) have been attracted attention in the noble application of cancer therapy. Although good effects of the Plasma-Activated-Medium (PAM) such as the selective antitumor effect and killing effect for the anticancer agent resistant cells were reported, a mechanism of this effect has not been still clarified yet. In this study, we have investigated a contribution of the reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) generated in PAM such as hydrogen peroxide and nitrite. Those species generated in the PAM quantitatively measured by light absorbance of commercial regent. Moreover, viable cell count after cell culture with those RNOS intentionally added medium or PAM were also measured by MTS assay. Our NEAPP source generated hydrogen peroxide and nitrite with the generation ratio of 0.35 μM/s and 9.8 μM/s. In those RNOS, hydrogen peroxide has respective antitumor effect. On the other hands, nitrite has no antitumor effect singly. But, synergistically enhance the antitumor effect of hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, this effect of those RNOS also contribute for the selectively cancer killing effect of PAM.

  3. Inhibiting autophagy with chloroquine enhances the anti-tumor effect of high-LET carbon ions via ER stress-related apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaogang; Jin, Xiaodong; Li, Feifei; Liu, Xiongxiong; Liu, Yan; Ye, Fei; Li, Ping; Zhao, Ting; Li, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    Energetic carbon ions (CI) offer great advantages over conventional radiations such as X- or γ-rays in cancer radiotherapy. High linear energy transfer (LET) CI can induce both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy in tumor cells under certain circumstances. The molecular connection between ER stress and autophagy in tumor exposed to high-LET radiation and how these two pathways influence the therapeutic effect against tumor remain poorly understood. In this work, we studied the impact of autophagy and apoptosis induced by ER stress following high-LET CI radiation on the radiosensitivity of S180 cells both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro experiment, X-rays were also used as a reference radiation. Our results documented that the combination of CI radiation with chloroquine (CQ), a special autophagy inhibitor, produced more pronounced proliferation suppression in S180 cells and xenograft tumors. Co-treatment with CI radiation and CQ could block autophagy through the IRE1/JNK/Beclin-1 axis and enhance apoptotic cell death via the activation of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) by the IRE1 pathway rather than PERK in vitro and in vivo. Thus, our study indicates that inhibiting autophagy might be a promising therapeutic strategy in CI radiotherapy via aggravating the ER stress-related apoptosis.

  4. Antitumor effects and mechanisms of Ganoderma extracts and spores oil

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun; Li, Peng; Li, Ye; Yao, Guan; Xu, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine used in China to promote health. Modern studies have disclosed that the active ingredients of Ganoderma can exhibit several effects, including antitumor effects and immunomodulation. The present study evaluated the antitumor effects of self-prepared Ganoderma extracts and spores oil, and investigated the possible underlying mechanisms by observing the effects of the extracts and oil on topoisomerases and the cell cycle. The results showed that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil presented dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tumor cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Ganoderma extracts on HL60, K562 and SGC-7901 cells for 24 h were 0.44, 0.39 and 0.90 mg/ml, respectively; for Ganoderma spores oil, the IC50 values were 1.13, 2.27 and 6.29 mg/ml, respectively. In the in vivo study, the inhibitory rates of Ganoderma extracts (4 g/kg/d, intragastrically) on S180 and H22 cells were 39.1 and 44.6%, respectively, and for Ganoderma spores oil (1.2 g/kg/d, intragastrically) the inhibitory rates were 30.9 and 44.9%, respectively. Ganoderma extracts and spores oil inhibited the activities of topoisomerase I and II. Ganoderma spores oil was shown block the cell cycle at the transition between the G1 and S phases and induce a marked decrease in cyclin D1 levels in K562 cells, with no significant change in cyclin E level. These results suggest that the Ganoderma extracts and spores oil possessed antitumor effects in the in vitro and in vivo studies. The antitumor mechanisms of the extracts and spores oil were associated with inhibitory effects on topoisomerase I and II activities, and for Ganoderma spores oil, the antitumor effects may also be associated with decreased cyclin D1 levels, thus inducing G1 arrest in the cell cycle. PMID:27900038

  5. Hispidulin potentiates the antitumor effect of sunitinib against human renal cell carcinoma in laboratory models.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Jiang, Qixiao; Han, Yantao; Peng, Jianjun; Wang, Chunbo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the hispidulin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, in combination with a new multi-targeted oral medication, sunitinib on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell proliferation in vitro and on tumor growth in vivo. After treatment with hispidulin or sunitinib, either alone or in combination, MTT assay was used to examine cell viability and flow cytometry analysis was employed to examine cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of the RCC cell lines 786-0 and Caki-1. Western blotting was employed to examine the expression of proteins related to pStat3 signaling pathway. Furthermore, a xenograft mouse model was applied to study the antitumor efficacy of sunitinib or hispidulin alone or in combination, with immunohistochemistry to detect expression of proteins related to xenograft growth and angiogenesis. Hispidulin dose-dependently inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in both of the tested RCC cell lines when used alone; when combined with sunitinib, relatively low concentration of hispidulin enhanced the antitumor activity of the latter. The antitumor activity of hispidulin and its enhancement of the antitumor activity of sunitinib correlated with the suppression of pStat3 signaling and the consequent downregulation of Bcl-2 and survivin. Moreover, combination of hispidulin and sunitinib inhibited the growth and angiogenesis of xenografts generated from Caki-1 significantly. Immunohistochemistry indicated decreased expression of proteins promoting xenograft growth and angiogenesis after combination treatment of hispidulin and sunitinib. Our results showed that hispidulin, by inhibiting pStat3 signaling, exhibited antitumor activity and the joint use of hispidulin and sunitinib could provide greater antitumor efficacy compared to either drug alone. Therefore, combination treatment with hispidulin and sunitinib might offer a novel therapeutic option for patients with RCC.

  6. Biodegradable double-targeted PTX-mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles for ultrasound contrast enhanced imaging and antitumor therapy in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ying; Duan, You Rong; Du, Lian Fang

    2016-01-01

    A porous-structure nano-scale ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) was made of monomethoxypoly (ethylene glycol)-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (mPEG-PLGA), and modified by double-targeted antibody: anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and anti-carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), as a double-targeted nanoparticles (NPs). Anti-tumor drug paclitaxel (PTX) was encapsulated in the double-targeted nanoparticles (NPs). The morphor and release curve were characterized. We verified a certain anticancer effect of PTX-NPs through cytotoxicity experiments. The cell uptake result showed much more NPs may be facilitated to ingress the cells or tissues with ultrasound (US) or ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) transient sonoporation in vitro. Ultrasound contrast-enhanced images in vitro and in vivo were investigated. Compared with SonoVue, the NPs prolonged imaging time in rabbit kidneys and tumor of nude mice, which make it possible to further enhance anti-tumor effects by extending retention time in the tumor region. The novel double-targeted NPs with the function of ultrasound contrast enhanced imaging and anti-tumor therapy can be a promising way in clinic. PMID:27835907

  7. Liposome encapsulated albumin-paclitaxel nanoparticle for enhanced antitumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ruttala, Hima Bindu; Ko, Young Tag

    2015-03-01

    Albumin nanoparticles have been explored as a promising delivery system for various therapeutic agents. One limitation of such formulations is their poor colloidal stability in vivo. Present study aimed at enhancing the chemotherapeutic potential of paclitaxel by improving the colloidal stability and pharmacokinetic properties of albumin-paclitaxel nanoparticles (APNs) such as Abraxane®. This was accomplished by encapsulating the preformed APNs into PEGylated liposomal bilayer by thin-film hydration/extrusion technique. The resulting liposome-encapsulated albumin-paclitaxel hybrid nanoparticles (L-APNs) were nanosized (~200 nm) with uniform spherical dimensions. The successful incorporation of albumin-paclitaxel nanoparticle (NP) in liposome was confirmed by size exclusion chromatography analysis. Such hybrid NP showed an excellent colloidal stability even at 100-fold dilutions, overcoming the critical drawback associated with simple albumin-paclitaxel NP system. L-APNs further showed higher cytotoxic activity towards B16F10 and MCF-7 cells than APN; this effect was characterized by arrest at the G2/M phase and a higher prevalence of apoptotic subG1 cells. Finally, pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies in tumor mice demonstrated that L-APNs showed a significantly enhanced plasma half-life, and preferential accumulation in the tumor. Taken together, the data indicate that L-APNs can be promising therapeutic vehicles for enhanced delivery of PTX to tumor sites.

  8. Evaluation of the antitumor effects of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) nanoemulsions modified with sialic acid-cholesterol conjugate.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jia; Zhou, Songlei; Kang, Le; Ling, Hu; Chen, Jiepeng; Duan, Lili; Song, Yanzhi; Deng, Yihui

    2017-08-28

    Numerous studies have recently shown that vitamin K2 (VK2) has antitumor effects in a variety of tumor cells, but there are few reports demonstrating antitumor effects of VK2 in vivo. The antitumor effects of VK2 in nanoemulsions are currently not known. Therefore, we sought to characterize the antitumor potential of VK2 nanoemulsions in S180 tumor cells in the present study. Furthermore, a ligand conjugate sialic acid-cholesterol, with enhanced affinity towards the membrane receptors overexpressed in tumors, was anchored on the surface of the nanoemulsions to increase VK2 distribution to the tumor tissue. VK2 was encapsulated in oil-in-water nanoemulsions, and the physical and chemical stability of the nanoemulsions were characterized during storage at 25 °C. At 25 °C, all nanoemulsions remained physically and chemically stable with little change in particle size. An in vivo study using syngeneic mice with subcutaneously established S180 tumors demonstrated that intravenous or intragastric administration of VK2 nanoemulsions significantly suppressed the tumor growth. The VK2 nanoemulsions modified with sialic acid-cholesterol conjugate showed higher tumor growth suppression than the VK2 nanoemulsions, while neither of them exhibited signs of drug toxicity. In summary, VK2 exerted effective antitumor effects in vivo, and VK2 nanoemulsions modified with sialic acid-cholesterol conjugate enhanced the antitumor activity, suggesting that these VK2 may be promising agents for the prevention or treatment of tumor in patients.

  9. Poly (I:C) enhances the anti-tumor activity of canine parvovirus NS1 protein by inducing a potent anti-tumor immune response.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Yadav, Pavan Kumar; Tiwari, A K; Gandham, Ravi Kumar; Sahoo, A P

    2016-09-01

    The canine parvovirus NS1 (CPV2.NS1) protein selectively induces apoptosis in the malignant cells. However, for an effective in vivo tumor treatment strategy, an oncolytic agent also needs to induce a potent anti-tumor immune response. In the present study, we used poly (I:C), a TLR3 ligand, as an adjuvant along with CPV2.NS1 to find out if the combination can enhance the oncolytic activity by inducing a potent anti-tumor immune response. The 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells were used to induce mammary tumor in Balb/c mice. The results suggested that poly (I:C), when given along with CPV2.NS1, not only significantly reduced the tumor growth but also augmented the immune response against tumor antigen(s) as indicated by the increase in blood CD4+ and CD8+ counts and infiltration of immune cells in the tumor tissue. Further, blood serum analysis of the cytokines revealed that Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) were significantly upregulated in the treatment group indicating activation of cell-mediated immune response. The present study reports the efficacy of CPV2.NS1 along with poly (I:C) not only in inhibiting the mammary tumor growth but also in generating an active anti-tumor immune response without any visible toxicity. The results of our study may help in developing CPV2.NS1 and poly (I: C) combination as a cancer therapeutic regime to treat various malignancies.

  10. Antitumor effect of a polysaccharide isolated from Phellinus pullus as an immunostimulant

    PubMed Central

    YANG, WEIHUA; ZHANG, HENGLAN; JI, MINGYU; PEI, FENGYAN; WANG, YUNSHAN

    2016-01-01

    The antitumor function of fungal polysaccharides is a popular area of interest in the research field due to their high efficiency and low side effects. The main mechanism of fungal polysaccharides is immune enhancement. The polysaccharose (APS-3) was extracted from the fruit body of Phellinus pullus. The proliferation inhibition to mouse sarcoma 180 (S180) tumor cells was studied by the MTT method. Mice models of transplanted S180 tumor were established and treated with APS-3 to verify the antitumor activity in vivo. Natural killer (NK) and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cytotoxicities of the mice were evaluated by the lactate dehydrogenase method. APS-3 can significantly inhibit the proliferation of the S180 cells. Cells could be completely inhibited by 1.6 mg/ml APS-3 after 24 h treatment. After 18 days of treatment, the antitumor rate of the high-dose group was 85.47%. Histopathology detection showed that for the APS-3-treated mice, the tumor cells dissolved, and exhibited a large range of structureless necrotic areas. NK and LAK cytotoxicities of the APS-3 treated mice increased by 61.85 and 56.16%, respectively, compared with the normal control mice. APS-3 can be used as an antitumor agent by way of immune enhancement. PMID:26998276

  11. Antitumor effects of naturally occurring oligomeric resveratrol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Haishi; Chen, Xiaoqing; Xu, Lanfang; Wang, Jingjing; Zhao, Guoyan; Hou, Yayi; Ge, Hui Ming; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Li, Erguang

    2013-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate and characterize the molecular basis of antitumor activity of naturally occurring resveratrol (RES; 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) derivatives. The compounds were isolated from plants in previous studies and characterized spectroscopically. The antitumor activities of 31 RES derivatives, including dimers, trimers, and tetramers of RES, were evaluated using cell-based assays and validated on a murine model. Several trimeric and a tetrameric stilbenoids induced tumor cell apoptosis or growth arrest of several tumor cell lines with IC50 values (2.8-19.7 μM), significantly lower than that of RES (IC50>70 μM). Using pauciflorol B (PauB) as an example, we showed that the compound induced apoptosis p53 dependently, inducing p53 accumulation and p53-modulated gene expression in cells with wild-type p53, but not in those with nonfunctional p53. Reexpression of p53 in p53-null cells rescued cell death response. In parallel, the MAPK/p38 was activated and critical for PauB-induced killing. Interestingly, activation of p38 in p53 deficient cells was sufficient to drive cells into senescence via the p16-pRb pathway. Finally, PauB dose-dependently inhibited tumor growth on nude mice. Naturally occurring trimeric and tetrameric stilbenoids are potent antitumor agents. Those compounds exert antitumor effect through p53-dependent induction of apoptosis or senescence.

  12. Antibody-Mediated Phosphatidylserine Blockade Enhances the Antitumor Responses to CTLA-4 and PD-1 Antibodies in Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Freimark, Bruce D; Gong, Jian; Ye, Dan; Gray, Michael J; Nguyen, Van; Yin, Shen; Hatch, Michaela M S; Hughes, Christopher C W; Schroit, Alan J; Hutchins, Jeff T; Brekken, Rolf A; Huang, Xianming

    2016-06-01

    In tumor-bearing animals, the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) suppresses immune responses, suggesting that PS signaling could counteract the antitumor effect of antibody-driven immune checkpoint blockade. Here, we show that treating melanoma-bearing mice with a PS-targeting antibody enhances the antitumor activity of downstream checkpoint inhibition. Combining PS-targeting antibodies with CTLA-4 or PD-1 blockade resulted in significantly greater inhibition of tumor growth than did single-agent therapy. Moreover, combination therapy enhanced CD4(+) and CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte numbers; elevated the fraction of cells expressing the proinflammatory cytokines IL2, IFNγ, and TNFα; and increased the ratio of CD8 T cells to myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells in tumors. Similar changes in immune cell profiles were observed in splenocytes. Taken together, these data show that antibody-mediated PS blockade enhances the antitumor efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibition. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 531-40. ©2016 AACR.

  13. Enhanced antitumor efficacy of cisplatin in combination with HemoHIM in tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Although cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin alone does not achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. Also cisplatin accumulation shows toxicity to normal tissues. In this study, we examined the possibility of HemoHIM both to enhance anticancer effect with cisplatin and to reduce the side effects of cisplatin in melanoma-bearing mice. Methods HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of 3 edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. Anticancer effects of HemoHIM with cisplatin were evaluated in melanoma-bearing mice. We used a Cr51-release assay to measure the activity of NK/Tc cell and ELISA to evaluate the production of cytokines. Results In melanoma-bearing mice, cisplatin (4 mg/kg B.W.) reduced the size and weight of the solid tumors, and HemoHIM supplementation with cisplatin enhanced the decrease of both the tumor size (p < 0.1) and weight (p < 0.1). HemoHIM itself did not inhibit melanoma cell growth in vitro, and did not disturb the effects of cisplatin in vitro. However HemoHIM administration enhanced both NK cell and Tc cell activity in mice. Interestingly, HemoHIM increased the proportion of NK cells in the spleen. In melanoma-bearing mice treated with cisplatin, HemoHIM administration also increased the activity of NK cells and Tc cells and the IL-2 and IFN-γ secretion from splenocytes, which seemed to contribute to the enhanced efficacy of cisplatin by HemoHIM. Also, HemoHIM reduced nephrotoxicity as seen by tubular cell of kidney destruction. Conclusion HemoHIM may be a beneficial supplement during cisplatin chemotherapy for enhancing the anti-tumor efficacy and reducing the toxicity of cisplatin. PMID:19292900

  14. Enhanced antitumor efficacy of cisplatin in combination with HemoHIM in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Ran; Ju, Eun-Jin; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Sung-Ho; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2009-03-17

    Although cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin alone does not achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. Also cisplatin accumulation shows toxicity to normal tissues. In this study, we examined the possibility of HemoHIM both to enhance anticancer effect with cisplatin and to reduce the side effects of cisplatin in melanoma-bearing mice. HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of 3 edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. Anticancer effects of HemoHIM with cisplatin were evaluated in melanoma-bearing mice. We used a Cr51-release assay to measure the activity of NK/Tc cell and ELISA to evaluate the production of cytokines. In melanoma-bearing mice, cisplatin (4 mg/kg B.W.) reduced the size and weight of the solid tumors, and HemoHIM supplementation with cisplatin enhanced the decrease of both the tumor size (p < 0.1) and weight (p < 0.1). HemoHIM itself did not inhibit melanoma cell growth in vitro, and did not disturb the effects of cisplatin in vitro. However HemoHIM administration enhanced both NK cell and Tc cell activity in mice. Interestingly, HemoHIM increased the proportion of NK cells in the spleen. In melanoma-bearing mice treated with cisplatin, HemoHIM administration also increased the activity of NK cells and Tc cells and the IL-2 and IFN-gamma secretion from splenocytes, which seemed to contribute to the enhanced efficacy of cisplatin by HemoHIM. Also, HemoHIM reduced nephrotoxicity as seen by tubular cell of kidney destruction. HemoHIM may be a beneficial supplement during cisplatin chemotherapy for enhancing the anti-tumor efficacy and reducing the toxicity of cisplatin.

  15. Therapeutic Anti-Tumor Vaccines: From Tumor Inhibition to Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Chiarella, Paula; Reffo, Verónica; Bruzzo, Juan; Bustuoabad, Oscar D.; Ruggiero, Raúl A.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous immunization trials have proved successful in preventing the growth of experimental animal tumors and human hepatocarcinomas induced by hepatitis B virus. These results have prompted researchers and physicians to use vaccines in a therapeutic mode but the results have, in general, been disappointing even when strongly immunogenic murine tumors were concerned. Data presented herein suggest that immunotherapy induced by a single dose of a dendritic cell-based vaccine against a murine established tumor or against residual tumor cells after debulking the primary tumor, can render not only inhibitory or null but also stimulatory effects on tumor growth. These different effects might be dependent on where the system is located in the immune response curve that relates the quantity of the immune response to the quantity of target tumor cells. We suggest that high ratios render tumor inhibition, medium and very low ratios render null effects and low ratios—between medium and very low ones—render tumor stimulation. Since the magnitude of these ratios would depend on the antigenic profile of the tumor, the immunogenic strength of the vaccine used and the immunological state of the host, studies aimed to determine the magnitude of these variables in each particular case, seem to be necessary as a pre-condition to design rational immunotherapeutic approaches to cancer. In contrast, if these studies are neglected, the worst thing that an immunotherapist could face is not merely a null effect but enhancement of tumor growth. PMID:21892285

  16. Targeting of Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis Underlies the Enhanced Antitumor Activity of Lenvatinib in Combination with Everolimus.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Masahiro; Adachi, Yusuke; Ozawa, Yoichi; Kimura, Takayuki; Hoshi, Taisuke; Okamoto, Kiyoshi; Tohyama, Osamu; Mitsuhashi, Kaoru; Yamaguchi, Atsumi; Matsui, Junji; Funahashi, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-20

    The combination of lenvatinib-a multiple receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor-plus everolimus-a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor-significantly improved clinical outcomes versus everolimus monotherapy in a phase 2 clinical study of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Here, we investigated potential mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of the combination treatment in preclinical RCC models. Lenvatinib plus everolimus showed greater antitumor activity than either monotherapy in 3 human RCC xenograft mouse models (A-498, Caki-1, and Caki-2). In particular, the combination led to tumor regression in the A-498 and Caki-1 models. In the A-498 model, everolimus demonstrated antiproliferative activity, whereas lenvatinib showed antiangiogenic effects. The antiangiogenic activity was potentiated by the lenvatinib plus everolimus combination in Caki-1 xenografts, where FGF-driven angiogenesis may contribute to tumor growth. The combination showed mostly additive activity in VEGF-activated, and synergistic activity against FGF-activated endothelial cells in cell proliferation and tube formation assays, as well as strongly suppressed mTOR-S6K-S6 signaling. Enhanced antitumor activities of the combination versus each monotherapy were also observed in mice bearing human pancreatic KP-1 xenografts overexpressing VEGF or FGF. Our results indicated that simultaneous targeting tumor cell growth and angiogenesis by lenvatinib plus everolimus resulted in enhanced antitumor activity. The enhanced inhibition of both VEGF- and FGF-signaling pathways by the combination underlies its superior antiangiogenic activity in human RCC xenograft models. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Rationally designed oxaliplatin-nanoparticle for enhanced antitumor efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraskar, Abhimanyu; Soni, Shivani; Roy, Bhaskar; Papa, Anne-Laure; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2012-02-01

    Nanoscale drug delivery vehicles have been extensively studied as carriers for cancer chemotherapeutics. However, the formulation of platinum chemotherapeutics in nanoparticles has been a challenge arising from their physicochemical properties. There are only a few reports describing oxaliplatin nanoparticles. In this study, we derivatized the monomeric units of a polyisobutylene maleic acid copolymer with glucosamine, which chelates trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (DACH) platinum (II) through a novel monocarboxylato and O → Pt coordination linkage. At a specific polymer to platinum ratio, the complex self-assembled into a nanoparticle, where the polymeric units act as the leaving group, releasing DACH-platinum in a sustained pH-dependent manner. Sizing was done using dynamic light scatter and electron microscopy. The nanoparticles were evaluated for efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution was quantified using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectroscopy (ICP-AAS). The PIMA-GA-DACH-platinum nanoparticle was found to be more active than free oxaliplatin in vitro. In vivo, the nanoparticles resulted in greater tumor inhibition than oxaliplatin (equivalent to 5 mg kg-1 platinum dose) with minimal nephrotoxicity or body weight loss. ICP-AAS revealed significant preferential tumor accumulation of platinum with reduced biodistribution to the kidney or liver following PIMA-GA-DACH-platinum nanoparticle administration as compared with free oxaliplatin. These results indicate that the rational engineering of a novel polymeric nanoparticle inspired by the bioactivation of oxaliplatin results in increased antitumor potency with reduced systemic toxicity compared with the parent cytotoxic. Rational design can emerge as an exciting strategy in the synthesis of nanomedicines for cancer chemotherapy.

  18. Interleukin 12 Secretion Enhances Antitumor Efficacy of Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viral Therapy for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Joseph J.; Malhotra, Sandeep; Wong, Richard J.; Delman, Keith; Zager, Jonathan; St-Louis, Maryse; Johnson, Paul; Fong, Yuman

    2001-01-01

    Objective To assess the strategy of combining oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) therapy with immunomodulatory therapy as treatment for experimental colon cancer. The oncolytic HSV recombinant NV1023 and the interleukin 12 (IL-12)-secreting oncolytic NV1042 virus were evaluated in vitro and in vivo with respect to antitumor efficacy. Summary Background Data Genetically engineered, replication-conditional, attenuated HSVs have shown oncolytic activity against a wide variety of solid malignancies. Other strategies for treating cancer have involved immunomodulation and cytokine gene transfer using viral vectors. This study has combined both of these strategies by inserting the murine IL-12 gene into a replication-competent HSV. This approach allows oncolytic therapy to replicate selectively within and lyse tumor cells while providing the host immune system with the cytokine stimulus necessary to recruit and activate inflammatory cells needed to enhance the antitumor effect. Methods NV1023 is a multimutant HSV based on the wild-type HSV-1 F strain. NV1042 was created by insertion of the mIL-12 gene into NV1023. Cytotoxicity and viral proliferation of both NV1023 and NV1042 within murine CT26 colorectal cancer cells were first shown. Cells infected with NV1042 were then shown to produce significant levels of IL-12. Using an experimental flank model of colon cancer, mice were treated with both high and low doses of NV1023 or NV1042 and were followed up for both cure and reduction in tumor burden. Results Both viruses could replicate within and kill CT26 cells in vitro, with 100% cytotoxicity achieved after infection by either virus. Only NV1042 could produce mIL-12. Therapy using high viral doses to treat animals in vivo showed equal efficacy between NV1023 and NV1042, with five of seven cures for each virus. When viral doses were lowered, only the cytokine-producing NV1042 virus could reduce tumor burden and cure animals of their disease. Conclusions Both NV1023 and

  19. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention.

  20. VP22 mediates intercellular trafficking and enhances the in vitro antitumor activity of PTEN.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xian; Xu, Zhengmin; Lei, Jun; Li, Tingting; Wang, Yan

    2015-07-01

    PTEN acts as a phosphatidylinositol phosphatase with a possible role in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. Mutations in PTEN are frequent and their presence is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer, which is the most common type of non-cutaneous malignancy in females. Delivery of the tumor suppressor PTEN gene represents a powerful strategy for breast cancer therapy, but a present limitation of gene therapy is the ability to deliver sufficient quantities of active proteins to target cells. The capacity of HSV-1VP22 fusion proteins to spread from the primary transduced cell to surrounding cells could improve gene therapeutics, particularly in cancer. To assess the potential efficacy of VP22 as a gene therapy for breast cancer, expression vectors for N- and C-terminal PTEN-VP22 fusion proteins were constructed. VP22‑mediated intercellular transport and antitumor efficacy in BT549 (PTEN-null) breast tumor cells were investigated. The results showed that PTEN-VP22 has the same spreading abilities as VP22. In cell proliferation and apoptosis assays, PTEN-VP22 gene transfer induces a stronger anti-proliferative effect and apoptotic activity compared with PTEN gene transfer alone. In addition, VP22 enhanced the PTEN‑mediated decrease in the level of phosphorylated AKT. The results show that PTEN-VP22 can spread in vitro and PTEN-VP22 gene induces significantly greater antitumor activity than the PTEN gene alone. This study confirms the utility of VP22-mediated delivery in vitro and suggests that PTEN-VP22 may have applications in breast cancer gene therapy.

  1. Lenalidomide enhances antitumor functions of chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells

    PubMed Central

    Otáhal, Pavel; Průková, Dana; Král, Vlastimil; Fabry, Milan; Vočková, Petra; Latečková, Lucie; Trněný, Marek; Klener, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor immunotherapy based on the use of chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells (CAR T cells) is a promising approach for the treatment of refractory hematological malignancies. However, a robust response mediated by CAR T cells is observed only in a minority of patients and the expansion and persistence of CAR T cells in vivo is mostly unpredictable.Lenalidomide (LEN) is an immunomodulatory drug currently approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) and mantle cell lymphoma, while it is clinically tested in the therapy of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of activated B cell immunophenotype. LEN was shown to increase antitumor immune responses at least partially by modulating the activity of E3 ubiquitin ligase Cereblon, which leads to increased ubiquitinylation of Ikaros and Aiolos transcription factors, which in turn results in changed expression of various receptors on the surface of tumor cells. In order to enhance the effectiveness of CAR-based immunotherapy, we assessed the anti-lymphoma efficacy of LEN in combination with CAR19 T cells or CAR20 T cells in vitro and in vivo using various murine models of aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHL).Immunodeficient NSG mice were transplanted with various human B-NHL cells followed by treatment with CAR19 or CAR20 T cells with or without LEN. Next, CAR19 T cells were subjected to series of tests in vitro to evaluate their response and signaling capacity following recognition of B cell in the presence or absence of LEN.Our data shows that LEN significantly enhances antitumor functions of CAR19 and CAR20 T cells in vivo. Additionally, it enhances production of interferon gamma by CAR19 T cells and augments cell signaling via CAR19 protein in T cells in vitro. Our data further suggests that LEN works through direct effects on T cells but not on B-NHL cells. The biochemical events underlying this costimulatory effect of LEN are currently being investigated. In summary, our data supports the use

  2. Lenalidomide enhances antitumor functions of chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells.

    PubMed

    Otáhal, Pavel; Průková, Dana; Král, Vlastimil; Fabry, Milan; Vočková, Petra; Latečková, Lucie; Trněný, Marek; Klener, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Tumor immunotherapy based on the use of chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells (CAR T cells) is a promising approach for the treatment of refractory hematological malignancies. However, a robust response mediated by CAR T cells is observed only in a minority of patients and the expansion and persistence of CAR T cells in vivo is mostly unpredictable.Lenalidomide (LEN) is an immunomodulatory drug currently approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) and mantle cell lymphoma, while it is clinically tested in the therapy of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of activated B cell immunophenotype. LEN was shown to increase antitumor immune responses at least partially by modulating the activity of E3 ubiquitin ligase Cereblon, which leads to increased ubiquitinylation of Ikaros and Aiolos transcription factors, which in turn results in changed expression of various receptors on the surface of tumor cells. In order to enhance the effectiveness of CAR-based immunotherapy, we assessed the anti-lymphoma efficacy of LEN in combination with CAR19 T cells or CAR20 T cells in vitro and in vivo using various murine models of aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHL).Immunodeficient NSG mice were transplanted with various human B-NHL cells followed by treatment with CAR19 or CAR20 T cells with or without LEN. Next, CAR19 T cells were subjected to series of tests in vitro to evaluate their response and signaling capacity following recognition of B cell in the presence or absence of LEN.Our data shows that LEN significantly enhances antitumor functions of CAR19 and CAR20 T cells in vivo. Additionally, it enhances production of interferon gamma by CAR19 T cells and augments cell signaling via CAR19 protein in T cells in vitro. Our data further suggests that LEN works through direct effects on T cells but not on B-NHL cells. The biochemical events underlying this costimulatory effect of LEN are currently being investigated. In summary, our data supports the use of LEN for

  3. Enhancement of antitumor effect of paclitaxel in combination with immunomodulatory Withania somnifera on benzo(a)pyrene induced experimental lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Senthilnathan, Palaniyandi; Padmavathi, Radhakrishnan; Banu, Syed Mumtaz; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal

    2006-02-25

    The current experimental work deals with the immunomodulatory studies on the extract of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal root powder against benzo(a)pyrene induced lung cancer in male Swiss albino mice. In our previous study, we reported the antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effect of W. somnifera (L.) Dunal along with paclitaxel. Immune dysfunction has been found to be associated with cancer and chemotherapy. Benzo(a)pyrene induced cancer animals were treated with 400mg/kg bodyweight of W. somnifera (L.) Dunal extract for 30 days significantly alters the levels of immunocompetent cells, immune complexes and immunoglobulins. Based on the data, the carcinogen as well as the paclitaxel affects the immune system, the toxic side effects on the immune system is more reversible and more controllable by W. somnifera (L.) Dunal. These results concluded the immunomodulatory activity of W. somnifera (L.) Dunal extract, which is a known immunomodulator in indigenous medicine.

  4. TP53 modulating agent, CP-31398 enhances antitumor effects of ODC inhibitor in mouse model of urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Madka, Venkateshwar; Mohammed, Altaf; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yuting; Kumar, Gaurav; Lightfoot, Stan; Wu, Xueru; Steele, Vernon; Kopelovich, Levy; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of the tumor suppressor p53 and elevated levels of polyamines are known to play key roles in urothelial tumorigenesis. We investigated the inhibition of polyamines biosynthesis and the restoration of p53 signaling as a possible means of preventing muscle invasive urothelial tumors using DFMO, an ODC-inhibiting agent, and CP-31398 (CP), a p53 stabilizing agent. Transgenic UPII-SV40T male mice at 6weeks age (n=15/group) were fed control diet (AIN-76A) or experimental diets containing DFMO (1000 and 2000 ppm) or 150 ppm CP or both. At 40 weeks of age, all mice were euthanized and urinary bladders were evaluated to determine tumor weight and histopathology. Low-dose DFMO had a moderate significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth (38%, P<0.02) and tumor invasion (23%). High-dose DFMO had a 47% tumor inhibition (P<0.0001) and 40% inhibition tumor invasion. There was no significant difference between 1000 and 2000 ppm doses of DFMO (P>0.05). CP at 150 ppm alone had a strong inhibitory effect on tumor growth by 80% (P<0.0001); however, no effect on tumor invasion was observed. Interestingly, the combination of DFMO (1000 ppm) and CP (150 ppm) led to significant decrease in tumor weight (70%, P<0.0001) and tumor invasion (62.5%; P<0.005). Molecular analysis of the urothelial tumors suggested a modulation of polyamine biosynthesis, proliferation, cell cycle regulators resulting from the use of these agents. These results suggest that targeting two or more pathways could be an effective approach for chemoprevention. A combination of CP and DFMO appears to be a promising strategy for urothelial TCC prevention.

  5. TP53 modulating agent, CP-31398 enhances antitumor effects of ODC inhibitor in mouse model of urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Madka, Venkateshwar; Mohammed, Altaf; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yuting; Kumar, Gaurav; Lightfoot, Stan; Wu, Xueru; Steele, Vernon; Kopelovich, Levy; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of the tumor suppressor p53 and elevated levels of polyamines are known to play key roles in urothelial tumorigenesis. We investigated the inhibition of polyamines biosynthesis and the restoration of p53 signaling as a possible means of preventing muscle invasive urothelial tumors using DFMO, an ODC-inhibiting agent, and CP-31398 (CP), a p53 stabilizing agent. Transgenic UPII-SV40T male mice at 6weeks age (n=15/group) were fed control diet (AIN-76A) or experimental diets containing DFMO (1000 and 2000 ppm) or 150 ppm CP or both. At 40 weeks of age, all mice were euthanized and urinary bladders were evaluated to determine tumor weight and histopathology. Low-dose DFMO had a moderate significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth (38%, P<0.02) and tumor invasion (23%). High-dose DFMO had a 47% tumor inhibition (P<0.0001) and 40% inhibition tumor invasion. There was no significant difference between 1000 and 2000 ppm doses of DFMO (P>0.05). CP at 150 ppm alone had a strong inhibitory effect on tumor growth by 80% (P<0.0001); however, no effect on tumor invasion was observed. Interestingly, the combination of DFMO (1000 ppm) and CP (150 ppm) led to significant decrease in tumor weight (70%, P<0.0001) and tumor invasion (62.5%; P<0.005). Molecular analysis of the urothelial tumors suggested a modulation of polyamine biosynthesis, proliferation, cell cycle regulators resulting from the use of these agents. These results suggest that targeting two or more pathways could be an effective approach for chemoprevention. A combination of CP and DFMO appears to be a promising strategy for urothelial TCC prevention. PMID:26693057

  6. Encapsulation of teniposide into albumin nanoparticles with greatly lowered toxicity and enhanced antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    He, Xinyi; Xiang, Nanxi; Zhang, Jinjie; Zhou, Jing; Fu, Yao; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong

    2015-06-20

    Teniposide (VM-26) is a semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin effective for the treatment of many types of tumors. However, the poor water solubility and adverse effects restrict its clinical use. Our study aimed to develop a novel phospholipid complex albumin nanoparticle (VM-E80-AN) to reduce the systemic toxicity and enhance antitumor activity of VM-26. Egg yolk lecithin E80 and human serum albumin (HSA) were used as the main excipients to replace Cremophor EL in the commercial formulation. The physicochemical properties of VM-E80-AN were characterized to optimize the formulation. Cell and animal studies were further carried out to estimate its tumor inhibition efficacy, biodistribution, and toxicity. Comparison between VM-26 solution and VM-E80-AN showed that VM-E80-AN significantly reduced the toxicity of VM-26 and enhanced the anticancer efficacy of the drug. Thus, VM-E80-AN represents a safe and promising formulation of teniposide for clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antitumor effects of the benzophenanthridine alkaloid sanguinarine: Evidence and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Gaziano, Roberta; Moroni, Gabriella; Buè, Cristina; Miele, Martino Tony; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Pica, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Historically, natural products have represented a significant source of anticancer agents, with plant-derived drugs becoming increasingly explored. In particular, sanguinarine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid obtained from the root of Sanguinaria canadensis, and from other poppy Fumaria species, with recognized anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, increasing evidence that sanguinarine exibits anticancer potential through its capability of inducing apoptosis and/or antiproliferative effects on tumor cells, has been proved. Moreover, its antitumor seems to be due not only to its pro-apoptotic and inhibitory effects on tumor growth, but also to its antiangiogenic and anti-invasive properties. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of this compound remain not fully understood, in this review we will focus on the most recent findings about the cellular and molecular pathways affected by sanguinarine, together with the rationale of its potential application in clinic. The complex of data currently available suggest the potential application of sanguinarine as an adjuvant in the therapy of cancer, but further pre-clinical studies are needed before such an antitumor strategy can be effectively translated in the clinical practice. PMID:26798435

  8. Antitumor effects of the benzophenanthridine alkaloid sanguinarine: Evidence and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gaziano, Roberta; Moroni, Gabriella; Buè, Cristina; Miele, Martino Tony; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Pica, Francesca

    2016-01-15

    Historically, natural products have represented a significant source of anticancer agents, with plant-derived drugs becoming increasingly explored. In particular, sanguinarine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid obtained from the root of Sanguinaria canadensis, and from other poppy Fumaria species, with recognized anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, increasing evidence that sanguinarine exibits anticancer potential through its capability of inducing apoptosis and/or antiproliferative effects on tumor cells, has been proved. Moreover, its antitumor seems to be due not only to its pro-apoptotic and inhibitory effects on tumor growth, but also to its antiangiogenic and anti-invasive properties. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of this compound remain not fully understood, in this review we will focus on the most recent findings about the cellular and molecular pathways affected by sanguinarine, together with the rationale of its potential application in clinic. The complex of data currently available suggest the potential application of sanguinarine as an adjuvant in the therapy of cancer, but further pre-clinical studies are needed before such an antitumor strategy can be effectively translated in the clinical practice.

  9. CYP24A1 Inhibition Enhances the Antitumor Activity of Calcitriol

    PubMed Central

    Muindi, Josephia R.; Yu, Wei-Dong; Ma, Yingyu; Engler, Kristie L.; Kong, Rui-Xian; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2010-01-01

    High systemic exposures to calcitriol are necessary for optimal antitumor effects. Human prostate cancer PC3 cells are insensitive to calcitriol treatment. Therefore, we investigated whether the inhibition of 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1), the major calcitriol inactivating enzyme, by ketoconazole (KTZ) or RC2204 modulates calcitriol serum pharmacokinetics and biologic effects. Dexamethasone (Dex) was added to minimize calcitriol-induced hypercalcemia and as a steroid replacement for the KTZ inhibition of steroid biosynthesis cytochrome P450 enzymes. KTZ effectively inhibited time-dependent calcitriol-inducible CYP24A1 protein expression and enzyme activity in PC3 cells and C3H/HeJ mouse kidney tissues. Systemic calcitriol exposure area under the curve was higher in mice treated with a combination of calcitriol and KTZ than with calcitriol alone. KTZ and Dex synergistically potentiated calcitriol-mediated antiproliferative effects in PC3 cells in vitro; this effect was associated with enhanced apoptosis. After treatment with calcitriol and KTZ/Dex, although caspase-9 and caspase-3 were not activated and cytochrome c was not released by mitochondria, caspase-8 was activated and the truncated Bid protein level was increased. Translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor to the nucleus was observed, indicating a role of the apoptosis-inducing factor-mediated and caspase-independent apoptotic pathways. Calcitriol and KTZ/Dex combination suppressed the clonogenic survival and enhanced the growth inhibition observed with calcitriol alone in PC3 human prostate cancer xenograft mouse model. Our results show that the administration of calcitriol in combination with CYP24A1 inhibitor enhances antiproliferative effects, increases systemic calcitriol exposure, and promotes the activation of caspase-independent apoptosis pathway. PMID:20591973

  10. Reduction of splenic immunosuppressive cells and enhancement of anti-tumor immunity by synergy of fish oil and selenium yeast.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Chan, Yi-Lin; Li, Tsung-Lin; Bauer, Brent A; Hsia, Simon; Wang, Cheng-Hsu; Huang, Jen-Seng; Wang, Hung-Ming; Yeh, Kun-Yun; Huang, Tse-Hung; Wu, Gwo-Jang; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence has shown that regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) abnormally increase in cancer cachectic patients. Suppressions of Tregs and MDSCs may enhance anti-tumor immunity for cancer patients. Fish oil and selenium have been known to have many biological activities such as anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation. Whether fish oil and/or selenium have an additional effect on population of immunosuppressive cells in tumor-bearing hosts remained elusive and controversial. To gain insights into their roles on anti-tumor immunity, we studied the fish oil- and/or selenium-mediated tumor suppression and immunity on lung carcinoma, whereof cachexia develops. Advancement of cachexia in a murine lung cancer model manifested with such indicative symptoms as weight loss, chronic inflammation and disturbed immune functionality. The elevation of Tregs and MDSCs in spleens of tumor-bearing mice was positively correlated with tumor burdens. Consumption of either fish oil or selenium had little or no effect on the levels of Tregs and MDSCs. However, consumption of both fish oil and selenium together presented a synergistic effect--the population of Tregs and MDSCs decreased as opposed to increase of anti-tumor immunity when both fish oil and selenium were supplemented simultaneously, whereby losses of body weight and muscle/fat mass were alleviated significantly.

  11. Reduction of Splenic Immunosuppressive Cells and Enhancement of Anti-Tumor Immunity by Synergy of Fish Oil and Selenium Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tsung-Lin; Bauer, Brent A.; Hsia, Simon; Wang, Cheng-Hsu; Huang, Jen-Seng; Wang, Hung-Ming; Yeh, Kun-Yun; Huang, Tse-Hung; Wu, Gwo-Jang; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence has shown that regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) abnormally increase in cancer cachectic patients. Suppressions of Tregs and MDSCs may enhance anti-tumor immunity for cancer patients. Fish oil and selenium have been known to have many biological activities such as anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation. Whether fish oil and/or selenium have an additional effect on population of immunosuppressive cells in tumor-bearing hosts remained elusive and controversial. To gain insights into their roles on anti-tumor immunity, we studied the fish oil- and/or selenium-mediated tumor suppression and immunity on lung carcinoma, whereof cachexia develops. Advancement of cachexia in a murine lung cancer model manifested with such indicative symptoms as weight loss, chronic inflammation and disturbed immune functionality. The elevation of Tregs and MDSCs in spleens of tumor-bearing mice was positively correlated with tumor burdens. Consumption of either fish oil or selenium had little or no effect on the levels of Tregs and MDSCs. However, consumption of both fish oil and selenium together presented a synergistic effect-The population of Tregs and MDSCs decreased as opposed to increase of anti-tumor immunity when both fish oil and selenium were supplemented simultaneously, whereby losses of body weight and muscle/fat mass were alleviated significantly. PMID:23349693

  12. Characterization of a novel maitake (Grifola frondosa) protein that activates natural killer and dendritic cells and enhances antitumor immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Yao-Wei; Kuan, Yen-Chou; Wang, Jia-Lin; Sheu, Fuu

    2013-10-16

    Grifola frondosa, also known as maitake, is a culinary mushroom with immune-enhancing and antitumor effects. Numerous studies have investigated the activity of maitake polysaccharide extracts, but studies of maitake proteins are scarce. In this study, we purified and characterized a new G. frondosa protein, GFP, from maitake fruiting bodies. GFP is a nonglucan heterodimeric 83 kDa protein that consists of two 41 kDa subunits. GFP induced interferon-γ secretion by murine splenocytes and natural killer cells and activated the maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) via a TLR4-dependent mechanism. GFP-treated BMDCs promoted a Th1 response and exhibited significant antitumor activity when transferred into tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, we are the first to reveal the critical role of GFP in modulating the immune response and to link the immune-enhancing effects of maitake to its antitumor activities.

  13. Human HSP70 and modified HPV16 E7 fusion DNA vaccine induces enhanced specific CD8+ T cell responses and anti-tumor effects.

    PubMed

    Zong, Jinbao; Peng, Qinglin; Wang, Qingyong; Zhang, Ting; Fan, Dongsheng; Xu, Xuemei

    2009-10-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and persistent infection with human papilloma virus (HPV)s is considered to be the major risk factor. Millions of women are currently infected with high risk genotypes. Therefore, it is imperative to develop therapeutic vaccines to eliminate established infection or HPV-related disease. In the current study, we generated two potential therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines, SigmE7/MtHSP70 and SigmE7/HuHSP70, using human and mycobacterium tuberculosis HSP70 linked, respectively, to HPV16 mE7 and the signal peptide gene of human CD33. Our comparative evaluation of these two vaccines found that vaccination with the SigmE7/HuHSP70 DNA vaccine induced a stronger E7-specific CD8+ T cell immune response and resulted in a more significant therapeutic effect against E7 expressing tumor cells. Our study may serve as an important foundation and significant reference for future clinical applications.

  14. MicroRNA-136 inhibits cancer stem cell activity and enhances the anti-tumor effect of paclitaxel against chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells by targeting Notch3.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ju-Yeon; Kang, Haeyoun; Kim, Tae Hoen; Kim, Gwangil; Heo, Jin-Hyung; Kwon, Ah-Young; Kim, Sewha; Jung, Sang-Geun; An, Hee-Jung

    2017-02-01

    To identify microRNAs (miRNAs) regulating Notch3 expression in association with paclitaxel resistance, candidate miRNAs targeting Notch3 were predicted using TargetScan. We found that miR-136 directly targets Notch3, and miR-136 was significantly downregulated in OSC tissues relative to normal control tissues, and low expression of miR-136 correlated with poor overall in ovarian cancer patients. Artificial miR-136 overexpression significantly reduced cell viability, proliferation, Cancer stem cell (CSC) spheroid formation, and angiogenesis, and increased apoptosis in paclitaxel-resistant SKpac cells compared with the effects of paclitaxel alone. miR-136 overexpression downregulated cell survival- (survivin, DNA-PK, pS6, S6) and cell cycle- (Cyclin D1, NF-κB) related proteins, and anti-apoptotic proteins (BCL2, and BCL-XL), and upregulated pro-apoptotic proteins (Bim, Bid, and Bax). Taken together, miR-136 targets the Notch3 oncogene and functions as a tumor suppressor. miR-136 overexpression resensitized paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells and reduced CSC activities, suggesting a promising new target for the treatment of chemoresistant ovarian cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Resveratrol Enhances Antitumor Activity of TRAIL in Prostate Cancer Xenografts through Activation of FOXO Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathy, Suthakar; Chen, Qinghe; Singh, Karan P.; Shankar, Sharmila; Srivastava, Rakesh K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Resveratrol (3, 4′, 5 tri-hydroxystilbene), a naturally occurring polyphenol, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective and antitumor activities. We have recently shown that resveratrol can enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL in prostate cancer cells through multiple mechanisms in vitro. Therefore, the present study was designed to validate whether resveratrol can enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL in a xenograft model of prostate cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings Resveratrol and TRAIL alone inhibited growth of PC-3 xenografts in nude mice by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation (PCNA and Ki67 staining) and inducing apoptosis (TUNEL staining). The combination of resveratrol and TRAIL was more effective in inhibiting tumor growth than single agent alone. In xenografted tumors, resveratrol upregulated the expressions of TRAIL-R1/DR4, TRAIL-R2/DR5, Bax and p27/K IP1, and inhibited the expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1. Treatment of mice with resveratrol and TRAIL alone inhibited angiogenesis (as demonstrated by reduced number of blood vessels, and VEGF and VEGFR2 positive cells) and markers of metastasis (MMP-2 and MMP-9). The combination of resveratrol with TRAIL further inhibited number of blood vessels in tumors, and circulating endothelial growth factor receptor 2-positive endothelial cells than single agent alone. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited the cytoplasmic phosphorylation of FKHRL1 resulting in its enhanced activation as demonstrated by increased DNA binding activity. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that resveratrol can enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL by activating FKHRL1 and its target genes. The ability of resveratrol to inhibit tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis, and enhance the therapeutic potential of TRAIL suggests that resveratrol alone or in combination with TRAIL can be used for the management of prostate cancer. PMID:21209944

  16. Quercetin Enhances the Antitumor Activity of Trichostatin A through Upregulation of p53 Protein Expression In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Shu-Ting; Yang, Nae-Cherng; Huang, Chin-Shiu; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Yeh, Shu-Lan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of quercetin on the anti-tumor effect of trichostatin A (TSA), a novel anticancer drug, in vitro and in vivo and the possible mechanisms of these effects in human lung cancer cells. We first showed that quercetin (5 µM) significantly increased the growth arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells (expressing wild-type p53) induced by 25 ng/mL of (82.5 nM) TSA at 48 h by about 25% and 101%, respectively. However, such enhancing effects of quercetin (5 µM) were not significant in TSA-exposed H1299 cells (a p53 null mutant) or were much lower than in A549 cells. In addition, quercetin significantly increased TSA-induced p53 expression in A549 cells. Transfection of p53 siRNA into A549 cells significantly but not completely diminished the enhancing effects of quercetin on TSA-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that quercetin enhanced TSA-induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Transfection of p53 siRNA abolished such enhancing effects of quercetin. However, quercetin increased the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 induced by TSA in A549 cells, even with p53 siRNA transfection as well as in H1299 cells. In a xenograft mouse model of lung cancer, quercetin enhanced the antitumor effect of TSA. Tumors from mice treated with TSA in combination with quercetin had higher p53 and apoptosis levels than did those from control and TSA-treated mice. These data indicate that regulation of the expression of p53 by quercetin plays an important role in enhancing TSA-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. However, p53-independent mechanisms may also contribute to the enhancing effect of quercetin. PMID:23342112

  17. Dual actions of albumin packaging and tumor targeting enhance the antitumor efficacy and reduce the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ke; Li, Rui; Zhou, Xiaolei; Hu, Ping; Zhang, Yaxin; Huang, Yunmei; Chen, Zhuo; Huang, Mingdong

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapy drug used to treat different types of cancers. However, DOX has severe side effects, especially life-threatening cardiotoxicity. We herein report a new approach to reduce the toxicity of DOX by embedding DOX inside human serum albumin (HSA). HSA is further fused by a molecular biology technique with a tumor-targeting agent, amino-terminal fragment of urokinase (ATF). ATF binds with a high affinity to urokinase receptor, which is a cell-surface receptor overexpressed in many types of tumors. The as-prepared macromolecule complex (ATF–HSA:DOX) was not as cytotoxic as free DOX to cells in vitro, and was mainly localized in cell cytosol in contrast to DOX that was localized in cell nuclei. However, in tumor-bearing mice, ATF–HSA:DOX was demonstrated to have an enhanced tumor-targeting and antitumor efficacy compared with free DOX. More importantly, histopathological examinations of the hearts from the mice treated with ATF–HSA:DOX showed a significantly reduced cardiotoxicity compared with hearts from mice treated with free DOX. These results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in reducing the cardiotoxicity of DOX while strengthening its antitumor efficacy. Such a tumor-targeted albumin packaging strategy can also be applied to other antitumor drugs. PMID:26346331

  18. Vitamin E-rich Nanoemulsion Enhances the Antitumor Efficacy of Low-Dose Paclitaxel by Driving Th1 Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Dong, Wujun; Yang, Yanfang; Hao, Huazhen; Liao, Hengfeng; Wang, Bangyuan; Han, Xue; Jin, Yiqun; Xia, Xuejun; Liu, Yuling

    2017-06-01

    To overcome the drawbacks of high dose regimen and improve the outcomes of chemotherapy at a low dose, an immunotherapeutic nanoemulsion based combination of chemotherapeutic agent (paclitaxel) with immunomodulatory agent (vitamin E) was developed and evaluated for their antitumor effect against breast cancer. A total of five nanoemulsions loaded with various content of vitamin E were prepared and characterized. The immunoregulatory effects of vitamin E along with the overall antitumor efficacy of vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion with a low dose of paclitaxel were investigated through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion exhibited relatively narrow size distribution, high entrapment efficiency and controlled in vitro release profile. In RAW264.7 cells, vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion significantly enhanced the secretion of Th1 cytokines and down-regulated the secretion of Th2 cytokine. In a co-culture system, vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion induced a high apoptosis rate in MDA-MB-231 cells as compared with vitamin E-low nanoemulsion. Furthermore, vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion exhibited superior in vivo antitumor efficacy in comparison with Taxol and vitamin E-low nanoemulsion at a paclitaxel dose of 4 mg/kg. Vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion has great potential for the treatment of breast cancers with a low dose of paclitaxel via driving Th1 immune response.

  19. Enhanced antitumoral activity of doxorubicin against lung cancer cells using biodegradable poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Melguizo, Consolación; Cabeza, Laura; Prados, Jose; Ortiz, Raúl; Caba, Octavio; Rama, Ana R; Delgado, Ángel V; Arias, José L

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is widely used for the combined chemotherapy of solid tumors. However, the use of these drug associations in lung cancer has low antitumor efficacy. To improve its efficacious delivery and activity in lung adenocarcinoma cells, we developed a biodegradable and noncytotoxic nanoplatform based on biodegradable poly(butylcyanoacrylate) (PBCA). The reproducible formulation method was based on an anionic polymerization process of the PBCA monomer, with the antitumor drug being entrapped within the nanoparticle (NP) matrix during its formation. Improved drug-entrapment efficiencies and sustained (biphasic) drug-release properties were made possible by taking advantage of the synthesis conditions (drug, monomer, and surfactant-agent concentrations). Dox-loaded NPs significantly enhanced cellular uptake of the drug in the A549 and LL/2 lung cancer cell lines, leading to a significant improvement of the drug's antitumoral activity. In vivo studies demonstrated that Dox-loaded NPs clearly reduced tumor volumes and increased mouse-survival rates compared to the free drug. These results demonstrated that PBCA NPs may be used to optimize the antitumor activity of Dox, thus exhibiting a potential application in chemotherapy against lung adenocarcinoma.

  20. Enhanced antitumoral activity of doxorubicin against lung cancer cells using biodegradable poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Melguizo, Consolación; Cabeza, Laura; Prados, Jose; Ortiz, Raúl; Caba, Octavio; Rama, Ana R; Delgado, Ángel V; Arias, José L

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is widely used for the combined chemotherapy of solid tumors. However, the use of these drug associations in lung cancer has low antitumor efficacy. To improve its efficacious delivery and activity in lung adenocarcinoma cells, we developed a biodegradable and noncytotoxic nanoplatform based on biodegradable poly(butylcyanoacrylate) (PBCA). The reproducible formulation method was based on an anionic polymerization process of the PBCA monomer, with the antitumor drug being entrapped within the nanoparticle (NP) matrix during its formation. Improved drug-entrapment efficiencies and sustained (biphasic) drug-release properties were made possible by taking advantage of the synthesis conditions (drug, monomer, and surfactant-agent concentrations). Dox-loaded NPs significantly enhanced cellular uptake of the drug in the A549 and LL/2 lung cancer cell lines, leading to a significant improvement of the drug’s antitumoral activity. In vivo studies demonstrated that Dox-loaded NPs clearly reduced tumor volumes and increased mouse-survival rates compared to the free drug. These results demonstrated that PBCA NPs may be used to optimize the antitumor activity of Dox, thus exhibiting a potential application in chemotherapy against lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:26715840

  1. Antitumor effect of lysine-isopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Szende, B; Szökán, Gy; Tyihá, E; Pál, K; Gáborjányi, R; Almás, M; Khlafulla, A R

    2002-01-01

    Isopeptides (ε-peptides) of lysine, with a given Mw and low polydispersity (10–400 units), were synthesized to study the relationship between their chemical structure and biological effect. The designed compounds were of high purity, low polydispersity and high stereochemical purity. The effect of the compounds was tested on a human erythroleukemia cell line (K-562) and on four transplantable mouse tumors (L1210 lymphoid leukemia, P38 macrophage derived tumor, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, Lewis lung tumor /LLT/). In case of the L1210 and P388 tumors and the Ehrlich carcinoma, survival of the animals was used as an indicator of the effect. In case of the Lewis lung tumor, the number and size of metastases in the lung and/or liver of treated and untreated mice were used as indicators. The polymers of polymerisation degree 80–120 (Mw 10.2–15.4 KD) showed the strongest antiproliferative effect both on K562 cells and the tumors growing in vivo. This effect was manifest with a significantly higher survival rate as compared to the control (L1210, P38, Ehrlich ascites), furthermore, by a decrease in the number and size of liver and lung metastases (LLT). PMID:12076354

  2. Non-ionic surfactant vesicles simultaneously enhance antitumor activity and reduce the toxicity of cantharidin

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei; Wang, Shengpeng; Liang, Rixin; Wang, Lan; Chen, Meiwan; Li, Hui; Wang, Yitao

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present study was to prepare cantharidin-entrapped non-ionic surfactant vesicles (CTD-NSVs) and evaluate their potential in enhancing the antitumor activities and reducing CTD’s toxicity. Methods and results CTD-NSVs were prepared by injection method. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry analysis showed that CTD-NSVs could significantly enhance in vitro toxicity against human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and induce more significant cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Moreover, Hoechst 33342 staining implicated that CTD-NSVs induced higher apoptotic rates in MCF-7 cells than free CTD solution. In vivo therapeutic efficacy was investigated in imprinting control region mice bearing mouse sarcoma S180. Mice treated with 1.0 mg/kg CTD-NSVs showed the most powerful antitumor activity, with an inhibition rate of 52.76%, which was significantly higher than that of cyclophosphamide (35 mg/kg, 40.23%) and the same concentration of free CTD (1.0 mg/kg, 31.05%). In addition, the acute toxicity and liver toxicity of CTD were also distinctly decreased via encapsulating into NSVs. Conclusion Our results revealed that NSVs could be a promising delivery system for enhancing the antitumor activity and simultaneously reducing the toxicity of CTD. PMID:23807847

  3. Delivery of acetylthevetin B, an antitumor cardiac glycoside, using polymeric micelles for enhanced therapeutic efficacy against lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jing-jing; Zhang, Xin-xin; Miao, Yun-qiu; He, Shu-fang; Tian, Dan-mei; Yao, Xin-sheng; Tang, Jin-shan; Gan, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Acetylthevetin B (ATB), a cardiac glycoside from the seed of Thevetia peruviana (Pers) K Schum (yellow oleander), exhibits not only antitumor activity but also potential cardiac toxicity. In the present study, we attempted to enhance its antitumor action and decrease its adverse effects via chitosan-Pluronic P123 (CP) micelle encapsulation. Two ATB-loaded CP micelles (ATB-CP1, ATB-CP2) were prepared using an emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. They were spherical in shape with a particle size of 40–50 nm, showed a neutral zeta potential, and had acceptable encapsulation efficiency (>90%). Compared to the free ATB (IC50=2.94 μmol/L), ATB-loaded CP micelles exerted much stronger cytotoxicity against human lung cancer A549 cells with lower IC50 values (0.76 and 1.44 μmol/L for ATB-CP1 and ATB-CP2, respectively). After administration of a single dose in mice, the accumulation of ATB-loaded CP1 micelles in the tumor and lungs, respectively, was 15.31-fold and 9.49-fold as high as that of free ATB. A549 xenograft tumor mice treated with ATB-loaded CP1 micelles for 21 d showed the smallest tumor volume (one-fourth of that in the control group) and the highest inhibition rate (85.6%) among all the treatment groups. After 21-d treatment, no significant pathological changes were observed in hearts and other main tissues. In summary, ATB may serve as a promising antitumor chemotherapeutic agent for lung cancer, and its antitumor efficacy was significantly improved by CP micelles, with lower adverse effects. PMID:27917871

  4. Anti-tumor effects of an engineered 'killer' transfer RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dong-hui; Lee, Jiyoung; Frankenberger, Casey; Geslain, Renaud; Rosner, Marsha; Pan, Tao

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA with anti-cancer effects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA induced protein misfolding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA as anti-tumor agent. -- Abstract: A hallmark of cancer cells is their ability to continuously divide; and rapid proliferation requires increased protein translation. Elevating levels of misfolded proteins can elicit growth arrest due to ER stress and decreased global translation. Failure to correct prolonged ER stress eventually results in cell death via apoptosis. tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) is an engineered human tRNA{sup Ser} with an anticodon coding for isoleucine. Here we test the possibility that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) can be an effective killing agent of breast cancer cells and can effectively inhibit tumor-formation in mice. We found that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) exert strong effects on breast cancer translation activity, cell viability, and tumor formation. Translation is strongly inhibited by tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) in both tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells. tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) significantly decreased the number of viable cells over time. A short time treatment with tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) was sufficient to eliminate breast tumor formation in a xenograft mouse model. Our results indicate that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) can inhibit breast cancer metabolism, growth and tumor formation. This RNA has strong anti-cancer effects and presents an opportunity for its development into an anti-tumor agent. Because tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) corrupts the protein synthesis mechanism that is an integral component of the cell, it would be extremely difficult for tumor cells to evolve and develop resistance against this anti-tumor agent.

  5. Antitumor effect of seaweeds. II. Fractionation and partial characterization of the polysaccharide with antitumor activity from Sargassum fulvellum.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, I; Nagumo, T; Fujihara, M; Takahashi, M; Ando, Y

    1977-06-01

    An almost purified antitumor polysaccharide fraction (SFPP) was obtained by fractional precipitation with ethanol from hot-water extract of Sargassum fulvellum. The fraction showed remarkable tumor-inhibiting effect against sarcoma-180 implanted subcutaneously in mice. The results of chemical and physical analyses suggested that the active substance may be either a sulphated peptidoglycuronoglycan or a sulphated glycuronoglycan.

  6. Anti-tumor effects of anti-T-cell globulin.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Sabine; Brinkmann, Hanna; Kalupa, Martina; Wilke, Andrea; Seitz-Merwald, Isabell; Penack, Olaf

    2014-10-01

    In vivo T-cell depletion using anti-T-cell antibodies is a standard procedure during allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Clinical data demonstrate that in vivo T-cell depletion with the anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody Alemtuzumab is associated with increased relapse rates of hematologic malignancies after allo-HSCT, underlining the importance of donor T cells for graft versus tumor activity. In contrast, recent results suggest that in vivo T-cell depletion with rabbit anti-T-cell globulin (ATG) Fresenius is not associated with tumor relapse after allo-HSCT, raising the possibility that ATG mediates antitumor effects. However, data on ATG's ability to bind to tumor cells and on its effect on the induction of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) are lacking. We used ATG Fresenius, which contains polyclonal rabbit IgG directed against the human T-lymphoma cell line Jurkat, to study relevant mechanisms of ATG-mediated antitumor effects, including ADCC, complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and induction of apoptosis. Based on the knowledge that Jurkat cells aberrantly express myeloid markers and B-cell markers, we hypothesized that rabbit ATG Fresenius binds to a variety of hematologic malignancies. We found that ATG specifically binds to a variety of hematologic malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia and B-cell lymphoma in a concentration-dependent manner. We demonstrate that ATG mediates antitumor activity, including induction of ADCC, complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and apoptosis, toward different hematologic malignancies. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the effects of ATG on posttransplant immunology in patients undergoing allo-HSCT. Copyright © 2014 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antitumor Effect of Zhihuang Fuzheng Soft Capsules on Tumor-Bearing Mice.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yanyan; Pan, Xin; Jin, Yahong; Gao, Yingjie; Cui, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese medicines (CMs) have been shown to have some advantages in preventing and controlling tumors. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of ZFSC by establishing a mouse model of HT-1080, A-549, and HCT-8 tumors. The result showed that tumor volumes of HT-1080 tumor-bearing nude mice in ZFSC low, medium, and high dose groups were lower significantly compared to the model group, and the high dose ZFSC showed the best antitumor effect. Tumor volumes of A-549 tumor-bearing nude mice in ZFSC low, medium, and high dose groups were lower significantly compared to the model group and showed a good dose-response relationship. There was no significant effect on human colon cancer, although inhibition trends disappeared in the bar chart. In order to verify the immunomodulatory effect of ZFSC, ELISA was used to analyze serums IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN in spleens. The results showed that ZFSC could enhance the immune function of tumor-bearing mice. ZFSC reduced IFN-γ and TNF-α content in the serum of HT-1080 tumor-bearing mice and inhibit PD1 and PDL1 and suggested that the antitumor mechanism of ZFSC on human fibrosarcoma could be attributed to inhibition of the PDL1/PD1 pathway.

  8. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide1826 combined with radioresistant cancer cell vaccine confers significant antitumor effects.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, X B; Xing, N; Zhang, Q; Yuan, S J; Chen, W; Qiao, T K

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy is a hot issue in cancer research over the years and tumor cell vaccine is one of the increasing number of studies. Although the whole tumor cell vaccine can provide the best source of immunizing antigens, there is still a limitation that most tumors are not naturally immunogenic. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs), synthetic oligonucleotides containing a cytosine-phosphate-guanine(CpG) motif, was shown to enhance immune responses to a wide variety of antigens. In this study, we generated the radioresistant Lewis lung cancer cell by repeated X-ray radiation and inactivated it as a whole tumor cell vaccine to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cell vaccine. Mice were subcutaneously immunized with this inactivated vaccine combined with CpG ODN1826 and then inoculated with autologous Lewis lung cancer (LLC) to estimate the antitumor efficacy. The results showed that the radioresistant tumor cell vaccine combined with CpG ODN1826 could significantly inhibit tumor growth, increased survival of the mice and with 20% of the mice surviving tumor free in vivo compared with the unimmunized mice bearing LLC tumor. A significant increase of apoptosis was also observed in the tumor prophylactically immunized with vaccine of inactivated radioresistant tumor cell plus CpG ODN1826. The potent antitumor effect correlated with higher secretion levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) and lower levels of interleukin-10(IL-10) concentration in serum. Furthermore, the results suggested that the antitumor mechanism was probably depended on the decreased level of programmed death ligand-1(PD-L1) which plays an important role in the negative regulation of immune response by the inhibition of tumor antigen-specific T cell activation. These findings clearly demonstrated that the radioresistant tumor cell vaccine combined with CpG ODN1826 as an appropriate adjuvant could induce effective antitumor immunity in vivo.

  9. The vitamin-like dietary supplement para-aminobenzoic acid enhances the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Sandhya; MacDonald, Shannon; Roth, Jennifer; Caunt, Maresa; Akalu, Abebe; Morais, Danielle; Buckley, Michael T.; Liebes, Leonard; Formenti, Silvia C.; Brooks, Peter C. . E-mail: peter.brooks@med.nyu.edu

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) alters the sensitivity of tumor cells to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Cellular proliferation was assessed by WST-1 assays. The effects of PABA and radiation on tumor growth were examined with chick embryo and murine models. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to quantify p21{sup CIP1} and CDC25A levels. Results: Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (by 50%) the growth inhibitory activity of radiation on B16F10 cells, whereas it had no effect on melanocytes. Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (50-80%) the antitumor activity of radiation on B16F10 and 4T1 tumors in vivo. The combination of PABA and radiation therapy increased tumor apoptosis. Treatment of tumor cells with PABA increased expression of CDC25A and decreased levels of p21{sup CIP1}. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that PABA might represent a compound capable of enhancing the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation by a mechanism involving altered expression of proteins known to regulate cell cycle arrest.

  10. Copper chelation enhances antitumor efficacy and systemic delivery of oncolytic HSV.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji Young; Pradarelli, Jason; Haseley, Amy; Wojton, Jeffrey; Kaka, Azeem; Bratasz, Anna; Alvarez-Breckenridge, Christopher A; Yu, Jun-Ge; Powell, Kimerly; Mazar, Andrew P; Teknos, Theodoros N; Chiocca, E Antonio; Glorioso, Joseph C; Old, Matthew; Kaur, Balveen

    2012-09-15

    Copper in serum supports angiogenesis and inhibits replication of wild-type HSV-1. Copper chelation is currently being investigated as an antiangiogenic and antineoplastic agent in patients diagnosed with cancer. Herpes simplex virus-derived oncolytic viruses (oHSV) are being evaluated for safety and efficacy in patients, but several host barriers limit their efficacy. Here, we tested whether copper inhibits oHSV infection and replication and whether copper chelation would augment therapeutic efficacy of oHSV. Subcutaneous and intracranial tumor-bearing mice were treated with oHSV ± ATN-224 to evaluate tumor burden and survival. Virus replication and cell killing was measured in the presence or absence of the copper chelating agent ATN-224 and in the presence or absence of copper in vitro. Microvessel density and changes in perfusion were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). Serum stability of oHSV was measured in mice fed with ATN-224. Tumor-bearing mice were injected intravenously with oHSV; tumor burden and amount of virus in tumor tissue were evaluated. Combination of systemic ATN-224 and oHSV significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged animal survival. Immunohistochemistry and DCE-MRI imaging confirmed that ATN-224 reduced oHSV-induced blood vessel density and vascular leakage. Copper at physiologically relevant concentrations inhibited oHSV replication and glioma cell killing, and this effect was rescued by ATN-224. ATN-224 increased serum stability of oHSV and enhanced the efficacy of systemic delivery. This study shows that combining ATN-224 with oHSV significantly increased serum stability of oHSV and greatly enhanced its replication and antitumor efficacy. ©2012 AACR.

  11. Gemcitabine enhances antitumor efficacy of recombinant lipoimmunogen-based immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Li-Sheng; Yan, Wan-Lun; Chang, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Yi-Chen; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Leng, Chih-Hsiang; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although immunotherapy is an attractive approach for cancer treatment, increasing evidence has shown that the combination of immunotherapy with other treatment modalities may improve the outcome of advanced malignancy. We combined the anticancer drug gemcitabine (Gem) with recombinant lipoprotein-based immunotherapy (rlipo-E7m/CpG) to treat advanced cancer. Mice bearing huge solid tumors (≧ 12 mm in diameter) or orthotopic cervical cancer were treated with a therapeutic regimen consisting of rlipo-E7m/CpG and Gem. In addition, tumor-infiltrating immune cells were quantified by flow cytometry following the chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy. We observed the eradication of huge tumors following the administration of Gem on days 21, 24, and 27 or following rlipo-E7m/CpG therapy on day 30 post-tumor implantation. The combination therapy substantially reduced the number of immunosuppressive cells (CD11b+Gr-1+, CD11b+F4/80+, and CD4+CD25+FOXP3+) and increased the number of tumor-infiltrating antigen-specific CD8+ T cells compared to Gem or rlipo-E7m/CpG monotherapy. Interestingly, the administration of Gem and rlipo-E7m/CpG reduced the quantity of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)-expressing antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in the regressing tumors. These findings demonstrated that Gem enhances the eradication of huge tumors by inhibiting a broad range of immunosuppressive cells when combined with immunotherapy. Based on the promising results from this animal study, Gem chemotherapy combined with recombinant lipoimmunogen-based immunotherapy represents a feasible approach for cancer therapy. PMID:27141356

  12. Juglone exerts antitumor effect in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fang; Qin, Yingxin; Qi, Ling; Fang, Qing; Zhao, Liangzhong; Chen, Shuang; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Duo; Wang, Liguo

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Juglone is isolated from many species of the Juglandaceae family and used as an anti-viral, anti-bacterial, and anti-tumor therapeutic. Here, we evaluated juglone-induced antitumor effect in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells. Materials and Methods: MTT assay was performed to examine juglone anti-proliferative effect. Cell cycle and apoptosis were studied using flow cytometry in juglone-treated SKOV3 cells. To investigate molecular mechanism of cell cycle and apoptosis, protein expression levels were measured by Western blot analysis of cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c, caspase-9 and caspase-3. To investigate the motility of juglone-treated SKOV3 cell, Matrigel invasion assay was employed to characterize cell invasion. Also, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression levels were detected by western blot. Results: Juglone significantly inhibited SKOV3 cell proliferation as shown by G0/G1 phase arrest, and this effect was mediated by inactivation of cyclin D1 protein (P<0.05). Juglone induced apoptosis in SKOV3 cell which was accompanied by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation (P<0.05). Juglone decreased Bcl-2 levels and increased Bax and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels (P<0.05). Juglone sufficiently inhibited invasion while evidently decreased MMP-2 expression (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results suggest that juglone could probably induce apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway and restrained cell invasiveness by decreasing MMP expression. PMID:26221477

  13. Anordrin Eliminates Tamoxifen Side Effects without Changing Its Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wenwen; Xu, Wenping; Sun, Xiaoxi; Zeng, Bubing; Wang, Shuangjie; Dong, Nian; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Chengshui; Yang, Long; Chen, Guowu; Xin, Aijie; Ni, Zhong; Wang, Jian; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Tamoxifen is administered for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers, but it can induce uterine endometrial cancer and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Importantly, ten years of tamoxifen treatment has greater protective effect against ER+ breast cancer than five years of such treatment. Tamoxifen was also approved by the FDA as a chemopreventive agent for those deemed at high risk for the development of breast cancer. The side effects are of substantial concern because of these extended methods of tamoxifen administration. In this study, we found that anordrin, marketed as an antifertility medicine in China, inhibited tamoxifen-induced endometrial epithelial cell mitosis and NAFLD in mouse uterus and liver as an anti-estrogenic and estrogenic agent, respectively. Additionally, compared with tamoxifen, anordiol, the active metabolite of anordrin, weakly bound to the ligand binding domain of ER-α. Anordrin did not regulate the classic estrogen nuclear pathway; thus, it did not affect the anti-tumor activity of tamoxifen in nude mice. Taken together, these data suggested that anordrin could eliminate the side effects of tamoxifen without affecting its anti-tumor activity. PMID:28266626

  14. cGAS is essential for the antitumor effect of immune checkpoint blockade

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Hu, Shuiqing; Chen, Xiang; Shi, Heping; Chen, Chuo; Sun, Lijun; Chen, Zhijian J.

    2017-01-01

    cGMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) is a cytosolic DNA sensor that activates innate immune responses. cGAS catalyzes the synthesis of cGAMP, which functions as a second messenger that binds and activates the adaptor protein STING to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and other immune modulatory molecules. Here we show that cGAS is indispensable for the antitumor effect of immune checkpoint blockade in mice. Wild-type, but not cGAS-deficient, mice exhibited slower growth of B16 melanomas in response to a PD-L1 antibody treatment. Consistently, intramuscular delivery of cGAMP inhibited melanoma growth and prolonged the survival of the tumor-bearing mice. The combination of cGAMP and PD-L1 antibody exerted stronger antitumor effects than did either treatment alone. cGAMP treatment activated dendritic cells and enhanced cross-presentation of tumor-associated antigens to CD8 T cells. These results indicate that activation of the cGAS pathway is important for intrinsic antitumor immunity and that cGAMP may be used directly for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:28137885

  15. Synergistic antitumor effects of liposomal honokiol combined with adriamycin in breast cancer models.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wenli; Chen, Lijuan; Yang, Guangli; Zhou, Hang; Jiang, Qiqi; Zhong, Zhenhua; Hu, Jia; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Xianhuo; Yuan, Yuan; Tang, Minghai; Wen, Jing; Wei, Yuquan

    2008-08-01

    Honokiol, a novel antitumor agent, could induce apoptosis and inhibit the growth of vascular endothelium in several tumor cell lines and xenograft models. It has been suggested that the antitumor effect of chemotherapy could be increased by combining it with an antiangiogenesis agent in anticancer strategy. The present study explored the potential to increase the antitumor effect of adriamycin by combining it with honokiol in mouse 4T1 breast cancer models, and the underlining mechanism was investigated. Honokiol was encapsulated in liposomes to improve the water insolubility. In vitro, liposomal honokiol inhibited the proliferation of 4T1 cells via apoptosis and significantly enhanced the apoptosis of 4T1 cells induced by adriamycin. In vivo, the systemic administration of liposomal honokiol and adriamycin significantly decreased tumor growth through increased tumor cell apoptosis compared with either treatment alone. Collectively, these findings suggest that liposomal honokiol may augment the induction of apoptosis in 4T1 cells in vitro and in vivo, and this combined treatment has shown synergistic suppression in tumor progression according to the analysis of isobologram. The present study may be important in future exploration of the potential application of the combined approach in the treatment of breast cancer.

  16. Anti-tumor effect of bevacizumab on a xenograft model of feline mammary carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    MICHISHITA, Masaki; OHTSUKA, Aya; NAKAHIRA, Rei; TAJIMA, Tsuyoshi; NAKAGAWA, Takayuki; SASAKI, Nobuo; ARAI, Toshiro; TAKAHASHI, Kimimasa

    2015-01-01

    Feline mammary carcinomas are characterized by rapid progression and metastases. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of tumor angiogenesis, proliferation and metastasis. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a single drug therapy of bevacizumab on a xenograft model of feline mammary carcinoma expressing VEGF protein. Bevacizumab treatment suppressed tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis and enhancing apoptosis; however, it did not affect the tumor proliferation index. Thus, bevacizumab had anti-tumor effects on a xenograft model, and this may be useful for the treatment of feline mammary carcinoma. PMID:26616000

  17. Curative effect of HF10 on liver and peritoneal metastasis mediated by host antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, Yoshihiro; Kasuya, Hideki; Bustos, Itzel; Naoe, Yoshinori; Ichinose, Toru; Tanaka, Maki; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Background HF10 is a highly attenuated type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV) with proven effective oncolytic effect. Previous investigations have demonstrated that colon cancer mice model treated with HF10 not only had better survival but were also resistant to the reimplantation of the antitumor effect mediated by host antitumor immunity. Importantly, it has also been noted that in mice with antitumors implanted on both sides of the back, an injection of HF10 on only one side strongly restrains not only the injected antitumor but also the non-injected ones. Materials and methods MC26 colon cancer cells were injected subcutaneously into the back, spleen, and intraperitoneal region of metastasis model mice. Antitumor volume and survival rate were monitored. To measure cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) cytotoxicity against MC26, lymphocytes were extracted from the spleens of the peritoneal metastasis model mice as well as from the thymus of the liver metastasis model mice. The expression of interferon gamma was examined by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Samples from the liver metastasis model mice were subjected to polymerase chain reaction to quantify the level of HSV genomes. Results HF10 was injected only on the back antitumor; however, a antitumor-suppressor effect was observed against liver and peritoneal metastases. When HF10 genome was measured, we observed lower genome on liver metastases compared to back antitumor genome quantity. CTL activity against MC26 was also observed. These results indicate that local administration of HF10 exerts a curative effect on systemic disease, mediated by host antitumor immunity. Conclusion HF10 local administration stimulates antitumor immunity to recognize antitumor-specific antigen, which then improves systemic disease. Metastatic antitumors lysis, on the other hand, appears to be mediated by the host immune system, rather than by virus-mediated direct oncolysis. PMID:28331843

  18. Enhanced antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate in combination with rapamycin in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Pan, Jing; Lubet, Ronald A; Komas, Steven M; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Wang, Yian; You, Ming

    2015-04-01

    3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) is an alkylating agent and a well-known inhibitor of energy metabolism. Rapamycin is an inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase mTOR. Both 3-BrPA and rapamycin show chemopreventive efficacy in mouse models of lung cancer. Aerosol delivery of therapeutic drugs for lung cancer has been reported to be an effective route of delivery with little systemic distribution in humans. In this study, 3-BrPA and rapamycin were evaluated in combination for their preventive effects against lung cancer in mice by aerosol treatment, revealing a synergistic ability as measured by tumor multiplicity and tumor load compared treatment with either single-agent alone. No evidence of liver toxicity was detected by monitoring serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzymes. To understand the mechanism in vitro experiments were performed using human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. 3-BrPA and rapamycin also synergistically inhibited cell proliferation. Rapamycin alone blocked the mTOR signaling pathway, whereas 3-BrPA did not potentiate this effect. Given the known role of 3-BrPA as an inhibitor of glycolysis, we investigated mitochondrial bioenergetics changes in vitro in 3-BrPA-treated NSCLC cells. 3-BrPA significantly decreased glycolytic activity, which may be due to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion and decreased expression of GAPDH. Our results demonstrate that rapamycin enhanced the antitumor efficacy of 3-BrPA, and that dual inhibition of mTOR signaling and glycolysis may be an effective therapeutic strategy for lung cancer chemoprevention.

  19. A TLR9 agonist enhances the anti-tumor immunity of peptide and lipopeptide vaccines via different mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ying-Chyi; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2015-01-01

    The toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonists CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) have been recognized as promising adjuvants for vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. However, the role of TLR9 signaling in the regulation of antigen uptake and presentation is not well understood. Therefore, to investigate the effects of TLR9 signaling, this study used synthetic peptides (IDG) and lipopeptides (lipoIDG), which are internalized by dendritic cells (DCs) via endocytosis-dependent and endocytosis-independent pathways, respectively. Our data demonstrated that the internalization of lipoIDG and IDG by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) was not enhanced in the presence of CpG ODNs; however, CpG ODNs prolonged the co-localization of IDG with CpG ODNs in early endosomes. Surprisingly, CpG ODNs enhanced CD8+ T cell responses, and the anti-tumor effects of IDG immunization were stronger than those of lipoIDG immunization. LipoIDG admixed with CpG ODNs induced low levels of CD8+ T cells and partially inhibit tumor growth. Our findings suggest that CpG ODNs increase the retention of antigens in early endosomes, which is important for eliciting anti-tumor immunity. These results will facilitate the application of CpG adjuvants in the design of different vaccines. PMID:26215533

  20. Enhanced antitumor efficacy by cyclic RGDyK-conjugated and paclitaxel-loaded pH-responsive polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yajie; Zhou, Yanxia; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Chao; Li, Yushu; Li, Jinwen; Li, Xinru; Liu, Yan

    2015-09-01

    Cyclic RGDyK (cRGDyK)-conjugated pH-sensitive polymeric micelles were fabricated for targeted delivery of paclitaxel to prostate cancer cells based on pH-sensitive copolymer poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-poly(D,L-lactide) (PEOz-PLA) and cRGDyK-PEOz-PLA to enhance antitumor efficacy. The prepared micelles with an average diameter of about 28nm exhibited rapid release behavior at endo/lysosome pH, effectively enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel to PC-3 cells by increasing the cellular uptake, which was correlated with integrin αvβ3 expression in tumor cells. The active targeting activity of the micelles was further confirmed by in vivo real time near-infrared fluorescence imaging in PC-3 tumor-bearing nude mice. Moreover, the active targeting and pH-sensitivity endowed cRGDyK-conjugated micelles with a higher antitumor effect in PC-3 xenograft-bearing nude mice compared with unmodified micelles and Taxol with negligible systemic toxicity. Therefore, these results suggested that cRGDyK-conjugated pH-sensitive polymeric micelles may be a promising delivery system for efficient delivery of anticancer drugs to treat integrin αvβ3-rich prostate cancers.

  1. Catan-ionic hybrid lipidic nano-carriers for enhanced bioavailability and anti-tumor efficacy of chemodrugs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bilin; He, Dan; Wu, Jianyong; Sun, Quan; Zhang, Mi; Tan, Qunyou; Li, Yao; Zhang, Jingqing

    2017-05-09

    To date there has not been any report on catan-ionic hybrid lipidic nano-carriers, let alone a report on applying them to deliver insoluble anti-tumor drugs. Catan-ionic hybrid lipidic nano-carriers containing curcumin (CUR-C-HLN) inherit the merits of catan-ionic systems, hybrid lipidic systems and nano-structured carriers (the second-generation substitute of solid lipidic nano-systems). Catan-ionic surfactants increased microvesicle stabilization by producing unordered isometric clusters, enhanced absorptive amount as an inhibitor of enzyme and protein, improved tumor accumulation by cellular endocytosis and membranous fusion; hybrid lipids helped to obtain high drug content and low leakage by forming a less-organized matrix arrangement. CUR-C-HLN favorably changed absorptive and pharmacokinetic properties after oral and/or intravenous administrations; improved cell growth inhibition, apoptotic inducing and anti-invasion effects; enhanced antitumor efficiency and reduced cancerous growth. Catan-ionic hybrid lipidic nano-carriers provide an alternative good choice for effective delivery of anticancerous chemodrugs.

  2. Enhanced Tumor Delivery and Antitumor Activity in Vivo of Liposomal Doxorubicin Modified with MCF-7-Specific Phage Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Hartner, William C.; Gillespie, James W.; Praveen, Kulkarni P.; Yang, Shenghong; Mei, Leslie A.; Petrenko, Valery A.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2013-01-01

    A novel strategy to improve the therapeutic index of chemotherapy has been developed by the integration of nanotechnology with phage technique. The objective of this study was to combine phage display, identifying tumor-targeting ligands, with a liposomal nanocarrier for targeted delivery of doxorubicin. Following the proof of concept in cell-based experiments, this study focused on in vivo assessment of antitumor activity and potential side-effects of phage fusion protein-modified liposomal doxorubicin. MCF-7-targeted phage-Doxil treatments led to greater tumor remission and faster onset of antitumor activity than the treatments with non-targeted formulations. The enhanced anticancer effect induced by the targeted phage-Doxil correlated with an improved tumor accumulation of doxorubicin. Tumor sections consistently revealed enhanced apoptosis, reduced proliferation activity and extensive necrosis. Phage-Doxil-treated mice did not show any sign of hepatotoxicity and maintained overall health. Therefore, MCF-7-targeted phage-Doxil seems to be an active and tolerable chemotherapy for breast cancer treatment. PMID:24028893

  3. Antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of Justicia spicigera Schltdl (Acanthaceae).

    PubMed

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Ortiz-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Domínguez, Fabiola; Arana-Argáez, Victor; Juárez-Vázquez, Maria del Carmen; Chávez, Marco; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; López-Toledo, Gabriela; Ortiz-Andrade, Rolffy; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2012-06-14

    Medicinal plants are an important source of antitumor compounds. This study evaluated the acute toxicity in vitro and in vivo, as well as the cytotoxic, antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of ethanolic extracts of Justicia spicigera leaves (JSE). The in vitro and in vivo toxicity of JSE was evaluated with comet assay in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and acute toxicity in mice, according to the Lorke procedure, respectively. The apoptotic effect of JSE on human cancer cells and human noncancerous cells was evaluated using flow cytometry with annexin-Alexa 488/propidium iodide. Also, different doses of JSE were injected intraperitoneally daily into athymic mice bearing tumors of HeLa cells during 18 days. The growth and weight of tumors were measured. The in vitro immunomodulatory effects of JSE were evaluated estimating the effects of JSE on the phagocytosis of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, NO production and H(2)O(2) release in macrophages, as well as the proliferation of splenocytes and NK activity. The comet assay showed that only JSE tested at 200 and 1000 μg/ml induced a significantly DNA damage in PBMC, compared to untreated cells, whereas the LD(50) was >5000 mg/kg by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) and by oral route. JSE showed pro-apoptotic (Annexin/PI) effects by 35% against HeLa cells, but lack toxic effects against human normal cells. JSE administrated at 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p. inhibited the tumor growth by 28%, 41% and 53%, respectively, in mice bearing HeLa tumor. JSE stimulated, in a concentration dependent manner, the phagocytosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts, the NO production and H(2)O(2) release by human differentiated macrophages. In addition, JSE stimulated the proliferation of murine splenocytes and induced the NK cell activity. Justicia spicigera shows low toxic effects in vitro and in vivo, exerts apoptotic effects on HeLa cells, has antitumor effects in mice bearing HeLa tumor and induces immunomodulatory

  4. Multivalent Polymer Nanocomplex Targeting Endosomal Receptor of Immune Cells for Enhanced Antitumor and Systemic Memory Response.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Young; Heo, Min Beom; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Jung, Youngae; Choi, Do Yeol; Park, Yeong-Min; Lim, Yong Taik

    2015-07-06

    We have designed and synthesized linear polymer-based nanoconjugates and nanocomplexes bearing multivalent immunostimulatory ligands and also demonstrated that the synthetic multivalent nanocomplexes led to an enhanced stimulation of immune cells in vitro and antitumor and systemic immune memory response in vivo. We have developed hyaluronic acid (HA)-based multivalent nanoconjugates and nanocomplexes for enhanced immunostimulation through the combination of multivalent immune adjuvants with CpG ODNs (as a TLR9 ligand) and cationic poly(L-lysine) (PLL; for the enhancement of cellular uptake). The multivalent HA-CpG nanoconjugate efficiently stimulated the antigen-presenting cells and the multivalent PLL/HA-CpG nanocomplex also led to an enhanced cellular uptake as well as continuous stimulation of endosomal TLR9. The mice vaccinated with dendritic cells treated with the multivalent nanocomplex exhibited tumor growth inhibition as well as a strong antitumor memory response. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Combination antitumor effect with central nervous system depressants on rat ascites hepatomas.

    PubMed

    Koshiura, R; Miyamoto, K; Sanae, F

    1980-02-01

    Combined effect of twenty-one central nervous system depressants with several antitumor agents was studied in the in vitro and in vivo experimental systems, using rat ascites hepatoma call lines, AH13 and AH44, sensitive and insensitive to alkylating agents, respectively. Reserpine remarkably enhanced the cytotoxic effect of 1-(gamma-chloropropyl)-2-chloromethylpiperidine hydrobromide (CAP-2) both on AH13 and AH44 cells. In the in vivo combined experiments, reserpine also synergistically enhanced the life-prolonging effect of CAP-2 on AH13-bearing rats and, although CAP-2 was not potent on the prolongation of life span of AH44-bearing rats and reserpine was also ineffective at the doses examined, the life span of tumor-bearing rats receiving the combined administration was apparently prolonged compared with control groups. Thus, there was a parallelism between in vitro and in vivo experiments. These findings suggested that the antitumor-enhancing effect of reserpine might be due to the direct action on the tumor cells, and a possible mechanism that reserpine inhibited the DNA damage-repairing activity of the cells was contradictory. Other mechanisms are also discussed.

  6. Enzyme-responsive peptide dendrimer-gemcitabine conjugate as a controlled-release drug delivery vehicle with enhanced antitumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengyuan; Pan, Dayi; Li, Jin; Hu, Jiani; Bains, Ashika; Guys, Nicholas; Zhu, Hongyan; Li, Xiaohui; Luo, Kui; Gong, Qiyong; Guc, Zhongwei

    2017-03-01

    Stimuli-responsive peptide dendrimer-drug conjugates have presented significant potential for cancer therapy. To develop an effective nanoscale chemotherapeutic prodrug, we developed a novel enzyme-responsive PEGylated lysine peptide dendrimer-gemcitabine conjugate (Dendrimer-GEM) based nanoparticle via the highly efficient click reaction. Owing to the glycylphenylalanylleucylglycine tetra-peptide (GFLG) as an enzyme-cleavable linker to conjugate gemcitabine (GEM), the prepared nanoparticles were able to release drug significantly faster in the tumor cellular environments, which specifically contains secreted Cathepsin B, quantifiably more than 80% GEM was released with Cathepsin B compared to the condition without Cathepsin B at 24h. This nanoparticle demonstrated enhanced antitumor efficacy in a 4T1 murine breast cancer model without obvious systemic toxicity, resulting in significantly suppressed relative tumor volumes (86.17 ± 38.27%) and a 2-fold higher value of tumor growth inhibition (~90%) than GEM∙HCl treatment. These results suggest that the PEGylated peptide dendrimer-gemcitabine conjugate can be an effective antitumor agent for breast cancer therapy. Statement of significance We found that the functionalized dendrimer based nanoscale drug delivery vehicles exhibited enhanced therapeutic indexes and reduced toxicity as compared to the free drug gemcitabine. Compared with current nanoparticles, such as dendritic anticancer drug delivery systems, the new design was capable of self-assembling into nanoscale particles with sizes of about 80-110 nm, which is suitable as antitumor drug delivery vehicle due to the potential longer intravascular half-life and higher accumulation in tumor tissue via EPR effect. Owing to the optimized architecture, the system was given the enzyme-responsive drug release feature, and showed excellent antitumor activity on the 4T1 breast tumor model due to the evidences from tumor growth curves, immunohistochemical analysis and

  7. Proteomic Study to Survey the CIGB-552 Antitumor Effect

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Ulloa, Arielis; Gil, Jeovanis; Ramos, Yassel; Hernández-Álvarez, Lilian; Flores, Lisandra; Oliva, Brizaida; García, Dayana; Sánchez-Puente, Aniel; Musacchio-Lasa, Alexis; Fernández-de-Cossio, Jorge; Padrón, Gabriel; González López, Luis J.; Besada, Vladimir; Guerra-Vallespí, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    CIGB-552 is a cell-penetrating peptide that exerts in vitro and in vivo antitumor effect on cancer cells. In the present work, the mechanism involved in such anticancer activity was studied using chemical proteomics and expression-based proteomics in culture cancer cell lines. CIGB-552 interacts with at least 55 proteins, as determined by chemical proteomics. A temporal differential proteomics based on iTRAQ quantification method was performed to identify CIGB-552 modulated proteins. The proteomic profile includes 72 differentially expressed proteins in response to CIGB-552 treatment. Proteins related to cell proliferation and apoptosis were identified by both approaches. In line with previous findings, proteomic data revealed that CIGB-552 triggers the inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, proteins related to cell invasion were differentially modulated by CIGB-552 treatment suggesting new potentialities of CIGB-552 as anticancer agent. Overall, the current study contributes to a better understanding of the antitumor action mechanism of CIGB-552. PMID:26576414

  8. Antiangiogenic Arming of an Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Enhances Antitumor Efficacy in Renal Cell Cancer Models▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Guse, Kilian; Sloniecka, Marta; Diaconu, Iulia; Ottolino-Perry, Kathryn; Tang, Nan; Ng, Calvin; Le Boeuf, Fabrice; Bell, John C.; McCart, J. Andrea; Ristimäki, Ari; Pesonen, Sari; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Hemminki, Akseli

    2010-01-01

    Oncolytic vaccinia viruses have shown compelling results in preclinical cancer models and promising preliminary safety and antitumor activity in early clinical trials. However, to facilitate systemic application it would be useful to improve tumor targeting and antitumor efficacy further. Here we report the generation of vvdd-VEGFR-1-Ig, a targeted and armed oncolytic vaccinia virus. Tumor targeting was achieved by deletion of genes for thymidine kinase and vaccinia virus growth factor, which are necessary for replication in normal but not in cancer cells. Given the high vascularization typical of kidney cancers, we armed the virus with the soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 protein for an antiangiogenic effect. Systemic application of high doses of vvdd-VEGFR-1-Ig resulted in cytokine induction in an immunocompromised mouse model. Upon histopathological analysis, splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis was seen in all virus-injected mice and was more pronounced in the vvdd-VEGFR-1-Ig group. Analysis of the innate immune response after intravenous virus injection revealed high transient and dose-dependent cytokine elevations. When medium and low doses were used for intratumoral or intravenous injection, vvdd-VEGFR-1-Ig exhibited a stronger antitumor effect than the unarmed control. Furthermore, expression of VEGFR-1-Ig was confirmed, and a concurrent antiangiogenic effect was seen. In an immunocompetent model, systemic vvdd-VEGFR-1-Ig exhibited superior antitumor efficacy compared to the unarmed control virus. In conclusion, the targeted and armed vvdd-VEGFR-1-Ig has promising anticancer activity in renal cell cancer models. Extramedullary hematopoiesis may be a sensitive indicator of vaccinia virus effects in mice. PMID:19906926

  9. A Vaccine That Co-Targets Tumor Cells and Cancer Associated Fibroblasts Results in Enhanced Antitumor Activity by Inducing Antigen Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalk, Stephen; Yu, Feng; Ji, Minjun; Kakarla, Sunitha; Song, Xiao-Tong

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) vaccines targeting only cancer cells have produced limited antitumor activity in most clinical studies. Targeting cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in addition to cancer cells may enhance antitumor effects, since CAFs, the central component of the tumor stroma, directly support tumor growth and contribute to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. To co-target CAFs and tumor cells we developed a new compound DC vaccine that encodes an A20-specific shRNA to enhance DC function, and targets fibroblast activation protein (FAP) expressed in CAFs and the tumor antigen tyrosine-related protein (TRP)2 (DC-shA20-FAP-TRP2). DC-shA20-FAP-TRP2 vaccination induced robust FAP- and TRP2-specific T-cell responses, resulting in greater antitumor activity in the B16 melanoma model in comparison to monovalent vaccines or a vaccine encoding antigens and a control shRNA. DC-shA20-FAP-TRP2 vaccination enhanced tumor infiltration of CD8-positive T cells, and induced antigen-spreading resulting in potent antitumor activity. Thus, co-targeting of tumor cells and CAFs results in the induction of broad-based tumor-specific T-cell responses and has the potential to improve current vaccine approaches for cancer. PMID:24349329

  10. [Antitumoral effect of xenogenic substances in vivo and in vitro].

    PubMed

    Munder, P G; Stiefel, T; Widmann, K H; Theurer, K

    1982-04-01

    The proliferation of various tumour cells was inhibited in vivo and in vitro after application of/or incubation with xenogeneic liver tissue. The development of s.c.-implanted meth-A-sarcoma was blocked by the prophylactic injection of these preparations. In addition firmly established tumours regressed under therapy. Preparations obtained from xenogeneic organs like thymus, placenta or brain had a similar antitumor activity. A mixture of various xenogeneic tissues from different species had a much higher therapeutic efficiency. In the Meth-A-system the xenogeneic material surpassed the antineoplastic effect of rather high doses of cyclophosphamide. The preparations showed no side-effects in mice and rats. These results were supported by experiments in tissue culture. This new antitumour activity of xenogeneic tissues in vivo is interpreted as mediated by an increased host defense. The results in tissue culture however, indicate also a direct regulatory effect on cells.

  11. Formulation optimization of Docetaxel loaded self-emulsifying drug delivery system to enhance bioavailability and anti-tumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Valicherla, Guru R.; Dave, Kandarp M.; Syed, Anees A.; Riyazuddin, Mohammed; Gupta, Anand P.; Singh, Akhilesh; Wahajuddin; Mitra, Kalyan; Datta, Dipak; Gayen, Jiaur R.

    2016-01-01

    Poor bioavailability of Docetaxel (DCT) arising due to its low aqueous solubility and permeability limits its clinical utility. The aim of the present study was to develop DCT loaded self-emulsified drug delivery systems (D-SEDDS) and evaluate its potential ability to improve the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of DCT. D-SEDDS were characterized for their in vitro antitumor activity, in situ single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP), bioavailability, chylomicron flow blocking study and bio-distribution profile. The D-SEDDS were prepared using Capryol 90, Vitamin E TPGS, Gelucire 44/14 and Transcutol HP with a ratio of 32.7/29.4/8.3/29.6 using D-Optimal Mixture Design. The solubility of DCT was improved upto 50 mg/mL. The oral bioavailability of the D-SEDDS in rats (21.84 ± 3.12%) was increased by 3.19 fold than orally administered Taxotere (6.85 ± 1.82%). The enhanced bioavailability was probably due to increase in solubility and permeability. In SPIP, effective permeability of D-SEDDS was significantly higher than Taxotere. D-SEDDS showed 25 fold more in vitro cytotoxic activity compared to free DCT. Chylomicron flow blocking study and tissue distribution demonstrated the intestinal lymphatic transport of D-SEDDS and higher retention in tumor than Taxotere. The data suggests that D-SEDDS showed desired stability, enhanced oral bioavailability and in vitro antitumor efficacy. PMID:27241877

  12. The Glutaminase-1 Inhibitor 968 Enhances Dihydroartemisinin-Mediated Antitumor Efficacy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Meihong; Zhang, Yonghui; Chen, Aiping; Wu, Junhua; Wei, Jiwu

    2016-01-01

    Reprogrammed metabolism and redox homeostasis are potential targets of cancer therapy. Our previous study demonstrated that the kidney form of glutaminase (GLS1) is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and can be used as a target for effective anticancer therapy. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) increases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels leading to cytotoxicity in cancer cells. However, the heterogeneity of cancer cells often leads to differing responses to oxidative lesions. For instance, cancer cells with high ratio of GSH/GSSG, a critical ROS scavenger, are resistant to ROS-induced cytotoxicity. We postulate that a combinatorial strategy firstly disrupting redox homeostasis followed by DHA might yield a profound antitumor efficacy. In this study, when HCC cells were treated with a GLS1 inhibitor 968, the ROS elimination capacity was significantly reduced in HCC cells, which rendered HCC cells but not normal endothelial cells more sensitive to DHA-mediated cytotoxicity. We further confirmed that this synergistic antitumor efficacy was mediated by excessive ROS generation in HCC cells. NAC, a ROS inhibitor, partly rescued the combinatorial cytotoxic effect of 968 and DHA. Given that GLS1 is a potential antitumor target and DHA has been safely used in clinic, our findings provide new insight into liver cancer therapy targeting glutamine metabolism combined with the ROS generator DHA, which can be readily translated into cancer clinical trials. PMID:27835669

  13. Antitumor Effects of Laminaria Extract Fucoxanthin on Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mei, ChengHan; Zhou, ShunChang; Zhu, Lin; Ming, JiaXiong; Zeng, FanDian; Xu, Rong

    2017-02-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type. Marine plants provide rich resources for anticancer drug discovery. Fucoxanthin (FX), a Laminaria japonica extract, has attracted great research interest for its antitumor activities. Accumulating evidence suggests anti-proliferative effects of FX on many cancer cell lines including NSCLCs, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In the present investigation, we confirmed molecular mechanisms and in vivo anti-lung cancer effect of FX at the first time. Flow cytometry, real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that FX arrested cell cycle and induced apoptosis by modulating expression of p53, p21, Fas, PUMA, Bcl-2 and caspase-3/8. These results show that FX is a potent marine drug for human non-small-cell lung cancer treatment.

  14. Antitumor Effects of Laminaria Extract Fucoxanthin on Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mei, ChengHan; Zhou, ShunChang; Zhu, Lin; Ming, JiaXiong; Zeng, FanDian; Xu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type. Marine plants provide rich resources for anticancer drug discovery. Fucoxanthin (FX), a Laminaria japonica extract, has attracted great research interest for its antitumor activities. Accumulating evidence suggests anti-proliferative effects of FX on many cancer cell lines including NSCLCs, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In the present investigation, we confirmed molecular mechanisms and in vivo anti-lung cancer effect of FX at the first time. Flow cytometry, real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that FX arrested cell cycle and induced apoptosis by modulating expression of p53, p21, Fas, PUMA, Bcl-2 and caspase-3/8. These results show that FX is a potent marine drug for human non-small-cell lung cancer treatment. PMID:28212270

  15. Enhanced photostability, radical scavenging and antitumor activity of indole-3-carbinol-loaded rose hip oil nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Gehrcke, Mailine; Giuliani, Laura Minussi; Ferreira, Luana Mota; Barbieri, Allanna Valentini; Sari, Marcel Henrique Marcondes; da Silveira, Elita Ferreira; Azambuja, Juliana Hofstatter; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Braganhol, Elizandra; Cruz, Letícia

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to develop poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules loaded with indole-3-cabinol (I3C) using rose hip oil (RHO) or medium chain triglycerides (MCT) as oil core. In vitro radical scavenging activity (DPPH method), hemolysis, and antitumor effects on breast (MCF-7) and glioma (C6) cells were conducted. Preformulation evaluations revealed that RHO is suitable to prepare the nanocapsules considering the log P determination and dissolution/swelling experiments of polymer films. The nanocapsules were prepared and presented adequate physicochemical characteristics as mean size around 250nm, polydispersity index values <0.2, zeta potential negative values and I3C encapsulation efficiency around 42%, without any influence of the oil core (RHO or MCT) on these parameters. However, the photodegradation study demonstrated that RHO nanocapsules showed less degree of I3C degradation in comparison to MCT nanocapsules. The in vitro release profile showed that both nanocapsule suspensions demonstrated an initial burst effect followed by a prolonged I3C release. In addition, the formulations were considered hemocompatibles at 10μg/mL and showed an enhanced radical scavenging activity in comparison to free I3C. Moreover, nanocapsules prepared with RHO increased about two times the antitumor effect of I3C on MCF-7 and C6 cells without significant reduction of astrocyte cell viability. In conclusion, nanocapsule formulations developed in this study might be considered promising for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antitumor effect of malaria parasite infection in a murine Lewis lung cancer model through induction of innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lili; He, Zhengxiang; Qin, Li; Li, Qinyan; Shi, Xibao; Zhao, Siting; Chen, Ling; Zhong, Nanshan; Chen, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignancy in humans and its high fatality means that no effective treatment is available. Developing new therapeutic strategies for lung cancer is urgently needed. Malaria has been reported to stimulate host immune responses, which are believed to be efficacious for combating some clinical cancers. This study is aimed to provide evidence that malaria parasite infection is therapeutic for lung cancer. Antitumor effect of malaria infection was examined in both subcutaneously and intravenously implanted murine Lewis lung cancer (LLC) model. The results showed that malaria infection inhibited LLC growth and metastasis and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Histological analysis of tumors from mice infected with malaria revealed that angiogenesis was inhibited, which correlated with increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated (TUNEL) staining and decreased Ki-67 expression in tumors. Through natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity activity, cytokine assays, enzyme-linked immunospot assay, lymphocyte proliferation, and flow cytometry, we demonstrated that malaria infection provided anti-tumor effects by inducing both a potent anti-tumor innate immune response, including the secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α and the activation of NK cells as well as adaptive anti-tumor immunity with increasing tumor-specific T-cell proliferation and cytolytic activity of CD8(+) T cells. Notably, tumor-bearing mice infected with the parasite developed long-lasting and effective tumor-specific immunity. Consequently, we found that malaria parasite infection could enhance the immune response of lung cancer DNA vaccine pcDNA3.1-hMUC1 and the combination produced a synergistic antitumor effect. Malaria infection significantly suppresses LLC growth via induction of innate and adaptive antitumor responses in a mouse model. These data suggest that the malaria parasite may provide a novel strategy or therapeutic vaccine vector for anti-lung cancer

  17. Antitumor Effect of Malaria Parasite Infection in a Murine Lewis Lung Cancer Model through Induction of Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lili; He, Zhengxiang; Qin, Li; Li, Qinyan; Shi, Xibao; Zhao, Siting; Chen, Ling; Zhong, Nanshan; Chen, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the most common malignancy in humans and its high fatality means that no effective treatment is available. Developing new therapeutic strategies for lung cancer is urgently needed. Malaria has been reported to stimulate host immune responses, which are believed to be efficacious for combating some clinical cancers. This study is aimed to provide evidence that malaria parasite infection is therapeutic for lung cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings Antitumor effect of malaria infection was examined in both subcutaneously and intravenously implanted murine Lewis lung cancer (LLC) model. The results showed that malaria infection inhibited LLC growth and metastasis and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Histological analysis of tumors from mice infected with malaria revealed that angiogenesis was inhibited, which correlated with increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated (TUNEL) staining and decreased Ki-67 expression in tumors. Through natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity activity, cytokine assays, enzyme-linked immunospot assay, lymphocyte proliferation, and flow cytometry, we demonstrated that malaria infection provided anti-tumor effects by inducing both a potent anti-tumor innate immune response, including the secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α and the activation of NK cells as well as adaptive anti-tumor immunity with increasing tumor-specific T-cell proliferation and cytolytic activity of CD8+ T cells. Notably, tumor-bearing mice infected with the parasite developed long-lasting and effective tumor-specific immunity. Consequently, we found that malaria parasite infection could enhance the immune response of lung cancer DNA vaccine pcDNA3.1-hMUC1 and the combination produced a synergistic antitumor effect. Conclusions/Significance Malaria infection significantly suppresses LLC growth via induction of innate and adaptive antitumor responses in a mouse model. These data suggest that the malaria parasite may provide a

  18. 1,25D3 enhances antitumor activity of gemcitabine and cisplatin in human bladder cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyu; Yu, Wei-Dong; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2010-01-01

    Background 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) potentiates the cytotoxic effects of several common chemotherapeutic agents. The combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) is a current standard chemotherapy regimen for bladder cancer. We investigated whether 1,25D3 could enhance the antitumor activity of GC in bladder cancer model systems. Methods Human bladder cancer T24 and UMUC3 cells were pretreated with 1,25D3 followed by GC. Apoptosis were assessed by annexin V staining. Caspase activation was examined by immunoblot analysis and substrate-based caspase activity assay. The cytotoxic effects were examined using MTT and in vitro clonogenic assay. p73 protein levels were assessed by immunoblot analysis. Knockdown of p73 was achieved by siRNA. The in vivo antitumor activity was assessed by in vivo excision clonogenic assay and tumor regrowth delay in the T24 xenograft model. Results 1,25D3 pretreatment enhanced GC-induced apoptosis and the activities of caspases- 8, 9 and 3 in T24 and UMUC3 cells. 1,25D3 synergistically reduced GC-suppressed surviving fraction in T24 cells. 1,25D3, gemcitabine, or cisplatin induced p73 accumulation, which was enhanced by GC or 1,25D3 and GC. p73 expression was lower in human primary bladder tumor tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue. Knockdown of p73 increased clonogenic capacity of T24 cells treated with 1,25D3, GC or 1,25D3 and GC. 1,25D3 and GC combination enhanced tumor regression compared with 1,25D3 or GC alone. Conclusions 1,25D3 potentiates GC-mediated growth inhibition in human bladder cancer models in vitro and in vivo, which involves p73 induction and apoptosis. PMID:20564622

  19. Dual subcellular compartment delivery of doxorubicin to overcome drug resistant and enhance antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yan-feng; Liu, Dao-zhou; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Miao; Ye, Wei-liang; Zhang, Bang-le; Liu, Xin-you; Zhou, Si-yuan

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome drug resistant and enhance antitumor activity of DOX, a new pH-sensitive micelle (DOX/DQA-DOX@DSPE-hyd-PEG-AA) was prepared to simultaneously deliver DOX to nucleus and mitochondria. Drug released from DOX/DQA-DOX@DSPE-hyd-PEG-AA showed a pH-dependent manner. DOX/DQA-DOX@DSPE-hyd-PEG-AA induced the depolarization of mitochondria and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231/ADR cells and A549 cells, which resulted in the high cytotoxicity of DOX/DQA-DOX@DSPE-hyd-PEG-AA against MDA-MB-231/ADR cells and A549 cells. Confocal microscopy confirmed that DOX/DQA-DOX@DSPE-hyd-PEG-AA simultaneously delivered DQA-DOX and DOX to the mitochondria and nucleus of tumor cell. After DOX/DQA-DOX@DSPE-hyd-PEG-AA was injected to the tumor-bearing nude mice by the tail vein, DOX was mainly found in tumor tissue. But DOX was widely distributed in the whole body after the administration of free DOX. Compared with free DOX, the same dose of DOX/DQA-DOX@DSPE-hyd-PEG-AA significantly inhibited the growth of DOX-resistant tumor in tumor-bearing mice without obvious systemic toxicity. Therefore, dual subcellular compartment delivery of DOX greatly enhanced the antitumor activity of DOX on DOX-resistant tumor. DOX/DQA-DOX@DSPE-hyd-PEG-AA has the potential in target therapy for DOX-resistant tumor. PMID:26530454

  20. Enhanced antitumor efficacy of ultrasonic cavitation with up-sized microbubbles in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pintong; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Jian; Shentu, Weihui; Sun, Yu; Yang, Zhijian; Liang, Tingbo; Chen, Shuyuan; Pu, Zhaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic cavitation is a novel potential approach for cancer treatment. We optimized the techniques of ultrasonic cavitation to enhance antitumor efficacy in a mouse model with human pancreatic cancer. A polydisperse MB contrast agent formulation (TS-P) with a mean number diameter of 1.9 μm was depleted in small diameter particles by differential centrifugation, producing an “up-sized” size distribution (TS-PL) possessing a mean diameter of 2.9 μm. Mice bearing the XPA-1-RFP pancreatic tumor were treated daily for 3 consecutive days with either up-sized or standard MB. Both treatment cohorts exhibited a significant reduction in tumor volume relative to the untreated control cohort (P < 0.05), and TS-PL group has significantly reduction in tumor volume (1215.1± 324.7 mm3) compared with standard TS-P group (2131.2±753.4 mm3) (P < 0.05). The treatment with TS-PL resulted in more tumor cell necrosis and apoptosis than with TS-P. Decreased expression of CD31 and MVD was observed histologically in tumors treated with TS-PL relative to TS-P. This study demonstrates that tuning the size distribution of existing contrast agent products, specifically to reduce the concentration of small MB, is required for enhanced anti-tumor cavitation activity. PMID:26036312

  1. Virus-stimulated neutrophils in the tumor microenvironment enhance T cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chin Yang; Tai, Jiayu A.; Li, Sumin; Nishikawa, Tomoyuki; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) fosters tumors by attenuating anti-tumor immunity, reinforcing tumor cell survival and increasing angiogenesis. Among the constituents of the TME, here, we focused on tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs). First, we found that the combination of poly I:C and inactivated Sendai virus particles (hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope; HVJ-E) synergistically suppressed tumor growth in the B16-F10 melanoma mouse model. In this model, poly I:C contributed to the recruitment of CD11b+Ly6G+ neutrophils to the TME, and co-injection of poly I:C and HVJ-E increased CD11b+Ly6G+FAS+ TAN in the TME. Depletion of neutrophils abolished the synergistic anti-tumor effect of HVJ-E and poly I:C in B16-F10 tumors. We revealed that C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CXCL2) is produced in the TME by poly I:C, but HVJ-E enhanced neutrophil infiltration of the TME does not occur. An anti-CXCL2 antibody inhibited the tumor suppression by HVJ-E+poly I:C. HVJ-E in combination with recombinant CXCL2 protein or CXCL2 pDNA suppressed mouse melanoma by increasing cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity against B16-F10 melanoma, which was abolished by an anti-Ly6G antibody. HVJ-E directly and indirectly increased FAS and ICAM-1 expression in cultured bone marrow-derived naïve neutrophils. Thus, HVJ-E activates anti-tumor immunity via anti-tumorigenic neutrophils in the TME. An HVJ-E vector containing the CXCL2 gene may be applicable as a novel cancer gene therapy strategy. PMID:27259252

  2. Macrophage PPARγ inhibits Gpr132 to mediate the anti-tumor effects of rosiglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wing Yin; Huynh, HoangDinh; Chen, Peiwen; Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Wan, Yihong

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) significantly contributes to cancer progression. Human cancer is enhanced by PPARγ loss-of-function mutations, but inhibited by PPARγ agonists such as TZD diabetes drugs including rosiglitazone. However, it remains enigmatic whether and how macrophage contributes to PPARγ tumor-suppressive functions. Here we report that macrophage PPARγ deletion in mice not only exacerbates mammary tumor development but also impairs the anti-tumor effects of rosiglitazone. Mechanistically, we identify Gpr132 as a novel direct PPARγ target in macrophage whose expression is enhanced by PPARγ loss but repressed by PPARγ activation. Functionally, macrophage Gpr132 is pro-inflammatory and pro-tumor. Genetic Gpr132 deletion not only retards inflammation and cancer growth but also abrogates the anti-tumor effects of PPARγ and rosiglitazone. Pharmacological Gpr132 inhibition significantly impedes mammary tumor malignancy. These findings uncover macrophage PPARγ and Gpr132 as critical TAM modulators, new cancer therapeutic targets, and essential mediators of TZD anti-cancer effects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18501.001 PMID:27692066

  3. Preparation, characterization, and evaluation of antitumor effect of Brucea javanica oil cationic nanoemulsions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting-ting; Mu, Li-Qiu; Dai, Wei; Wang, Chuan-bang; Liu, Xin-Yi; Xiang, Da-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare Brucea javanica oil cationic nanoemulsions (BJO-CN) with BJO as drug as well as oil phase and chitosan as cationic inducer, to explore the practical suitability of using cationic nanoemulsions for oral delivery of mixed oil, and to test its bioavailability and antitumor effect. BJO-CN was prepared by chitosan solution stirring method and then characterized physicochemically. The obtained BJO-CN had a spherical morphology with a positive zeta potential of 18.9 mV and an average particle size of 42.36 nm, showing high colloidal stability. The drug loading of BJO-CN was 91.83 mg·mL−1, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with precolumn derivatization. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that, compared with BJO emulsion (BJO-E) (the dosage of BJO-CN and BJO-E was equal to 505 mg·kg−1, calculated by oleic acid), BJO-CN exhibited a significant increase in the area under the plasma drug concentration–time curve over the period of 24 hours and relative bioavailability was 1.6-fold. Furthermore, the antitumor effect of BJO-CN in the orthotopic mouse model of lung cancer was evaluated by recording the median survival time and the weight of lung tissue with tumor, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and immunohistochemical technique. Results of anticancer experiments illustrated that, even though the administrated dosage in the BJO-CN group was half of that in the BJO-E group, BJO-CN exhibited similar antitumor effect to BJO-E. Moreover, BJO-CN had good synergistic effect in combination therapy with vinorelbine. These results suggested that cationic nanoemulsions are an effective and promising delivery system to enhance the oral bioavailability and anticancer effect of BJO. PMID:27330293

  4. Armored CAR T cells enhance antitumor efficacy and overcome the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Yeku, Oladapo O; Purdon, Terence J; Koneru, Mythili; Spriggs, David; Brentjens, Renier J

    2017-09-05

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has shown limited efficacy for the management of solid tumor malignancies. In ovarian cancer, this is in part due to an immunosuppressive cytokine and cellular tumor microenvironment which suppresses adoptively transferred T cells. We engineered an armored CAR T cell capable of constitutive secretion of IL-12, and delineate the mechanisms via which these CAR T cells overcome a hostile tumor microenvironment. In this report, we demonstrate enhanced proliferation, decreased apoptosis and increased cytotoxicity in the presence of immunosuppressive ascites. In vivo, we show enhanced expansion and CAR T cell antitumor efficacy, culminating in improvement in survival in a syngeneic model of ovarian peritoneal carcinomatosis. Armored CAR T cells mediated depletion of tumor associated macrophages and resisted endogenous PD-L1-induced inhibition. These findings highlight the role of the inhibitory microenvironment and how CAR T cells can be further engineered to maintain efficacy.

  5. Enhanced antitumor activity of erlotinib in combination with the Hsp90 inhibitor CH5164840 against non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ono, Naomi; Yamazaki, Toshikazu; Tsukaguchi, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Toshihiko; Sakata, Kiyoaki; Suda, Atsushi; Tsukuda, Takuo; Mio, Toshiyuki; Ishii, Nobuya; Kondoh, Osamu; Aoki, Yuko

    2013-10-01

    Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) can lead to degradation of multiple client proteins, which are involved in tumor progression. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one of the most potent oncogenic client proteins of Hsp90. Targeted inhibition of EGFR has shown clinical efficacy in the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, primary and acquired resistance to the existing EGFR inhibitors is a major clinical problem. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the novel Hsp90 inhibitor CH5164840 on the antitumor activity of erlotinib. The NSCLC cell lines and xenograft models were treated with CH5164840 and erlotinib to examine their mechanisms of action and cell growth inhibition. We found that CH5164840 showed remarkable antitumor activity against NSCLC cell lines and xenograft models. The addition of CH5164840 enhanced the antitumor activity of erlotinib against NCI-H292 EGFR-overexpressing xenograft models. Phosphorylation of Stat3 increased with erlotinib treatment in NCI-H292 cells, which was abrogated by Hsp90 inhibition. Furthermore, in a NCI-H1975 T790M mutation erlotinib-resistant model, CH5164840 enhanced the antitumor activity of erlotinib despite the low efficacy of erlotinib treatment alone. In addition, ERK signaling was effectively suppressed by combination treatment with erlotinib and CH5164840 in a NCI-H1975 erlotinib-resistant model. Taken together, these data indicate that CH5164840 has potent antitumor activity and is highly effective in combination with erlotinib against NSCLC tumors with EGFR overexpression and mutations. Our results support the therapeutic potential of CH5164840 as a Hsp90 inhibitor for combination therapy with EGFR-targeting agents against EGFR-addicted NSCLC. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. Antitumor effect of novel gallium compounds and efficacy of nanoparticle-mediated gallium delivery in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wehrung, Daniel; Oyewumi, Moses O

    2012-02-01

    The widespread application of gallium (Ga) in cancer therapy has been greatly hampered by lack of specificity resulting in poor tumor accumulation and retention. To address the challenge, two lipophilic gallium (III) compounds (gallium hexanedione; GaH and gallium acetylacetonate; GaAcAc) were synthesized and antitumor studies were conducted in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. Nanoparticles (NPs) containing various concentrations of the Ga compounds were prepared using a binary mixture of Gelucire 44/14 and cetyl alcohol as matrix materials. NPs were characterized based on size, morphology, stability and biocompatibility. Antitumor effects of free or NP-loaded Ga compounds were investigated based on cell viability, production of reactive oxygen species and reduction of mitochondrial potential. Compared to free Ga compounds, cytotoxicity of NP-loaded Ga (5-150 microg/ml) was less dependent on concentration and incubation time (exposure) with A549 cells. NP-mediated delivery (5-150 microg Ga/ml) enhanced antitumor effects of Ga compounds and the effect was pronounced at: (i) shorter incubation times; and (ii) at low concentrations of gallium (approximately 50 microg/ml) (p < 0.0006). Additional studies showed that NP-mediated Ga delivery was not dependent on transferrin receptor uptake mechanism (p > 0.13) suggesting the potential in overcoming gallium resistance in some tumors. In general, preparation of stable and biocompatible NPs that facilitated Ga tumor uptake and antitumor effects could be effective in gallium-based cancer therapy.

  7. Suppression of Tregs by anti-glucocorticoid induced TNF receptor antibody enhances the antitumor immunity of interferon-α gene therapy for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Aida, Kouichirou; Miyakawa, Reina; Suzuki, Koji; Narumi, Kenta; Udagawa, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Chikaraishi, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Aoki, Kazunori

    2014-02-01

    We have reported that interferon (IFN)-α can attack cancer cells by multiple antitumor mechanisms including the induction of direct cancer cell death and the enhancement of an immune response in several pancreatic cancer models. However, an immunotolerant microenvironment in the tumors is often responsible for the failure of the cancer immunotherapy. Here we examined whether the suppression of regulatory T cells (Tregs) within tumors can enhance an antitumor immunity induced by an intratumoral IFN-α gene transfer. First we showed that an intraperitoneal administration of an agonistic anti-glucocorticoid induced TNF receptor (GITR) monoclonal antibody (mAb), which is reported to suppress the function of Tregs, significantly inhibited subcutaneous tumor growth in a murine pancreatic cancer model. The anti-GITR mAb was then combined with the intratumoral injection of the IFN-α-adenovirus vector. The treatment with the antibody synergistically augmented the antitumor effect of IFN-α gene therapy not only in the vector-injected tumors but also in the vector-uninjected tumors. Immunostaining showed that the anti-GITR mAb decreased Foxp3(+) cells infiltrating in the tumors, while the intratumoral IFN-α gene transfer increased CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the tumors. Therefore, the combination therapy strongly inclined the immune balance of the tumor microenvironment in an antitumor direction, leading to a marked systemic antitumor effect. The CCR5 expression on Tregs was downregulated in the antibody-treated mice, which may explain the decrease of tumor-infiltrating Tregs. The combination of Treg-suppression by GITR mAb and the tumor immunity induction by IFN-α gene therapy could be a promising therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer.

  8. Sequential application of a cytotoxic nanoparticle and a PI3K inhibitor enhances antitumor efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ambarish; Goldman, Aaron; Sarangi, Sasmit; Sengupta, Poulomi; Phipps, Colin; Kopparam, Jawahar; Oh, Michael; Basu, Sudipta; Kohandel, Mohammad; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2013-01-01

    Nanomedicines that preferentially deploy cytotoxic agents to tumors, and molecular targeted therapeutics that inhibit specific aberrant oncogenic drivers are emerging as the new paradigm for the management of cancer. While combination therapies are a mainstay of cancer chemotherapy, few studies have addressed the combination of nanomedicines and molecular targeted therapeutics. Furthermore, limited knowledge exists on the impact of sequencing of such therapeutics and nanomedicines on the antitumor outcome. Here we engineered a supramolecular cis-platinum nanoparticle, which induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells but also elicited pro-survival signaling via an epidermal growth factor receptor-phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) pathway. A combination of mathematical modeling and in vitro and in vivo validation using a pharmacological inhibitor of PI3K, PI828, demonstrate that administration of PI828 following treatment with the supramolecular cis-platinum nanoparticle results in enhanced antitumor efficacy in breast cancer as compared with when the sequence is reversed or when the two treatments are administered simultaneously. This study addresses, for the first time, the impact of drug sequencing in the case of a combination of a nanomedicine and a targeted therapeutic. Furthermore, our results indicate that a rational combination of cis-platinum nanoparticles and a PI3K-targeted therapeutic can emerge as a potential therapy for breast cancer. PMID:24121494

  9. Absence of LTB4/BLT1 axis facilitates generation of mouse GM-CSF-induced long-lasting antitumor immunologic memory by enhancing innate and adaptive immune systems.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Yosuke; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Yumiko; Nabeta, Haruka; Narusawa, Megumi; Watanabe, Ayumi; Sakamoto, Chika; Hijikata, Yasuki; Iga-Murahashi, Mutsunori; Takayama, Koichi; Sasaki, Fumiyuki; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Tani, Kenzaburo

    2012-10-25

    BLT1 is a high-affinity receptor for leukotriene B4 (LTB4) that is a potent lipid chemoattractant for myeloid leukocytes. The role of LTB4/BLT1 axis in tumor immunology, including cytokine-based tumor vaccine, however, remains unknown. We here demonstrated that BLT1-deficient mice rejected subcutaneous tumor challenge of GM-CSF gene-transduced WEHI3B (WGM) leukemia cells (KO/WGM) and elicited robust antitumor responses against second tumor challenge with WEHI3B cells. During GM-CSF-induced tumor regression, the defective LTB4/BLT1 signaling significantly reduced tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells, increased the maturation status of dendritic cells in tumor tissues, enhanced their CD4(+) T-cell stimulation capacity and migration rate of dendritic cells that had phagocytosed tumor-associated antigens into tumor-draining lymph nodes, suggesting a positive impact on GM-CSF-sensitized innate immunity. Furthermore, KO/WGM mice displayed activated adaptive immunity by attenuating regulatory CD4(+) T subsets and increasing numbers of Th17 and memory CD44(hi)CD4(+) T subsets, both of which elicited superior antitumor effects as evidenced by adoptive cell transfer. In vivo depletion assays also revealed that CD4(+) T cells were the main effectors of the persistent antitumor immunity. Our data collectively underscore a negative role of LTB4/BLT1 signaling in effective generation and maintenance of GM-CSF-induced antitumor memory CD4(+) T cells.

  10. Anti-tumor effects of cimetidine on hepatocellular carcinomas in diethylnitrosamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Koichiro; Sato, Shuichi; Miyake, Tatsuya; Okamoto, Eisuke; Ishine, Junichi; Ishihara, Shunji; Amano, Yuji; Adachi, Kyoichi; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2008-02-01

    Cimetidine is known to have an anti-tumor effect on certain types of malignancies, though on hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), its effect remains unclear. We studied the anti-tumor effects of cimetidine on chemically-induced HCCs in rats. Four-week-old male Wistar rats (n=105) were divided into 4 groups. Those in groups A and B were administered diethylnitrosamine (DEN) intraperitoneally at 100 mg/kg body weight every week for 6 weeks, during which rats in group A were given tap water and those in group B received cimetidine (100 mg/kg/day) in their drinking water. Rats in groups C and D were administered saline instead of DEN and given tap water with 100 mg/kg/day of cimetidine, respectively. The animals were sacrificed at 7, 12, 22 and 32 weeks after the first administration of drugs and examined. Liver nodules were observed only in groups A and B, with the number of nodules, maximum diameter of the largest nodule, and liver weight significantly lower in group B. Immunohistochemistry findings showed that glutathione S-transferase placental-positive preneoplastic foci were significantly decreased in group B. Cimetidine treatment decreased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive hepatocytes and tended to enhance natural killer (NK) cell activity in splenic lymphocytes. In addition, flow cytometry revealed that the proportion of NK cells among total splenic lymphocytes was not affected by cimetidine treatment. Our results showed that cimetidine has an inhibiting effect on hepatocarcinogenesis.

  11. Tumor-Specific Peptide, Selected from a Phage Peptide Library, Enhances Antitumor Activity of Lactaptin

    PubMed Central

    Makartsova, Anna A.; Fomin, Alexandr S.; Nushtaeva, Anna A.; Koval, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    A recombinant analogue of lactaptin (RL2), a new potential anticancer molecule, induces apoptosis in cultured tumor cells. The tumor suppression efficacy of RL2 was shown against mouse hepatoma-1 cells and MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cells. The RL2-based therapeutic drug lactaptin is distributed evenly throughout the organism, which reduces its antitumor efficacy. In the current study, we obtained a genetic construct that allows production of the recombinant fusion protein T3-RL2, consisting of RL2 and T3 peptide (YTYDPWLIFPAN), in E. coli cells. T3 peptide was selected from a phage peptide library as a result of two screenings: in vitro using MDA-MB-231 cell culture and in vivo using a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer MDA-MB-231. It was shown that the displayed peptide T3 provides binding and internalization of phage particles by MDA-MB-231 cells and their specific accumulation in MDA-MB-231 tumor tissue. In addition, based on the nucleotide sequences coding RL2 and the known tumor-targeting peptide iRGD, we obtained genetic constructs that provide synthesis of fusion proteins RL2-iRGD and RL-iRGD-His. We studied the cytotoxic activity of fusion proteins T3-RL2, RL2-iRGD and RL-iRGD-His in vitro using MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human adenocarcinoma cells. The in vitro results showed that the fusion proteins inhibit proliferation of both cell cultures, and their cytotoxic activity is higher than that of RL2. In vivo experiments on the study of the antitumor efficacy of the obtained fusion proteins demonstrated that T3-RL2 protein significantly inhibits MDA-MB-231 tumor growth in a xenograft model compared with RL2, while the antitumor effect of RL2-iRGD and RL-iRGD-His proteins is comparable to the effect of RL2. PMID:27513518

  12. Ten tandem repeats of {beta}-hCG 109-118 enhance immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of {beta}-hCG C-terminal peptide carried by mycobacterial heat-shock protein HSP65

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yankai; Yan Rong; He Yi; Liu Wentao; Cao Rongyue; Yan Ming; Li Taiming; Liu Jingjing; Wu Jie . E-mail: wu_jie97@yahoo.com.cn

    2006-07-14

    The {beta}-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin ({beta}-hCG) is secreted by many kinds of tumors and it has been used as an ideal target antigen to develop vaccines against tumors. In view of the low immunogenicity of this self-peptide,we designed a method based on isocaudamer technique to repeat tandemly the 10-residue sequence X of {beta}-hCG (109-118), then 10 tandemly repeated copies of the 10-residue sequence combined with {beta}-hCG C-terminal 37 peptides were fused to mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 to construct a fusion protein HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 as an immunogen. In this study, we examined the effect of the tandem repeats of this 10-residue sequence in eliciting an immune by comparing the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of the two immunogens, HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 and HSP65-{beta}hCGCTP37 (without the 10 tandem repeats). Immunization of mice with the fusion protein HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 elicited much higher levels of specific anti-{beta}-hCG antibodies and more effectively inhibited the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in vivo than with HSP65-{beta}hCGCTP37, which should suggest that HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 may be an effective protein vaccine for the treatment of {beta}-hCG-dependent tumors and multiple tandem repeats of a certain epitope are an efficient method to overcome the low immunogenicity of self-peptide antigens.

  13. Immunotherapeutic effect of Concholepas hemocyanin in the murine bladder cancer model: evidence for conserved antitumor properties among hemocyanins.

    PubMed

    Moltedo, Bruno; Faunes, Fernando; Haussmann, Denise; De Ioannes, Pablo; De Ioannes, Alfredo E; Puente, Javier; Becker, María Inés

    2006-12-01

    hemocyanin. They suggest that this is an ancient conserved immunogenic mechanism shared by those hemocyanins that is able to enhance T helper type 1 immunity and lead to antitumor activity. Therefore, Concholepas concholepas hemocyanin may be an alternative candidate for providing safe and effective immunotherapy for human superficial bladder cancer.

  14. Ultrasound contrast-enhanced imaging and in vitro antitumor effect of paclitaxel-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-monomethoxypoly (ethylene glycol) nanocapsules with ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Xing, Ling Xi; Shen, Ming; Li, Fan; Zhu, Ming Jie; Jin, Li Fang; Li, Zhaojun; Gao, Feng; Su, Yijin; Duan, You Rong; Du, Lian Fang

    2015-04-01

    A combination of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound (US) techniques may be able to provide the basis of specific therapeutic protocols, particularly for the treatment of tumors. Nanotechnology may aid the progression towards the use of US for tumor diagnosis and targeted therapy. The current study investigated in vivo and in vitro US contrast imaging using nanocapsules (NCs), and also US and US‑targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) therapy using drug‑loaded NCs for pancreatic cancer in vitro. In the current study, the NCs were made from the polymer nanomaterial poly(lactic‑co‑glycolic acid)‑monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA‑mPEG), encapsulated with paclitaxel (PTX), to create PTX‑PLGA‑mPEG NCs. The PTX‑PLGA‑mPEG NCs were used as a US contrast agent (UCA), which produced satisfactory US contrast‑enhanced images in vitro and in vivo of the rabbit kidneys, with good contrast compared with lesions in the peripheral regions. However, clear contrast‑enhanced images were not obtained using PTX‑PLGA‑mPEG NCs as a UCA, when imaging the superficial pancreatic tumors of nude mice in vivo. Subsequently, fluorescence and flow cytometry were used to measure the NC uptake rate of pancreatic tumor cells under various US or UTMD conditions. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the efficiency of PTX and PTX‑PLGA‑mPEG NCs in killing tumor cells following 24 or 48 h of US or UTMD therapy, compared with controls. The specific US or UTMD conditions had been previously demonstrated to be optimal through repeated testing, to determine the conditions by which cells were not impaired and the efficiency of uptake of nanoparticles was highest. The current study demonstrated high cellular uptake rates of PLGA‑mPEG NCs and high tumor cell mortality with PTX‑PLGA‑mPEG NCs under US or UTMD optimal conditions. It was concluded that the use of NCs in US‑mediated imaging and antitumor therapy may provide a novel application for US.

  15. Encapsulation of trans-dehydrocrotonin in liposomes: an enhancement of the antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Lapenda, T L S; Morais, W A; Almeida, F J F; Ferraz, M S; Lira, M C B; Santos, N P S; Maciel, M A M; Santos-Magalhães, N S

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was the encapsulation of trans-dehydrocrotonin (t-DCTN) and its inclusion complexes with hydropropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) in liposomes to improve t-DCTN antitumor activity. The in vitro kinetic profiles of t-DCTN-loaded liposomes (LD) and t-DCTN:HP-beta-CD-loaded liposomes (LC) were evaluated using the dialysis technique. The antitumor activity of LD and LC were investigated against Sarcoma 180 in Swiss mice. Histopathological and hematological analyses were carried out. The amounts of t-DCTN and t-DCTN:HP-beta-CD inclusion complex encapsulated in liposomes were equivalent to 1 mg of t-DCTN. The encapsulation efficiencies of LD and LC were 95.0 +/- 3.8% and 91.1 +/- 5.6%, respectively. In relation to kinetics, the drug release profiles of t-DCTN are in substantial agreement with the Fickian model. The treatment of animals with LD and LC produced tumor inhibitions of 79.4 +/- 9.6% and 63.5 +/- 5.5%, respectively. The liposomal encapsulation of t-DCTN by entrapment in the phospholipid bilayer increased at twice the antitumor activity. Moreover, the liposomal formulations reduced the hepatotoxicity effect of the drug and no significant hematological toxicity was observed in the treated animals. However, the counting of platelets was slightly decreased. Thus, the results show that the development of liposomal formulations containing t-DCTN or t-DCTN:HP-beta-CD is an important advance for enabling this drug to be use in therapy.

  16. Enhancing Antitumor Efficacy of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Through Constitutive CD40L Expression

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Kevin J; Seinstra, Beatrijs A; Nikhamin, Yan; Yeh, Raymond; Usachenko, Yelena; van Leeuwen, Dayenne G; Purdon, Terence; Pegram, Hollie J; Brentjens, Renier J

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with genetically modified T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is a promising therapy for patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, CAR-modified T cells (CAR T cells) have mostly failed in patients with solid tumors or low-grade B-cell malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukemia with bulky lymph node involvement. Herein, we enhance the antitumor efficacy of CAR T cells through the constitutive expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154). T cells genetically modified to constitutively express CD40L (CD40L-modified T cells) demonstrated increased proliferation and secretion of proinflammatory TH1 cytokines. Further, CD40L-modified T cells augmented the immunogenicity of CD40+ tumor cells by the upregulated surface expression of costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86), adhesion molecules (CD54, CD58, and CD70), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules (Class I and HLA-DR), and the Fas-death receptor (CD95). Additionally, CD40L-modified T cells induced maturation and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 by monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Finally, tumor-targeted CD19-specific CAR/CD40L T cells exhibited increased cytotoxicity against CD40+ tumors and extended the survival of tumor-bearing mice in a xenotransplant model of CD19+ systemic lymphoma. This preclinical data supports the clinical application of CAR T cells additionally modified to constitutively express CD40L with anticipated enhanced antitumor efficacy. PMID:25582824

  17. Mesenchymal stem cell carriers enhance antitumor efficacy of oncolytic adenoviruses in an immunocompetent mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, Esther; Cejalvo, Teresa; Kanojia, Deepak; Alfranca, Arantzazu; Rodríguez-Milla, Miguel Ángel; Hoyos, Raul Andrés Gil; Han, Yu; Zhang, Lingjiao; Alemany, Ramón; Lesniak, Maciej S.; García-Castro, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising alternative for cancer treatment; however, viral delivery to the tumor represents a major challenge. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) chemotax to tumors, and can serve as a viral delivery tool. Previously, we demonstrated antitumor therapeutic efficacy for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) infected with the oncolytic human adenovirus ICOVIR5 (Celyvir) for treatment of neuroblastoma patients. Given the lack of suitable immunocompetent preclinical models, the mechanism underlying Celyvir antitumor activity remains unknown. In this study, we used the syngeneic murine CMT64 cell line as a human adenovirus-semi-permissive tumor model and demonstrate the homing capacity of mouse Celyvir (mCelyvir) to CMT64 tumors. We found that the combined treatment of mCelyvir and intratumoral injections (i.t.) of ICOVIR5 was more effective than treatment with i.t. ICOVIR5 alone. Interestingly, the superior therapeutic effect of the combined therapy was associated with a higher tumor infiltration of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Our findings suggest that the use of MSCs as carriers of oncolytic adenovirus can improve the clinical efficacy of anti-cancer virotherapy, not only by driving the adenovirus to tumors, but also through their potential to recruit T cells. PMID:28525366

  18. Mesenchymal stem cell carriers enhance antitumor efficacy of oncolytic adenoviruses in an immunocompetent mouse model.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Esther; Cejalvo, Teresa; Kanojia, Deepak; Alfranca, Arantzazu; Rodríguez-Milla, Miguel Ángel; Gil Hoyos, Raul Andrés; Han, Yu; Zhang, Lingjiao; Alemany, Ramón; Lesniak, Maciej S; García-Castro, Javier

    2017-07-11

    Oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising alternative for cancer treatment; however, viral delivery to the tumor represents a major challenge. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) chemotax to tumors, and can serve as a viral delivery tool. Previously, we demonstrated antitumor therapeutic efficacy for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) infected with the oncolytic human adenovirus ICOVIR5 (Celyvir) for treatment of neuroblastoma patients. Given the lack of suitable immunocompetent preclinical models, the mechanism underlying Celyvir antitumor activity remains unknown. In this study, we used the syngeneic murine CMT64 cell line as a human adenovirus-semi-permissive tumor model and demonstrate the homing capacity of mouse Celyvir (mCelyvir) to CMT64 tumors. We found that the combined treatment of mCelyvir and intratumoral injections (i.t.) of ICOVIR5 was more effective than treatment with i.t. ICOVIR5 alone. Interestingly, the superior therapeutic effect of the combined therapy was associated with a higher tumor infiltration of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Our findings suggest that the use of MSCs as carriers of oncolytic adenovirus can improve the clinical efficacy of anti-cancer virotherapy, not only by driving the adenovirus to tumors, but also through their potential to recruit T cells.

  19. Encapsulation of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Peptides into Hollow Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Enhancement of Antitumor Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Yang, Chaohua; Liu, Qianqian; Li, Jun; Liang, Ruijing; Shen, Chen; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Ke; Liu, Liping; Shezad, Khurram; Sullivan, Martin; Xu, Yong; Shen, Guanxin; Tao, Juan; Zhu, Jintao; Zhang, Zhiping

    2017-09-01

    Codelivery of combinational antigenic peptides and adjuvant to antigen presenting cells is expected to amplify tumor specific T lymphocytes immune responses while minimizing the possibility of tumor escaping and reducing immune tolerance to single antigenic peptide. However, the varied hydrophobicities of these multivariant derived short antigenic peptides limit their codelivery efficiency in conventional delivery systems. Here, a facile yet effective route is presented to generate monodisperse and stable hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) for codelivering of HGP10025-33 and TRP2180-188 , two melanoma-derived peptides with varied hydrophobicities. The HMSNs with large pore size can improve the encapsulation efficiency of both HGP100 and TRP2 after NH2 modification on the inner hollow core and COOH modification in the porous channels. HGP100 and TRP2 loaded HMSNs (HT@HMSNs) are further enveloped within monophosphoryl lipid A adjuvant entrapped lipid bilayer (HTM@HMLBs), for improved stability/biocompatibility and codelivery efficiency of multiple peptides, adjuvant, and enhanced antitumor immune responses. HTM@HMLBs increase uptake by dendritic cells (DCs) and stimulate DCs maturation efficiently, which further induce the activation of both tumor specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Moreover, HTM@HMLBs can significantly inhibit tumor growth and lung metastasis in murine melanoma models with good safety profiles. HMSNs enveloped with lipid bilayers (HMLBs) are believed to be a promising platform for codelivery of multiple peptides, adjuvant, and enhancement of antitumor efficacy of conventional vaccinations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Immunological and antitumor effects of coumarin and some derivatives.

    PubMed

    Rosskopf, F; Kraus, J; Franz, G

    1992-02-01

    Coumarin and its 4-OH and 7-OH derivatives, as well as o-, m- and p-coumaric acid were tested against P-815 and P-388 tumor cells in vitro. In addition, the compounds were investigated in various in vitro immunological test systems and genuine coumarin was tested furthermore against the Sarcoma-180 in CD1 mice. In vivo, coumarin showed only a moderate antitumor effect against the allogeneic Sarcoma-180 at concentrations of 10 and 40 mg/kg, with inhibition rates of 49 and 60%, respectively. However, both concentrations were markedly toxic. In vitro all compounds were more or less cytotoxic against P-815 and P-388 tumor cell lines starting at a concentration of 100 micrograms/ml. At subtoxic concentrations (less than or equal to 10 micrograms/ml) the samples showed no mitogenic activity against murine spleen lymphocytes and PHA costimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Furthermore, with the coumarin derivatives neither cytotoxic macrophages could be induced against P-815 tumor cells nor an increased release of Il-2 and TNF-alpha could be observed. Only 7-OH coumarin, in concentrations of 2 and 20 micrograms/ml, caused a strong increase in phagocytosis of 124 and 84% in both, human peripheral blood granulocytes and murine peritoneal macrophages, respectively.

  1. Engineering monocyte-derived dendritic cells to secrete interferon-α enhances their ability to promote adaptive and innate anti-tumor immune effector functions.

    PubMed

    Willemen, Yannick; Van den Bergh, Johan M J; Lion, Eva; Anguille, Sébastien; Roelandts, Vicky A E; Van Acker, Heleen H; Heynderickx, Steven D I; Stein, Barbara M H; Peeters, Marc; Figdor, Carl G; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F I; de Vries, I Jolanda; Adema, Gosse J; Berneman, Zwi N; Smits, Evelien L J

    2015-07-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) vaccination has demonstrated potential in clinical trials as a new effective cancer treatment, but objective and durable clinical responses are confined to a minority of patients. Interferon (IFN)-α, a type-I IFN, can bolster anti-tumor immunity by restoring or increasing the function of DCs, T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Moreover, type-I IFN signaling on DCs was found to be essential in mice for tumor rejection by the innate and adaptive immune system. Targeted delivery of IFN-α by DCs to immune cells could boost the generation of anti-tumor immunity, while avoiding the side effects frequently associated with systemic administration. Naturally circulating plasmacytoid DCs, major producers of type-I IFN, were already shown capable of inducing tumor antigen-specific T cell responses in cancer patients without severe toxicity, but their limited number complicates their use in cancer vaccination. In the present work, we hypothesized that engineering easily generated human monocyte-derived mature DCs to secrete IFN-α using mRNA electroporation enhances their ability to promote adaptive and innate anti-tumor immunity. Our results show that IFN-α mRNA electroporation of DCs significantly increases the stimulation of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell as well as anti-tumor NK cell effector functions in vitro through high levels of IFN-α secretion. Altogether, our findings mark IFN-α mRNA-electroporated DCs as potent inducers of both adaptive and innate anti-tumor immunity and pave the way for clinical trial evaluation in cancer patients.

  2. Antitumor effects of anti-CD40/CpG immunotherapy combined with gemcitabine or 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy in the B16 melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaoyi; Felder, Mildred A R; Perez Horta, Zulmarie; Sondel, Paul M; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L

    2013-12-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that anti-CD40 mAb (anti-CD40) can synergize with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) to mediate antitumor effects by activating myeloid cells, such as macrophages in tumor-bearing mice. Separate teams have shown that chemotherapy with gemcitabine (GEM) or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) can reduce tumor-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in mice. In this study we asked if the same chemotherapy regimens with GEM or 5-FU will enhance the antitumor effect of anti-CD40 and CpG. Using the model of B16 melanoma growing intraperitoneally in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice, we show that these GEM or 5-FU treatment regimens reduced MDSC in the peritoneal cavity of tumor-bearing mice. Treatment of mice with GEM or 5-FU did not significantly affect the antitumor function of macrophages as assessed in vitro. In vivo, treatment with these GEM or 5-FU regimens followed by anti-CD40/CpG resulted in antitumor effects similar to those of anti-CD40/CpG in the absence of GEM or 5-FU. Likewise, reduction of MDSC by in vivo anti-Gr-1 mAb treatment did not significantly affect anti-CD40/CpG antitumor responses. Together, the results show that the GEM or 5-FU chemotherapy regimens did not substantially affect the antitumor effects induced by anti-CD40/CpG immunotherapy.

  3. β-glucan restores tumor-educated dendritic cell maturation to enhance antitumor immune responses.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yongling; Xu, Dongqin; Zhang, Xiaohang; Bai, Yu; Ding, Jun; Feng, Tongbao; Wang, Shizhong; Xu, Ning; Qian, Keqing; Wang, Yong; Qi, Chunjian

    2016-06-01

    Tumors can induce the generation and accumulation of immunosuppressive cells such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in a tumor microenvironment, contributing to tumor escape from immunological attack. Although dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines can initiate antitumor immune responses, tumor-educated dendritic cells (TEDCs) involved in the tolerance induction have attracted much attention recently. In this study, we investigated the effect of β-glucan on TEDCs and found that β-glucan treatment could promote the maturation and migration of TEDCs and that the suppressive function of TEDCs was significantly decreased. Treatment with β-glucan drastically decreased the levels of regulatory T (Treg) cells but increased the infiltration of macrophages, granulocytes and DCs in tumor masses, thus elicited Th1 differentiation and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses and led to a delay in tumor progression. These findings reveal that β-glucan can inhibit the regulatory function of TEDCs, therefore revealing a novel function for β-glucan in immunotherapy and suggesting its potential clinical benefit. β-Glucan directly abrogated tumor-educated dendritic cells-associated immune suppression, promoted Th1 differentiation and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte priming and improved antitumor responses. © 2016 UICC.

  4. Facile preparation of paclitaxel loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles for enhanced antitumor efficacy by locoregional drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Puyuan; Liu, Qin; Li, Rutian; Wang, Jing; Zhen, Xu; Yue, Guofeng; Wang, Huiyu; Cui, Fangbo; Wu, Fenglei; Yang, Mi; Qian, Xiaoping; Yu, Lixia; Jiang, Xiqun; Liu, Baorui

    2013-12-11

    Non-toxic, safe materials and preparation methods are among the most important factors when designing nanoparticles (NPs) for future clinical application. Here we report a novel and facile method encapsulating anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) into silk fibroin (SF), a biocompatible and biodegradable natural polymer, without adding any toxic organic solvents, surfactants or other toxic agents. The paclitaxel loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles (PTX-SF-NPs) with a diameter of 130 nm were formed in an aqueous solution at room temperature by self-assembling of SF protein, which demonstrated mainly silk I conformation in the NPs. In cellular uptake experiments, coumarin-6 loaded SF NPs were taken up efficiently by two human gastric cancer cell lines BGC-823 and SGC-7901. In vitro cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that PTX kept its pharmacological activity when incorporating into PTX-SF-NPs, while SF showed no cytotoxicity to cells. The in vivo antitumor effects of PTX-SF-NPs were evaluated on gastric cancer nude mice exnograft model. We found that locoregional delivery of PTX-SF-NPs demonstrated superior antitumor efficacy by delaying tumor growth and reducing tumor weights compared with systemic administration. Furthermore, the organs of mice in NP treated groups didn't show obvious toxicity, indicating the in vivo safety of SF NPs. These results suggest that SF NPs are promising drug delivery carriers, and locoregional delivery of SF NPs could be a potential future clinical cancer treatment regimen.

  5. CDKN2A-p53 mediated antitumor effect of Lupeol in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sayantan; Sekar, Vasanthakumar; Majumder, Biswanath; Mehrotra, Debapriya G; Banerjee, Samir; Bhowmick, Anup K; Alam, Neyaz; Mandal, Gautam K; Biswas, Jaydip; Majumder, Pradip K; Murmu, Nabendu

    2017-04-01

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 is known to control cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Lupeol is a phytochemical that has been found to induce apoptosis in different cancer types through the extrinsic pathway. As yet, however, its role in the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway in head and neck cancer has not been investigated. Here, we aimed at understanding the mechanism underlying the antitumor effect of Lupeol in head and neck cancer. The antitumor effect of Lupeol on oral and laryngeal carcinomas was assessed using two in vitro 2D cell line models (HEp-2, UPCI:SCC-131) and, subsequently, an ex vivo 3D tumor explant culture platform that maintains key features of the native tumor microenvironment. The mechanism underlying Lupeol-mediated antitumor responses was delineated using MTT, colony formation, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry assays. We found that Lupeol induced an enhanced expression of p53 in both cell line models tested and, subsequently, cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. In addition we found that, following Lupeol treatment, p53 induced Bax expression and activated the intrinsic apoptotic pathway (as measured by Caspase-3 cleavage). Interestingly, Lupeol was also found to trigger G1 cell cycle arrest through up-regulation of the expression of CDKN2A, but not p21, resulting in inhibition of CyclinD1. In an ex vivo platform Lupeol was found to impart a potent antitumor response as defined by inhibition of Ki67 expression, decreased cell viability and concomitant activation (cleavage) of Caspase-3. Finally, we found that Lupeol can re-sensitize primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) tumor samples that had clinically progressed under a Cisplatin treatment regimen. Together, our data indicate that Lupeol may orchestrate a bifurcated regulation of neoplastic growth and apoptosis in head and neck cancers and may serve as a promising agent for the management of

  6. Enhancing the antitumor efficacy of a cell-surface death ligand by covalent membrane display.

    PubMed

    Nair, Pradeep M; Flores, Heather; Gogineni, Alvin; Marsters, Scot; Lawrence, David A; Kelley, Robert F; Ngu, Hai; Sagolla, Meredith; Komuves, Laszlo; Bourgon, Richard; Settleman, Jeffrey; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2015-05-05

    TNF superfamily death ligands are expressed on the surface of immune cells and can trigger apoptosis in susceptible cancer cells by engaging cognate death receptors. A recombinant soluble protein comprising the ectodomain of Apo2 ligand/TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL) has shown remarkable preclinical anticancer activity but lacked broad efficacy in patients, possibly owing to insufficient exposure or potency. We observed that antibody cross-linking substantially enhanced cytotoxicity of soluble Apo2L/TRAIL against diverse cancer cell lines. Presentation of the ligand on glass-supported lipid bilayers enhanced its ability to drive receptor microclustering and apoptotic signaling. Furthermore, covalent surface attachment of Apo2L/TRAIL onto liposomes--synthetic lipid-bilayer nanospheres--similarly augmented activity. In vivo, liposome-displayed Apo2L/TRAIL achieved markedly better exposure and antitumor activity. Thus, covalent synthetic-membrane attachment of a cell-surface ligand enhances efficacy, increasing therapeutic potential. These findings have translational implications for liposomal approaches as well as for Apo2L/TRAIL and other clinically relevant TNF ligands.

  7. A Tumor-Penetrating Peptide Modification Enhances the Antitumor Activity of Thymosin Alpha 1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiao; Zheng, Heng

    2013-01-01

    A serious limitation of numerous antitumor drugs is the incapacity to penetrate solid tumors. However, addition of an RGD fragment to peptide drugs might solve this problem. In this study, we explored whether the introduction of a permeability-enhancing sequence, such as iRGD (CRGDK/RGPD/EC) fragments, would enhance the activity of thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1). The modified Tα1 (Tα1-iRGD) was successfully expressed and purified, and the in vitro assay showed that Tα1-iRGD presented a similar activity as Tα1 in promoting proliferation of mouse splenocytes. Meanwhile, cell adhesion analysis revealed that Tα1-iRGD exhibited more specific and greater binding with tumor cells compared with Tα1. Furthermore, the iRGD fragment evidently enhanced the basal ability of Tα1 to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in vitro, particularly of mouse melanoma cell line B16F10 and human lung cancer cell line H460. Our findings indicated that the addition of an iRGD fragment increased the anti-proliferative activity of Tα1 against cancer cells by improving the ability of Tα1 to penetrate the tumor cells. This study highlighted the important roles of an iRGD sequence in the therapeutic strategy of Tα1-iRGD. Thus, Tα1-iRGD could be a novel drug candidate for cancer treatment. PMID:23977262

  8. A tumor-penetrating peptide modification enhances the antitumor activity of thymosin alpha 1.

    PubMed

    Lao, Xingzhen; Liu, Meng; Chen, Jiao; Zheng, Heng

    2013-01-01

    A serious limitation of numerous antitumor drugs is the incapacity to penetrate solid tumors. However, addition of an RGD fragment to peptide drugs might solve this problem. In this study, we explored whether the introduction of a permeability-enhancing sequence, such as iRGD (CRGDK/RGPD/EC) fragments, would enhance the activity of thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1). The modified Tα1 (Tα1-iRGD) was successfully expressed and purified, and the in vitro assay showed that Tα1-iRGD presented a similar activity as Tα1 in promoting proliferation of mouse splenocytes. Meanwhile, cell adhesion analysis revealed that Tα1-iRGD exhibited more specific and greater binding with tumor cells compared with Tα1. Furthermore, the iRGD fragment evidently enhanced the basal ability of Tα1 to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in vitro, particularly of mouse melanoma cell line B16F10 and human lung cancer cell line H460. Our findings indicated that the addition of an iRGD fragment increased the anti-proliferative activity of Tα1 against cancer cells by improving the ability of Tα1 to penetrate the tumor cells. This study highlighted the important roles of an iRGD sequence in the therapeutic strategy of Tα1-iRGD. Thus, Tα1-iRGD could be a novel drug candidate for cancer treatment.

  9. Cobra Venom Factor and Ketoprofen Abolish the Antitumor Effect of Nerve Growth Factor from Cobra Venom.

    PubMed

    Osipov, Alexey V; Terpinskaya, Tatiana I; Kuznetsova, Tatiana E; Ryzhkovskaya, Elena L; Lukashevich, Vladimir S; Rudnichenko, Julia A; Ulashchyk, Vladimir S; Starkov, Vladislav G; Utkin, Yuri N

    2017-09-06

    We showed recently that nerve growth factor (NGF) from cobra venom inhibited the growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) inoculated subcutaneously in mice. Here, we studied the influence of anti-complementary cobra venom factor (CVF) and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen on the antitumor NGF effect, as well as on NGF-induced changes in EAC histological patterns, the activity of lactate and succinate dehydrogenases in tumor cells and the serum level of some cytokines. NGF, CVF and ketoprofen reduced the tumor volume by approximately 72%, 68% and 30%, respectively. The antitumor effect of NGF was accompanied by an increase in the lymphocytic infiltration of the tumor tissue, the level of interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α in the serum, as well as the activity of lactate and succinate dehydrogenases in tumor cells. Simultaneous administration of NGF with either CVF or ketoprofen abolished the antitumor effect and reduced all other effects of NGF, whereas NGF itself significantly decreased the antitumor action of both CVF and ketoprofen. Thus, the antitumor effect of NGF critically depended on the status of the immune system and was abolished by the disturbance of the complement system; the disturbance of the inflammatory response canceled the antitumor effect as well.

  10. Amplexicaule A exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Guangwen; Wan, Dingrong; He, Feng; Loaec, Morgann; Ding, Yali; Li, Jun; Dovat, Sinisa; Yang, Gaungzhong; Song, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with breast cancer metastases, but natural alternatives have been receiving attention for their potential as novel anti-tumor reagents. Amplexicaule A (APA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from rhizomes of Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (PADF). We found that APA has anti-tumor effects in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. APA increased levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8,-9 and PARP, which resulted from suppression of MCL-1 and BCL-2 expression in the cells. APA also inactivated the Akt/mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells. Thus, APA exerts a strong anti-tumor effect on breast cancer cells, most likely through induction of apoptosis. Our study is the first to identify this novel anti-tumor compound and provides a new strategy for isolation and separation of single compounds from herbs. PMID:26943775

  11. The antitumor effect of locoregional magnetic cobalt ferrite in dog mammary adenocarcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şincai, Mariana; Gângǎ, Diana; Bica, Doina; Vékás, Ladislau

    2001-01-01

    The endocytosis of nanosized magnetic particles by tumor cells led to numerous tests to establish the use of this phenomenon in antitumor therapy. The direct antitumor effect of a biocompatible cobalt-ferrite-based magnetic fluid directly inoculated in bitch mammary tumors was studied. A direct correlation between tumor cell lysis and cobalt ferrite was established in tumors. Massive endocytosis of magnetic particles was observed 1 h after the contact of magnetic fluid with tumor cells.

  12. Role of tissue factor in the antitumor effect of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha in mice.

    PubMed

    Nishigaki, F; Miyayasu, K; Tsujimoto, S; Manda, T; Shimomura, K

    1994-01-01

    Recombinant tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rTNF-alpha) inhibited tumor growth of Meth A fibrosarcoma (Meth A) solid tumor in mice, and the antitumor effect of rTNF-alpha was significantly decreased by pretreatment with small doses or rTNF-alpha in mice. In in vitro experiments, incubation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with rTNF-alpha enhanced procoagulant activity (PCA), which was drastically augmented after an addition of the conditioned medium of Meth A tumor cells. Furthermore, rTNF-alpha-induced PCA was decreased by pretreatment with rTNF-alpha in endothelial cells. This PCA was completely blocked after the addition of anti-human tissue factor (TF) murine monoclonal antibody. These results imply that in vivo antitumor effects of rTNF-alpha are mediated by expression of TF in endothelial cells, which is augmented by tumor released factor(s).

  13. Antitumor Effects and Immunomodulating Activities of Phellinus linteus Extract in a CT-26 Cell-Injected Colon Cancer Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seung-Lark; Yun, Ik-Jin; Do, Eun-Ju; Lee, Won-Ha; Jung, Young-Mi; Hong, Sung-Chang; Park, Dong-Chan

    2009-01-01

    The antitumor effects of Phellinus linteus extract (Keumsa Linteusan) were investigated in a CT-26 cell-injected colon cancer mouse model. When administered orally (250~1,000 mg/kg body weight), Keumsa Linteusan significantly inhibited the growth of solid colon cancer. The highest dose was highly effective, reducing tumor formation by 26% compared with the control group. The anticomplementary activity of Keumsa Linteusan increased in a dose-dependent manner. Lysosomal enzyme activity of macrophages was increased by 2-fold (100 µg/ml) compared with the control group. Keumsa Linteusan can be regarded as a potent enhancer of the innate immune response, and can be considered as a very promising candidate for antitumor action. PMID:23983521

  14. Effect of levan's branching structure on antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eun Ju; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Cha, Jaeho; Gyu Lee, Hyeon

    2004-06-01

    Levan produced from Microbacterium laevaniformans KCTC 9732 (M-levan) was isolated and treated with an inulinase to modify its branching structure. The chemical structures of levans were characterized, and the modified levans were applied on animal tumor cells to evaluate their antitumor activity. The GC-MS analysis indicated that beta-(2,1)-linked branches of M-levan were specifically hydrolyzed. As the ratio of applied inulinase to levan increased, the branching degree decreased proportionally. Sequential degrees of branching were obtained from 12.3 to 4.2%. Strong levan-induced inhibition of cell growth was detected on SNU-1 and HepG2 tumor cell lines. As the branching degree of M-levan reduced, antitumor activity on SNU-1 linearly decreased (r2=0.96). In HepG2, the antitumor activity rapidly dropped when the branching reached up to 9.3%, then slightly increased as the branching degree of M-levan further decreased. These results suggested that the branch structure would play a crucial role in levan's antitumor activity.

  15. Enhancement of the antitumor efficacy of lomustine by the radiosensitizer RSU 1069.

    PubMed

    Siemann, D W; Alliet, K; Maddison, K; Wolf, K

    1985-12-01

    Previous investigations have shown that combining the radiation sensitizer misonidazole with conventional alkylating chemotherapeutic agents can lead to a therapeutic advantage. More recently, another sensitizer, RSU 1069, has been reported to give an enhancement of antitumor agent efficacy similar to that observed with misonidazole, but at an approximately tenfold lower sensitizer dose. One chemotherapeutic agent whose activity has been modified by sensitizers to a greater extent in tumors than in critical normal tissues is the nitrosourea lomustine (CCNU). The present studies evaluated the therapeutic benefit of combining RSU 1069 and CCNU in KHT sarcoma-bearing C3H/HeJ mice. The drugs were administered ip, and tumor response was assessed by measuring the survival of clonogenic KHT cells 22-24 hours after treatment. Normal tissue toxicity was determined using peripheral wbc counts 3 days after treatment and a 30-day lethality assay. Combining CCNU with a 0.38-mmol/kg dose of RSU 1069 increased tumor cell killing by a factor of approximately 1.9. Wbc toxicity and 30-day animal lethality increased with CCNU dose, but the addition of RSU 1069 enhanced either endpoint only slightly (factor of 1.0-1.2). The addition of RSU 1069 to CCNU treatment, therefore, led to a significant therapeutic benefit.

  16. Antitumoral effect of vanadium compounds in malignant melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rozzo, Carla; Sanna, Daniele; Garribba, Eugenio; Serra, Maria; Cantara, Alessio; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Pisano, Marina

    2017-09-01

    In this study we evaluated the anticancer activity against malignant melanoma (MM) of four different vanadium species: the inorganic anion vanadate(V) (indicated with VN), and three oxidovanadium(IV) complexes, [V(IV)O(dhp)2] where dhp(-) is the anion 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridinonate (indicated with VS2), [V(IV)O(mpp)2] where mpp(-) is 1-methyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridinonate (indicated with VS3), and [V(IV)O(ppp)2] where ppp(-) is 1-phenyl-2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridinonate (indicated with VS4). The antitumor effects of these compounds were studied against two different MM cell lines (A375 and CN-mel) and a fibroblast cell line (BJ) as normal control. All tested V compounds exert antiproliferative activity on MM cells in a dose dependent manner (IC50 ranges from 2.4μM up to 14μM) being A375 the most sensitive cell line. VN and VS2 were the two most active compounds against A375 (IC50 of 4.7 and 2.6μM, respectively), causing apoptosis and cell cycle block. The experimental data indicate that the cell cycle arrest occurs at different phases for the two V species analyzed (G2 checkpoint for VN and G0/G1 for VS2), showing the importance of the chemical form in determining their mechanism of action. These results add more insights into the landscape of vanadium versatility in biological systems and into its role as a potential cancer therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antitumor effects of hyaluronan inhibition in desmoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Alexandra; Rosenberg, Laura; Buie, Justin D; Rizvi, Hira; Bertagnolli, Monica M; Cho, Nancy L

    2015-02-01

    Desmoid tumors (DTs) are rare, mesenchymal tumors that exhibit features of an abundant wound healing process. Previously, we showed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are constituents of DTs and may contribute to desmoid tumorigenesis via activities associated with wound healing. Hyaluronan (HA) is a long-charged chain of repeating glucuronate and N-acetylglucosamine disaccharides that is synthesized by HA synthases (HAS) and degraded by hyaluronidases (HYAL). HA is secreted into the extracellular matrix by injured stroma and is important for normal tissue repair and neoplastic progression. Here, we investigated the presence of HA in DTs and the antitumor effects of the HA inhibitor, 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), on DT-derived mesenchymal cells. By immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found abundant expression of HA in 29/30 DTs as well as >5-fold increased HA levels in DT-derived cell lines relative to controls. Immunohistochemistry also demonstrated high expression of HAS2 in DTs, and quantitative PCR analysis showed increased HAS2 upregulation in frozen DTs and DT-derived cells. 4-MU treatment of DT-derived cells significantly decreased proliferation as well as HA and HAS2 levels. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry showed that MSCs in DTs coexpressed HA, HAS2, HYAL2, as well as the major HA receptor CD44 and HA coreceptor TLR4. Taken together, our results suggest that paracrine regulation of HA signaling in DTs may contribute to MSC recruitment and tumor proliferation. Future studies investigating the role of HA in tumor-stroma crosstalk and inhibition of HA-MSC interactions as a novel therapeutic target in DTs and other solid tumors are warranted.

  18. Encapsulation into Stealth Liposomes Enhances the Antitumor Action of Recombinant Cratylia mollis Lectin Expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Cássia R A; da Silva, Luís C N; Almeida, Fábio J F; Ferraz, Milena S; Varejão, Nathalia; Cartaxo, Marina F de Souza; de Miranda, Rita de Cássia M; de Aguiar, Francisco C A; Santos, Noemia P da Silva; Coelho, Luana C B B; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide S; Correia, Maria T Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo antitumor potential of the recombinant lectin from seeds of Cratylia mollis (rCramoll) expressed in Escherichia coli, free or encapsulated in stealth liposomes, using mice transplanted with sarcoma 180. rCramoll-loaded stealth liposomes (rCramoll-lipo) were formulated by hydration of the lipid film followed by cycles of freezing and thawing, and about 60% of rCramoll was encapsulated. This novel preparation showed particle size, polydispersity index, and pH suitable for the evaluation of antitumor activity in vivo. Tumor growth inhibition rates were 59% for rCramoll and 75% for rCramoll-lipo. Histopathological analysis of the experimental groups showed that both free and encapsulated lectin caused no changes in the kidneys of animals. Hematological analysis revealed that treatment with rCramoll-lipo significantly increased leukocyte concentration when compared with the untreated and rCramoll group. In conclusion, the encapsulation of rCramoll in stealth liposomes improves its antitumor activity without substantial toxicity; this approach was more successful than the previous results reported for pCramoll loaded into conventional liposomes. At this point, a crucial difference between the antitumor action of free and encapsulated rCramoll was found along with their effects on immune cells. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism(s) of the antitumor effect induced by rCramoll.

  19. Encapsulation into Stealth Liposomes Enhances the Antitumor Action of Recombinant Cratylia mollis Lectin Expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Cássia R. A.; da Silva, Luís C. N.; Almeida, Fábio J. F.; Ferraz, Milena S.; Varejão, Nathalia; Cartaxo, Marina F. de Souza; de Miranda, Rita de Cássia M.; de Aguiar, Francisco C. A.; Santos, Noemia P. da Silva; Coelho, Luana C. B. B.; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide S.; Correia, Maria T. dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo antitumor potential of the recombinant lectin from seeds of Cratylia mollis (rCramoll) expressed in Escherichia coli, free or encapsulated in stealth liposomes, using mice transplanted with sarcoma 180. rCramoll-loaded stealth liposomes (rCramoll-lipo) were formulated by hydration of the lipid film followed by cycles of freezing and thawing, and about 60% of rCramoll was encapsulated. This novel preparation showed particle size, polydispersity index, and pH suitable for the evaluation of antitumor activity in vivo. Tumor growth inhibition rates were 59% for rCramoll and 75% for rCramoll-lipo. Histopathological analysis of the experimental groups showed that both free and encapsulated lectin caused no changes in the kidneys of animals. Hematological analysis revealed that treatment with rCramoll-lipo significantly increased leukocyte concentration when compared with the untreated and rCramoll group. In conclusion, the encapsulation of rCramoll in stealth liposomes improves its antitumor activity without substantial toxicity; this approach was more successful than the previous results reported for pCramoll loaded into conventional liposomes. At this point, a crucial difference between the antitumor action of free and encapsulated rCramoll was found along with their effects on immune cells. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism(s) of the antitumor effect induced by rCramoll. PMID:27695439

  20. Triterpene-loaded microemulsion using Coix lacryma-jobi seed extract as oil phase for enhanced antitumor efficacy: preparation and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ding; He, Junjie; Liu, Congyan; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum triterpene-loaded microemulsions (TMEs) using Coix lacryma-jobi (adlay) seed oil as oil phase were prepared, characterized, and evaluated for enhanced antitumor activity. Ternary phase diagrams for the TMEs were constructed and the optimal preparation was developed. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that this formulation had a well defined spherical shape, a homogeneous distribution, a small size, and a narrow polydispersity index. The drug-loading rate was determined to be 9.87% by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and acceptable stability under various stimulations in vitro was confirmed. Importantly, the TME formulation showed a significantly greater antiproliferative effect towards human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and murine lung tumor (Lewis) cells in comparison with suspension formulations containing triterpene and adlay seed oil as a positive control. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the TMEs was about 0.62 mg crude drug per mL, being 2.5-fold improved relative to that of the corresponding suspension formulation, but no significant cytotoxicity was observed for the bare microemulsion in A549 cells and Lewis cells. In vivo, the TME formulation showed markedly enhanced antitumor efficacy in a xenograft model of Lewis lung cancer after intragastric administration. Compared with cyclophosphamide, the TME formulation showed similar antitumor activity but less general toxicity. These results indicate the feasibility of using a microemulsion to increase the solubility of triterpene and adlay. TMEs hold promise as an efficient drug delivery system for the treatment of lung cancer.

  1. Triterpene-loaded microemulsion using Coix lacryma-jobi seed extract as oil phase for enhanced antitumor efficacy: preparation and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Ding; He, Junjie; Liu, Congyan; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum triterpene-loaded microemulsions (TMEs) using Coix lacryma-jobi (adlay) seed oil as oil phase were prepared, characterized, and evaluated for enhanced antitumor activity. Ternary phase diagrams for the TMEs were constructed and the optimal preparation was developed. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that this formulation had a well defined spherical shape, a homogeneous distribution, a small size, and a narrow polydispersity index. The drug-loading rate was determined to be 9.87% by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and acceptable stability under various stimulations in vitro was confirmed. Importantly, the TME formulation showed a significantly greater antiproliferative effect towards human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and murine lung tumor (Lewis) cells in comparison with suspension formulations containing triterpene and adlay seed oil as a positive control. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the TMEs was about 0.62 mg crude drug per mL, being 2.5-fold improved relative to that of the corresponding suspension formulation, but no significant cytotoxicity was observed for the bare microemulsion in A549 cells and Lewis cells. In vivo, the TME formulation showed markedly enhanced antitumor efficacy in a xenograft model of Lewis lung cancer after intragastric administration. Compared with cyclophosphamide, the TME formulation showed similar antitumor activity but less general toxicity. These results indicate the feasibility of using a microemulsion to increase the solubility of triterpene and adlay. TMEs hold promise as an efficient drug delivery system for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:24379669

  2. Immunomodulation and enhancement of antitumor activity by co-administration of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and thymidine.

    PubMed

    Poo, W J; Guo, X; Haslund, B; Mozdziesz, D E

    1997-03-07

    The antitumor activity of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) has been shown previously to be enhanced markedly by the co-administration of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleosides (Lin and Prusoff, Cancer Res 47: 394-397, 1987). In the present study, we examined the cellular mechanisms underlying the augmentation effect of thymidine, one of the pyrimidine deoxyribonucleosides. It was found that thymidine did not increase the cytotoxicity of BCNU for B16/F10 melanoma cells in vitro. Instead, thymidine appeared to produce modulatory actions on the immune system of the tumor-bearing mice. More than 40% of the BCNU/ thymidine-cured mice specifically rejected secondary rechallenge with the B16/F10 tumor. Furthermore, these cured mice developed extensive depigmentation of their natural black hair, suggesting immune reactions to normal melanocytes. When spleen cells from normal mice were treated with BCNU alone, their response to T-cell mitogen phytohemagglutinin was suppressed markedly. This suppression was ablated by co-administration of BCNU with thymidine. Such BCNU/thymidine treatment also augmented the activity of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-cells in tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, these results suggest that the enhanced antitumor activity of combined BCNU and thymidine may result from the action of thymidine on the immune effector mechanisms, which facilitate the development of antitumor immune responses in the presence of immunosuppression induced by BCNU.

  3. The microtubule-depolymerizing agent ansamitocin P3 programs dendritic cells toward enhanced anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kea; Müller, Philipp; Schreiner, Jens; Prince, Spasenija Savic; Lardinois, Didier; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola A; Thommen, Daniela S; Zippelius, Alfred

    2014-09-01

    In addition to direct tumor cell cytotoxicity, chemotherapy can mediate tumor reduction through immune modulation of the tumor microenvironment to promote anti-tumor immunity. Mature dendritic cells (DCs) play key roles in priming robust immune responses in tumor-bearing hosts. Here, we screened a panel of 21 anticancer agents with defined molecular targets for their ability to induce direct maturation of DCs. We identified ansamitocin P3, a microtubule-depolymerizing agent, as a potent inducer of phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs. Exposure of both murine spleen-derived and human monocyte-derived DCs to ansamitocin P3 triggered up-regulation of maturation markers and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, resulting in an enhanced T cell stimulatory capacity. Local administration of ansamitocin P3 induced maturation of skin Langerhans cells in vivo and promoted antigen uptake and extensive homing of tumor-resident DCs to tumor-draining lymph nodes. When used as an adjuvant in a specific vaccination approach, ansamitocin P3 dramatically increased activation of antigen-specific T cells. Finally, we demonstrate that ansamitocin P3, due to its immunomodulatory properties, acts in synergy with antibody-mediated blockade of the T cell inhibitory receptors PD-1 and CTLA-4. The combination treatment was most effective and induced durable growth inhibition of established tumors. Mechanistically, we observed a reduced regulatory T cell frequency and improved T cell effector function at the tumor site. Taken together, our study unravels an immune-based anti-tumor mechanism exploited by microtubule-depolymerizing agents, including ansamitocin P3, and paves the way for future clinical trials combining this class of agents with immunotherapy.

  4. A visualized investigation at the atomic scale of the antitumor effect of magnetic nanomedicine on gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaokang; Deng, Xia; Li, Xinghua; Xue, Desheng; Zhang, Haoli; Liu, Tao; Liu, Qingfang; Mellors, Nigel J; Li, Yumin; Peng, Yong

    2014-07-01

    Discovering which anticancer drugs attack which organelle(s) of cancer cells is essential and significant, not only for understanding their therapeutic and adverse effects, but also to enable the development of new-generation therapeutics. Here, we show that novel Fe3O4-carboxymethyl cellulose-5-fluorouracil (Fe3O4-CMC-5FU) nanomedicine can apparently enhance the antitumor effect on gastric cancer cells, and its mechanism of killing the SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells can be directly observed at the atomic scale. The novel nanomedicine was prepared using the traditional antitumor drug 5FU to chemically bond onto the functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4-CMC-5FU nanomedicine), and then was fed into SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells. The inorganic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used to track the distribution and antitumor effect of the nanomedicine within individual SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells. Atomic-level observation and tracking the elemental distribution inside individual cells proved that the magnetic nanomedicine killed the gastric cells mainly by attacking their mitochondria. The enhanced therapeutic efficacy derives from the localized high concentration and poor mobility of the aggregated Fe3O4-CMC-5FU nanomedicine in the cytoplasm. A brand new mechanism of Fe3O4-CMC-5FU nanomedicine killing SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells by attacking their mitochondria was discovered, which is different from the classical mechanism utilized by traditional medicine 5FU, which kills gastric cancer cells by damaging their DNA. Our work might provide a partial solution in nanomedicines or even modern anticancer medicine for the visualized investigation of their antitumor effect.

  5. Antitumor effect and immune response induced by local hyperthermia in B16 murine melanoma: Effect of thermal dose

    PubMed Central

    LI, DAN YE; TANG, YANG PING; ZHAO, LING YUN; GENG, CHUAN YING; TANG, JIN TIAN

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the antitumor effect and immune response induced by local high-temperature hyperthermia at different thermal doses in B16 murine melanoma. The screened optimal thermal dose (50°C, 15 min) which was demonstrated to be the most effective in immune response activation was applied to the treatment of lung metastasis. The optimal thermal dose was determined by evaluating the tumor volume change, survival period of tumor-bearing mice, and immune indices including interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ and TNF-α mRNA expression in the spleen of mice subjected to local hyperthermia at various thermal doses. The activation of the immune response was further investigated by rechallenging the cured mice 60 days after hyperthermia treatment. The screened optimal thermal dose combined with immunoadjuvant compound 48/80 was applied for melanoma lung metastasis. While local hyperthermia effectively inhibited B16 melanoma tumor growth and prolonged the survival period of tumor-bearing mice, the antitumor immunity was significantly enhanced and the effect was thermal dose-dependent. Higher temperatures (≥50°C) induced a significant effect even with a short treatment time (≤15 min). No tumor regrowth was observed for rechallenged B16 melanoma in mice following treatment with local hyperthermia at a higher temperature. Local hyperthermia by optimal thermal dose in combination with immunoadjuvant compound 48/80 is an effective approach for the treatment of B16 melanoma lung metastasis. This study indicated that the use of a local high-temperature hyperthermia protocol inhibits tumor growth and stimulates a favorable antitumor immune response against malignant melanoma. The results of these experiments may have clinical significance for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:23205088

  6. Efficient antitumor effect of co-drug-loaded nanoparticles with gelatin hydrogel by local implantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Tian, Yong; Zhu, Zhenshu; Xu, Huae; Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Donghui; Sun, Weihao

    2016-01-01

    Tetrandrine (Tet) could enhance the antitumor effect of Paclitaxel (Ptx) by increasing intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels, which leads to the possibility of co-delivery of both drugs for synergistic antitumor effect. In the current study, we reported an efficient, local therapeutic strategy employing effective Tet and Ptx delivery with a nanoparticle-loaded gelatin system. Tet- and Ptx co-loaded mPEG-PCL nanoparticles (P/T-NPs) were encapsulated into the physically cross-linked gelatin hydrogel and then implanted on the tumor site for continuous drug release. The drug-loaded gelatin hydrogel underwent a phase change when the temperature slowly increased. In vitro study showed that Tet/Ptx-loaded PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles encapsulated within a gelatin hydrogel (P/T-NPs-Gelatin) inhibited the growth and invasive ability of BGC-823 cells more effectively than the combination of free drugs or P/T-NPs. In vivo study validated the therapeutic potential of P/T-NPs-Gelatin. P/T-NPs-Gelatin significantly inhibited the activation of p-Akt and the downstream anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and also inducing the activation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein. Moreover, the molecular-modulating effect of P/T-NPs-Gelatin on related proteins varied slightly under the influence of NAC, which was supported by the observations of the tumor volumes and weights. Based on these findings, local implantation of P/T-NPs-Gelatin may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:27226240

  7. Construction of a recombinant human GM-CSF/MCAF fusion protein and study on itsin vitro andin vivo antitumor effects.

    PubMed

    Ye, Q; Su, G; Zhang, S; Huang, C

    1997-02-01

    A novel cytokine fusion protein was constructed by fusing granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) with monocyte chemotactic activating factor (MCAF), which acts as a factor directing effector cells (monocytes) to a target site. The recombinant human GM-CSF/MCAF fusion protein could sustain the growth of GMCSF-dependent cell line TF1 and was chemotactic for monocytes. Thein vitro antitumor effect showed that rhGM-CSF/MCAF could activate monocytes to inhibit the growth of several human tumor cell lines, including a promyelocyte leukemia cell line HL-60, a lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549, a hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 and a melanoma cell line Bowes. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of monocytes activated by rhGM-CSF/MCAF against HL-60 and A549 was greater than that activated by GM-CSF or MCAF alone, even greater than that activated by a combination of GM-CSF and MCAF, suggesting that the fusion protein has synergistic or enhanced effects. Thein vivo antitumor effect indicated that rhGM-CSF/MCAF had marked antitumor effect against A549 tumor in nude mice and even completely suppressed tumor formation. rhGM-CSF/MCAF was significantly more effective in inhibiting tumor growth than rhGM-CSF. Histological analysis showed that tumor site injected with rhGM-CSF/MCAF was infiltrated by a large number of monocytes while a sparse infiltration of monocytes was observed at the tumor site injected with rhGM-CSF or normal saline, suggesting that the antitumor effect of rhGM-CSF/MCAF was mediated by the recruitment of a large number of monocytes to the tumor site.

  8. Enhanced anti-tumor activity induced by adoptive T cell transfer and the adjunctive use of the HDAC Inhibitor LAQ824

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Dan D.; Prins, Robert M.; Begley, Jonathan L.; Donahue, Timothy R.; Morris, Lilah F.; Bruhn, Kevin W.; de la Rocha, Pilar; Yang, Meng-Yin; Mok, Stephen; Garban, Hermes J.; Craft, Noah; Economou, James S.; Marincola, Francesco M.; Wang, Ena; Ribas, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Tumors grow in the presence of antigen-specific T cells, suggesting the existence of intrinsic cancer cell escape mechanisms. We hypothesized that a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor could sensitize tumor cells to immunotherapy because this class of agents has been reported to increase tumor antigen expression and shift gene expression to a pro-apoptotic milieu in cancer cells. To test this question, we treated B16 murine melanoma with the combination of the HDAC inhibitor LAQ824 together with the adoptive transfer (AT) of gp100 melanoma antigen-specific pmel-1 T cells. The combined therapy significantly improved antitumor activity through several mechanisms: 1) increase in MHC and tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expression by tumor cells; 2) decrease in competing endogenous lymphocytes in recipient mice, resulting in a proliferative advantage for the adoptively transferred cells; and 3) improvement in the functional activity of the adoptively transferred lymphocytes. We confirmed the beneficial effects of this HDAC inhibitor as sensitizer to immunotherapy in a different model of prophylactic prime-boost vaccination with the melanoma antigen tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP2), which also demonstrated a significant improvement in antitumor activity against B16 melanoma. In conclusion, the HDAC inhibitor LAQ824 significantly enhances tumor immunotherapy through effects on target tumor cells as well as improving the antitumor activity of tumor antigen-specific lymphocytes. PMID:19861533

  9. Preconditioning chemotherapy with paclitaxel and cisplatin enhances the antitumor activity of cytokine induced-killer cells in a murine lung carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiang; Huang, Guichun; Song, Haizhu; Chen, Longbang

    2011-08-01

    Adoptive cell therapy involving the use of ex vivo generated cytokine-induced killer cells (CIKs) provides a promising approach to immunotherapy. However, the therapeutic activity of CIKs is limited by the immunosuppressive factors active in the host. It has become increasingly apparent that manipulation of the recipient immune system with the preconditioning regimen is essential to guarantee the antitumor effect of subsequent adoptive cell therapy. In our study, paclitaxel (PTX) and cisplatin (DDP) were used as preconditioning drugs combined with CIKs to illustrate the potential mechanisms underlying the synergic antitumor effect against Lewis lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We found that 3LL cells displayed an increased sensitization to CIKs-induced lysis after treatment with PTX or DDP in vitro. Significant inhibition of tumor growth was observed in mice treated with combinatorial chemo-immunotherapy with respect to untreated or single regimen treated ones. Prior chemotherapy markedly enhanced the intratumoral accumulation of CD3(+) T lymphocytes and the homing of CIKs to the spleen and tumor. Moreover, the frequencies of intratumoral and splenic regulatory T cells (Tregs) were significantly decreased after chemotherapy pretreatment. Our findings provide a new rationale for combining immunotherapy and chemotherapy to induce a synergistic antitumor response in patients with lung cancer. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  10. Enhancement of cellular uptake and antitumor efficiencies of micelles with phosphorylcholine.

    PubMed

    Tu, Song; Chen, Yuan-Wei; Qiu, Yong-Bin; Zhu, Kun; Luo, Xiang-Lin

    2011-10-10

    Internalization of drug delivery micelles into cancer cells is a crucial step for antitumor therapeutics. Novel amphiphilic star-shaped copolymers with zwitterionic phosphorylcholine (PC) block, 6-arm star poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (6sPCL-b-PMPC), have been developed for encapsulation of poorly water-soluble drugs and enhancement of their cellular uptake. The star-shaped copolymers were synthesized by a combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The copolymers self-assembled to form spherical micelles with low critical micelle concentration (CMC). The sizes of the micelles range from 80 to 170 nm and increase 30 ≈ 80% after paclitaxel (PTX) loading. Labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), the micelles were confirmed by fluorescence microscopy to have been internalized efficiently by tumor cells. Direct visualization of the micelles within tumor cells by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the 6sPCL-b-PMPC micelles were more efficiently uptaken by tumor cells compared to PCL-b-PEG micelles. When incorporated with PTX, the 6sPCL-b-PMPC micelles show much higher cytotoxicity against Hela cells than PCL-b-PEG micelles, in response to the higher efficiency of cellular uptake.

  11. Silencing of Foxp3 enhances the antitumor efficacy of GM-CSF genetically modified tumor cell vaccine against B16 melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Antonio; Sendra, Luis; Noé, Verónica; Ciudad, Carles J; Dasí, Francisco; Hervas, David; Herrero, María José; Aliño, Salvador F

    2017-01-01

    The antitumor response after therapeutic vaccination has a limited effect and seems to be related to the presence of T regulatory cells (Treg), which express the immunoregulatory molecules CTLA4 and Foxp3. The blockage of CTLA4 using antibodies has shown an effective antitumor response conducing to the approval of the human anti-CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab by the US Food and Drug Administration. On the other hand, Foxp3 is crucial for Treg development. For this reason, it is an attractive target for cancer treatment. This study aims to evaluate whether combining therapeutic vaccination with CTLA4 or Foxp3 gene silencing enhances the antitumor response. First, the “in vitro” cell entrance and gene silencing efficacy of two tools, 2′-O-methyl phosphorotioate-modified oligonucleotides (2′-OMe-PS-ASOs) and polypurine reverse Hoogsteen hairpins (PPRHs), were evaluated in EL4 cells and cultured primary lymphocytes. Following B16 tumor transplant, C57BL6 mice were vaccinated with irradiated B16 tumor cells engineered to produce granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and were intraperitoneally treated with CTLA4 and Foxp3 2′-OMe-PS-ASO before and after vaccination. Tumor growth, mice survival, and CTLA4 and Foxp3 expression in blood cells were measured. The following results were obtained: 1) only 2′-OMe-PS-ASO reached gene silencing efficacy “in vitro”; 2) an improved survival effect was achieved combining both therapeutic vaccine and Foxp3 antisense or CTLA4 antisense oligonucleotides (50% and 20%, respectively); 3) The blood CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ (Treg) and CD4+CTLA4+ cell counts were higher in mice that developed tumor on the day of sacrifice. Our data showed that tumor cell vaccine combined with Foxp3 or CTLA4 gene silencing can increase the efficacy of therapeutic antitumor vaccination. PMID:28176947

  12. Enhanced recovery of antitumor ganoderic acid T from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia by novel chemical conversion strategy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Le; Gu, Tingyue; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2012-03-01

    The removal of analog impurities with a very small sample size presents a major challenge in the purification of high-valued biochemicals such as those derived from fermentation or herbs. Ganoderic acid T (GA-T), an antitumor drug candidate, is very difficult to purify from the mycelia of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum due to co-purifying analog impurities. A novel pretreatment process with three consecutive chemical conversion steps, namely hydrolysis-acetylation-hydrolysis, was developed to convert two key analog impurities (7-O-ethyl GA-O and GA-Mk) to GA-T. It increased the GA-T amount in the 100 g dried mycelia from the initial 0.444 g to 1.621 g after the pretreatment, representing an apparent yield of 365% for the pretreatment. If the yield basis were the initial GA-T amount plus the GA-T amount from 100% conversion of 7-O-ethyl GA-O and GA-Mk in the crude extract, the yield, termed adjusted yield for the pretreatment in this work, would still reach 90.8%. Furthermore, the subsequent RP-HPLC purification was considerably enhanced due to the conversion of the analog impurities. This game-changer strategy achieved a daily GA-T throughput of 2.9 g with 95% purity (mass based). Even at the laboratory scale, it is now possible to produce a sufficient amount of GA-T for small-scale pharmacological and clinical evaluations. The approach of converting analog impurities that are otherwise difficult to remove to the product in a bioseparation process may be useful to achieve enhanced recovery of other medicinally useful natural products. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [The effect of radiotherapy on the antitumor immune response. Possibilities to combine radiotherapy with immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Lumniczky, Katalin; Sáfrány, Géza

    2016-03-02

    The past three decades of immunology research led to a drastic increase in the knowledge of antitumor immune response mechanisms and in parallel to a rapid development in various antitumor immune therapy strategies. This will most probably result in the implementation of immunotherapeutic protocols within the standard anticancer regimens in a very near future. Though, it is obvious that combination of immunotherapy with traditional anticancer treatment modalities will only be legitimate if the combination has at least an additive, or perhaps a synergistic effect. The similarly dynamic progress in the radiobiological knowledge proved that ionizing radiation does not have a general immune suppressing effect, as it has been thought for decades, but might possess certain immune stimulatory effects, as well. It is also known by now that local irradiation due to its out-of-field effects has systemic immune modulatory capacity, too. In the light of all these novel findings the optimal combination between antitumor immunotherapy and radiotherapy has become an increasing option. The first part of the present review summarizes the main antitumor mechanisms that can be influenced by ionizing radiation, and the second part attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of those antitumor immunotherapeutic modalities that are currently being used in combination with radiotherapy in preclinical and/or clinical trials for the treatment of various tumors.

  14. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M.; Mahmoud, Amr A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive. PMID:26366170

  15. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M; Mahmoud, Amr A A

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive.

  16. Antitumor and Immunomodulatory Effect of Gastrodia elata on Colon Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na-Hyung; Xin, Ming Jie; Cha, Ji-Yoon; Ji, Soo-Jeong; Kwon, Se-Uk; Jee, Ho-Kyun; Park, Mi-Ran; Park, Yong-Soo; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, Dae-Ki; Lee, Young-Mi

    2017-02-23

    Gastrodia elata Blume (GE) is a well-known kind of herb that has been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years. The extrusion of raw materials from it could improve flavor and enhance bioavailability in food and drug development. The purpose of this study is to investigate antitumor and immune boosting effects of extruded GE in human colon carcinoma cells, splenocytes, and mice-bearing CT26 colon carcinoma cell. Treatment with 100[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL of extruded GE decreased cell viability and induced the expression of Caspase-3 and Bax in HT29 cells ([Formula: see text]). When we performed DAPI staining, apoptotic bodies with condensed chromatin and fragmented nuclei, known as indicative of apoptotic morphology, increased 24[Formula: see text]h after treatment with 100[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL of extruded GE. Treatments with extruded GE significantly promoted splenocyte proliferation and IL-2 or IFN-[Formula: see text] secretion, compared with that of control cells ([Formula: see text]). The administration of extruded GE of 200 mg/kg/day decreased tumor growth and Ki-67 or [Formula: see text]-catenin expression in mice ([Formula: see text]). Additionally, we investigated the contents of compounds in extruded GE extracts using ultra performance liquid chromatography. The contents of p-hydroxylbenzyl alcohol and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde in extruded GE were 2.97[Formula: see text]mg/g and 0.04[Formula: see text]mg/g, respectively. It was supposed that antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of extruded GE might exert by the p-hydroxylbenzyl alcohol and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde of many compositions analyzed from extruded GE. These results suggest that extruded GE have the potential to be developed into a natural pharmaceutical and functional food as a cancer chemopreventive agent.

  17. Calcitriol enhances gemcitabine antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo by promoting apoptosis in a human pancreatic carcinoma model system

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-Dong; Ma, Yingyu; Flynn, Geraldine; Muindi, Josephia R; Kong, Rui-Xian; Trump, Donald L

    2010-01-01

    Gemcitabine is the standard care chemotherapeutic agent to treat pancreatic cancer. Previously we demonstrated that calcitriol (1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) has significant anti-proliferative effects in vitro and in vivo in multiple tumor models and enhances the activity of a variety of chemotherapeutic agents. We therefore investigated whether calcitriol could potentiate the cytotoxic activity of gemcitabine in the human pancreatic cancer Capan-1 model system. Isobologram analysis revealed that calcitriol and gemcitabine had synergistic antiproliferative effect over a wide range of drug concentrations. Calcitriol did not reduce the cytidine deaminase activity in Capan-1 tumors nor in the livers of Capan-1 tumor bearing mice. Calcitriol and gemcitabine combination promoted apoptosis in Capan-1 cells compared with either agent alone. The combination treatment also increased the activation of caspases-8, -9, -6 and -3 in Capan-1 cells. This result was confirmed by substrate-based caspase activity assay. Akt phosphorylation was reduced by calcitriol and gemcitabine combination treatment compared to single agent treatment. However, ERK1/2 phosphorylation was not modulated by either agent alone or by the combination. Tumor regrowth delay studies showed that calcitriol in combination with gemcitabine resulted in a significant reduction of Capan-1 tumor volume compared to single agent treatment. Our study suggests that calcitriol and gemcitabine in combination promotes caspase-dependent apoptosis, which may contribute to increased anti-tumor activity compared to either agent alone. PMID:20699664

  18. Enriching the Housing Environment for Mice Enhances Their NK Cell Antitumor Immunity via Sympathetic Nerve-Dependent Regulation of NKG2D and CCR5.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanfang; Gan, Yu; Wang, Qing; Meng, Zihong; Li, Guohua; Shen, Yuling; Wu, Yufeng; Li, Peiying; Yao, Ming; Gu, Jianren; Tu, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Mice housed in an enriched environment display a tumor-resistant phenotype due to eustress stimulation. However, the mechanisms underlying enriched environment-induced protection against cancers remain largely unexplained. In this study, we observed a significant antitumor effect induced by enriched environment in murine pancreatic cancer and lung cancer models. This effect remained intact in T/B lymphocyte-deficient Rag1(-/-) mice, but was nearly eliminated in natural killer (NK) cell-deficient Beige mice or in antibody-mediated NK-cell-depleted mice, suggesting a predominant role of NK cells in enriched environment-induced tumor inhibition. Exposure to enriched environment enhanced NK-cell activity against tumors and promoted tumoral infiltration of NK cells. Enriched environment increased the expression levels of CCR5 and NKG2D (KLRK1) in NK cells; blocking their function effectively blunted the enriched environment-induced enhancement of tumoral infiltration and cytotoxic activity of NK cells. Moreover, blockade of β-adrenergic signaling or chemical sympathectomy abolished the effects of enriched environment on NK cells and attenuated the antitumor effect of enriched environment. Taken together, our results provide new insight into the mechanism by which eustress exerts a beneficial effect against cancer. Cancer Res; 77(7); 1611-22. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Combination Treatment with Sublethal Ionizing Radiation and the Proteasome Inhibitor, Bortezomib, Enhances Death-Receptor Mediated Apoptosis and Anti-Tumor Immune Attack.

    PubMed

    Cacan, Ercan; Spring, Alexander M; Kumari, Anita; Greer, Susanna F; Garnett-Benson, Charlie

    2015-12-21

    Sub-lethal doses of radiation can modulate gene expression, making tumor cells more susceptible to T-cell-mediated immune attack. Proteasome inhibitors demonstrate broad anti-tumor activity in clinical and pre-clinical cancer models. Here, we use a combination treatment of proteasome inhibition and irradiation to further induce immunomodulation of tumor cells that could enhance tumor-specific immune responses. We investigate the effects of the 26S proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, alone or in combination with radiotherapy, on the expression of immunogenic genes in normal colon and colorectal cancer cell lines. We examined cells for changes in the expression of several death receptors (DR4, DR5 and Fas) commonly used by T cells for killing of target cells. Our results indicate that the combination treatment resulted in increased cell surface expression of death receptors by increasing their transcript levels. The combination treatment further increases the sensitivity of carcinoma cells to apoptosis through FAS and TRAIL receptors but does not change the sensitivity of normal non-malignant epithelial cells. Furthermore, the combination treatment significantly enhances tumor cell killing by tumor specific CD8⁺ T cells. This study suggests that combining radiotherapy and proteasome inhibition may simultaneously enhance tumor immunogenicity and the induction of antitumor immunity by enhancing tumor-specific T-cell activity.

  20. Inecalcitol, an analog of 1,25D₃, displays enhanced antitumor activity through the induction of apoptosis in a squamous cell carcinoma model system

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyu; Yu, Wei-Dong; Hidalgo, Alejandro A.; Luo, Wei; Delansorne, Remi; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data suggest an important role of vitamin D signaling in cancer development and progression, and experimental studies demonstrate that the active vitamin D metabolite 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (1,25D₃) has broad spectrum antitumor activity. Hypercalcemia has often been suggested to limit the clinical application of these data. The 14-epi-analog of 1,25D₃, inecalcitol [19-nor-14-epi-23-yne-1,25-(OH)₂D₃; TX522], was developed to have superagonistic antitumor activities but low hypercalcemia potential. We examined the antitumor activity of inecalcitol and the underlying mechanisms in a murine squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) model system. In vitro, compared with 1,25D₃, inecalcitol showed enhanced vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated transcriptional activity. Inecalcitol suppressed SCC cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with an IC₅₀ value 30 times lower than that of 1,25D₃. Both inecalcitol and 1,25D₃ induced a comparable level of G₀/G₁ cell cycle arrest in SCC cells. The level of apoptosis induced by inecalcitol was markedly higher than that of 1,25D₃. Apoptosis was mediated through the activation of the caspase 8/10- caspase 3 pathway. Further, inecalcitol markedly inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of c-IAP1 and XIAP compared with 1,25D₃. In vivo, inecalcitol inhibits SCC tumor growth in a dose-dependent fashion. Notably, inecalcitol induced a significantly higher level of apoptosis in the SCC xenograft model. While in vitro inecalcitol demonstrates apparent enhanced VDR binding and antiproliferative effects compared to 1,25D₃, in vivo these advantages disappear; at doses of inecalcitol that have equivalent antitumor effects, similar hypercalcemia is seen. This may be explained by the pharmacokinetics of 1,25D₃ vs. inecalcitol and attributed to the much shorter serum half-life of inecalcitol.We show that inecalcitol has potent antitumor activity in the SCC model system, and this is associated with a

  1. Experimental research on the in vitro antitumor effects of Crataegus sanguinea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianling; Gao, Guolan; Gao, YuLian; Xiong, LiJuan; Li, Xiaoying; Guo, Jihong; Zhang, Yueming

    2013-09-01

    Crataegus sanguinea is a wild plant, which has been widely grown in the north and south of the Tianshan mountains in Xinjiang. In order to explore their anti-cancer properties, edible wild plants from Xinjiang have been tested for their antitumor properties. We used Ames tests, mouse bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes micronucleus tests, and tumor cells cultured in vitro to study the anti-mutagenic and anti-tumor effects of C. sanguinea extract. We have shown that C. sanguinea has anti-mutagenic effect, but no mutagenicity. Cell culture in vitro experiments show that there is no inhibition of growth or increase in cell death on normal mouse fibroblasts, but a stronger inhibition of cell growth and an increase in cell death of Hep-2 and MGC-803 tumor cells. The results of this study illustrate that C. sanguinea extract has both anti-mutagenic and anti-tumor effects.

  2. Antitumor effects of traditional Chinese medicine targeting the cellular apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanli; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiaohui; Xu, Pingxiang; Zhang, Keming; Lin, Xiukun

    2015-01-01

    Defects in apoptosis are common phenomena in many types of cancer and are also a critical step in tumorigenesis. Targeting the apoptotic pathway has been considered an intriguing strategy for cancer therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in the People’s Republic of China for thousands of years, and many of the medicines have been confirmed to be effective in the treatment of a number of tumors. With increasing cancer rates worldwide, the antitumor effects of TCMs have attracted more and more attention globally. Many of the TCMs have been shown to have antitumor activity through multiple targets, and apoptosis pathway-related targets have been extensively studied and defined to be promising. This review focuses on several antitumor TCMs, especially those with clinical efficacy, based on their effects on the apoptotic signaling pathway. The problems with and prospects of development of TCMs as anticancer agents are also presented. PMID:26056434

  3. Enhancement of survivin-specific anti-tumor immunity by adenovirus prime protein-boost immunity strategy with DDA/MPL adjuvant in a murine melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Qian; Zhang, Hai-Hong; Liu, Chen-Lu; Wu, Hui; Wang, Peng; Xia, Qiu; Zhang, Li-Xing; Li, Bo; Wu, Jia-Xin; Yu, Bin; Gu, Tie-Jun; Yu, Xiang-Hui; Kong, Wei

    2013-09-01

    As an ideal tumor antigen, survivin has been widely used for tumor immunotherapy. Nevertheless, no effective protein vaccine targeting survivin has been reported, which may be due to its poor ability to induce cellular immunity. Thus, a suitable immunoadjuvant and optimized immunization strategy can greatly enhance the cellular immune response to this protein vaccine. DDA/MPL (monophosphoryl lipid A formulated with cationic dimethyldioctadecylammonium) has been reported to enhance the antigen uptake and presentation to T cells as an adjuvant. Meanwhile, a heterologous prime-boost strategy can enhance the cellular immunity of a protein vaccine by applying different antigen-presenting systems. Here, DDA/MPL and an adenovirus prime-protein boost strategy were applied to enhance the specific anti-tumor immunity of a truncated survivin protein vaccine. Antigen-specific IFN-γ-secreting T cells were increased by 10-fold, and cytotoxic T lympohocytes (CTLs) were induced effectively when the protein vaccine was combined with the DDA/MPL adjuvant. Meanwhile, the Th1 type cellular immune response was strongly enhanced and tumor inhibition was significantly increased by 96% with the adenovirus/protein prime-boost strategy, compared to the protein homologous prime-boost strategy. Moreover, this adjuvanted heterologous prime-boost strategy combined with oxaliplatin could significantly enhance the efficiency of tumor growth inhibition through promoting the proliferation of splenocytes. Thus, our results provide a novel vaccine strategy for cancer therapy using an adenovirus prime-protein boost strategy in a murine melanoma model, and its combination with oxaliplatin may further enhance the anti-tumor efficacy while alleviating side effects of the drug.

  4. Do Helper T Cell Subtypes in Lymphocytic Thyroiditis Play a Role in the Antitumor Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seok Woo; Kang, Seong-Ho; Kim, Kyung Rae; Choi, In Hong; Chang, Hang Seok; Oh, Young Lyun; Hong, Soon Won

    2016-01-01

    Background Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is frequently accompanied by lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT). Some reports claim that Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (the clinical form of LT) enhances the likelihood of PTC; however, others suggest that LT has antitumor activity. This study was aimed to find out the relationship between the patterns of helper T cell (Th) cytokines in thyroid tissue of PTC with or without LT and the clinicopathological manifestation of PTC. Methods Fresh surgical samples of PTC with (13 cases) or without (10 cases) LT were used. The prognostic parameters (tumor size, extra-thyroidal extension of PTC, and lymph node metastasis) were analyzed. The mRNA levels of two subtypes of Th cytokines, Th1 (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interferon γ [IFN-γ ], and interleukin [IL] 2) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10), were analyzed. Because most PTC cases were microcarcinomas and recent cases without clinical follow-up, negative or faint p27 immunoreactivity was used as a surrogate marker for lymph node metastasis. Results PTC with LT cases showed significantly higher expression of TNF-α (p = .043), IFN-γ (p < .010), IL-4 (p = .015) than those without LT cases. Although the data were not statistically significant, all analyzed cytokines (except for IL-4) were highly expressed in the cases with higher expression of p27 surrogate marker. Conclusions These results indicate that mixed Th1 (TNF-α, IFN-γ , and IL-2) and Th2 (IL-10) immunity might play a role in the antitumor effect in terms of lymph node metastasis. PMID:27681413

  5. Antitumor Activities of Rauwolfia vomitoria Extract and Potentiation of Carboplatin Effects Against Ovarian Cancer☆

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jun; Ma, Yan; Drisko, Jeanne; Chen, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Background Tumor resistance to platinum-based drugs has been an obstacle to the treatment of ovarian cancer. Extract of the plant Rauwolfia vomitoria has long been used by cancer patients. However, there have not been systematic studies of its anticancer activity. Objective In an effort to enhance the effectiveness of platinum-based drugs, we investigated the anticancer effect of a Rauwolfia vomitoria extract (Rau), both alone and in combination with carboplatin (Cp). Methods In vitro cytotoxicity and colony formation were evaluated in several ovarian cancer cell lines. In vivo effects were evaluated in an intraperitoneal ovarian cancer mouse model. The combination of Rau and Cp was assessed using Chou-Talalay’s constant ratio design and median effect analysis based on the isobologram principle to determine the combination index values. Results Rau decreased cell growth in all 3 tested ovarian cancer cell lines dose dependently and completely inhibited formation of colonies in soft agar. Apoptosis was induced in a time- and dose-dependent manner and was the predominant form of Rau-induced cell death. Synergy of Rau with Cp was detected, with combination index values <1 and dose reduction index values for Cp ranging from 1.7- to 7-fold. Tumor growth in mice was significantly suppressed by 36% or 66% with Rau treatment alone at a low (20 mg/kg) or a high dose (50 mg/kg), respectively, an effect comparable to that of Cp alone. The volume of ascitic fluid and the number of nonblood cells in ascites were also significantly decreased. Combining Rau with Cp remarkably enhanced the effect of Cp and reduced tumor burden by 87% to 90% and ascites volume by 89% to 97%. Conclusions Rau has potent antitumor activity and in combination significantly enhances the effect of Cp against ovarian cancer. PMID:24465036

  6. Hyaluronic acid-coated chitosan nanoparticles induce ROS-mediated tumor cell apoptosis and enhance antitumor efficiency by targeted drug delivery via CD44.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Hou, Jiahui; Su, Chang; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yijie

    2017-01-10

    A targeted drug nanoparticle (NP) delivery system has shown potential as a possible cancer treatment. Given its merits, such as its selective distribution at tumor sites and its controllable drug release, drug-loaded NPs can be effectively delivered to selected organs and targeted cells, thus enhancing its antitumor efficiency and reducing its toxicity. We reported that hyaluronic acid (HA)-coated chitosan NPs promoted the drug delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) into tumor cells that highly expressed CD44. Our new findings suggested that HA-coated chitosan NPs enhanced drug accumulation by effectively transporting NPs into CD44-overexpressed tumor cells, and they also resulted in mitochondrial damage induced by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Compared to free drug and uncoated NPs, HA-coated chitosan NPs exhibited stronger inhibition rates and induced obvious apoptosis in CD44-overexpressed A549 cells. Biocompatible and biodegradable HA-coated chitosan NPs were developed to encapsulate a chemotherapeutic drug (5-Fu) to enhance drug accumulation in tumor cells and to improve the agent's antitumor efficiency by offering targeted drug delivery via CD44.

  7. Dual antibody therapy to harness the innate anti-tumor immune response to enhance antibody targeting of tumors.

    PubMed

    Chester, Cariad; Marabelle, Aurelien; Houot, Roch; Kohrt, Holbrook E

    2015-04-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is a rapidly evolving field that offers a novel paradigm for cancer treatment: therapies focus on enhancing the immune system's innate and adaptive anti-tumor response. Early immunotherapeutics have achieved impressive clinical outcomes and monoclonal antibodies are now integral to therapeutic strategies in a variety of cancers. However, only recently have antibodies targeting innate immune cells entered clinical development. Innate immune effector cells play important roles in generating and maintaining antitumor immunity. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) are important innate immune mechanisms for tumor eradication. These cytolytic processes are initiated by the detection of a tumor-targeting antibody and can be augmented by activating co-stimulatory pathways or blocking inhibitory signals on innate immune cells. The combination of FDA-approved monoclonal antibodies with innate effector-targeting antibodies has demonstrated potent preclinical therapeutic synergy and early-phase combinatorial clinical trials are ongoing.

  8. Engineered adenovirus fiber shaft fusion homotrimer of soluble TRAIL with enhanced stability and antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, J; Wang, L; Wang, Z; Wang, Z; Wang, B; Zhu, R; Bi, J; Wu, J; Zhang, H; Wu, H; Yu, B; Kong, W; Yu, X

    2016-01-01

    Successful cancer therapies aim to induce selective apoptosis in neoplastic cells. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is considered an attractive anticancer agent due to its tumor cell-specific cytotoxicity. However, earlier studies with recombinant TRAIL revealed many shortcomings, including a short half-life, off-target toxicity and existence of TRAIL-resistant tumor cells. In this study, we developed a novel engineering strategy for recombinant soluble TRAIL by redesigning its structure with the adenovirus knobless fiber motif to form a stable homotrimer with improved antitumor activity. The result is a highly stable fiber-TRAIL fusion protein that could form homotrimers similar to natural TRAIL. The recombinant fusion TRAIL developed here displayed high specific activity in both cell-based assays in vitro and animal tests in vivo. This construct will serve as a foundation for a new generation of recombinant proteins suitable for use in preclinical and clinical studies and for effective combination therapies to overcome tumor resistance to TRAIL. PMID:27336718

  9. Construction of selenium nanoparticles/β-glucan composites for enhancement of the antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xuewei; Liu, Qingye; Zou, Siwei; Xu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Lina

    2015-03-06

    We report on a green procedure for the stabilization of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) by a naturally occurring β-glucan with triple helical conformation known as Lentinan (t-LNT) in water after denaturing into single chains (s-LNT) at 140 °C. The results demonstrated that the s-LNT can interact with SeNPs through Se-O-H interaction. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra, UV/vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that s-LNT coated SeNPs to form a stable nano-composite Se/s-LNT, leading to good dispersion of SeNPs. Especially, the as-prepared Se/s-LNT composite in the solution could remain homogeneous and translucent for 30 days without any precipitates. Different size distribution of SeNPs was prepared by simply controlling the concentrations of selenite sodium and the corresponding reducing agent ascorbic acid. The size effect of SeNPs on anti-tumor activity was revealed that the SeNPs with more evenly particle size distribution show the higher anticancer activity.

  10. Co-delivery of docetaxel and palmitoyl ascorbate by liposome for enhanced synergistic antitumor efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junxiu; Guo, Chaorui; Feng, Fan; Fan, Ali; Dai, Yu; Li, Ning; Zhao, Di; Chen, Xijing; Lu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Palmitoyl ascorbate (PA) as an antioxidant has the potential for the treatment of cancer. In the present study, a nanocarrier system was developed for co-delivery of docetaxel (DOC) with palmitoyl ascorbate and the therapeutic efficacy of a combination drug regimen was investigated. For this purpose, different ratios of docetaxel and palmitoyl ascorbate were co-encapsulated in a liposome and they all showed high encapsulation efficiency. The average diameters of the liposomes ranged from 140 to 170 nm. Negative zeta potential values were observed for all systems, ranged from −40 mV to −56 mV. Studies on drug release and cellular uptake of the co-delivery system demonstrated that both drugs were effectively taken up by the cells and released slowly. Moreover, the liposome loading drugs with DOC/PA concentration ratio of 1:200 showed the highest anti-tumor activity to three different types of tumor cells. The higher in vivo therapeutic efficacy with lower systemic toxicity of the DOC-PA200-LPs was also verified by the H22 tumor bearing mice model. Our results showed that such co-loaded delivery systems could serve as a promising therapeutic approach to improve clinical outcomes against hepatic carcinoma. PMID:27934917

  11. Pharmacokinetics and antitumor efficacy of DSPE-PEG2000 polymeric liposomes loaded with quercetin and temozolomide: Analysis of their effectiveness in enhancing the chemosensitization of drug-resistant glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    HU, JUN; WANG, JUNJIE; WANG, GANG; YAO, ZHONGJUN; DANG, XIAOQIAN

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a new type of DSPE-PEG2000 polymeric liposome for the brain-targeted delivery of poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs was successfully prepared and characterized. The nanoparticles were formed by the self-assembly of an amphiphilic polymer consisting of hydrophilic 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG2000). These nanoliposomes served as a safe delivery platform for the simultaneous delivery of quercetin (QUE) and temozolomide (TMZ) to rat brains. The 2-in-1 PEG2000-DSPE nanoliposomes containing QUE and TMZ (QUE/TMZ-NLs) were rapidly taken up by the U87 glioma cells in vitro, whereas at the same concentrations, the amounts of the free drugs taken up were minimal. The QUE/TMZ-NLs showed an enhanced potency in the U87 cells and the TMZ-resistant U87 cells (U87/TR cells), possibly due to the high intracellular drug concentration and the subsequent drug release. In vivo biodistribution experiments revealed a significant accumulation of QUE/TMZ-NLs in the brain, with significantly increased plasma concentrations of QUE and TMZ, as well as delayed clearance in our rat model of glioma. The results were not so significant for the QUE-loaded nanoliposomes (QUE-NLs) and free TMZ. The findings of our study establish the DSPE-PEG2000 polymeric liposome as a novel and effective nanocarrier for enhancing drug delivery to brain tumors. PMID:26782731

  12. The anti-tumor effect of aspirin: What we know and what we expect.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ji; Cai, Zhonglin; Wei, Hongliang; Liu, Xinlan; Zhao, Qingli; Zhang, Tao

    2017-09-04

    Aspirin has been widely used as an antipyretic analgesic drug. More and more evidences have shown that aspirin may be play some role on anti-tumor. In this article, we reviewed the research history of aspirin in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Many epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that aspirin can reduce the risk of a variety of malignant tumors and reduce cancer mortality. In addition, we discuss the specific mechanisms of aspirin in the anti-tumor effects. It has been found that aspirin mainly depends on the COX pathway and non-COX pathway to inhibit tumor cell growth and to curb tumor development. In this article, clinical studies and anti-tumor mechanism studies published in recent years are reviewed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Comparison of two self-assembled macromolecular prodrug micelles with different conjugate positions of SN38 for enhancing antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Piao, Hongyu; Gao, Ying; Xu, Caihong; Tian, Ye; Wang, Lihong; Liu, Jinwen; Tang, Bo; Zou, Meijuan; Cheng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38), an active metabolite of irinotecan (CPT-11), is a remarkably potent antitumor agent. The clinical application of SN38 has been extremely restricted by its insolubility in water. In this study, we successfully synthesized two macromolecular prodrugs of SN38 with different conjugate positions (chitosan-(C10-OH)SN38 and chitosan-(C20-OH)SN38) to improve the water solubility and antitumor activity of SN38. These prodrugs can self-assemble into micelles in aqueous medium. The particle size, morphology, zeta potential, and in vitro drug release of SN38 and its derivatives, as well as their cytotoxicity, pharmacokinetics, and in vivo antitumor activity in a xenograft BALB/c mouse model were studied. In vitro, chitosan-(C10-OH)SN38 (CS-(10s)SN38) and chitosan-(C20-OH) SN38 (CS-(20s)SN38) were 13.3- and 25.9-fold more potent than CPT-11 in the murine colon adenocarcinoma cell line CT26, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC)0-24 of SN38 after intravenously administering CS-(10s)SN38 and CS-(20s)SN38 to Sprague Dawley rats was greatly improved when compared with CPT-11 (both P<0.01). A larger AUC0-24 of CS-(20s)SN38 was observed when compared to CS-(10s)SN38 (P<0.05). Both of the novel self-assembled chitosan-SN38 prodrugs demonstrated superior anticancer activity to CPT-11 in the CT26 xenograft BALB/c mouse model. We have also investigated the differences between these macromolecular prodrug micelles with regards to enhancing the antitumor activity of SN38. CS-(20s)SN38 exhibited better in vivo antitumor activity than CS-(10s)SN38 at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg (P<0.05). In conclusion, both macromolecular prodrug micelles improved the in vivo conversion rate and antitumor activity of SN38, but the prodrug in which C20-OH was conjugated to macromolecular materials could be a more promising platform for SN38 delivery.

  14. Herbal compound triptolide synergistically enhanced antitumor activity of amino-terminal fragment of urokinase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urokinase (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) play an important role in tumour growth and metastasis, and overexpression of these molecules is strongly correlated with poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumours. Targeting the excessive activation of this system as well as the proliferation of the tumour vascular endothelial cell would be expected to prevent tumour neovasculature and halt tumour development. The amino terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase has been confirmed effective to inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasiveness of cancer cells via interrupting the interaction of uPA and uPAR. Triptolide (TPL) is a purified diterpenoid isolated from the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F that has shown antitumor activities in various cancer cell types. However, its therapeutic application is limited by its toxicity in normal tissues and complications caused in patients. In this study, we attempted to investigate the synergistic anticancer activity of TPL and ATF in various solid tumour cells. Methods Using in vitro and in vivo experiments, we investigated the combined effect of TPL and ATF at a low dosage on cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, cell migration, signalling pathways, xenograft tumour growth and angiogenesis. Results Our data showed that the sensitivity of a combined therapy using TPL and ATF was higher than that of TPL or ATF alone. Suppression of NF-κB transcriptional activity, activation of caspase-9/caspase-3, cell cycle arrest, and inhibition of uPAR-mediated signalling pathway contributed to the synergistic effects of this combination therapy. Furthermore, using a mouse xenograft model, we demonstrated that the combined treatment completely suppressed tumour growth by inhibiting angiogenesis as compared with ATF or TPL treatment alone. Conclusions Our study suggests that lower concentration of ATF and TPL used in combination may produce a synergistic anticancer efficacy that warrants further

  15. Butyrate activates the monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 expression in breast cancer cells and enhances the antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate.

    PubMed

    Queirós, Odília; Preto, Ana; Pacheco, António; Pinheiro, Céline; Azevedo-Silva, João; Moreira, Roxana; Pedro, Madalena; Ko, Young H; Pedersen, Peter L; Baltazar, Fátima; Casal, Margarida

    2012-02-01

    Most malignant tumors exhibit the Warburg effect, which consists in increased glycolysis rates with production of lactate, even in the presence of oxygen. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), maintain these glycolytic rates, by mediating the influx and/or efflux of lactate and are overexpressed in several cancer cell types. The lactate and pyruvate analogue 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an inhibitor of the energy metabolism, which has been proposed as a specific antitumor agent. In the present study, we aimed at determining the effect of 3-BP in breast cancer cells and evaluated the putative role of MCTs on this effect. Our results showed that the three breast cancer cell lines used presented different sensitivities to 3-BP: ZR-75-1 ER (+)>MCF-7 ER (+)>SK-BR-3 ER (-). We also demonstrated that 3-BP reduced lactate production, induced cell morphological alterations and increased apoptosis. The effect of 3-BP appears to be cytotoxic rather than cytostatic, as a continued decrease in cell viability was observed after removal of 3-BP. We showed that pre-incubation with butyrate enhanced significantly 3-BP cytotoxicity, especially in the most resistant breast cancer cell line, SK-BR-3. We observed that butyrate treatment induced localization of MCT1 in the plasma membrane as well as overexpression of MCT4 and its chaperone CD147. Our results thus indicate that butyrate pre-treatment potentiates the effect of 3-BP, most probably by increasing the rates of 3-BP transport through MCT1/4. This study supports the potential use of butyrate as adjuvant of 3-BP in the treatment of breast cancer resistant cells, namely ER (-).

  16. Significant antitumor effect of a synthetic lipid A analogue, DT-5461, on murine syngeneic tumor models.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, E; Tohgo, A; Soga, T; Kusama, T; Osada, Y

    1992-01-01

    The antitumor effect of a synthetic lipid A analogue, DT-5461, was investigated using syngeneic tumor models in mice. Intravenous injection of DT-5461 into mice transplanted with solid tumors of MethA fibrosarcoma, MH134 hepatoma, MM46 mammary carcinoma, Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL), and colon adenocarcinomas 26 and 38 resulted in significant reductions in the weight of all tumors except Colon 26, with marked hemorrhagic necrosis of tumor tissues. Efficacy was almost equal to that of an Escherichia coli-type synthetic lipid A (compound 506), and also to those of some chemotherapeutics including Adriamycin, mitomycin C, fluorouracil and cisplatin. Furthermore, DT-5461 was more effective than other immunotherapeutics, including picibanil (OK-432) and lentinan. However, its antitumor effects were inferior to those of Adriamycin or OK-432 against the malignant ascites caused by intraperitoneal inoculation with MethA or with MH134 cells; life span was not prolonged by either intraperitoneal or intravenous administration. In addition, although DT-5461 showed direct inhibitory effects on the in vitro growth of MethA or MH134, these were much weaker than those of Adriamycin. These findings clearly indicated that DT-5461 with systemic administration is a highly effective antitumor agent on solid tumors, and suggest that the antitumor effect of DT-5461 with potent necrotizing activity might derive from indirect mechanisms related to the activation of host immune systems and not to the weak direct cytotoxicity.

  17. Combination of vorinostat and adenovirus-TRAIL exhibits a synergistic antitumor effect by increasing transduction and transcription of TRAIL in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, D R; Park, M-Y; Lee, C-S; Shim, S-H; Yoon, H-I; Lee, J H; Sung, M-W; Kim, Y-S; Lee, C-T

    2011-07-01

    Soluble TRAIL and adenovirus (ad)-TRAIL exhibit a strong antitumor effect by inducing apoptosis. Vorinostat is the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that induces cell death in cancer cell lines and regulates the expression of epigenetically silenced genes, such as Coxackie adenoviral receptor (CAR), the receptor for adenoviral entry. We propose a new strategy in which vorinostat will induce high expression of ad-TRAIL and a strong antitumor response, and investigated the mechanism involved. The effect of vorinostat on transcription and expression of TRAIL from ad-TRAIL-transduced lung cancer cells were confirmed by reverse transciption-PCR (RT-PCR), quantitative real time-PCR and western blot assay. Anti-tumor effects were measured after cotreatment of vorinostat and ad-TRAIL, and the drug interactions were analyzed. After combined treatment of vorinostat and ad-TRAIL, apoptosis and western blot assays for Akt, Bcl-2 and caspase were performed. Vorinostat increased the expression of CAR in lung cancer cell lines and increased the expression of luciferase (luc) from ad-luc-transduced cells and TRAIL from ad-TRAIL-transduced cells. RT-PCR and quantitative real time-PCR, after sequential vorinostat treatment, revealed that vorinostat may enhance TRAIL expression from ad-TRAIL by increasing transduction through enhanced CAR expression and increasing adenoviral transgene transcription. Combined vorinostat and ad-TRAIL treatment showed the synergistic anti-tumor effect in lung cancer cell lines. Combined vorinostat and ad-TRAIL induced stronger apoptosis induction, suppression of NF-κB activation and breakdown of the anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-2. In conclusion, the vorinostat synergistically enhanced the anti-tumor effect of ad-TRAIL by (1) increasing adenoviral transduction through the increased expression of CAR and (2) increasing adenoviral transgene (TRAIL) transcription in lung cancer cell lines.

  18. Carbidopa enhances antitumoral activity of bicalutamide on the androgen receptor-axis in castration-resistant prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christian; Wafa, Latif A; Lamoureux, Francois; Cheng, Helen; Fazli, Ladan; Gleave, Martin E; Rennie, Paul S

    2012-06-01

    Response to bicalutamide after castration failure is not durable and treatment options at this stage are limited. Carbidopa, an L-dopa decarboxylase (AR-coactivator) inhibitor, has been shown to retard prostate tumor growth/PSA production in xenografts. Here, we hypothesize that pharmacological targeting of the AR-axis by combination treatment with bicalutamide plus carbidopa significantly enhances antitumoral activity in vitro and in vivo compared to monotherapy with either drug. Carbidopa was tested for its ability to enhance the effects of bicalutamide on cell viability, apoptosis and PSA transactivation in LNCaP and C4-2 cells. The castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) LNCaP xenograft tumor model was used in vivo. After CRPC progression, mice were treated with carbidopa (50 mg/kg) and bicalutamide (50 mg/kg) as monotherapy or in combination. Tumor volume and serum PSA were evaluated weekly. Combination treatment of carbidopa plus bicalutamide significantly inhibited cell viability in both cell lines and induced apoptosis. The combination treatment also decreased androgen-induced PSA transactivation by 62.6% in LNCaP cells and by 55.6% in C4-2 cells compared to control, while bicalutamide monotherapy reduced PSA levels by 27.5% and 29.1% in LNCaP and C4-2 cells. In vivo, bicalutamide monotherapy delayed LNCaP CRPC tumor growth rate by 72.2%, while combination treatment reduced tumor growth by 84.4% compared to control. Serum PSA was also reduced 70.6% with bicalutamide monotherapy, while combination therapy reduced PSA levels by 76.7% compared to control. This study demonstrates preclinical proof-of-principle that pharmacological targeting of prostate tumors by combination treatment of bicalutamide plus carbidopa significantly reduces AR activity, and thereby delays CRPC tumor progression in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Combination of thymidine phosphorylase gene transfer and deoxyinosine treatment greatly enhances 5-fluorouracil antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ciccolini, J; Cuq, P; Evrard, A; Giacometti, S; Pelegrin, A; Aubert, C; Cano, J P; Iliadis, A

    2001-12-01

    We reported previously that 5-fluorouracil (FUra) efficacy could be enhanced by increasing tumoral thymidine phosphorylase (TP) activity. Potentiated TP yield was achieved by either transfecting cells with human TP gene (A. Evrard et al., Br. J. Cancer, 80: 1726-1733, 1999) or associating FUra with 2'-deoxyinosine (d-Ino), a modulator providing the tumors with TP cofactor deoxyribose 1-phosphate (J. Ciccolini et al., Clin. Cancer Res., 6: 1529-1535, 2000). The purpose of the present work was to study the effects of a combined modulation (TP gene transfer + use of d-Ino) on the sensitivity to FUra of the LS174T human colorectal cell line. Results showed a near 4000 times increase of cell sensitivity in vitro after double (genetic + biochemical) modulation. This potentiation of tumor response was accompanied by a total change in the FUra anabolic pathway with a 5000% increase of cytosolic fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate, a stronger and longer inhibition of thymidylate synthase, and 300% augmentation of DNA damage. Besides, whereas thymidine failed to inhibit FUra cytotoxicity in LS174T wild-type cells, the potentiation of the antitumor activity observed in the modulating regimen was partly reversed by thymidine, indicative of thymidylate synthase as the main drug target. The impact of this double modulation was next investigated in xenograft-bearing nude mice. Results showed that whereas FUra alone was completely ineffective on wild-type tumor growth, the size of TP-transfected tumors in animals treated with the FUra/d-Ino combination was reduced by 80% (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that FUra exhibits stronger antiproliferative activity when activated via TP through the DNA pathway and that high tumoral TP activity therefore leads to enhanced sensitivity to fluoropyrimidines.

  20. Promoting effect of Antrodia camphorata as an immunomodulating adjuvant on the antitumor efficacy of HER-2/neu DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chia-Hsin; Chang, Chia-Che; Lin, Chiu-Mei; Wang, Sin-Ting; Wu, Min-Tze; Li, Eric I C; Chang, Hsien-Chang; Lin, Chi-Chen

    2010-08-01

    It is well known that DNA vaccines induce protective humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in several animal models. Antrodia camphorata (AC) is a unique basidiomycete fungus of the Polyporaceae family that only grows on the aromatic tree Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata (Lauraceae) endemic to Taiwan. Importantly, AC has been shown to be highly beneficial in the treatment and prevention of cancer. The goal of this study was to investigate whether AC is able to augment the antitumor immune properties of a HER-2/neu DNA vaccine in a mouse model in which p185neu is overexpressed in MBT-2 tumor cells. Compared with the mice that received the HER-2/neu DNA vaccine alone, co-treatment with AC suppressed tumor growth and extended the survival rate. This increase in the antitumor efficacy was attributed to the enhancement of the Th1-like cellular immune response by the HER-2/neu DNA vaccine-AC combination. Evidence for this came from the marked increase in the IFN-gamma mRNA expression in CD4+ T cells in the draining inguinal lymph nodes, an increase in the number of functional HER-2/neu-specific CTLs, and the increased tumor infiltration of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, depletion of which abolishes the antitumor effect of the HER-2/neu DNA vaccine-AC therapy. Our results further indicate that the treatment of mice with AC enhanced DC activation and production of Th1-activating cytokines (e.g. IL-12, and IFN-alpha) in the draining lymph nodes, which were sufficient to directly stimulate T cell proliferation and higher IFN-gamma production in response to ErbB2. Overall, these results clearly demonstrate that AC represents a promising immunomodulatory adjuvant that could enhance the therapeutic potency of HER-2/neu DNA vaccines in cancer therapy.

  1. Sunitinib enhances the antitumor responses of agonistic CD40-antibody by reducing MDSCs and synergistically improving endothelial activation and T-cell recruitment

    PubMed Central

    van Hooren, Luuk; Georganaki, Maria; Huang, Hua; Mangsbo, Sara M.; Dimberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    CD40-activating immunotherapy has potent antitumor effects due to its ability to activate dendritic cells and induce cytotoxic T-cell responses. However, its efficacy is limited by immunosuppressive cells in the tumor and by endothelial anergy inhibiting recruitment of T-cells. Here, we show that combining agonistic CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy with vascular targeting using the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib decreased tumor growth and improved survival in B16.F10 melanoma and T241 fibrosarcoma. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with anti-CD40 mAb led to increased activation of CD11c+ dendritic cells in the tumor draining lymph node, while sunitinib treatment reduced vessel density and decreased accumulation of CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid derived suppressor cells. The expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 adhesion molecules was up-regulated on tumor endothelial cells only when anti-CD40 mAb treatment was combined with sunitinib. This was associated with enhanced intratumoral infiltration of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. Our results show that combining CD40-stimulating immunotherapy with sunitinib treatment exerts potent complementary antitumor effects mediated by dendritic cell activation, a reduction in myeloid derived suppressor cells and increased endothelial activation, resulting in enhanced recruitment of cytotoxic T-cells. PMID:27385210

  2. Preclinical trial of the antitumoral therapeutic effectiveness of some natural polyphenolic biopreparations.

    PubMed

    Rotinberg, P; Kelemen, S; Gramescu, M; Rotinberg, H; Nuta, V

    2000-01-01

    We have assessed the antitumoral action of the POLYAS I and POLYAS II vegetal polyphenolic biopreparations--separated and purified from Asclepias syriaca leaves - in rats with various experimental tumoral lines. We studied the therapeutic effect of different doses on the tumor generation process and compared it with the experimental oncostatic action of several standard chemotherapeutic drugs of clinical use (thiotepa, methotrexate, melphalan and cyclophosphamide). In our experimental treatment with the bioactive polyphenolic agents, we have used various doses, both higher and lower than the dose that had conditioned the expression of their antitumoral action upon Guerin T-8 lymphotropic epithelioma and upon Walker 256 carcinosarcoma. We found the antineoplastic effectiveness of those aromatic biopreparations from phytomass to be dose-dependent. We compared the evaluation indices of the antitumoral pharmacodynamic effect we obtained in the treatment with the POLYAS biopreparations with those of reference cytostatic agents. The antitumoral potential of the new natural biopreparations is higher than, equal or close to that of the standard oncochemotherapeutic agents. Antitumoral effectiveness can be improved by an experimental manipulation of the therapeutic doses--which proves the existence of a dose-response relationship. POLYAS I and POLYAS II polyphenolic biopreparations are compatible in point of effectiveness with the standard cytostatic agents, a fact that we considered relevant for the characterization of the POLYAS I and POLYAS II vegetal extracts as potential antineoplastic agents. The quantitative preclinical evaluation of the specific pharmacodynamic effect will be complemented by the investigation of the new polyphenolic biopreparations therapeutic effectiveness in tumors with various degrees of development.

  3. The combination of Pleurotus ferulae water extract and CpG-ODN enhances the immune responses and antitumor efficacy of HPV peptides pulsed dendritic cell-based vaccine.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinyu; Li, Jinyao; Aipire, Adila; Luo, JiaoJiao; Yuan, Pengfei; Zhang, Fuchun

    2016-06-30

    Our previous study reported that the combination of Pleurotus ferulae water extract (PFWE) and CpG (PFWE+CpG) enhanced the maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs). Here, we investigated the effects of PFWE+CpG on the immune responses and antitumor efficacy of DC-based vaccine. We observed that all of HPV E6 and E7 peptides pulsed DCs (HPV-immature DCs, HPV+PFWE-, +CpG- or +PFWE+CpG-DCs) induced antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses and HPV+PFWE+CpG-DCs induced highest level of CD8(+) T cell responses. The antitumor efficacy of HPV-DCs vaccines was evaluated in TC-1 tumor mouse model. The early therapeutic study showed that HPV+PFWE-, +CpG- and +PFWE+CpG-DCs greatly inhibited tumor growth. Moreover, HPV+PFWE+CpG-DCs controlled tumor growth at a faster rate compared to other groups. These three groups induced HPV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses and significantly decreased the frequencies of induced regulatory T cells (iTregs: CD4(+)CD25(-)Fopx3(+)). However, only HPV+PFWE+CpG-DCs significantly decreased the frequency of natural Tregs (nTregs: CD4(+)CD25(+)Fopx3(+)). Furthermore, HPV+PFWE+CpG-DCs also significantly inhibited tumor growth in the late therapeutic study. The results showed that PFWE+CpG enhanced the immune responses and antitumor efficacy of DC-based vaccine, suggesting that PFWE+CpG might be the potential candidate for the generation of clinical-grade mature DCs.

  4. Curcumin-loaded redox response of self-assembled micelles for enhanced antitumor and anti-inflammation efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuang; Ma, Litao; Cao, Chengwen; Yu, Qianqian; Chen, Lanmei; Liu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    At present, it has become evident that inflammation plays a critical role in tumor growth; meanwhile, chemotherapeutic agents using nanocarriers have been suggested as a promising strategy in cancer treatment. In this study, novel redox-responsive micelles were prepared from monomethoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-chitosan-S-S-hexadecyl (C16-SS-CS-mPEG). These micelles were able to carry and deliver drugs into tumor cells. To serve as a control, monomethoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-chitosan-C-C-hexadecyl (C16-CC-CS-mPEG) was developed in a similar fashion to that used to yield C16-CC-CS-mPEG without a redox-responsive disulfide bond. The cellular uptake mechanisms of both micelles were determined. The efficient intracellular drug release from micelles in MCF-7 cells was further confirmed. Results indicated that curcumin (Cur) could rapidly form C16-SS-CS-mPEG@ Cur micelles when exposed to reducing agents and efficaciously enhance intracellular accumulation. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that C16-SS-CS-mPEG@Cur exhibited satisfactory cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. Anti-inflammation assay results indicated that C16-SS-CS-mPEG@Cur treatment significantly downregulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) expression and showed good anti-inflammatory effects in tumor microenvironment. Most importantly, antitumor effects in vivo showed satisfactory therapeutic effects with C16-SS-CS-mPEG@Cur. Hence, C16-SS-CS-mPEG@Cur micelles can be useful in tumor therapy. PMID:28408820

  5. Ethacrynic acid improves the antitumor effects of irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, YunLong; Chen, TingTing; Peng, BoYa; Gao, NingNing; Jin, ZhenChao; Jia, TieLiu; Zhang, Na; Wang, ZhuLin; Jin, GuangYi

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged treatment of breast cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) often results in acquired resistance and a narrow therapeutic index. One strategy to improve the therapeutic effects of EGFR TKIs is to combine them with drugs used for other clinical indications. Ethacrynic acid (EA) is an FDA approved drug that may have antitumor effects and may enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents by binding to glutathione and inhibiting WNT signaling. While the α,β-unsaturated-keto structure of EA is similar to that of irreversible TKIs, the mechanism of action of EA when combined with irreversible EGFR TKIs in breast cancer remains unknown. We therefore investigated the combination of irreversible EGFR TKIs and EA. We found that irreversible EGFR TKIs and EA synergistically inhibit breast cancer both in vitro and in vivo. The combination of EGFR TKIs and EA induces necrosis and cell cycle arrest and represses WNT/β-catenin signaling as well as MAPK-ERK1/2 signaling. We conclude that EA synergistically enhances the antitumor effects of irreversible EGFR TKIs in breast cancer. PMID:27487128

  6. Ethacrynic acid improves the antitumor effects of irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Huang, XinPing; Hu, YunLong; Chen, TingTing; Peng, BoYa; Gao, NingNing; Jin, ZhenChao; Jia, TieLiu; Zhang, Na; Wang, ZhuLin; Jin, GuangYi

    2016-09-06

    Prolonged treatment of breast cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) often results in acquired resistance and a narrow therapeutic index. One strategy to improve the therapeutic effects of EGFR TKIs is to combine them with drugs used for other clinical indications. Ethacrynic acid (EA) is an FDA approved drug that may have antitumor effects and may enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents by binding to glutathione and inhibiting WNT signaling. While the α,β-unsaturated-keto structure of EA is similar to that of irreversible TKIs, the mechanism of action of EA when combined with irreversible EGFR TKIs in breast cancer remains unknown. We therefore investigated the combination of irreversible EGFR TKIs and EA. We found that irreversible EGFR TKIs and EA synergistically inhibit breast cancer both in vitro and in vivo. The combination of EGFR TKIs and EA induces necrosis and cell cycle arrest and represses WNT/β-catenin signaling as well as MAPK-ERK1/2 signaling. We conclude that EA synergistically enhances the antitumor effects of irreversible EGFR TKIs in breast cancer.

  7. Soluble B and T lymphocyte attenuator possesses antitumor effects and facilitates heat shock protein 70 vaccine-triggered antitumor immunity against a murine TC-1 cervical cancer model in vivo.

    PubMed

    Han, Lingfei; Wang, Wei; Fang, Yong; Feng, Zuohua; Liao, Shujie; Li, Wei; Li, Yan; Li, Chunxiao; Maitituoheti, Mayinuer; Dong, Hong; Lai, Zhiwen; Gao, Qinglei; Xi, Ling; Wu, Mingfu; Wang, Daowen; Zhou, Jianfeng; Meng, Li; Wang, Shixuan; Ma, Ding

    2009-12-15

    B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA)-herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) signaling coinhibitory pathway is believed to impair antitumor immune competences. An intriguing unresolved question is whether blockade of BTLA-HVEM guides an effective therapeutic tool against established tumors. To address this issue, we constructed a eukaryotic expression plasmid (psBTLA) that expressed the extracellular domain of murine BTLA (soluble form of BTLA), which could bind HVEM, the ligand of BTLA, and block BTLA-HVEM interactions. The data in this study showed that treatment by injection of psBTLA resulted in down-regulation of IL-10 and TGF-beta and promotion of dendritic cell function by increasing the expression of B7-1 and IL-12, but the adaptive antitumor immune responses achieved by psBTLA administration alone were limited and could not eradicate the tumor effectively. Next, we evaluated the immunotherapeutic efficacy and mechanism of combination therapy of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) vaccine/psBTLA by using murine TC-1 cervical cancer mice as an ectopic tumor model. Our in vivo studies revealed that treatment with HSP70 vaccine alone did not lead to satisfactory tumor growth inhibition, whereas cotreatment with psBTLA significantly improved antitumor immunity and compensated the deficiency of HSP70 vaccine by increasing the expression of Th1 cytokines, IL-2, and IFN-gamma and decreasing transcription levels of IL-10, TGF-beta, and Foxp3 in the tumor microenvironment. Taken together, our findings indicate that blocking the BTLA-HVEM interaction with sBTLA enhances antitumor efficacy and results in a significant synergistic effect against existent tumor cells in vivo when combined with the HSP70 vaccine.

  8. An evaluation of anti-tumor effect and toxicity of PEGylated ursolic acid liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qianqian; Zhao, Tingting; Liu, Yanping; Xing, Shanshan; Li, Lei; Gao, Dawei

    2016-02-01

    Therapy of solid tumors mediated by nano-drug delivery has attracted considerable interest. In our previous study, ursolic acid (UA) was successfully encapsulated into PEGylated liposomes. The study aimed to evaluate the tumor inhibition effect and cytotoxicity of the PEGylated UA liposomes by U14 cervical carcinoma-bearing mice. The liposomes were spherical particles with mean particle diameters of 127.2 nm. The tumor inhibition rate of PEGylated UA liposomes was 53.60 % on U14 cervical carcinoma-bearing mice, which was greater than those of the UA solution (18.25 %) and traditional UA liposome groups (40.75 %). The tumor cells apoptosis rate of PEGylated UA liposomes was 25.81 %, which was significantly higher than that of the traditional UA liposomes (13.37 %). Moreover, the kidney and liver did not emerge the pathological changes in UA therapeutic mice by histopathological analysis, while there were significant differences on tumor tissues among three UA formulation groups. The PEGylated UA liposomes exhibited higher anti-tumor activity and lower cytotoxicity, and the main reason was that the coating PEG layer improved UA liposome properties, such as enhancing the stability of liposomes, promoting the effect of slow release, and prolonging the time of blood circulation. This may shed light on the development of PEGylated nano-vehicles.

  9. Diacetyloxyl derivatization of the fibroblast growth factor inhibitor dobesilate enhances its anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumoral activities.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Javier; Cuevas, Pedro; Cuevas, Begoña; El Youssef, Mohammad; Fernández, Argentina; Martínez-Salamanca, Eduardo; González-Corrochano, Rocío; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2015-02-01

    Dobesilate (2,5-dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate, DHPS) was recently identified as the most potent member of a family of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) inhibitors headed by gentisic acid, one of the main catabolites of aspirin. Although FGFs were first described as inducers of angiogenesis, they were soon recognized as broad spectrum mitogens. Furthermore, in the last decade these proteins have been shown to participate directly in the onset of inflammation, and their potential angiogenic activity often contributes to the inflammatory process in vivo. The aim of this work was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumoral activities of the derivative of DHPS obtained by acetoxylation of its two hydroxyl groups (2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate; DAPS). Anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumoral activities of DHPS and DAPS were compared using in vivo assays of dermatitis, angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. The effects of both compounds on myeloperoxidase (MPO) and cyclooxygenase (COX) activities, cytokine production and FGF-induced fibroblast proliferation were also determined. Topical DAPS is more effective than DHPS in preventing inflammatory signs (increased vascular permeability, edema, leukocyte infiltration, MPO activation) caused by contact dermatitis induction in rat ears. DAPS, but not DHPS, effectively inhibits COX-1 and COX-2 activities. DAPS also reduces the increase in serum cytokine concentration induced by lipopolysaccharide in rats. Furthermore, DAPS displays higher in vivo efficacy than DHPS in inhibiting FGF-induced angiogenesis and heterotopic glioma progression, with demonstrated oral efficacy to combat both processes. By inhibiting both FGF-signaling and COX-mediated prostaglandin synthesis, DAPS efficiently breaks the vicious circle created by the reciprocal induction of FGF and prostaglandins, which probably sustains undesirable inflammation in many circumstances. Our findings define the enhancement of anti-inflammatory, anti

  10. Carthamus tinctorius Enhances the Antitumor Activity of Dendritic Cell Vaccines via Polarization toward Th1 Cytokines and Increase of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jia-Ming; Hung, Le-Mei; Chyan, Yau-Jan; Cheng, Chun-Ming; Wu, Rey-Yuh

    2011-01-01

    Carthamus tinctorius (CT), also named safflower, is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used to improve blood circulation. CT also has been studied for its antitumor activity in certain cancers. To investigate the effects of CT on the dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine in cancer treatment, cytokine secretion of mouse splenic T lymphocytes and the maturation of DCs in response to CT were analyzed. To assess the antitumor activity of CT extract on mouse CD117+ (c-kit)-derived DCs pulsed with JC mammal tumor antigens, the JC tumor was challenged by the CT-treated DC vaccine in vivo. CT stimulated IFN-γ and IL-10 secretion of splenic T lymphocytes and enhanced the maturation of DCs by enhancing immunological molecule expression. When DC vaccine was pulsed with tumor antigens along with CT extract, the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were dramatically increased with a dose-dependent response and more immunologic and co-stimulatory molecules were expressed on the DC surface. In addition, CT-treated tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccine reduced the tumor weight in tumor-bearing mice by 15.3% more than tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccine without CT treatment. CT polarized cytokine secretion toward the Th1 pathway and also increased the population of cytotoxic T lymphocytes ex vivo. In conclusion, CT activates DCs might promote the recognition of antigens and facilitate antigen presentation to Th1 immune responses. PMID:19001481

  11. Delivery of baicalein and paclitaxel using self-assembled nanoparticles: synergistic antitumor effect in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xi, Mei; Duan, Xuezhong; Wang, Yong; Kong, Fansheng

    2015-01-01

    Combination anticancer therapy is promising to generate synergistic anticancer effects to maximize the treatment effect and overcome multidrug resistance. The aim of the study reported here was to develop multifunctional, dual-ligand, modified, self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) for the combination delivery of baicalein (BCL) and paclitaxel (PTX) prodrugs. Prodrug of PTX and prodrug of BCL, containing dual-targeted ligands of folate (FA) and hyaluronic acid (HA), were synthesized. Multifunctional self-assembled NPs for combination delivery of PTX prodrug and BCL prodrug (PTX-BCL) were prepared and the synergistic antitumor effect was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro transfection efficiency of the novel modified vectors was evaluated in human lung cancer A549 cells and drug-resistant lung cancer A549/PTX cells. The in vivo antitumor efficiency and systemic toxicity of different formulations were further investigated in mice bearing A549/PTX drug-resistant human lung cancer xenografts. The size of the PTX-BCL NPs was approximately 90 nm, with a positive zeta potential of +3.3. The PTX-BCL NPs displayed remarkably better antitumor activity over a wide range of drug concentrations, and showed an obvious synergism effect with CI50 values of 0.707 and 0.513, indicating that double-ligand modification and the co-delivery of PTX and BCL prodrugs with self-assembled NPs had remarkable superiority over other formulations. The prepared PTX-BCL NP drug-delivery system was proven efficient by its targeting of drug-resistant human lung cancer cells and delivering of BCL and PTX prodrugs. Enhanced synergistic anticancer effects were achieved by PTX-BCL NPs, and multidrug resistance of PTX was overcome by this promising targeted nanomedicine.

  12. Delivery of baicalein and paclitaxel using self-assembled nanoparticles: synergistic antitumor effect in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Xi, Mei; Duan, Xuezhong; Wang, Yong; Kong, Fansheng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Combination anticancer therapy is promising to generate synergistic anticancer effects to maximize the treatment effect and overcome multidrug resistance. The aim of the study reported here was to develop multifunctional, dual-ligand, modified, self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) for the combination delivery of baicalein (BCL) and paclitaxel (PTX) prodrugs. Methods Prodrug of PTX and prodrug of BCL, containing dual-targeted ligands of folate (FA) and hyaluronic acid (HA), were synthesized. Multifunctional self-assembled NPs for combination delivery of PTX prodrug and BCL prodrug (PTX-BCL) were prepared and the synergistic antitumor effect was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro transfection efficiency of the novel modified vectors was evaluated in human lung cancer A549 cells and drug-resistant lung cancer A549/PTX cells. The in vivo antitumor efficiency and systemic toxicity of different formulations were further investigated in mice bearing A549/PTX drug-resistant human lung cancer xenografts. Results The size of the PTX-BCL NPs was approximately 90 nm, with a positive zeta potential of +3.3. The PTX-BCL NPs displayed remarkably better antitumor activity over a wide range of drug concentrations, and showed an obvious synergism effect with CI50 values of 0.707 and 0.513, indicating that double-ligand modification and the co-delivery of PTX and BCL prodrugs with self-assembled NPs had remarkable superiority over other formulations. Conclusion The prepared PTX-BCL NP drug-delivery system was proven efficient by its targeting of drug-resistant human lung cancer cells and delivering of BCL and PTX prodrugs. Enhanced synergistic anticancer effects were achieved by PTX-BCL NPs, and multidrug resistance of PTX was overcome by this promising targeted nanomedicine. PMID:26045664

  13. Targeting Gene-Viro-Therapy with AFP driving Apoptin gene shows potent antitumor effect in hepatocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gene therapy and viral therapy are used for cancer therapy for many years, but the results are less than satisfactory. Our aim was to construct a new recombinant adenovirus which is more efficient to kill hepatocarcinoma cells but more safe to normal cells. Methods By using the Cancer Targeting Gene-Viro-Therapy strategy, Apoptin, a promising cancer therapeutic gene was inserted into the double-regulated oncolytic adenovirus AD55 in which E1A gene was driven by alpha fetoprotein promoter along with a 55 kDa deletion in E1B gene to form AD55-Apoptin. The anti-tumor effects and safety were examined by western blotting, virus yield assay, real time polymerase chain reaction, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, Hoechst33342 staining, Fluorescence-activated cell sorting, xenograft tumor model, Immunohistochemical assay, liver function analysis and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling assay. Results The recombinant virus AD55-Apoptin has more significant antitumor effect for hepatocelluar carcinoma cell lines (in vitro) than that of AD55 and even ONYX-015 but no or little impair on normal cell lines. Furthermore, it also shows an obvious in vivo antitumor effect on the Huh-7 liver carcinoma xenograft in nude mice with bigger beginning tumor volume till about 425 mm3 but has no any damage on the function of liver. The induction of apoptosis is involved in AD55-Apoptin induced antitumor effects. Conclusion The AD55-Apoptin can be a potential anti-hepatoma agent with remarkable antitumor efficacy as well as higher safety in cancer targeting gene-viro-therapy system. PMID:22321574

  14. Cell-specific expression of artificial microRNAs targeting essential genes exhibit potent antitumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chenyu; Liu, Hao; Chen, Ping; Ye, Jingjia; Teng, Lisong; Jia, Zhenyu; Cao, Jiang

    2015-03-20

    To achieve specific and potent antitumor effect of hepatocyte carcinoma cells, replication defective adenoviral vectors, namely rAd/AFP-amiRG, rAd/AFP-amiRE and rAd/AFP-amiRP, were constructed which were armed with artificial microRNAs (amiRs) targeting essential functional genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E and DNA polymerase α respectively under the control of a recombinant promoter comprised of human α-fetoprotein enhancer and basal promoter. The AFP enhancer/promoter showed specific high transcription activity in AFP-positive HCC cells Hep3B, HepG2 and SMMC7721, while low in AFP-negative cell Bcap37. All artificial microRNAs exhibited efficient knockdown of target genes. Decreased ATP production and protein synthesis was observed in rAd/AFP-amiRG and rAd/AFP-amiRE treated HCC cells. All three recombinant adenoviruses showed efficient blockage of cell cycle progression and significant suppression of HCC cells in vitro. In nude mice model bearing Hep3B xenograft, administration of rAd/AFP-amiRG showed potent antitumor effect. The strategy of tumor-specific knockdown of genes essential for cell survival and proliferation may suggest a novel promising approach for HCC gene therapy.

  15. Anti-Tumor Effect of Steamed Codonopsis lanceolata in H22 Tumor-Bearing Mice and Its Possible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Xu, Qi; He, Yu-Fang; Liu, Ying; Yang, Shu-Bao; Wang, Zi; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Li-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies confirmed that steaming and the fermentation process could significantly improve the cognitive-enhancement and neuroprotective effects of Codonopsis lanceolata, the anti-tumor efficacy of steamed C. lanceolata (SCL) and what mechanisms are involved remain largely unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-tumor effect in vivo of SCL in H22 tumor-bearing mice. The results clearly indicated that SCL could not only inhibit the tumor growth, but also prolong the survival time of H22 tumor-bearing mice. Besides, the serum levels of cytokines, such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), were enhanced by SCL administration. The observations of Hoechst 33258 staining demonstrated that SCL was able to induce tumor cell apoptosis. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SCL treatment significantly increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of H22 tumor tissues in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, LC/MS analysis of SCL indicated that it mainly contained lobetyolin and six saponins. Taken all together, the findings in the present study clearly demonstrated that SCL inhibited the H22 tumor growth in vivo at least partly via improving the immune functions, inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:26426041

  16. Enhancement of Nab-Paclitaxel Antitumor Activity through Addition of Multitargeting Antiangiogenic Agents in Experimental Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Niranjan; Zhang, Changhua; Schwarz, Anna M.; Hinz, Stefan; Schwarz, Margaret A.; Schwarz, Roderich E.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle albumin–bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel, NPT) has recently shown efficacy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Targeting tumor angiogenesis is a sensible combination therapeutic strategy for cancer, including PDAC. We tested the hypothesis that NPT response in PDAC can be enhanced by the mechanistically different antiangiogenic agents bevacizumab (Bev) or sunitinib (Su), despite its inherently increased tumor penetration and drug delivery. Compared with controls (19 days), median animal survival was increased after NPT therapy (32 days, a 68% increase, P = 0.0008); other regimens with enhanced survival were NPT+Bev (38 days, a 100% increase, P = 0.0004), NPT+Su (37 days, a 95% increase, P = 0.0004), and NPT+Bev+Su (49 days, a 158% increase, P = 0.0001) but not bevacizumab, sunitinib, or Bev+Su therapy. Relative to controls (100 ± 22.8), percentage net local tumor growth was 28.2 ± 23.4 with NPT, 55.6 ± 18 (Bev), 38.8 ± 30.2 (Su), 11 ± 7.2 (Bev+Su), 32.8 ± 29.2 (NPT+Bev), 6.6 ± 10.4 (NPT+Su), and 13.8 ± 12.5 (NPT+Bev+Su). Therapeutic effects on intratumoral proliferation, apoptosis, microvessel density, and stromal density corresponded with tumor growth inhibition data. In AsPC-1 PDAC cells, NPT IC50 was reduced >6-fold by the addition of sunitinib (IC25) but not by bevacizumab. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), NPT IC50 (82 nmol/L) was decreased to 41 nmol/L by bevacizumab and to 63 nmol/L by sunitinib. In fibroblast WI-38 cells, NPT IC50 (7.2 μxmol/L) was decreased to 7.8 nmol/L by sunitinib, but not by bevacizumab. These findings suggest that the effects of one of the most active cytotoxic agents against PDAC, NPT, can be enhanced with antiangiogenic agents, which clinically could relate to greater responses and improved antitumor results. PMID:24608575

  17. Luteolin synergizes the antitumor effects of 5-fluorouracil against human hepatocellular carcinoma cells through apoptosis induction and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanli; Yang, Tao; Liu, Xiaohui; Tian, Ye; Chen, Xiaoliang; Yuan, Ru; Su, Shuonan; Lin, Xiukun; Du, Guanhua

    2016-01-01

    Some compounds derived from Chinese medicine have demonstrated great prospective roles in sensitization to chemotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the combination of luteolin and 5-fluorouracil on proliferations of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the potential mechanisms. The antitumor effects of luteolin, 5-fluorouracil, and their combinations were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium/phenazine methosulfate assay, and isobole method was used to evaluate drug combinations. CellTiter-Blue and Caspase-Glo 3/7 assay were used for assessment of cell viability and apoptosis after treatment with luteolin, 5-fluorouracil and their combinations. Cell cycle distributions and apoptosis were detected by PI staining, Hoechst 33342 staining and FITC-Annexin V/PI staining. Bcl-2, bax, p53 and PARP expressions were determined by Western blot. Furthermore, mRNA levels of 5-fluorouracil metabolism related enzymes were detected by RT-PCR. Drug combination study showed that luteolin could synergize the antitumor effects of 5-fluorouracil at different dose ratios (luteolin: 5-fluorouracil=10:1, 20:1, 40:1) against HepG2 and Bel7402 cells. Cell viability and cell apoptosis analysis showed that the synergistic growth inhibition caused by combined luteolin and 5-fluorouracil was closely related to apoptosis. Further mechanism studies showed that the synergistic effects of drug combinations were related with enhanced bax/bcl-2 ratios and p53 expressions, and induced PARP cleavage. Also, combined luteolin and 5-fluorouracil could significantly decrease the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase. These results showed that luteolin could synergize the antitumor effects of 5-fluorouracil on HepG2 and Bel7402 cells, which might be related with apoptosis and regulation of 5-fluorouracil metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Promotion of initial anti-tumor effect via polydopamine modified doxorubicin-loaded electrospun fibrous membranes

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ziming; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Xiaohu; Qiu, Wangwang; Chen, Xinliang; Zheng, Qi; Cui, Wenguo

    2014-01-01

    Drug-loaded electrospun PLLA membranes are not conducive to adhesion between materials and tissues due to the strong hydrophobicity of PLLA, which possibly attenuate the drugs’ effect loaded on the materials. In the present work, we developed a facile method to improve the hydrophilicity of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded electrospun PLLA fibrous membranes, which could enhance the anti-tumor effect at the early stage after implantation. A mussel protein, polydopamine (PDA), could be easily grafted on the surface of hydrophobic DOX-loaded electrospun PLLA membranes (PLLA-DOX/pDA) in water solution. The morphology analysis of PLLA-DOX/pDA fibers displayed that though the fiber diameter was slightly swollen, they still maintained a 3D fibrous structure, and the XPS analysis certified that pDA had successfully been grafted onto the surface of the fibers. The results of surface wettability analysis showed that the contact angle decreased from 136.7° to 0° after grafting. In vitro MTT assay showed that the cytotoxicity of PLLA-DOX/pDA fibers was the strongest, and the stereologic cell counting assay demonstrated that the adhesiveness of PLLA/pDA fiber was significantly better than PLLA fiber. In vivo tumor-bearing mice displayed that, after one week of implantation, the tumor apoptosis and necrosis of PLLA-DOX/pDA fibers were the most obvious from histopathology and TUNEL assay. The caspase-3 activity of PLLA-DOX/pDA group was the highest using biochemical techniques, and the Bax: Bcl-2 ratio increased significantly in PLLA-DOX/pDA group through qRT-PCR analysis. All the results demonstrated that pDA can improve the affinity of the electrospun PLLA membranes and enhance the drug effect on tumors. PMID:25337186

  19. Promotion of initial anti-tumor effect via polydopamine modified doxorubicin-loaded electrospun fibrous membranes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ziming; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Xiaohu; Qiu, Wangwang; Chen, Xinliang; Zheng, Qi; Cui, Wenguo

    2014-01-01

    Drug-loaded electrospun PLLA membranes are not conducive to adhesion between materials and tissues due to the strong hydrophobicity of PLLA, which possibly attenuate the drugs' effect loaded on the materials. In the present work, we developed a facile method to improve the hydrophilicity of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded electrospun PLLA fibrous membranes, which could enhance the anti-tumor effect at the early stage after implantation. A mussel protein, polydopamine (PDA), could be easily grafted on the surface of hydrophobic DOX-loaded electrospun PLLA membranes (PLLA-DOX/pDA) in water solution. The morphology analysis of PLLA-DOX/pDA fibers displayed that though the fiber diameter was slightly swollen, they still maintained a 3D fibrous structure, and the XPS analysis certified that pDA had successfully been grafted onto the surface of the fibers. The results of surface wettability analysis showed that the contact angle decreased from 136.7° to 0° after grafting. In vitro MTT assay showed that the cytotoxicity of PLLA-DOX/pDA fibers was the strongest, and the stereologic cell counting assay demonstrated that the adhesiveness of PLLA/pDA fiber was significantly better than PLLA fiber. In vivo tumor-bearing mice displayed that, after one week of implantation, the tumor apoptosis and necrosis of PLLA-DOX/pDA fibers were the most obvious from histopathology and TUNEL assay. The caspase-3 activity of PLLA-DOX/pDA group was the highest using biochemical techniques, and the Bax: Bcl-2 ratio increased significantly in PLLA-DOX/pDA group through qRT-PCR analysis. All the results demonstrated that pDA can improve the affinity of the electrospun PLLA membranes and enhance the drug effect on tumors.

  20. CMVpp65 Vaccine Enhances the Antitumor Efficacy of Adoptively Transferred CD19-Redirected CMV-Specific T Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuli; Wong, ChingLam W; Urak, Ryan; Mardiros, Armen; Budde, Lihua E; Chang, Wen-Chung; Thomas, Sandra H; Brown, Christine E; La Rosa, Corinna; Diamond, Don J; Jensen, Michael C; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Zaia, John A; Forman, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) recognizing CD19 can induce complete remission of B-cell malignancies in clinical trials; however, in some disease settings, CAR therapy confers only modest clinical benefit due to attenuated persistence of CAR T cells. The purpose of this study was to enhance persistence and augment the antitumor activity of adoptively transferred CD19CAR T cells by restimulating CAR(+) T cells through an endogenous cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T-cell receptor. CMV-specific T cells from CMV seropositive healthy donors were selected after stimulation with pp65 protein and transduced with clinical-grade lentivirus expressing the CD19R:CD28:ζ/EGFRt CAR. The resultant bispecific T cells, targeting CMV and CD19, were expanded via CD19 CAR-mediated signals using CD19-expressing cells. The bispecific T cells proliferated vigorously after engagement with either endogenous CMVpp65 T-cell receptors or engineered CD19 CARs, exhibiting specific cytolytic activity and IFNγ secretion. Upon adoptive transfer into immunodeficient mice bearing human lymphomas, the bispecific T cells exhibited proliferative response and enhanced antitumor activity following CMVpp65 peptide vaccine administration. We have redirected CMV-specific T cells to recognize and lyse tumor cells via CD19CARs, while maintaining their ability to proliferate in response to CMV antigen stimulation. These results illustrate the clinical applications of CMV vaccine to augment the antitumor activity of adoptively transferred CD19CAR T cells in patients with B-cell malignancies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Enhanced anti-tumor activity by the combination of a conditionally replicating adenovirus mediated interleukin-24 and dacarbazine against melanoma cells via induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guan; Liu, Yan-Qun; Wei, Zhi-Ping; Pei, Dong-Sheng; Mao, Li-Jun; Zheng, Jun-Nian

    2010-08-28

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most lethal and aggressive human malignancies. It is notoriously resistant to all of the current therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy. Suppressed apoptosis and extraordinary invasiveness are the distinctive features that contribute to the malignancy of melanoma. Dacarbazine (DTIC) has been considered as the gold standard for melanoma treatment with a response rate of 15-20%. Unfortunately, the resistance to this chemotherapeutic agent occurs frequently. ZD55-IL-24 is a selective conditionally replicating adenovirus that can mediate the expression of interleukin-24 (IL-24) gene, which has a strong anti-tumor effect. In this study, we hypothesized that a combination of ZD55-IL-24-mediated gene virotherapy and chemotherapy using DTIC would produce an increased cytotoxicity against human melanoma cells in comparison with these agents alone. Our results showed that the combination of ZD55-IL-24 and DTIC significantly enhanced the anti-tumor activity by more effectively inducing apoptosis in melanoma cells than either agent used alone without any overlapping toxicity against normal cells. This additive or synergistic effect of ZD55-IL-24 in combination with DTIC in killing human malignant melanoma cells implies a promising novel approach for melanoma therapy.

  2. Inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway improves the anti-tumor effects of sorafenib against hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Hui; Feng, Wen-Chi; Lu, Li-Chun; Shao, Yu-Yun; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Cheng, Ann-Lii

    2016-10-10

    Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, is currently the only approved drug for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The current study tested the hypothesis whether inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway could improve the anti-tumor effects of sorafenib in HCC. ICG-001, a small molecule which blocks the interaction of β-catenin with its transcriptional coactivator CBP, dose-dependently enhanced the growth-suppressive and apoptosis-induction effects of sorafenib in multiple HCC cell lines. Downregulation of β-catenin by RNA interference increased sorafenib sensitivity, whereas overexpression of β-catenin reduced sorafenib sensitivity in Huh7 cells. The sorafenib-sensitization effect of short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated β-catenin downregulation in Huh7 cells was attenuated by β-catenin overexpression. Mechanistically, sorafenib combined with ICG-001 or shRNA-mediated β-catenin downregulation augmented the induction of apoptosis, and resulted in a significant downregulation of Mcl-1 in HCC cells. In Huh7 cell mouse xenograft model, the combination of ICG-001 and sorafenib showed a more significant growth-retarding effect than single agent treatment of sorafenib or ICG-001. Our data indicate that inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway improves the antitumor effects of sorafenib against HCC in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tumor vessel-injuring ability improves antitumor effect of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in adoptive immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kanagawa, N; Yanagawa, T; Nakagawa, T; Okada, N; Nakagawa, S

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis is required for normal physiologic processes, but it is also involved in tumor growth, progression and metastasis. Here, we report the development of an immune-based antiangiogenic strategy based on the generation of T lymphocytes that possess killing specificity for cells expressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). To target VEGFR2-expressing cells, we engineered cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) expressing chimeric T-cell receptors (cTCR–CTL) comprised of a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) against VEGFR2 linked to an intracellular signaling sequence derived from the CD3ζ chain of the TCR and CD28 by retroviral gene transduction methods. The cTCR–CTL exhibited efficient killing specificity against VEGFR2 and a tumor-targeting function in vitro and in vivo. Reflecting such abilities, we confirmed that the cTCR–CTL strongly inhibited the growth of a variety of syngeneic tumors after adoptive transfer into tumor-bearing mice without consequent damage to normal tissue. In addition, CTL expressing both cTCR and tumor-specific TCR induced complete tumor regression due to enhanced tumor infiltration by the CTL and long-term antigen-specific function. These findings provide evidence that the tumor vessel-injuring ability improved the antitumor effect of CTLs in adoptive immunotherapy for a broad range of cancers by inducing immune-mediated destruction of the tumor neovasculature. PMID:23175243

  4. Antitumor Effects of Fucoidan on Human Colon Cancer Cells via Activation of Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-Seok; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-05-01

    We identified a novel Akt signaling mechanism that mediates fucoidan-induced suppression of human colon cancer cell (HT29) proliferation and anticancer effects. Fucoidan treatment significantly inhibited growth, induced G1-phase-associated upregulation of p21WAF1 expression, and suppressed cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase expression in HT29 colon cancer cells. Additionally, fucoidan treatment activated the Akt signaling pathway, which was inhibited by treatment with an Akt inhibitor. The inhibition of Akt activation reversed the fucoidan-induced decrease in cell proliferation, the induction of G1-phase-associated p21WAF1 expression, and the reduction in cell cycle regulatory protein expression. Intraperitoneal injection of fucoidan reduced tumor volume; this enhanced antitumor efficacy was associated with induction of apoptosis and decreased angiogenesis. These data suggest that the activation of Akt signaling is involved in the growth inhibition of colon cancer cells treated with fucoidan. Thus, fucoidan may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for colon cancer.

  5. Antitumor effects and immunoregulation mechanisms of IL-23 gene in mouse mammary cancer mediated by retrovirus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihua; Shan, Baoen; Feng, Yonglu

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-23, composed of p19 and p40 subunits, has diverse functions in regulating immune systems, enhancing cell-mediated immunity. In the present study, we investigated whether forced expression of the p19-linked p40 gene in murine mammary cancer cells (MA891) produced antitumor effects in vivo. Tumor growth of MA-891 cells expressing IL-23 (IL-23/MA891) in mice was retarded compared with parental and vector DNA-transduced tumors and survival of the mice inoculated with IL-23/MA-891 cells was prolonged. Expressions of the CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells were up-regulated not only in IL-23/MA-891 tumor specimens but also in spleen cells of mice inoculated with IL-23/MA-891 as compared with those of mice inoculated with parental or vector DNA-transduced tumors. Cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocyte (CTL) activity of spleen cells from mice inoculated with IL-23/MA-891 was also significantly higher than the other two groups. Th1-type cytokines such as interferon-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-12p70 secreted from spleen cells of mice bearing IL-23/MA-891 tumors were increased while Th2-type cytokine IL-4 was negative regulated. Moreover, we have identified that the quantity of DC in spleen cells of mice bearing IL-23/MA-891 tumors was increased as compared with those mice bearing parental or vector DNA-transfected tumors.

  6. PKC/MEK inhibitors suppress oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy and potentiate the antitumor effects.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Masanobu; Takeda, Tomoya; Tani, Tadahumi; Shimaoka, Hirotaka; Suzuyama, Naohiro; Sakamoto, Kotaro; Fujita, Arisa; Ogawa, Naoki; Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Funakami, Yoshinori; Ichida, Seiji; Satou, Takao; Nishida, Shozo

    2015-07-01

    Oxaliplatin is a key drug commonly used in colorectal cancer treatment. Despite high clinical efficacy, its therapeutic application is limited by common, dose-limiting occurrence of neuropathy. As usual symptomatic neuropathy treatments fail to improve the patients' condition, there is an urgent need to advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of neuropathy to propose effective therapy and ensure adequate pain management. Oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy was recently reported to be associated with protein kinase C (PKC) activation. It is unclear, however, whether PKC inhibition can prevent neuropathy. In our current studies, we found that a PKC inhibitor, tamoxifen, inhibited oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy via the PKC/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/c-Fos pathway in lumbar spinal cords (lumbar segments 4-6). Additionally, tamoxifen was shown to act in synergy with oxaliplatin to inhibit growth in tumor cells-implanted mice. Moreover, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, PD0325901, suppressed oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy and enhanced oxaliplatin efficacy. Our results indicate that oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy is associated with PKC/ERK/c-Fos pathway in lumbar spinal cord. Additionally, we demonstrate that disruption of this pathway by PKC and MEK inhibitors suppresses oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy, thereby suggesting that PKC and MEK inhibitors may be therapeutically useful in preventing oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy and could aid in combination antitumor pharmacotherapy. © 2014 UICC.

  7. The in vitro sustained release profile and antitumor effect of etoposide-layered double hydroxide nanohybrids

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Lili; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Rongrong; You, Songhui; Zhou, Ping; Wang, Shilong

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with antitumor drug etoposide (VP16) were prepared for the first time using a two-step procedure. The X-ray powder diffraction data suggested the intercalation of VP16 into layers with the increased basal spacing from 0.84–1.18 nm was successful. Then, it was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared nanoparticles, VP16-LDH, showed an average diameter of 62.5 nm with a zeta potential of 20.5 mV. Evaluation of the buffering effect of VP16-LDH indicated that the nanohybrids were ideal for administration of the drugs that treat human stomach irritation. The loading amount of intercalated VP16 was 21.94% and possessed a profile of sustained release. The mechanism of VP16-LDH release in the phosphate buffered saline solution at pH 7.4 is likely controlled by the diffusion of VP16 anions from inside to the surface of LDH particles. The in vitro cytotoxicity and antitumor assays indicated that VP16-LDH hybrids were less toxic to GES-1 cells while exhibiting better antitumor efficacy on MKN45 and SGC-7901 cells. These results imply that VP16-LDH is a potential antitumor drug for a broad range of gastric cancer therapeutic applications. PMID:23737669

  8. Antiangiogenic and Antitumor Effects of Src Inhibition in Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Liz Y.; Landen, Charles N.; Trevino, Jose G.; Halder, Jyotsnabaran; Lin, Yvonne G.; Kamat, Aparna A.; Kim, Tae-Jin; Merritt, William M.; Coleman, Robert L.; Gershenson, David M.; Shakespeare, William C.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorth, Raji; Metcalf, Chester A.; Dalgarno, David C.; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Gallick, Gary E.; Sood, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Src, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, is a key mediator for multiple signaling pathways that regulate critical cellular functions and is often aberrantly activated in a number of solid tumors, including ovarian carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of activated Src inhibition on tumor growth in an orthotopic murine model of ovarian carcinoma. In vitro studies on HeyA8 and SKOV3ip1 cell lines revealed that Src inhibition by the Src-selective inhibitor, AP23846, occurred within 1 hour and responded in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Src inhibition enhanced the cytotoxicity of docetaxel in both chemosensitive and chemoresistant ovarian cancer cell lines, HeyA8 and HeyA8-MDR, respectively. In vivo, Src inhibition by AP23994, an orally bioavailable analogue of AP23846, significantly decreased tumor burden in HeyA8 (P = 0.02), SKOV3ip1 (P = 0.01), as well as HeyA8-MDR (P < 0.03) relative to the untreated controls. However, the greatest effect on tumor reduction was observed in combination therapy with docetaxel (P < 0.001, P = 0.002, and P = 0.01, for the above models, respectively). Proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining showed that Src inhibition alone (P = 0.02) and in combination with docetaxel (P = 0.007) significantly reduced tumor proliferation. In addition, Src inhibition alone and in combination with docetaxel significantly down-regulated tumoral production of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin 8, whereas combination therapy decreased the microvessel density (P = 0.02) and significantly affected vascular permeability (P < 0.05). In summary, Src inhibition with AP23994 has potent antiangiogenic effects and significantly reduces tumor burden in preclinical ovarian cancer models. Thus, Src inhibition may be an attractive therapeutic approach for patients with ovarian carcinoma. PMID:16951177

  9. Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on the antitumor activity of tumor-associated macrophages-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nisha; Singh, Sukh Mahendra; Shrivastava, Pratima

    2005-01-01

    We and others previously have reported that extract prepared from medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia shows a wide spectrum of immunoaugmentary effects. Tinospora cordifolia was shown to upregulate antitumor activity of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). In this article we present evidence to show that an alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (ALTC) enhances the differentiation of TAM to dendritic cells (DC) in response to granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-4, and tumor necrosis factor. DC differentiated in vitro from TAM that were harvested from tumor-bearing mice after i.p. administration of ALTC (200 mg/kg body weight) 2 days posttumor transplantation shows an enhanced tumor cytotoxicity and production of tumoricidal soluble molecules like TNF, IL-1, and NO. Adoptive transfer of these TAM-derived DC to Dalton's lymphoma-bearing mice resulted in prolongation of survival of tumor-bearing mice. This is the first report regarding the differentiation and antitumor functions of TAM-derived DC obtained from tumor-bearing host administered with ALTC. The possible mechanisms involved also are discussed.

  10. Scutellaria barbata D. Don extract synergizes the antitumor effects of low dose 5-fluorouracil through induction of apoptosis and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanli; Yu, Jinmei; Sun, Yan; Xu, Xiaona; Li, Li; Xue, Ming; Du, Guanhua

    2013-07-15

    Traditional Chinese medicines have been recognized as a new source of anticancer drugs or chemotherapy adjuvant to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy and to ameliorate the side effects. This study aimed to investigate the antitumor effects of combined Scutellaria barbata D. Don extract (SBE) and 5-FU treatment in vitro and in vivo and the potential mechanisms. SBE was prepared and analyzed by HPLC. Tumor growth inhibition both in vitro and in vivo, cell apoptosis, apoptosis related protein expressions (P53, bid, bax, bcl-2), caspase-3 activities and 5-FU related enzymes were assessed. SBE could significantly synergize the antitumor effects of low dose 5-FU both in vivo and in vitro. SBE could increase the apoptosis inducing effect of low dose 5-FU in both Bel-7402 and HCT-8 cells. Also, caspase-3 activities, P53 and bax expressions were significantly increased, while bid and bcl-2 expressions were significantly decreased in drug combination groups, compared with individual drug treatment groups. Furthermore, SBE could significantly decrease the mRNA levels of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase. These results showed that combined treatment with SBE and low dose 5-FU can significantly inhibit the tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo, which might be related with apoptosis and regulations of 5-FU metabolism.

  11. The vascular disrupting agent ZD6126 shows increased antitumor efficacy and enhanced radiation response in large, advanced tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, Dietmar W. . E-mail: siemadw@ufl.edu; Rojiani, Amyn M.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: ZD6126 is a vascular-targeting agent that induces selective effects on the morphology of proliferating and immature endothelial cells by disrupting the tubulin cytoskeleton. The efficacy of ZD6126 was investigated in large vs. small tumors in a variety of animal models. Methods and Materials: Three rodent tumor models (KHT, SCCVII, RIF-1) and three human tumor xenografts (Caki-1, KSY-1, SKBR3) were used. Mice bearing leg tumors ranging in size from 0.1-2.0 g were injected intraperitoneally with a single 150 mg/kg dose of ZD6126. The response was assessed by morphologic and morphometric means as well as an in vivo to in vitro clonogenic cell survival assay. To examine the impact of tumor size on the extent of enhancement of radiation efficacy by ZD6126, KHT sarcomas of three different sizes were irradiated locally with a range of radiation doses, and cell survival was determined. Results: All rodent tumors and human tumor xenografts evaluated showed a strong correlation between increasing tumor size and treatment effect as determined by clonogenic cell survival. Detailed evaluation of KHT sarcomas treated with ZD6126 showed a reduction in patent tumor blood vessels that was {approx}20% in small (<0.3 g) vs. >90% in large (>1.0 g) tumors. Histologic assessment revealed that the extent of tumor necrosis after ZD6126 treatment, although minimal in small KHT sarcomas, became more extensive with increasing tumor size. Clonogenic cell survival after ZD6126 exposure showed a decrease in tumor surviving fraction from approximately 3 x 10{sup -1} to 1 x 10{sup -4} with increasing tumor size. When combined with radiotherapy, ZD6126 treatment resulted in little enhancement of the antitumor effect of radiation in small (<0.3 g) tumors but marked increases in cell kill in tumors larger than 1.0 g. Conclusions: Because bulky neoplastic disease is typically the most difficult to manage, the present findings provide further support for the continued development of vascular

  12. Kaempferitrin induces apoptosis via intrinsic pathway in HeLa cells and exerts antitumor effects.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Ortiz-Sánchez, Elizabeth; García-Regalado, Alejandro; Ruiz, Graciela; Núñez-Martínez, José Martín; González-Sánchez, Ignacio; Quintanar-Jurado, Valeria; Morales-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Dominguez, Fabiola; López-Toledo, Gabriela; Cerbón, Marco A; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2013-01-30

    Justicia spicigera is used for the empirical treatment of cervical cancer in Mexico. Recently, we showed that Justicia spicigera extracts exerted cytotoxic and antitumoral effects and the major component of this extract was kaempferitrin (KM). The cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of KM on human cancer cells and human nontumorigenic cells were evaluated using MTT and TUNEL assays, and Annexin V/Propidium iodide detection by flow cytometry. The effect of KM on cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry with propidium iodide. The apoptotic and cell cycle effects were also evaluated by western blot analysis. Also, different doses of KM were injected intraperitoneally daily into athymic mice bearing tumors of HeLa cells during 32 days. The growth and weight of tumors were measured. KM induces high cytotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo against HeLa cells. The general mechanisms by which KM induces cytotoxic effects include: cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and apoptosis via intrinsic pathway in a caspase dependent pathway. Also, KM exerts chemopreventive and antitumor effects. KM exerts cytotoxic and antitumor effects against HeLa cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mcam Silencing With RNA Interference Using Magnetofection has Antitumor Effect in Murine Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Prosen, Lara; Markelc, Bostjan; Dolinsek, Tanja; Music, Branka; Cemazar, Maja; Sersa, Gregor

    2014-10-28

    The melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) is involved in melanoma development and its progression, including invasiveness, metastatic potential and angiogenesis. Therefore, MCAM represents a potential target for gene therapy of melanoma, whose expression could be hindered with posttranscriptional specific gene silencing with RNA interference technology. In this study, we constructed a plasmid DNA encoding short hairpin RNA against MCAM (pMCAM) to explore the antitumor and antiangiogenic effects. The experiments were performed in vitro on murine melanoma and endothelial cells, as well as in vivo on melanoma tumors in mice. The antiproliferative, antimigratory, antiangiogenic and antitumor effects were examined after gene therapy with pMCAM. Gene delivery was performed by magnetofection, and its efficacy compared to gene electrotransfer. Gene therapy with pMCAM has proved to be an effective approach in reducing the proliferation and migration of melanoma cells, as well as having antiangiogenic effect in endothelial cells and antitumor effect on melanoma tumors. Magnetofection as a developing nonviral gene delivery system was effective in the transfection of melanoma cells and tumors with pMCAM, but less efficient than gene electrotransfer in in vivo tumor gene therapy due to the lack of antiangiogenic effect after silencing Mcam by magnetofection.

  14. In vivo pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and anti-tumor effect of paclitaxel-loaded targeted chitosan-based polymeric micelle.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh, Mahboubeh; Emami, Jaber; Hasanzadeh, Farshid; Sadeghi, Hojjat; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Abolfazl; Rostami, Mahboubeh; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2016-06-01

    A water-insoluble anti-tumor agent, paclitaxel (PTX) was successfully incorporated into novel-targeted polymeric micelles based on tocopherol succinate-chitosan-polyethylene glycol-folic acid (PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and efficacy of PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA in comparison to Anzatax® in tumor bearing mice. The micellar formulation showed higher in vitro cytotoxicity against mice breast cancer cell line, 4T1, due to the folate receptor-mediated endocytosis. The IC50 value of PTX, a concentration at which 50% cells are killed, was 1.17 and 0.93 µM for Anzatax® and PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA micelles, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA, as measured by reduction in tumor volume of 4T1 mouse breast cancer injected in Balb/c mice was significantly greater than that of Anzatax®. Pharmacokinetic study in tumor bearing mice revealed that the micellar formulation prolonged the systemic circulation time of PTX and the AUC of PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA was obtained 0.83-fold lower than Anzatax®. Compared with Anzatax®, the Vd, T1/2ß and MRT of PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA was increased by 2.76, 2.05 and 1.68-fold, respectively. As demonstrated by tissue distribution, the PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA micelles increased accumulation of PTX in tumor, therefore, resulted in anti-tumor effects enhancement and drug concentration in the normal tissues reduction. Taken together, our evaluations show that PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA micelle is a potential drug delivery system of PTX for the effective treatment of the tumor and systematic toxicity reduction, thus, the micellar formulation can provide a useful alternative dosage form for intravenous administration of PTX.

  15. Antitumor effects of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulating the human PNAS-4 gene combined with cisplatin in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaorong; Song, Xiangrong; Liu, Ping; Yi, Tao; Li, Shuangzhi; Xie, Chuan; Zheng, Yu; Bai, Yu; Sun, Chuntang; Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Xia

    2011-09-01

    Human PNAS-4 (hPNAS-4), as a pro-apoptotic gene, can inhibit tumor growth when overexpressed in some malignant cells. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) was used as a gene transfer vector due to the advantage of sustained release, nontoxicity and biodegradability. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulating hPNAS-4 combined with cisplatin (DDP) on ovarian carcinoma. Expression of hPNAS-4 was determined by RT-PCR. Mice bearing intraperitoneal ovarian carcinomas were treated with PBS, pVAX-PLGA nanoparticles (P-P), pVAX-hPNAS-4-PLGA nanoparticles (PhP-P), DDP and PhP-P plus DDP, respectively. Intraperitoneal tumors were weighed to assess the antitumor efficacy. The percentage of proliferative cells and apoptotic cells was evaluated by Ki-67 staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. The anti-angiogenic effects were detected by CD31 staining and the alginate-encapsulate assay. Overexpression of hPNAS-4 was detected by RT-PCR in the PhP-P and PhP-P plus DDP groups. PhP-P exerted significant antitumor activity through induction of apoptosis, inhibition of cell proliferation and suppression of angiogenesis, compared with treatment with P-P or PBS alone. The combination of PhP-P with DDP showed enhanced antitumor activity compared with therapy of PhP-P or DDP alone. PLGA encapsulating hPNAS-4 combined with DDP may have promising applications in the therapy of ovarian cancer.

  16. In Vivo Safety, Biodistribution and Antitumor Effects of uPAR Retargeted Oncolytic Measles Virus in Syngeneic Cancer Models

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Yuqi; Zaias, Julia; Duncan, Robert; Russell, Stephen J.; Merchan, Jaime R.

    2014-01-01

    The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is a clinically relevant target for novel biological therapies. We have previously rescued oncolytic measles viruses fully retargeted against human (MV-h-uPA) or murine (MV-m-uPA) uPAR. Here, we investigated the in vivo effects of systemic administration of MV-m-uPA in immunocompetent cancer models. MV-m-uPA induced in vitro cytotoxicity and replicated in a receptor dependent manner in murine mammary (4T1), and colon (MC-38 and CT-26) cancer cells. Intravenous administration of MV-m-uPA to 4T1 tumor bearing mice was not associated with significant clinical or laboratory toxicity. Higher MV-N RNA copy numbers were detected in primary tumors, and viable viral particles were recovered from tumor bearing tissues only. Non-tumor bearing organs did not show histological signs of viral induced toxicity. Serum anti-MV antibodies were detected at day 14 of treatment. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence studies confirmed successful tumor targeting and demonstrated enhanced MV-m-uPA induced tumor cell apoptosis in treated, compared to control mice. Significant antitumor effects and prolonged survival were observed after systemic administration of MV-m-uPA in colon (CT-26) and mammary (4T1) cancer models. The above results demonstrate safety and feasibility of uPAR targeting by an oncolytic virus, and confirm significant antitumor effects in highly aggressive syngeneic immunocompetent cancer models. PMID:24430235

  17. Ergosterol-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles with enhanced in vitro antitumor activity and oral bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui-yun; Firempong, Caleb Kesse; Wang, Yuan-wen; Xu, Wen-qian; Wang, Miao-miao; Cao, Xia; Zhu, Yuan; Tong, Shan-shan; Yu, Jiang-nan; Xu, Xi-ming

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Ergosterol is a plant sterol with anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activities, but is poorly soluble. In this study, we attempted to enhance its anti-tumor action and oral bioavailability via poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticle encapsulation. Methods: Ergosterol-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (NPs/Erg) were prepared using the emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. Their physicochemical properties were characterized, and their cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines was evaluated with MTT assay. The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of NPs/Erg were investigated in rats and mice, respectively. Results: NPs/Erg were spherical in shape with a particle size of 156.9±4.8 nm and a Zeta potential of -19.27±1.13 mV, and had acceptable encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity. NPs/Erg exerted much stronger cytotoxicity against human cancer cells than the free ergosterol, and showed significantly reduced IC50 values (14.69±0.48 μg/mL in glioma U251 cells; 9.43±0.52 μg/mL in breast cancer MCF-7 cells; 4.70±0.41 μg/mL in hepatoma HepG2 cells). After oral administration of a single dose in rats, NPs/Erg displayed a prolonged plasma circulation with a 4.9-fold increase of oral bioavailability compared with the free ergosterol. After mice received NPs/Erg, the ergosterol in NPs/Erg was rapidly distributed in stomach, kidneys, liver, brain, spleen, and virtually non-existent in heart and lungs. The presence of NPs/Erg in brain was particularly improved compared with the free ergosterol. Conclusion: The PLGA nanoparticles serve as a promising carrier for the poorly soluble ergosterol and significantly improve its bioavailability, biodistribution and in vitro anti-tumor activities. PMID:27133301

  18. Antitumor effect of D-erythrose in an abdominal metastatic model of colon carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LIU, LI-LI; YI, TAO; ZHAO, XIA

    2015-01-01

    Traditional chemotherapy drugs against colorectal cancer possess little or no specificity, leading to severe intolerable side-effects. Therefore, it is necessary to develop additional specific therapeutic strategies. It has been suggested that D-erythrose may specifically inhibit the growth of tumor cells. However, the in vivo antitumor effect of D-erythrose against colorectal cancer remains unknown. Thus, the present study investigated the antitumor effect of D-erythrose in an abdominal metastatic model of colon carcinoma. Intraperitoneal (IP) colon carcinoma-bearing BALB/c mice received an IP injection of D-erythrose or normal saline (NS) daily for 15 days. The mice were weighed every three days. The tumor weights and the volume of ascites were evaluated following the treatment. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay was used to assess apoptosis in tumor tissues. The results revealed that D-erythrose significantly reduced the weight of the intraperitoneal tumor by 69.1%, markedly inhibited the development of ascites and increased tumor cell apoptosis, without any observed toxic effects. These observations suggest that D-erythrose possesses antitumor activity against colon cancer. The present study may provide a potentially effective and specific approach for colon cancer treatment. PMID:25621049

  19. Anti-KIT Monoclonal Antibody Treatment Enhances the Anti-Tumor Activity of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors by Reversing Tumor-Induced Immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Garton, Andrew J; Seibel, Scott; Lopresti-Morrow, Lori; Crew, Linda; Janson, Neal; Mandiyan, Sreekala; Trombetta, E Sergio; Pankratz, Shannon; LaVallee, Theresa M; Gedrich, Richard

    2017-01-30

    The receptor tyrosine kinase KIT is an established oncogenic driver of tumor growth in certain tumor types including gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), in which constitutively active mutant forms of KIT represent an actionable target for small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors. There is also considerable potential for KIT to influence tumor growth indirectly based on its expression and function in cell types of the innate immune system, most notably mast cells. We have evaluated syngeneic mouse tumor models for anti-tumor effects of an inhibitory KIT monoclonal antibody (mAb), dosed either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Anti-KIT mAb treatment enhanced the anti-tumor activity of anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 mAbs, and promoted immune responses by selectively reducing the immunosuppressive monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cell (M-MDSC) population and restoring CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell populations to levels observed in naïve mice. These data provide a rationale for clinical investigation of the human KIT-specific mAb KTN0158 in novel immuno-oncology combinations with immune checkpoint inhibitors and other immunotherapeutic agents across a range of tumor types.

  20. CARs: Driving T-cell specificity to enhance anti-tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kebriaei, Partow; Kelly, Susan S.; Manuri, Pallavi; Jena, Bipulendu; Jackson, Rineka; Shpall, Elizabeth; Champlin, Richard; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells is a compelling tool to treat cancer. To overcome issues of immune tolerance which limits the endogenous adaptive immune response to tumor-associated antigens, robust systems for the genetic modification and characterization of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to redirect specificity have been produced. Refinements with regards to persistence and trafficking of the genetically modified T cells are underway to help improve the potency of genetically modified T cells. Clinical trials utilizing this technology demonstrate feasibility, and increasingly, antitumor activity, paving the way for multi-center trials to establish the efficacy of this novel T-cell therapy. PMID:22202074

  1. Lectin of Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) promotes selective antitumor effects in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Monte, Leonardo G; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Reis, Larissa B; Braganhol, Elizandra; Prietsch, Rafael F; Dellagostin, Odir A; E Lacerda, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Gadelha, Carlos A A; Conceição, Fabricio R; Pinto, Luciano S

    2014-03-01

    The anti-tumor effects of a newly-discovered lectin, isolated from okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (AEL), were investigated in human breast cancer (MCF7) and skin fibroblast (CCD-1059 sk) cells. AEL induced significant cell growth inhibition (63 %) in MCF7 cells. The expression of pro-apoptotic caspase-3, caspase-9, and p21 genes was increased in MCF7 cells treated with AEL, compared to those treated with controls. In addition, AEL treatment increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in MCF7 cells. Flow cytometry also indicated that cell death (72 %) predominantly occurred through apoptosis. Thus, AEL in its native form promotes selective antitumor effects in human breast cancer cells and may represent a potential therapeutic to combat human breast cancer.

  2. Adenovirus with p16 gene exerts antitumor effect on laryngeal carcinoma Hep2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengang; Hu, Jingxia; Li, Dajun; Pan, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Laryngeal cancer is an uncommon form of cancer. The tumor suppressor P16, known to be mutated or deleted in various types of human tumor, including laryngeal carcinoma, is involved in the formation and development of laryngeal carcinoma. It has been previously reported that the inactivation or loss of P16 is associated with the acquisition of malignant characteristics. The current study hypothesized that restoring wild‑type P16 activity into P16‑null malignant Hep2 cells may exert an antitumor effect. A recombinant adenovirus carrying the P16 gene (Ad‑P16) was used to infect and express high levels of P16 protein in P16‑null Hep2 cells. Cell proliferation and invasion assays and polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate the effects of the P16 gene on cell proliferation and the antitumor effect on Hep2 cells. The results demonstrated that the Hep2 cells infected with Ad‑P16 exhibited significantly reduced cell proliferation, invasion and tumor volume compared with untreated or control adenovirus cells. Furthermore, the expression of laryngeal carcinoma‑associated genes, EGFR, survivin and cyclin D1, were measured in Ad‑P16‑infected cells and were significantly reduced compared with control groups. The results of the current study demonstrate that restoring wild‑type P16 activity into P16-null Hep2 cells exerts an antitumor effect.

  3. Intracellular molecular interactions of antitumor drug amsacrine (m-AMSA) as revealed by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chourpa, I; Morjani, H; Riou, J F; Manfait, M

    1996-11-11

    Cytotoxicity of several classes of antitumor DNA intercalators is thought to result from disturbance of DNA metabolism following trapping of the nuclear enzyme DNA topoisomerase II as a covalent complex on DNA. Here, molecular interactions of the potent antitumor drug amsacrine (m-AMSA), an inhibitor of topoisomerase II, within living K562 cancer cells have been studied using surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectroscopy. The work is based on data of the previously performed model SER experiments dealing with amsacrine/DNA, drug/topoisomerase II and drug/DNA/topoisomerase II complexes in aqueous buffer solutions. The SER data indicated two kinds of amsacrine interactions in the model complexes with topoisomerase II alone or within ternary complex: non-specific (via the acridine moiety) and specific to the enzyme conformation (via the side chain of the drug). These two types of interactions have been both revealed by the micro-SER spectra of amsacrine within living K562 cancer cells. Our data suppose the specific interactions of amsacrine with topoisomerase II via the side chain of the drug (particular feature of the drug/topoisomerase II and ternary complexes) to be crucial for its inhibitory activity.

  4. Doxorubicin loaded silica nanorattles actively seek tumors with improved anti-tumor effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fuping; Li, Linlin; Liu, Tianlong; Hao, Nanjing; Liu, Huiyu; Tan, Longfei; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Xinglu; Peng, Bo; Yan, Chuanmiao; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiaoli; Chen, Dong; Tang, Fangqiong

    2012-05-01

    Silica nanorattles (SNs) have proven to be promising vehicles for drug delivery. In order to further enhance efficacy and minimize adverse effects, active targeted delivery to tumors is necessary. In this work, SNs modified with a tumor specific targeting ligand, folic acid (FA), was used as carrier of doxorubicin (DOX) (DOX-FA-SNs). Drug loading, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of DOX-FA-SNs in vitro in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) were evaluated. DOX-FA-SNs showed a higher cytotoxicity in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) than DOX loaded carboxyl (-COOH) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modified SNs (DOX-COOH-SNs and DOX-PEG-SNs, respectively). However, DOX-FA-SNs showed lower cytotoxicity in folate receptor negative normal mouse fibroblast cells (L929 cells) compared with free DOX. In vivo tumor-targeted fluorescence imaging indicated specific tumor targeting and uptake of FA-SNs in nude mice bearing subcutaneous HeLa cell-derived xenograft tumors. In vivo anti-tumor experiments demonstrated that DOX-FA-SNs (10 mg kg-1 of DOX) significantly regressed the tumor growth and reduced toxicity compared with free DOX. These results have great significance in developing and optimizing SNs as effective intracellular delivery and specific tumor targeting vehicles.Silica nanorattles (SNs) have proven to be promising vehicles for drug delivery. In order to further enhance efficacy and minimize adverse effects, active targeted delivery to tumors is necessary. In this work, SNs modified with a tumor specific targeting ligand, folic acid (FA), was used as carrier of doxorubicin (DOX) (DOX-FA-SNs). Drug loading, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of DOX-FA-SNs in vitro in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) were evaluated. DOX-FA-SNs showed a higher cytotoxicity in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) than DOX loaded carboxyl (-COOH) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modified SNs (DOX-COOH-SNs and DOX-PEG-SNs, respectively). However, DOX

  5. Rearranging the domain order of a diabody-based IgG-like bispecific antibody enhances its antitumor activity and improves its degradation resistance and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Asano, Ryutaro; Shimomura, Ippei; Konno, Shota; Ito, Akiko; Masakari, Yosuke; Orimo, Ryota; Taki, Shintaro; Arai, Kyoko; Ogata, Hiromi; Okada, Mai; Furumoto, Shozo; Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Omasa, Takeshi; Hayashi, Hiroki; Katayose, Yu; Unno, Michiaki; Kudo, Toshio; Umetsu, Mitsuo; Kumagai, Izumi

    2014-01-01

    One approach to creating more beneficial therapeutic antibodies is to develop bispecific antibodies (bsAbs), particularly IgG-like formats with tetravalency, which may provide several advantages such as multivalent binding to each target antigen. Although the effects of configuration and antibody-fragment type on the function of IgG-like bsAbs have been studied, there have been only a few detailed studies of the influence of the variable fragment domain order. Here, we prepared four types of hEx3-scDb-Fc, IgG-like bsAbs, built from a single-chain hEx3-Db (humanized bispecific diabody [bsDb] that targets epidermal growth factor receptor and CD3), to investigate the influence of domain order and fusion manner on the function of a bsDb with an Fc fusion format. Higher cytotoxicities were observed with hEx3-scDb-Fcs with a variable light domain (VL)-variable heavy domain (VH) order (hEx3-scDb-Fc-LHs) compared with a VH-VL order, indicating that differences in the Fc fusion manner do not affect bsDb activity. In addition, flow cytometry suggested that the higher cytotoxicities of hEx3-scDb-Fc-LH may be attributable to structural superiority in cross-linking. Interestingly, enhanced degradation resistance and prolonged in vivo half-life were also observed with hEx3-scDb-Fc-LH. hEx3-scDb-Fc-LH and its IgG2 variant exhibited intense in vivo antitumor effects, suggesting that Fc-mediated effector functions are dispensable for effective anti-tumor activities, which may cause fewer side effects. Our results show that merely rearranging the domain order of IgG-like bsAbs can enhance not only their antitumor activity, but also their degradation resistance and in vivo half-life, and that hEx3-scDb-Fc-LHs are potent candidates for next-generation therapeutic antibodies.

  6. Characterization and anti-tumor effects of chondroitin sulfate-chitosan nanoparticles delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chieh-Shen; Tang, Sung-Ling; Chiang, Chiao-Hsi; Hosseinkhani, Hossein; Hong, Po-Da; Yeh, Ming-Kung

    2014-11-01

    We prepared chondroitin sulfate (ChS)-chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NPs) as a delivery carrier, and doxorubicin (Dox) was used as a model drug. The physicochemical properties and biological activities of the Dox-ChS-CS NPs including the release profile, cell cytotoxicity, cellular internalization, and in vivo anti-tumor effects were evaluated. The ChS-CS NPs and Dox-ChS-CS NPs had a mean size of 262.0 ± 15.0 and 369.4 ± 77.4 nm, and a zeta potential of 30.2 ± 0.9 and 20.6 ± 3.1 mV, respectively. In vitro release tests showed that the 50 % release time for the Dox-ChS-CS NPs was 20 h. Two hepatoma cell models, HepG2 and HuH6, were used for evaluating the cytotoxicity and cell uptake efficiency of the Dox-ChS-CS NPs. A significant difference was observed between doxorubicin solution and the Dox-ChS-CS NPs in the cellular uptake within 60 min ( p < 0.01). For the in vivo human xenograft-nude mouse model, the Dox-ChS-CS NPs were more effective with less body weight loss and anti-tumor growth suppression in comparison with the Dox solution. The prepared Dox-ChS-CS NPs offer a new effective targeting nanoparticle delivery system platform for anti-tumor therapy.

  7. Antitumor Effects of Saffron-Derived Carotenoids in Prostate Cancer Cell Models

    PubMed Central

    Festuccia, Claudio; Mancini, Andrea; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Scarsella, Luca; Llorens, Silvia; Alonso, Gonzalo L.; Tatone, Carla; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Jannini, Emmanuele A.; Lenzi, Andrea; D'Alessandro, Anna M.; Carmona, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Crocus sativus L. extracts (saffron) are rich in carotenoids. Preclinical studies have shown that dietary intake of carotenoids has antitumor effects suggesting their potential preventive and/or therapeutic roles. We have recently reported that saffron (SE) and crocin (CR) exhibit anticancer activity by promoting cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. It has also been demonstrated that crocetin esters are produced after SE gastrointestinal digestion by CR hydrolysis. The aim of the present report was to investigate if SE, crocetin (CCT), and CR affected in vivo tumor growth of two aggressive PCa cell lines (PC3 and 22rv1) which were xenografted in male nude mice treated by oral gavage with SE, CR, and CCT. We demonstrated that the antitumor effects of CCT were higher when compared to CR and SE and treatments reverted the epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) as attested by the significant reduction of N-cadherin and beta-catenin expression and the increased expression of E-cadherin. Additionally, SE, CR, and CCT inhibited PCa cell invasion and migration through the downmodulation of metalloproteinase and urokinase expression/activity suggesting that these agents may affect metastatic processes. Our findings suggest that CR and CCT may be dietary phytochemicals with potential antitumor effects in biologically aggressive PCa cells. PMID:24900952

  8. Antitumor effects of the partially purified polysaccharides from Antrodia camphorata and the mechanism of its action

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.-J.; Huang, T.-S.; Hsu, M.-L.; Chen, C.-C.; Lin, W.-S.; Lu, F.-J. . E-mail: fjlu@csmu.edu.tw; Chang, W.-H. . E-mail: whchang@csmu.edu.tw

    2004-12-01

    Antrodia camphorata is a popular folk medicine that has attracted great attention due to its fame for antitumor activity against cancer. However, there is little information available about its action. In the present study, we purified a unique polysaccharide component from A. camphorata mycelia (AC-PS) and found that it has pronounced anti-tumor effects on both in vitro and in vivo model. Our results showed that AC-PS alone did not show any direct cytotoxic effect to human leukemic U937 cells, even at high concentration (200 {mu}g/ml). However, it could inhibit the proliferation of U937 cells via activation of mononuclear cells (MNCs). Treatment of U937 cells with AC-PS-stimulated-MNC-CM could significantly inhibit its proliferation with 55.3% growth inhibition rate. The in vitro antitumor activity was substantiated by the in vivo therapeutical study of AC-PS in sarcoma 180-bearing mice. Intraperitoneal and oral administration of AC-PS, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly suppressed the tumor growth with the inhibition rate of 69.1% and 58.8%, respectively. In vivo studies also showed that several immunoparameters, such as the spontaneous proliferation of spleen cells, after AC-PS administration, were two-fold higher than in control mice. Furthermore, the cytolytic activity of spleen cells also increased from 9.8 {+-} 1.1% in control mice to 34.2 {+-} 5.5% and 48.2 {+-} 2.5%, after oral and intraperitoneal treatment, respectively. Besides, the mice serum interleukin-12 levels increased significantly by AC-PS treatment. Considering all these results, it is suggested that AC-PS elicit its anti-tumor effect by promoting a Th1-dominant state and killer activities.

  9. Combining MPDL3280A with adoptive cell immunotherapy exerts better antitumor effects against cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Yang, Yicheng; Wu, Shu; Zhu, Yongqiang; Tang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xiaopeng

    2016-10-18

    As the second most common gynecologic malignant tumors with a high mortality rate, cervical cancer jeopardizes women's life worldwide. The low cure rate in cervical cancer patients is mainly attributed to the lack of effective therapies. One feasible novel strategy is to develop immune-based approaches such as adoptive cell immunotherapy of DCCIKs which represents a promising nontoxic antineoplastic immunotherapy preferred in clinic practice. However, the therapeutic effect is not as efficient as anticipated. Possible explanations are tumors exploit immunoregulatory check-points such as programmed death 1(PD1)/PDL1 which provides tumor cells an escape strategy of circumventing immunologic rejection from immune surveillance by hampering activated tumor-specific T cell activities and rendering them functionally exhausted. With reduced transformation activity and enhanced antigenicity, a modified HPV16 E7 (HPV16mE7) was used to load DCs with silenced SOCS1 mediated by a recombinant adenovirus to improve the targetability and efficiency against cervical cancer. Combined with anti-PDL1 antibody MPDL3280A therapy, the co-cultured DCCIKs were transfused into murine models bearing tumor of HPV16 E6/E7 expressing CaSki cells for in vitro/in vivo antitumor activity assay. Although all of the animals succumbed to CaSki tumors even after adoptive DCCIKs transfer or MPDL3280A immunotherapy, the infusion of PDL1 blocking monoclonal antibody with activated T cells cured 40% of animals. These data support PDL1 blockade improves the efficacy of adoptive DCCIKs therapy, providing a new approach of immunotherapy against cervical cancer.

  10. Proton pump inhibitors while belonging to the same family of generic drugs show different anti-tumor effect.

    PubMed

    Lugini, Luana; Federici, Cristina; Borghi, Martina; Azzarito, Tommaso; Marino, Maria Lucia; Cesolini, Albino; Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Fais, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Tumor acidity represents a major cause of chemoresistance. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can neutralize tumor acidity, sensitizing cancer cells to chemotherapy. To compare the anti-tumor efficacy of different PPIs in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments PPIs anti-tumor efficacy in terms of cell proliferation and cell death/apoptosis/necrosis evaluation were performed. In vivo PPIs efficacy experiments were carried out using melanoma xenograft model in SCID mice. Lansoprazole showed higher anti-tumor effect when compared to the other PPIs. The lansoprazole effect lasted even upon drug removal from the cell culture medium and it was independent from the lipophilicity of the PPIs formulation. These PPIs have shown different anti-tumoral efficacy, and the most effective at low dose was lansoprazole. The possibility to contrast tumor acidity by off-label using PPIs opens a new field of oncology investigation.

  11. The research progress of antitumorous effectiveness of Stichopus japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide in north of China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yun; Wang, Bao-Lei

    2009-03-01

    The sea cucumbers growing in the estuary of the Pohai of northern China are called Stichopus japonicus and are the orthodox holothurians in traditional Chinese medicine. There are multiple biological active ingredients in S. japonicus, and S. japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide (SJAMP) is one of the important ingredients. SJAMP has multiple pharmacologic actions, such as antitumor, immunologic regulation, anticoagulated blood, and antivirus. The research on antitumor has been carried out by way of animal experiments aiming at studying internal tumor-inhibiting effect of SJAMP, and the route of administration is usually peritoneal or intragastric. Additionally, sea cucumbers have been widely recognized and applied as medicated food or therapeutic prescriptions during and after the treatment of some tumors.

  12. Clinical pharmacology of CAR-T cells: Linking cellular pharmacodynamics to pharmacokinetics and antitumor effects.

    PubMed

    Norelli, M; Casucci, M; Bonini, C; Bondanza, A

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cell transfer of T cells genetically modified with tumor-reactive chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) is a rapidly emerging field in oncology, which in preliminary clinical trials has already shown striking antitumor efficacy. Despite these premises, there are still a number of open issues related to CAR-T cells, spanning from their exact mechanism of action (pharmacodynamics), to the factors associated with their in vivo persistence (pharmacokinetics), and, finally, to the relative contribution of each of the two in determining the antitumor effects and accompanying toxicities. In light of the unprecedented curative potential of CAR-T cells and of their predicted wide availability in the next few years, in this review we will summarize the current knowledge on the clinical pharmacology aspects of what is anticipated to be a brand new class of biopharmaceuticals to join the therapeutic armamentarium of cancer doctors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Radiation modulates the peptide repertoire, enhances MHC class I expression, and induces successful antitumor immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Reits, Eric A; Hodge, James W; Herberts, Carla A; Groothuis, Tom A; Chakraborty, Mala; Wansley, Elizabeth K; Camphausen, Kevin; Luiten, Rosalie M; de Ru, Arnold H; Neijssen, Joost; Griekspoor, Alexander; Mesman, Elly; Verreck, Frank A; Spits, Hergen; Schlom, Jeffrey; van Veelen, Peter; Neefjes, Jacques J

    2006-05-15

    Radiotherapy is one of the most successful cancer therapies. Here the effect of irradiation on antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules was studied. Cell surface expression of MHC class I molecules was increased for many days in a radiation dose-dependent manner as a consequence of three responses. Initially, enhanced degradation of existing proteins occurred which resulted in an increased intracellular peptide pool. Subsequently, enhanced translation due to activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway resulted in increased peptide production, antigen presentation, as well as cytotoxic T lymphocyte recognition of irradiated cells. In addition, novel proteins were made in response to gamma-irradiation, resulting in new peptides presented by MHC class I molecules, which were recognized by cytotoxic T cells. We show that immunotherapy is successful in eradicating a murine colon adenocarcinoma only when preceded by radiotherapy of the tumor tissue. Our findings indicate that directed radiotherapy can improve the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy.

  14. Radiation modulates the peptide repertoire, enhances MHC class I expression, and induces successful antitumor immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Reits, Eric A.; Hodge, James W.; Herberts, Carla A.; Groothuis, Tom A.; Chakraborty, Mala; K.Wansley, Elizabeth; Camphausen, Kevin; Luiten, Rosalie M.; de Ru, Arnold H.; Neijssen, Joost; Griekspoor, Alexander; Mesman, Elly; Verreck, Frank A.; Spits, Hergen; Schlom, Jeffrey; van Veelen, Peter; Neefjes, Jacques J.

    2006-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the most successful cancer therapies. Here the effect of irradiation on antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules was studied. Cell surface expression of MHC class I molecules was increased for many days in a radiation dose-dependent manner as a consequence of three responses. Initially, enhanced degradation of existing proteins occurred which resulted in an increased intracellular peptide pool. Subsequently, enhanced translation due to activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway resulted in increased peptide production, antigen presentation, as well as cytotoxic T lymphocyte recognition of irradiated cells. In addition, novel proteins were made in response to γ-irradiation, resulting in new peptides presented by MHC class I molecules, which were recognized by cytotoxic T cells. We show that immunotherapy is successful in eradicating a murine colon adenocarcinoma only when preceded by radiotherapy of the tumor tissue. Our findings indicate that directed radiotherapy can improve the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy. PMID:16636135

  15. Nanoparticle Delivery of Artesunate Enhances the Anti-tumor Efficiency by Activating Mitochondria-Mediated Cell Apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rui; Yu, Xiwei; Su, Chang; Shi, Yijie; Zhao, Liang

    2017-06-01

    Artemisinin and its derivatives were considered to exert a broad spectrum of anti-cancer activities, and they induced significant anti-cancer effects in tumor cells. Artemisinin and its derivatives could be absorbed quickly, and they were widely distributed, selectively killing tumor cells. Since low concentrations of artesunate primarily depended on oncosis to induce cell death in tumor cells, its anti-tumor effects were undesirable and limited. To obtain better anti-tumor effects, in this study, we took advantage of a new nanotechnology to design novel artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles to achieve the mitochondrial accumulation of artesunate and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. The results showed that when compared with free artesunate's reliance on oncotic death, artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles showed higher cytotoxicity and their significant apoptotic effects were induced through the distribution of artesunate in the mitochondria. This finding indicated that artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles damaged the mitochondrial integrity and activated mitochondrial-mediated cell apoptosis by upregulating apoptosis-related proteins and facilitating the rapid release of cytochrome C.

  16. Nanoparticle Delivery of Artesunate Enhances the Anti-tumor Efficiency by Activating Mitochondria-Mediated Cell Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Yu, Xiwei; Su, Chang; Shi, Yijie; Zhao, Liang

    2017-12-01

    Artemisinin and its derivatives were considered to exert a broad spectrum of anti-cancer activities, and they induced significant anti-cancer effects in tumor cells. Artemisinin and its derivatives could be absorbed quickly, and they were widely distributed, selectively killing tumor cells. Since low concentrations of artesunate primarily depended on oncosis to induce cell death in tumor cells, its anti-tumor effects were undesirable and limited. To obtain better anti-tumor effects, in this study, we took advantage of a new nanotechnology to design novel artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles to achieve the mitochondrial accumulation of artesunate and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. The results showed that when compared with free artesunate's reliance on oncotic death, artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles showed higher cytotoxicity and their significant apoptotic effects were induced through the distribution of artesunate in the mitochondria. This finding indicated that artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles damaged the mitochondrial integrity and activated mitochondrial-mediated cell apoptosis by upregulating apoptosis-related proteins and facilitating the rapid release of cytochrome C.

  17. Anti-tumor effects of peptide analogs targeting neuropeptide hormone receptors on mouse pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, C G; Ullrich, M; Schally, A V; Bergmann, R; Pietzsch, J; Gebauer, L; Gondek, K; Qin, N; Pacak, K; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Eisenhofer, G; Bornstein, S R

    2013-05-22

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare but potentially lethal chromaffin cell tumor with currently no effective treatment. Peptide hormone receptors are frequently overexpressed on endocrine tumor cells and can be specifically targeted by various anti-tumor peptide analogs. The present study carried out on mouse pheochromocytoma cells (MPCs) and a more aggressive mouse tumor tissue-derived (MTT) cell line revealed that these cells are characterized by pronounced expression of the somatostatin receptor 2 (sst2), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor and the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor. We further demonstrated significant anti-tumor effects mediated by cytotoxic somatostatin analogs, AN-162 and AN-238, by LHRH antagonist, Cetrorelix, by the cytotoxic LHRH analog, AN-152, and by recently developed GHRH antagonist, MIA-602, on MPC and for AN-152 and MIA-602 on MTT cells. Studies of novel anti-tumor compounds on these mouse cell lines serve as an important basis for mouse models of metastatic pheochromocytoma, which we are currently establishing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Verification of antitumor effect in vivo using nanosecond pulsed streamer discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonetamari, Kenta; Shirakawa, Yuki; Akiyama, Taketoshi; Mizuno, Kazue; Ono, Ryo

    2015-09-01

    Cancer treatment using plasma has intensively studied these days. In this work, antitumor effect by nanosecond pulsed streamer discharge was investigated. Nanosecond pulsed streamer plasma was used as a plasma source, which can generate stable streamer discharge by using a nanosecond pulsed power supply. The rod electrode of 3 mm diameter is made of copper. Its end is formed into a semispherical shape of 1.5 mm curvature. The electrode is inserted into a quartz tube (inner diameter: 4 mm, thickness: 1 mm) concentrically, so any gas can be introduced. B16F10 cells were selected to perform in vivo antitumor study. These cells were injected under the skin of leg of mice to make cancer tumor. One week later from injections, plasma was applied to the cancer tumor. Mice were randomly assigned into three groups which were one control group and two plasma treatment groups. In the control group, mice were not treated. In the plasma treatment groups, plasma with dry N2 and wet O2 as a working gas were irradiated for 5 consecutive days. Processing time was 10 min and the gap distance between the electrode and tumor was 4 mm. After 5 days plasma treatment, antitumor effect was observed. The result indicates that the streamer discharge has a potential for cancer treatment.

  19. Anti-tumor effects of peptide analogs targeting neuropeptide hormone receptors on mouse pheochromocytoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, CG; Ullrich, M; Schally, AV; Bergmann, R; Pietzsch, J; Gebauer, L; Gondek, K; Qin, N; Pacak, K; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Eisenhofer, G; Bornstein, SR

    2013-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare but potentially lethal chromaffin cell tumor with currently no effective treatment. Peptide hormone receptors are frequently overexpressed on endocrine tumor cells and can be specifically targeted by various anti-tumor peptide analogs. The present study carried out on mouse pheochromocytoma cells (MPC) and a more aggressive mouse tumor tissue-derived (MTT) cell line revealed that these cells are characterized by pronounced expression of the somatostatin receptor 2 (sst2), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor and the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor. We further demonstrated significant anti-tumor effects mediated by cytotoxic somatostatin analogs, AN-162 and AN-238, by LHRH antagonist, Cetrorelix, by the cytotoxic LHRH analog, AN-152, and by recently developed GHRH antagonist, MIA-602, on MPC and for AN-152 and MIA-602 on MTT cells. Studies of novel anti-tumor compounds on these mouse cell lines serve as an important basis for mouse models of metastatic pheochromocytoma, which we are currently establishing. PMID:23267837

  20. Effects of cultural medium on the formation and antitumor activity of polysaccharides by Cordyceps gunnii.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Tang, Ya-Li; Dong, Feng-Ying; Sun, Hui-Qing; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-10-01

    The effects of culture medium composition (i.e., carbon and nitrogen sources) on the growth of mycelia, molecular weight distribution and antitumor activity of intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) from Cordyceps gunnii were investigated. Sucrose and peptone were proved to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources for mycelia growth and remarkably improved IPS production. When the sucrose concentration was 2.0%, the mycelium yield reached up to 15.94±1.26 g/L, but with lower IPS yield; whereas the sucrose concentration was 4.5%, IPS yield reached to a maximum of 138.78±3.89 mg/100 mL. The effects of different carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios with equal amounts of carbon source matter on the mycelia and IPS formation were optimized. It found that the yield of mycelia and IPS were both reached to the highest at a C/N ratio of 10:3. In addition, the IPS had the highest macro molecular polysaccharide content and antitumor activity when sucrose concentration was 3.5% and the C/N ratio was 10:1.5. Thus, there was a positive correlation between molecular weight distribution and antitumor activity of IPS by C. gunnii.

  1. Anti-Tumor Effects From Dendritic Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapy Using Liposomal Bubbles and Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Yusuke; Suzuki, Ryo; Hirata, Keiichi; Nomura, Tetsuya; Utoguchi, Naoki; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer immunotherapy has the potential to be a minimally invasive therapy that could prevent cancer metastasis and recurrence. Recently, in order to induce effective anti-tumor immunity, we developed a novel antigen delivery system for DCs by the combination of ultrasound (US) and liposomal bubbles (Bubble Liposomes: BLs) with entrapped perfluoropropane gas. In this study, we investigated the induction of antigen specific immune responses in vivo and the anti-tumor effect caused by immunization of DCs treated with BLs and US. For the immunization of DCs which had delivered antigen, using BLs and US, the mice induced antigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were found to be the main effector cells in DC-based cancer immunotherapy. In addition, immunization with DCs that had been pulsed with antigen using BLs and US completely suppressed tumor growth Therefore, immunization of DCs with this antigen delivery system has promise for the efficient induction of anti-tumor immune responses.

  2. Dopamine inhibits the function of Gr-1+CD115+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells through D1-like receptors and enhances anti-tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jin; Zhang, Ruihua; Tang, Ning; Gong, Zizhen; Zhou, Jiefei; Chen, Yingwei; Chen, Kang; Cai, Wei

    2015-01-01

    MDSCs accumulate in tumor-bearing animals and cancer patients and are a major factor responsible for cancer-induced immunosuppression that limits effective cancer immunotherapy. Strategies aimed at effectively inhibiting the function of MDSCs are expected to enhance host anti-tumor immunity and improve cancer immunotherapy significantly. The neurotransmitter DA has been found to have anti-cancer activity, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we sought to investigate the therapeutic mechanism and efficacy of DA on the inhibition of cancer development via the regulation of MDSC functions. The regulation of the suppressive function of Gr-1+CD115+ MDSCs by DA was determined by use of murine syngeneic LLC and B16 graft models treated with DA in vivo, as well as Gr-1+CD115+ MDSCs isolated from these model treated with DA ex vivo. Here, we show that Gr-1+CD115+ monocytic MDSCs express D1-like DA receptors. DA dramatically attenuated the inhibitory function of tumor-induced monocytic MDSCs on T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production via D1-like DA receptors and retarded tumor growth. DA and other D1 receptor agonists inhibited IFN-γ-induced NO production by MDSCs from tumor-bearing mice and cancer patients. Decreased NO production was, in part, mediated via the suppression of p-ERK and p-JNK. In conclusion, the neurotransmitter DA potently inhibits the suppressive function of MDSC and enhances anti-tumor immunity. Our finding provides a mechanistic basis for the use of DA or D1-like receptor agonists to overcome tumor-induced immunosuppression in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25341727

  3. Dopamine inhibits the function of Gr-1+CD115+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells through D1-like receptors and enhances anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin; Zhang, Ruihua; Tang, Ning; Gong, Zizhen; Zhou, Jiefei; Chen, Yingwei; Chen, Kang; Cai, Wei

    2015-01-01

    MDSCs accumulate in tumor-bearing animals and cancer patients and are a major factor responsible for cancer-induced immunosuppression that limits effective cancer immunotherapy. Strategies aimed at effectively inhibiting the function of MDSCs are expected to enhance host anti-tumor immunity and improve cancer immunotherapy significantly. The neurotransmitter DA has been found to have anti-cancer activity, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we sought to investigate the therapeutic mechanism and efficacy of DA on the inhibition of cancer development via the regulation of MDSC functions. The regulation of the suppressive function of Gr-1(+)CD115(+) MDSCs by DA was determined by use of murine syngeneic LLC and B16 graft models treated with DA in vivo, as well as Gr-1(+)CD115(+) MDSCs isolated from these model treated with DA ex vivo. Here, we show that Gr-1(+)CD115(+) monocytic MDSCs express D1-like DA receptors. DA dramatically attenuated the inhibitory function of tumor-induced monocytic MDSCs on T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production via D1-like DA receptors and retarded tumor growth. DA and other D1 receptor agonists inhibited IFN-γ-induced NO production by MDSCs from tumor-bearing mice and cancer patients. Decreased NO production was, in part, mediated via the suppression of p-ERK and p-JNK. In conclusion, the neurotransmitter DA potently inhibits the suppressive function of MDSC and enhances anti-tumor immunity. Our finding provides a mechanistic basis for the use of DA or D1-like receptor agonists to overcome tumor-induced immunosuppression in cancer immunotherapy. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  4. Small RNA Enhances Antitumor T-cell Therapy | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Adoptive T-cell transfer is an effective form of anticancer immunotherapy in which patients receive infusions of cytotoxic T cells that seek out and destroy targeted cancer cells. This type of therapy is usually preceded by a lymphodepleting chemotherapy regimen and combined with high doses of the cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) to eliminate immunosuppressive and other immune cells and to enhance the survival and activity of the transplanted cells. Unfortunately, these high-intensity treatments often lead to severe side effects, such as a prolonged reduction of white blood cells, an increased risk of clotting events, or an accumulation of fluid in the tissues, which limit the pool of patients healthy enough to receive the treatment and can result in prolonged hospitalization and higher health care costs. New approaches that are less toxic but equally effective could allow for more widespread use of adoptive T-cell transfer.

  5. Selective analysis of antitumor drug interaction with living cancer cells as probed by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nabiev, I R; Morjani, H; Manfait, M

    1991-01-01

    A new technique for the selective measurement of small amounts of antitumor drugs in the nucleus and cytoplasm of a living cancer cell, based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), is proposed. The ability to detect SERS signals from very dilute (up to 10(-10) M) solutions of doxorubicin or adriamycin (DOX), and 4'O-tetrahydropyranyl-adriamycin (THP-ADM), as well as from their complexes with targets in vitro and in vivo, has been demonstrated. SERS spectra were obtained from a population as well as from single living erythroleukaemic K562 cells treated with DOX. The results of the measurements on the population of cells containing DOX in nuclei or in the cytoplasm are well correlated with the microscopic SERS measurements on the single cells treated with DOX, obtained by selectively recording signals from the living cell nucleus or from the cytoplasm. Possibilities for the application of this new technique in different aspects of cancer research are discussed.

  6. Glutamine deprivation enhances antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate through the stabilization of monocarboxylate transporter-1.

    PubMed

    Cardaci, Simone; Rizza, Salvatore; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Roberta; Bertocchi, Fabio; Mattei, Maurizio; Paci, Maurizio; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2012-09-01

    Anticancer drug efficacy might be leveraged by strategies to target certain biochemical adaptations of tumors. Here we show how depriving cancer cells of glutamine can enhance the anticancer properties of 3-bromopyruvate, a halogenated analog of pyruvic acid. Glutamine deprival potentiated 3-bromopyruvate chemotherapy by increasing the stability of the monocarboxylate transporter-1, an effect that sensitized cells to metabolic oxidative stress and autophagic cell death. We further elucidated mechanisms through which resistance to chemopotentiation by glutamine deprival could be circumvented. Overall, our findings offer a preclinical proof-of-concept for how to employ 3-bromopyruvate or other monocarboxylic-based drugs to sensitize tumors to chemotherapy.

  7. The addition of celecoxib improves the antitumor effect of cetuximab in colorectal cancer: role of EGFR-RAS-FOXM1-β- catenin signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Araceli; Peñarando, Jon; Cañas, Amanda; López-Sánchez, Laura M; Conde, Francisco; Guil-Luna, Silvia; Hernández, Vanessa; Villar, Carlos; Morales-Estévez, Cristina; de la Haba-Rodríguez, Juan; Aranda, Enrique; Rodríguez-Ariza, Antonio

    2017-03-28

    Here we showed that the addition of the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib improved the antitumor efficacy in colorectal cancer (CRC) of the monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab. The addition of celecoxib augmented the efficacy of cetuximab to inhibit cell proliferation and to induce apoptosis in CRC cells. Moreover, the combination of celecoxib and cetuximab was more effective than either treatment alone in reducing the tumor volume in a mouse xenograft model. The combined treatment enhanced the inhibition of EGFR signaling and altered the subcellular distribution of β-catenin. Moreover, knockdown of FOXM1 showed that this transcription factor participates in this enhanced antitumoral response. Besides, the combined treatment decreased β-catenin/FOXM1 interaction and reduced the cancer stem cell subpopulation in CRC cells, as indicated their diminished capacity to form colonospheres. Notably, the inmunodetection of FOXM1 in the nuclei of tumor cells in human colorectal adenocarcinomas was significantly associated with response of patients to cetuximab. In summary, our study shows that the addition of celecoxib enhances the antitumor efficacy of cetuximab in CRC due to impairment of EGFR-RAS-FOXM1-β-catenin signaling axis. Results also support that FOXM1 could be a predictive marker of response of mCRC patients to cetuximab therapy.

  8. Telomere damage induced by the G-quadruplex ligand RHPS4 has an antitumor effect.

    PubMed

    Salvati, Erica; Leonetti, Carlo; Rizzo, Angela; Scarsella, Marco; Mottolese, Marcella; Galati, Rossella; Sperduti, Isabella; Stevens, Malcolm F G; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Blasco, Maria; Chiorino, Giovanna; Bauwens, Serge; Horard, Béatrice; Gilson, Eric; Stoppacciaro, Antonella; Zupi, Gabriella; Biroccio, Annamaria

    2007-11-01

    Functional telomeres are required for the replicability of cancer cells. The G-rich strand of telomeric DNA can fold into a 4-stranded structure known as the G-quadruplex (G4), whose stabilization alters telomere function limiting cancer cell growth. Therefore, the G4 ligand RHPS4 may possess antitumor activity. Here, we show that RHPS4 triggers a rapid and potent DNA damage response at telomeres in human transformed fibroblasts and melanoma cells, characterized by the formation of several telomeric foci containing phosphorylated DNA damage response factors gamma-H2AX, RAD17, and 53BP1. This was dependent on DNA repair enzyme ATR, correlated with delocalization of the protective telomeric DNA-binding protein POT1, and was antagonized by overexpression of POT1 or TRF2. In mice, RHPS4 exerted its antitumor effect on xenografts of human tumor cells of different histotype by telomere injury and tumor cell apoptosis. Tumor inhibition was accompanied by a strong DNA damage response, and tumors overexpressing POT1 or TRF2 were resistant to RHPS4 treatment. These data provide evidence that RHPS4 is a telomere damage inducer and that telomere disruption selectively triggered in malignant cells results in a high therapeutic index in mice. They also define a functional link between telomere damage and antitumor activity and reveal the key role of telomere-protective factors TRF2 and POT1 in response to this anti-telomere strategy.

  9. Telomere damage induced by the G-quadruplex ligand RHPS4 has an antitumor effect

    PubMed Central

    Salvati, Erica; Leonetti, Carlo; Rizzo, Angela; Scarsella, Marco; Mottolese, Marcella; Galati, Rossella; Sperduti, Isabella; Stevens, Malcolm F.G.; D’Incalci, Maurizio; Blasco, Maria; Chiorino, Giovanna; Bauwens, Serge; Horard, Béatrice; Gilson, Eric; Stoppacciaro, Antonella; Zupi, Gabriella; Biroccio, Annamaria

    2007-01-01

    Functional telomeres are required for the replicability of cancer cells. The G-rich strand of telomeric DNA can fold into a 4-stranded structure known as the G-quadruplex (G4), whose stabilization alters telomere function limiting cancer cell growth. Therefore, the G4 ligand RHPS4 may possess antitumor activity. Here, we show that RHPS4 triggers a rapid and potent DNA damage response at telomeres in human transformed fibroblasts and melanoma cells, characterized by the formation of several telomeric foci containing phosphorylated DNA damage response factors γ-H2AX, RAD17, and 53BP1. This was dependent on DNA repair enzyme ATR, correlated with delocalization of the protective telomeric DNA–binding protein POT1, and was antagonized by overexpression of POT1 or TRF2. In mice, RHPS4 exerted its antitumor effect on xenografts of human tumor cells of different histotype by telomere injury and tumor cell apoptosis. Tumor inhibition was accompanied by a strong DNA damage response, and tumors overexpressing POT1 or TRF2 were resistant to RHPS4 treatment. These data provide evidence that RHPS4 is a telomere damage inducer and that telomere disruption selectively triggered in malignant cells results in a high therapeutic index in mice. They also define a functional link between telomere damage and antitumor activity and reveal the key role of telomere-protective factors TRF2 and POT1 in response to this anti-telomere strategy. PMID:17932567

  10. Esterification of Ginsenoside Rh2 Enhanced Its Cellular Uptake and Antitumor Activity in Human HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Deng, Ze-Yuan; Zhang, Bing; Xiong, Zeng-Xing; Zheng, Shi-Lian; Tan, Chao-Li; Hu, Jiang-Ning

    2016-01-13

    Our previous research had indicated that the octyl ester derivative of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2-O) might have a higher bioavailability than Rh2 in the Caco-2 cell line. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular uptake and antitumor effects of Rh2-O in human HepG2 cells as well as its underlying mechanism compared with Rh2. Results showed that Rh2-O exhibited a higher cellular uptake (63.24%) than Rh2 (36.76%) when incubated with HepG2 cells for 24 h. Rh2-O possessed a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect against the proliferation of HepG2 cells. The IC50 value of Rh2-O for inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation was 20.15 μM, which was roughly half the value of Rh2. Rh2-O induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells through a mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic pathway. In addition, the accumulation of ROS was detected in Rh2-O-treated HepG2 cells, which participated in the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Conclusively, the findings above all suggested that Rh2-O as well as Rh2 inducing HepG2 cells apoptosis might involve similar mechanisms; however, Rh2-O had better antitumor activities than Rh2, probably due to its higher cellular uptake.

  11. DAI (DLM-1/ZBP1) as a genetic adjuvant for DNA vaccines that promotes effective antitumor CTL immunity.

    PubMed

    Lladser, Alvaro; Mougiakakos, Dimitrios; Tufvesson, Helena; Ligtenberg, Maarten A; Quest, Andrew Fg; Kiessling, Rolf; Ljungberg, Karl

    2011-03-01

    DNA vaccination is an attractive approach to induce antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CTLs), which can mediate protective antitumor immunity. The potency of DNA vaccines encoding weakly immunogenic tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) can be enhanced by codelivering gene-encoded adjuvants. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense intracellular DNA could potentially be used to harness intrinsic immune-stimulating properties of plasmid DNA vaccines. Consequently, the cytosolic DNA sensor, DNA-dependent activator of interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (DAI), was used as a genetic adjuvant. In vivo electroporation (EP) of mice with a DAI-encoding plasmid (pDAI) promoted transcription of genes encoding type I IFNs, proinflammatory cytokines, and costimulatory molecules. Coimmunization with pDAI and antigen-encoding plasmids enhanced in vivo antigen-specific proliferation, and induction of effector and memory CTLs. Moreover, codelivery of pDAI effectively promoted CTL and CD4(+) Th1 responses to the TAA survivin. The DAI-enhanced CTL induction required nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation and type I IFN signaling, but did not involve the IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Codelivery of pDAI also increased CTL responses to the melanoma-associated antigen tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP2), enhanced tumor rejection and conferred long-term protection against B16 melanoma challenge. This study constitutes "proof-of-principle" validating the use of intracellular PRRs as genetic adjuvants to enhance DNA vaccine potency.

  12. Antioxidants Impair Anti-Tumoral Effects of Vorinostat, but Not Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Vorinostat and Caspase-8 Downregulation

    PubMed Central

    Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Sorolla, Annabel

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, applied as a single therapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial carcinoma cell lines. In the present study, we have assessed the signalling processes underlying anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat. Increasing evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species are responsible for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell killing. We have found that Vorinostat induces formation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. To investigate the role of oxidative stress as anti-neoplastic mechanism, we have evaluated the effects of different antioxidants (Bha, Nac and Tiron) on endometrial carcinoma cell line Ishikawa treated with Vorinostat. We show that Bha, Nac and Tiron markedly inhibited the cytotoxic effects of Vorinostat, increasing cell viability in vitro. We found that all three antioxidants did not inhibited accumulation of acetyl Histone H4, so that antioxidants did not inhibit Vorinostat activity. Finally, we have evaluated the effects of antioxidants on anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat as monotherapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation in vivo. Interestingly, antioxidants blocked the reduction of tumour growth caused by Vorinostat, but they were unable to inhibit anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat plus caspase-8 inhibition. PMID:24651472

  13. Antioxidants impair anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat, but not anti-neoplastic effects of Vorinostat and caspase-8 downregulation.

    PubMed

    Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Sorolla, Annabel; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, applied as a single therapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial carcinoma cell lines. In the present study, we have assessed the signalling processes underlying anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat. Increasing evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species are responsible for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell killing. We have found that Vorinostat induces formation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. To investigate the role of oxidative stress as anti-neoplastic mechanism, we have evaluated the effects of different antioxidants (Bha, Nac and Tiron) on endometrial carcinoma cell line Ishikawa treated with Vorinostat. We show that Bha, Nac and Tiron markedly inhibited the cytotoxic effects of Vorinostat, increasing cell viability in vitro. We found that all three antioxidants did not inhibited accumulation of acetyl Histone H4, so that antioxidants did not inhibit Vorinostat activity. Finally, we have evaluated the effects of antioxidants on anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat as monotherapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation in vivo. Interestingly, antioxidants blocked the reduction of tumour growth caused by Vorinostat, but they were unable to inhibit anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat plus caspase-8 inhibition.

  14. A TLR7 agonist enhances the antitumor efficacy of obinutuzumab in murine lymphoma models via NK cells and CD4 T cells.

    PubMed

    Cheadle, E J; Lipowska-Bhalla, G; Dovedi, S J; Fagnano, E; Klein, C; Honeychurch, J; Illidge, T M

    2017-01-03

    Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) such as rituximab have been proven to be highly effective at improving outcome in B-cell malignancies. However, many patients ultimately relapse and become refractory to treatment. The glycoengineered anti-CD20 mAb obinutuzumab was developed to induce enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent phagocytosis and direct cell death and was shown to lead to improved outcomes in a randomized study in B-CLL. We hypothesized that immune stimulation through Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonism in combination with obinutuzumab would further enhance lymphoma clearance and the generation of long-term antitumor immune responses. Here we demonstrate, in syngeneic human CD20 (hCD20)-expressing models of lymphoma, that systemic administration of a TLR7 agonist (R848) increases responses when administered in combination with obinutuzumab and protects against disease recurrence. Depletion studies demonstrate that primary antitumor activity is dependent on both NK cells and CD4(+) T cells but not on CD8(+) T cells. However, both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells appear necessary for the generation of protective immunological memory. Importantly, increased tumor-free survival post obinutuzumab and R848 combination therapy was seen in hCD20 transgenic mice, which express hCD20 on normal B cells. These findings provide a rationale for clinical testing of obinutuzumab in combination with systemically administered TLR7 agonists to further improve outcome.Leukemia advance online publication, 3 January 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2016.352.

  15. Folate receptor-targeted liposomes loaded with a diacid metabolite of norcantharidin enhance antitumor potency for H22 hepatocellular carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min-Chen; Liu, Lin; Wang, Xia-Rong; Shuai, Wu-Ping; Hu, Ying; Han, Min; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The diacid metabolite of norcantharidin (DM-NCTD) is clinically effective against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but is limited by its short half-life and high incidence of adverse effects at high doses. We developed a DM-NCTD-loaded, folic acid (FA)-modified, polyethylene glycolated (DM-NCTD/FA-PEG) liposome system to enhance the targeting effect and antitumor potency for HCC at a moderate dose based on our previous study. The DM-NCTD/FA-PEG liposome system produced liposomes with regular spherical morphology, with mean particle size approximately 200 nm, and an encapsulation efficiency >80%. MTT cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that the DM-NCTD/FA-PEG liposomes showed significantly stronger cytotoxicity effects on the H22 hepatoma cell line than did PEG liposomes without the FA modification (P<0.01). We used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of DM-NCTD in tissues and tumors, and found it to be sensitive, rapid, and reliable. In addition, the biodistribution study showed that DM-NCTD liposomes improved tumor-targeting efficiency, and DM-NCTD/FA-PEG liposomes exhibited the highest efficiency of the treatments (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the results indicated that although the active liposome group had an apparently increased tumor-targeting efficiency of DM-NCTD, the risk to the kidney was higher than in the normal liposome group. With regard to in vivo antitumor activity, DM-NCTD/FA-PEG liposomes inhibited tumors in H22 tumor-bearing mice better than either free DM-NCTD or DM-NCTD/PEG liposomes (P<0.01), and induced considerably more significant cellular apoptosis in the tumors, with no obvious toxicity to the tissues of model mice or the liver tissue of normal mice, as shown by histopathological examination. All these results demonstrate that DM-NCTD-loaded FA-modified liposomes might have potential application for HCC-targeting therapy.

  16. Potentiated antitumor effects of a combination therapy with a farnesyltransferase inhibitor L-744,832 and butyrate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kopec, Maciej; Strusinska, Katarzyna; Legat, Magdalena; Makowski, Marcin; Jakobisiak, Marek; Golab, Jakub

    2004-05-01

    Farnesyltransferase inhibitors, butyrate and butyric acid derivatives have previously been reported to exert anti-tumor activity in experimental models in vitro and in vivo and have recently gained acceptance as potential anticancer agents. In our study, we examined antitumor effects of a combination of a farnesyltransferase inhibitor L-744,832 and butyrate in vitro against MDA-MB-231 and MIA PaCa-2 human cancer cells. This combination therapy showed synergistic antitumor activity against MDA-MB-231 cells, which was at least in part due to induction of p27KIP1 expression. Both drugs increased intracellular levels of p53 as well but there was no significant difference between the groups treated with single drugs and the group treated with their combination. In MIA PaCa-2 cells, the combination therapy exerted additive antitumor activity. Our results illustrate possible application of the farnesyltransferase inhibitor L-744,832 and butyrate as a combination therapy of cancer.

  17. [Antitumor effects of sulindac in ovarian cell cultures].

    PubMed

    Jakubowska-Mućka, Anna; Sieńko, Jacek; Switaj, Tomasz; Gołab, Jakub; Lasek, Witold

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess susceptibility of cells of various ovarian cell lines on different nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cytotoxic effect of NSAIDs was tested using MTT colorimetric assay. Amongst 6 NSAIDs tested: sulindac, sulindac sulfide, sulindac sulfone, acetylsalicylic acid, nimesulide, and rofecoxib, viability of ovarian carcinoma cells was compromised most strongly by sulindac and sulindac sulfide and concerned all the cell lines tested: SKOV-3, MDAH 2774, OVCA-1, and OVP-10. Sulindac sulfone and rofecoxib also displayed some cytotoxic effect during prolonged 72-hour incubation. Other NSAIDs tested: nimesulide and acetylsalicylic acid were devoid of cytotoxic effect on ovarian cancer cells. Our results are encourage enough to conduct clinical trials that could allow to draw conclusions regarding potential application of sulindac in the adjuvant treatment of a standard chemotherapy of ovarian cancer.

  18. Antitumor Effect of KX-01 through Inhibiting Src Family Kinases and Mitosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongyeong; Min, Ahrum; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Yang, Yaewon; Kim, Tae-Yong; Lim, Jee Min; Park, So Jung; Nam, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Jung Eun; Song, Sang-Hyun; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kim, Tae-You; Hangauer, David; Lau, Johnson Yiu-Nam; Im, Kyongok; Lee, Dong Soon; Bang, Yung-Jue; Im, Seock-Ah

    2017-07-01

    KX-01 is a novel dual inhibitor of Src and tubulin. Unlike previous Src inhibitors that failed to show clinical benefit during treatment of breast cancer, KX-01 can potentially overcome the therapeutic limitations of current Src inhibitors through inhibition of both Src and tubulin. The present study further evaluates the activity and mechanism of KX-01 in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor effect of KX-01 in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines was determined by MTT assay. Wound healing and immunofluorescence assays were performed to evaluate the action mechanisms of KX-01. Changes in the cell cycle and molecular changes induced by KX-01 were also evaluated. A MDA-MB-231 mouse xenograft model was used to demonstrate the in vivo effects. KX-01 effectively inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell lines. The expression of phospho-Src and proliferative-signaling molecules were down-regulated in KX-01-sensitive TNBC cell lines. In addition, migration inhibition was observed by wound healing assay. KX-01-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased the aneuploid cell population in KX-01-sensitive cell lines. Multi-nucleated cells were significantly increased after KX-01 treatment. Furthermore, KX-01 effectively delayed tumor growth in a MDA-MB-231 mouse xenograft model. KX-01 effectively inhibited cell growth and migration of TNBC cells. Moreover, this study demonstrated that KX-01 showed antitumor effects through the inhibition of Src signaling and the induction of mitotic catastrophe. The antitumor effects of KX-01 were also demonstrated in vivo using a mouse xenograft model.

  19. Proton Pump Inhibitors Display Antitumor Effects in Barrett's Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Chueca, Eduardo; Apostolova, Nadezda; Esplugues, Juan V; García-González, María A; Lanas, Ángel; Piazuelo, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has reported that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can exert antineoplastic effects through the disruption of pH homeostasis by inhibiting vacuolar ATPase (H(+)-VATPase), a proton pump overexpressed in several tumor cells, but this aspect has not been deeply investigated in EAC yet. In the present study, the expression of H(+)-VATPase was assessed through the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence in Barrett's esophagus (BE) and the antineoplastic effects of PPIs and cellular mechanisms involved were evaluated in vitro. H(+)-VATPase expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in paraffined-embedded samples or by immunofluorescence in cultured BE and EAC cell lines. Cells were treated with different concentrations of PPIs and parameters of citotoxicity, oxidative stress, and autophagy were evaluated. H(+)-VATPase expression was found in all biopsies and cell lines evaluated, showing differences in the location of the pump between the cell lines. Esomeprazole inhibited proliferation and cell invasion and induced apoptosis of EAC cells. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) seemed to be involved in the cytotoxic effects observed since the addition of N-acetylcysteine significantly reduced esomeprazole-induced apoptosis in EAC cells. Esomeprazole also reduced intracellular pH of tumor cells, whereas only disturbed the mitochondrial membrane potential in OE33 cells. Esomeprazole induced autophagy in both EAC cells, but also triggered a blockade in autophagic flux in the metastatic cell line. These data provide in vitro evidence supporting the potential use of PPIs as novel antineoplastic drugs for EAC and also shed some light on the mechanisms that trigger PPIs cytotoxic effects, which differ upon the cell line evaluated.

  20. Proton Pump Inhibitors Display Antitumor Effects in Barrett's Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chueca, Eduardo; Apostolova, Nadezda; Esplugues, Juan V.; García-González, María A.; Lanas, Ángel; Piazuelo, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has reported that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can exert antineoplastic effects through the disruption of pH homeostasis by inhibiting vacuolar ATPase (H+-VATPase), a proton pump overexpressed in several tumor cells, but this aspect has not been deeply investigated in EAC yet. In the present study, the expression of H+-VATPase was assessed through the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence in Barrett's esophagus (BE) and the antineoplastic effects of PPIs and cellular mechanisms involved were evaluated in vitro. H+-VATPase expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in paraffined-embedded samples or by immunofluorescence in cultured BE and EAC cell lines. Cells were treated with different concentrations of PPIs and parameters of citotoxicity, oxidative stress, and autophagy were evaluated. H+-VATPase expression was found in all biopsies and cell lines evaluated, showing differences in the location of the pump between the cell lines. Esomeprazole inhibited proliferation and cell invasion and induced apoptosis of EAC cells. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) seemed to be involved in the cytotoxic effects observed since the addition of N-acetylcysteine significantly reduced esomeprazole-induced apoptosis in EAC cells. Esomeprazole also reduced intracellular pH of tumor cells, whereas only disturbed the mitochondrial membrane potential in OE33 cells. Esomeprazole induced autophagy in both EAC cells, but also triggered a blockade in autophagic flux in the metastatic cell line. These data provide in vitro evidence supporting the potential use of PPIs as novel antineoplastic drugs for EAC and also shed some light on the mechanisms that trigger PPIs cytotoxic effects, which differ upon the cell line evaluated. PMID:27932981

  1. Effects of Androgen Ablation on Anti-Tumor Immunity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Eradication of established tumors by vaccination with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles delivering human papillomavirus 16 E7...Androgen Ablation (AA) constitutes the most common therapy for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. While initially effective at reducing tumor burden...most patients recur with androgen insensitive disease. There exists a clear need to augment the clinical efficacy of hormone-based therapies , and

  2. An oncolytic adenovirus that expresses the HAb18 and interleukin 24 genes exhibits enhanced antitumor activity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Sujing; Fang, Xianlong; Xu, Yanni; Ni, Aimin; Liu, Xin-Yuan; Chu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by alterations in multiple genes. High expression of CD147 on the surface of HCC cells promotes proliferation. The monoclonal antibody HAb18 recognizes CD147. We constructed an oncolytic adenoviral vector to express HAb18 (ZD55-HAb18) in HCC cells. Interleukin 24 (IL24) was co-expressed through the use of an F2A linker. ZD55-HAb18-IL24 decreased HCC cell viability to a greater degree than either ZD55-HAb18 or ZD55-IL24 alone. ZD55-HAb18-IL24 also induced apoptosis and autophagy in PLC/PRF/5 HCC cells. Intratumoral injection of ZD55-HAb18-IL24 repressed tumor growth in a PLC/PRF/5 xenograft model. Our results suggest that antibody-antitumor gene conjugation elicited a stronger antitumor effect than the antibody alone, and that this strategy could broaden the applications of antibody-based therapies in HCC. PMID:27528029

  3. EXPLORING THE ANTITUMOR EFFECT OF VIRUS IN MALIGNANT GLIOMA

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Dipongkor; Ahmed, Seemin S.; Rabkin, Samuel D.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Malignant gliomas are the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor with no effective treatments. Current conventional therapies (surgical resection, radiation therapy, temozolomide (TMZ), and bevacizumab administration) typically fail to eradicate the tumors resulting in the recurrence of treatment-resistant tumors. Therefore, novel approaches are needed to improve therapeutic outcomes. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are excellent candidates as a more effective therapeutic strategy for aggressive cancers like malignant gliomas since OVs have a natural preference or have been genetically engineered to selectively replicate in and kill cancer cells. OVs have been used in numerous preclinical studies in malignant glioma, and a large number of clinical trials using OVs have been completed or are underway that have demonstrated safety, as well as provided indications of effective antiglioma activity. In this review, we will focus on those OVs that have been used in clinical trials for the treatment of malignant gliomas (herpes simplex virus, adenovirus, parvovirus, reovirus, poliovirus, Newcastle disease virus, measles virus, and retrovirus) and OVs examined preclinically (vesicular stomatitis virus and myxoma virus), and describe how these agents are being used. PMID:26855472

  4. Surface enhanced fluorescence of anti-tumoral drug emodin adsorbed on silver nanoparticles and loaded on porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Margarita; Recio, Gonzalo; Martin-Palma, Raul J.; Garcia-Ramos, Jose V.; Domingo, Concepcion; Sevilla, Paz

    2012-07-01

    Fluorescence spectra of anti-tumoral drug emodin loaded on nanostructured porous silicon have been recorded. The use of colloidal nanoparticles allowed embedding of the drug without previous porous silicon functionalization and leads to the observation of an enhancement of fluorescence of the drug. Mean pore size of porous silicon matrices was 60 nm, while silver nanoparticles mean diameter was 50 nm. Atmospheric and vacuum conditions at room temperature were used to infiltrate emodin-silver nanoparticles complexes into porous silicon matrices. The drug was loaded after adsorption on metal surface, alone, and bound to bovine serum albumin. Methanol and water were used as solvents. Spectra with 1 μm spatial resolution of cross-section of porous silicon layers were recorded to observe the penetration of the drug. A maximum fluorescence enhancement factor of 24 was obtained when protein was loaded bound to albumin, and atmospheric conditions of inclusion were used. A better penetration was obtained using methanol as solvent when comparing with water. Complexes of emodin remain loaded for 30 days after preparation without an apparent degradation of the drug, although a decrease in the enhancement factor is observed. The study reported here constitutes the basis for designing a new drug delivery system with future applications in medicine and pharmacy.

  5. Porous silicon microparticle potentiates anti-tumor immunity by enhancing cross-presentation and inducing type I interferon response

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiaojun; Mai, Junhua; Xu, Rong; Perez, Jorge Enrique Tovar; Guevara, Maria L.; Shen, Qi; Mu, Chaofeng; Tung, Hui-Ying; Corry, David B.; Evans, Scott E.; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Li, Xian Chang; Wang, Rong-fu; Shen, Haifa

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Micro- and nano-meter size particles have become popular candidates for cancer vaccine adjuvants. However the mechanism by which such particles enhance immune responses remains unclear. Here we report a porous silicon microparticle (PSM)-based cancer vaccine that greatly enhances cross-presentation and activates type I interferon response in dendritic cells. PSM-loaded antigen exhibited prolonged early endosome localization and enhanced cross-presentation through both proteasome- and lysosome-dependent pathways. Phagocytosis of PSM by dendritic cells induced type I interferon responses through a TRIF- and MAVS-dependent pathway. Dendritic cells primed with PSM-loaded HER2 antigen produced robust CD8 T cell-dependent anti-tumor immunity in mice bearing HER2-positive mammary gland tumors. Importantly, this vaccination activated tumor immune microenvironment with elevated levels of intra-tumor type I interferon and MHC-II expression, abundant CD11c+ dendritic cell infiltration, and tumor-specific cytotoxic T cell responses. These findings highlight the potential for PSM as an immune adjuvant to potentiate dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25937283

  6. [Antitumor action and other regulatory effects of low intensity electromagnetic and chemical factors in experiment].

    PubMed

    Garkavi, L Kh; Zhukova, G V; Shikhliarova, A I; Evstratova, O F; Barteneva, T A; Gudtskova, T N; Bragina, M I; Mashchenko, N M; Grigorov, S V; Skakun, P G

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the results of the original researches of biological responses induced by agents of cytostatic and regulatory actions in small doses, as well as weak electromagnetic radiation of different frequency bands. The possibility of obtaining the expressed antitumor, antistress and geroprotective effects has been shown. The question of the relation of system mechanisms of realization of these effects with structural rearrangements in biological fluids, as well as the promising directions for optimizing the therapeutic properties of the informational impacts are discussed.

  7. Cytotoxic and Antitumor Effects of Curzerene from Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youdi; Li, Jiahong; Guo, Jiquan; Wang, Qiyou; Zhu, Shuguang; Gao, Siyuan; Yang, Chen; Wei, Min; Pan, Xuediao; Zhu, Wei; Ding, Dongmei; Gao, Ruiping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Junye; Zang, Linquan

    2017-01-01

    Curzerene is a sesquiterpene and component used in oriental medicine. It was originally isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Curcuma rhizomes. In this study, anticancer activity of curzerene was examined in both in vitro and in vivo models. The result of the MTT assay showed that curzerene exhibited antiproliferative effects in SPC-A1 human lung adenocarcinoma cells in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. The anticancer IC50s were 403.8, 154.8, and 47.0 µM for 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. The flow cytometry analysis indicated curzerene arrested the cells in the G2/M cell cycle and promoted or induced apoptosis of SPC-A1 cells. The percentage of cells arrested in the G2/M phase increased from 9.26 % in the control group cells to 17.57 % in the cells treated with the highest dose (100 µM) of curzerene. Western blot and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that curzerene induced the downregulation of GSTA1 protein and mRNA expressions in SPC-A1 cells. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited in SPC-A1 cell-bearing nude mice by using curzerene (135 mg/kg daily), meanwhile, curzerene did not significantly affect body mass and the organs of the mice, which may indicate that curzerene has limited toxicity and side effects in vivo. In conclusion, curzerene could inhibit the proliferation of SPC-A1 human lung adenocarcinoma cells line in both in vitro and in vivo models. Focusing on its relationship with GSTA1, curzerene could induce the downregulation of GSTA1 protein and mRNA expressions in SPC-A1 cells. Curzerene might be used as an anti-lung adenocarcinoma drug candidate compound for further development. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Cationic Polymethacrylate-Modified Liposomes Significantly Enhanced Doxorubicin Delivery and Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenxi; Shao, Anna; Zhang, Nan; Fang, Jinzhang; Ruan, Jennifer Jin; Ruan, Benfang Helen

    2017-01-01

    Liposome (LP) encapsulation of doxorubicin (DOX) is a clinically validated method for cancer drug delivery, but its cellular uptake is actually lower than the free DOX. Therefore, we modified DOX-LP with a cationic polymer (Eudragit RL100; ER) to improve its cellular uptake and antitumor activity. The resulting DOX-ERLP was a 190 nm nanoparticle that was absorbed efficiently and caused cancer cell death in 5 hrs. Growth as measured by the MTT assay or microscopic imaging demonstrated that DOX-ERLP has at least a two-fold greater potency than the free DOX in inhibiting the growth of a DOX resistant (MCF7/adr) cell and an aggressive liver cancer H22 cell. Further, its in vivo efficacy was tested in H22-bearing mice, where four injections of DOX-ERLP reduced the tumor growth by more than 60% and caused an average of 60% tumor necrosis, which was significantly better than the DOX and DOX-LP treated groups. Our work represents the first use of polymethacrylate derivatives for DOX liposomal delivery, demonstrating the great potential of cationic polymethacrylate modified liposomes for improving cancer drug delivery. PMID:28225062

  9. Harnessing structure-activity relationship to engineer a cisplatin nanoparticle for enhanced antitumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Paraskar, Abhimanyu S; Soni, Shivani; Chin, Kenneth T; Chaudhuri, Padmaparna; Muto, Katherine W; Berkowitz, Julia; Handlogten, Michael W; Alves, Nathan J; Bilgicer, Basar; Dinulescu, Daniela M; Mashelkar, Raghunath A; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2010-07-13

    Cisplatin is a first line chemotherapy for most types of cancer. However, its use is dose-limited due to severe nephrotoxicity. Here we report the rational engineering of a novel nanoplatinate inspired by the mechanisms underlying cisplatin bioactivation. We engineered a novel polymer, glucosamine-functionalized polyisobutylene-maleic acid, where platinum (Pt) can be complexed to the monomeric units using a monocarboxylato and an O --> Pt coordinate bond. We show that at a unique platinum to polymer ratio, this complex self-assembles into a nanoparticle, which releases cisplatin in a pH-dependent manner. The nanoparticles are rapidly internalized into the endolysosomal compartment of cancer cells, and exhibit an IC50 (4.25 +/- 0.16 microM) comparable to that of free cisplatin (3.87 +/- 0.37 microM), and superior to carboplatin (14.75 +/- 0.38 microM). The nanoparticles exhibited significantly improved antitumor efficacy in terms of tumor growth delay in breast and lung cancers and tumor regression in a K-ras(LSL/+)/Pten(fl/fl) ovarian cancer model. Furthermore, the nanoparticle treatment resulted in reduced systemic and nephrotoxicity, validated by decreased biodistribution of platinum to the kidney as quantified using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. Given the universal need for a better platinate, we anticipate this coupling of nanotechnology and structure-activity relationship to rationally reengineer cisplatin could have a major impact globally in the clinical treatment of cancer.

  10. PLGA nanofibers improves the antitumoral effect of daunorubicin.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Pedro P G; Oliveira, Michele F; Gomes, Alinne D M; Gontijo, Sávio M L; Cortés, Maria E; Campos, Paula P; Viana, Celso T R; Andrade, Silvia P; Sinisterra, Rubén D

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory angiogenesis activity and in vitro cytotoxicity on normal and cancer cell models of a drug delivery system consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofibers loaded with daunorubicin (PLGA-DNR) that were fabricated using an electrospinning process. The PLGA-DNR nanofibers were also characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal fluorescence microscopy. In vitro release of DNR from the nanofibers and its corresponding mechanism were also evaluated. Sixty-five percent of the DNR was released in an initial burst over 8h, and by 1224 h, eighty-five percent of the DNR had been released. The Higuchi model yielded the best fit to the DNR release profile over the first 8h, and the corresponding data from 24 to 1224 h could be modeled using zero-order kinetics. The PLGA-DNR nanofibers exhibited a higher cytotoxicity to A431 cells than free DNR but a cytotoxicity similar to free DNR against fibroblast cells. A higher antiangiogenic effect of PLGA nanofibers was observed in the in vivo data when compared to free DNR, and no inflammatory potential was observed for the nanofibers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of natural killer cells in the mechanism of the antitumor effect of interferon on Moloney sarcoma virus-transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Fresa, K L; Murasko, D M

    1986-01-01

    The growth of tumors induced by inoculation of cells transformed by Moloney sarcoma virus can be inhibited by in situ administration of interferon (IFN) beginning one day after tumor challenge and continuing for 2 or 3 additional days. Inhibition of tumor growth by IFN was associated with a marked augmentation of natural killer (NK) cell activity, both in the spleen and at the site of tumor challenge, by day 5 after tumor challenge. However, using optimal conditions for IFN treatment, depletion of NK cells by in vivo treatment with anti-asialo GM1 prior to tumor challenge had no significant effect on inhibition of tumor growth by IFN. When the tumor load was greater or when IFN treatment was shorter, treatment with anti-asialo-GM1 partially abrogated the inhibition of tumor growth by IFN. In vitro assays gave no evidence of IFN enhancement of specific T-cell or activated macrophage antitumor effect. These results suggest that under optimal treatment conditions, the mechanism of the antitumor effect of IFN was independent of augmentation of NK activity, but under suboptimal conditions NK cells play a role in the mechanism of the antitumor effect of IFN.

  12. Enhanced antitumor therapy by inhibition of p21waf1 in human malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Lazzarini, Raffaella; Moretti, Simona; Orecchia, Sara; Betta, Pier-Giacomo; Procopio, Antonio; Catalano, Alfonso

    2008-08-15

    The p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor was frequently expressed in human malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) tissues as well as cell lines. Recent data indicate that p21 keeps tumor cells alive after DNA damage, favoring a survival advantage. In this study, we assessed the possibility of p21 suppression as a therapeutic target for MPM. We established two different MPM-derived (from H28 and H2052 cells) subclones using vector-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Then, chemosensitivity against low doses of antineoplastic DNA-damaging agents was investigated by colony formation assays, and furthermore, the type of cell response induced by these drugs was analyzed. To examine the effect of p21 shRNA on chemosensitivity in vivo, tumor formation assays in nude mice were done. In colony formation assay, the IC50 of doxorubicin was 33 +/- 3.0 nmol/L in p21 shRNA-transfected cells with respect to 125 +/- 10 nmol/L of control vector-transfected cells. This enhancement of growth inhibition was achieved by converting a senescence-like growth arrest to apoptosis in response to doxorubicin, etoposide, and CPT11. In the in vivo assays, CPT11 and loss-of-expression of p21 in combination led to considerable suppression of tumor growth associated with a substantially enhanced apoptotic response, whereas CPT11 alone was ineffective at inducing these responses. These results indicated that p21 might play an important role in chemosensitivity to anticancer agents, and the suppression of its expression might be a potential therapeutic target for MPM.

  13. Novel nanosystem to enhance the antitumor activity of lapatinib in breast cancer treatment: Therapeutic efficacy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Huo, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Shi-Jiang; Wang, Zhi-Qi; Zuo, Wen-Shu; Liu, Ping; Pang, Bo; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the therapeutic performance of polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles towards the delivery of lapatinib (LPT) in breast cancers. We have successfully developed the lapatinib-loaded polymer-lipid hybrid nanosystem and showed its therapeutic potential in in vitro and in vivo models of breast cancer. The nanoformulations consisted of a polymeric core (poly[lactide-co-glycolide]-D-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate [PLGA-TPGS]), which was then enveloped by a PEGylated lipid layer (DSPE-PEG) (PLPT) to maintain the structural integrity. The PLPT formulation controlled the drug release in pH 7.4 conditions and accelerated the release at pH 5.5 conditions. The PLPT showed a remarkable cellular internalization and efficiently killed the MCF-7 cancer cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, LPT-loaded nanoparticles effectively induced apoptosis of cancer cells than compared to free LPT. Pharmacokinetic data suggested that nanoparticles could significantly enhance the blood circulation time of LPT by reducing the uptake by a reticuloendothelial system (RES). The prolonged blood circulation of PLPT could allow the preferential accumulation of drug in the tumor tissues. Importantly, PLPT significantly reduced the tumor burden of cancerous mice and effectively controlled the tumor cell proliferation. TUNEL assay further showed a greater apoptosis of tumor tissues in the PLPT treated mice group. Our results suggest that the use of a hybrid system may allow a decrease in the dosage regimen without the loss of therapeutic effect. Overall, lapatinib-loaded hybrid nanoparticles hold great potential for achieving an optimal therapeutic effect in breast cancer treatment. The present anticancer drug delivery system could be potentially applied for the treatment of other cancers.

  14. Enhanced in Vitro Anti-Tumor Activity of 5-Azacytidine by Entrapment into Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jahanfar, Farhad; Hasani, Akbar; Shanebandi, Dariush; Rahmati, Mohammad; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this study the effectiveness of encapsulating of 5-azacytidine into the lipid nanoparticles was investigated and in vitro effect of encapsulated 5-azacytidine studied on MCF-7 cell lines Methods: 5-azacytidine -loaded solid lipid nanoparticles were produced by double emulsification (w/o/w) method by using stearic acid as lipid matrix, soy lecithin and poloxamer 407 as surfactant and co-surfactant respectively. Particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology, entrapment efficiency and kinetic of drug release were studied. In vitro effect of 5-azacytidine on MCF-7 cell line studied by MTT assay, DAPI staining, Rhodamine B relative uptake, and also Real time RT-PCR was performed for studying difference effect of free and encapsulated drug on expression of RARß2 gene. Results: The formulation F5 with 55.84±0.46 % of entrapment efficiency shows zero order kinetic of drug release and selected for in vitro studies; the cytotoxicity of free drug and encapsulated drug in 48 h of incubation have significant difference. DAPI staining shows morphology of apoptotic nucleus in both free and encapsulated drug, Rhodamine B labeled SLNs show time dependency and accumulation of SLNs in cytoplasm. Real time qRT-PCR doesn’t show any significant difference (p>0.05) in expression of RARß2 gene in both cells treated with free or encapsulated drug. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that the entrapment of 5-azacytidine into SLNs enhanced its cytotoxicity performance and may pave a way for the future design of a desired dosage form for 5-azacytidine. PMID:27766220

  15. Novel nanosystem to enhance the antitumor activity of lapatinib in breast cancer treatment: Therapeutic efficacy evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Shi-Jiang; Wang, Zhi-Qi; Zuo, Wen-Shu; Liu, Ping; Pang, Bo; Liu, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the therapeutic performance of polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles towards the delivery of lapatinib (LPT) in breast cancers. We have successfully developed the lapatinib-loaded polymer-lipid hybrid nanosystem and showed its therapeutic potential in in vitro and in vivo models of breast cancer. The nanoformulations consisted of a polymeric core (poly[lactide-co-glycolide]-D-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate [PLGA–TPGS]), which was then enveloped by a PEGylated lipid layer (DSPE-PEG) (PLPT) to maintain the structural integrity. The PLPT formulation controlled the drug release in pH 7.4 conditions and accelerated the release at pH 5.5 conditions. The PLPT showed a remarkable cellular internalization and efficiently killed the MCF-7 cancer cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, LPT-loaded nanoparticles effectively induced apoptosis of cancer cells than compared to free LPT. Pharmacokinetic data suggested that nanoparticles could significantly enhance the blood circulation time of LPT by reducing the uptake by a reticuloendothelial system (RES). The prolonged blood circulation of PLPT could allow the preferential accumulation of drug in the tumor tissues. Importantly, PLPT significantly reduced the tumor burden of cancerous mice and effectively controlled the tumor cell proliferation. TUNEL assay further showed a greater apoptosis of tumor tissues in the PLPT treated mice group. Our results suggest that the use of a hybrid system may allow a decrease in the dosage regimen without the loss of therapeutic effect. Overall, lapatinib-loaded hybrid nanoparticles hold great potential for achieving an optimal therapeutic effect in breast cancer treatment. The present anticancer drug delivery system could be potentially applied for the treatment of other cancers. PMID:26177628

  16. Heparin-functionalized Pluronic nanoparticles to enhance the antitumor efficacy of sorafenib in gastric cancers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying-Chi; Cai, Jun; Yin, Jie; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Kang-Li; Zhang, Zhong-Tao

    2016-01-20

    In this study, chitosan/heparin immobilized delivery system was developed for the delivery of sorafenib in gastric cancers. The SRF NP was nanosized with spherical outfit and present in the amorphous form. The SRF NP exhibited a sustained release of drug at pH 7.4 conditions and enhanced drug released at pH 5.5 conditions. Flow cytometer analysis showed that cellular uptake of NP increased two-fold after 4h of incubation compared to 1h incubation. The SRF NP showed superior anticancer effect compared to that of free SRF in BGC-823 cancer cells. SRF NP induced a remarkable apoptosis of cancer cells consistent with the cytotoxicity assay. Approximately, ∼ 50% of cell fractions were observed in early apoptosis phase with ∼ 15% of cells in the late apoptosis stage. Consistently, SRF NP exhibited a strong band for caspase-3 and P-53 than compared to free SRF in MGC-823 cancer cells. Importantly, SRF NP showed superior anticancer effect in xenograft tumor model making it a promising delivery vehicle in the treatment of gastric cancers.

  17. Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Enhance Antitumor Immune Response against Mouse H22 Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yunzhong; Chen, Yueqiu; Mou, Yongbin; Weng, Leihua; Xu, Zhenjun; Du, Youwei; Wang, Wenmei; Hou, Yayi; Wang, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Objective Many studies have shown that magnetic fields (MF) inhibit tumor growth and influence the function of immune system. However, the effect of MF on mechanism of immunological function in tumor-bearing mice is still unclear. Methods In this study, tumor-bearing mice were prepared by subcutaneously inoculating Balb/c mice with hepatocarcinoma cell line H22. The mice were then exposed to a low frequency MF (0.4 T, 7.5 Hz) for 30 days. Survival rate, tumor growth and the innate and adaptive immune parameters were measured. Results MF treatment could prolong survival time (n = 28, p<0.05) and inhibit tumor growth (n = 9, p<0.01) in tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, this MF suppressed tumor-induced production of cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte colony- stimulating factor (G-CSF) and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) (n = 9–10, p<0.05 or 0.01). Furthermore, MF exposure was associated with activation of macrophages and dendritic cells, enhanced profiles of CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, the balance of Th17/Treg and reduced inhibitory function of Treg cells (n = 9–10, p<0.05 or 0.01) in the mice model. Conclusion The inhibitory effect of MF on tumor growth was related to the improvement of immune function in the tumor-bearing mice. PMID:24278103

  18. Enhanced antitumor activity of xanthohumol, a diacylglycerol acyltransferase inhibitor, under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Goto, Keiko; Asai, Tomohiro; Hara, Shuntaro; Namatame, Ichiji; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Ikemoto, Mamoru; Oku, Naoto

    2005-03-10

    Cancer chemotherapy for hypoxic tumor cells is thought to be an important issue, since hypoxia is related to tumor growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis. Here, the bioactivities of xanthohumol (XN), a diacylglycerol acyltransferase inhibitor, against hypoxic cells were investigated. At first, the inhibitory effects of XN on the formation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm were evaluated in hypoxia. Hypoxia upregulated the synthesis of triglyceride and promoted the formation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, however, the treatment of XN downregulated the triglyceride synthesis and completely canceled the appearance of lipid droplets. Second, the effects of XN on the proliferation and the motility of HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma were investigated. The proliferation of HT-1080 was significantly suppressed in the presence of XN only in hypoxic condition but not in normoxic condition. XN also suppressed the motility of HT-1080 that was enhanced by hypoxia. Since, most cells in solid tumor were thought to be in hypoxic condition and acquired malignancy in response to hypoxia, these data suggest that XN may have potent and specific activities against cancerous cells. Furthermore, these data suggested that lipid metabolism may play an important role for hypoxic tumor cells and proposed a new therapeutic target for cancer chemotherapy.

  19. Antitumor Effects of Chimeric Receptor Engineered Human T Cells Directed to Tumor Stroma

    PubMed Central

    Kakarla, Sunitha; Chow, Kevin KH; Mata, Melinda; Shaffer, Donald R; Song, Xiao-Tong; Wu, Meng-Fen; Liu, Hao; Wang, Lisa L; Rowley, David R; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the principle component of the tumor-associated stroma, form a highly protumorigenic and immunosuppressive microenvironment that mediates therapeutic resistance. Co-targeting CAFs in addition to cancer cells may therefore augment the antitumor response. Fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP), a type 2 dipeptidyl peptidase, is expressed on CAFs in a majority of solid tumors making it an attractive immunotherapeutic target. To target FAP-positive CAFs in the tumor-associated stroma, we genetically modified T cells to express a FAP-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). The resulting FAP-specific T cells recognized and killed FAP-positive target cells as determined by proinflammatory cytokine release and target cell lysis. In an established A549 lung cancer model, adoptive transfer of FAP-specific T cells significantly reduced FAP-positive stromal cells, with a concomitant decrease in tumor growth. Combining these FAP-specific T cells with T cells that targeted the EphA2 antigen on the A549 cancer cells themselves significantly enhanced overall antitumor activity and conferred a survival advantage compared to either alone. Our study underscores the value of co-targeting both CAFs and cancer cells to increase the benefits of T-cell immunotherapy for solid tumors. PMID:23732988

  20. β-Cryptoxanthin Synergistically Enhances the Antitumoral Activity of Oxaliplatin through ΔNP73 Negative Regulation in Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    San Millán, Coral; Soldevilla, Beatriz; Martín, Paloma; Gil-Calderón, Beatriz; Compte, Marta; Pérez-Sacristán, Belén; Donoso, Encarnación; Peña, Cristina; Romero, Jesús; Granado-Lorencio, Fernando; Bonilla, Félix; Domínguez, Gemma

    2015-10-01

    The acquired resistance to chemotherapy represents the major limitation in the treatment of cancer. New strategies to solve this failure and improve patients' outcomes are necessary. The cancer preventive effect of β-cryptoxanthin has been widely described in population studies. Few reports support its putative use as an antitumoral compound. Here we focus on the therapeutic potential of β-cryptoxanthin individually or in combination with oxaliplatin in colon cancer and try to decipher the molecular basis underlying its effect. Apoptosis, viability and proliferation assays, mouse models, and an intervention study in 20 healthy subjects were performed. A PCR array was carried out to unravel the molecular putative basis of the β-cryptoxanthin effect, and further signaling experiments were conducted. Comet Assay was completed to evaluate the genotoxicity of the treatments. β-Cryptoxanthin differentially regulates the expression of the P73 variants in vitro, in vivo, and in a human intervention study. This carotenoid decreases the proliferation of cancer cells and cooperates with oxaliplatin to induce apoptosis through the negative regulation of ΔNP73. The antitumoral concentrations of oxaliplatin decrease in the presence of β-cryptoxanthin to achieve same percentage of growth inhibition. The genotoxicity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of mice decreased in the combined treatment. We propose a putative novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of colon cancer based on the combination of β-cryptoxanthin and oxaliplatin. The combined regimen produced more benefit than either individual modality without increasing side effects. In addition, the concentration-limiting toxicity of oxaliplatin is reduced in the presence of the carotenoid. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Use of biotin targeted methotrexate–human serum albumin conjugated nanoparticles to enhance methotrexate antitumor efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Azade; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Nouri, Faranak Salman; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Borougeni, Atefeh Taheri; Mansoori, Pooria; Atyabi, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    Biotin molecules could be used as suitable targeting moieties in targeted drug delivery systems against tumors. To develop a biotin targeted drug delivery system, we employed human serum albumin (HSA) as a carrier. Methotrexate (MTX) molecules were conjugated to HSA. MTX-HSA nanoparticles (MTX-HSA NPs) were prepared from these conjugates by cross-linking the HSA molecules. Biotin molecules were then conjugated on the surface of MTX-HSA NPs. The anticancer efficacy of biotin targeted MTX-HSA NPs was evaluated in mice bearing 4T1 breast carcinoma. A single dose of biotin targeted MTX-HSA NPs showed stronger in vivo antitumor activity than non-targeted MTX-HSA NPs and free MTX. By 7 days after treatment, average tumor volume in the biotin targeted MTX-HSA NPs-treated group decreased to 17.6% of the initial tumor volume when the number of attached biotin molecules on MTX-HSA-NPs was the highest. Average tumor volume in non-targeted MTX-HSA NPs-treated mice grew rapidly and reached 250.7% of the initial tumor volume. Biotin targeted MTX-HSA NPs increased the survival of tumor-bearing mice to 47.5 ± 0.71 days and increased their life span up to 216.7%. Mice treated with biotin targeted MTX-HSA NPs showed slight body weight loss (8%) 21 days after treatment, whereas non-targeted MTX-HSA NPs treatment at the same dose caused a body weight loss of 27.05% ± 3.1%. PMID:21931482

  2. Gene therapy with IL-12 induced enhanced anti-tumor activity in fibrosarcoma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Razi Soofiyani, Saiedeh; Kazemi, Tohid; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Mohammad Hosseini, Akbar; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Hallaj-Nezhadi, Somayeh; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-12-01

    Context Immunotherapy is among the most promising modalities for treatment of cancer. Recently, interleukin 12 (IL-12) has been used as an immunotherapeutic agent in cancer gene therapy. IL-12 can activate dendritic cells (DCs) and boost anti-tumor immune responses. Objective In the current study, we have investigated if IL-12 gene therapy can lead to the regression of tumor mass in a mouse model of fibrosarcoma. Material and methods To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of IL-12, WEHI-164 tumor cells were transfected with murine-IL12 plasmids using Lipofectamine. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to confirm IL-12 expression in transfected cells. The fibrosarcoma mouse model was established by subcutaneous injection of transfected cells to Balb/C mice. Mice were sacrificed and the tumors were extracted. Tumor sizes were measured by caliper. The expression of IL-12 and IFN-γ was studied with real-time PCR and western blotting. The expression of Ki-67(a tumor proliferation marker) in tumor mass was studied by immunohistochemistry staining. Results and discussion The group treated with IL-12 showed a significant decrease in tumor mass volume (P: 0.000). The results of real-time PCR and western blotting showed that IL-12 and IFN-γ expression increased in the group treated with IL-12 (relative expression of IL-12: 1.9 and relative expression of IFN-γ: 1.766). Immunohistochemistry staining showed that Ki-67 expression was reduced in the group treated with IL-12. Conclusion IL-12 gene therapy successfully led to regress of tumor mass in the fibrosarcoma mouse model. This may serve as a candidate therapeutic approach for treatment of cancer.

  3. Deoxycholic acid-modified chitooligosaccharide/mPEG-PDLLA mixed micelles loaded with paclitaxel for enhanced antitumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chengjun; Wang, Hangxiang; Zhang, Xiaomin; Sun, Zhibin; Wang, Feng; Cheng, Jun; Xie, Haiyang; Yu, Bo; Zhou, Lin

    2014-11-20

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a block in polymeric micelles can prolong circulation life and reduce systemic clearance but decrease the cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, a mixed micelle composed of deoxycholic acid-modified chitooligosaccharide (COS-DOCA) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-polylactide copolymer (mPEG-PDLLA) was designed to load paclitaxel (PTX). The PTX-loaded mixed micelles was prepared by nanoprecipitation method with high drug-loading efficiency of 8.03% and encapsulation efficiency of 97.09% as well as small size (∼40 nm) and narrow size distribution. COS-DOCA/mPEG-PDLLA mixed micelles exhibited the sustained release property. Due to the positive charge and bioadhesive property of COS-DOCA, the cellular uptake of PTX in mixed micelles was higher in cancer cells but lower in macrophage cells compared to the mPEG-PDLLA micelles. The systemic toxicity of PTX in mixed micelles was much lower than Taxol using zebrafish as a toxicological model. Furthermore, the PTX-loaded COS-DOCA/mPEG-PDLLA mixed micelles can prolong the blood circulation time of PTX and enhance the antitumor efficacy in A549 lung xenograft model. Our findings indicate that COS-DOCA/mPEG-PDLLA mixed micelles could be a potential vehicle for enhanced delivery of anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Aurora Inhibitor MLN8237 in Combination with Docetaxel Enhances Apoptosis and Antitumor Activity in Mantle Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Wenqing; Cooke, Laurence S.; Liu, Xiaobing; Rimsza, Lisa; Roe, Denise J.; Manziolli, Ann; Persky, Daniel O.; Miller, Thomas P.; Mahadevan, Daruka

    2013-01-01

    Auroras (A and B) are oncogenic serine/threonine kinases that play key roles in the mitotic phase of th