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Sample records for enhanced export horticultural

  1. The Potential Impact on Farmer Health of Enhanced Export Horticultural Trade between the U.K. and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Paul; Edwards, Rhiannon T.; Nyeko, Philip; Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2009-01-01

    The export of vegetables from African countries to European markets presents consumers with an ethical dilemma: should they support local, but relatively well-off farmers, or poorer farmers from distant countries? This paper considers the issue of farm worker health in the U.K. and Uganda, and considers the dilemma facing U.K. consumers if Uganda achieves their aim of exporting more vegetables to the U.K. Self-reported health scores of 1,200 farm workers in the U.K. and Uganda were measured with the internationally recognised SF-36 questionnaire and compared to an international population norm. The age-corrected health status of U.K. farm workers was significantly lower than the population norm, whereas Ugandans scored significantly higher (indicating good health) for physical health and lower for mental health. If Ugandan produce enters U.K. markets, then consumers may wish to consider both the potential benefits that enhanced trade could offer Ugandan farmers compared with its impacts on U.K. workers. PMID:19543406

  2. Conflict and compliance: Christianity and the occult in horticultural exporting.

    PubMed

    Dolan, C S

    1999-03-01

    The introduction of export horticulture in Meru District, Kenya, brought about disadvantageous effects on female farmers. Their workload increased while their earnings did not. Women reacted by turning to Christianity for support, and resorted to traditional witchcraft to regain control. In this article, Christianity and witchcraft are presented as ways of expressing discontent with the prevailing social norms, and as means to reclaim autonomy and security within their households. Since Kenyan women are entailed to meet the standards of being a good Christian wife, in which women are submissive to their husbands, the church became a means of escaping the confinements of their marriage. In Meru, Christian conversion offers a means of coping with life and an opportunity to interact with other women who share the same experience. Another strategy adopted by women is witchcraft, a traditional relic wherein women give "potions" to their husbands to induce psychosis and eventually death, which would then leave control of the household to the woman. In conclusion, the case presented here demonstrates how failure to recognize cultural dynamics leads to gender inequity and worsens women's well being, as well as men's security.

  3. Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitken, James

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist vocational instructors in preparing students for entry-level employment in the field of horticulture and getting them ready for advanced training in the workplace. The package contains a validated competency/skill and task list, an instructor's guide, and an annotated bibliography. The following…

  4. Basic Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Barbra Farabough

    This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

  5. The Power of Peer Reviewing to Enhance Writing in Horticulture: Greenhouse Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Neil O.; Flash, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Peer review is not included in undergraduate horticultural curricula. Our research objectives in an 8- year study, which ranged from 2000 to 2007 in two sections (2000-2002 non-peer reviewed and 2003-2007 peer-reviewed) of Greenhouse Management students at the University of Minnesota were to determine whether iterative peer reviews would result in…

  6. Draft guidance for industry; exports and imports under the FDA Export Reform and Enhancement Act of 1996--FDA. Notice.

    PubMed

    1998-06-12

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance document entitled, "FDA Draft Guidance for Industry on: Exports and Imports Under the FDA Export Reform and Enhancement Act of 1996." The draft guidance document addresses issues pertaining to the exportation of human drugs, animal drugs, biologics, food additives, and devices as well as the importation of components, parts, accessories, or other articles for incorporation or further processing into articles intended for export.

  7. Lunar horticulture.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  8. Heartland Horticulture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poquette, Bonnie L.

    2009-01-01

    Midwestern gardeners are legendary for enduring and outwitting winter, with its heavy snowpack and recurring freezes and thaws. Most of them also reckon with a relatively short growing period. All of them find their horticultural plans complicated by hot, humid summers. In fact, the Midwest deals with four seasons dictating special considerations…

  9. Ornamental Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 32 curriculum modules in this packet for ornamental horticulture instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objectives, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

  10. Elderberry: Botany, Horticulture, Potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horticultural Review allows extensive reviews of the state of the knowledge on certain topics or crops. Elderberry: Botany, Horticulture, Potential, is outlined with an Introduction, Botany, Horticulture, Propagation, Uses and Conclusion sections. This review compiles literature from around the w...

  11. Introduction to Horticulture. Teacher Edition. Horticulture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication is designed to provide a core of instruction for the many different fields in agricultural/horticultural education. This course contains 21 instructional units that cover the following topics: introduction to horticulture; beginning a career in horticulture; hand and power tools; introduction to safety; growing facilities;…

  12. Carotenoid metabolism and regulation in horticultural crops

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hui; Zhang, Junxiang; Nageswaran, Divyashree; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature. The vivid yellow, orange, and red colors of many horticultural crops are attributed to the overaccumulation of carotenoids, which contribute to a critical agronomic trait for flowers and an important quality trait for fruits and vegetables. Not only do carotenoids give horticultural crops their visual appeal, they also enhance nutritional value and health benefits for humans. As a result, carotenoid research in horticultural crops has grown exponentially over the last decade. These investigations have advanced our fundamental understanding of carotenoid metabolism and regulation in plants. In this review, we provide an overview of carotenoid biosynthesis, degradation, and accumulation in horticultural crops and highlight recent achievements in our understanding of carotenoid metabolic regulation in vegetables, fruits, and flowers. PMID:26504578

  13. Horticultural Mechanics Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipley, W. Edward

    1974-01-01

    Ornamental horticulture teachers and managers of ornamental horticulture businesses were surveyed to determine which agricultural mechanics knowledges and skills are needed for entry-level employment in nursery, greenhouse, turf, and landscape management, which are common to the four areas, and the appropriate grade level at which they should be…

  14. Environmental Horticulture Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard environmental horticulture curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level workers in the environmental horticulture field. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description,…

  15. Agriculture Education. Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in ornamental horticulture. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) horticulture and job opportunities, (2) preparing soil mixtures, (3) control, (4) plant propagation, (5) plant…

  16. Streptococcus pyogenes polymyxin B-resistant mutants display enhanced ExPortal integrity.

    PubMed

    Port, Gary C; Vega, Luis A; Nylander, Andrew B; Caparon, Michael G

    2014-07-01

    The ExPortal protein secretion organelle in Streptococcus pyogenes is an anionic phospholipid-containing membrane microdomain enriched in Sec translocons and postsecretion protein biogenesis factors. Polymyxin B binds to and disrupts ExPortal integrity, resulting in defective secretion of several toxins. To gain insight into factors that influence ExPortal organization, a genetic screen was conducted to select for spontaneous polymyxin B-resistant mutants displaying enhanced ExPortal integrity. Whole-genome resequencing of 25 resistant mutants revealed from one to four mutations per mutant genome clustered primarily within a core set of 10 gene groups. Construction of mutants with individual deletions or insertions demonstrated that 7 core genes confer resistance and enhanced ExPortal integrity through loss of function, while 3 were likely due to gain of function and/or combinatorial effects. Core resistance genes include a transcriptional regulator of lipid biosynthesis, several genes involved in nutrient acquisition, and a variety of genes involved in stress responses. Two members of the latter class also function as novel regulators of the secreted SpeB cysteine protease. Analysis of the most frequently isolated mutation, a single nucleotide deletion in a track of 9 consecutive adenine residues in pstS, encoding a component of a high-affinity Pi transporter, suggests that this sequence functions as a molecular switch to facilitate stress adaptation. Together, these data suggest the existence of a membrane stress response that promotes enhanced ExPortal integrity and resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides.

  17. Fluid flow enhances the effectiveness of toxin export by aquatic microorganisms: a first-passage perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licata, Nicholas; Clark, Aaron

    2014-03-01

    Aquatic microorganisms face a variety of challenges in the course of development. One central challenge is efficiently regulating the export of toxic molecules inside the developing embryo. The strategies employed should be robust with respect to the variable ocean environment and limit the chances that exported toxins are reabsorbed. In this talk we consider the first-passage problem for the uptake of exported toxins by a spherical embryo. A perturbative solution of the advection-diffusion equation reveals that a concentration boundary layer forms in the vicinity of the embryo, and that fluid flow enhances the effectiveness of toxin export. We highlight connections between the model results and recent experiments on the development of sea urchin embryos. We acknowledge financial support from the University of Michigan-Dearobrn CASL Faculty Summer Research Grant.

  18. Streptococcus pyogenes Polymyxin B-Resistant Mutants Display Enhanced ExPortal Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Port, Gary C.; Vega, Luis A.; Nylander, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    The ExPortal protein secretion organelle in Streptococcus pyogenes is an anionic phospholipid-containing membrane microdomain enriched in Sec translocons and postsecretion protein biogenesis factors. Polymyxin B binds to and disrupts ExPortal integrity, resulting in defective secretion of several toxins. To gain insight into factors that influence ExPortal organization, a genetic screen was conducted to select for spontaneous polymyxin B-resistant mutants displaying enhanced ExPortal integrity. Whole-genome resequencing of 25 resistant mutants revealed from one to four mutations per mutant genome clustered primarily within a core set of 10 gene groups. Construction of mutants with individual deletions or insertions demonstrated that 7 core genes confer resistance and enhanced ExPortal integrity through loss of function, while 3 were likely due to gain of function and/or combinatorial effects. Core resistance genes include a transcriptional regulator of lipid biosynthesis, several genes involved in nutrient acquisition, and a variety of genes involved in stress responses. Two members of the latter class also function as novel regulators of the secreted SpeB cysteine protease. Analysis of the most frequently isolated mutation, a single nucleotide deletion in a track of 9 consecutive adenine residues in pstS, encoding a component of a high-affinity Pi transporter, suggests that this sequence functions as a molecular switch to facilitate stress adaptation. Together, these data suggest the existence of a membrane stress response that promotes enhanced ExPortal integrity and resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides. PMID:24794568

  19. Horticulture/Floriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in floriculture and horticulture. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: the Future Farmers of America, floriculture, merchandising and selling, retail flower shop management, advertising, inventory, indentification of common floral…

  20. Competency-Based Horticulture: Floriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    This competency-based horticulture curriculum guide is designed to provide secondary and postsecondary horticulture teachers with a task-oriented program in floriculture. It contains a master resource list, a listing of floriculture resources available from various states, and 89 competency task sheets organized into nine competency areas. These…

  1. Mesoscale ocean fronts enhance carbon export due to gravitational sinking and subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stukel, Michael R.; Aluwihare, Lihini I.; Barbeau, Katherine A.; Chekalyuk, Alexander M.; Goericke, Ralf; Miller, Arthur J.; Ohman, Mark D.; Ruacho, Angel; Song, Hajoon; Stephens, Brandon M.; Landry, Michael R.

    2017-02-01

    Enhanced vertical carbon transport (gravitational sinking and subduction) at mesoscale ocean fronts may explain the demonstrated imbalance of new production and sinking particle export in coastal upwelling ecosystems. Based on flux assessments from 238U:234Th disequilibrium and sediment traps, we found 2 to 3 times higher rates of gravitational particle export near a deep-water front (305 mg Cṡm‑2ṡd‑1) compared with adjacent water or to mean (nonfrontal) regional conditions. Elevated particle flux at the front was mechanistically linked to Fe-stressed diatoms and high mesozooplankton fecal pellet production. Using a data assimilative regional ocean model fit to measured conditions, we estimate that an additional ˜225 mg Cṡm‑2ṡd‑1 was exported as subduction of particle-rich water at the front, highlighting a transport mechanism that is not captured by sediment traps and is poorly quantified by most models and in situ measurements. Mesoscale fronts may be responsible for over a quarter of total organic carbon sequestration in the California Current and other coastal upwelling ecosystems.

  2. Decreased activity and enhanced nuclear export of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein beta during inhibition of adipogenesis by ceramide.

    PubMed Central

    Sprott, Kam M; Chumley, Michael J; Hanson, Janean M; Dobrowsky, Rick T

    2002-01-01

    To identify novel molecular mechanisms by which ceramide regulates cell differentiation, we examined its effect on adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Hormonal stimulation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes induced formation of triacylglycerol-laden adipocytes over 7 days; in part, via the co-ordinated action of CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins alpha, beta and delta (C/EBP-alpha, -beta and -delta) and peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). The addition of exogenous N-acetylsphingosine (C2-ceramide) or increasing endogenous ceramide levels inhibited the expression of C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma, and blocked adipocyte development. C2-ceramide did not decrease the cellular expression of C/EBPbeta, which is required for expression of C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma, but significantly blocked its transcriptional activity from a promoter construct after 24 h. The ceramide-induced decrease in the transcriptional activity of C/EBPbeta correlated with a strong decrease in its phosphorylation, DNA-binding ability and nuclear localization at 24 h. However, ceramide did not change the nuclear level of C/EBPbeta after a period of 4 or 16 h, suggesting that it was not affecting nuclear import. CRM1 (more recently named 'exportin-1') is a nuclear membrane protein that regulates protein export from the nucleus by binding to a specific nuclear export sequence. Leptomycin B is an inhibitor of CRM1/exportin-1, and reversed the ceramide-induced decrease in nuclear C/EBPbeta at 24 h. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that ceramide may inhibit adipogenesis, at least in part, by enhancing dephosphorylation and premature nuclear export of C/EBPbeta at a time when its maximal transcriptional activity is required to drive adipogenesis. PMID:12071851

  3. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  4. Enhanced sea-ice export from the Arctic during the Younger Dryas.

    PubMed

    Not, Christelle; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2012-01-31

    The Younger Dryas cold spell of the last deglaciation and related slowing of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation have been linked to a large array of processes, notably an influx of fresh water into the North Atlantic related to partial drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz. Here we observe a major drainage event, in marine sediment cores raised from the Lomonosov Ridge, in the central Arctic Ocean marked by a pulse in detrital dolomitic-limestones. This points to an Arctic-Canadian sediment source area with about fivefold higher Younger Dryas ice-rafting deposition rate, in comparison with the Holocene. Our findings thus support the hypothesis of a glacial drainage event in the Canadian Arctic area, at the onset of the Younger Dryas, enhancing sea-ice production and drifting through the Arctic, then export through Fram Strait, towards Atlantic meridional overturning circulation sites of the northern North Atlantic.

  5. Silicon isotopes indicate enhanced carbon export efficiency in the North Atlantic during deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Katharine R; Robinson, Laura F; McManus, Jerry F; Hays, James D

    2014-01-01

    Today's Sargasso Sea is nutrient starved, except for episodic upwelling events caused by wind-driven winter mixing and eddies. Enhanced diatom opal burial in Sargasso Sea sediments indicates that silicic acid, a limiting nutrient today, may have been more available in subsurface waters during Heinrich Stadials, millennial-scale climate perturbations of the last glacial and deglaciation. Here we use the geochemistry of opal-forming organisms from different water depths to demonstrate changes in silicic acid supply and utilization during the most recent Heinrich Stadial. We suggest that during the early phase (17.5-18 ka), wind-driven upwelling replenished silicic acid to the subsurface, resulting in low Si utilization. By 17 ka, stratification reduced the surface silicic acid supply leading to increased Si utilization efficiency. This abrupt shift in Si cycling would have contributed to high regional carbon export efficiency during the recent Heinrich Stadial, despite being a period of increasing atmospheric CO2.

  6. Southern Ocean deep-water carbon export enhanced by natural iron fertilization.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Raymond T; Salter, Ian; Sanders, Richard J; Lucas, Mike I; Moore, C Mark; Mills, Rachel A; Statham, Peter J; Allen, John T; Baker, Alex R; Bakker, Dorothee C E; Charette, Matthew A; Fielding, Sophie; Fones, Gary R; French, Megan; Hickman, Anna E; Holland, Ross J; Hughes, J Alan; Jickells, Timothy D; Lampitt, Richard S; Morris, Paul J; Nédélec, Florence H; Nielsdóttir, Maria; Planquette, Hélène; Popova, Ekaterina E; Poulton, Alex J; Read, Jane F; Seeyave, Sophie; Smith, Tania; Stinchcombe, Mark; Taylor, Sarah; Thomalla, Sandy; Venables, Hugh J; Williamson, Robert; Zubkov, Mike V

    2009-01-29

    The addition of iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions induces phytoplankton blooms that take up carbon. Carbon export from the surface layer and, in particular, the ability of the ocean and sediments to sequester carbon for many years remains, however, poorly quantified. Here we report data from the CROZEX experiment in the Southern Ocean, which was conducted to test the hypothesis that the observed north-south gradient in phytoplankton concentrations in the vicinity of the Crozet Islands is induced by natural iron fertilization that results in enhanced organic carbon flux to the deep ocean. We report annual particulate carbon fluxes out of the surface layer, at three kilometres below the ocean surface and to the ocean floor. We find that carbon fluxes from a highly productive, naturally iron-fertilized region of the sub-Antarctic Southern Ocean are two to three times larger than the carbon fluxes from an adjacent high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll area not fertilized by iron. Our findings support the hypothesis that increased iron supply to the glacial sub-Antarctic may have directly enhanced carbon export to the deep ocean. The CROZEX sequestration efficiency (the amount of carbon sequestered below the depth of winter mixing for a given iron supply) of 8,600 mol mol(-1) was 18 times greater than that of a phytoplankton bloom induced artificially by adding iron, but 77 times smaller than that of another bloom initiated, like CROZEX, by a natural supply of iron. Large losses of purposefully added iron can explain the lower efficiency of the induced bloom(6). The discrepancy between the blooms naturally supplied with iron may result in part from an underestimate of horizontal iron supply.

  7. Enhancing recombinant protein production in human cell lines with a constitutive transport element and mRNA export proteins.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Yuki; Fujiwara, Naoko; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Kambe, Taiho; Nagao, Masaya; Hirose, Yutaka; Masuda, Seiji

    2011-05-20

    Recent research into mRNA maturation processes in the nucleus has identified a number of proteins involved in mRNA transcription, capping, splicing, end processing and export. Among them, the Tap-p15 heterodimer acts as an mRNA export receptor. Tap-p15 is recruited onto fully processed mRNA in the nucleus, which is ready for export to the cytoplasm, through associating with Aly or SR proteins on mRNA, or by directly associating with a constitutive transport element (CTE), an RNA element derived from type D retroviruses. mRNA containing a CTE is exported to the cytoplasm by directly associating with Tap-p15, even in the absence of Tap-recruiting proteins such as Aly or SR proteins on the mRNA. Here, we showed that the use of a CTE enhanced the expression of recombinant protein in human cell lines. The co-expression of reporter proteins and Tap-p15 also enhanced recombinant protein expression. Moreover, the use of a CTE and Tap-p15 synergistically further enhanced the recombinant protein expression. In addition to Tap-p15, several Tap-p15-recruiting proteins, including Aly and SR proteins, enhanced recombinant protein expression, albeit independently of the CTE. The incorporation of a CTE and Tap-p15-recruiting proteins into protein expression system is useful to increase recombinant protein yield in human cells.

  8. Urban Horticulture: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This guide, which was written as an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System, outlines the suggested scope and sequence of a 4-year program in urban horticulture. The guide consists of a course description; general course…

  9. Enhanced Particulate Organic Carbon Export at Eddy Edges in the Oligotrophic Western North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yung-Yen; Hung, Chin-Chang; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Chung, Wan-Chen; Wang, Yu-Huai; Lee, I-Huan; Chen, Kuo-Shu; Ho, Chuang-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale eddies in the subtropical oligotrophic ocean are ubiquitous and play an important role in nutrient supply and oceanic primary production. However, it is still unclear whether these mesoscale eddies can efficiently transfer CO2 from the atmosphere to deep waters via biological pump because of the sampling difficulty due to their transient nature. In 2007, particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes, measured below the euphotic zone at the edge of warm eddy were 136-194 mg-C m-2 d-1 which was greatly elevated over that (POC flux = 26-35 mg-C m-2 d-1) determined in the nutrient-depleted oligotrophic waters in the Western North Pacific (WNP). In 2010, higher POC fluxes (83-115 mg-C m-2 d-1) were also observed at the boundary of mesoscale eddies in the WNP. The enhanced POC flux at the edge of eddies was mainly attributed to both large denuded diatom frustules and zooplankton fecal pellets based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. The result suggests that mesoscale eddies in the oligotrophic waters in the subtropical WNP can efficiently increase the oceanic carbon export flux and the eddy edge is a crucial conduit in carbon sequestration to deep waters.

  10. Enhanced Particulate Organic Carbon Export at Eddy Edges in the Oligotrophic Western North Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Yung-Yen; Hung, Chin-Chang; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Chung, Wan-Chen; Wang, Yu-Huai; Lee, I-Huan; Chen, Kuo-Shu; Ho, Chuang-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale eddies in the subtropical oligotrophic ocean are ubiquitous and play an important role in nutrient supply and oceanic primary production. However, it is still unclear whether these mesoscale eddies can efficiently transfer CO2 from the atmosphere to deep waters via biological pump because of the sampling difficulty due to their transient nature. In 2007, particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes, measured below the euphotic zone at the edge of warm eddy were 136–194 mg-C m−2 d−1 which was greatly elevated over that (POC flux = 26–35 mg-C m−2 d−1) determined in the nutrient-depleted oligotrophic waters in the Western North Pacific (WNP). In 2010, higher POC fluxes (83–115 mg-C m−2 d−1) were also observed at the boundary of mesoscale eddies in the WNP. The enhanced POC flux at the edge of eddies was mainly attributed to both large denuded diatom frustules and zooplankton fecal pellets based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. The result suggests that mesoscale eddies in the oligotrophic waters in the subtropical WNP can efficiently increase the oceanic carbon export flux and the eddy edge is a crucial conduit in carbon sequestration to deep waters. PMID:26171611

  11. Silicon isotopes indicate enhanced carbon export efficiency in the North Atlantic during deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Katharine R.; Robinson, Laura F.; McManus, Jerry F.; Hays, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Today’s Sargasso Sea is nutrient starved, except for episodic upwelling events caused by wind-driven winter mixing and eddies. Enhanced diatom opal burial in Sargasso Sea sediments indicates that silicic acid, a limiting nutrient today, may have been more available in subsurface waters during Heinrich Stadials, millennial-scale climate perturbations of the last glacial and deglaciation. Here we use the geochemistry of opal-forming organisms from different water depths to demonstrate changes in silicic acid supply and utilization during the most recent Heinrich Stadial. We suggest that during the early phase (17.5-18 ka), wind-driven upwelling replenished silicic acid to the subsurface, resulting in low Si utilization. By 17 ka, stratification reduced the surface silicic acid supply leading to increased Si utilization efficiency. This abrupt shift in Si cycling would have contributed to high regional carbon export efficiency during the recent Heinrich Stadial, despite being a period of increasing atmospheric CO2.

  12. Diatom carbon export enhanced by silicate upwelling in the northeast Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Allen, John T; Brown, Louise; Sanders, Richard; Moore, C Mark; Mustard, Alexander; Fielding, Sophie; Lucas, Mike; Rixen, Michel; Savidge, Graham; Henson, Stephanie; Mayor, Dan

    2005-09-29

    Diatoms are unicellular or chain-forming phytoplankton that use silicon (Si) in cell wall construction. Their survival during periods of apparent nutrient exhaustion enhances carbon sequestration in frontal regions of the northern North Atlantic. These regions may therefore have a more important role in the 'biological pump' than they have previously been attributed, but how this is achieved is unknown. Diatom growth depends on silicate availability, in addition to nitrate and phosphate, but northern Atlantic waters are richer in nitrate than silicate. Following the spring stratification, diatoms are the first phytoplankton to bloom. Once silicate is exhausted, diatom blooms subside in a major export event. Here we show that, with nitrate still available for new production, the diatom bloom is prolonged where there is a periodic supply of new silicate: specifically, diatoms thrive by 'mining' deep-water silicate brought to the surface by an unstable ocean front. The mechanism we present here is not limited to silicate fertilization; similar mechanisms could support nitrate-, phosphate- or iron-limited frontal regions in oceans elsewhere.

  13. Enhanced POC export in the oligotrophic northwest Pacific Ocean after extreme weather events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuo-Shu; Hung, Chin-Chang; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Chou, Wen-Chen; Chung, Chih-Ching; Shih, Yung-Yen; Wang, Chau-Chang

    2013-11-01

    study effects of extreme weather events (EWEs, e.g., dust storm and typhoon) on the export of particulate organic carbon (POC) measured by a floating sediment trap in the oligotrophic ocean, eight sea-going expeditions were conducted in the oligotrophic northwest Pacific (NWP) in 2007 and 2008, covering all four seasons and the passage of several EWEs. Results of year-round field observations demonstrate that the POC export fluxes in the oligotrophic NWP did not exhibit apparent seasonal variations yielding an average flux of 36.9 ± 5.8 mg-C m-2 d-1 without EWE effects. With EWE effects, however, the POC export flux (51.7 ± 13.2 mg-C m-2 d-1) showed an approximately 40% increase compared to the average flux measured without EWE effects. These results suggest that EWEs can trigger elevated POC export from the euphotic zone in the oligotrophic ocean.

  14. Physiological relaxation induced by horticultural activity: transplanting work using flowering plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite increasing attention and a growing volume of research data, little physiological evidence is available on the benefits of horticultural activity and the different effects on individuals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological effects of horticultural activity and to examine how differences in personality alter these effects. Results The effects of transplanting real flowers (horticultural activity) and handling artificial flowers (control activity) on human physiological activity were compared. On the first day, eight participants engaged in horticultural activity and another eight in the control activity. On the second day, participants switched roles. Participants’ physiological conditions during each activity were assessed by measuring the heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV). Psychological responses, which were measured using a semantic differential rating scale, showed that the horticultural activity promoted comfortable, soothed, and natural feelings, compared to the control activity. Analysis of physiological responses using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that sympathetic nervous activity significantly decreased in the late time period (11 to 15 minutes) of horticultural activity only in the type A group. Conclusions This study supports the fact that the horticultural activity can enhance psychological and physiological relaxation effects, although these physiological effects can differ among individuals with different personalities. PMID:24112302

  15. Using PC Software To Enhance the Student's Ability To Learn the Exporting Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckles, Tom A.; Lange, Irene

    This paper describes the advantages of using computer simulations in the classroom or managerial environment and the major premise and principal components of Export to Win!, a computer simulation used in international marketing seminars. A rationale for using computer simulations argues that they improve the quality of teaching by building…

  16. Bap31 enhances the endoplasmic reticulum export and quality control of human class I MHC molecules.

    PubMed

    Ladasky, John J; Boyle, Sarah; Seth, Malini; Li, Hewang; Pentcheva, Tsvetelina; Abe, Fumiyoshi; Steinberg, Steven J; Edidin, Michael

    2006-11-01

    The assembly of class I MHC molecules and their export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is governed by chaperones and accessory proteins. We present evidence that the putative cargo receptor protein Bap31 participates in the transport and the quality control of human class I molecules. Transfection of the human adenocarcinoma cell line HeLa with yellow fluorescent protein-Bap31 chimeras increased surface levels of class I in a dose-dependent manner, by as much as 3.7-fold. The increase in surface class I resulted from an increase in the rate of export of newly synthesized class I molecules to the cell surface and from an increase in the stability of the exported molecules. We propose that Bap31 performs quality control on class I molecules in two distinct phases: first, by exporting peptide-loaded class I molecules to the ER/Golgi intermediate compartment, and second, by retrieving class I molecules that have lost peptides in the acidic post-ER environment. This function of Bap31 is conditional or redundant, because we find that Bap31 deficiency does not reduce surface class I levels. Overexpression of the Bap31 homolog, Bap29, decreases surface class levels in HeLa, indicating that it does not substitute for Bap31.

  17. CVAE-VEH Horticulture Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This curriculum guide consists of 14 units for use in teaching a high school level horticulture course. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: opportunities in horticultural occupations; plant classification and identification; structures and equipment used in producing greenhouse, ornamental, and nursery plants; greenhouse…

  18. Competency-Based Horticulture: Gardening--Groundskeeping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    This competency-based horticulture curriculum guide is designed to provide secondary and postsecondary horticulture teachers with a task-oriented program in gardening/groundskeeping. It contains a master resource list, a listing of gardening/groundskeeping resources available from various states, and 87 competency task sheets organized into 10…

  19. Competency-Based Horticulture. Gardening/Groundskeeping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    One of two competency-based horticulture curriculum guides developed by an Illinois project, this Gardening/Groundskeeping guide provides the classroom teacher with specific tasks determined by state industry personnel to be necessary for entry-level job placement. It is intended for horticulture education at the senior high school and two-year…

  20. Competencies Needed by Workers in Horticultural Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaas, Duane; Kahler, Alan A.

    This study was undertaken to identify occupational areas in the horticultural industry and to identify, describe, and categorize the mental and physical skills needed by workers in horticultural occupations. Competency lists were developed for these occupational areas: arborist services, farm and garden supply centers, golf course management,…

  1. Introduction to Horticulture. Unit A-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Vernon D.; Backlund, Paul

    Intended to provide about 10 hours of instruction to first-year vocational agriculture students, this instructional unit introduces students to the horticulture industry, provides a broad background of horticultural practices, and covers many skills that can be directly applied by students in their projects. Topics of the individual sections of…

  2. Competency-Based Horticulture: Turfgrass Maintenance Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    This competency-based horticulture curriculum guide is designed to provide secondary and postsecondary horticulture teachers with a task-oriented program for training turfgrass maintenance workers. It contains a master resource list, a listing of turfgrass maintenance resources available from various states, and 59 competency task sheets organized…

  3. Horticulture Therapy Activities for Exceptional Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airhart, Douglas L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Tennessee Technological University's Program of Special Education sponsors a "Super Saturday" of enrichment activities for gifted and talented students as well as students with learning disabilities. A session on horticulture was planned and arranged by students in a class on horticultural therapy who designed learning activities of…

  4. A Sub-Element in PRE enhances nuclear export of intronless mRNAs by recruiting the TREX complex via ZC3H18.

    PubMed

    Chi, Binkai; Wang, Ke; Du, Yanhua; Gui, Bin; Chang, Xingya; Wang, Lantian; Fan, Jing; Chen, She; Wu, Xudong; Li, Guohui; Cheng, Hong

    2014-06-01

    Viral RNA elements that facilitate mRNA export are useful tools for identifying cellular RNA export factors. Here we show that hepatitis B virus post-transcriptional element (PRE) is one such element, and using PRE several new cellular mRNA export factors were identified. We found that PRE drastically enhances the cytoplasmic accumulation of cDNA transcripts independent of any viral protein. Systematic deletion analysis revealed the existence of a 116 nt functional Sub-Element of PRE (SEP1). The RNP that forms on the SEP1 RNA was affinity purified, in which TREX components as well as several other proteins were identified. TREX components and the SEP1-associating protein ZC3H18 are required for SEP1-mediated mRNA export. Significantly, ZC3H18 directly binds to the SEP1 RNA, interacts with TREX and is required for stable association of TREX with the SEP1-containing mRNA. Requirements for SEP1-mediated mRNA export are similar to those for splicing-dependent mRNA export. Consistent with these similarities, several SEP1-interacting proteins, including ZC3H18, ARS2, Acinus and Brr2, are required for efficient nuclear export of polyA RNAs. Together, our data indicate that SEP1 enhances mRNA export by recruiting TREX via ZC3H18. The new mRNA export factors that we identified might be involved in cap- and splicing-dependent TREX recruitment to cellular mRNAs.

  5. A Comprehensive Horticulture Curriculum Guide for New Jersey Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ. Cook Coll.

    A horticultural core curriculum and draft copies of three horticultural cluster curricula are provided. Materials related to the curriculum development project appear first. The core curriculum is designed to provide broad initial instruction in horticulture for students in the first year of a secondary-level vocational horticulture program. The…

  6. Horticulture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Ashleigh Barbee, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  7. Enhanced carbon export to the abyssal depths driven by atmosphere dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrosa-Påmies, R.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Canals, M.; Lampadariou, N.; Velaoras, D.; Gogou, A.; Parinos, C.; Calafat, A.

    2016-08-01

    Long-term biogeochemical observations are critical to understand the natural ability of the oceans to fix CO2 into organic carbon and export it to the deep as sinking particles. Here we present results from a 3 year (2010-2013) sediment trap deployment that allowed detecting interannual variations of carbon fluxes beyond 4000 m depth in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Anomalous atmospheric conditions triggering strong heat losses in winter-spring 2012 resulted in convective mixing, nutrient uplifting, and a diatom-dominated bloom southeast of Crete. Phytoplankton growth, reinforced by the arrival of nutrients from airborne Etna volcano ash, was the highest in the last decade (satellite-derived Chl a concentrations up to 1.9 mg m-3). This situation caused carbon export to increase by 2 orders of magnitude (12.2 mg m-2 d-1) with respect to typical values, which demonstrates how pulses of sinking fresh phytodetritus linked to rare atmospheric processes can episodically impact one of the most oligotrophic environments in the world ocean.

  8. An enhanced export coefficient based optimization model for supporting agricultural nonpoint source pollution mitigation under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Rong, Qiangqiang; Cai, Yanpeng; Chen, Bing; Yue, Wencong; Yin, Xin'an; Tan, Qian

    2017-02-15

    In this research, an export coefficient based dual inexact two-stage stochastic credibility constrained programming (ECDITSCCP) model was developed through integrating an improved export coefficient model (ECM), interval linear programming (ILP), fuzzy credibility constrained programming (FCCP) and a fuzzy expected value equation within a general two stage programming (TSP) framework. The proposed ECDITSCCP model can effectively address multiple uncertainties expressed as random variables, fuzzy numbers, pure and dual intervals. Also, the model can provide a direct linkage between pre-regulated management policies and the associated economic implications. Moreover, the solutions under multiple credibility levels can be obtained for providing potential decision alternatives for decision makers. The proposed model was then applied to identify optimal land use structures for agricultural NPS pollution mitigation in a representative upstream subcatchment of the Miyun Reservoir watershed in north China. Optimal solutions of the model were successfully obtained, indicating desired land use patterns and nutrient discharge schemes to get a maximum agricultural system benefits under a limited discharge permit. Also, numerous results under multiple credibility levels could provide policy makers with several options, which could help get an appropriate balance between system benefits and pollution mitigation. The developed ECDITSCCP model can be effectively applied to addressing the uncertain information in agricultural systems and shows great applicability to the land use adjustment for agricultural NPS pollution mitigation.

  9. Horticultural therapy in dementia care: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Blake, Marianne; Mitchell, Gary

    2016-01-20

    Aim To present a narrative review of the empirical literature on the use of horticultural therapy in dementia care. Method A comprehensive literature search, conducted in December 2014, resulted in the selection of 15 primary research articles for review. Of these, three used qualitative methods, five used quantitative methods and seven used mixed methodology. The articles were critically appraised, and the narrative synthesis used a thematic approach whereby prominent themes from the articles were grouped to form representative themes. Findings Three main themes emerged from the narrative synthesis: the emotional health of people living with dementia, their perceived self-identity and their levels of engagement. Conclusion Horticultural therapy can be beneficial. At a macro-level, it is an inexpensive therapy that does not require specialist training to deliver. At a micro-level, it enhances the wellbeing of people living with dementia. Recommendations are made to promote access to appropriate horticultural therapy for people living with dementia, and for further research in this area.

  10. Diatom resting spore ecology drives enhanced carbon export from a naturally iron-fertilized bloom in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Ian; Kemp, Alan E. S.; Moore, C. Mark; Lampitt, Richard S.; Wolff, George A.; Holtvoeth, Jens

    2012-03-01

    Southern Ocean Island systems sustain phytoplankton blooms induced by natural iron fertilization that are important for the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide and serve as analogues for past and future climate change. We present data on diatom flux assemblages and the biogeochemical properties of sinking particles to explain the enhanced particulate organic carbon (POC) export fluxes observed in response to natural iron supply in the Crozet Islands region (CROZeX). Moored deep-ocean sediment traps (>2000 m) were located beneath a naturally fertilized island bloom and beneath an adjacent High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) control site. Deep-ocean carbon flux from the naturally-fertilized bloom area was tightly correlated (R = 0.83, n = 12, P < 0.0006) with the resting spore flux of a single island-associated diatom species,Eucampia antarctica var. antarctica. The unusually well preserved state of the Eucampia-associated carbon flux, determined by amino acid studies of organic matter degradation, was likely influenced by their ecology, since diatom resting spores are adapted to settle rapidly out of the surface ocean preserving viable cells. The naturally fertilized bloom enhanced carbon flux and the resulting Si/C and Si/N ratios were 2.0-3.4-fold and 2.2-3.5-fold lower than those measured in the adjacent HNLC control area. The enhanced carbon export and distinctive stoichiometry observed in naturally fertilized systems is therefore largely not attributable to iron relief of open ocean diatoms, but rather to the advection and growth of diatom species characteristic of island systems and the subsequent flux of resting spores. Carbon export estimates from current natural iron fertilization studies therefore represent a highly specific response of the island systems chosen as natural laboratories and may not be appropriate analogues for the larger Southern Ocean response. The broader implications of our results emphasize the role of phytoplankton diversity and

  11. Fluid flow enhances the effectiveness of toxin export by aquatic microorganisms: A first-passage perspective on microvilli and the concentration boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licata, Nicholas A.; Clark, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    A central challenge for organisms during development is determining a means to efficiently export toxic molecules from inside the developing embryo. For aquatic microorganisms, the strategies employed should be robust with respect to the variable ocean environment and limit the chances that exported toxins are reabsorbed. As a result, the problem of toxin export is closely related to the physics of mass transport in a fluid. In this paper, we consider a model first-passage problem for the uptake of exported toxins by a spherical embryo. By considering how macroscale fluid turbulence manifests itself on the microscale of the embryo, we determine that fluid flow enhances the effectiveness of toxin export as compared to the case of diffusion-limited transport. In the regime of a large Péclet number, a perturbative solution of the advection-diffusion equation reveals that a concentration boundary layer forms at the surface of the embryo. The model results suggest a functional role for cell surface roughness in the export process, with the thickness of the concentration boundary layer setting the length scale for cell membrane protrusions known as microvilli. We highlight connections between the model results and experiments on the development of sea urchin embryos.

  12. 1 Outreach, Education and Domestic Market Enhancement 2 Export Promotion and Assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Geothermal Energy Association

    2004-03-15

    Geothermal Energy Association supports the US geothermal industry in its efforts to bring more clean geothermal energy on-line throughout the world. Activities designed to accomplish this goal include: (1) developing and maintaining data bases, web pages, (2) commissioning of special studies and reports, (3) preparing, printing and distributing brochures and newsletters, (4) developing exhibits and displays, and participating in trade shows, (5) designing, producing and disseminating audio-video materials, (6) monitoring and coordinating programs carried out by US DOE and other Federal agencies, (7) holding workshops to facilitate communication between researchers and industry and to encourage their recognition of emerging markets for geothermal technology, (8) attending conferences, making speeches and presentation, and otherwise interacting with environmental and other renewable energy organizations and coalitions, (9) hosting events in Washington, DC and other appropriate locations to educate Federal, State and local representatives, environmental groups, the news media, and other about the status and potential of geothermal energy, (10) conducting member services such as the preparation and distribution of a member newsletter related to operating and maintaining s useful and viable association, and (11) performing similar kinds of activities designed to inform others about geothermal energy. The activities of the export promotion aim to assist industry in accomplishing the goal of successfully penetrating and developing energy in country with existing geothermal resources and a desire to develop them. Activities including in export promotion are: (1)needs analysis and assessment involve monitoring the progress of developing markets and projects overseas and working with US industry to determine what future activities by GEA would be of greatest assistance, (2) outreach includes the preparation and dissemination of brochures and videos for foreign professionals

  13. Professional Horticulture Competencies for Entry Level and Experienced Vocational Horticulture Teachers in Pennsylvania. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attarian, A. Ronald

    The purpose of this study was to identify the professional horticultural competencies that vocational horticultural teachers must perform successfully and to distinguish between those competencies needed by entry level teachers and those needed by experienced teachers. A secondary purpose was to examine differences in the ratings of the…

  14. Formation of Tap/NXT1 Heterodimers Activates Tap-Dependent Nuclear mRNA Export by Enhancing Recruitment to Nuclear Pore Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Wiegand, Heather L.; Coburn, Glen A.; Zeng, Yan; Kang, Yibin; Bogerd, Hal P.; Cullen, Bryan R.

    2002-01-01

    The Tap protein has been shown to activate the nuclear export of mRNA species bearing retroviral constitutive transport elements and is also believed to play an essential role in the sequence nonspecific export of cellular mRNAs. However, it has remained unclear how Tap activity is regulated in vivo. Here, we report that the small NXT1/p15-1 protein functions as a critical cofactor for Tap-mediated mRNA export in both human and invertebrate cells. In the absence of NXT1 binding, the Tap protein is unable to effectively interact with components of the nuclear pore complex and both Tap nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the nuclear export of mRNA molecules tethered to Tap are therefore severely attenuated. Formation of a Tap/NXT1 heterodimer enhances nucleoporin binding both in vitro and in vivo and induces the formation of a Tap/NXT1/nucleoporin ternary complex that is likely to be a key intermediate in the process of nuclear mRNA export. The critical importance of NXT1 for the nuclear export of poly(A)+ RNA is emphasized by the finding that specific inhibition of the expression of the Drosophila homolog of human NXT1, by using RNA interference, results in the nuclear accumulation of poly(A)+ RNA in cultured insect cells. These data suggest that NXT1 may act as a molecular switch that regulates the ability of Tap to mediate nuclear mRNA export by controlling the interaction of Tap with components of the nuclear pore. PMID:11739738

  15. 26 CFR 1.199-6 - Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives. 1... (continued) § 1.199-6 Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives. (a) In general. A patron who receives a... horticultural cooperative (cooperative) (as defined in paragraph (f) of this section) is allowed a...

  16. 26 CFR 1.199-6 - Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives. 1... (continued) § 1.199-6 Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives. (a) In general. A patron who receives a... horticultural cooperative (cooperative) (as defined in paragraph (f) of this section) is allowed a...

  17. Use of Problem-Based Learning in the Teaching and Learning of Horticultural Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Lord; Dowsett, Eric; Sullivan, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Problem-based learning (PBL), a relatively novel teaching and learning process in horticulture, was investigated. Proper application of PBL can potentially create a learning context that enhances student learning. Design/Methodology/Approach: Students worked on two complex ill-structured problems: (1) to produce fresh baby greens for a…

  18. Ornamental Horticulture: Program Planning Guide: Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Roger R.; Stitt, Thomas R.

    The program planning guide for ornamental horticulture was written to assist Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations (ABAO) teachers in enriching existing programs and/or to provide the basis for expansion of offerings to include additional materials for the cluster areas of arboriculture, floriculture, greenhouse operation and management,…

  19. Agriculture: Horticulture. Secondary Schools. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    This agricultural curriculum guide on horticulture for secondary students is one of six developed for inservice teachers at Marianas High School in Saipan. The guide provides the rationale, description, goals, and objectives of the program; the program of studies and performance objectives by levels; samples of lesson plans for effective delivery…

  20. Carotenoid metabolism and regulation in horticultural crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature. The vivid yellow, orange, and red colors in many horticultural crops attribute to overaccumulation of carotenoids, which contribute to a critical agronomic trait for flowers and an important quality trait for fruits and vegeta...

  1. Ornamental Horticulture Production Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains guidesheets for the ornamental horticulture production occupations. Each guidesheet provides a job-relevant task; performance objective, with task, performance standard, source of standard, and conditions for performance of task; enabling objectives; a list of resources; teaching activities; a criterion-referenced…

  2. Ornamental Horticulture. A Curriculum Guide. Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Agricultural Education Section.

    Developed as part of a larger project to revise the total agricultural education curriculum in South Carolina, this curriculum guide for a 2-year ornamental horticulture course contains six functional units, each with several sub-units, and six horizontal supportive units. Each unit includes behavioral objectives, learning activities, topic…

  3. Using Horticulture As Therapy in Public Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, George; Dillon, Roy D.

    1974-01-01

    Horticultural activities to bring about desired changes in individual behavior are being developed in many psychiatric hospitals, rehabilitation centers, senior citizen homes, correctional institutions, and centers for the mentally handicapped. The authors provide some examples of greenhouse-oriented projects appropriate for therapy. (EA)

  4. Horticulture-Agriculture Technologies. State Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    This document, which lists the horticultural-agricultural technologies competencies identified by representatives from business, industry, and labor as well as educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary…

  5. Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Properties for Horticultural Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels are commonly employed to ensure hydration of the growth media and minimize crop losses during the crop production and postproduction phases in horticulture. However, studies of the effect of these materials have shown that they have a minimal effect on crop life and q...

  6. Horticulture Therapy Curriculum Development. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sally; And Others

    This final report includes two major components: a narrative describing a project at Edmonds Community College, Washington, to develop a horticultural therapy curriculum and descriptions of six courses developed or revised during the project. The narrative reports the development of a supplementary interdisciplinary certification program to train…

  7. Horticulture Therapy Activities for Exceptional Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doutt, Kathleen M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The Tennessee Technological University offers an enrichment program (consisting of a summer session and three Saturdays) in which gifted children and children with learning disabilities are grouped together for activities. Horticulture is one of the few enrichment activities adaptable to both groups. Children are allowed to engage in the same…

  8. Marketing time predicts naturalization of horticultural plants.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, Robert W; Liu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Horticulture is an important source of naturalized plants, but our knowledge about naturalization frequencies and potential patterns of naturalization in horticultural plants is limited. We analyzed a unique set of data derived from the detailed sales catalogs (1887-1930) of the most important early Florida, USA, plant nursery (Royal Palm Nursery) to detect naturalization patterns of these horticultural plants in the state. Of the 1903 nonnative species sold by the nursery, 15% naturalized. The probability of plants becoming naturalized increases significantly with the number of years the plants were marketed. Plants that became invasive and naturalized were sold for an average of 19.6 and 14.8 years, respectively, compared to 6.8 years for non-naturalized plants, and the naturalization of plants sold for 30 years or more is 70%. Unexpectedly, plants that were sold earlier were less likely to naturalize than those sold later. The nursery's inexperience, which caused them to grow and market many plants unsuited to Florida during their early period, may account for this pattern. Plants with pantropical distributions and those native to both Africa and Asia were more likely to naturalize (42%), than were plants native to other smaller regions, suggesting that plants with large native ranges were more likely to naturalize. Naturalization percentages also differed according to plant life form, with the most naturalization occurring in aquatic herbs (36.8%) and vines (30.8%). Plants belonging to the families Araceae, Apocynaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Oleaceae, and Verbenaceae had higher than expected naturalization. Information theoretic model selection indicated that the number of years a plant was sold, alone or together with the first year a plant was sold, was the strongest predictor of naturalization. Because continued importation and marketing of nonnative horticultural plants will lead to additional plant naturalization and invasion, a comprehensive approach

  9. Horticultural therapy: the garden benefits everyone.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J

    1998-10-01

    Horticulture therapy (HT) is an applied adjuctive therapy, using plants and gardening materials, to help the client with mental illness to improve social skills, self-esteem, and use of leisure time. HT provides a nonthreatening context for the development of a therapeutic alliance between client and nursing student. HT provides a group experience for the student nurse, allowing the promotion of therapeutic community, assessment of patient status, and management of a therapy session from start to finish via the nursing process.

  10. 75 FR 14335 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations To Enhance U.S. Homeland Security: Addition of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... issues identified by an interagency working group that is reviewing export control issues related to homeland security. The interagency working group is made up of representatives from the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Homeland Security and State. The purpose of the interagency working group is to...

  11. Temporal and spatial control of gene expression in horticultural crops

    PubMed Central

    Dutt, Manjul; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Soriano, Leonardo; Kandel, Raju; Grosser, Jude W

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology provides plant breeders an additional tool to improve various traits desired by growers and consumers of horticultural crops. It also provides genetic solutions to major problems affecting horticultural crops and can be a means for rapid improvement of a cultivar. With the availability of a number of horticultural genome sequences, it has become relatively easier to utilize these resources to identify DNA sequences for both basic and applied research. Promoters play a key role in plant gene expression and the regulation of gene expression. In recent years, rapid progress has been made on the isolation and evaluation of plant-derived promoters and their use in horticultural crops, as more and more species become amenable to genetic transformation. Our understanding of the tools and techniques of horticultural plant biotechnology has now evolved from a discovery phase to an implementation phase. The availability of a large number of promoters derived from horticultural plants opens up the field for utilization of native sequences and improving crops using precision breeding. In this review, we look at the temporal and spatial control of gene expression in horticultural crops and the usage of a variety of promoters either isolated from horticultural crops or used in horticultural crop improvement. PMID:26504550

  12. A conserved RNA structural element within the hepatitis B virus post-transcriptional regulatory element enhance nuclear export of intronless transcripts and repress the splicing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Visootsat, Akasit; Payungporn, Sunchai; T-Thienprasert, Nattanan P

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a primary cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis worldwide. To develop novel antiviral drugs, a better understanding of HBV gene expression regulation is vital. One important aspect is to understand how HBV hijacks the cellular machinery to export unspliced RNA from the nucleus. The HBV post-transcriptional regulatory element (HBV PRE) has been proposed to be the HBV RNA nuclear export element. However, the function remains controversial, and the core element is unclear. This study, therefore, aimed to identify functional regulatory elements within the HBV PRE and investigate their functions. Using bioinformatics programs based on sequence conservation and conserved RNA secondary structures, three regulatory elements were predicted, namely PRE 1151-1410, PRE 1520-1620 and PRE 1650-1684. PRE 1151-1410 significantly increased intronless and unspliced luciferase activity in both HepG2 and COS-7 cells. Likewise, PRE 1151-1410 significantly elevated intronless and unspliced HBV surface transcripts in liver cancer cells. Moreover, motif analysis predicted that PRE 1151-1410 contains several regulatory motifs. This study reported the roles of PRE 1151-1410 in intronless transcript nuclear export and the splicing mechanism. Additionally, these results provide knowledge in the field of HBV RNA regulation. Moreover, PRE 1151-1410 may be used to enhance the expression of other mRNAs in intronless reporter plasmids.

  13. 75 FR 12433 - National Export Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Executive Order 13534 of March 11, 2010 National Export... of America, including the Export Enhancement Act of 1992, Public Law 102-429, 106 Stat. 2186, and... facilitate the creation of jobs in the United States through the promotion of exports, and to ensure...

  14. Restricted Inter-ocean Exchange and Attenuated Biological Export Caused Enhanced Carbonate Preservation in the PETM Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Boudreau, B. P.; Dickens, G. R.; Sluijs, A.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) release during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 55.8 Myr BP) acidified the oceans, causing a decrease in calcium carbonate (CaCO3) preservation. During the subsequent recovery from this acidification, the sediment CaCO3 content came to exceed pre-PETM values, known as over-deepening or over-shooting. Past studies claim to explain these trends, but have failed to reproduce quantitatively the time series of CaCO3 preservation. We employ a simple biogeochemical model to recreate the CaCO3 records preserved at Walvis Ridge of the Atlantic Ocean. Replication of the observed changes, both shallowing and the subsequent over-deepening, requires two conditions not previously considered: (1) limited deep-water exchange between the Indo-Atlantic and Pacific oceans and (2) a ~50% reduction in the export of CaCO3 to the deep sea during acidification. Contrary to past theories that attributed over-deepening to increased riverine alkalinity input, we find that over-deepening is an emergent property, generated at constant riverine input when attenuation of CaCO3 export causes an unbalanced alkalinity input to the deep oceans (alkalinization) and the development of deep super-saturation. Restoration of CaCO3 export, particularly in the super-saturated deep Indo-Atlantic ocean, later in the PETM leads to greater accumulation of carbonates, ergo over-shooting, which returns the ocean to pre-PETM conditions over a time scale greater than 200 kyr. While this feedback between carbonate export and the riverine input has not previously been considered, it appears to constitute an important modification of the classic carbonate compensation concept used to explain oceanic response to acidification.

  15. The ubiquitin ligase MuRF1 regulates PPARα activity in the heart by enhancing nuclear export via monoubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Jessica E.; Liao, Jie-Ying; He, Jun; Schisler, Jonathan C.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Drujan, Doreen; Glass, David L.; Frederick, C.Brandon; Yoder, Bryan C.; Lalush, David S.; Patterson, Cam; Willis, Monte S.

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptional regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α by post-translational modification, such as ubiquitin, has not been described. We report here for the first time an ubiquitin ligase (muscle ring finger-1/MuRF1) that inhibits fatty acid oxidation by inhibiting PPARα, but not PPARβ/δ or PPARγ in cardiomyocytes in vitro. Similarly, MuRF1 Tg+ hearts showed significant decreases in nuclear PPARα activity and acyl-carnitine intermediates, while MuRF1−/− hearts exhibited increased PPARα activity and acyl-carnitine intermediates. MuRF1 directly interacts with PPARα, mono-ubiquitinates it, and targets it for nuclear export to inhibit fatty acid oxidation in a proteasome independent manner. We then identified a previously undescribed nuclear export sequence in PPARα, along with three specific lysines (292, 310, 388) required for MuRF1s targeting of nuclear export. These studies identify the role of ubiquitination in regulating cardiac PPARα, including the ubiquitin ligase that may be responsible for this critical regulation of cardiac metabolism in heart failure. PMID:26116825

  16. Horticultural Related Occupations. VEH Horticulture Related. Curriculum Guide for Agribusiness 161.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for teachers to use in developing a 1- or 2-year course in horticulture-related occupations for at-risk and special education students. It is one of 28 semester courses in agricultural science and technology for Texas high schools. The program prepares low-achieving students with employability skills that…

  17. Healing, health, and horticulture: introduction to the workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present-day emphasis of horticulture and health is an extension of ancient and medieval traditions. The relationship of healing and the horticultural arts predates written history and relates to ancient wisdom, custom, and folklore. Plants and health have been of great concern for humankind cons...

  18. Ornamental Horticulture. Course of Study Outlines. 1975 Edition. Volume XXX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Aubry

    These courses of study in ornamental horticulture for secondary and adult technical education levels are based on a 1972 Rutgers University study and are designed to accomodate occupational needs in the field of ornamental horticulture. Job titles emphasized at the secondary level are caretaker, nurserymen, flower grower, and flower salesperson;…

  19. Environmental Horticulture. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachler, Mike; Sappe', Hoyt

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of environmental horticulture, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to address the needs of the horticulture field. Section 1 contains general information:…

  20. Asia’s Indigenous Horticultural Crops: An Introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop diversity is an urgent issue today in horticulture, which is faced with an erosion of crop variability as monoculture systems dominate crop production throughout the world, particularly in Europe and North America. At the same time there is great interest in indigenous horticultural crops aroun...

  1. Kansas Vocational Agriculture Education. Basic Core Curriculum Project, Horticulture I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    This secondary horticulture curriculum guide is one of a set of three designated as the basic core of instruction for horticulture programs in Kansas. Units of instruction are presented in thirteen sections: (1) Orientation and Careers, (2) Leadership and Future Farmers of America, (3) Supervised Occupational Experience Program, (4) Plant…

  2. Kansas Vocational Agriculture Education. Basic Core Curriculum Project, Horticulture II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    This second horticulture guide is one of a set of three designated as the basic core of instruction for horticulture programs in Kansas. Units of instruction are presented in eight sections: (1) Leadership, (2) Supervised Occupational Experience, (3) Plant Propagation, (4) Soil and Plant Growth Media, (5) Fertilizers, (6) Greenhouse, (7) Plant…

  3. Status of global strategies for horticultural fruit crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the International Horticultural Congress of 2014, a workshop discussed the advances of the development of global conservation strategies for some of the horticultural crops mentioned in International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) Annex 1. While global co...

  4. Anti-tumor activity of selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compounds, is enhanced in non-Hodgkin lymphoma through combination with mTOR inhibitor and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Muqbil, Irfana; Aboukameel, Amro; Elloul, Sivan; Carlson, Robert; Senapedis, William; Baloglu, Erkan; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Bhutani, Divaya; Zonder, Jeffrey; Azmi, Asfar S; Mohammad, Ramzi M

    2016-12-28

    In previous studies we demonstrated that targeting the nuclear exporter protein exportin-1 (CRM1/XPO1) by a selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compound is a viable therapeutic strategy against Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). Our studies along with pre-clinical work from others led to the evaluation of the lead SINE compound, selinexor, in a phase 1 trial in patients with CLL or NHL (NCT02303392). Continuing our previous work, we studied combinations of selinexor-dexamethasone (DEX) and selinexor-everolimus (EVER) in NHL. Combination of selinexor with DEX or EVER resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity in WSU-DLCL2 and WSU-FSCCL cells which was consistent with enhanced apoptosis. Molecular analysis showed enhancement in the activation of apoptotic signaling and down-regulation of XPO1. This enhancement is consistent with the mechanism of action of these drugs in that both selinexor and DEX antagonize NF-κB (p65) and mTOR (EVER target) is an XPO1 cargo protein. SINE compounds, KPT-251 and KPT-276, showed activities similar to CHOP (cyclophosphamide-hydroxydaunorubicin-oncovin-prednisone) regimen in subcutaneous and disseminated NHL xenograft models in vivo. In both animal models the anti-lymphoma activity of selinexor is enhanced through combination with DEX or EVER. The in vivo activity of selinexor and related SINE compounds relative to 'standard of care' treatment is consistent with the objective responses observed in Phase I NHL patients treated with selinexor. Our pre-clinical data provide a rational basis for testing these combinations in Phase II NHL trials.

  5. The other aspect of solar energy utilization. Solar technologies export enhancement: A central European point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, C. J.; Nitsch, J.; Klaiss, H.; Voigt, C.

    1985-11-01

    It is shown that solar energy utilization can, on a moderate scale, supplement the indigenous energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany. It can contribute to the prevention of fatal ecological damage, open an attractive export market and, in the long run, prepare ground for North-South compensation, where energy-poor but technology rich countries cooperate with countries of the Third World, which are often rich in raw materials and are situated in the solar belt of the world, for the benefit of the implementation of a solar industry or the production of a marketable synthetic solar energy carrier.

  6. The social dimensions of therapeutic horticulture.

    PubMed

    Harris, Holly

    2017-02-22

    Harnessing nature to promote mental health is increasingly seen as a sustainable solution to healthcare across the industrialised world. The benefits of these approaches to well-being include reduced symptoms of anxiety, depression and improved social functioning. Many studies assume that contact with nature is the main therapeutic component of these interventions yet 'green care' programmes typically include activities not based on 'nature' that may contribute to positive outcomes. This study explored the views of service users participating in a Therapeutic Horticultural programme on what factors promoted their engagement in the project, to identify variables other than 'nature' that may be responsible for successful engagement in these programmes. A secondary aim was to assess the significance 'nature' plays including, for example whether a prior interest in horticultural-related activities, such as gardening, is significant. Two focus groups were held with mental health service users (n = 15) attending a gardening project in south-east England. Findings revealed that the social element of the project was the key facilitator to engagement; the flexible structure of the gardening project was also significant and allowed service users to feel empowered. 'Nature' evoked a sense of calm and provided participants with a non-threatening space that was engaging.

  7. Workload composition of the organic horticulture.

    PubMed

    Abrahão, R F; Ribeiro, I A V; Tereso, M J A

    2012-01-01

    This project aimed the characterization of the physical workload of the organic horticulture by determining the frequency of exposure of operators to some activity categories. To do this, an adaptation of the PATH method (Posture, Activities, Tools and Handling) was done to be used in the context of agriculture work. The approach included an evaluation of physical effort demanded to perform the tasks in the work systems from an systematic sampling of work situations from a synchronized monitoring of the heart rate; a characterization of posture repertoire adopted by workers by adapting the OWAS method; an identification of pain body areas using the Corlett diagram; and a subjective evaluation of perceived effort using the RPE Borg scale. The results of the individual assessments were cross correlated and explained from an observation of the work activity. Postural demands were more significant than cardiovascular demands for the studied tasks, and correlated positively with the expressions of bodily discomfort. It is expected that, besides the knowledge obtained of the physical effort demanded by organic horticulture, this project will be useful for the development of new technologies directed to minimize the difficulties of the human work and to raise the work productivity.

  8. HIV-1 Nef-associated Factor 1 Enhances Viral Production by Interacting with CRM1 to Promote Nuclear Export of Unspliced HIV-1 gag mRNA.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao-Xin; Wang, Hai-Bo; Li, Chuan; Jiang, Jin-Feng; Xiong, Si-Dong; Jin, Xia; Wu, Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-02-26

    HIV-1 depends on host-cell-encoded factors to complete its life cycle. A comprehensive understanding of how HIV-1 manipulates host machineries during viral infection can facilitate the identification of host targets for antiviral drugs or gene therapy. The cellular protein Naf1 (HIV-1 Nef-associated factor 1) is a CRM1-dependent nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein, and has been identified to regulate multiple receptor-mediated signal pathways in inflammation. The cytoplasm-located Naf1 can inhibit NF-κB activation through binding to A20, and the loss of Naf1 controlled NF-κB activation is associated with multiple autoimmune diseases. However, the effect of Naf1 on HIV-1 mRNA expression has not been characterized. In this study we found that the nucleus-located Naf1 could promote nuclear export of unspliced HIV-1 gag mRNA. We demonstrated that the association between Naf1 and CRM1 was required for this function as the inhibition or knockdown of CRM1 expression significantly impaired Naf1-promoted HIV-1 production. The mutation of Naf1 nuclear export signals (NESs) that account for CRM1 recruitment for nuclear export decreased Naf1 function. Additionally, the mutation of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of Naf1 diminished its ability to promote HIV-1 production, demonstrating that the shuttling property of Naf1 is required for this function. Our results reveal a novel role of Naf1 in enhancing HIV-1 production, and provide a potential therapeutic target for controlling HIV-1 infection.

  9. Water Deficit Enhances C Export to the Roots in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants with Contribution of Sucrose Transporters in Both Shoot and Roots1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Mickaël; Porcheron, Benoît; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi; Pourtau, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Root high plasticity is an adaptation to its changing environment. Water deficit impairs growth, leading to sugar accumulation in leaves, part of which could be available to roots via sucrose (Suc) phloem transport. Phloem loading is widely described in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), while unloading in roots is less understood. To gain information on leaf-to-root transport, a soil-based culture system was developed to monitor root system architecture in two dimensions. Under water deficit (50% of soil water-holding capacity), total root length was strongly reduced but the depth of root foraging and the shape of the root system were less affected, likely to improve water uptake. 14CO2 pulse-chase experiments confirmed that water deficit enhanced carbon (C) export to the roots, as suggested by the increased root-to-shoot ratio. The transcript levels of AtSWEET11 (for sugar will eventually be exported transporter), AtSWEET12, and AtSUC2 (for Suc carrier) genes, all three involved in Suc phloem loading, were significantly up-regulated in leaves of water deficit plants, in accordance with the increase in C export from the leaves to the roots. Interestingly, the transcript levels of AtSUC2 and AtSWEET11 to AtSWEET15 were also significantly higher in stressed roots, underlying the importance of Suc apoplastic unloading in Arabidopsis roots and a putative role for these Suc transporters in Suc unloading. These data demonstrate that, during water deficit, plants respond to growth limitation by allocating relatively more C to the roots to maintain an efficient root system and that a subset of Suc transporters is potentially involved in the flux of C to and in the roots. PMID:26802041

  10. Air pollution and horticulture: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    MacLean, D.C.

    1983-10-01

    An overview is presented of some of the general effects of pollutants on plants, as well as an approach for assessing these effects. The nature of effects can range from no effects at low doses to a reduced growth or yield at higher atmospheric concentrations. In addition to the dose of the pollutant, the degree of response is governed by a number of internal and external factors. Relative number and size of stomata have marked effect on pollutant uptake by the plant; therefore, environmental conditions exert a strong influence on pollutant-induced responses. Future research should focus on determining if the pollutant doses that now occur in areas of horticultural production cause effects and, if so, whether the effects constitute injury.

  11. Perceptions of the Value of Extended Service in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Larae; Miller, Larry E.

    1983-01-01

    This study suggests the need for several improvements in the summer vocational horticulture education programs. Knowledge of the summer program, its aims, and the teacher's responsibilities appears to be lacking in the groups studied. (SSH)

  12. Down-regulation of ABCG2, a urate exporter, by parathyroid hormone enhances urate accumulation in secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Ryusei; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Komei; Enoki, Yuki; Imafuku, Tadashi; Sakaguchi, Yoshiaki; Murata, Michiya; Nishida, Kento; Miyamura, Shigeyuki; Ishima, Yu; Tanaka, Motoko; Matsushita, Kazutaka; Komaba, Hirotaka; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru

    2017-03-01

    Hyperuricemia occurs with increasing frequency among patients with hyperparathyroidism. However, the molecular mechanism by which the serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) affects serum urate levels remains unknown. This was studied in uremic rats with secondary hyperparathyroidism where serum urate levels were found to be increased and urate excretion in the intestine and kidney decreased, presumably due to down-regulation of the expression of the urate exporter ABCG2 in intestinal and renal epithelial membranes. These effects were prevented by administration of the calcimimetic cinacalcet, a PTH suppressor, suggesting that PTH may down-regulate ABCG2 expression. This was directly tested in intestinal Caco-2 cells where the expression of ABCG2 on the plasma membrane was down-regulated by PTH (1-34) while its mRNA level remained unchanged. Interestingly, an inactive PTH derivative (13-34) had no effect, suggesting that a posttranscriptional regulatory system acts through the PTH receptor to regulate ABCG2 plasma membrane expression. As found in an animal study, additional clinical investigations showed that treatment with cinacalcet resulted in significant reductions in serum urate levels together with decreases in PTH levels in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing dialysis. Thus, PTH down-regulates ABCG2 expression on the plasma membrane to suppress intestinal and renal urate excretion, and the effects of PTH can be prevented by cinacalcet treatment.

  13. Favorable effect of 4-phenylacetate on liver functions attributable to enhanced bile salt export pump expression in ornithine transcarbamylase-deficient children.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Hironori; Yorifuji, Tohru; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Takikawa, Hajime; Komatsu, Haruki; Inui, Ayano; Fujisawa, Tomoo; Miida, Takashi; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Takatani, Tomozumi; Hayashi, Hisamitsu

    2010-06-01

    4-Phenylbutyrate (4-PB) acting against hyperammonemia has been administered to patients with urea cycle defects. Results of our recent experiments using animals and cultured cells strongly suggest that this agent enhances the function of bile salt export pump/ATP binding cassette B11 (BSEP/ABCB11) promoting bile acid excretion from hepatocytes to bile canaliculi, although it has not been confirmed in humans. Considering that 4-PB is converted easily into 4-phenylacetate (4-PA) in the liver, such an effect of 4-PB might occur through 4-PA. We performed retrospective analyzes of the effects of 4-PA on the liver functions of three ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC)-deficient female children receiving 4-PA. Two of the three received intravenous administration of 4-PA only at episodic periods of hyperammonemia; the remaining one received it orally at intercurrent periods. Soon after 4-PA administration, the serum total bile acid level was decreased to one-half or one-third of pre-treatment levels, but it returned to the basal levels within one month after 4-PA discontinuation. Other serum parameters for cholestasis such as gamma-glutamyl transferase also decreased markedly. Concomitantly, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate amino transferase levels decreased significantly. Western blot analyzes of the liver samples revealed that the 4-PA administration enhanced BSEP/ABCB11 protein expressions in the membranous fraction of liver cells, although the liver BSEP/ABCB11 messenger RNA level remained unchanged. These results suggest that 4-PA enhanced liver BSEP/ABCB11 function and thereby improved liver functions in OTC-deficient children. For treatment of liver disorders requiring enhancement of BSEP function, 4-PA might be a candidate.

  14. Enhanced sea-ice export from the Arctic to the GIN seas during the Younger Dryas: A "Canadian" source from radiogenic isotope signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Maccali, J.; Not, C.; Poirier, A.

    2012-04-01

    enhanced sea-ice production, leading to the nearly 5-fold export of Arcticsea-ice suggested by our data. As already proposed by Tarasov and Peltier [Nature 435, 662-665], sucha routing of freshwater would have been very efficient in reducing the AMOC in the Greenland, Icelandand Norwegian seas, and/or in the North Atlantic area south of the Denmark, Iceland-Faroe-Scotland,sills.

  15. Grafting: A Technique to Modify Ion Accumulation in Horticultural Crops

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Muhammad A.; Imtiaz, Muhammad; Kong, Qiusheng; Cheng, Fei; Ahmed, Waqar; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Grafting is a centuries-old technique used in plants to obtain economic benefits. Grafting increases nutrient uptake and utilization efficiency in a number of plant species, including fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals. Selected rootstocks of the same species or close relatives are utilized in grafting. Rootstocks absorb more water and ions than self-rooted plants and transport these water and ions to the aboveground scion. Ion uptake is regulated by a complex communication mechanism between the scion and rootstock. Sugars, hormones, and miRNAs function as long-distance signaling molecules and regulate ion uptake and ion homeostasis by affecting the activity of ion transporters. This review summarizes available information on the effect of rootstock on nutrient uptake and utilization and the mechanisms involved. Information on specific nutrient-efficient rootstocks for different crops of commercial importance is also provided. Several other important approaches, such as interstocking (during double grafting), inarching, use of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria, use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, use of plant growth substances (e.g., auxin and melatonin), and use of genetically engineered rootstocks and scions (transgrafting), are highlighted; these approaches can be combined with grafting to enhance nutrient uptake and utilization in commercially important plant species. Whether the rootstock and scion affect each other's soil microbiota and their effect on the nutrient absorption of rootstocks remain largely unknown. Similarly, the physiological and molecular bases of grafting, crease formation, and incompatibility are not fully identified and require investigation. Grafting in horticultural crops can help reveal the basic biology of grafting, the reasons for incompatibility, sensing, and signaling of nutrients, ion uptake and transport, and the mechanism of heavy metal accumulation and restriction in rootstocks. Ion transporter and miRNA-regulated nutrient

  16. Grafting: A Technique to Modify Ion Accumulation in Horticultural Crops.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Muhammad A; Imtiaz, Muhammad; Kong, Qiusheng; Cheng, Fei; Ahmed, Waqar; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Grafting is a centuries-old technique used in plants to obtain economic benefits. Grafting increases nutrient uptake and utilization efficiency in a number of plant species, including fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals. Selected rootstocks of the same species or close relatives are utilized in grafting. Rootstocks absorb more water and ions than self-rooted plants and transport these water and ions to the aboveground scion. Ion uptake is regulated by a complex communication mechanism between the scion and rootstock. Sugars, hormones, and miRNAs function as long-distance signaling molecules and regulate ion uptake and ion homeostasis by affecting the activity of ion transporters. This review summarizes available information on the effect of rootstock on nutrient uptake and utilization and the mechanisms involved. Information on specific nutrient-efficient rootstocks for different crops of commercial importance is also provided. Several other important approaches, such as interstocking (during double grafting), inarching, use of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria, use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, use of plant growth substances (e.g., auxin and melatonin), and use of genetically engineered rootstocks and scions (transgrafting), are highlighted; these approaches can be combined with grafting to enhance nutrient uptake and utilization in commercially important plant species. Whether the rootstock and scion affect each other's soil microbiota and their effect on the nutrient absorption of rootstocks remain largely unknown. Similarly, the physiological and molecular bases of grafting, crease formation, and incompatibility are not fully identified and require investigation. Grafting in horticultural crops can help reveal the basic biology of grafting, the reasons for incompatibility, sensing, and signaling of nutrients, ion uptake and transport, and the mechanism of heavy metal accumulation and restriction in rootstocks. Ion transporter and miRNA-regulated nutrient

  17. 7 CFR 1493.80 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... programs: Export Enhancement Program, Dairy Export Incentive Program, Sunflowerseed Oil Assistance Program, or Cottonseed Oil Assistance Program. (10) The exporter's statement, “All § 1493.90 Certifications... undermining of an essential regulatory purpose of the program; (3) Obstruction of the fair administration...

  18. Heterosis for horticultural traits in broccoli.

    PubMed

    Hale, Anna L; Farnham, Mark W; Nzaramba, M Ndambe; Kimbeng, Collins A

    2007-08-01

    Over the last three decades, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica Group) hybrids made by crossing two inbred lines replaced open-pollinated populations to become the predominant type of cultivar. The change to hybrids evolved with little or no understanding of heterosis or hybrid vigor in this crop. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine levels of heterosis expressed by a set of hybrids derived by crossing relatively elite, modern inbreds (n = 9). An additional objective was to determine if PCR-based marker derived genetic similarities among the parents can be useful to predict heterosis in this crop. Thirty-six hybrids derived from a diallel mating design involving nine parents were evaluated for five horticultural characters including the head characteristics of head weight, head stem diameter, and maturity (e.g., days from transplant to harvest), and the plant vigor characteristics of plant height, and plant width in four environments. A total of 409 polymorphic markers were generated by 24 AFLP, 23 SRAP and 17 SSR primer combinations. Euclidean distances between parents were determined based on phenotypic traits. About half of the hybrids exhibited highparent heterosis for head weight (1-30 g) and stem diameter (0.2-3.5 cm) when averaged across environments. Almost all hybrids showed highparent heterosis for plant height (1-10 cm) and width (2-13 cm). Unlike other traits, there was negative heterosis for maturity, indicating that heterosis for this character in hybrids is expressed as earliness. Genetic similarity estimates among the nine parental lines ranged from 0.43 to 0.71 and were significantly and negatively correlated with highparent heterosis for all traits except for stem diameter and days from transplant to harvest. Euclidean distances were not correlated with heterosis. With modern broccoli inbreds, less heterosis was observed for head characteristics than for traits that measured plant vigor. In addition, genetic similarity

  19. Environmental technologies exports: Strategic framework for US leadership. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The report to the President proposes an Administration strategy to enhance exports of U.S. environmental technologies. The appropriate role of government is to determine how best to assist industry, including strong and consistent environmental policies, and support from all federal R and D resources. The report also calls for streamlining U.S. environmental technologies export promotion efforts, and improving export financing mechanisms.

  20. Documenting Student Performance through Effective Performance Assessments: Workshop Summary. Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Education Curriculum Materials Service.

    This document contains materials about and from a workshop that was conducted to help Ohio horticulture teachers learn to document student competence through effective performance assessments. The document begins with background information about the workshop and a list of workshop objectives. Presented next is a key to the 40 performance…

  1. Insects and Diseases. Competency Based Teaching Materials in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This competency-based curriculum unit on insects and diseases is one of four developed for classroom use in teaching the turf and lawn services area of horticulture. The five sections are each divided into teaching content (in a question-and-answer format) and student skills that outline steps and factors for consideration. Topics covered include…

  2. Turf Identification. Competency Based Teaching Materials in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This compentency-based curriculum unit on turf identification is one of four developed for classroom use in teaching the turf and lawn services area of horticulture. The three sections are each divided into teaching content (in a question-and-answer format) and student skills that outline steps and factors for consideration. Topics covered include…

  3. Planting Turf. Competency Based Teaching Materials in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This competency-based curriculum unit on planting turf is one of four developed for classroom use in teaching the turf and lawn services area of horticulture. The eight sections are each divided into teaching content (in a question-and-answer format) and student skills that outline steps and factors for consideration. Topics covered include…

  4. 26 CFR 1.199-6 - Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... nonpatronage distributions). (d) Special rule for marketing cooperatives. In the case of a cooperative engaged in the marketing of agricultural and/or horticultural products described in paragraph (f) of this... deduction on Form 1099-PATR, “Taxable Distributions Received From Cooperatives,” issued to the patron....

  5. Vocational Instructional Materials in Horticulture for Students with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethridge, James I.

    This resource catalog of horticulture curriculum materials for students with special needs is divided into twenty-seven instructional areas: aboriculture; annuals; entomology; floral crops production; floral design and flower shop operations; garden center; greenhouse; ground covers and hedges; herbs; house plants; landscape construction and…

  6. Maintaining the Landscape. Competency Based Teaching Materials in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This competency-based curriculum unit on maintaining the landscape is one of five developed for classroom use in teaching the landscape/nursery area of horticulture. The five sections are each divided into teaching content (in a question-and-answer format) and student skills that outline steps and factors for consideration. Topics covered include…

  7. Audio-Tutorial Horticulture Learning Units. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Robert J.

    The four units in this workbook (units 2, 3, 5, and 9) are part of a larger 14-unit course in horticulture. The topics are plant classification, the plant cell, complex compounds, and vegetative growth and development. Student learning in these fields is frequently low in the traditional lecture-laboratory setting. These materials are designed for…

  8. Developing a national strategic plan for consumer horticulture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumer Horticulture encompasses a wide-array of activities that are practiced by and of interest to the gardening public, garden-focused non-governmental organizations, and gardening-related industries. In a previous publication, we described the current lack of funding support for research, exten...

  9. An Analysis of the Horticulture Equipment and Services Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbage, Monroe; Lechner, Donald L.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the horticulture equipment and services occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Fourteen duties are…

  10. Soils and Fertilizers. Competency Based Teaching Materials in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This competency-based curriculum unit on soils and fertilizers is one of four developed for classroom use in teaching the turf and lawn services area of horticulture. The four sections are each divided into teaching content (in a question-and-answer format) and student skills that outline taking soil samples, testing samples, preparing soil for…

  11. Effects of Horticulture Therapy on Engagement and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gigliotti, Christina M.; Jarrott, Shannon E.

    2005-01-01

    Implementing generationally appropriate activities for persons with dementia is a challenging task. Horticulture therapy (HT) addresses this challenge through the use of plants to facilitate holistic outcomes. Utilizing the model of environmental press, the current study sought to analyse adult day service (ADS) participants' responses to HT as…

  12. Betaine alleviates hepatic lipid accumulation via enhancing hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Huang, Danping; Hu, Qiaolin; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yizhen; Feng, Jie

    2015-06-28

    To assess the effects of betaine on hepatic lipid accumulation and investigate the underlying mechanism, thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 (sd 2·50) g were divided into four groups, and started on one of four treatments: basal diet, basal diet with betaine administration, high-fat diet and high-fat diet with betaine administration. The results showed that no significant difference of body weight was found among experimental groups. Compared with high-fat diet-fed rats, a betaine supplementation decreased (P< 0·05) hepatic TAG accumulation induced by high-fat diet, which was also supported by hepatic histology results. Additionally, hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase concentration [corrected] as well as its mRNA abundance and lecithin level were found increased (P< 0·05) by betaine supplementation in both basal diet-fed rats and high-fat diet-fed rats. Betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats exhibited a higher (P< 0·05) concentration [corrected] of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) compared with high-fat diet-fed rats. High-fat diet inhibited (P< 0·05) the gene expression of hepatic PPARα and CPT1. However, betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats elevated (P< 0·05) the gene expression of PPARα and CPT1. Moreover, concentration, gene and protein expressions of hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were increased (P< 0·05) in response to betaine administration in high-fat diet group; meanwhile the gene expression of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase was increased (P< 0·05) as well. The results suggest that betaine administration enhanced hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in high-fat diet-fed rats, thus effectively alleviating fat accumulation in the liver.

  13. In Vitro Comparison of Adipokine Export Signals.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Parisa; Kocaefe, Y Çetin

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cells are widely used for recombinant protein production in research and biotechnology. Utilization of export signals significantly facilitates production and purification processes. 35 years after the discovery of the mammalian export machinery, there still are obscurities regarding the efficiency of the export signals. The aim of this study was the comparative evaluation of the efficiency of selected export signals using adipocytes as a cell model. Adipocytes have a large capacity for protein secretion including several enzymes, adipokines, and other signaling molecules, providing a valid system for a quantitative evaluation. Constructs that expressed N-terminal fusion export signals were generated to express Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) as a reporter for quantitative and qualitative evaluation. Furthermore, fluorescent microscopy was used to trace the intracellular traffic of the reporter. The export efficiency of six selected proteins secreted from adipocytes was evaluated. Quantitative comparison of intracellular and exported fractions of the recombinant constructs demonstrated a similar efficiency among the studied sequences with minor variations. The export signal of Retinol Binding Protein (RBP4) exhibited the highest efficiency. This study presents the first quantitative data showing variations among export signals, in adipocytes which will help optimization of recombinant protein distribution.

  14. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Horticulture (Program CIP: 01.0601--Horticulture Serv. Op. & Mgmt., Gen.). Secondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for horticulture I and II. Presented first are a program description and…

  15. Eats roots and leaves. Can edible horticultural crops address dietary calcium, magnesium and potassium deficiencies?

    PubMed

    Broadley, Martin R; White, Philip J

    2010-11-01

    Human individuals require at least 20 inorganic elements ('minerals') for normal functioning. However, much of the world's population is probably deficient in one or more essential minerals and at increased risk of physiological disorders. Addressing these 'hidden hungers' is a challenge for the nutrition and agriculture sectors. Mineral deficiencies among populations are typically identified from dietary surveys because (1) minerals are acquired primarily from dietary sources and (2) (bio)assays of mineral status can be unreliable. While dietary surveys are likely to under-report energy intakes, surveys show that 9% of all UK and US adults consume Ca and Mg, and 14% of adults consume K, at quantities below the UK lower reference nutrient intake, and are therefore at risk of deficiency. Low dietary Ca, Mg and K intakes can be caused by energy-malnourishment and by cultural and economic factors driving dietary conservatism. For example, cereal grains routinely displace vegetables and fruits in the diet. Cereal grains have low concentrations of several minerals, notably Ca, as a consequence of their physiology. Low grain mineral concentrations are compounded when cereal crops are grown in soils of low mineral phytoavailability and when grain is processed. In this paper, the impact of increased vegetable consumption and horticultural biofortification, i.e. enhancing crop mineral content through breeding and agronomy, on intakes of the major minerals Ca, Mg and K is assessed. Despite low energy intake from horticultural crops generally, increased vegetable consumption and biofortification would significantly improve dietary intakes of Ca, Mg and K.

  16. Adaptation of the Endogenous Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi clyA-Encoded Hemolysin for Antigen Export Enhances the Immunogenicity of Anthrax Protective Antigen Domain 4 Expressed by the Attenuated Live-Vector Vaccine Strain CVD 908-htrA

    PubMed Central

    Galen, James E.; Zhao, Licheng; Chinchilla, Magaly; Wang, Jin Yuan; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Green, Jeffrey; Levine, Myron M.

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial live-vector vaccines aim to deliver foreign antigens to the immune system and induce protective immune responses, and surface-expressed or secreted antigens are generally more immunogenic than cytoplasmic constructs. We hypothesize that an optimum expression system will use an endogenous export system to avoid the need for large amounts of heterologous DNA encoding additional proteins. Here we describe the cryptic chromosomally encoded 34-kDa cytolysin A hemolysin of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (ClyA) as a novel export system for the expression of heterologous antigens in the supernatant of attenuated Salmonella serovar Typhi live-vector vaccine strains. We constructed a genetic fusion of ClyA to the reporter green fluorescent protein and showed that in Salmonella serovar Typhi CVD 908-htrA, the fusion protein retains biological activity in both domains and is exported into the supernatant of an exponentially growing live vector in the absence of detectable bacterial lysis. The utility of ClyA for enhancing the immunogenicity of an otherwise problematic antigen was demonstrated by engineering ClyA fused to the domain 4 (D4) moiety of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA). A total of 11 of 15 mice immunized intranasally with Salmonella serovar Typhi exporting the protein fusion manifested fourfold or greater rises in serum anti-PA immunoglobulin G, compared with only 1 of 16 mice immunized with the live vector expressing cytoplasmic D4 (P = 0.0002). In addition, the induction of PA-specific gamma interferon and interleukin 5 responses was observed in splenocytes. This technology offers exceptional versatility for enhancing the immunogenicity of bacterial live-vector vaccines. PMID:15557633

  17. ABC transporters: bacterial exporters.

    PubMed Central

    Fath, M J; Kolter, R

    1993-01-01

    The ABC transporters (also called traffic ATPases) make up a large superfamily of proteins which share a common function and a common ATP-binding domain. ABC transporters are classified into three major groups: bacterial importers (the periplasmic permeases), eukaryotic transporters, and bacterial exporters. We present a comprehensive review of the bacterial ABC exporter group, which currently includes over 40 systems. The bacterial ABC exporter systems are functionally subdivided on the basis of the type of substrate that each translocates. We describe three main groups: protein exporters, peptide exporters, and systems that transport nonprotein substrates. Prototype exporters from each group are described in detail to illustrate our current understanding of this protein family. The prototype systems include the alpha-hemolysin, colicin V, and capsular polysaccharide exporters from Escherichia coli, the protease exporter from Erwinia chrysanthemi, and the glucan exporters from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium meliloti. Phylogenetic analysis of the ATP-binding domains from 29 bacterial ABC exporters indicates that the bacterial ABC exporters can be divided into two primary branches. One branch contains the transport systems where the ATP-binding domain and the membrane-spanning domain are present on the same polypeptide, and the other branch contains the systems where these domains are found on separate polypeptides. Differences in substrate specificity do not correlate with evolutionary relatedness. A complete survey of the known and putative bacterial ABC exporters is included at the end of the review. PMID:8302219

  18. Accelerator radiocarbon dating of evidence for prehistoric horticulture in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conard, N.; Asch, D.L.; Asch, N.B.; Elmore, D.; Gove, H.; Rubin, M.; Brown, J.A.; Wiant, M.D.; Farnsworth, K.B.; Cook, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of direct detection radiocarbon dating, which uses an accelerator as part of a highly selective mass spectrometer, it is now possible to determine the age of milligram samples of organic materials1-5. One application of accelerator dating is in evaluating scanty, sometimes controversial evidence for early horticulture throughout the world. We have now used the technique to date small samples of carbonized, cultivated plant remains from archaeological sites in Illinois. The results, reported here, establish (1) that squash was introduced by 7,000 yr ago, 2,500 yr before eastern North American records previously reported; (2) that horticulture involving indigenous plants had begun by 4,000 BP in eastern North America with domestication of Iva annua, a small-seeded annual; (3) that anomalous discoveries of Archaic period maize represent contaminants; and (4) that introduction of maize by initial Middle Woodland times (~2,000 BP) is questionable.

  19. Efficiency, sufficiency, and recent change in Newfoundland subsistence horticulture

    SciTech Connect

    Omohundro, J.T.

    1986-09-01

    Traditional Newfoundland horticulture has been a subordinate and compensatory element of the subsistence sphere in a plural economy centered on fishing. Criticized as inefficient and ruinous to the land, this tuber-rootbrassica gardening has in fact been a valuable contribution to diet, is relatively efficient, and compensates for the inadequacies of land and weather. Field data from the Great Northern Peninsula, where some traditional practices persist, demonstrate that the practices conserve time and labor, and substitute massive applications of materials to assure a yield sufficient for household needs. The inefficiency in the tradition may be understood as a response to the constraints upon household labor and follows a kind of Leibig's law of the minimum. Recent changes in gardening practices reveal the dynamics of horticulture in the household's mixed economic strategy. As cash and land have become more common, they have been used to further reduce time while maintaining sufficiency.

  20. 77 FR 37523 - Proposed Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Implementation of Export Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ...President Obama directed the Administration in August 2009 to conduct a broad-based review of the U.S. export control system in order to identify additional ways to enhance national security. Then- Secretary of Defense Gates described in April 2010 the initial results of that effort and why fundamental reform of the U.S. export control system is necessary to enhance national security. Since......

  1. Advantages of diffuse light for horticultural production and perspectives for further research

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Yang, Qichang

    2015-01-01

    Plants use diffuse light more efficiently than direct light, which is well established due to diffuse light penetrates deeper into the canopy and photosynthetic rate of a single leaf shows a non-linear response to the light flux density. Diffuse light also results in a more even horizontal and temporal light distribution in the canopy, which plays substantial role for crop photosynthesis enhancement as well as production improvement. Here we show some of the recent findings about the effect of diffuse light on light distribution over the canopy and its direct and indirect effects on crop photosynthesis and plant growth, and suggest some perspectives for further research which could strengthen the scientific understanding of diffuse light modulate plant processes and its application in horticultural production. PMID:26388890

  2. JPL Export Compliance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momjian, E.; Lam, C.

    2000-01-01

    The transfer of commodities, software, or technlogies to foreign persons is subject to U.S. export control laws and regulations. These export controls are applicable, regardless of whether the transfer occurs in the U.S. or outside of the U.S.

  3. Industrialisation, Exports and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabolo, Yves

    1980-01-01

    After reviewing trends in industrial production, exports, and employment in the Third World since 1960, the author discusses industrialization strategies based on the local processing of raw materials for export. Such processing has proved to be a major factor in job creation. (Author/SK)

  4. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... agreement between labor union K and multiple employers. Trust A forms part of a plan that is established and... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labor, agricultural, and horticultural... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section...

  5. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... agreement between labor union K and multiple employers. Trust A forms part of a plan that is established and... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Labor, agricultural, and horticultural... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section...

  6. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... agreement between labor union K and multiple employers. Trust A forms part of a plan that is established and... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labor, agricultural, and horticultural... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section...

  7. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... agreement between labor union K and multiple employers. Trust A forms part of a plan that is established and... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labor, agricultural, and horticultural... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section...

  8. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... agreement between labor union K and multiple employers. Trust A forms part of a plan that is established and... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Labor, agricultural, and horticultural... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section...

  9. Core I Materials for Metropolitan Agriculture/Horticulture Programs. Units G-J.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethridge, Jim; And Others

    These units of instructional materials and teaching aids are the final four of a series of 10 designed for use in metropolitan agriculture/horticulture programs for students in grades 9 and 10. Covered in the unit on growing and managing horticultural crops are watering plants; pruning, pinching, and planting plants; using plant production…

  10. Past and future climate patterns affecting temperate, sub-tropical and tropical horticultural crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial horticultural crop production will be impacted by climate change effects on temperature, water availability, solar radiation, air pollution, and carbon dioxide. Horticultural crop value is derived from both the quantity and the quality of the harvested product; both of which are affected ...

  11. OPERATING, REPAIRING, AND MAINTAINING SMALL POWER EQUIPMENT. HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NO. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PREPARE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR HORTICULTURE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, THIS MODULE HAS AS ITS MAJOR OBJECTIVE TO DEVELOP A PROFICIENCY IN THE OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SMALL POWER EQUIPMENT USED IN HORTICULTURAL ENTERPRISES. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES.…

  12. USING SOIL AND OTHER PLANT GROWING MEDIA EFFECTIVELY. HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NO. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PREPARE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR HORTICULTURE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, THIS MODULE HAS AS ITS MAJOR OBJECTIVE TO DEVELOP THE APPRECIATIONS, UNDERSTANDINGS, AND ABILITIES NEEDED TO USE PLANT GROWING MEDIA IN GROWING HORTICULTURAL PLANTS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES.…

  13. Orchard Management: Horticultural Practices for Peace Corps Volunteers. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development and Resources Corp.

    This manual is intended for use by Peace Corps volunteers as a resource for gaining an understanding and knowledge of basic horticultural principles and practices of orchard management. Addressed in the individual units of instructional text are orchard soils; botany of horticultural plants; insect and disease control in orchards; pome, stone,…

  14. Participation of Minority Youth in Urban Horticulture: A New York City High School Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Howard R. D.

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the experience-based urban Vocational Horticulture Project sponsored by the Central Diesel School of Brooklyn, New York, and involving the National Park Service and the Cornell Cooperative Extension Service. The program prepares minority youth for entry-level employment in ornamental horticulture or in forestry and wildlife…

  15. 78 FR 11725 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Indonesia Importation of Horticultural Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Products, Animals and Animal Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... horticultural products, animals and animal products. That request may be found at www.wto.org , contained in a... by Indonesia on the importation of horticultural products, animals and animal products into...

  16. Developing a High School Program in Ornamental Horticulture. Volume I, Nursery Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Howard C.; And Others

    This manual is one of a 3-volume series prepared to guide the high school vocational agriculture teacher in teaching ornamental horticulture. Chapter I introduces the reader to ornamental horticulture and gives examples of how the subject can be integrated into an existing agriculture curriculum. Chapter II is devoted to the public relations…

  17. Impact of Horticultural Therapy on Psychosocial Functioning among Urban Jail Inmates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jay Stone; Remy, Linda L.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the impact of a horticultural therapy program on 48 county jail inmates. Examines the changes in psychosocial functioning of the participants while in treatment and in post-release. Explores the clinical relevance of horticultural therapy in cultivating healthy self-development. (MKA)

  18. Level of environmental threat posed by horticultural trade in Cactaceae.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J; Richardson, David M; Wilson, John R U

    2017-01-11

    Ornamental horticulture has been identified as an important threat to plant biodiversity and the major pathway for plant invasions worldwide. In this context, the family Cactaceae is particularly interesting and challenging for three main reasons-it is considered the fifth most threatened major taxonomic group in the world; several cactus species are amongst the most widespread and damaging invasive species; and Cactaceae is one of the most popular horticultural plant groups. Based on CITES trade data and the eleven main auction sites selling cacti on the internet we document a substantial global trade from and to almost all continents. While less than 20 % of this trade involves threatened species, and less than 3% involves known invasive species, many species are sold without a valid scientific name. Importantly, however, hardly any of the globally traded cacti are collected from wild populations. In order to provide an in-depth look at the dynamics of the industry, we surveyed the businesses involved in the cactus trade in South Africa (one of the main hotspots of cactus trade and invasions). Despite a large commercial network, all South African imports (of which only 15 % and 1.5 % were of species listed as threatened and invasive, respectively) came from the same source. We purchased seeds of every available species and, based on DNA-barcoding techniques, could only identify 24 % of the species to genus level. If trade restrictions are placed on the small proportion of cacti that are invasive and there is no major increase in harvesting of native populations, the commercial cactus horticultural trade will pose a negligible environmental threat. However, there are currently no effective methods for easily identifying which cacti are traded, and both the illicit harvesting of cacti from the wild and the informal trade in invasive taxa pose on-going conservation challenges. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Horticultural therapy--the role gardening plays in healing.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M E

    1979-05-01

    Horticultural therapy is an adjunct therapy--to be used in addition to occupational and physical therapies, and combining means used by both. It is meant to increase the motivation of the physically and/or mentally handicapped, while at the same time stimulating the five senses and furnishing a means of self-gratification and self esteem. Now that neurologically orientated psychologists are identifying schizophrenia as being biologically based and capable of being reversed with exercise, it is time to study the many benefits of gardening as a therapy method.

  20. Geoinformation evaluation of soil resource potential for horticulture in Krasnodar region and the Republic of Adygea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, I. Yu.; Dragavtseva, I. A.; Mironenko, N. Ya.; Sergeeva, N. N.; Domozhirova, V. V.; Morenets, A. S.; Ovechkin, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    A geoinformation database for assessing soil resource potential for horticulture in Krasnodar region and Adygea has been developed. The results of geoinformation analysis indicate that only 55-60% of soils in these regions are suitable for growing horticultural crops without limitations; about 35-40% of the total soil area is unsuitable for horticultural purposes. For plum trees, the area of unsuitable soils is somewhat lower than for other horticultural crops. Geographically, the areas of soils suitable and unsuitable for horticulture are close to one another. The thickness of the loose earthy soil material, the gravel content, the degree of salinization, the soil texture, and the degree of soil hydromorphism are the major soil properties imposing considerable limitations for the development of fruit-growing industry in the studied regions. The highest portions of soils suitable for horticulture are found in Eiskii, Kushchevskii, Krylovskii, Shcherbinovskii, and Novokubanskii districts of Krasnodar region. The development of horticulture in Tuapsinskii, Slavyanskii, and Primorsko-Akhtarskii districts is limited because of the unsuitability of soils for this purpose. About 8% of the existing orchards are found on soils recognized as unsuitable for horticulture, and only about 20% of the existing orchards are found on soils suitable for fruit growing without limitations. About 70% of the existing fruit orchards are located on degraded soils or on soils with certain limitations for horticulture. The profitability of fruit orchards on such soils is lower than that of the orchards planted on soils without limitations for horticulture. This information is necessary for the adequate economic evaluation of the degree of soil degradation.

  1. Therapeutic horticulture in clinical depression: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Hartig, Terry; Patil, Grete Grindal; Martinsen, Egil W; Kirkevold, Marit

    2009-01-01

    Clinically depressed persons suffer from impaired mood and distortion of cognition. This study assessed changes in depression severity and perceived attentional capacity of clinically depressed adults (N=18) during a 12-week therapeutic horticulture program. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Attentional Function Index (AFI) were administered at baseline, twice during (4 and 8 weeks), and immediately after the intervention (12 weeks), and at a 3-month follow-up. Experiences of being away and fascination related to the intervention were measured at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The mean BDI score declined 9.7 points from pretest (27.3) to posttest (p < .001) and were clinically relevant (deltaBDI > or =6) for 72% of the cases. The mean AFI score increased 10.2 points from pretest (68.8) to posttest (p = .06). The greatest change in BDI and AFI scores occurred in the initial weeks of the intervention. The reduction in BDI scores remained significant and clinically relevant at the 3-month follow-up (N=16). The decline in depression severity during the intervention correlated strongly with the degree to which the participants found that it captured their attention. Therapeutic horticulture may decrease depression severity and improve perceived attentional capacity by engaging effortless attention and interrupting rumination.

  2. A prospective study of existential issues in therapeutic horticulture for clinical depression.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Hartig, Terry; Patil, Grete Grindal; Martinsen, Egil Wilhelm; Kirkevold, Marit

    2011-01-01

    Two studies with single-group design (Study 1 N = 18, Study 2 N = 28) addressed whether horticultural activities ameliorate depression severity and existential issues. Measures were obtained before and after a 12-week therapeutic horticulture program and at 3-month follow-up. In both studies, depression severity declined significantly during the intervention and remained low at the follow-up. In both studies the existential outcomes did not change significantly; however, the change that did occur during the intervention correlated (rho > .43) with change in depression severity. Participants' open-ended accounts described the therapeutic horticulture experience as meaningful and influential for their view of life.

  3. Disruption of pheromone communication of Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using microencapsulated sex pheromones formulated with horticultural oil.

    PubMed

    Wins-Purdy, A H; Judd, G J R; Evenden, M L

    2007-10-01

    Sprayable, microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone formulations represent a promising tool for achieving mating disruption, yet often lack sustained effectiveness in the field, making repeated applications necessary. This study evaluated the impact of adding Purespray Green horticultural oil as an adjuvant to 3M MEC-LR, an MEC formulation of (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, on disruption of mate-finding behavior in Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) in small-plot trials in experimental apple orchards. Treatments consisting of MEC-LR in water, MEC-LR in water + 2% (vol:vol) Purespray Green, and a water control were applied to plots of apple using an airblast sprayer at a rate of 100 g of pheromone/ha. Disruption caused by foliar treatments was evaluated over a 7-wk period using mark-release recapture experiments in the field and concurrent bioassays in a flight tunnel. Disruption of orientation to 2-d-old, calling, virgin females was used as a measure of treatment effect in all experiments. Both pheromone alone and pheromone + oil treatments significantly disrupted male mate-finding behavior for a period of > or =21 d in flight tunnel assays and > or =42 d in mark-recapture field trials. The addition of oil did not significantly enhance the disruption activity nor increase the longevity of the MEC pheromone formulation. Our results show the compatibility of spraying MEC pheromone with a horticultural oil, and techniques for applying an oil-pheromone formulation to maximize the control impact of this combination are discussed.

  4. Evaluating and optimizing horticultural regimes in space plant growth facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovich, Y.; Chetirkin, R.; Wheeler, R.; Sager, J.

    In designing innovative Space Plant Growth Facilities (SPGF) for long duration space f ightl various limitations must be addressed including onboard resources: volume, energy consumption, heat transfer and crew labor expenditure. The required accuracy in evaluating onboard resources by using the equivalent mass methodology and applying it to the design of such facilities is not precise. This is due to the uncertainty of the structure and not completely understanding of the properties of all associated hardware, including the technology in these systems. We present a simple criteria of optimization for horticultural regimes in SPGF: Qmax = max [M · (EBI) 2 / (V · E · T) ], where M is the crop harvest in terms of total dry biomass in the plant growth system; EBI is the edible biomass index (harvest index), V is a volume occupied by the crop; E is the crop light energy supply during growth; T is the crop growth duration. The criterion reflects directly on the consumption of onboard resources for crop production. We analyzed the efficiency of plant crops and the environmental parameters by examining the criteria for 15 salad and 12 wheat crops from the data in the ALS database at Kennedy Space Center. Some following conclusion have been established: 1. The technology involved in growing salad crops on a cylindrical type surface provides a more meaningful Q-criterion; 2. Wheat crops were less efficient than leafy greens (salad crops) when examining resource utilization; 3. By increasing light intensity of the crop the efficiency of the resource utilization could decrease. Using the existing databases and Q-criteria we have found that the criteria can be used in optimizing design and horticultural regimes in the SPGF.

  5. 'The nourishing soil of the soul': The role of horticultural therapy in promoting well-being in community-dwelling people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Noone, Sarah; Innes, Anthea; Kelly, Fiona; Mayers, Andrew

    2015-12-23

    Two-thirds of people with dementia reside in their own homes; however, support for community-dwelling people with dementia to continue to participate in everyday activities is often lacking, resulting in feelings of depression and isolation among people living with the condition. Engagement in outdoor activities such as gardening can potentially counteract these negative experiences by enabling people with dementia to interact with nature, helping to improve their physical and psychological well-being. Additionally, the collaborative nature of community gardening may encourage the development of a sense of community, thereby enhancing social integration. Despite increasing evidence supporting its therapeutic value for people with dementia in residential care, the benefits of horticultural therapy have yet to be transposed into a community setting. This paper will examine the theoretical support for the application of horticultural therapy in dementia care, before exploring the potential of horticultural therapy as a means of facilitating improved physical and psychological well-being and social integration for people living with dementia within the community.

  6. Green chemistry in protected horticulture: the use of peroxyacetic acid as a sustainable strategy.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Gilda; Urrestarazu, Miguel

    2010-05-03

    Global reduction of chemical deposition into the environment is necessary. In protected horticulture, different strategies with biodegradable products are used to control pathogens. This review presents the available tools, especially for the management of protected horticultural species, including vegetables and ornamental plants. An analysis of the potential for degradable products that control pathogens and also encourage other productive factors, such as oxygen in the root system, is presented. Biosecurity in fertigation management of protected horticulture is conducted by using peroxyacetic acid mixtures that serve three basic principles: first, the manufacture of these products does not involve polluting processes; second, they have the same function as other chemicals, and third, after use and management there is no toxic residue left in the environment. The sustainability of protected horticulture depends on the development and introduction of technologies for implementation in the field.

  7. Genome-editing technologies and their potential application in horticultural crop breeding

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jin-Song; Ding, Jing; Li, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Plant breeding, one of the oldest agricultural activities, parallels human civilization. Many crops have been domesticated to satisfy human's food and aesthetical needs, including numerous specialty horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, ornamental flowers, shrubs, and trees. Crop varieties originated through selection during early human civilization. Other technologies, such as various forms of hybridization, mutation, and transgenics, have also been invented and applied to crop breeding over the past centuries. The progress made in these breeding technologies, especially the modern biotechnology-based breeding technologies, has had a great impact on crop breeding as well as on our lives. Here, we first review the developmental process and applications of these technologies in horticultural crop breeding. Then, we mainly describe the principles of the latest genome-editing technologies and discuss their potential applications in the genetic improvement of horticultural crops. The advantages and challenges of genome-editing technologies in horticultural crop breeding are also discussed. PMID:26504570

  8. Green Chemistry in Protected Horticulture: The Use of Peroxyacetic Acid as a Sustainable Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Gilda; Urrestarazu, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Global reduction of chemical deposition into the environment is necessary. In protected horticulture, different strategies with biodegradable products are used to control pathogens. This review presents the available tools, especially for the management of protected horticultural species, including vegetables and ornamental plants. An analysis of the potential for degradable products that control pathogens and also encourage other productive factors, such as oxygen in the root system, is presented. Biosecurity in fertigation management of protected horticulture is conducted by using peroxyacetic acid mixtures that serve three basic principles: first, the manufacture of these products does not involve polluting processes; second, they have the same function as other chemicals, and third, after use and management there is no toxic residue left in the environment. The sustainability of protected horticulture depends on the development and introduction of technologies for implementation in the field. PMID:20559497

  9. Detecting larval export from marine reserves

    PubMed Central

    Pelc, R. A.; Warner, R. R.; Gaines, S. D.; Paris, C. B.

    2010-01-01

    Marine reserve theory suggests that where large, productive populations are protected within no-take marine reserves, fished areas outside reserves will benefit through the spillover of larvae produced in the reserves. However, empirical evidence for larval export has been sparse. Here we use a simple idealized coastline model to estimate the expected magnitude and spatial scale of larval export from no-take marine reserves across a range of reserve sizes and larval dispersal scales. Results suggest that, given the magnitude of increased production typically found in marine reserves, benefits from larval export are nearly always large enough to offset increased mortality outside marine reserves due to displaced fishing effort. However, the proportional increase in recruitment at sites outside reserves is typically small, particularly for species with long-distance (on the order of hundreds of kilometers) larval dispersal distances, making it very difficult to detect in field studies. Enhanced recruitment due to export may be detected by sampling several sites at an appropriate range of distances from reserves or at sites downcurrent of reserves in systems with directional dispersal. A review of existing empirical evidence confirms the model's suggestion that detecting export may be difficult without an exceptionally large differential in production, short-distance larval dispersal relative to reserve size, directional dispersal, or a sampling scheme that encompasses a broad range of distances from the reserves. PMID:20181570

  10. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  11. Biosynthesis and molecular actions of specialized 1,4-naphthoquinone natural products produced by horticultural plants

    PubMed Central

    Widhalm, Joshua R; Rhodes, David

    2016-01-01

    The 1,4-naphthoquinones (1,4-NQs) are a diverse group of natural products found in every kingdom of life. Plants, including many horticultural species, collectively synthesize hundreds of specialized 1,4-NQs with ecological roles in plant–plant (allelopathy), plant–insect and plant–microbe interactions. Numerous horticultural plants producing 1,4-NQs have also served as sources of traditional medicines for hundreds of years. As a result, horticultural species have been at the forefront of many basic studies conducted to understand the metabolism and function of specialized plant 1,4-NQs. Several 1,4-NQ natural products derived from horticultural plants have also emerged as promising scaffolds for developing new drugs. In this review, the current understanding of the core metabolic pathways leading to plant 1,4-NQs is provided with additional emphasis on downstream natural products originating from horticultural species. An overview on the biochemical mechanisms of action, both from an ecological and pharmacological perspective, of 1,4-NQs derived from horticultural plants is also provided. In addition, future directions for improving basic knowledge about plant 1,4-NQ metabolism are discussed. PMID:27688890

  12. "A triumph of brains over brute": women and science at the Horticultural College, Swanley, 1890-1910.

    PubMed

    Opitz, Donald L

    2013-03-01

    The founding of Britain's first horticultural college in 1889 advanced a scientific and coeducational response to three troubling national concerns: a major agricultural depression; the economic distress of single, unemployed women; and imperatives to develop the colonies. Buoyed by the technical instruction and women's movements, the Horticultural College and Produce Company, Limited, at Swanley, Kent, crystallized a transformation in the horticultural profession in which new science-based, formalized study threatened an earlier emphasis on practical apprenticeship training, with the effect of opening male-dominated trades to women practitioners. By 1903, the college closed its doors to male students, and new pathways were forged for women students interested in pursuing further scientific study. Resistance to the Horticultural College's model of science-based women's horticultural education positioned science and women as contested subjects throughout this period of horticulture's expansion in the academy.

  13. Export of newly formed LSW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Katharina; Klein, Birgit; Karstensen, Johannes; Fischer, Jürgen; Baumann, Till; Kanzow, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation represents the strongest mechanism for oceanic northward heat transport. This is accomplished by moving warm water northward in the upper ocean compensated by a deep return flow of cold and dense North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Labrador Sea Water (LSW) constitutes the shallowest component of NADW. Since LSW is also supposed to be the most sensitive NADW component to climate change it is of particular interest. LSW is formed by deep convection not only in the centre of the Labrador Sea but also near its western boundary. Recent studies have suggested that LSW formed in the boundary region enters its export route from the Labrador Sea, the Deep Western Boundary Current, faster than LSW originating from the central Labrador Sea. In this study the spatial and temporal evolution of the export of newly formed LSW is investigated. For this purpose hydrographic mooring data from an array located at the western bounndary at 53°N starting in the late 1990s until 2014 and data from the Argo float network is used. The averaged seasonal salinity cycle at the array, particularly at the moorings further onshore, shows a pronounced freshwater signal in May indicating the arrival of newly formed LSW in the boundary current. In order to learn more about its preceding pathway and the corresponding export timescale the mooring data is complemented by data from Argo floats. Besides the annual cycles of LSW formation and export, their interannual variations are important aspects affecting the large-scale circulation. For instance, in years of relatively strong convection, as in 2008 and 2012, LSW is observed to pass the boundary current array at 53°N earlier, i.e. in February and March, respectively, than in years with weak convection, as in 2007 or 2010. Besides seasonal variations in the boundary current, a possible explanation for the earlier freshwater signal in years of enhanced convection might be a shift in convection sites

  14. Effect of horticultural therapy on wellbeing among dementia day care programme participants: A mixed-methods study (Innovative Practice).

    PubMed

    Hall, Jodi; Mitchell, Gary; Webber, Catherine; Johnson, Karen

    2016-04-11

    Fourteen people attending an adult day programme were recruited to a structured horticultural therapy programme which took place over 10 weeks. The effects were assessed using Dementia Care Mapping and questionnaires completed by family carers. High levels of wellbeing were observed while the participants were engaged in horticultural therapy, and these were sustained once the programme was completed. This study adds to the growing evidence on the benefits of horticultural therapy for people with dementia who have enjoyed gardening in the past.

  15. Infertility among women working in horticulture. A follow-up study in the Danish Occupational Hospitalization Register.

    PubMed

    Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Hannerz, Harald; Feveile, Helene; Bonde, Jens Peter; Burr, Hermann

    2009-04-01

    The possible association between employment in horticulture with potential exposure to pesticides and female infertility was examined by identification of women with hospital contact due to infertility and working in horticulture through the Danish Occupational Hospitalization Register. This follow-up study gave a standardized incidence ratio of 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.32) for treatment of infertility in women working in horticulture compared with the standard population and did not confirm that women working in the horticultural industry are at increased risk for infertility.

  16. 78 FR 37787 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Manuel Mario Pavon... Pavon (``Pavon'') was convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778... exporting and causing to be exported and attempting to export and attempting to cause to be exported...

  17. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Horticulture Technology Cluster (Program CIP: 01.0601--Horticulture Serv. Op. & Mgmt., Gen.) (Program CIP: 01.0605--Landscaping Op. & Mgmt.). Postsecondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the horticulture technology programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a framework of programs and courses, description of the programs, and suggested course sequences for…

  18. Evaluating and optimizing horticultural regimes in space plant growth facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkovich, Y. A.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    In designing innovative space plant growth facilities (SPGF) for long duration space flight, various limitations must be addressed including onboard resources: volume, energy consumption, heat transfer and crew labor expenditure. The required accuracy in evaluating on board resources by using the equivalent mass methodology and applying it to the design of such facilities is not precise. This is due to the uncertainty of the structure and not completely understanding the properties of all associated hardware, including the technology in these systems. We present a simple criteria of optimization for horticultural regimes in SPGF: Qmax = max [M x (EBI)2/(V x E x T], where M is the crop harvest in terms of total dry biomass in the plant growth system; EBI is the edible biomass index (harvest index), V is volume occupied by the crop; E is the crop light energy supply during growth; T is the crop growth duration. The criterion reflects directly on the consumption of onboard resources for crop production. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a Sensor Node for Precision Horticulture

    PubMed Central

    López, Juan A.; Soto, Fulgencio; Sánchez, Pedro; Iborra, Andrés; Suardiaz, Juan; Vera, Juan A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a new wireless sensor node (GAIA Soil-Mote) for precision horticulture applications which permits the use of precision agricultural instruments based on the SDI-12 standard. Wireless communication is achieved with a transceiver compliant with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The GAIA Soil-Mote software implementation is based on TinyOS. A two-phase methodology was devised to validate the design of this sensor node. The first phase consisted of laboratory validation of the proposed hardware and software solution, including a study on power consumption and autonomy. The second phase consisted of implementing a monitoring application in a real broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Marathon) crop in Campo de Cartagena in south-east Spain. In this way the sensor node was validated in real operating conditions. This type of application was chosen because there is a large potential market for it in the farming sector, especially for the development of precision agriculture applications. PMID:22412309

  20. Development of a sensor node for precision horticulture.

    PubMed

    López, Juan A; Soto, Fulgencio; Sánchez, Pedro; Iborra, Andrés; Suardiaz, Juan; Vera, Juan A

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a new wireless sensor node (GAIA Soil-Mote) for precision horticulture applications which permits the use of precision agricultural instruments based on the SDI-12 standard. Wireless communication is achieved with a transceiver compliant with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The GAIA Soil-Mote software implementation is based on TinyOS. A two-phase methodology was devised to validate the design of this sensor node. The first phase consisted of laboratory validation of the proposed hardware and software solution, including a study on power consumption and autonomy. The second phase consisted of implementing a monitoring application in a real broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Marathon) crop in Campo de Cartagena in south-east Spain. In this way the sensor node was validated in real operating conditions. This type of application was chosen because there is a large potential market for it in the farming sector, especially for the development of precision agriculture applications.

  1. The export receptor Crm1 forms a dimer to promote nuclear export of HIV RNA.

    PubMed

    Booth, David S; Cheng, Yifan; Frankel, Alan D

    2014-12-08

    The HIV Rev protein routes viral RNAs containing the Rev Response Element (RRE) through the Crm1 nuclear export pathway to the cytoplasm where viral proteins are expressed and genomic RNA is delivered to assembling virions. The RRE assembles a Rev oligomer that displays nuclear export sequences (NESs) for recognition by the Crm1-Ran(GTP) nuclear receptor complex. Here we provide the first view of an assembled HIV-host nuclear export complex using single-particle electron microscopy. Unexpectedly, Crm1 forms a dimer with an extensive interface that enhances association with Rev-RRE and poises NES binding sites to interact with a Rev oligomer. The interface between Crm1 monomers explains differences between Crm1 orthologs that alter nuclear export and determine cellular tropism for viral replication. The arrangement of the export complex identifies a novel binding surface to possibly target an HIV inhibitor and may point to a broader role for Crm1 dimerization in regulating host gene expression.

  2. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling horticultural traits in diploid roses.

    PubMed

    Dugo, M L; Satovic, Z; Millán, T; Cubero, J I; Rubiales, D; Cabrera, A; Torres, A M

    2005-08-01

    A segregating progeny set of 96 F1 diploid hybrids (2n = 2x = 14) between "Blush Noisette" (D10), one of the first seedlings from the original "Champneys' Pink Cluster", and Rosa wichurana (E15), was used to construct a genetic linkage map of the rose genome following a "pseudo-testcross" mapping strategy. A total of 133 markers (130 RAPD, one morphological and two microsatellites) were located on the 14 linkage groups (LGs) of the D10 and E15 maps, covering total map lengths of 388 and 260 cM, respectively. Due to the presence of common biparental markers the homology of four LGs between parental maps (D10-1/E15-1 to D10-4/E15-4) could be inferred. Four horticulturally interesting quantitative traits, flower size (FS), days to flowering (DF), leaf size (LS), and resistance to powdery mildew (PM) were analysed in the progeny in order to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling these traits. A total of 13 putative QTLs (LOD > 3.0) were identified, four for FS, two for flowering time, five for LS, and two for resistance to PM. Possible homologies between QTLs detected in the D10 and E15 maps could be established between Fs1 and Fs3, Fs2 and Fs4, and Ls1 and Ls3. Screening for pairwise epistatic interactions between loci revealed additional, epistatic QTLs (EQTLs) for DF and LS that were not detected in the original QTL analysis. The genetic maps developed in this study will be useful to add new markers and locate genes for important traits in the genus providing a practical resource for marker-assisted selection programs in roses.

  3. The horticultural trade and ornamental plant invasions in Britain.

    PubMed

    Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina; Touza, Julia; Perrings, Charles; Williamson, Mark

    2007-02-01

    Ornamental horticulture has been recognized as the main pathway for plant invasions worldwide. We examined the link between propagule pressure created by the presence of ornamental plants in the market and their ability to escape from cultivation and establish in the wild. A random sample of 534 non-native ornamental species on sale in nineteenth century Britain showed that 27% of these species were recorded growing outside cultivation and 30% of those were established. Species that had escaped from cultivation were more frequently on sale both in the nineteenth century and today than nonescaping species. We used logit regression models to identify biological and socioeconomic variables that affect species' abilities to escape cultivation and become established. Frequencies in the market in the nineteenth century and today were good explanatory variables that distinguished escaping from nonescaping species, whereas for the transition from casual to established status these two socioeconomic variables were either absent or only of weak significance. Biological characteristics that increased the probability that a species would escape from cultivation were species height, a European native range, and being an annual. Climbing plants and species intolerant of low temperatures were less likely to escape. In contrast, the establishment probability was greater if the species belonged to a genus native to Britain and increased as the number of continents in a plant's native range increased. Annual plants had a reduced probability of establishment. Market presence, prices, and the date of introduction are among the socioeconomic factors that have had important effects on the observed course of invasions.

  4. UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS SUMMER INSTITUTE FOR TEACHERS OF ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE IN THE MIDWESTERN SECTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEMP, PAUL E.

    A RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT, DESIGNED TO RETRAIN TEACHERS, DEVELOP ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE CURRICULUM MATERIALS, AND STIMULATE THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOCATIONAL ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE PROGRAMS IN THE MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES, INCLUDED TRAINING, SERVICE, AND EVALUATION ACTIVITIES. THIRTY TEACHERS SELECTED FROM 75 APPLICANTS ATTENDED A SUMMER…

  5. Protein export through the bacterial flagellar type III export pathway.

    PubMed

    Minamino, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, which is responsible for bacterial motility, the flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes both ATP and proton motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane and exports flagellar proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the nascent structure. The export apparatus consists of a membrane-embedded export gate made of FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and a water-soluble ATPase ring complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlgN, FliS, and FliT act as substrate-specific chaperones that do not only protect their cognate substrates from degradation and aggregation in the cytoplasm but also efficiently transfer the substrates to the export apparatus. The ATPase ring complex facilitates the initial entry of the substrates into the narrow pore of the export gate. The export gate by itself is a proton-protein antiporter that uses the two components of proton motive force, the electric potential difference and the proton concentration difference, for different steps of the export process. A specific interaction of FlhA with FliJ located in the center of the ATPase ring complex allows the export gate to efficiently use proton motive force to drive protein export. The ATPase ring complex couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to its assembly-disassembly cycle for rapid and efficient protein export cycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey.

  6. 78 FR 4418 - Electronic Submission Process for Requesting Export Certificates From the Center for Devices and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Enhancement Act of 1996 and the terms of clearance of the Office of Management and Budget approval (OMB... out by the FDA Export Reform and Enhancement Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-134) and the terms...

  7. Analysis of Zinc-Exporters Expression in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Chandra K.; Malas, Kareem M.; Tydrick, Caitlin; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; Iczkowski, Kenneth A.; Ahmad, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining optimal intracellular zinc (Zn) concentration is crucial for critical cellular functions. Depleted Zn has been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Solute carrier family 30 (SLC30A) proteins maintain cytoplasmic Zn balance by exporting Zn out to the extracellular space or by sequestering cytoplasmic Zn into intracellular compartments. In this study, we determined the involvement of Zn-exporters, SLC30A 1–10 in PCa, in the context of racial health disparity in human PCa samples obtained from European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) populations. We also analyzed the levels of Zn-exporters in a panel of PCa cells derived from EA and AA populations. We further explored the expression profile of Zn-exporters in PCa using Oncomine database. Zn-exporters were found to be differentially expressed at the mRNA level, with a significant upregulation of SLC30A1, SLC30A9 and SLC30A10, and downregulation of SLC30A5 and SLC30A6 in PCa, compared to benign prostate. Moreover, Ingenuity Pathway analysis revealed several interactions of Zn-exporters with certain tumor suppressor and promoter proteins known to be modulated in PCa. Our study provides an insight regarding Zn-exporters in PCa, which may open new avenues for future studies aimed at enhancing the levels of Zn by modulating Zn-transporters via pharmacological means. PMID:27833104

  8. Analysis of Zinc-Exporters Expression in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chandra K; Malas, Kareem M; Tydrick, Caitlin; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Ahmad, Nihal

    2016-11-11

    Maintaining optimal intracellular zinc (Zn) concentration is crucial for critical cellular functions. Depleted Zn has been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Solute carrier family 30 (SLC30A) proteins maintain cytoplasmic Zn balance by exporting Zn out to the extracellular space or by sequestering cytoplasmic Zn into intracellular compartments. In this study, we determined the involvement of Zn-exporters, SLC30A 1-10 in PCa, in the context of racial health disparity in human PCa samples obtained from European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) populations. We also analyzed the levels of Zn-exporters in a panel of PCa cells derived from EA and AA populations. We further explored the expression profile of Zn-exporters in PCa using Oncomine database. Zn-exporters were found to be differentially expressed at the mRNA level, with a significant upregulation of SLC30A1, SLC30A9 and SLC30A10, and downregulation of SLC30A5 and SLC30A6 in PCa, compared to benign prostate. Moreover, Ingenuity Pathway analysis revealed several interactions of Zn-exporters with certain tumor suppressor and promoter proteins known to be modulated in PCa. Our study provides an insight regarding Zn-exporters in PCa, which may open new avenues for future studies aimed at enhancing the levels of Zn by modulating Zn-transporters via pharmacological means.

  9. 78 FR 37785 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Gerardo Domingo... Domingo Rodriguez-Rivera (``Rodriguez-Rivera'') was convicted of violating Section 38 of the ] Arms Export... convicted of knowingly and willfully exporting and causing to be exported and attempting to export...

  10. 19 CFR 10.430 - Export requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export requirements. 10.430 Section 10.430 Customs... Export Requirements § 10.430 Export requirements. (a) Submission of certification to CBP. An exporter or producer in the United States that signs a certification of origin for a good exported from the...

  11. 19 CFR 10.38 - Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exported from another port, they shall be forwarded to the port of exportation under a transportation and... shall be endorsed on each package to be so exported and signed by the exporter. (f) Whenever the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exportation. 10.38 Section 10.38 Customs Duties...

  12. Import for export; reporting and recordkeeping requirements for unapproved or violative products imported for further processing or incorporation and subsequent export--FDA. Proposed rule.

    PubMed

    1998-11-24

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing reporting and recordkeeping regulations to implement certain sections of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) as amended by the FDA Export Reform and Enhancement Act of 1996. The proposed rule would require an importer to report to FDA each time it imports an unapproved or otherwise violative article that is to be exported after further processing or incorporation into another product in the United States and to keep records to ensure that the article is so processed or incorporated and then exported, and that any portion of the import that is not exported is destroyed.

  13. ENHANCED: IMPORTING TIMBER, EXPORTING ECOLOGICAL IMPACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Covering 32% of the planet, boreal forests are one of the last relatively intact terrestrial biomes, and are a critical carbon sink in global climate dynamics. Mature and old growth boreal forests provide a large number of products that are culturally and economically important, ...

  14. Small Business Export Enhancement Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Dahlkemper, Kathleen A. [D-PA-3

    2010-07-22

    07/22/2010 Referred to the House Committee on Small Business. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.5297, which became Public Law 111-240 on 9/27/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. 7 CFR 1218.6 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.6 Exporter. Exporter means a person involved in exporting blueberries from another country to the United States....

  16. 7 CFR 1218.6 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.6 Exporter. Exporter means a person involved in exporting blueberries from another country to the United States....

  17. 7 CFR 1218.6 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.6 Exporter. Exporter means a person involved in exporting blueberries from another country to the United States....

  18. 7 CFR 1218.6 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.6 Exporter. Exporter means a person involved in exporting blueberries from another country to the United States....

  19. 7 CFR 1218.6 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.6 Exporter. Exporter means a person involved in exporting blueberries from another country to the United States....

  20. 78 FR 54238 - President's Export Council; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... International Trade Administration President's Export Council; Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Export.... exports. Topics may include trade promotion authority; priorities for the Ninth World Trade...

  1. 7 CFR 1280.106 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.106 Exporter. Exporter means any person who exports domestic live lambs from the United States....

  2. Agriculture--Horticulture. Kit No. 36. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Claudia

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on horticulture are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focus on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  3. Asian germplasm in American horticulture: new thoughts on an old theme

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    North American horticulture cultivates an astonishing diversity of ornamental species, from nearly every floristic region, but its landscapes are dominated by temperate species drawn from the Eastern Asiatic floristic region. The East Asiatic floristic region is one of the most diverse in the world...

  4. Project PLANTWORK: A Horticulture Employment Initiative for Workers with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Therapy and Rehabilitation through Horticulture, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD.

    Intended for persons establishing job development programs for developmentally disabled individuals, this training manual details the structure and procedures of Project PLANTWORK, a 21-month demonstration program which placed approximately 70 workers with developmental disabilities into employment in horticulture industry firms or into…

  5. An Analysis of Agriculture and Horticulture Programs at Illinois Public Community Colleges. Accountability Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    Prepared as part of a state program review, this report presents results from a review undertaken of all agriculture and horticulture programs at Illinois public community colleges for fiscal year 1995. The first part focuses on the four agricultural programs reviewed: Agricultural Business and Management; Agricultural Production, Workers, and…

  6. Nebraska Vocational Agribusiness Curriculum for City Schools. Horticulture. Agricultural Mechanics. A Curriculum Guide. 11th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Designed for use with high school juniors, this agribusiness curriculum for city schools contains thirty-two units of instruction in the areas of horticulture and agricultural mechanics. Among the units included in the curriculum are (1) Planting Media, (2) Fertilizer, (3) Plant Classification, (4) Turf Grass Management, (5) Landscape Design, (6)…

  7. Supervised Occupational Experience Record Forms for Ornamental Horticulture. (Revised) Master Set. 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, R. W.; And Others

    The worksheets have been developed for use with any production occupational or work experience record book for high school vocational agriculture programs. Separate units have been developed for each of 11 areas in ornamental horticulture, so the student and teacher can select the appropriate one, or several, for the experiences planned by the…

  8. Teaching STEM through Horticulture: Implementing an Edible Plant Curriculum at a STEM-Centric Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Leila A.; Hughes, Harrison; Balgopal, Meena M.

    2016-01-01

    School gardens are ideal places for students to ask and answer questions about science. This paper describes a case study of two 3rd grade teachers and two STEM coordinators who were recruited to implement and evaluate a horticultural-based curriculum developed for this study. Informed by the Teacher-Centered Systemic Reform model we conducted a…

  9. Winter-injury following horticultural treatments to overcome juvenility in citrus seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus seedling juvenility delays new hybrid evaluation, slows cultivar release, and slows introgression of new traits. A horticultural program reported to overcome citrus juvenility was tested at the Whitmore Citrus Research Foundation farm (Lake County), using replicated Hirado Buntan x Clementine...

  10. Horticulture Materials for Agricultural Education Programs. Core Agricultural Education Curriculum, Central Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Office of Agricultural Communications and Education.

    This curriculum guide contains five units with relevant problem areas for horticulture. These problem areas have been selected as suggested areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for secondary students enrolled in an agricultural education program. Each problem area includes some or all of the following components: related problem…

  11. COMPARISON OF CERTAIN ABILITIES NEEDED BY WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES AND LICENSED ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DILLON, ROY D.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH WORKERS WITH THE JOB TITLES OF GENERAL DIRECTORS, SALESMEN, SUPERVISORS, AND FIELD WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES NEEDED AGRICULTURALLY ORIENTED KNOWLEDGE OF THE SAME KIND AND LEVEL AS WORKERS IN COMPARABLE JOB TITLES IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY PERSONAL…

  12. 4-H Horticulture Project Activity Guides. Leader's Guide and Units 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document, concerning the 4-H horticulture project, includes a leader's guide and three youth activity guides. The leader's guide can be used to plan group project meetings that are both fun and educational. Activities can be adapted to various age groups. The leader's guide includes basic information for growing plants indoors and outdoors,…

  13. Insights from Spanish-Speaking Employees in the Iowa Horticultural Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justen, Emilie; Haynes, Cynthia; VanDerZanden, Ann Marie; Grudens-Schuck, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Addressing the needs of Latino workers can help improve working conditions, job satisfaction, and productivity of both employees and the companies hiring Latino workers. The study reported here assessed educational needs, communication gaps, and technical skills of Latino workers working in the horticultural industry in Iowa--an ethnic group that…

  14. Horticulture Mechanics Course Outline. Teacher Education Series, Vol. 15, No. 1t.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lee P.; And Others

    The document provides 17 outlines of brief instructional units in mechanics, which are intended for incorporation into an existing program of study in ornamental horticulture at the secondary or postsecondary level. To facilitate the flexible use of the outlines, a grid is presented on which seven occupational areas (such as aboriculture,…

  15. Larvae of five horticulturally important species of Chrysopodes (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae): shared generic features, descriptions and keys

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Patrícia S.; Tauber, Catherine A.; Albuquerque, Gilberto S.; Tauber, Maurice J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An expanded list of generic level larval characteristics is presented for Chrysopodes; it includes a reinterpretation of the mesothoracic and metathoracic structure and setation. Keys, descriptions and images of Semaphoront A (first instar) and Semaphoront B (second and third instars) are offered for identifying five species of Chrysopodes (Chrysopodes) that are commonly reported from horticultural habitats in the Neotropical region. PMID:23653514

  16. Evaluation of biochar-anaerobic potato digestate mixtures as renewable components of horticultural potting media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various formulations are used in horticultural potting media, with sphagnum peat moss, vermiculite and perlite currently among the most common components. We are examining a dried anaerobic digestate remaining after the fermentation of potato processing wastes to replace organic components such as p...

  17. Treated sewage effluent (water) potential to be used for horticultural production in Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emongor, V. E.; Ramolemana, G. M.

    Botswana being semi-arid and arid country, the provision of drinking water and water for agricultural production is becoming increasingly scarce and expensive. Measures that can augment the available sources of water or measures that can reduce the demand on potable water should be given serious consideration. Horticulturists have incorporated new technology into many of their production programs, which has enabled them to grow more horticultural crops with less water; however, more effort is needed. Techniques such as drip irrigation, sensors, growing plants with low water requirements, timing and scheduling of irrigation to the growth needs of the plant, mulching, and establishing a minimum water quality standard for horticultural crops must be used to stretch agricultural water supplies. Recycling agricultural water and using treated municipal sewage effluent is a viable option for increasing horticultures’ future water supply in Botswana. Agriculture wastewater and sewage effluents often contain significant quantities of heavy metals and other substances that may be toxic to people but beneficial to horticultural crops. However, before sewage effluent can be used for commercial production of vegetables and fruits, research must be undertaken to determine whether there is accumulation of heavy metals and faecal coliforms in the edible portion of the horticultural produce which may be detrimental to human health 15-20 years later. Research must be undertaken to assess the impact of sewage effluent on soil physical, chemical properties and environment after continued use.

  18. An Introduction to the Sexual Reproduction of Flowering Plants. Ornamental Horticulture I, Lesson Plan No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ideoka, Keith

    Developed as part of a 90-hour high school course in ornamental horticulture, this 50-minute lesson plan is designed to explain the process of pollination and fertilization of flowering plants. The lesson plan begins with information on the course for which the lesson was designed; equipment and audio-visual aids needed; required student…

  19. Primary-care based participatory rehabilitation: users’ views of a horticultural and arts project

    PubMed Central

    Barley, Elizabeth A; Robinson, Susan; Sikorski, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Background Participation in horticulture and arts may improve wellbeing in those with mental and physical illness. Aim To conduct an in-depth exploration of the views and experience of participants of a primary-care-based horticultural and participatory arts rehabilitation project (Sydenham Garden). Design and setting Qualitative interview study of a primary-care-based horticultural and participatory arts rehabilitation project in South London. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants (referred to as ‘coworkers’) of Sydenham Garden. Seven were female. Participants were aged between 38 and 91 years and had a range of severe mental and physical health problems; most had depression. The interviews were analysed using constant comparison and thematic analysis. Results Data were overwhelmingly positive concerning participation. Coworkers considered participation in the project to promote wellbeing by providing purposeful and enjoyable activity and interest, improving mood and self-perceptions, and providing an escape from life’s pressures. Being outdoors was considered therapeutic. The most-valued aspect of participation was the social contact derived as a result of it. Many of the coworkers who were interviewed developed transferable skills, including nationally recognised qualifications, which they valued highly. Conclusion Delivery of horticultural therapy and participatory arts is a feasible model for improving wellbeing in patients in primary care who have serious illness. Longer-term studies are needed to address what happens to people after leaving such projects. PMID:22520790

  20. Effects of Horticultural Therapy on Psychosocial Health in Older Nursing Home Residents: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuh-Min; Ji, Jeng-Yi

    2015-09-01

    This preliminary study examined the effect of horticultural therapy on psychosocial health in older nursing home residents. A combined quantitative and qualitative design was adopted. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 10 older residents from a nursing home in Taichung, Taiwan. Participants joined a 10-week indoor horticultural program once a week, with each session lasting for about 1.5 hours. A single-group design with multiple measurements was adopted for the quantitative component of this study. Interviews held 1-2 days before the intervention (T0) were used to collect baseline data. The two outcome variables of this study, depression and loneliness, were reassessed during the 5th (T1) and 10th (T2) weeks of the intervention. Generalized estimating equations were used to test the mean differences among T0, T1, and T2 measures. After the 10-week program, qualitative data were collected by asking participants to share their program participation experiences. The results of generalized estimating equation showed significant improvements in depression and loneliness. Four categories emerged from the qualitative data content analysis: social connection, anticipation and hope, sense of achievement, and companionship. Given the beneficial effects of the horticulture therapy, the inclusion of horticultural activities in nursing home activity programs is recommended.

  1. Insecticide dissipation from soil and plant surfaces in tropical horticulture of southern Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Rosendahl, Ingrid; Laabs, Volker; Atcha-Ahowé, Cyrien; James, Braima; Amelung, Wulf

    2009-06-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, horticulture provides livelihood opportunities for millions of people, especially in urban and peri-urban areas. Although the vegetable agroecosystems are often characterized by intensive pesticide use, risks resulting therefrom are largely unknown under tropical horticultural conditions. The objective of this study therefore was to study the fate of pesticides in two representative horticultural soils (Acrisol and Arenosol) and plants (Solanum macrocarpon L.) after field application and thus to gain first insight on environmental persistence and dispersion of typical insecticides used in vegetable horticulture in Benin, West Africa. On plant surfaces, dissipation was rapid with half lives ranging from 2 to 87 h (alpha-endosulfan < beta-endosulfan < deltamethrin). Soil dissipation was considerably slower than dissipation from plant surfaces with half-lives ranging from 3 (diazinon) to 74 d (total endosulfan), but persistence of pesticides in soil was still reduced compared to temperate climates. Nevertheless, for deltamethrin and endosulfan, a tendency for mid-term accumulation in soil upon repeated applications was observed. The soil and plant surface concentrations of the metabolite endosulfan sulfate increased during the entire trial period, indicating that this compound is a potential long-term pollutant even in tropical environments.

  2. Horticultural Performance of Eight American Elderberry Genotypes at Three Missouri Locations

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, A.L.; Byers, P.L.; Avery, J.D.; Kaps, M.; Gu, S.

    2016-01-01

    American elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis) is being increasingly cultivated in North America for its edible and medicinal fruit and flowers, yet remains largely undeveloped as a horticultural crop. Productive genotypes with desirable horticultural attributes, including disease and insect resistance, precocity, uniform fruit ripening, and large berry size are needed in order to advance the commercial production of elderberries. A four-year study of eight elderberry genotypes was established in 2008 at three diverse Missouri (USA) locations. Phenology, plant morphology, pest susceptibility, productivity, and fruit characteristics data were collected over three growing seasons, 2009–2011. Significant differences for most phenological, horticultural, and fruit juice characteristics were observed among the three sites, three years, and eight genotypes. The genotype ‘Ozark’ was the earliest to break bud, produced fruit with high levels of soluble solids, and out-yielded most other genotypes at the three sites over the three-year study. None of the new genotypes produced berries as large as or larger than the standard ‘York’ which is known for its large fruit. Some of the genotypes tested, especially ‘Ozark’ show promise as potential cultivars and as breeding stock for further development of elderberry as a commercially-viable horticultural crop. PMID:27158183

  3. Chemical and physical properties of Paulownia elongata biochar modified with oxidants for horticultural applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treatment of biochar with oxidants such as acids and hydrogen peroxide has been shown to alter porosity, increase adsorption of chemicals, and introduce functional groups on the biochar surfaces, all of which are desirable for their use in horticultural applications. Biochar was produced from the py...

  4. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship...

  5. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship...

  6. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship...

  7. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship...

  8. Stimulation of nonselective amino acid export by glutamine dumper proteins.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Réjane; Voll, Lars M; Horst, Robin J; Frommer, Wolf B; Pilot, Guillaume

    2010-02-01

    Phloem and xylem transport of amino acids involves two steps: export from one cell type to the apoplasm, and subsequent import into adjacent cells. High-affinity import is mediated by proton/amino acid cotransporters, while the mechanism of export remains unclear. Enhanced expression of the plant-specific type I membrane protein Glutamine Dumper1 (GDU1) has previously been shown to induce the secretion of glutamine from hydathodes and increased amino acid content in leaf apoplasm and xylem sap. In this work, tolerance to low concentrations of amino acids and transport analyses using radiolabeled amino acids demonstrate that net amino acid uptake is reduced in the glutamine-secreting GDU1 overexpressor gdu1-1D. The net uptake rate of phenylalanine decreased over time, and amino acid net efflux was increased in gdu1-1D compared with the wild type, indicating increased amino acid export from cells. Independence of the export from proton gradients and ATP suggests that overexpression of GDU1 affects a passive export system. Each of the seven Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GDU genes led to similar phenotypes, including increased efflux of a wide spectrum of amino acids. Differences in expression profiles and functional properties suggested that the GDU genes fulfill different roles in roots, vasculature, and reproductive organs. Taken together, the GDUs appear to stimulate amino acid export by activating nonselective amino acid facilitators.

  9. A new regulatory pathway of mRNA export by an F-box protein, Mdm30.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Geetha; Lahudkar, Shweta; Bhaumik, Sukesh R

    2014-02-01

    Mdm30, an F-box protein in yeast, has been recently shown to promote mRNA export. However, it remains unknown how Mdm30 facilitates mRNA export. Here, we show that Mdm30 targets the Sub2 component of the TREX (Transcription/Export) complex for ubiquitylation and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Such a targeted degradation of Sub2 enhances the recruitment of the mRNA export adaptor, Yra1, to the active genes to promote mRNA export. Together, these results elucidate that Mdm30 promotes mRNA export by lowering Sub2's stability and consequently enhancing Yra1 recruitment, thus illuminating new regulatory mechanisms of mRNA export by Mdm30.

  10. 77 FR 72322 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Kue Sang Chun... convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2000)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Chun was convicted of knowingly exporting and causing the export from the United States to...

  11. 40 CFR 89.909 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 89.909 Section 89....909 Export exemptions. (a) A new nonroad engine intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged..., 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. New nonroad engines exported to such countries...

  12. 77 FR 16768 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 RIN 0551-AA70 Export Sales Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Office of... frozen box/primal cuts) and distillers dried grain (DDG) to the Export Sales Reporting Requirements, is..., Branch Chief, Export Sales Reporting Branch, Import Policies and Export Reporting Division, Office...

  13. 15 CFR 2012.3 - Export certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export certificates. 2012.3 Section... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTAS FOR BEEF § 2012.3 Export certificates... export certificate is in effect with respect to the beef. (b) To be valid, an export certificate...

  14. 40 CFR 273.20 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exports. 273.20 Section 273.20... UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.20 Exports. A... exporter in 40 CFR 262.53, 262.56(a) (1) through (4), (6), and (b) and 262.57; (b) Export such...

  15. 78 FR 58995 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Iman Kazerani, 153... was convicted of knowingly and willfully exporting and causing the exportation of laptop computers..., a $10,000 criminal fine and an assessment of $100. Section 766.25 of the Export...

  16. 77 FR 40493 - Export Administration Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Parts 740, 742, 748, 750, 752, and 760 Export Administration... heading of paragraph (d) to read ``Shippers Export Declaration or Automated Export System Record''. 0 2...): Once a mass market classification request is accepted in SNAP-R, you may export and reexport...

  17. 78 FR 60248 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Volha Dubouskaya... States, that is, to willfully export from the United States to Belarus export-controlled items, including... of $100.00. Section 766.25 of the Export Administration Regulations (``EAR'' or ``Regulations'')...

  18. 40 CFR 92.909 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 92.909 Section 92....909 Export exemptions. (a) A new locomotive or locomotive engine intended solely for export, and so... from EPA standards. (c) It is a condition of any exemption for the purpose of export under paragraph...

  19. 77 FR 60377 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Jirair Avanessian, a/k... be violated the United States trade restriction with Iran by exporting and attempting to export... Foreign Assets Control for such an export. Avanessian was also convicted of one count of conspiracy (18...

  20. 40 CFR 94.909 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 94.909 Section 94... Export exemptions. (a) A new engine intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged on the outside... of export under paragraph (a) of this section, that such exemption is void ab initio with respect...

  1. 10 CFR 431.405 - Exported equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exported equipment. 431.405 Section 431.405 Energy... EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.405 Exported equipment. Under Sections 330 and 345 of the Act, this Part... for export from the United States (or such equipment was imported for export), unless such...

  2. 40 CFR 273.40 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exports. 273.40 Section 273.40... UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.40 Exports. A... exporter in 40 CFR 262.53, 262.56(a)(1) through (4), (6), and (b) and 262.57; (b) Export such...

  3. 14 CFR 1274.942 - Export licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export licenses. 1274.942 Section 1274.942... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.942 Export licenses. Export Licenses July 2002 (a) The Recipient shall comply with all U.S. export control laws and regulations, including...

  4. 15 CFR 752.15 - Export clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export clearance. 752.15 Section 752... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SPECIAL COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.15 Export clearance. (a) Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated...

  5. 27 CFR 28.30 - Export status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export status. 28.30... Export status. (a) Distilled spirits and wines manufactured, produced, bottled in bottles packed in... such purposes are considered to be exported. Export status is not acquired until application on...

  6. 78 FR 4833 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: James Allen Larrison... was convicted of knowingly and willfully attempting to export and causing the attempted export from... 24 months of probation. Section 766.25 of the Export Administration Regulations (``EAR''...

  7. 40 CFR 91.1009 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 91.1009 Section 91....1009 Export exemptions. (a) A new marine SI engine intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged...., Washington, DC 20460. New marine SI engines exported to such countries must comply with EPA...

  8. 19 CFR 18.42 - Direct exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct exportation. 18.42 Section 18.42 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise Not Otherwise Subject to Customs Control Exported Under Cover of A Tir Carnet § 18.42 Direct exportation. At the port of exportation, the container...

  9. 19 CFR 18.26 - Indirect exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... merchandise to be exported and provide such evidence of exportation as required by the port director under... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect exportation. 18.26 Section 18.26 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Exportation from Customs Custody of Merchandise Unentered...

  10. 77 FR 8807 - President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Open Meeting The President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration (PECSEA) will... pertinent to those portions of the Export Administration Act, as amended, that deal with United...

  11. Current and potential trade in horticultural products irradiated for phytosanitary purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos-Griffin, Emilia; Hallman, Guy J.; Griffin, Robert L.

    2012-08-01

    The current status of trade in horticultural products irradiated for phytosanitary purposes is examined, including trends, strengths and weaknesses. A strategy is proposed to take advantage of the best future opportunities for increasing trade in irradiated horticultural products by identifying best possibilities for expanding both the number and volume of commodities for irradiation and then applying appropriate business criteria in a general analysis of the commodities, commercial scenarios, and geographic regions where the greatest potential exists for expansion. The results show that fresh fruits such as mango, papaya, citrus, grapes, and vegetables such as tomatoes, onions, asparagus, garlic, and peppers from Asia and the Americas show the greatest potential. Substantial opportunities for additional growth exist, especially as regulatory conditions become more favorable.

  12. Soil microbial community analysis of between no-till and tillage in a controlled horticultural field.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung Koo; Kim, Min Keun; Seo, Youn Won; Choi, Kyung Ju; Lee, Seong Tae; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Lee, Young Han

    2012-04-01

    The present study evaluated the changes of soil microbial communities that were subjected to no-till and compared the results to those subject to tillage for organic farming in a controlled horticultural field by fatty acid methyl ester. Fungi (P < 0.001), gram-positive bacteria (P < 0.001), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (P < 0.01), and actinomycetes (P < 0.01) in the no-till soils were significantly larger than those in the tillage soils. The no-till in the subsoil had a significantly lower ratio of cy17:0 to 16:1ω7c compared to that of tillage, indicating that microbial stress decreased because the soils were not disturbed (P < 0.05). Fungi should be considered as a potential factor responsible for the obvious microbial community differentiation that was observed between the no-till and tillage areas in a controlled horticultural field.

  13. Comparing responses to horticultural-based and traditional activities in dementia care programs.

    PubMed

    Jarrott, Shannon E; Gigliotti, Christina M

    2010-12-01

    Engaging persons with dementia in meaningful activities supports well-being; however, care staff are challenged to implement age- and ability-appropriate activities in a group setting. We compared a randomly assigned treatment group, who received horticultural therapy-based (HT-based) programming to a comparison group, who engaged in traditional activities (TA) programming, on engagement and affect. Horticultural therapy-based programming was implemented twice weekly at 4 treatment sites for 6 weeks, while regular TA were observed at comparison sites. Results revealed no differences between groups on affective domains. Levels of adaptive behavior differed between the groups, with the treatment group demonstrating higher levels of active, passive, and other engagement and the comparison group demonstrating higher levels of self-engagement. Our results highlight the value of HT-based programs and the importance of simultaneously capturing participants' affective and behavioral responses. Theoretical and practical considerations about the facilitation of and context in which the programming occurs are discussed.

  14. Reduction of energy usage in postharvest horticulture through management of ethylene.

    PubMed

    Wills, Ron B H; Golding, John B

    2015-05-01

    Cool chain management is the preferred technology to extend the postharvest life of horticultural produce, but with rising energy costs and community pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, there is a need to use less energy-intensive technologies. Minimising the level of ethylene around horticultural produce inhibits ripening and senescence and therefore has the potential to reduce the use of refrigeration. The long-distance transport of bananas within Australia and from Central America to Europe is used as a case study to show that the need for refrigeration could be reduced if the appropriate concentrations of ethylene were maintained around fruit during transit. Data are also presented to show a similar benefit of ethylene control with green beans, as well as another study showing that apples treated with the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene could be stored at a higher temperature without loss of quality to the consumer. The range of technologies available to manage ethylene levels is discussed.

  15. Characterization and evaluation of five jaboticaba accessions at the subtropical horticulture research station in Miami, Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit of five Jaboticaba (Myrciaria caulifloria) cultivars ‘MC-05-06’, ‘MC-05-14’, ‘MC-05-12’, ‘MC-06-15,’ and ‘MC-06-14’ were evaluated and characterized at the National Germplasm Repository, Subtropical horticulture Research Station (SHRS) Miami, Florida. Thirty fruits were harvested from clona...

  16. Environmental technologies industry and global markets. A supplement to environmental technologies export: Strategic framework for US leadership. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The present report outlines the background and issues supporting the national strategy which was developed to deploy U.S. Government resources most effectively to increase environmental technologies exports and to enhance the trade competitiveness of the U.S. environmental technologies sector. The document is a supplement to the strategic framework.

  17. Co-composting of horticultural waste with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues.

    PubMed

    Choy, Sing Ying; Wang, Ke; Qi, Wei; Wang, Ben; Chen, Chia-Lung; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Horticultural waste was co-composted with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues individually to evaluate the effects of these easily available organic wastes in Singapore on the composting process and product quality. Each co-composting material was mixed with horticultural waste in the wet weight ratio of 1:1 and composted for 46 days. Results showed that all co-composting materials accelerated the degradation of total carbon and resulted in higher nutrients of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in the final product compared with horticultural waste alone. Mixture with fruit peels achieved the fastest total carbon loss; however, did not reach the minimum required temperature for pathogen destruction. The end product was found to be the best source for K and had a higher pH that could be used for the remediation of acidic soil. Food waste resulted in the highest available nitrate (NO3-N) content in the end product, but caused high salt content, total coliforms, and slower total carbon loss initially. Soybean residues were found to be the best co-composting material to produce compost with high N, P, and K when compared with other materials due to the highest temperature, fastest total carbon loss, fastest reduction in C/N ratio, and best conservation of nutrients.

  18. Environmental fate of fungicides in surface waters of a horticultural-production catchment in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Wightwick, Adam M; Bui, Anh Duyen; Zhang, Pei; Rose, Gavin; Allinson, Mayumi; Myers, Jackie H; Reichman, Suzanne M; Menzies, Neal W; Pettigrove, Vincent; Allinson, Graeme

    2012-04-01

    Fungicides are regularly applied in horticultural production systems and may migrate off-site, potentially posing an ecological risk to surface waterways. However, few studies have investigated the fate of fungicides in horticultural catchments. This study investigated the presence of 24 fungicides at 18 sites during a 5-month period within a horticultural catchment in southeastern Australia. Seventeen of the 24 fungicides were detected in the waterways, with fungicides detected in 63% of spot water samples, 44% of surface sediment samples, and 44% of the passive sampler systems deployed. One third of the water samples contained residues of two or more fungicides. Myclobutanil, trifloxystrobin, pyrimethanil, difenoconazole, and metalaxyl were the fungicides most frequently detected, being present in 16-38% of the spot water samples. Iprodione, myclobutanil, pyrimethanil, cyproconazole, trifloxystrobin, and fenarimol were found at the highest concentrations in the water samples (> 0.2 μg/l). Relatively high concentrations of myclobutanil and pyrimethanil (≥ 120 μg/kg dry weight) were detected in the sediment samples. Generally the concentrations of the fungicides detected were several orders of magnitude lower than reported ecotoxicological effect values, suggesting that concentrations of individual fungicides in the catchment were unlikely to pose an ecological risk. However, there is little information on the effects of fungicides, especially fungi and microbes, on aquatic ecosystems. There is also little known about the combined effects of simultaneous low-level exposure of multiple fungicides to aquatic organisms. Further research is required to adequately assess the risk of fungicides in aquatic environments.

  19. Investigation of 10 herbicides in surface waters of a horticultural production catchment in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Allinson, Graeme; Bui, AnhDuyen; Zhang, Pei; Rose, Gavin; Wightwick, Adam M; Allinson, Mayumi; Pettigrove, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Herbicides are regularly applied in horticultural production systems and may migrate off-site, potentially posing an ecological risk to surface waterways. However, few studies have investigated the levels and potential ecotoxicological impact of herbicides in horticultural catchments in southern Australia. This study investigated the presence of 10 herbicides at 18 sites during a 5-month period in horticulturally important areas of the Yarra Valley in southeastern Australia. Seven of the 10 herbicides were detected in the streams, in 39 % of spot water samples, in 25 % of surface sediment samples, and in >70 % of the passive sampler systems deployed. Few samples contained residues of ≥2 herbicides. Simazine was the herbicide most frequently detected in water, sediment, and passive sampler samples and had the highest concentrations in water (0.67 μg/L) and sediment (260 μg/kg dry weight). Generally the concentrations of the herbicides detected were several orders of magnitude lower than reported ecotoxicological effect values, including those for aquatic plants and algae, suggesting that concentrations of individual chemicals in the catchment were unlikely to pose an ecological risk. However, little is known about the combined effects of simultaneous, low-level exposure of multiple herbicides of the same mode of action on Australian aquatic organisms nor their contribution when found in mixtures with other pesticides. Further research is required to adequately assess the risk of pesticides in Victorian aquatic environments.

  20. 76 FR 38620 - International Fisheries; Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Bluefin Tuna Import, Export, Re-Export

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...; Bluefin Tuna Import, Export, Re-Export AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... of importation into the United States and conduct of other transactions (such as export and...

  1. Heterogeneous concurrent computing with exportable services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderam, Vaidy

    1995-01-01

    Heterogeneous concurrent computing, based on the traditional process-oriented model, is approaching its functionality and performance limits. An alternative paradigm, based on the concept of services, supporting data driven computation, and built on a lightweight process infrastructure, is proposed to enhance the functional capabilities and the operational efficiency of heterogeneous network-based concurrent computing. TPVM is an experimental prototype system supporting exportable services, thread-based computation, and remote memory operations that is built as an extension of and an enhancement to the PVM concurrent computing system. TPVM offers a significantly different computing paradigm for network-based computing, while maintaining a close resemblance to the conventional PVM model in the interest of compatibility and ease of transition Preliminary experiences have demonstrated that the TPVM framework presents a natural yet powerful concurrent programming interface, while being capable of delivering performance improvements of upto thirty percent.

  2. 75 FR 37756 - Request for Public Comment To Inform Development of National Export Initiative Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On March 11, 2010, President Obama issued Executive Order 13534 to enhance... Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs); (b) Federal Export Assistance; (c) Trade Missions;...

  3. The signal sequence coding region promotes nuclear export of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, Alexander F; Springer, Michael; Shibata, Yoko; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Dias, Anusha P; Rapoport, Tom A

    2007-12-01

    In eukaryotic cells, most mRNAs are exported from the nucleus by the transcription export (TREX) complex, which is loaded onto mRNAs after their splicing and capping. We have studied in mammalian cells the nuclear export of mRNAs that code for secretory proteins, which are targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane by hydrophobic signal sequences. The mRNAs were injected into the nucleus or synthesized from injected or transfected DNA, and their export was followed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. We made the surprising observation that the signal sequence coding region (SSCR) can serve as a nuclear export signal of an mRNA that lacks an intron or functional cap. Even the export of an intron-containing natural mRNA was enhanced by its SSCR. Like conventional export, the SSCR-dependent pathway required the factor TAP, but depletion of the TREX components had only moderate effects. The SSCR export signal appears to be characterized in vertebrates by a low content of adenines, as demonstrated by genome-wide sequence analysis and by the inhibitory effect of silent adenine mutations in SSCRs. The discovery of an SSCR-mediated pathway explains the previously noted amino acid bias in signal sequences and suggests a link between nuclear export and membrane targeting of mRNAs.

  4. Natural Gas Exports from Iran

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

  5. Modulation of Saharan dust export by the North African dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, S.; Cuevas, E.; Prospero, J. M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; López-Solano, J.; García, M. I.; Alonso-Pérez, S.

    2014-10-01

    Desert dust aerosols influence air quality and climate on a global scale, including radiative forcing, cloud properties and carbon dioxide modulation through ocean fertilisation. North Africa is the largest and most active dust source worldwide; however, the mechanisms modulating year-to-year variability in Saharan dust export in summer remains unclear. In this season, enhanced dust mobilization in the hyper-arid Sahara results in maximum dust impacts throughout the North Atlantic. The objective of this study is to identify the relationship between the long term interannual variability in Saharan dust export in summer and large scale meteorology in western North Africa. We address this issue by analysing ~25 yr (1987-2012) dust concentrations at the high altitude Izaña observatory (2373 m a.s.l.) in Tenerife Island, satellite and meteorological reanalysis data. Because in summer Saharan dust export occurs at altitudes 1-5 km, we paid special attention to the summer meteorological scenario in the 700 hPa standard level, characterised by a high over the subtropical Sahara and lower geopotential heights over the tropics; we measured the intensity of this low-high dipole like pattern in terms of the North AFrican Dipole Index (NAFDI): the difference of the 700 hPa geopotential heights anomalies averaged over central Morocco (subtropic) and over Bamako region (tropic). The correlations we found between the 1987-2012 NAFDI with dust at Izaña, satellite dust observations and meteorological re-analysis data, indicates that increase in the NAFDI (i) results in higher wind speeds at the north of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone which enhances dust export over the subtropical North Atlantic, (ii) influences on the size distribution of exported dust particles, increasing the load of coarse dust and (iii) are associated with higher rainfall over tropical North Africa and the Sahel. Because of the North African dipole modulation, inter-annual variability in Saharan dust

  6. RNA Export through the NPC in Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Masumi; Inose, Haruko; Masuda, Seiji

    2015-03-20

    In eukaryotic cells, RNAs are transcribed in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The RNA molecules that are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and viral mRNAs. Each RNA is transported by a specific nuclear export receptor. It is believed that most of the mRNAs are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5. However, multiple export receptors are involved in the export of some RNAs, such as 60S ribosomal subunit. In addition to these export receptors, some adapter proteins are required to export RNAs. The RNA export system of eukaryotic cells is also used by several types of RNA virus that depend on the machineries of the host cell in the nucleus for replication of their genome, therefore this review describes the RNA export system of two representative viruses. We also discuss the NPC anchoring-dependent mRNA export factors that directly recruit specific genes to the NPC.

  7. Arctic Freshwater Export: Prospects, Impacts, and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haine, T. W. N.; Stewart, K.

    2012-04-01

    Large freshwater anomalies clearly exist in the Arctic Ocean. They are due to enhanced melting of sea ice, increased runoff, and changes in atmospheric circulation that lead to surface convergence of freshwater. For example, freshwater has accumulated in the Beaufort Sea over the last 30 years, with an extra ≈ 5000 km3-about 25%-being stored. It is likely that this extra freshwater will be released from the Arctic via the Fram Strait and/or the Canadian Archipelago, perhaps as another "Great Salinity Anomaly". The freshwater discharge will likely have impacts on subpolar Atlantic circulation and ecosystems for several years. In light of coupled climate model forecasts, it may herald a new regime for the Arctic/sub-Arctic ocean. An unprecedented opportunity exists to anticipate and observe this discharge process. This contribution will review the state of knowledge about Arctic freshwater anomalies, and outline potential scenarios for future Arctic freshwater export. Key uncertainties in estimating the timing, rates, and pathways of freshwater export will be identified. Challenges for observing systems to monitor the progress of anomalous freshwater will also be discussed.

  8. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond...

  9. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond...

  10. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond...

  11. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond...

  12. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which...

  13. 14 CFR 1274.942 - Export licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120 through 130, and the Export Administration... authorize it to export ITAR-controlled technical data (including software) pursuant to the exemption at...

  14. 14 CFR 1274.942 - Export licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120 through 130, and the Export Administration... authorize it to export ITAR-controlled technical data (including software) pursuant to the exemption at...

  15. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which...

  16. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which...

  17. Physicist sentenced for export violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-08-01

    J Reece Roth, a retired University of Tennessee plasma physicist convicted of violating the American Arms Export Control Act, is planning to appeal against a four-year prison sentence handed down last month. "It's an appeal against everything, including the verdict and the sentence," says his lawyer Thomas Dundon.

  18. 78 FR 12719 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... International Trade Administration President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council AGENCY... President's Export Council will hold a meeting to deliberate on recommendations related to promoting the... posted at least one week in advance of the meeting on the President's Export Council Web site at...

  19. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.414 Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price... making comparisons of export price or constructed export price with normal value. (See section 777A(d)...

  20. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.414 Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price... making comparisons of export price or constructed export price with normal value. (See section 777A(d)...

  1. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.414 Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price... value and, in an investigation, prices used as the basis for export price or constructed export price...

  2. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.414 Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price... value and, in an investigation, prices used as the basis for export price or constructed export price...

  3. 15 CFR 30.3 - Electronic Export Information filer requirements, parties to export transactions, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electronic Export Information filer... CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Requirements § 30.3 Electronic Export... follows: § 30.3 Electronic Export Information filer requirements, parties to export transactions,...

  4. 77 FR 22191 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Export Control Classification Number...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Export Control Classification Number 0Y521 Series, Items..., which amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by establishing a new Export Control... the EAR. The ECCN 0Y521 series will be used for items that warrant control on the CCL but are not...

  5. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  6. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  7. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  8. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  9. 7 CFR 927.12 - Export market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Export market. 927.12 Section 927.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.12 Export market. Export market means any destination...

  10. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export insurance. 351.520 Section 351.520 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate...

  11. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export insurance. 351.520 Section 351.520 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate...

  12. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export insurance. 351.520 Section 351.520 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate...

  13. 7 CFR 322.6 - Export certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export certificate. 322.6 Section 322.6 Agriculture... Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.6 Export... region must be accompanied by an export certificate issued by the appropriate regulatory agency of...

  14. 78 FR 16777 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... 7 CFR Part 20 Export Sales Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION... distillers dried grain (DDG) to the Export Sales Reporting Requirements (ESR). Under that proposed rule, all... export sales of pork and DDG to the Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS). This final rule implements...

  15. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 915.12 Section 915.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which...

  16. 78 FR 60250 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Vikramaditya Singh, a.k... attempting to cause the export of digital microwave radios to Iran without the required authorization from... probation, six months of home confinement and a $100,000 fine. Section 766.25 of the Export...

  17. 27 CFR 4.80 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 4.80 Section 4.80... TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE General Provisions § 4.80 Exports. The regulations in this part shall not apply to wine exported in bond....

  18. 7 CFR 947.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 947.17 Section 947.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Definitions § 947.17 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries of continental...

  19. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export insurance. 351.520 Section 351.520 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate...

  20. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  1. 78 FR 37518 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Lee Roy Perez, Inmate... convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2006 & Supp. IV 2010)) (``AECA''). ] Specifically, Perez was convicted of knowingly and willfully exporting and causing to...

  2. 78 FR 35195 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... Parts 925, 952, and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export Control AGENCY: Department of... amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control requirements... ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking...

  3. 7 CFR 927.12 - Export market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export market. 927.12 Section 927.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.12 Export market. Export market means any destination...

  4. 27 CFR 7.60 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 7.60 Section 7.60... TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES General Provisions § 7.60 Exports. This part shall not apply to malt beverages exported in bond....

  5. 15 CFR 2014.3 - Export certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export certificates. 2014.3 Section... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA FOR IMPORTS OF LAMB MEAT § 2014.3 Export... determined by the United States Customs Service, that a valid export certificate is in effect with respect...

  6. 7 CFR 322.30 - Export certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export certificate. 322.30 Section 322.30 Agriculture... Restricted Articles § 322.30 Export certificate. Each shipment of restricted articles, except for dead bees, imported into or transiting the United States must be accompanied by an export certificate issued by...

  7. 7 CFR 948.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 948.17 Section 948.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.17 Export. Export means the shipment of potatoes to any...

  8. 7 CFR 959.18 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 959.18 Section 959.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 959.18 Export. Export means to ship onions to any destination which is not...

  9. 7 CFR 946.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 946.15 Section 946.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.15 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries...

  10. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 923.15 Section 923.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship...

  11. 77 FR 60379 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Phillip Andro Jamison...'') was convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2000)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Jamison was convicted of knowingly and willfully exporting from the United States to England...

  12. 26 CFR 52.4682-5 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 52.4682-5 Section 52.4682-5 Internal... (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.4682-5 Exports. (a) Overview. This section provides rules relating to the tax imposed under section 4681 on ozone-depleting chemicals (ODCs) that are exported. In...

  13. 7 CFR 51.912 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 51.912 Section 51.912 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.912 Export. When designated as Export, grapes shall be packed with any of the customary protective materials such as...

  14. 27 CFR 16.31 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 16.31 Section 16... TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT General Provisions § 16.31 Exports. The..., bottled, or labeled for export from the United States, or for delivery to a vessel or aircraft,...

  15. 7 CFR 924.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 924.15 Section 924.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.15 Export. Export...

  16. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  17. 77 FR 60378 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Anna Fermanova, 4708... York, Anna Fermanova (``Fermanova'') was convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control... willfully attempting to export from the United States to Russia night sighting equipment...

  18. 78 FR 4832 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Jerome Stuart Pendzich... violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2006 & Supp. IV 2010)) (``AECA'') . Specifically, Pendzich was convicted of knowingly and willfully attempting to export defense articles, that...

  19. 77 FR 34340 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Chitron Electronics... Road, Kwum Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Related Persons. A. Denial of Export Privileges of Chitron... (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq. (2000)) (``IEEPA'') and Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22...

  20. 19 CFR 351.514 - Export subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export subsidies. 351.514 Section 351.514 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.514 Export subsidies. (a) In general. The Secretary will consider a subsidy to be an export subsidy if the Secretary determines that eligibility...

  1. 10 CFR 430.65 - Exported products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exported products. 430.65 Section 430.65 Energy DEPARTMENT... Enforcement § 430.65 Exported products. Pursuant to section 330 of the Act, this part shall not apply to any covered product if (a) such covered product is manufactured, sold, or held for sale for export from...

  2. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates... “Export” on each container or case before removal for export, for use on vessels or aircraft, or...

  3. 78 FR 60249 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Andrew Silcox, Inmate... of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2006 & Supp. IV 2010)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Silcox was convicted of knowingly and willfully exporting from the United...

  4. 78 FR 61953 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-08

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Timothy Gormley, Inmate... engaging in transactions relating to exporting amplifiers to China and India without obtaining the required... assessment and a $1,000 criminal fine. Section 766.25 of the Export Administration Regulations (``EAR''...

  5. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 922.15 Section 922.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond...

  6. 77 FR 27418 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Davoud Baniameri, a/k/a... Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2000)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Baniameri was convicted of conspiring to export goods and technology to Iran, in violation of IEEPA. Baniameri also was convicted...

  7. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  8. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 966.18 Section 966.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the...

  9. 78 FR 45168 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Parts 925, 952 and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export Control AGENCY: Department of... Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control requirements applicable to the... business August 23, 2013. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments, identified by ``DEAR: Export Control and...

  10. 78 FR 16819 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 Export Sales Reporting Requirements AGENCY... (DDG) be added to the Export Sales Reporting program (ESR). A final rule was issued to add pork to the... regarding mandatory export sales reporting for DDG. DATES: Submit comments on the proposed rule on or...

  11. 40 CFR 211.208 - Export provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export provisions. 211.208 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.208 Export provisions. (a) The outside of each package or container containing a hearing protective device intended solely for export must be so...

  12. 78 FR 37520 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Placido Molina, Jr... convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2006 & Supp. IV 2010)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Molina was convicted of knowingly and willfully attempting to export and...

  13. 40 CFR 90.909 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 90.909 Section 90... of Nonroad Engines from Regulations § 90.909 Export exemptions. (a) A new nonroad engine intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged on the outside of the container and on the engine itself,...

  14. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292....292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of tax... wine for export will be in accordance with the procedures in part 28 of this chapter. (b) Return...

  15. 77 FR 13990 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 RIN 0551-AA70 Export Sales Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Office of... (fresh, chilled, and frozen box/primal cuts) and distillers dried grain (DDG) to the Export Sales... report on a weekly basis, information on the export sales of pork and DDGs to the Foreign...

  16. 40 CFR 85.1709 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 85.1709 Section 85... Engines § 85.1709 Export exemptions. (a) A new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged on the outside of the container and on the vehicle or...

  17. 77 FR 34342 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Zhen Zhou Wu, a/k/a... (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq. (2000)) (``IEEPA'') and violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2000)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Wu was convicted of illegally exporting...

  18. 19 CFR 18.43 - Indirect exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... port to another for actual exportation at the second port, any export declarations required to be... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect exportation. 18.43 Section 18.43 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise Not Otherwise Subject to Customs Control...

  19. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export insurance. 351.520 Section 351.520 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate...

  20. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 28.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the...

  1. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 28.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the...

  2. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 28.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the...

  3. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 28.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the...

  4. 7 CFR 1280.218 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Assessments § 1280.218 Exporter. Each person exporting live lambs shall remit to the Board an assessment on such lambs at the time of export at the...

  5. 7 CFR 927.12 - Export market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Export market. 927.12 Section 927.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.12 Export market. Export market means any destination...

  6. 7 CFR 927.12 - Export market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Export market. 927.12 Section 927.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.12 Export market. Export market means any destination...

  7. 7 CFR 927.12 - Export market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Export market. 927.12 Section 927.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.12 Export market. Export market means any destination...

  8. Development of Procedures for Assessing the Impact of Vocational Education Research and Development on Vocational Education (Project IMPACT). Volume 4--A Case Study of Illinois Projects in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Colin; Ethridge, James

    As part of Project IMPACT's efforts to identify and develop procedures for complying with the impact requirements of Public Law 94-482, a case study was made of Illinois Projects in Horticulture. Fourteen horticulture projects in high schools and junior colleges were discovered through a previous study, personal interviews with two University of…

  9. Perception and Understanding of Invasive Alien Species Issues by Nature Conservation and Horticulture Professionals in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Piqueray, Julien; Halford, Mathieu; Nulens, Greet; Vincke, Jan; Mahy, Grégory

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine how two professional sectors in Belgium, horticulture professionals and nature reserve managers (those directly involved in conservation), view the issues associated with invasive plant species. We developed and utilized a questionnaire that addressed the themes of awareness, concept and use of language, availability of information, impacts and, finally, control and available solutions. Using co-inertia analyses, we tested to what extent the perception of invasive alien species (IAS) was dependent upon the perception of Nature in general. Only forty-two percent of respondent horticulture professionals and eighty-two percent of nature reserve managers had a general knowledge of IAS. Many individuals in both target groups nonetheless had an accurate understanding of the scientific issues. Our results therefore suggest that the manner in which individuals within the two groups view, or perceive, the IAS issue was more the result of lack of information than simply biased perceptions of target groups. Though IAS perceptions by the two groups diverged, they were on par with how they viewed Nature in general. The descriptions of IAS by participants converged with the ideas and concepts frequently found in the scientific literature. Both managers and horticulture professionals expressed a strong willingness to participate in programs designed to prevent the spread of, and damage caused by, IAS. Despite this, the continued commercial availability of many invasive species highlighted the necessity to use both mandatory and voluntary approaches to reduce their re-introduction and spread. The results of this study provide stakeholders and conservation managers with practical information on which communication and management strategies can be based.

  10. Determinants of recycling common types of plastic product waste in environmental horticulture industry: The case of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ting; Klepacka, Anna M; Florkowski, Wojciech J; Braman, Kristine

    2016-02-01

    Environmental horticulture firms provide a variety of commercial/residential landscape products and services encompassing ornamental plant production, design, installation, and maintenance. The companies generate tons of waste including plastic containers, trays, and greenhouse/field covers, creating the need to reduce and utilize plastic waste. Based on survey data collected in Georgia in 2013, this paper investigates determinants of the environmental horticulture firms' recycling decision (plastic containers, flats, and greenhouse poly). Our findings indicate that the decision to discard vs. recycle plastic containers, flats, and greenhouse poly is significantly influenced by firm scope, size, location, and partnership with recycling providers, as well as whether recycling providers offer additional waste pickup services. Insights from this study are of use to local governments and environmental organizations interested in increasing horticultural firm participation in recycling programs and lowering the volume of plastic destined for landfills.

  11. 19 CFR 19.38 - Supervision of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the sales ticket procedure for exportation shall be exported only under Customs supervision as... exportation transactions, examination of articles being exported, and audits of the proprietor's records. (b) Supervision of ATF bonded exports. Customs officers may conduct general supervision of exportations...

  12. 19 CFR 122.118 - Exportation from port of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... copy. (2) Exportation copy. The exportation copy shall be filed by the exporting airline when clearance... aircraft's clearance documents. The exportation and clearance copies shall show the exporting airline's... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exportation from port of arrival. 122.118...

  13. Mechanisms of pheromone communication disruption in Choristoneura rosaceana exposed to microencapsulated (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate formulated with and without horticultural oil.

    PubMed

    Wins-Purdy, Andreas H; Judd, Gary J R; Evenden, Maya L

    2008-08-01

    Flight tunnel and electrophysiological assays with male Choristoneura rosaceana Harris (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were conducted to investigate the non-competitive mechanisms of communication disruption caused by microencapsulated (MEC) (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (3M MEC-LR) formulated with and without horticultural oil (Purespray Green). Male C. rosaceana were exposed for 1 h by resting on metal surfaces sprayed with either water, 2% oil in water, MEC-LR in water, or MEC-LR + 2% oil in water. In one experiment, sprayed surfaces were allowed to age up to 47 days in a laboratory fume hood prior to moth exposure to examine the effect of ageing on the disruptive efficacy of the formulations. In flight tunnel assays with calling females, males exposed to MEC or MEC + oil treatments for 1 h were significantly disrupted up to 1 h after exposure, and both treatments were effective for 47 days. Electroantennograms revealed no reduction in antennal sensitivity when measured 75 s after a 1-h exposure. Collectively, these results support habituation as a key mechanism of communication disruption for C. rosaceana exposed to the MEC formulations tested here. Male proximity to the pheromone-treated surfaces appears to be important in maintaining a disruptive effect as MEC treatments age and pheromone release rates decline. The addition of 2% oil increased the number of microcapsules deposited on sprayed surfaces and caused a moderate but significant increase in the disruptive effect of the MEC formulation. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie disruption by MEC formulations, and how an adjuvant like horticultural oil may enhance these mechanisms, may lead to improvements in this technology.

  14. Japanese plums (Prunus salicina Lindl.) and phytochemicals--breeding, horticultural practice, postharvest storage, processing and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Kent J; Topp, Bruce; Russell, Dougal; Stanley, Roger; Netzel, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Previous reviews of plum phytochemical content and health benefits have concentrated on the European plum, Prunus domestica L. However, the potential bioactivity of red- and dark red-fleshed Japanese plums, Prunus salicina Lindl., so-called blood plums, appears to warrant a significant increase in exposure, as indicated in a recent review of the whole Prunus genus. Furthermore, Japanese plums are the predominant plum produced on an international basis. In this review the nutrient and phytochemical content, breeding, horticultural practice, postharvest treatment and processing as well as bioactivity (emphasising in vivo studies) of Japanese plum are considered, with a focus on the anthocyanin content that distinguishes the blood plums.

  15. Light-emitting diode technology status and directions: Opportunities for horticultural lighting

    DOE PAGES

    Tsao, Jeffrey Y.; Pattison, P. Morgan; Krames, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Here, light-emitting diode (LED) technology has advanced rapidly over the last decade, primarily driven by display and general illumination applications ("solid-state lighting (SSL) for humans"). These advancements have made LED lighting technically and economically advantageous not only for these applications, but also, as an indirect benefit, for adjacent applications such as horticultural lighting ("SSL for plants"). Moreover, LED technology has much room for continued improvement. In the near-term, these improvements will continue to be driven by SSL for humans (with indirect benefit to SSL for plants), the most important of which can be anticipated.

  16. Object oriented classification of high resolution data for inventory of horticultural crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbar, R.; Ravishankar, H. M.; Trivedi, S.; Subramoniam, S. R.; Uday, R.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    High resolution satellite images are associated with large variance and thus, per pixel classifiers often result in poor accuracy especially in delineation of horticultural crops. In this context, object oriented techniques are powerful and promising methods for classification. In the present study, a semi-automatic object oriented feature extraction model has been used for delineation of horticultural fruit and plantation crops using Erdas Objective Imagine. Multi-resolution data from Resourcesat LISS-IV and Cartosat-1 have been used as source data in the feature extraction model. Spectral and textural information along with NDVI were used as inputs for generation of Spectral Feature Probability (SFP) layers using sample training pixels. The SFP layers were then converted into raster objects using threshold and clump function resulting in pixel probability layer. A set of raster and vector operators was employed in the subsequent steps for generating thematic layer in the vector format. This semi-automatic feature extraction model was employed for classification of major fruit and plantations crops viz., mango, banana, citrus, coffee and coconut grown under different agro-climatic conditions. In general, the classification accuracy of about 75-80 per cent was achieved for these crops using object based classification alone and the same was further improved using minimal visual editing of misclassified areas. A comparison of on-screen visual interpretation with object oriented approach showed good agreement. It was observed that old and mature plantations were classified more accurately while young and recently planted ones (3 years or less) showed poor classification accuracy due to mixed spectral signature, wider spacing and poor stands of plantations. The results indicated the potential use of object oriented approach for classification of high resolution data for delineation of horticultural fruit and plantation crops. The present methodology is applicable at

  17. The Effect of Horticultural Therapy on the Quality of Life of Palliative Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Lai, Claudia Kam-Yuk; Lau, Carmen Ka-Yan; Kan, Wai Yin; Lam, Wai Man; Fung, Connie Yuen Yee

    2017-01-27

    Palliative care patients experienced a variety of needs and perceived their quality of life as being only fair. This study adopted a single group repeated-measure design to investigate the effect of horticultural therapy on the quality of life of palliative care patients using the Quality of Life Concern in End of Life Questionnaire. Significant differences in the domains of "existential distress" and "health care concern" were observed immediately post-intervention and at four weeks post-intervention, respectively. No other significant differences were seen in the other domains or in the total mean score of the outcome measure.

  18. A second CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal in the influenza A virus NS2 protein contributes to the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoproteins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengping; Chen, Jingjing; Chen, Quanjiao; Wang, Huadong; Yao, Yanfeng; Chen, Jianjun; Chen, Ze

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus NS2 protein, also called nuclear export protein (NEP), is crucial for the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoproteins. However, the molecular mechanisms of NEP mediation in this process remain incompletely understood. A leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES2) in NEP, located at the predicted N2 helix of the N-terminal domain, was identified in the present study. NES2 was demonstrated to be a transferable NES, with its nuclear export activity depending on the nuclear export receptor chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-mediated pathway. The interaction between NEP and CRM1 is coordinately regulated by both the previously reported NES (NES1) and now the new NES2. Deletion of the NES1 enhances the interaction between NEP and CRM1, and deletion of the NES1 and NES2 motifs completely abolishes this interaction. Moreover, NES2 interacts with CRM1 in the mammalian two-hybrid system. Mutant viruses containing NES2 alterations generated by reversed genetics exhibit reduced viral growth and delay in the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs). The NES2 motif is highly conserved in the influenza A and B viruses. The results demonstrate that leucine-rich NES2 is involved in the nuclear export of vRNPs and contributes to the understanding of nucleocytoplasmic transport of influenza virus vRNPs.

  19. A Herpesvirus Protein Selectively Inhibits Cellular mRNA Nuclear Export.

    PubMed

    Gong, Danyang; Kim, Yong Hoon; Xiao, Yuchen; Du, Yushen; Xie, Yafang; Lee, Kevin K; Feng, Jun; Farhat, Nisar; Zhao, Dawei; Shu, Sara; Dai, Xinghong; Chanda, Sumit K; Rana, Tariq M; Krogan, Nevan J; Sun, Ren; Wu, Ting-Ting

    2016-11-09

    Nuclear mRNA export is highly regulated to ensure accurate cellular gene expression. Viral inhibition of cellular mRNA export can enhance viral access to the cellular translation machinery and prevent anti-viral protein production but is generally thought to be nonselective. We report that ORF10 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a nuclear DNA virus, inhibits mRNA export in a transcript-selective manner to control cellular gene expression. Nuclear export inhibition by ORF10 requires an interaction with an RNA export factor, Rae1. Genome-wide analysis reveals a subset of cellular mRNAs whose nuclear export is blocked by ORF10 with the 3' UTRs of ORF10-targeted transcripts conferring sensitivity to export inhibition. The ORF10-Rae1 interaction is important for the virus to express viral genes and produce infectious virions. These results suggest that a nuclear DNA virus can selectively interfere with RNA export to restrict host gene expression for optimal replication.

  20. Breeding better cultivars, faster: applications of new technologies for the rapid deployment of superior horticultural tree crops

    PubMed Central

    van Nocker, Steve; Gardiner, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Woody perennial plants, including trees that produce fruits and nuts of horticultural value, typically have long breeding cycles, and development and introduction of improved cultivars by plant breeders may require many breeding cycles and dozens of years. However, recent advances in biotechnologies and genomics have the potential to accelerate cultivar development greatly in all crops. This mini-review summarizes approaches to reduce the number and the duration of breeding cycles for horticultural tree crops, and outlines the challenges that remain to implement these into efficient breeding pipelines. PMID:26504538

  1. Planting hope in loss and grief: self-care applications of horticultural therapy for grief caregivers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yeh-Jen; Lin, Chi Yun; Li, Yu-Chan

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the Taiwan Association for Care and Counseling for Loss organized a workshop about Horticultural Therapy, conducted as a participatory action research (PAR). Nineteen grief caregivers participated. Specific goals were designed according to a survey of participant expectations and focus-group discussions. The workshop content included lectures and interactive activities. Results demonstrated that most participants displayed an increased awareness of personal loss and meaning in grief, indicating that horticulture and nature appreciation might relieve individual grief and stress. The report introduces the rationale, evolution, execution, and results of the program development.

  2. Export Controls and Nonproliferation Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Export Control Classification Numbers ( ECCNs ). The ECCNs do not correspond one-for-one to single commodity technology, or software items: in some...cases an ECCN covers only a single, narrowly defined item, but in many cases multiple related items fall under the same ECCN . The reason for control of...each ECCN category may be single or multiple (e.g., for both National Security and Nuclear Proliferation) but the reason(s) listed may in fact apply

  3. Exporting vices: smoking in Asia.

    PubMed

    Cutler, B

    1988-08-01

    Marketing statistics of U.S. cigarette exports indicate that despite notable declines in sales at home, sales to foreign countries, especially in Asia, Africa and Latin America, are growing dramatically. World cigarette consumption has doubled since 1960, mainly in less developed countries. In 1987, American tobacco firms increased cigarette exports 76%, or 1 billion in new sales. U.S. smoking dropped in 1985-86 from 30.4 to 26.5% of adults. In Taiwan, tariffs were removed from U.S. cigarettes, lowering prices from $2.86 to 1.30, and raising U.S. imports from $4.4 to 119 million. South Korean trade barriers were removed in May 1988, creating a large market. Japan imports 32% of exported U.S. cigarettes, has 120 million smokers, and is the beneficiary of a massive advertising campaign centered on young people and women. The Asian response to the smoking phenomenon is emerging in the form of restrictions on timing of TV advertising (Japan and Taiwan), health warnings (Japan and Taiwan), and restriction of smoking in public places (Hong Kong).

  4. NAS Panel faults export controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A study prepared by a top-level panel says that current export controls on militarily sensitive U.S. technology may be “overcorrecting” previous weaknesses in that system, resulting in “a complex and confusing control system” that makes it more difficult for U.S. businesses to compete in international markets. Moreover, this control system has “an increasingly corrosive effect” on U.S. relations with allies. The panel recommended that the United States concentrate more effort on bringing about uniformity in the export control policies of countries belonging to the Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom), i.e., most of the member nations in NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and Japan.The 21-member panel was appointed by the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP), a joint unit of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The panel, composed of administrators, researchers, and former government officials, was chaired by AGU member Lew Allen, Jr., director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, Calif.) and former chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force. Their report was supported by NAS funds, by a number of private organizations (including AGU), by the U.S. Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and State, by the National Science Foundation, and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  5. Improving the contribution of migrant remittances to development: the experience of Asian labour-exporting countries.

    PubMed

    Athukorala, P

    1993-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to review policy initiatives [concerning migrant remittances] in six major labour-exporting countries in Asia--Bangladesh, India, Korea, the Philippines, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Where relevant, the experience of these countries will be compared and contrasted with those of labour-exporting countries in other parts of the world....[The author concludes that] the imposition of mandatory remittance requirements on migrant workers is unlikely to enhance remittance inflows unless the government of the labour-exporting country effectively controls the migration process." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  6. Mesoscale eddies drive increased silica export in the subtropical Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R; Bidigare, Robert R; Dickey, Tommy D; Landry, Michael R; Leonard, Carrie L; Brown, Susan L; Nencioli, Francesco; Rii, Yoshimi M; Maiti, Kanchan; Becker, Jamie W; Bibby, Thomas S; Black, Wil; Cai, Wei-Jun; Carlson, Craig A; Chen, Feizhou; Kuwahara, Victor S; Mahaffey, Claire; McAndrew, Patricia M; Quay, Paul D; Rappé, Michael S; Selph, Karen E; Simmons, Melinda P; Yang, Eun Jin

    2007-05-18

    Mesoscale eddies may play a critical role in ocean biogeochemistry by increasing nutrient supply, primary production, and efficiency of the biological pump, that is, the ratio of carbon export to primary production in otherwise nutrient-deficient waters. We examined a diatom bloom within a cold-core cyclonic eddy off Hawaii. Eddy primary production, community biomass, and size composition were markedly enhanced but had little effect on the carbon export ratio. Instead, the system functioned as a selective silica pump. Strong trophic coupling and inefficient organic export may be general characteristics of community perturbation responses in the warm waters of the Pacific Ocean.

  7. Report of the Committee on Natural Gas Imports and Exports

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    New policies developed by the Economic Regulatory Administration (ERA) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) placed primary emphasis on the competitiveness and flexibility of a proposed import arrangement. Other new DOE policies by FERC and the National Energy Board of Canada regarding Canadian imports may enhance the marketability of Canadian gas in the US. The report summarizes Canadian and Mexican border price developments, reviews the contract and procedural impacts of the policy, and summarizes recent import-export data.

  8. CmMDb: a versatile database for Cucumis melo microsatellite markers and other horticulture crop research.

    PubMed

    Bhawna; Chaduvula, Pavan K; Bonthala, Venkata S; Manjusha, Verma; Siddiq, Ebrahimali A; Polumetla, Ananda K; Prasad, Gajula M N V

    2015-01-01

    Cucumis melo L. that belongs to Cucurbitaceae family ranks among one of the highest valued horticulture crops being cultivated across the globe. Besides its economical and medicinal importance, Cucumis melo L. is a valuable resource and model system for the evolutionary studies of cucurbit family. However, very limited numbers of molecular markers were reported for Cucumis melo L. so far that limits the pace of functional genomic research in melon and other similar horticulture crops. We developed the first whole genome based microsatellite DNA marker database of Cucumis melo L. and comprehensive web resource that aids in variety identification and physical mapping of Cucurbitaceae family. The Cucumis melo L. microsatellite database (CmMDb: http://65.181.125.102/cmmdb2/index.html) encompasses 39,072 SSR markers along with its motif repeat, motif length, motif sequence, marker ID, motif type and chromosomal locations. The database is featured with novel automated primer designing facility to meet the needs of wet lab researchers. CmMDb is a freely available web resource that facilitates the researchers to select the most appropriate markers for marker-assisted selection in melons and to improve breeding strategies.

  9. Growing media constituents determine the microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media for horticulture.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Oliver; Reheul, Dirk; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Perneel, Maaike; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Boon, Nico

    2016-05-01

    Vegetables and fruits are an important part of a healthy food diet, however, the eco-sustainability of the production of these can still be significantly improved. European farmers and consumers spend an estimated €15.5 billion per year on inorganic fertilizers and the production of N-fertilizers results in a high carbon footprint. We investigated if fertilizer type and medium constituents determine microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media and can be used as a next step towards a more sustainable horticulture. We demonstrated that growing media constituents showed differences in urea hydrolysis, ammonia and nitrite oxidation and in carbon dioxide respiration rate. Interestingly, mixing of the growing media constituents resulted in a stimulation of the function of the microorganisms. The use of organic fertilizer resulted in an increase in amoA gene copy number by factor 100 compared to inorganic fertilizers. Our results support our hypothesis that the activity of the functional microbial community with respect to nitrogen turnover in an organic growing medium can be improved by selecting and mixing the appropriate growing media components with each other. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional microbial community in growing media and its potential role towards a more responsible horticulture.

  10. Community response of insects associated with eastern hemlock to imidacloprid and horticultural oil treatments.

    PubMed

    Dilling, Carla; Lambdin, Paris; Grant, Jerome; Rhea, Rusty

    2009-02-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, is an invasive species reducing the populations of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis L. Carrière, throughout the eastern United States. Systemic imidacloprid and horticultural oil are the primary chemicals used to control infestations of this invasive pest; however, the impact of these two chemicals on nontarget canopy insects is unknown. This study was initiated in November 2005 to assess the effects of (1) imidacloprid soil drench, (2) imidacloprid soil injection, (3) imidacloprid tree injections, and (4) horticultural oil applications on multiple levels of organization (composition, overall specimen abundance and species richness, guild specimen abundance and species richness, and individual species) within the phytophagous and transient canopy insect community. Community composition differed significantly among treatments based on analysis of similarity. Mean species richness and specimen abundance were significantly reduced by one or more treatments. Soil drench applications significantly reduced species richness for the detritivore and phytophaga guilds. Furthermore, specimen abundance for species in the detritivore, fungivore, phytophaga, scavenger, and transient phytophaga guilds was significantly lower in the soil drench treatment. This trend was consistent in all insect guilds examined, with the exception of the hematophaga guild that was not significantly lower than for species on the control trees. Of the 293 species documented to be associated with eastern hemlocks, 33 species were found to be directly effected by one or more of the chemical treatments.

  11. Production of pathogen-free horticultural crops by cryotherapy of in vitro-grown shoot tips.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chaohong; Wang, Renrui; Li, Jingwei; Wang, Biao; Yin, Zhenfang; Cui, Zhenhua; Li, Baiquan; Bi, Wenlu; Zhang, Zhibo; Li, Mingfu; Wang, Qiaochun

    2013-01-01

    Horticultural crops are economically valuable for sustainable agricultural production. Plant diseases caused by Pathogens including virus, phytoplasma and bacterium have been a great threat to production of horticultural crops. The efficient use of pathogen-free plant materials has overcome the menace of plant diseases and has sustained crop production. Cryotherapy of shoot tips, a novel application of cryopreservation technique, has become a new plant biotechnology tool for plant pathogen eradication. When compared with the traditional methods, cryotherapy of shoot tips produces high frequency of pathogen-free plants, which is independent of shoot tip size and cryogenic methods. Cryotherapy of shoot tips has six major steps to produce pathogen-free plants: (1) introduction of infected plant materials into in vitro cultures; (2) excision of shoot tips; (3) cryotherapy; (4) post-culture for plant regeneration; (5) indexing of pathogens in regenerated plants after cryotherapy; and (6) establishment of pathogen-free nuclear stock plants. The key steps 2, 3, and 4 are similar to cryopreservation, and play a major role in obtaining high pathogen eradication frequency.

  12. CmMDb: A Versatile Database for Cucumis melo Microsatellite Markers and Other Horticulture Crop Research

    PubMed Central

    Bhawna; Chaduvula, Pavan K.; Bonthala, Venkata S.; Manjusha, Verma; Siddiq, Ebrahimali A.; Polumetla, Ananda K.; Prasad, Gajula M. N. V.

    2015-01-01

    Cucumis melo L. that belongs to Cucurbitaceae family ranks among one of the highest valued horticulture crops being cultivated across the globe. Besides its economical and medicinal importance, Cucumis melo L. is a valuable resource and model system for the evolutionary studies of cucurbit family. However, very limited numbers of molecular markers were reported for Cucumis melo L. so far that limits the pace of functional genomic research in melon and other similar horticulture crops. We developed the first whole genome based microsatellite DNA marker database of Cucumis melo L. and comprehensive web resource that aids in variety identification and physical mapping of Cucurbitaceae family. The Cucumis melo L. microsatellite database (CmMDb: http://65.181.125.102/cmmdb2/index.html) encompasses 39,072 SSR markers along with its motif repeat, motif length, motif sequence, marker ID, motif type and chromosomal locations. The database is featured with novel automated primer designing facility to meet the needs of wet lab researchers. CmMDb is a freely available web resource that facilitates the researchers to select the most appropriate markers for marker-assisted selection in melons and to improve breeding strategies. PMID:25885062

  13. A prospective study of group cohesiveness in therapeutic horticulture for clinical depression.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Hartig, Terry; Patil, Grete Grindal; Martinsen, Egil W; Kirkevold, Marit

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to assess changes in psychological distress and social participation in adults diagnosed with clinical depression during and after participating in a therapeutic horticulture programme, and to investigate if the changes covaried with levels of group cohesiveness during the intervention. An intervention with a single-group design was repeated with different samples in successive years (pooled n = 46). In each year, five groups of 3-7 participants went through the intervention. Data were collected before, twice during, and immediately after a 12-week therapeutic horticulture programme, as well as at 3-months' follow up. Mental health assessments included the Beck Depression Inventory, the State Subscale of Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Positive Affect Scale from the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Therapeutic Factors Inventory-Cohesiveness Scale. The analysis of the pooled data confirmed significant beneficial change in all mental health variables during the intervention. Change from baseline in depression severity persisted at 3-months' follow up. Increased social activity after the intervention was reported for 38% of the participants. The groups quickly established strong cohesiveness, and this continued to increase during the intervention. The average level of group cohesiveness correlated positively, but not significantly, with change in all mental health outcome variables.

  14. Upgrading of the STP Uithoorn: treatment of nutrient rich wastewater from horticulture.

    PubMed

    Piekema, P; Neef, R

    2005-01-01

    The STP Uithoorn will be upgraded to accommodate the treatment of wastewater from a growing population and to meet more stringent nutrient discharge limits in 2006. In 2003 a system choice and preliminary design was made for the upgrading. A special feature is the nutrient rich wastewater flow from the rapidly developing horticulture in the area. Since the future loads from horticulture are highly uncertain, flexibility of the STP after upgrading is an important issue. A three stage system was selected: improved physical-chemical primary treatment, secondary treatment by activated sludge, and tertiary treatment by denitrifying filters. In this way an important part of the existing infrastructure can be reused, and flexibility is assured by constructing the tertiary treatment in modules and by providing a wide range of operational control possibilities. In this paper the process of system choice and selection of type of tertiary treatment are described, as well as the optimisation of the existing treatment. In order to determine the feasibility of allowing a high loading rate on the existing secondary clarifiers, a two-dimensional hydraulic model of the clarification process was used.

  15. Impact of intensive horticulture practices on groundwater content of nitrates, sodium, potassium, and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Melo, Armindo; Pinto, Edgar; Aguiar, Ana; Mansilha, Catarina; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2012-07-01

    A monitoring program of nitrate, nitrite, potassium, sodium, and pesticides was carried out in water samples from an intensive horticulture area in a vulnerable zone from north of Portugal. Eight collecting points were selected and water-analyzed in five sampling campaigns, during 1 year. Chemometric techniques, such as cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis, were used in order to understand the impact of intensive horticulture practices on dug and drilled wells groundwater and to study variations in the hydrochemistry of groundwater. PCA performed on pesticide data matrix yielded seven significant PCs explaining 77.67% of the data variance. Although PCA rendered considerable data reduction, it could not clearly group and distinguish the sample types. However, a visible differentiation between the water samples was obtained. Cluster and discriminant analysis grouped the eight collecting points into three clusters of similar characteristics pertaining to water contamination, indicating that it is necessary to improve the use of water, fertilizers, and pesticides. Inorganic fertilizers such as potassium nitrate were suspected to be the most important factors for nitrate contamination since highly significant Pearson correlation (r = 0.691, P < 0.01) was obtained between groundwater nitrate and potassium contents. Water from dug wells is especially prone to contamination from the grower and their closer neighbor's practices. Water from drilled wells is also contaminated from distant practices.

  16. Windrow composting as horticultural waste management strategy - A case study in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Gavilanes-Terán, Irene; Jara-Samaniego, Janneth; Idrovo-Novillo, Julio; Bustamante, Ma Angeles; Moral, Raúl; Paredes, Concepción

    2016-02-01

    In Ecuador, enormous quantities of vegetable wastes are produced annually from the horticultural industries. Composting can be a feasible treatment to stabilise horticultural wastes and, thus, to improve their properties for use as organic fertilisers. In this study, two different piles were prepared, using laying hen manure and sawdust mixed with broccoli or tomato waste, respectively, and composted by the turned windrow composting system. Throughout the composting process, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored and physico-chemical and chemical properties and the degree of maturity were determined. Also, principal component analysis was used to interpret the data set of compost characteristics. In both piles, the temperature exceeded 55°C for more than 2weeks, which ensured maximum pathogen reduction. Organic matter (OM) losses followed a first-order kinetic equation in both piles. The final composts showed a suitable degree of stability and maturity and an absence of phytotoxins, as observed in the evolution and final values of the total organic carbon/total nitrogen ratio (Corg/NT<20), water-soluble organic carbon (Cw<1.7%), germination index (GI>50%) and cation exchange capacity (CEC>67meq (100g OM)(-1)). As well, the evolution of different humification indexes during composting was a good indicator of the OM humification process. The type of vegetable waste used influenced OM and NT mineralisation and the final properties of the composts, showing the mixture with tomato waste a higher fertilising capacity and less environmental problems.

  17. Institutional Effectiveness Assessment Process, 1993-94 Executive Summary. Hospitality and Service Occupations Division, Landscape and Environmental Horticulture Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Seattle Community Coll., Washington.

    A study was conducted to determine current and former students' and local employers' satisfaction with South Seattle Community College's (SSCC's) Landscape and Environmental Horticulture Department. Specifically, the study gathered data on four outcomes: that students receive an education allowing them to meet goals; that students be satisfied…

  18. USING AND CARING FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANT MATERIALS AND LANDSCAPE STRUCTURES. HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NO. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PREPARE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, THIS MODULE HAS AS ITS MAJOR OBJECTIVE TO DEVELOP THE ABILITIES NEEDED TO USE, CARE FOR, AND MAINTAIN ORNAMENTAL PLANT MATERIALS AND LANDSCAPE STRUCTURES. IT WAS DEVELOPED ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE. SUBJECT MATTER…

  19. Extending the uses of bioplastic granules for the application of Trichoderma biocontrol isolates in flori/horticulture and turf grass.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioplastic materials are gaining increasing interest in a variety of different industrial and domestic applications. Beside its usage as mulching films and plant clips in horticulture, no other agricultural applications have been proposed. In 2009 we demonstrated that granules made of the bioplastic...

  20. Extending the Use of Bioplastic Granules for the Application of Trichoderma Biocontrol Isolates in Flori/Horticulture and Turfgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioplastic materials are gaining increasing interest in a variety of different industrial and domestic applications. Beside its usage as mulching films and plant clips in horticulture, no other agricultural applications have been proposed. In 2009 we demonstrated that granules made of the bioplastic...

  1. The Effects of Task Instruction Sheets on the Performance of Vocational Horticulture Students. Summary of Research, 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Dennis C.; Newcomb, L. H.

    A study investigated the effect that task instruction sheets had on the performance of vocational horticulture students when being taught a unit on poinsettia production. Using a post-test only control group design, researchers administered a 35-item multiple choice test on poinsettia production to 207 students in 12 randomly selected eleventh…

  2. The CAP Approach to Modifying Vocational Programs for Handicapped Students. Vol. 1: Agriculture with an Example in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindall, Lloyd W.; Morehouse, Nancy

    This combination teaching guide and student workbook, the first in a five-volume series (see note), presents an approach to teaching horticulture for handicapped students. The guide discusses a functional approach to modifying agriculture programs to accomodate cognitive, affective, and psychomotor (CAP) domain handicaps. The discussion centers on…

  3. The Melwood Manual: A Planning and Operations Manual for Horticultural Training and Work Co-op Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melwood Horticultural Training Center, Inc., Upper Marlboro, MD.

    This manual is intended as a resource for anyone involved in planning, developing, and/or operating a horticultural training or work co-op program for the handicapped. Following an introductory chapter, the manual is divided into three parts with the greatest weight given to the second part. Part I elaborates on development of the horticulture…

  4. Morphological and physio-chemical characterization of five Canistel accessions at the subtropical horticulture research station in Miami Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit of five canistel cultivars, 'Fairchild','E11', 'Keisau', 'TREC#3' and 'TREC 3680' were evaluated and characterized at the National Germplasm Repository, Subtropical horticulture Research Station (SHRS) Miami, Florida. Thirty fruits were harvested from clonal accessions during July and August, ...

  5. Physical and chemical characterization of biochars produced from coppiced wood of thirteen tree species for use in horticultural substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven-year-old coppiced shoots from thirteen species of native and non-native trees and shrubs were harvested, dried, and were pyrolyzed to produce biochars for potential use in horticultural substrates. Several chemical and physical characteristics of the biochars were determined. There were slight...

  6. The influence of contextual teaching with the problem solving method on students' knowledge and attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcher, Carrie Lynn

    2005-08-01

    Adolescence is marked with many changes in the development of higher order thinking skills. As students enter high school they are expected to utilize these skills to solve problems, become abstract thinkers, and contribute to society. The goal of this study was to assess horticultural science knowledge achievement and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school in high school agriculture students. There were approximately 240 high school students in the sample including both experimental and control groups from California and Washington. Students in the experimental group participated in an educational program called "Hands-On Hortscience" which emphasized problem solving in investigation and experimentation activities with greenhouse plants, soilless media, and fertilizers. Students in the control group were taught by the subject matter method. The activities included in the Hands-On Hortscience curriculum were created to reinforce teaching the scientific method through the context of horticulture. The objectives included evaluating whether the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience experimental group benefited in the areas of science literacy, data acquisition and analysis, and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school. Pre-tests were administered in both the experimental and control groups prior to the research activities and post-tests were administered after completion. The survey questionnaire included a biographical section and attitude survey. Significant increases in hortscience achievement were found from pre-test to post-test in both control and experimental study groups. The experimental treatment group had statistically higher achievement scores than the control group in the two areas tested: scientific method (p=0.0016) and horticulture plant nutrition (p=0.0004). In addition, the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience activities had more positive attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school (p=0

  7. Baseline study of US industry solar exports

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobius, T M; Levi, R S; Bereny, J A

    1980-10-01

    This study is a detailed aggregate profile of US solar export activity in 1979 based on a survey of all segments of the solar industry. It identifies the dollar volume of exports by technology: (1) solar heating and cooling products; (2) wind products; (3) photovoltaics; (4) solar thermal electric; (5) OTEC and biomass; and (6) support products and services. The study offers to government and industry groups, for the first time, comprehensive information with which to formulate export goals and assistance measures based on the current realities of the solar export marketplace. Specific and aggregate recommendations which can lead to identification of realistic solar export opportunities and development of solar export markets are included.

  8. Physicist falls foul of US export law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-10-01

    A retired US plasma physicist is seeking to overturn his conviction last month of offences under the American Arms Export Control Act, which prohibits the export, without a government licence, of technology and data to foreign nationals or nations. A jury in Knoxville, Tennessee, found JReece Roth, 70, guilty of illegally exporting technical information about a military project to develop plasma technology for guiding spyplanes that operate as weapons or surveillance devices.

  9. Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

  10. Global carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere controlled by erosion.

    PubMed

    Galy, Valier; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Eglinton, Timothy

    2015-05-14

    Riverine export of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the ocean affects the atmospheric carbon inventory over a broad range of timescales. On geological timescales, the balance between sequestration of POC from the terrestrial biosphere and oxidation of rock-derived (petrogenic) organic carbon sets the magnitude of the atmospheric carbon and oxygen reservoirs. Over shorter timescales, variations in the rate of exchange between carbon reservoirs, such as soils and marine sediments, also modulate atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The respective fluxes of biospheric and petrogenic organic carbon are poorly constrained, however, and mechanisms controlling POC export have remained elusive, limiting our ability to predict POC fluxes quantitatively as a result of climatic or tectonic changes. Here we estimate biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes for a suite of river systems representative of the natural variability in catchment properties. We show that export yields of both biospheric and petrogenic POC are positively related to the yield of suspended sediment, revealing that POC export is mostly controlled by physical erosion. Using a global compilation of gauged suspended sediment flux, we derive separate estimates of global biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes of 157(+74)(-50) and 43(+61)(-25) megatonnes of carbon per year, respectively. We find that biospheric POC export is primarily controlled by the capacity of rivers to mobilize and transport POC, and is largely insensitive to the magnitude of terrestrial primary production. Globally, physical erosion rates affect the rate of biospheric POC burial in marine sediments more strongly than carbon sequestration through silicate weathering. We conclude that burial of biospheric POC in marine sediments becomes the dominant long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide sink under enhanced physical erosion.

  11. 75 FR 52505 - Fiscal Year 2011 Veterinary Import/Export Services, Veterinary Diagnostic Services, and Export...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Fiscal Year 2011 Veterinary Import/Export Services, Veterinary... plasm, organisms, and vectors; for certain veterinary diagnostic services; and for export certification... information on Veterinary Diagnostic program operations, contact Dr. Elizabeth Lautner, Director,...

  12. The first initiative of DNA barcoding of ornamental plants from Egypt and potential applications in horticulture industry

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Ali, Hayssam M.; Yessoufou, Kowiyou

    2017-01-01

    DNA barcoding relies on short and standardized gene regions to identify species. The agricultural and horticultural applications of barcoding such as for marketplace regulation and copyright protection remain poorly explored. This study examines the effectiveness of the standard plant barcode markers (matK and rbcL) for the identification of plant species in private and public nurseries in northern Egypt. These two markers were sequenced from 225 specimens of 161 species and 62 plant families of horticultural importance. The sequence recovery was similar for rbcL (96.4%) and matK (84%), but the number of specimens assigned correctly to the respective genera and species was lower for rbcL (75% and 29%) than matK (85% and 40%). The combination of rbcL and matK brought the number of correct generic and species assignments to 83.4% and 40%, respectively. Individually, the efficiency of both markers varied among different plant families; for example, all palm specimens (Arecaceae) were correctly assigned to species while only one individual of Asteraceae was correctly assigned to species. Further, barcodes reliably assigned ornamental horticultural and medicinal plants correctly to genus while they showed a lower or no success in assigning these plants to species and cultivars. For future, we recommend the combination of a complementary barcode (e.g. ITS or trnH-psbA) with rbcL + matK to increase the performance of taxa identification. By aiding species identification of horticultural crops and ornamental palms, the analysis of the barcode regions will have large impact on horticultural industry. PMID:28199378

  13. The first initiative of DNA barcoding of ornamental plants from Egypt and potential applications in horticulture industry.

    PubMed

    O Elansary, Hosam; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Ali, Hayssam M; Yessoufou, Kowiyou

    2017-01-01

    DNA barcoding relies on short and standardized gene regions to identify species. The agricultural and horticultural applications of barcoding such as for marketplace regulation and copyright protection remain poorly explored. This study examines the effectiveness of the standard plant barcode markers (matK and rbcL) for the identification of plant species in private and public nurseries in northern Egypt. These two markers were sequenced from 225 specimens of 161 species and 62 plant families of horticultural importance. The sequence recovery was similar for rbcL (96.4%) and matK (84%), but the number of specimens assigned correctly to the respective genera and species was lower for rbcL (75% and 29%) than matK (85% and 40%). The combination of rbcL and matK brought the number of correct generic and species assignments to 83.4% and 40%, respectively. Individually, the efficiency of both markers varied among different plant families; for example, all palm specimens (Arecaceae) were correctly assigned to species while only one individual of Asteraceae was correctly assigned to species. Further, barcodes reliably assigned ornamental horticultural and medicinal plants correctly to genus while they showed a lower or no success in assigning these plants to species and cultivars. For future, we recommend the combination of a complementary barcode (e.g. ITS or trnH-psbA) with rbcL + matK to increase the performance of taxa identification. By aiding species identification of horticultural crops and ornamental palms, the analysis of the barcode regions will have large impact on horticultural industry.

  14. 27 CFR 478.171 - Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Licensed manufacturers and licensed importers exporting armor piercing ammunition and semiautomatic assault... foreign consignee and the date the armor piercing ammunition or semiautomatic assault weapons...

  15. 27 CFR 478.171 - Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Licensed manufacturers and licensed importers exporting armor piercing ammunition and semiautomatic assault... foreign consignee and the date the armor piercing ammunition or semiautomatic assault weapons...

  16. 27 CFR 478.171 - Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Licensed manufacturers and licensed importers exporting armor piercing ammunition and semiautomatic assault... foreign consignee and the date the armor piercing ammunition or semiautomatic assault weapons...

  17. 27 CFR 478.171 - Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Licensed manufacturers and licensed importers exporting armor piercing ammunition and semiautomatic assault... foreign consignee and the date the armor piercing ammunition or semiautomatic assault weapons...

  18. 27 CFR 478.171 - Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Licensed manufacturers and licensed importers exporting armor piercing ammunition and semiautomatic assault... foreign consignee and the date the armor piercing ammunition or semiautomatic assault weapons...

  19. 31 CFR 592.304 - Exporting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant from whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being exported as having...

  20. 31 CFR 592.304 - Exporting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant from whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being exported as having...

  1. 31 CFR 592.304 - Exporting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant from whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being exported as having...

  2. 31 CFR 592.304 - Exporting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant from whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being exported as having...

  3. 31 CFR 592.304 - Exporting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant from whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being exported as having...

  4. Export Promotion: Government Agencies Should Combine Small Business Export Training Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    Department of Commerce as the primary provider of export promotion services, such as market information and counseling, to export-ready firms. The other USEAC...Page 6 GAO-01-1023 Export Promotion staff have done so. Commerce, which has several staff at most USEACs, has dedicated staff to facilitate the Market ...Report to Congressional Committees United States General Accounting Office GAO September 2001 EXPORT PROMOTION Government Agencies Should Combine

  5. 77 FR 37385 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Export Trade Certificate of Review Colombia Poultry Export Quota, Inc. (COLOM-PEQ). SUMMARY: The Office... application follows. Summary of the Application Applicant: Colombia Poultry Export Quota, Inc., c/o DTB... Poultry Export Quota, Inc. (hereinafter, ``COLOM-PEQ'') was formed by USA Poultry and Egg Export...

  6. 21 CFR 1313.22 - Contents of export declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contents of export declaration. 1313.22 Section... EXPORTATION OF LIST I AND LIST II CHEMICALS Exportation of Listed Chemicals § 1313.22 Contents of export... quantitative threshold criteria established in § 1310.04(f) of this chapter may be exported if that chemical...

  7. 21 CFR 1312.22 - Application for export permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for export permit. 1312.22 Section... EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.22 Application for export permit. (a) An application for a permit to export controlled substances shall be made on DEA Form...

  8. 78 FR 53727 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export.... Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters on... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. Sections...

  9. 78 FR 1837 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export.... Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters on... Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. 4001-21) authorizes the Secretary of Commerce to...

  10. 19 CFR 191.73 - Export summary procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export summary procedure. 191.73 Section 191.73... TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Exportation and Destruction § 191.73 Export summary procedure. (a) General. The export summary procedure consists of a Chronological Summary of Exports used to support a...

  11. 21 CFR 1312.23 - Issuance of export permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of export permit. 1312.23 Section 1312.23... CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.23 Issuance of export permit. (a) The... regulation in § 1312.30 of this part be exported only pursuant to the issuance of an export permit....

  12. 21 CFR 1313.23 - Distribution of export declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution of export declaration. 1313.23... EXPORTATION OF LIST I AND LIST II CHEMICALS Exportation of Listed Chemicals § 1313.23 Distribution of export declaration. The required three copies of the listed chemical export declaration (DEA Form 486) will...

  13. 7 CFR 1488.9 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export. 1488.9 Section 1488.9 Agriculture... Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Documents Required for Financing § 1488.9 Evidence of export. (a) If the commodity is exported by rail...

  14. 10 CFR 590.208 - Small volume exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small volume exports. 590.208 Section 590.208 Energy... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Applications for Authorization To Import or Export Natural Gas § 590.208 Small volume exports. Any person may export up to 100,000 cubic feet of natural...

  15. 50 CFR 14.63 - Export declaration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Export declaration requirements. 14.63... PLANTS IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Wildlife Declarations § 14.63 Export... exporter's agent, shall be filed with the Service prior to the export of any wildlife at the port...

  16. 76 FR 55010 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export.... Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters on... number) or e- mail at etca@trade.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading...

  17. 77 FR 28853 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export....S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review Alaska Longline Cod... number) or email at etca@trade.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading...

  18. 22 CFR 125.1 - Exports subject to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports subject to this part. 125.1 Section 125... EXPORT OF TECHNICAL DATA AND CLASSIFIED DEFENSE ARTICLES § 125.1 Exports subject to this part. (a) The controls of this part apply to the export of technical data and the export of classified defense...

  19. The nuclear export protein of H5N1 influenza A viruses recruits Matrix 1 (M1) protein to the viral ribonucleoprotein to mediate nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Brunotte, Linda; Flies, Joe; Bolte, Hardin; Reuther, Peter; Vreede, Frank; Schwemmle, Martin

    2014-07-18

    In influenza A virus-infected cells, replication and transcription of the viral genome occurs in the nucleus. To be packaged into viral particles at the plasma membrane, encapsidated viral genomes must be exported from the nucleus. Intriguingly, the nuclear export protein (NEP) is involved in both processes. Although NEP stimulates viral RNA synthesis by binding to the viral polymerase, its function during nuclear export implicates interaction with viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP)-associated M1. The observation that both interactions are mediated by the C-terminal moiety of NEP raised the question whether these two features of NEP are linked functionally. Here we provide evidence that the interaction between M1 and the vRNP depends on the NEP C terminus and its polymerase activity-enhancing property for the nuclear export of vRNPs. This suggests that these features of NEP are linked functionally. Furthermore, our data suggest that the N-terminal domain of NEP interferes with the stability of the vRNP-M1-NEP nuclear export complex, probably mediated by its highly flexible intramolecular interaction with the NEP C terminus. On the basis of our data, we propose a new model for the assembly of the nuclear export complex of Influenza A vRNPs.

  20. p53 SUMOylation promotes its nuclear export by facilitating its release from the nuclear export receptor CRM1.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Aleixo; Li, Dawei; Zhao, Lisa Y; Godsey, Adam; Liao, Daiqing

    2013-09-01

    Chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM1) mediates p53 nuclear export. Although p53 SUMOylation promotes its nuclear export, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we show that tethering of a small, ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) moiety to p53 markedly increases its cytoplasmic localization. SUMO attachment to p53 does not affect its oligomerization, suggesting that subunit dissociation required for exposing p53's nuclear export signal (NES) is unnecessary for p53 nuclear export. Surprisingly, SUMO-mediated p53 nuclear export depends on the SUMO-interacting motif (SIM)-binding pocket of SUMO-1. The CRM1 C-terminal domain lacking the NES-binding groove interacts with tetrameric p53, and the proper folding of the p53 core domain, rather than the presence of the N- or C-terminal tails, appears to be important for p53-CRM1 interaction. The CRM1 Huntington, EF3, a subunit of PP2A, and TOR1 9 (HEAT9) loop, which regulates GTP-binding nuclear protein Ran binding and cargo release, contains a prototypical SIM. Remarkably, disruption of this SIM in conjunction with a mutated SIM-binding groove of SUMO-1 markedly enhances the binding of CRM1 to p53-SUMO-1 and their accumulation in the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), as well as their persistent association in the cytoplasm. We propose that SUMOylation of a CRM1 cargo such as p53 at the NPCs unlocks the HEAT9 loop of CRM1 to facilitate the disassembly of the transporting complex and cargo release to the cytoplasm.

  1. 15 CFR 732.5 - Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... THE EAR § 732.5 Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record... review § 758.1 of the EAR to determine when an SED is required and what export control information should... symbol, or No License Required designator “NLR”) as appropriate. See § 758.1(g) of the EAR and 15 CFR...

  2. 15 CFR 732.5 - Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... THE EAR § 732.5 Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record... review § 758.1 of the EAR to determine when an SED is required and what export control information should... symbol, or No License Required designator “NLR”) as appropriate. See § 758.1(g) of the EAR and 15 CFR...

  3. 15 CFR 732.5 - Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... THE EAR § 732.5 Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record... review § 758.1 of the EAR to determine when an SED is required and what export control information should... symbol, or No License Required designator “NLR”) as appropriate. See § 758.1(g) of the EAR and 15 CFR...

  4. 15 CFR 732.5 - Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... THE EAR § 732.5 Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record... review § 758.1 of the EAR to determine when an SED is required and what export control information should... symbol, or No License Required designator “NLR”) as appropriate. See § 758.1(g) of the EAR and 15 CFR...

  5. 15 CFR 732.5 - Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... THE EAR § 732.5 Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record... review § 758.1 of the EAR to determine when an SED is required and what export control information should... symbol, or No License Required designator “NLR”) as appropriate. See § 758.1(g) of the EAR and 15 CFR...

  6. Co-composting of invasive Acacia longifolia with pine bark for horticultural use.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis Miguel; Mourão, Isabel; Coutinho, João; Smith, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of commercial-scale co-composting of waste biomass from the control of invasive Acacia species with pine bark waste from the lumber industry, in a blend ratio of 60:40 (v:v), was investigated and compared with previous research on the composting of Acacia without additional feedstock, to determine the potential process and end-product quality benefits of co-composting with bark. Pile temperatures rose rapidly to >70 °C and were maintained at >60 °C for several months. Acacia and bark biomass contained a large fraction of mineralizable organic matter (OM) equivalent to approximately 600 g kg(-1) of initial OM. Bark was more recalcitrant to biodegradation compared with Acacia, which degraded at twice the rate of bark. Therefore, incorporating the bark increased the final amount of compost produced compared with composting Acacia residues without bark. The relatively high C/N ratio of the composting matrix (C/N=56) and NH3 volatilization explained the limited increases in NH4+-N content, whereas concentrations of conservative nutrient elements (e.g. P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe) increased in proportion to OM mineralization, enriching the compost as a nutrient source for horticultural use. Nitrogen concentrations also increased to a small extent, but were much more dynamic and losses, probably associated with N volatilization mechanisms, were difficult to actively control. The physicochemical characteristics of the stabilized end-product, such as pH, electrical conductivity and OM content, were improved with the addition of bark to Acacia biomass, and the final compost characteristics were suitable for use for soil improvement and also as horticultural substrate components.

  7. Aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment of horticultural produce: Effects on microbial safety and produce quality - A review.

    PubMed

    Praeger, Ulrike; Herppich, Werner B; Hassenberg, Karin

    2016-05-19

    Microbial load on fresh fruit and vegetables causes decay and losses after harvest and may lead to foodborne illness in case of contamination with human pathogens on raw consumed produces. Washing with tap water only marginally reduces microorganisms attached to produce surfaces. Chlorine is widely used for decontamination on fresh horticultural produces. However, due to harmful by-products and the questionable efficacy it has become increasingly challenged. During the last 20 years, the interest to study ClO2 treatments as an alternative sanitation agent for industrially prepared fresh produce has largely increased. For a wide range of commodities, the application of gaseous ClO2 has meanwhile been investigated. In addition, since several years, the interest in aqueous ClO2 treatments has further risen because of the better manageability in postharvest processing lines compared to gaseous application. This article critically evaluated the effects of postharvest application of aqueous ClO2, either alone or in combination with other treatments, on microbial loads for various horticultural produces. In laboratory investigations, application of aqueous ClO2 at concentrations between 3 and 100 ppm effectively reduced counts of natural or inoculated microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts and mold) in the range of 1 and 5 log. However, various effects of ClO2 treatments on produce quality have been described. These mainly comprise implication on sensory and visual attributes. In this context, there is increasing focus on the potential impacts of aqueous ClO2 on relevant nutritional components of produces such as organic acids or phenolic substances.

  8. GiNA, an Efficient and High-Throughput Software for Horticultural Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Garcia, Luis; Covarrubias-Pazaran, Giovanny; Schlautman, Brandon; Zalapa, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods for trait phenotyping have been a bottleneck for research in many crop species due to their intensive labor, high cost, complex implementation, lack of reproducibility and propensity to subjective bias. Recently, multiple high-throughput phenotyping platforms have been developed, but most of them are expensive, species-dependent, complex to use, and available only for major crops. To overcome such limitations, we present the open-source software GiNA, which is a simple and free tool for measuring horticultural traits such as shape- and color-related parameters of fruits, vegetables, and seeds. GiNA is multiplatform software available in both R and MATLAB® programming languages and uses conventional images from digital cameras with minimal requirements. It can process up to 11 different horticultural morphological traits such as length, width, two-dimensional area, volume, projected skin, surface area, RGB color, among other parameters. Different validation tests produced highly consistent results under different lighting conditions and camera setups making GiNA a very reliable platform for high-throughput phenotyping. In addition, five-fold cross validation between manually generated and GiNA measurements for length and width in cranberry fruits were 0.97 and 0.92. In addition, the same strategy yielded prediction accuracies above 0.83 for color estimates produced from images of cranberries analyzed with GiNA compared to total anthocyanin content (TAcy) of the same fruits measured with the standard methodology of the industry. Our platform provides a scalable, easy-to-use and affordable tool for massive acquisition of phenotypic data of fruits, seeds, and vegetables. PMID:27529547

  9. 19 CFR 351.402 - Calculation of export price and constructed export price; reimbursement of antidumping and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.402 Calculation of export... (date of final determination of sales at less than fair value). (3) Presumption. The Secretary may...) Introduction. In order to establish export price, constructed export price, and normal value, the...

  10. 19 CFR 351.402 - Calculation of export price and constructed export price; reimbursement of antidumping and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.402 Calculation of export... (date of final determination of sales at less than fair value). (3) Presumption. The Secretary may...) Introduction. In order to establish export price, constructed export price, and normal value, the...

  11. 19 CFR 351.402 - Calculation of export price and constructed export price; reimbursement of antidumping and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.402 Calculation of export... (date of final determination of sales at less than fair value). (3) Presumption. The Secretary may...) Introduction. In order to establish export price, constructed export price, and normal value, the...

  12. 19 CFR 351.402 - Calculation of export price and constructed export price; reimbursement of antidumping and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.402 Calculation of export... (date of final determination of sales at less than fair value). (3) Presumption. The Secretary may...) Introduction. In order to establish export price, constructed export price, and normal value, the...

  13. 19 CFR 351.402 - Calculation of export price and constructed export price; reimbursement of antidumping and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.402 Calculation of export... (date of final determination of sales at less than fair value). (3) Presumption. The Secretary may...) Introduction. In order to establish export price, constructed export price, and normal value, the...

  14. 78 FR 17189 - Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced... January 10, 2013, by Trunkline LNG Export, LLC (TLNG Export), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) in an amount up to of 15...

  15. 27 CFR 555.129 - Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778) and implementing regulations. However, a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer exporting explosive materials shall maintain records showing the..., the manufacturer's name or brand name of explosive materials, the name and address of the...

  16. 40 CFR 273.40 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exports. 273.40 Section 273.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.40 Exports....

  17. 40 CFR 273.20 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exports. 273.20 Section 273.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.20 Exports....

  18. 40 CFR 273.20 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exports. 273.20 Section 273.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.20 Exports....

  19. 40 CFR 273.20 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exports. 273.20 Section 273.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.20 Exports....

  20. 40 CFR 273.40 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exports. 273.40 Section 273.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.40 Exports....

  1. 40 CFR 273.40 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exports. 273.40 Section 273.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.40 Exports....

  2. 40 CFR 273.20 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exports. 273.20 Section 273.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.20 Exports....

  3. 40 CFR 273.40 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exports. 273.40 Section 273.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.40 Exports....

  4. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  5. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  6. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  7. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  8. 15 CFR 2015.3 - Export certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export certificates. 2015.3 Section... Export certificates. (a) To claim the in-quota rate of duty on sugar-containing products of a..., in the form and manner determined by the United States Customs Service, that a valid...

  9. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.144... § 28.144 Export marks. (a) General Requirement. In addition to the marks and brands required to be... brewer shall mark the word “Export” on each container or case of beer, or the words “Beer concentrate...

  10. 7 CFR 958.14 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 958.14 Section 958.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.14 Export....

  11. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  12. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition... filled under the provisions of part 24 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export”...

  13. 40 CFR 273.56 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exports. 273.56 Section 273.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Universal Waste Transporters § 273.56 Exports. A universal...

  14. 7 CFR 945.14 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 945.14 Section 945.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.14 Export....

  15. 9 CFR 352.16 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exports. 352.16 Section 352.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION... CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.16 Exports. This shall...

  16. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk... “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head of each container before removal...

  17. 10 CFR 431.405 - Exported equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exported equipment. 431.405 Section 431.405 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.405 Exported equipment. Under Sections 330 and 345 of the Act, this...

  18. 10 CFR 430.65 - Exported products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exported products. 430.65 Section 430.65 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Certification and Enforcement § 430.65 Exported products. Pursuant to section 330 of the Act, this part shall not apply to...

  19. 27 CFR 4.80 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exports. 4.80 Section 4.80 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE General Provisions § 4.80 Exports. The regulations...

  20. 27 CFR 4.80 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exports. 4.80 Section 4.80 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE General Provisions § 4.80 Exports. The regulations...

  1. 27 CFR 4.80 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exports. 4.80 Section 4.80 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE General Provisions § 4.80 Exports. The regulations...

  2. 27 CFR 4.80 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exports. 4.80 Section 4.80 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE General Provisions § 4.80 Exports. The regulations...

  3. 76 FR 63608 - Export Trade Certificate Of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...-1A001] Export Trade Certificate Of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of... Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review Alaska Longline Cod Commission (``ALCC'') on...@trade.gov . [[Page 63609

  4. 76 FR 31935 - District Export Council Nomination Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... International Trade Administration District Export Council Nomination Opportunity AGENCY: International Trade... Export Council member. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce is currently seeking nominations of... 60 District Export Councils (DECs) nationwide. DECs are closely affiliated with the U.S....

  5. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Jones, T.J.D.; Njeumi, F.; Elsawalhy, A.; Wabacha, J.; Rushton, J.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. PMID:24462194

  6. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Njeumi, F; Elsawalhy, A; Wabacha, J; Rushton, J

    2014-03-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export.

  7. Modulation of Saharan dust export by the North African dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, S.; Cuevas, E.; Prospero, J. M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; López-Solano, J.; García, M. I.; Alonso-Pérez, S.

    2015-07-01

    We have studied the relationship between the long-term interannual variability in large-scale meteorology in western North Africa - the largest and most active dust source worldwide - and Saharan dust export in summer, when enhanced dust mobilization in the hyper-arid Sahara results in maximum dust impacts throughout the North Atlantic. We address this issue by analyzing 28 years (1987-2014) of summer averaged dust concentrations at the high-altitude Izaña observatory (~ 2400 m a.s.l.) on Tenerife, and satellite and meteorological reanalysis data. The summer meteorological scenario in North Africa (aloft 850 hPa) is characterized by a high over the the subtropical Sahara and a low over the tropics linked to the monsoon. We measured the variability of this high-low dipole-like pattern in terms of the North African dipole intensity (NAFDI): the difference of geopotential height anomalies averaged over the subtropics (30-32° N, Morocco) and the tropics (10-13° N, Bamako region) close to the Atlantic coast (at 5-8° W). We focused on the 700 hPa standard level due to dust export off the coast of North Africa tending to occur between 1 and 5 km a.s.l. Variability in the NAFDI is associated with displacements of the North African anticyclone over the Sahara and this has implications for wind and dust export. The correlations we found between the 1987-2014 summer mean of NAFDI with dust at Izaña, satellite dust observations and meteorological re-analysis data indicate that increases in the NAFDI (i) result in higher wind speeds at the north of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone that are associated with enhanced dust export over the subtropical North Atlantic, (ii) influence the long-term variability of the size distribution of exported dust particles (increasing the load of coarse dust) and (iii) are associated with enhanced rains in the tropical and northern shifts of the tropical rain band that may affect the southern Sahel. Interannual variability in NAFDI is also

  8. Export controls and biological weapons: new roles, new challenges.

    PubMed

    Roberts, B

    1998-01-01

    This article considers the value of export controls in reducing the threat of biological weapons. It concludes that export control through export licensing is an essential element in the overall strategy to limit the spread of biological weapons. Modifications to existing export control systems can maximize the usefulness of export controls for limiting the threat of biological warfare and bioterrorism. Export controls are useful only within a broader strategy that includes both an arms control dimension and military defensive preparedness.

  9. The choreography of multidrug export.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Rupak; Gutmann, Daniel A P; Khoo, Yvonne S K; Fagg, Lisa A; van Veen, Hendrik W

    2011-06-01

    Multidrug transporters have a crucial role in causing the drug resistance that can arise in infectious micro-organisms and tumours. These integral membrane proteins mediate the export of a broad range of unrelated compounds from cells, including antibiotics and anticancer agents, thus reducing the concentration of these compounds to subtoxic levels in target cells. In spite of intensive research, it is not clear exactly how multidrug transporters work. The present review focuses on recent advancements in the biochemistry and structural biology of bacterial and human multidrug ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters. These advancements point to a common mechanism in which polyspecific drug-binding surfaces in the membrane domains are alternately exposed to the inside and outside surface of the membrane in response to the ATP-driven dimerization of nucleotide-binding domains and their dissociation following ATP hydrolysis.

  10. Pig manure vermicompost as a component of a horticultural bedding plant medium: effects on physicochemical properties and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, R M; Edwards, C A; Subler, S; Metzger, J D

    2001-05-01

    This experiment was designed to characterize the physical, chemical and microbial properties of a standard commercial horticultural, greenhouse container, bedding plant medium (Metro-Mix 360), that had been substituted with a range of increasing concentrations (0%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% by volume) of pig manure vermicompost and to relate these properties to plant growth responses. The growth trials used tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), grown in the substituted media for 31 days under glasshouse conditions, with seedling growth recorded in 20 pots for each treatment. Half of the tomato seedlings (10 pots per treatment) were watered daily with liquid inorganic fertilizer while the other half received water only. The percentage total porosity, percentage air space, pH and ammonium concentrations of the container medium all decreased significantly, after substitution of Metro-Mix 360 with equivalent amounts of pig manure vermicompost; whereas bulk density, container capacity, electrical conductivity, overall microbial activity and nitrate concentrations, all increased with increasing substitutions of vermicompost. The growth of tomato seedlings in the potting mixtures containing 100% pig manure vermicompost was reduced, possibly as a result of high soluble salt concentrations in the vermicompost and poorer porosity and aeration. The growth of tomato seedlings was greatest after substitution of Metro-Mix 360 with between 25% and 50% pig manure vermicompost, with more growth occurring in combinations of pig manure vermicompost treated regularly with a liquid fertilizer solution than in those with no fertilizer applied. Some of the growth enhancement in these mixtures seemed to be related to the combined effects of improved porosity, aeration and water retention in the medium and the high nitrate content of the substrate, which produced an increased uptake of nitrogen by the plant tissues, resulting in increased plant growth. When the tomato seedlings were

  11. Phytosanitary irradiation for fresh horticultural commodities: generic treatments, current issues, and next steps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytosanitary treatments such as irradiation disinfest host commodities of quarantine insect pests before they are exported to areas where the pests do not occur, and are often the simplest approach to overcome regulatory trade barriers and gain market access. The United States, Australia and the In...

  12. Co-composting of solid and liquid olive mill wastes: management aspects and the horticultural value of the resulting composts.

    PubMed

    Aviani, I; Laor, Y; Medina, Sh; Krassnovsky, A; Raviv, M

    2010-09-01

    Successful co-composting of solid and liquid olive mill wastes (OMW) and obtaining a product of horticultural value may increase the viability of this recycling approach. Two composting cycles were performed, in which olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) were used to form five mixtures, wetted either with fresh water or with olive mill wastewater (OMWW). Up to approximately 0.3m(3) of OMWW could be applied to each m(3) of the raw materials without negatively affecting the chemical, physical and horticultural properties of the resulted composts. A growing media composed of perlite amended with 25-33% OMW-composts showed higher suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis as compared to equivalent perlite:peat moss mixtures. The yields of tomato plants grown in peat moss amended with 20% (v:v) of OMW-composts were not significantly different than plants grown in unamended peat. The viability of co-composting as a treatment approach for OMWW is discussed in the context of management aspects and the horticultural value of the final product.

  13. Asymmetric Introgression in the Horticultural Living Fossil Cycas Sect. Asiorientales Using a Genome-Wide Scanning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Yu-Chung; Huang, Bing-Hong; Chang, Chun-Wen; Wan, Yu-Ting; Lai, Shih-Jie; Huang, Shong; Liao, Pei-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The Asian cycads are mostly allopatric, distributed in small population sizes. Hybridization between allopatric species provides clues in determining the mechanism of species divergence. Horticultural introduction provides the chance of interspecific gene flow between allopatric species. Two allopatrically eastern Asian Cycas sect. Asiorientales species, C. revoluta and C. taitungensis, which are widely distributed in Ryukyus and Fujian Province and endemic to Taiwan, respectively, were planted in eastern Taiwan for horticultural reason. Higher degrees of genetic admixture in cultivated samples than wild populations in both cycad species were detected based on multilocus scans by neutral AFLP markers. Furthermore, bidirectional but asymmetric introgression by horticultural introduction of C. revoluta is evidenced by the reanalyses of species associated loci, which are assumed to be diverged after species divergence. Partial loci introgressed from native cycad to the invaders were also detected at the loci of strong species association. Consistent results tested by all neutral loci, and the species-associated loci, specify the recent introgression from the paradox of sharing of ancestral polymorphisms. Phenomenon of introgression of cultivated cycads implies niche conservation among two geographic-isolated cycads, even though the habitats of the extant wild populations of two species are distinct. PMID:23591840

  14. Asymmetric introgression in the horticultural living fossil cycas sect. Asiorientales using a genome-wide scanning approach.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yu-Chung; Huang, Bing-Hong; Chang, Chun-Wen; Wan, Yu-Ting; Lai, Shih-Jie; Huang, Shong; Liao, Pei-Chun

    2013-04-15

    The Asian cycads are mostly allopatric, distributed in small population sizes. Hybridization between allopatric species provides clues in determining the mechanism of species divergence. Horticultural introduction provides the chance of interspecific gene flow between allopatric species. Two allopatrically eastern Asian Cycas sect. Asiorientales species, C. revoluta and C. taitungensis, which are widely distributed in Ryukyus and Fujian Province and endemic to Taiwan, respectively, were planted in eastern Taiwan for horticultural reason. Higher degrees of genetic admixture in cultivated samples than wild populations in both cycad species were detected based on multilocus scans by neutral AFLP markers. Furthermore, bidirectional but asymmetric introgression by horticultural introduction of C. revoluta is evidenced by the reanalyses of species associated loci, which are assumed to be diverged after species divergence. Partial loci introgressed from native cycad to the invaders were also detected at the loci of strong species association. Consistent results tested by all neutral loci, and the species-associated loci, specify the recent introgression from the paradox of sharing of ancestral polymorphisms. Phenomenon of introgression of cultivated cycads implies niche conservation among two geographic-isolated cycads, even though the habitats of the extant wild populations of two species are distinct.

  15. Exporting licensing regulations affecting US geothermal firms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    This document presents a brief introduction and overview of the Department of Commerce's Export Administration Regulations which might affect potential US geothermal goods exporters. It is intended to make US geothermal firms officials aware of the existence of such regulations and to provide them with references, contacts and phone numbers where they can obtain specific and detailed information and assistance. It must be stressed however, that the ultimate responsibility for complying with the above mentioned regulations lies with the exporter who must consult the complete version of the regulations.

  16. Photovoltaic systems for export application. Informal report

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, J.; Campbell, H.; Sajo, A.; Sanz, E.

    1988-01-31

    One approach to improving the competitiveness of photovoltaic systems is the development of designs specifically for export applications. In other words, where is it appropriate in a system design to incorporate components manufactured and/or assembled in the receiving country in order to improve the photovoltaic exports from the US? What appears to be needed is a systematic method of evaluating the potential for export from the US of PV systems for various application in different countries. Development of such a method was the goal of this project.

  17. Inspection report: the Department of Energy's export licensing process for dual-use and munitions commodities

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Gregory H.

    1999-05-01

    Export of commodities, encouraged by both the private sector and the Federal Government, helps to improve our position in the global economy and is in the national interest of the US. However, exports of commodities or technologies, without regard to whether they may significantly contribute to the military potential of individual countries or combination of countries or enhance the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, may adversely affect the national security of the US. The Federal Government, therefore, implements several laws, Executive Orders, and regulations to control the export of certain commodities and technologies. These commodities and technologies require a license for export. Some of the controlled items are designated as ''dual-use,'' that is, commodities and technologies that have both civilian and military application. Some dual-use commodities are designated as ''nuclear dual-use''--items controlled for nuclear nonproliferation purposes. Another group of controlled commodities is designated as munitions, which are goods and technologies that have solely military uses. The Department of Energy (Energy) conducts reviews of export license applications for nuclear dual-use items and certain munitions. On August 26, 1998, the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs requested that the Inspectors General from the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, State, and Treasury, and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), update and expand on a 1993 interagency review conducted by the Inspectors General of the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and State of the export licensing processes for dual-use and munitions commodities.

  18. Export of electronics equipment waste.

    PubMed

    LaDou, Joseph; Lovegrove, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Electronics equipment waste ("e-waste") includes discarded computers, computer monitors, television sets, and cell phones. Less than 10% of e-waste is currently recycled. The United States and other developed countries export e-waste primarily to Asia, knowing it carries a real harm to the poor communities where it will be discarded. A 2006 directive bans the use of lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, and certain brominated flame retardants in most electronics products sold in the EU. A similar directive facilitates the development and design of clean electronics products with longer lifespans that are safe and easy to repair, upgrade, and recycle, and will not expose workers and the environment to hazardous chemicals. These useful approaches apply only regionally and cover only a fraction of the hazardous substances used in electronics manufacture, however. There is an urgent need for manufacturers of electronics products to take responsibility for their products from production to end-of-life, and for much tighter controls both on the transboundary movement of e-waste and on the manner in which it is recycled. Manufacturers must develop clean products with longer lifespans that are safe and easy to repair, upgrade, and recycle and will not expose workers and the environment to hazardous chemicals.

  19. Companies Exporting Cathode Ray Tubes for Reuse

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Companies listed in the table below have submitted written notifications to EPA Headquarters to inform EPA of their intention to export used, intact cathode ray tubes (CRTs) for reuse as required under the CRT rule.

  20. 7 CFR 1212.5 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... person who exports honey or honey products from the United States. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS...

  1. 7 CFR 1212.5 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... person who exports honey or honey products from the United States. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS...

  2. 7 CFR 1212.5 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... person who exports honey or honey products from the United States....

  3. 7 CFR 1212.5 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... person who exports honey or honey products from the United States....

  4. Optogenetic control of nuclear protein export

    PubMed Central

    Niopek, Dominik; Wehler, Pierre; Roensch, Julia; Eils, Roland; Di Ventura, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Active nucleocytoplasmic transport is a key mechanism underlying protein regulation in eukaryotes. While nuclear protein import can be controlled in space and time with a portfolio of optogenetic tools, protein export has not been tackled so far. Here we present a light-inducible nuclear export system (LEXY) based on a single, genetically encoded tag, which enables precise spatiotemporal control over the export of tagged proteins. A constitutively nuclear, chromatin-anchored LEXY variant expands the method towards light inhibition of endogenous protein export by sequestering cellular CRM1 receptors. We showcase the utility of LEXY for cell biology applications by regulating a synthetic repressor as well as human p53 transcriptional activity with light. LEXY is a powerful addition to the optogenetic toolbox, allowing various novel applications in synthetic and cell biology. PMID:26853913

  5. 22 CFR 123.17 - Exports of firearms and ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports of firearms and ammunition. 123.17... FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.17 Exports of firearms and ammunition. (a) Except as provided... export without a license of components and parts for Category I(a) firearms, except barrels,...

  6. 22 CFR 123.17 - Exports of firearms and ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exports of firearms and ammunition. 123.17... FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.17 Exports of firearms and ammunition. (a) Except as provided... export without a license of components and parts for Category I(a) firearms, except barrels,...

  7. 22 CFR 123.17 - Exports of firearms and ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exports of firearms and ammunition. 123.17... FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.17 Exports of firearms and ammunition. (a) Except as provided... export without a license of components and parts for Category I(a) firearms, except barrels,...

  8. 48 CFR 252.204-7008 - Export-Controlled Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Export-Controlled Items... of Provisions And Clauses 252.204-7008 Export-Controlled Items. As prescribed in 204.7304, use the following clause: Export-Controlled Items (APR 2010) (a) Definition. Export-controlled items, as used...

  9. 48 CFR 252.204-7008 - Export-Controlled Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Export-Controlled Items... of Provisions And Clauses 252.204-7008 Export-Controlled Items. As prescribed in 204.7304, use the following clause: Export-Controlled Items (Apr 2010) (a) Definition. Export-controlled items, as used...

  10. 77 FR 37871 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Export Trade Certificate of Review from Colombia Rice Export Quota, Inc. SUMMARY: The Export Trading... Rice Export Quota, Inc. (``COLOM-RICE''), 1700 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20006... Rice Research and Promotion Board, P.O. Box 31, Little Rock, AR 72203-0031; California Rice...

  11. 7 CFR 1493.80 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... undermining of an essential regulatory purpose of the program; (3) Obstruction of the fair administration of... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102) and CCC Intermediate Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-103) Operations §...

  12. 7 CFR 1493.80 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... undermining of an essential regulatory purpose of the program; (3) Obstruction of the fair administration of... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102) and CCC Intermediate Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-103) Operations §...

  13. 48 CFR 552.211-88 - Vehicle export preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vehicle export preparation... Vehicle export preparation. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(8), insert the following clause: Vehicle Export Preparation (JAN 2010) Vehicles shall be prepared for export on wheels, unboxed, unless otherwise specified...

  14. 48 CFR 552.211-88 - Vehicle export preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vehicle export preparation... Vehicle export preparation. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(8), insert the following clause: Vehicle Export Preparation (JAN 2010) Vehicles shall be prepared for export on wheels, unboxed, unless otherwise specified...

  15. 48 CFR 552.211-88 - Vehicle export preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vehicle export preparation... Vehicle export preparation. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(8), insert the following clause: Vehicle Export Preparation (JAN 2010) Vehicles shall be prepared for export on wheels, unboxed, unless otherwise specified...

  16. 48 CFR 552.211-88 - Vehicle export preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vehicle export preparation... Vehicle export preparation. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(8), insert the following clause: Vehicle Export Preparation (JAN 2010) Vehicles shall be prepared for export on wheels, unboxed, unless otherwise specified...

  17. 48 CFR 552.211-88 - Vehicle export preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vehicle export preparation... Vehicle export preparation. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(8), insert the following clause: Vehicle Export Preparation (JAN 2010) Vehicles shall be prepared for export on wheels, unboxed, unless otherwise specified...

  18. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Automated Export System (AES). 120.30... DEFINITIONS § 120.30 The Automated Export System (AES). The Automated Export System (AES) is the Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census, electronic filing of export information. The AES shall serve as the...

  19. 19 CFR 192.2 - Requirements for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXPORT CONTROL Exportation of Used Self-Propelled Vehicles, Vessels, and Aircraft § 192.2 Requirements for exportation. (a) Basic requirements. A person attempting to export a used self... certificate of title. For used, self-propelled vehicles issued, by any jurisdiction in the United States,...

  20. 27 CFR 44.111 - Change in export warehouse premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in export warehouse... Qualification of Export Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Location and Premises § 44.111 Change in export warehouse premises. Where an export warehouse is to be changed to an extent which will make inaccurate...

  1. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arms Export Control Act... CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.193 Arms Export Control Act. For provisions relating to... exporting arms, ammunition, or implements of war, see the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778), and...

  2. 75 FR 11118 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 99-4A005) to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to California Almond Export Association, LLC, Application no. 99-00005. SUMMARY: The Export Trading Company Affairs unit, Office of Competition and...

  3. 78 FR 13861 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (99-5A002) to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to California Almond Export Association... International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export...

  4. 77 FR 61744 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export... September 27, 2012, the U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to... INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. 4001-21) authorizes the...

  5. 77 FR 61744 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review issued to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application No. 84-23A12. SUMMARY..., Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of...

  6. 41 CFR 109-45.309-51 - Export controlled property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export controlled... § 109-45.309-51 Export controlled property. Export controlled property shall be made available for sale only after the export license requirements of § 109-43.307-50 of this subpart have been met....

  7. 78 FR 78818 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export.... Department of Commerce issued an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Emporia Trading LLC on December 16... etca@trade.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15...

  8. 78 FR 36747 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to California Almond Export Association, Application no. 99... Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate...

  9. 7 CFR 35.8 - Date of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of export. 35.8 Section 35.8 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.8 Date of export. Date of export means the date of loading on board...

  10. 77 FR 59591 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export..., the U.S. Department of Commerce issued an Export Trade Certificate of Review to SunWest Foods, Inc...@trade.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15...

  11. 7 CFR 1493.280 - Evidence of export report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export report. 1493.280 Section 1493.280... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Facility Guarantee Program (FGP) Operations § 1493.280 Evidence of export report. (a) Report of export....

  12. 75 FR 8040 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review from Alaska Longline Cod Commission (``ALCC'') SUMMARY: The Export... Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of...

  13. 48 CFR 1825.1103-70 - Export control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Export control. 1825.1103...-70 Export control. (a) Background. (1) NASA contractors and subcontractors are subject to U.S. export... 120 through 130, and the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), 15 CFR parts 730 through 799....

  14. 19 CFR 113.55 - Cancellation of export bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cancellation of export bonds. 113.55 Section 113... export bonds. (a) Manner of cancellation. A bond to assure exportation as defined in § 101.1 of this... shall be signed by a revenue officer of the foreign country to which the merchandise is exported,...

  15. 37 CFR 5.19 - Export of technical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export of technical data. 5..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL SECRECY OF CERTAIN INVENTIONS AND LICENSES TO EXPORT AND FILE APPLICATIONS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES Licenses for Foreign Exporting and Filing § 5.19 Export of technical data. (a)...

  16. 75 FR 51980 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters (``NFE'') (Application 84- 21A12). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to...

  17. 7 CFR 1493.80 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export. 1493.80 Section 1493.80... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102) and CCC Intermediate Export Credit Guarantee Program...

  18. 19 CFR 10.9 - Articles exported for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles exported for processing. 10.9 Section 10... Exported and Returned § 10.9 Articles exported for processing. (a) Except as otherwise provided for in this... returned after having been exported for further processing and which are claimed to be subject to duty...

  19. 78 FR 59004 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Emporia Trading LLC, Application No. 13-00001. SUMMARY: The Export... Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of...

  20. 40 CFR 725.920 - Exports and imports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exports and imports. 725.920 Section... on Significant New Uses of Microorganisms § 725.920 Exports and imports. (a) Exports. Persons who intend to export a microorganism identified in subpart M of this part, or in any proposed rule...