Science.gov

Sample records for enhanced national capability

  1. A workshop on enhanced national capability for neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, Alan J; Rhyne, James J; Lewis, Paul S

    2009-01-01

    This two-day workshop will engage the international neutron scattering community to vet and improve the Lujan Center Strategic Plan 2007-2013 (SP07). Sponsored by the LANL SC Program Office and the University of California, the workshop will be hosted by LANSCE Professor Sunny Sinha (UCSD). Endorsement by the Spallation Neutron Source will be requested. The discussion will focus on the role that the Lujan Center will play in the national neutron scattering landscape assuming full utilization of beamlines, a refurbished LANSCE, and a 1.4-MW SNS. Because the Lujan Strategic Plan is intended to set the stage for the Signature Facility era at LANSCE, there will be some discussion of the long-pulse spallation source at Los Alamos. Breakout groups will cover several new instrument concepts, upgrades to present instruments, expanded sample environment capabilities, and a look to the future. The workshop is in keeping with a request by BES to update the Lujan strategic plan in coordination with the SNS and the broader neutron community. Workshop invitees will be drawn from the LANSCE User Group and a broad cross section of the US, European, and Pacific Rim neutron scattering research communities.

  2. National Transportable Telecommunications Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boheim, Kenneth B.; Dayton, Allen D.

    The National Communications System (NCS) in its role of planning for emergency telecommunications restoration has contracted for a deployable asset to be available for National Security and Emergency Preparedness (NS/EP) uses. This asset, the National Transportable Telecommunications Capability (NTTC) is a transportable package consisting of a cellular switch and base station in a shelter, a microwave radio system, a small telephone switch, and a mobile satellite terminal. This package will operate over a Ku-band domestic satellite back into a gateway station and into the packet switching network. A description of the system is provided, an overview of deployment issues is given, and potential enhancements are presented.

  3. Enhanced Rescue Lift Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolving and ever-increasing demands of emergency response and disaster relief support provided by rotorcraft dictate, among other things, the development of enhanced rescue lift capability for these platforms. This preliminary analysis is first-order in nature but provides considerable insight into some of the challenges inherent in trying to effect rescue using a unique form of robotic rescue device deployed and operated from rotary-wing aerial platforms.

  4. National transportable telecommunications capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boheim, Kenneth B.; Bach, Beverly

    1991-01-01

    The chance to integrate two emerging telecommunications technologies together, the Ku-band satellite communication (SATCOM) and cellular, offered the unique opportunity to package a truly stand-alone capability to reconstitute telecommuications service. Terrestrial cellular telephone services have proven to be an essential tool for dealing with local emergencies to the extent that they survive and remain operable, as in the San Francisco earthquake. Cellular telephones can provide emergency coordinators the flexibility of wireless mobility in the field via the Public Switched Network (PSN) to coordinate emergency services. However, not all areas are covered by cellular service; existing cellular and PSN service availability could be limited by the congestion and competition for the dial tone that occurs in emergencies. It was realized that a critical need exists for a rapidly deployable stand-alone cellular capability coupled with alternate connectivity to bypass congested or damaged PSN links. Existing commercial Ku-band satellite communications have provided alternate routing links in some cases to support emergency communications. An emergency operational capability was conceived that integrates these technologies into a rapidly deployable and transportable package that provides both local and long distance telephone services to an area that has suffered widespread telecommunications outages or has been totally isolated from the world.

  5. National transportable telecommunications capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boheim, Kenneth B.; Bach, Beverly

    1991-01-01

    The chance to integrate two emerging telecommunications technologies together, the Ku-band satellite communication (SATCOM) and cellular, offered the unique opportunity to package a truly stand-alone capability to reconstitute telecommuications service. Terrestrial cellular telephone services have proven to be an essential tool for dealing with local emergencies to the extent that they survive and remain operable, as in the San Francisco earthquake. Cellular telephones can provide emergency coordinators the flexibility of wireless mobility in the field via the Public Switched Network (PSN) to coordinate emergency services. However, not all areas are covered by cellular service; existing cellular and PSN service availability could be limited by the congestion and competition for the dial tone that occurs in emergencies. It was realized that a critical need exists for a rapidly deployable stand-alone cellular capability coupled with alternate connectivity to bypass congested or damaged PSN links. Existing commercial Ku-band satellite communications have provided alternate routing links in some cases to support emergency communications. An emergency operational capability was conceived that integrates these technologies into a rapidly deployable and transportable package that provides both local and long distance telephone services to an area that has suffered widespread telecommunications outages or has been totally isolated from the world.

  6. Enhanced ocean observational capability

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, A M; Esser, B K

    2000-01-10

    Coastal oceans are vital to world health and sustenance. Technology that enables new observations has always been the driver of discovery in ocean sciences. In this context, we describe the first at sea deployment and operation of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS) for continuous measurement of trace elements in seawater. The purpose of these experiments was to demonstrate that an ICPMS could be operated in a corrosive and high vibration environment with no degradation in performance. Significant advances occurred this past year due to ship time provided by Scripps Institution of Oceanography (UCSD), as well as that funded through this project. Evaluation at sea involved performance testing and characterization of several real-time seawater analysis modes. We show that mass spectrometers can rapidly, precisely and accurately determine ultratrace metal concentrations in seawater, thus allowing high-resolution mapping of large areas of surface seawater. This analytical capability represents a significant advance toward real-time observation and understanding of water mass chemistry in dynamic coastal environments. In addition, a joint LLNL-SIO workshop was convened to define and design new technologies for ocean observation. Finally, collaborative efforts were initiated with atmospheric scientists at LLNL to identify realistic coastal ocean and river simulation models to support real-time analysis and modeling of hazardous material releases in coastal waterways.

  7. ENHANCED THERMAL VACUUM TEST CAPABILITY FOR RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BETTER SIMULATES ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF SPACE

    SciTech Connect

    J. C. Giglio; A. A. Jackson

    2012-03-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is preparing to fuel and test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), the next generation space power generator. The INL identified the thermal vacuum test chamber used to test past generators as inadequate. A second vacuum chamber was upgraded with a thermal shroud to process the unique needs and to test the full power capability of the new generator. The thermal vacuum test chamber is the first of its kind capable of testing a fueled power system to temperature that accurately simulate space. This paper outlines the new test and set up capabilities at the INL.

  8. Fan Flutter Analysis Capability Enhanced

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Srivastava, Rakesh; Stefko, George L.

    2001-01-01

    The trend in the design of advanced transonic fans for aircraft engines has been toward the use of complex high-aspect-ratio blade geometries with a larger number of blades and higher loading. In addition, integrally bladed disks or blisks are being considered in fan designs for their potential to reduce manufacturing costs, weight, and complexity by eliminating attachments. With such design trends, there is an increased possibility within the operating region of part-speed stall flutter (self-excited vibrations) that is exacerbated by the reduced structural damping of blisk fans. To verify the aeroelastic soundness of the design, the NASA Glenn Research Center is developing and validating an accurate aeroelastic prediction and analysis capability. Recently, this capability was enhanced significantly as described here.

  9. Ensemble Statistical Post-Processing of the National Air Quality Forecast Capability: Enhancing Ozone Forecasts in Baltimore, Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, Gregory G.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    An ensemble statistical post-processor (ESP) is developed for the National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) to address the unique challenges of forecasting surface ozone in Baltimore, MD. Air quality and meteorological data were collected from the eight monitors that constitute the Baltimore forecast region. These data were used to build the ESP using a moving-block bootstrap, regression tree models, and extreme-value theory. The ESP was evaluated using a 10-fold cross-validation to avoid evaluation with the same data used in the development process. Results indicate that the ESP is conditionally biased, likely due to slight overfitting while training the regression tree models. When viewed from the perspective of a decision-maker, the ESP provides a wealth of additional information previously not available through the NAQFC alone. The user is provided the freedom to tailor the forecast to the decision at hand by using decision-specific probability thresholds that define a forecast for an ozone exceedance. Taking advantage of the ESP, the user not only receives an increase in value over the NAQFC, but also receives value for An ensemble statistical post-processor (ESP) is developed for the National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) to address the unique challenges of forecasting surface ozone in Baltimore, MD. Air quality and meteorological data were collected from the eight monitors that constitute the Baltimore forecast region. These data were used to build the ESP using a moving-block bootstrap, regression tree models, and extreme-value theory. The ESP was evaluated using a 10-fold cross-validation to avoid evaluation with the same data used in the development process. Results indicate that the ESP is conditionally biased, likely due to slight overfitting while training the regression tree models. When viewed from the perspective of a decision-maker, the ESP provides a wealth of additional information previously not available through the NAQFC alone

  10. Military Training: Management Actions Needed to Enhance DOD’s Investment in the Joint National Training Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    agency officials and determined that they were sufficiently reliable for our purposes. Results from nonprobability samples cannot be used to make... techniques , and policies, using well- defined metrics to provide a feedback capability to the leadership. Additionally, DOD recently announced its plans...is defined as “Military training based on joint doctrine or joint tactics, techniques , and procedures to prepare joint forces and/or joint staff to

  11. Can a rapid underwater video approach enhance the benthic assessment capability of the National Coastal Condition Assessmentin the Great Lakes?

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the U.S. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) field survey in summer 2010, over 400 sites in the nearshore zone of the U.S. Great Lakes were sampled. As a supplement to core NCCA benthic taxonomy and sediment chemistry, underwater video images of the bottom condition ...

  12. Can a rapid underwater video approach enhance the benthic assessment capability of the National Coastal Condition Assessmentin the Great Lakes?

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the U.S. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) field survey in summer 2010, over 400 sites in the nearshore zone of the U.S. Great Lakes were sampled. As a supplement to core NCCA benthic taxonomy and sediment chemistry, underwater video images of the bottom condition ...

  13. The National Ignition Facility: Experimental Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G H

    2003-09-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. NIF will be the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's energetic laser beams will compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reactions. Other NIF experiments will study physical processes at temperatures approaching 10{sup 8} K and 10{sup 11} bar, conditions that exist naturally only in the interior of stars, planets and in nuclear weapons. NIF has completed the first phases of its laser commissioning program. The first four beams of NIF have generated 106 kilojoules of infrared light and over 16 kJ at the third harmonic (351 nm). NIF's target experimental systems are being commissioned and experiments have begun. This paper discusses NIF's current and future experimental capability, plans for facility diagnostics, cryogenic target systems, specialized optics for experiments, and potential enhancements to NIF such as green laser operation and high-energy short pulse operation.

  14. Biotechnology: Opportunities to Enhance Army Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    civil sector, where genetically engineered microorganisms have been developed for the production of proteins, like insulin, and for cleaning up oil spills...by petroleum, oil and lubricants and to retain protective capability against chemical agent threats. Also, ceramic composite structures produced...stable to oils /grease, are transparent or translucent, and are biologically compatible (could be eaten). Incorporating biopolymers to enhance degradable

  15. Enhancement of the Philippines Disaster Response Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-15

    the barangay largely depends on the elected leaders. Aldea (1995)21 identified some deficiencies in the NDCC such as lack of direction...Luzon Earthquake,” (Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Manila, 2001). 21 Elma C. Aldea , Enhancing Disaster Response Capabilities of

  16. Ensuring US National Aeronautics Test Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    U.S. leadership in aeronautics depends on ready access to technologically advanced, efficient, and affordable aeronautics test capabilities. These systems include major wind tunnels and propulsion test facilities and flight test capabilities. The federal government owns the majority of the major aeronautics test capabilities in the United States, primarily through the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD). However, changes in the Aerospace landscape, primarily the decrease in demand for testing over the last 20 years required an overarching strategy for management of these national assets. Therefore, NASA established the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) as a two-pronged strategic initiative to: (1) retain and invest in NASA aeronautics test capabilities considered strategically important to the agency and the nation, and (2) establish a strong, high level partnership with the DoD. Test facility utilization is a critical factor for ATP because it relies on user occupancy fees to recover a substantial part of the operations costs for its facilities. Decreasing utilization is an indicator of excess capacity and in some cases low-risk redundancy (i.e., several facilities with basically the same capability and overall low utilization). However, low utilization does not necessarily translate to lack of strategic importance. Some facilities with relatively low utilization are nonetheless vitally important because of the unique nature of the capability and the foreseeable aeronautics testing needs. Unfortunately, since its inception, the customer base for ATP has continued to shrink. Utilization of ATP wind tunnels has declined by more than 50% from the FY 2006 levels. This significant decrease in customer usage is attributable to several factors, including the overall decline in new programs and projects in the aerospace sector; the impact of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) on the design, development, and research

  17. Capability enhancement in compact digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Weijuan; Wen, Yongfu; Wang, Zhaomin; Yang, Fang; Asundi, Anand

    2015-03-01

    A compact reflection digital holographic microscopy (DHM) system integrated with the light source and optical interferometer is developed for 3D topographic characterization and real-time dynamic inspection for Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Capability enhancement methods in lateral resolution, axial resolving range and large field of view for the compact DHM system are presented. To enhance the lateral resolution, the numerical aperture of a reflection DHM system is analyzed and optimum designed. To enhance the axial resolving range, dual wavelengths are used to extend the measuring range. To enable the large field of view, stitching of the measurement results is developed in the user-friendly software. Results from surfaces structures on silicon wafer, micro-optics on fused silica and dynamic inspection of MEMS structures demonstrate applications of this compact reflection digital holographic microscope for technical inspection in material science.

  18. Transient dynamics capability at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attaway, Steven W.; Biffle, Johnny H.; Sjaardema, G. D.; Heinstein, M. W.; Schoof, L. A.

    1993-01-01

    A brief overview of the transient dynamics capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories, with an emphasis on recent new developments and current research is presented. In addition, the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Engineering Analysis Code Access System (SEACAS), which is a collection of structural and thermal codes and utilities used by analysts at SNL, is described. The SEACAS system includes pre- and post-processing codes, analysis codes, database translation codes, support libraries, Unix shell scripts for execution, and an installation system. SEACAS is used at SNL on a daily basis as a production, research, and development system for the engineering analysts and code developers. Over the past year, approximately 190 days of CPU time were used by SEACAS codes on jobs running from a few seconds up to two and one-half days of CPU time. SEACAS is running on several different systems at SNL including Cray Unicos, Hewlett Packard PH-UX, Digital Equipment Ultrix, and Sun SunOS. An overview of SEACAS, including a short description of the codes in the system, are presented. Abstracts and references for the codes are listed at the end of the report.

  19. Enhancing capabilities in health professions education

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Susan J.; Siddiqui, Zarrin S.; Jonas-Dwyer, Diana R.D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This article documents the results of ongoing summative program evaluation of a suite of postgraduate courses at The University of Western Australia designed to enhance the educational capabilities, academic leadership and scholarly output of health professionals. Methods Commencing students were invited to participate in this descriptive, longitudinal study that surveyed students at commencement and subsequently over a seven year period. Data was collected at baseline and follow-up in relation to the respondents’ educational leadership responsibilities, promotions, involvement in new educational programs, and recognition for contributions towards student learning, educational scholarly outputs and involvement in training programs. Results The respondents came from a wide range of health professions and worked in various roles, with a quarter already holding leadership positions. During the follow-up period, half reported receiving a new promotion or moving to new positions requiring educational leadership. Those identifying as being involved with the development of new educational programs doubled and 34% received a new teaching award. Scholarly productivity doubled with 45% giving an oral presentation related to education, 21% publishing and 29% being successful in obtaining funding related to an education project.  Conclusions These postgraduate courses in health professions education appear to be positively influencing graduates’ capabilities, especially in the areas of educational leadership skills and scholarly productivity. For those looking to develop a community of leaders in health professions education, the authors offer some suggestions. PMID:26590857

  20. Towards a National Space Weather Predictive Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, N. J.; Lindstrom, K. L.; Ryschkewitsch, M. G.; Anderson, B. J.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Merkin, V. G.; Kelly, M. A.; Miller, E. S.; Sitnov, M. I.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Erlandson, R. E.; Barnes, R. J.; Paxton, L. J.; Sotirelis, T.; Stephens, G.; Comberiate, J.

    2014-12-01

    National needs in the area of space weather informational and predictive tools are growing rapidly. Adverse conditions in the space environment can cause disruption of satellite operations, communications, navigation, and electric power distribution grids, leading to a variety of socio-economic losses and impacts on our security. Future space exploration and most modern human endeavors will require major advances in physical understanding and improved transition of space research to operations. At present, only a small fraction of the latest research and development results from NASA, NOAA, NSF and DoD investments are being used to improve space weather forecasting and to develop operational tools. The power of modern research and space weather model development needs to be better utilized to enable comprehensive, timely, and accurate operational space weather tools. The mere production of space weather information is not sufficient to address the needs of those who are affected by space weather. A coordinated effort is required to support research-to-applications transition efforts and to develop the tools required those who rely on this information. In this presentation we will review datasets, tools and models that have resulted from research by scientists at JHU/APL, and examine how they could be applied to support space weather applications in coordination with other community assets and capabilities.

  1. Towards a National Space Weather Predictive Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, N. J.; Ryschkewitsch, M. G.; Merkin, V. G.; Stephens, G. K.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Barnes, R. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Paxton, L. J.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Kelly, M. A.; Berger, T. E.; Bonadonna, L. C. M. F.; Hesse, M.; Sharma, S.

    2015-12-01

    National needs in the area of space weather informational and predictive tools are growing rapidly. Adverse conditions in the space environment can cause disruption of satellite operations, communications, navigation, and electric power distribution grids, leading to a variety of socio-economic losses and impacts on our security. Future space exploration and most modern human endeavors will require major advances in physical understanding and improved transition of space research to operations. At present, only a small fraction of the latest research and development results from NASA, NOAA, NSF and DoD investments are being used to improve space weather forecasting and to develop operational tools. The power of modern research and space weather model development needs to be better utilized to enable comprehensive, timely, and accurate operational space weather tools. The mere production of space weather information is not sufficient to address the needs of those who are affected by space weather. A coordinated effort is required to support research-to-applications transition efforts and to develop the tools required those who rely on this information. In this presentation we will review the space weather system developed for the Van Allen Probes mission, together with other datasets, tools and models that have resulted from research by scientists at JHU/APL. We will look at how these, and results from future missions such as Solar Probe Plus, could be applied to support space weather applications in coordination with other community assets and capabilities.

  2. Can a rapid underwater video approach enhance the benthic assessment capability of the national coastal condition assessment in the great lakes?

    PubMed

    Lietz, Julie E; Kelly, John R; Scharold, Jill V; Yurista, Peder M

    2015-06-01

    Over 400 sites were sampled in the nearshore of the U.S. Great Lakes during the U.S. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) field survey in summer 2010. Underwater video images were recorded in addition to routine NCCA benthic assessment measures. This paper has two objectives: (1) to develop a process to evaluate video performance with acceptance criteria, exploring reasons for poor images, and (2) to use acceptable videos in an example application with invasive mussels, evaluating the enhancement potential of video to supplement traditional grab sampling. A standard hierarchical protocol was developed to rank video performance based on quality and clarity. We determined controllable and uncontrollable factors affecting video performance. Moreover, specific thresholds limiting video were identified: >0.5/m for light extinction and >3.5 µg/L for chlorophyll a concentration. To demonstrate the utility and enhancement potential of video sampling, observed dreissenid presence from excellent (221 of 362 videos) videos was compared with NCCA benthic taxonomy, in the context of the statistically based NCCA survey. Including video increased the overall area estimate of the U.S. Great Lakes nearshore with invasive mussels by about 15% compared to PONAR alone; 44% (7570 km(2)) of the surveyed region had mussels. The proportion of the nearshore area having mussels varied from low (3.5%) in Lake Superior to >50% in the lower lakes. PONAR and video have unique strengths and weaknesses as sampling tools in the Great Lakes nearshore environment, but when paired were complimentary and thus provided a more thorough benthic condition assessment at lake and regional scales.

  3. Can a Rapid Underwater Video Approach Enhance the Benthic Assessment Capability of the National Coastal Condition Assessment in the Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lietz, Julie E.; Kelly, John R.; Scharold, Jill V.; Yurista, Peder M.

    2015-06-01

    Over 400 sites were sampled in the nearshore of the U.S. Great Lakes during the U.S. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) field survey in summer 2010. Underwater video images were recorded in addition to routine NCCA benthic assessment measures. This paper has two objectives: (1) to develop a process to evaluate video performance with acceptance criteria, exploring reasons for poor images, and (2) to use acceptable videos in an example application with invasive mussels, evaluating the enhancement potential of video to supplement traditional grab sampling. A standard hierarchical protocol was developed to rank video performance based on quality and clarity. We determined controllable and uncontrollable factors affecting video performance. Moreover, specific thresholds limiting video were identified: >0.5/m for light extinction and >3.5 µg/L for chlorophyll a concentration. To demonstrate the utility and enhancement potential of video sampling, observed dreissenid presence from excellent (221 of 362 videos) videos was compared with NCCA benthic taxonomy, in the context of the statistically based NCCA survey. Including video increased the overall area estimate of the U.S. Great Lakes nearshore with invasive mussels by about 15 % compared to PONAR alone; 44 % (7570 km2) of the surveyed region had mussels. The proportion of the nearshore area having mussels varied from low (3.5 %) in Lake Superior to >50 % in the lower lakes. PONAR and video have unique strengths and weaknesses as sampling tools in the Great Lakes nearshore environment, but when paired were complimentary and thus provided a more thorough benthic condition assessment at lake and regional scales.

  4. Core Capabilities and Technical Enhancement -- FY-98 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David Lynn

    1999-04-01

    The Core Capability and Technical Enhancement (CC&TE) Program, a part of the Verification, Validation, and Engineering Assessment Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening the technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Office of Environmental Management (EM). An analysis of EM's science and technology needs as well as the technology investments currently being made by EM across the complex was used to formulate a portfolio of research activities designed to address EM's needs without overlapping work being done elsewhere. An additional purpose is to enhance and maintain the technical capabilities and research infrastructure at the INEEL. This is a progress report for fiscal year 1998 for the five CC&TE research investment areas: (a) transport aspects of selective mass transport agents, (b) chemistry of environmental surfaces, (c) materials dynamics, (d) characterization science, and (e) computational simulation of mechanical and chemical systems. In addition to the five purely technical research areas, this report deals with the science and technology foundations element of the CC&TE from the standpoint of program management and complex-wide issues. This report also provides details of ongoing and future work in all six areas.

  5. Core capabilities and technical enhancement, FY-98 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.L.

    1999-04-01

    The Core Capability and Technical Enhancement (CCTE) Program, a part of the Verification, Validation, and Engineering Assessment Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening the technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM). An analysis of EM's science and technology needs as well as the technology investments currently being made by EM across the complex was used to formulate a portfolio of research activities designed to address EM's needs without overlapping work being done elsewhere. An additional purpose is to enhance and maintain the technical capabilities and research infrastructure at the INEEL. This is a progress report for fiscal year 1998 for the five CCTE research investment areas: (a) transport aspects of selective mass transport agents, (b) chemistry of environmental surfaces, (c) materials dynamics, (d) characterization science, and (e) computational simulation of mechanical and chemical systems. In addition to the five purely technical research areas, this report deals with the science and technology foundations element of the CCTE from the standpoint of program management and complex-wide issues. This report also provides details of ongoing and future work in all six areas.

  6. Fused Reality for Enhanced Flight Test Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Ed; Klyde, David

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of using Fused Reality-based simulation technology to enhance flight test capabilities has been investigated. In terms of relevancy to piloted evaluation, there remains no substitute for actual flight tests, even when considering the fidelity and effectiveness of modern ground-based simulators. In addition to real-world cueing (vestibular, visual, aural, environmental, etc.), flight tests provide subtle but key intangibles that cannot be duplicated in a ground-based simulator. There is, however, a cost to be paid for the benefits of flight in terms of budget, mission complexity, and safety, including the need for ground and control-room personnel, additional aircraft, etc. A Fused Reality(tm) (FR) Flight system was developed that allows a virtual environment to be integrated with the test aircraft so that tasks such as aerial refueling, formation flying, or approach and landing can be accomplished without additional aircraft resources or the risk of operating in close proximity to the ground or other aircraft. Furthermore, the dynamic motions of the simulated objects can be directly correlated with the responses of the test aircraft. The FR Flight system will allow real-time observation of, and manual interaction with, the cockpit environment that serves as a frame for the virtual out-the-window scene.

  7. Everglades Ecological Forecasting II: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Enhance the Capabilities of Everglades National Park to Monitor & Predict Mangrove Extent to Aid Current Restoration Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, Donnie; Wolfe, Amy; Ba, Adama; Nyquist, Mckenzie; Rhodes, Tyler; Toner, Caitlin; Cabosky, Rachel; Gotschalk, Emily; Gregory, Brad; Kendall, Candace

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves act as a transition zone between fresh and salt water habitats by filtering and indicating salinity levels along the coast of the Florida Everglades. However, dredging and canals built in the early 1900s depleted the Everglades of much of its freshwater resources. In an attempt to assist in maintaining the health of threatened habitats, efforts have been made within Everglades National Park to rebalance the ecosystem and adhere to sustainably managing mangrove forests. The Everglades Ecological Forecasting II team utilized Google Earth Engine API and satellite imagery from Landsat 5, 7, and 8 to continuously create land-change maps over a 25 year period, and to allow park officials to continue producing maps in the future. In order to make the process replicable for project partners at Everglades National Park, the team was able to conduct a supervised classification approach to display mangrove regions in 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015. As freshwater was depleted, mangroves encroached further inland and freshwater marshes declined. The current extent map, along with transition maps helped create forecasting models that show mangrove encroachment further inland in the year 2030 as well. This project highlights the changes to the Everglade habitats in relation to a changing climate and hydrological changes throughout the park.

  8. Enhanced Capabilities of Advanced Airborne Radar Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    RCF UNIX-Based Machine 65 BAUHAUS A-l Illustrations to Understand How GTD Files are Read 78 C-l Input File for Sidelobe Jammer Nulling...on the UNIX-based machine BAUHAUS are provided to illustrate the enhancements in run time, as compared to the original version of the simulation [1...Figure 27 presents some CPU run times for executing the enhanced simulation on the RCF UNIX-based machine BAUHAUS . The run times are shown only for

  9. National Scientific User Facility Purpose and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    K. E. Rosenberg; T. R. Allen; J. C. Haley; M. K. Meyer

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007. This designation allows the ATR to become a cornerstone of nuclear energy research and development (R&D) within the U.S. by making it easier for universities, the commercial power industry, other national laboratories, and international organizations to conduct nuclear energy R&D. The mission of the ATR NSUF is to provide nuclear energy researchers access to world-class facilities, thereby facilitating the advancement of nuclear science and technology within the U.S. In support of this mission, hot cell laboratories are being upgraded. These upgrades include a set of lead shielded cells that will house Irradiated Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) test rigs and construction of a shielded laboratory facility. A primary function of this shielded laboratory is to provide a state of the art type laboratory facility that is functional, efficient and flexible that is dedicated to the analysis and characterization of nuclear and non-nuclear materials. The facility shall be relatively easy to reconfigure to provide laboratory scale hot cave space for housing current and future nuclear material scientific research instruments.

  10. SOLE: enhanced FIA data analysis capabilities

    Treesearch

    Michael Spinney; Paul Van Deusen

    2009-01-01

    The Southern On Line Estimator (SOLE), is an Internet-based annual forest inventory and analysis (FIA) data analysis tool developed cooperatively by the National Council for Air and Stream Improvement and the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Southern Research Station. Recent development of SOLE has...

  11. Toward a US National Air Quality Forecast Capability: Current and Planned Capabilities

    EPA Science Inventory

    As mandated by Congress, NOAA is establishing a US national air quality forecast capability. This capability is being built with EPA, to provide air quality forecast information with enough accuracy and lead-time so that people can take actions to limit harmful effects of poor a...

  12. USING SERVERS TO ENHANCE CONTROL SYSTEM CAPABILITY.

    SciTech Connect

    BICKLEY,M.; BOWLING,B.A.; BRYAN,D.A.; ZEIJTS,J.; WHITE,K.S.; WITHERSPOON,S.

    1999-03-29

    Many traditional control systems include a distributed collection of front end machines to control hardware. Back end tools are used to view, modify, and record the signals generated by these front end machines. Software servers, which are a middleware layer between the front and back ends, can improve a control system in several ways. Servers can enable on-line processing of raw data, and consolidation of functionality. In many cases data retrieved from the front end must be processed in order to convert the raw data into useful information. These calculations are often redundantly performed by different programs, frequently offline. Servers can monitor the raw data and rapidly perform calculations, producing new signals which can be treated like any other control system signal, and can be used by any back end application. Algorithms can be incorporated to actively modify signal values in the control system based upon changes of other signals, essentially producing feedback in a control system. Servers thus increase the flexibility of a control system. Lastly, servers running on inexpensive UNIX workstations can relay or cache frequently needed information, reducing the load on front end hardware by functioning as concentrators. Rather than many back end tools connecting directly to the front end machines, increasing the work load of these machines, they instead connect to the server. Servers like those discussed above have been used successfully at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility to provide functionality such as beam steering, fault monitoring, storage of machine parameters, and on-line data processing. The authors discuss the potential uses of such, servers, and share the results of work performed to date.

  13. National power grid simulation capability : need and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Petri, Mark C.

    2009-06-02

    On December 9 and 10, 2008, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate sponsored a national workshop at Argonne National Laboratory to explore the need for a comprehensive modeling and simulation capability for the national electric power grid system. The workshop brought together leading electric power grid experts from federal agencies, the national laboratories, and academia to discuss the current state of power grid science and engineering and to assess if important challenges are being met. The workshop helped delineate gaps between grid needs and current capabilities and identify issues that must be addressed if a solution is to be implemented. This report is a result of the workshop and highlights power grid modeling and simulation needs, the barriers that must be overcome to address them, and the benefits of a national power grid simulation capability.

  14. Enhancing the Radio Astronomy Capabilities at NASA's Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, Joseph; Teitelbaum, Lawrence; Franco, Manuel M.; Garcia-Miro, Cristina; Horiuchi, Shinji; Jacobs, Christopher; Kuiper, Thomas; Majid, Walid

    2015-08-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is well known for its role in commanding and communicating with spacecraft across the solar system that produce a steady stream of new discoveries in Astrophysics, Heliophysics, and Planetary Science. Equipped with a number of large antennas distributed across the world, the DSN also has a history of contributing to a number of leading radio astronomical projects. This paper summarizes a number of enhancements that are being implemented currently and that are aimed at increasing its capabilities to engage in a wide range of science observations. These enhancements include* A dual-beam system operating between 18 and 27 GHz (~ 1 cm) capable of conducting a variety of molecular line observations, searches for pulsars in the Galactic center, and continuum flux density (photometry) of objects such as nearby protoplanetary disks* Enhanced spectroscopy and pulsar processing backends for use at 1.4--1.9 GHz (20 cm), 18--27 GHz (1 cm), and 38--50 GHz (0.7 cm)* The DSN Transient Observatory (DTN), an automated, non-invasive backend for transient searching* Larger bandwidths (>= 0.5 GHz) for pulsar searching and timing; and* Improved data rates (2048 Mbps) and better instrumental response for very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) observations with the new DSN VLBI processor (DVP), which is providing unprecedented sensitivity for maintenance of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) and development of future versions.One of the results of these improvements is that the 70~m Deep Space Station 43 (DSS-43, Tidbinbilla antenna) is now the most sensitive radio antenna in the southern hemisphere. Proposals to use these systems are accepted from the international community.Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics & Space Administration.

  15. Power source evaluation capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, D.H.; Butler, P.C.

    1996-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories maintains one of the most comprehensive power source characterization facilities in the U.S. National Laboratory system. This paper describes the capabilities for evaluation of fuel cell technologies. The facility has a rechargeable battery test laboratory and a test area for performing nondestructive and functional computer-controlled testing of cells and batteries.

  16. Los Alamos National Laboratory capability reviews - FY 2011 status

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, Everett P

    2011-01-12

    Capability reviews are the Los Alamos National Laboratory approach to assess the quality of its science, technology, and engineering (STE), and its integration across the Laboratory. There are seven capability reviews in FY 2011 reviews. The Weapons Science and Engineering review will be replaced by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Predictive Science Panel for 2011 . Beginning in 2011, third-year LORD projects will be reviewed by capability review committees rather than the first-year LORD projects that have been performed for the last three years. This change addresses concerns from committees about reviewing a project before it had made any substantive progress. The current schedule, and chairs for the 2011 capability reviews is presented. The three-year cycle (2011-2013) for capability reviews are presented for planning purposes.

  17. Recent Investments by NASA's National Force Measurement Technology Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Commo, Sean A.; Ponder, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    The National Force Measurement Technology Capability (NFMTC) is a nationwide partnership established in 2008 and sponsored by NASA's Aeronautics Evaluation and Test Capabilities (AETC) project to maintain and further develop force measurement capabilities. The NFMTC focuses on force measurement in wind tunnels and provides operational support in addition to conducting balance research. Based on force measurement capability challenges, strategic investments into research tasks are designed to meet the experimental requirements of current and future aerospace research programs and projects. This paper highlights recent and force measurement investments into several areas including recapitalizing the strain-gage balance inventory, developing balance best practices, improving calibration and facility capabilities, and researching potential technologies to advance balance capabilities.

  18. Distributed generation capabilities of the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This report describes Berkeley Lab's exploration of how the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) models distributed generation (DG) and presents possible approaches for improving how DG is modeled. The on-site electric generation capability has been available since the AEO2000 version of NEMS. Berkeley Lab has previously completed research on distributed energy resources (DER) adoption at individual sites and has developed a DER Customer Adoption Model called DER-CAM. Given interest in this area, Berkeley Lab set out to understand how NEMS models small-scale on-site generation to assess how adequately DG is treated in NEMS, and to propose improvements or alternatives. The goal is to determine how well NEMS models the factors influencing DG adoption and to consider alternatives to the current approach. Most small-scale DG adoption takes place in the residential and commercial modules of NEMS. Investment in DG ultimately offsets purchases of electricity, which also eliminates the losses associated with transmission and distribution (T&D). If the DG technology that is chosen is photovoltaics (PV), NEMS assumes renewable energy consumption replaces the energy input to electric generators. If the DG technology is fuel consuming, consumption of fuel in the electric utility sector is replaced by residential or commercial fuel consumption. The waste heat generated from thermal technologies can be used to offset the water heating and space heating energy uses, but there is no thermally activated cooling capability. This study consists of a review of model documentation and a paper by EIA staff, a series of sensitivity runs performed by Berkeley Lab that exercise selected DG parameters in the AEO2002 version of NEMS, and a scoping effort of possible enhancements and alternatives to NEMS current DG capabilities. In general, the treatment of DG in NEMS is rudimentary. The penetration of DG is determined by an economic cash-flow analysis that determines adoption based on the

  19. Post Irradiation Capabilities at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Schulthess; K. E. Rosenberg

    2011-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) oversees the efforts to ensure nuclear energy remains a viable option for the United States. A significant portion of these efforts are related to post-irradiation examinations (PIE) of highly activated fuel and materials that are subject to the extreme environment inside a nuclear reactor. As the lead national laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a rich history, experience, workforce and capabilities for performing PIE. However, new advances in tools and techniques for performing PIE now enable understanding the performance of fuels and materials at the nano-scale and smaller level. Examination at this level is critical since this is the scale at which irradiation damage occurs. The INL is on course to adopt these advanced tools and techniques to develop a comprehensive nuclear fuels and materials characterization capability that is unique in the world. Because INL has extensive PIE capabilities currently in place, a strong foundation exist to build upon as new capabilities are implemented and work load increases. In the recent past, INL has adopted significant capability to perform advanced PIE characterization. Looking forward, INL is planning for the addition of two facilities that will be built to meet the stringent demands of advanced tools and techniques for highly activated fuels and materials characterization. Dubbed the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL) and Advanced Post Irradiation Examination Capability , these facilities are next generation PIE laboratories designed to perform the work of PIE that cannot be performed in current DOE facilities. In addition to physical capabilities, INL has recently added two significant contributors to the Advanced Test Reactor-National Scientific User Facility (ATR-NSUF), Oak Ridge National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley.

  20. Enhancing Staging Capabilities at the Device Assembly Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kanning, R. A.; Long, R. G.; Garcia, B. O.; Williams, V. D.

    2013-06-08

    The radioactive material limits allowed by the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Device Assembly Facility (DAF) can support larger quantities than the floor space will accommodate. In order to maximize the full staging bunker capability, National Security Technologies, LLC, (NSTec) is developing a plan to take advantage of these high inventory limits and evaluate staging options such as shelves, racks, and mezzanines. This plan will investigate cost and evaluate U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex-wide alternatives used at other sites (Highly Enriched Uranium Manufacturing Facility, Pantex, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, etc.) that addressed similar situations.

  1. A Call to Action for National Foreign Language Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Defense, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11th, the Global War on Terrorism, and the continued threat to the Homeland have defined the critical need to take action to improve the foreign language and cultural capabilities of the Nation. The government must act now to improve the gathering and analysis of information, advance international diplomacy, and…

  2. Enhancement of Irradiation Capability of the Experimental Fast Reactor Joyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Shigetaka; Serine, Takashi; Aoyama, Takafumi; Suzuki, Soju

    2009-08-01

    The experimental fast reactor Joyo is the first sodium-cooled fast reactor in Japan. One of its primary missions is to perform irradiation tests of fuel and structural materials to support the development of fast reactors. The MK-III high performance core upgrade to enhance the irradiation testing capabilities was completed in 2003. In order to expand Joyo's capabilities for innovative irradiation testing applications, neutron spectrum tailoring, lower irradiation temperature, movable sample devices and fast neutron beam holes are being considered. This program responds to existing irradiation needs and aims to further expand capabilities for a variety of irradiation tests.

  3. National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) Capabilities for Homeland Security

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, G; Nasstrom, J; Baskett, R; Simpson, M

    2010-03-08

    The Department of Energy's National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) provides critical information during hazardous airborne releases as part of an integrated national preparedness and response strategy. Located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NARAC provides 24/7 tools and expert services to map the spread of hazardous material accidentally or intentionally released into the atmosphere. NARAC graphical products show affected areas and populations, potential casualties, and health effect or protective action guideline levels. LLNL experts produce quality-assured analyses based on field data to assist decision makers and responders. NARAC staff and collaborators conduct research and development into new science, tools, capabilities, and technologies in strategically important areas related to airborne transport and fate modeling and emergency response. This paper provides a brief overview of some of NARAC's activities, capabilities, and research and development.

  4. NASA's Space Launch System (SLS): A New National Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) will contribute a new national capability for human space flight and scientific missions to low- Earth orbit (LEO) and beyond. Exploration beyond Earth orbit will be an enduring legacy to future generations, confirming America s desire to explore, learn, and progress. The SLS Program, managed at NASA s Marshall Space Fight Center, will develop the heavy lift vehicle that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and science experiments for missions beyond Earth s orbit. This paper gives an overview of the SLS design and management approach against a backdrop of the missions it will empower. It will detail the plan to move from the computerized drawing board to the launch pad in the near term, as well as summarize the innovative approaches the SLS team is applying to deliver a safe, affordable, and sustainable long-range national capability.

  5. Enhanced Capabilities of the NASA Langley Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Turner, Travis L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents newly enhanced acoustic capabilities of the Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus at the NASA Langley Research Center. The facility is a progressive wave tube used for sonic fatigue testing of aerospace structures. Acoustic measurements for each of the six facility configurations are shown and comparisons with projected performance are made.

  6. Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project: Infrastructure Enhancements and New Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezos-OConnor, Gaudy M.

    2015-01-01

    This oral presentation highlights the technical investments the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project under the Integrated Systems Research Program within ARMD made during FY10-FY14 to upgrade/enhance the NASA infrastructure/testing assets and new capabilities required to mature the ERA N=2 Portfolio of airframe and propulsion technologies to TRL 5/6.

  7. Patriot Advanced Capability-3 Missile Segment Enhancement (PAC-3 MSE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-492 Patriot Advanced Capability-3 Missile Segment Enhancement (PAC-3 MSE) As of FY 2017...Program Manager POE - Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost

  8. Nuclear energy related capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Pickering, Susan Y.

    2014-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories' technology solutions are depended on to solve national and global threats to peace and freedom. Through science and technology, people, infrastructure, and partnerships, part of Sandia's mission is to meet the national needs in the areas of energy, climate and infrastructure security. Within this mission to ensure clean, abundant, and affordable energy and water is the Nuclear Energy and Fuel Cycle Programs. The Nuclear Energy and Fuel Cycle Programs have a broad range of capabilities, with both physical facilities and intellectual expertise. These resources are brought to bear upon the key scientific and engineering challenges facing the nation and can be made available to address the research needs of others. Sandia can support the safe, secure, reliable, and sustainable use of nuclear power worldwide by incorporating state-of-the-art technologies in safety, security, nonproliferation, transportation, modeling, repository science, and system demonstrations.

  9. National Criticality Experiments Research Center: Capability and Status

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, David K.; Myers, William L.

    2012-07-12

    After seven years, the former Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF), or Pajarito Site, has reopened for business as the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Four critical assembly machines (Comet, Planet, Flat-Top, and Godiva-IV) made the journey from Los Alamos to the NNSS. All four machines received safety system upgrades along with new digital control systems. Between these machines, systems ranging from the thermal through the intermediate to the fast spectrum may be assembled. Steady-State, transient, and super-prompt critical conditions may be explored. NCERC is the sole remaining facility in the United States capable of conducting general-purpose nuclear materials handling including the construction and operation of high-multiplication assemblies, delayed critical assemblies, and prompt critical assemblies. Reconstitution of the unique capabilities at NCERC ensures the viability of (1) The Nuclear Renaissance, (2) Stockpile Stewardship, and (3) and the next generation of criticality experimentalists.

  10. Developing Nationally Competitive NASA Research Capability in West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calzonetti, Frank J.

    1997-01-01

    In May, 1995 West Virginia EPSCOR was awarded $150,000 to support activities to develop research capabilities in West Virginia in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). These funds were used to support three projects: 1) Information Processing and the Earth Observing System, directed by Dr. Stuart Tewksbury of West Virginia University; 2) Development of Optical Materials for Atmospheric Sensing Experiments, directed by Dr. Nancy Giles of West Virginia University; and 3) Development of Doppler Global Velocimeter (DGV) for Aeronautical and Combustion Studies, directed by Dr. John Kuhlman of West Virginia University. The funding provides the means to develop capability in each of these areas. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments in each project supported under this award.

  11. Development of an analysis capability for the National Transportation System

    SciTech Connect

    Anson, D.; Nelson, R.

    1997-10-24

    The purpose of this report is to examine the Department of Transportation`s (DOT) National Transportation System (NTS) initiative, to document what has been learned, and to outline a National Transportation Network Analysis Capability (NTNAC) based on a ``TRANSIMS-like`` approach. This study was conducted over a two month period at the end of FY1997. The scope of the effort was carefully defined to accommodate the short time horizon and to provide focus to a very large analytical problem. The objectives were to: (1) define the NTS and the NTS problem; (2) identify problem characteristics; (3) describe an analytical solution based on the TRANSIMS approach; (4) identify data requirements and availability; (5) develop criteria for a scenario to be used in a prototype demonstration; and (6) select a scenario for the prototype demonstration.

  12. RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEM CAPABILITIES AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY (INL)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly Lively; Stephen Johnson; Eric Clarke

    2014-07-01

    --Idaho National Laboratory’s, Space Nuclear Systems and Technology Division established the resources, equipment and facilities required to provide nuclear-fueled, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) to Department of Energy (DOE) Customers. RPSs are designed to convert the heat generated by decay of iridium clad, 238PuO2 fuel pellets into electricity that is used to power missions in remote, harsh environments. Utilization of nuclear fuel requires adherence to governing regulations and the INL provides unique capabilities to safely fuel, test, store, transport and integrate RPSs to supply power—supporting mission needs. Nuclear capabilities encompass RPS fueling, testing, handling, storing, transporting RPS nationally, and space vehicle integration. Activities are performed at the INL and in remote locations such as John F. Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station to support space missions. This paper will focus on the facility and equipment capabilities primarily offered at the INL, Material and Fuel Complex located in a security-protected, federally owned, industrial area on the remote desert site west of Idaho Falls, ID. Nuclear and non-nuclear facilities house equipment needed to perform required activities such as general purpose heat source (GPHS) module pre-assembly and module assembly using nuclear fuel; RPS receipt and baseline electrical testing, fueling, vibration testing to simulate the launch environment, mass properties testing to measure the mass and compute the moment of inertia, electro-magnetic characterizing to determine potential consequences to the operation of vehicle or scientific instrumentation, and thermal vacuum testing to verify RPS power performance in the vacuum and cold temperatures of space.

  13. National Plan to Expand NOS' Operational Modeling Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A.; Burke, P.

    2016-02-01

    Real-time marine forecast products based on numerical ocean models are a powerful tool serving a variety of uses, such as marine navigation planning for commercial port operations, harmful algal bloom formation and tracking, hazard response, and emergency search and rescue. Advances in data acquisition technology, ocean dynamics, numerical schemes and visualization tools have made marine forecasting products more accurate and reliable, and the dissemination of operational model products more timely and user friendly. NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS) has been developing and maintaining a national network of hydrodynamic operational oceanographic nowcast and forecast modeling systems to support navigational and environmental applications in U.S. coastal and estuarine waters, and the Great Lakes. These operational forecast systems (OFS) provide the maritime community with nowcast and forecast guidance of water levels, currents, water temperature, and salinity for 48 to 120 hours. NOS has collaborated with the National Weather Service (NWS) and the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR) and extramural partners from academia and the local maritime community to develop and implement the current suite of NOS OFS. NOS currently operates and maintains 15 OFS for the U.S. East and West coasts, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes, to cover approximately 35% of the CONUS coast. Over the next 8 to 10 years, NOS intends to provide complete coverage of the continental U.S and establish the necessary national infrastructure to enable other types of forecasts. This presentation will provide an overview of NOS' new regional approach to expand its OFS capabilities and services nationally, a pathway to transition research models and applications to operations, and anticipated challenges to implement this plan.

  14. Enhancing Honeypot Deception Capability Through Network Service Fingerprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahbul, R. N.; Lim, C.; Purnama, J.

    2017-01-01

    Honeypot is designed to lure attackers away from the computer resources the attackers are trying to compromise. In addition, honeypot also tracks attacker’s activities and helps researchers learn about their attack patterns. However, honeypot can also be identified by attackers using various fingerprinting methods. In this research, we use threat modeling to identify potential threats that reveal its existence which made honeypot ineffective. Various countermeasures are discussed and the proposed countermeasures have proved effective to enhance the deception capability of the honeypots we tested.

  15. A powerful enhancement to the DMAP alter capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamidi, P. R.

    1989-01-01

    A powerful enhancement to the DMAP alter capability was developed and is available on all RPK-supported versions of COSMIC/NASTRAN. This enhancement involves the addition of two alter control cards, called INSERT and DELETE, to the Executive Control Deck. These cards allow for DMAP alters to be made by referencing DMAP statements by their module names rather than by their statement numbers in the rigid format DMAP sequence. This allows for increased user convenience and flexibility and makes alters more meaningful to the user. In addition, DMAP alter packages employing the alter control cards will be much less susceptible to future changes in rigid format DMAPs than alter packages employing the standard ALTER control cards. The usage of the cards is illustrated by examples.

  16. Capabilities Roadmap Briefings to the National Research Council

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    High energy power and propulsion capability roadmap - general background and introduction. Advanced telescopes and observatories and scientific instruments and sensors capability roadmaps - general background and introduction. Space communications capability roadmap interim review. Robotic access to planetary surface capability roadmap. Human health and support systems capability roadmap progress review.

  17. National Air Quality Forecast Capability: Status and Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajner, I.; McQueen, J.; Lee, P.; Draxler, R. R.; Tong, D.; Pan, L.; Huang, J. P.; Shafran, P.; Dickerson, P.; Upadhayay, S.

    2014-12-01

    Operational air quality predictions for the United States (U. S.) are provided by National Air Quality Forecasting Capability (NAQFC), which is being built by NOAA in partnership with the U.S. EPA. NAQFC provides nationwide operational predictions of ozone, smoke from wildfires, as well as dust from dust storms for the contiguous 48 states. Predictions are produced beyond midnight of the following day at 12 km resolution and 1 hour time intervals and distributed at http://airquality.weather.gov. Ozone predictions and developmental testing of aerosol predictions combine the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational North American Mesoscale (NAM) weather predictions with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Predictions of smoke and dust storms use the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. Routine verification of ozone and developmental aerosol predictions relies on AIRNow observations, whereas smoke and dust predictions rely on satellite retrievals. Recent updates to operational ozone prediction at NOAA have focused on mobile emissions, which were updated using the projections of mobile sources for 2012. Satellite and ground observations were used to derive NOx trends, which were compared with the emissions data used by NAQFC indicating improved agreement over large metropolitan areas in the US. Updates to the chemical mechanism are being tested for operational implementation. Recent testing of PM2.5 predictions is relying on National Emission Inventory (NEI) inputs augmented by real time sources from wildfires and dust storms. Testing of PM2.5 predictions continues to exhibit seasonal biases - overprediction in the winter and underprediction in the summer. Current efforts are focusing on inclusion of bias correction and development of linkages with global atmospheric composition predictions.

  18. Electric Propulsion Upper-Stage for Launch Vehicle Capability Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, Gregory E.; Dankanich, John W.; Woodcock, Gordon R.; Wingo, Dennis R.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project Office initiated a preliminary study to evaluate the performance benefits of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) upper-stage with existing and near-term small launch vehicles. The analysis included circular and elliptical Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) transfers, and LEO to Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) applications. SEP subsystem options included state-of-the-art and near-term solar arrays and electric thrusters. In-depth evaluations of the Aerojet BPT-4000 Hall thruster and NEXT gridded ion engine were conducted to compare performance, cost and revenue potential. Preliminary results indicate that Hall thruster technology is favored for low-cost, low power SEP stages, while gridded-ion engines are favored for higher power SEP systems unfettered by transfer time constraints. A low-cost point design is presented that details one possible stage configuration and outlines system limitations, in particular fairing volume constraints. The results demonstrate mission enhancements to large and medium class launch vehicles, and mission enabling performance when SEP system upper stages are mounted to low-cost launchers such as the Minotaur and Falcon 1. Study results indicate the potential use of SEP upper stages to double GEO payload mass capability and to possibly enable launch on demand capability for GEO assets. Transition from government to commercial applications, with associated cost/benefit analysis, has also been assessed. The sensitivity of system performance to specific impulse, array power, thruster size, and component costs are also discussed.

  19. Biodegradable and radically polymerized elastomers with enhanced processing capabilities.

    PubMed

    Ifkovits, Jamie L; Padera, Robert F; Burdick, Jason A

    2008-09-01

    The development of biodegradable materials with elastomeric properties is beneficial for a variety of applications, including for use in the engineering of soft tissues. Although others have developed biodegradable elastomers, they are restricted by their processing at high temperatures and under vacuum, which limits their fabrication into complex scaffolds. To overcome this, we have modified precursors to a tough biodegradable elastomer, poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) with acrylates to impart control over the crosslinking process and allow for more processing options. The acrylated-PGS (Acr-PGS) macromers are capable of crosslinking through free radical initiation mechanisms (e.g., redox and photo-initiated polymerizations). Alterations in the molecular weight and % acrylation of the Acr-PGS led to changes in formed network mechanical properties. In general, Young's modulus increased with % acrylation and the % strain at break increased with molecular weight when the % acrylation was held constant. Based on the mechanical properties, one macromer was further investigated for in vitro and in vivo degradation and biocompatibility. A mild to moderate inflammatory response typical of implantable biodegradable polymers was observed, even when formed as an injectable system with redox initiation. Moreover, fibrous scaffolds of Acr-PGS and a carrier polymer, poly(ethylene oxide), were prepared via an electrospinning and photopolymerization technique and the fiber morphology was dependent on the ratio of these components. This system provides biodegradable polymers with tunable properties and enhanced processing capabilities towards the advancement of approaches in engineering soft tissues.

  20. Radioactive material package testing capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Uncapher, W.L.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.

    1995-12-31

    Evaluation and certification of radioactive and hazardous material transport packages can be accomplished by subjecting these packages to normal transport and hypothetical accident test conditions. The regulations allow package designers to certify packages using analysis, testing, or a combination of analysis and testing. Testing can be used to substantiate assumptions used in analytical models and to demonstrate package structural and thermal response. Regulatory test conditions include impact, puncture, crush, penetration, water spray, immersion, and thermal environments. Testing facilities are used to simulate the required test conditions and provide measurement response data. Over the past four decades, comprehensive testing facilities have been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to perform a broad range of verification and certification tests on hazardous and radioactive material packages or component sections. Sandia`s facilities provide an experience base that has been established during the development and certification of many package designs. These unique facilities, along with innovative instrumentation data collection capabilities and techniques, simulate a broad range of testing environments. In certain package designs, package testing can be an economical alternative to complex analysis to resolve regulatory questions or concerns.

  1. Langley Aerothermodynamic Facilities Complex: Enhancements and Testing Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micol, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    Description, capabilities, recent upgrades, and utilization of the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Aerothermodynamic Facilities Complex (AFC) are presented. The AFC consists of five hypersonic, blow-down-to-vacuum wind tunnels that collectively provide a range of Mach number from 6 to 20, unit Reynolds number from 0.04 to 22 million per foot and, most importantly for blunt configurations, normal shock density ratio from 4 to 12. These wide ranges of hypersonic simulation parameters are due, in part, to the use of three different test gases (air, helium, and tetrafluoromethane), thereby making several of the facilities unique. The Complex represents nearly three-fourths of the conventional (as opposed to impulse)-type hypersonic wind tunnels operational in this country. AFC facilities are used to assess and optimize the hypersonic aerodynamic performance and aeroheating characteristics of aerospace vehicle concepts and to provide benchmark aerodynamic/aeroheating data fr generating the flight aerodynamic databook and final design of the thermal protection system (TPS) (e.g., establishment of flight limitations not to exceed TPS design limits). Modifications and enhancements of AFC hardware components and instrumentation have been pursued to increase capability, reliability, and productivity in support of programmatic goals. Examples illustrating facility utilization in recent years to generate essentially all of the experimental hypersonic aerodynamic and aeroheating information for high-priority, fast-paced Agency programs are presented. These programs include Phase I of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Advanced Technology Demonstrator, X-33 program, PHase II of the X-33 program, X-34 program, the Hyper-X program ( a Mach 5,7, and 10 airbreathing propulsion flight experiment), and the X-38 program (Experimental Crew Return Vehicle, X-CRV). Current upgrades/enchancements and future plans for the AFC are discussed.

  2. Enhanced Capabilities for Subcritical Experiments (ECSE) Risk Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Mary Elizabeth

    2016-05-02

    Risk is a factor, element, constraint, or course of action that introduces an uncertainty of outcome that could impact project objectives. Risk is an inherent part of all activities, whether the activity is simple and small, or large and complex. Risk management is a process that identifies, evaluates, handles, and monitors risks that have the potential to affect project success. The risk management process spans the entire project, from its initiation to its successful completion and closeout, including both technical and programmatic (non-technical) risks. This Risk Management Plan (RMP) defines the process to be used for identifying, evaluating, handling, and monitoring risks as part of the overall management of the Enhanced Capabilities for Subcritical Experiments (ECSE) ‘Project’. Given the changing nature of the project environment, risk management is essentially an ongoing and iterative process, which applies the best efforts of a knowledgeable project staff to a suite of focused and prioritized concerns. The risk management process itself must be continually applied throughout the project life cycle. This document was prepared in accordance with DOE O 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, its associated guide for risk management DOE G 413.3-7, Risk Management Guide, and LANL ADPM AP-350-204, Risk and Opportunity Management.

  3. Enhanced science capability on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felice, Ronald R.; Kienlen, Mike

    2002-12-01

    It is inevitable that the International Space Station (ISS) will play a significant role in the conduct of science in space. However, in order to provide this service to a wide and broad community and to perform it cost effectively, alternative concepts must be considered to complement NASA"s Institutional capability. Currently science payload forward and return data services must compete for higher priority ISS infrastructure support requirements. Furthermore, initial astronaut crews will be limited to a single shift. Much of their time and activities will be required to meet their physical needs (exercise, recreation, etc.), station maintenance, and station operations, leaving precious little time to actively conduct science payload operations. ISS construction plans include the provisioning of several truss mounted, space-hardened pallets, both zenith and nadir facing. The ISS pallets will provide a platform to conduct both earth and space sciences. Additionally, the same pallets can be used for life and material sciences, as astronauts could place and retrieve sealed canisters for long-term micro-gravity exposure. Thus the pallets provide great potential for enhancing ISS science return. This significant addition to ISS payload capacity has the potential to exacerbate priorities and service contention factors within the exiting institution. In order to have it all, i.e., more science and less contention, the pallets must be data smart and operate autonomously so that NASA institutional services are not additionally taxed. Specifically, the "Enhanced Science Capability on the International Space Station" concept involves placing data handling and spread spectrum X-band communications capabilities directly on ISS pallets. Spread spectrum techniques are considered as a means of discriminating between different pallets as well as to eliminate RFI. The data and RF systems, similar to that of "free flyers", include a fully functional command and data handling system

  4. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory capabilities in multiphase dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R.C.; Kang, Sang-Wook

    1996-04-09

    The computer codes at LLNL with capabilities for numerical analysis for multiphase flow; phenomenology and constitutive theory and modeling; advanced diagnostics, advanced test beds, facilities, and data bases; and multiphase flow applications are listed, with brief descriptions.

  5. Materials capability review Los Alamos National Laboratory, May 3-6, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Antoinette

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 'Capability Review' process at LANL significantly differs from the Division reviews of prior years. The Capabilities being reviewed (some 4-8 per year) are deliberately chosen to be crosscutting over the Laboratory, and therefore will include not only several experimental, theoretical and simulation disciplines, but also contributions from multiple line organizations. This approach is consistent with the new Laboratory organizational structure, focusing on agile and integrated capabilities applied to present national security missions, and also nurtured to be available for rapid application to future missions. The overall intent is that the Committee assess the quality of the science, engineering, and technology identified in the agenda, and advise the LANS Board of Governors and Laboratory management. Specifically, the Committees will: (1) Assess the quality of science, technology and engineering within the Capability in the areas defined in the agenda. Identify issues to develop or enhance the core competencies within this capability. (2) Evaluate the integration of this capability across the Laboratory organizations that are listed in the agenda in terms of joint programs, projects, proposals, and/or publications. Describe the integration of this capability in the wider scientific community using the recognition as a leader within the community, ability to set research agendas, and attraction and retention of staff. (3) Assess the quality and relevance of this capability's science, technology and engineering contributions to current and emerging Laboratory programs, including Nuclear Weapons, Threat Reduction/Homeland Security, and Energy Security. (4) Advise the Laboratory Director/Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering on the health of the Capability including the current and future (5 year) science, technology and engineering staff needs, mix of research and development activities, program opportunities, environment for

  6. New techniques enhance workover skid-off capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E.K.

    1984-07-01

    A comprehensive program has been developed to extend the reach capabilities of cantilever workover jack-ups. Discussed are various engineering approaches for different types of platforms, as well as minor piping and electrical aspects that will allow substructures, drill floor, cantilever beams and pipe rack deck to be partially or completely skidded off onto the main deck of an offshore platform. This capability will enable more wells to be more economically worked over.

  7. Scientific user facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: New research capabilities and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, James

    2011-10-01

    Over the past decade, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has transformed its research infrastructure, particularly in the areas of neutron scattering, nanoscale science and technology, and high-performance computing. New facilities, including the Spallation Neutron Source, Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, and Leadership Computing Facility, have been constructed that provide world-leading capabilities in neutron science, condensed matter and materials physics, and computational physics. In addition, many existing physics-related facilities have been upgraded with new capabilities, including new instruments and a high- intensity cold neutron source at the High Flux Isotope Reactor. These facilities are operated for the scientific community and are available to qualified users based on competitive peer-reviewed proposals. User facilities at ORNL currently welcome more than 2,500 researchers each year, mostly from universities. These facilities, many of which are unique in the world, will be reviewed including current and planned research capabilities, availability and operational performance, access procedures, and recent research results. Particular attention will be given to new neutron scattering capabilities, nanoscale science, and petascale simulation and modeling. In addition, user facilities provide a portal into ORNL that can enhance the development of research collaborations. The spectrum of partnership opportunities with ORNL will be described including collaborations, joint faculty, and graduate research and education.

  8. A Performance Evaluation of the National Air Quality Forecast Capability for the Summer of 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a performance evaluation of the real-time, CONUS-scale National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC), developed collaboratively by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), that supported, in part,...

  9. A Performance Evaluation of the National Air Quality Forecast Capability for the Summer of 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a performance evaluation of the real-time, CONUS-scale National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC), developed collaboratively by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), that supported, in part,...

  10. Brookhaven National Laboratory's capabilities for advanced analyses of cyber threats

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    BNL has several ongoing, mature, and successful programs and areas of core scientific expertise that readily could be modified to address problems facing national security and efforts by the IC related to securing our nation’s computer networks. In supporting these programs, BNL houses an expansive, scalable infrastructure built exclusively for transporting, storing, and analyzing large disparate data-sets. Our ongoing research projects on various infrastructural issues in computer science undoubtedly would be relevant to national security. Furthermore, BNL frequently partners with researchers in academia and industry worldwide to foster unique and innovative ideas for expanding research opportunities and extending our insights. Because the basic science conducted at BNL is unique, such projects have led to advanced techniques, unlike any others, to support our mission of discovery. Many of them are modular techniques, thus making them ideal for abstraction and retrofitting to other uses including those facing national security, specifically the safety of the nation’s cyber space.

  11. Enhancing the Extended Awareness Capability of the ESG: Integrating Shotspotter and Cursor on Target Technologies with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Enhance the Mission Capability of the ESG

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    EXTENDED AWARENESS CAPABILITY OF THE ESG: INTEGRATING SHOTSPOTTER AND CURSOR ON TARGET TECHNOLOGIES WITH UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES TO ENHANCE THE MISSION...Awareness Capability of the ESG: Integrating Shotspotter and Cursor on Target Technologies with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Enhance the Mission...Cursor on Target, CoT, Expeditionary Strike Group, ESG, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles , UAV 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT

  12. SIGMA Release v1.2 - Capabilities, Enhancements and Fixes

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, Vijay; Grindeanu, Iulian R.; Ray, Navamita; Jain, Rajeev; Wu, Danqing

    2015-09-30

    In this report, we present details on SIGMA toolkit along with its component structure, capabilities, and feature additions in FY15, release cycles, and continuous integration process. These software processes along with updated documentation are imperative to successfully integrate and utilize in several applications including the SHARP coupled analysis toolkit for reactor core systems funded under the NEAMS DOE-NE program.

  13. Chemical measurement capabilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E; Harrar, J E

    1992-04-01

    This document is an attempt to summarize the available analytical chemistry and materials characterization techniques available LLNL. Emphasis of the techniques described is aimed at the variety of samples for which intelligence information is sought and/or applications where sample size would be very limited and duplicate samples are usually not obtainable. Current instrumentation available, types of samples presently being analyzed and a description of the various methods have been provided. LLNL has made an effort during the last three years to develop a forensic science approach to sample analysis. Many of these capabilities are presently utilized, to some degree, for ongoing analysis of unusual samples provided by various sponsor agencies. The analytical techniques utilized, although coordinated through the Special Projects Program, take advantage of the full range of capabilities available at LLNL. This document represents input from several organizations at LLNL, all working together to provide the maximum level of available expertise: Condensed Matter and Analytical Sciences Division of the Materials Science Directorate, Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Defense Sciences Directorate, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry of the Physics Directorate, Biomedical Sciences Division of the Environmental Sciences and Biomedical Directorate, and Applied Technology Division of the Special Projects Program Directorate.

  14. The Next EFV: Aligning Marine Corps Capabilities With National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-09

    currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 09-05-2011 2. REPORT TYPE...addresses national security goals of countering the hybrid threat or supporting partner capacity-building. Hovercrafts can project power from the seas by...armament, or range. The proven hovercraft such as the commercial-off-the-shelf EPS M10, if retrofitted with modern weaponry, is the ideal

  15. Post Irradiation Capabilities at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schulthess, J.L.; Robert D. Mariani; Rory Kennedy; Doug Toomer

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) oversees the research, development, and demonstration activities that ensure nuclear energy remains a viable energy option for the United States. Fuel and material development through fabrication, irradiation, and characterization play a significant role in accomplishing the research needed to support nuclear energy. All fuel and material development requires the understanding of irradiation effects on the fuel performance and relies on irradiation experiments ranging from tests aimed at targeted scientific questions to integral effects under representative and prototypic conditions. The DOE recently emphasized a solution-driven, goal-oriented, science-based approach to nuclear energy development. Nuclear power systems and materials were initially developed during the latter half of the 20th century and greatly facilitated by the United States’ ability and willingness to conduct large-scale experiments. Fifty-two research and test reactors with associated facilities for performing fabrication and pre and post irradiation examinations were constructed at what is now Idaho National Laboratory (INL), another 14 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and a few more at other national laboratory sites. Building on the scientific advances of the last several decades, our understanding of fundamental nuclear science, improvements in computational platforms, and other tools now enable technological advancements with less reliance on large-scale experimentation.

  16. Post Irradiation Capabilities at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schulthess, J.L.

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) oversees the research, development, and demonstration activities that ensure nuclear energy remains a viable energy option for the United States. Fuel and material development through fabrication, irradiation, and characterization play a significant role in accomplishing the research needed to support nuclear energy. All fuel and material development requires the understanding of irradiation effects on the fuel performance and relies on irradiation experiments ranging from tests aimed at targeted scientific questions to integral effects under representative and prototypic conditions. The DOE recently emphasized a solution-driven, goal-oriented, science-based approach to nuclear energy development. Nuclear power systems and materials were initially developed during the latter half of the 20th century and greatly facilitated by the United States ability and willingness to conduct large-scale experiments. Fifty-two research and test reactors with associated facilities for performing fabrication and pre and post irradiation examinations were constructed at what is now Idaho National Laboratory (INL), another 14 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and a few more at other national laboratory sites. Building on the scientific advances of the last several decades, our understanding of fundamental nuclear science, improvements in computational platforms, and other tools now enable technological advancements with less reliance on large-scale experimentation.

  17. Engine Icing Capability Enhancements for the Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The AC9C is holding their biannual committee meeting in Ottawa, Ontario on 18-20 October 2010. I have been asked to provide a short presentation of the status of the icing project upgrade to the PSL test facility. I will highlight the progress made during construction the past 6 months, our approach for checkout of the facility, and an overview of the system design and its capabilities. A copy of the presentation is attached.

  18. Los Alamos National Laboratory Economic Analysis Capability Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Boero, Riccardo; Edwards, Brian Keith; Pasqualini, Donatella; Rivera, Michael Kelly

    2016-04-19

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed two types of models to compute the economic impact of infrastructure disruptions. FastEcon is a fast running model that estimates first-­order economic impacts of large scale events such as hurricanes and floods and can be used to identify the amount of economic activity that occurs in a specific area. LANL’s Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model estimates more comprehensive static and dynamic economic impacts of a broader array of events and captures the interactions between sectors and industries when estimating economic impacts.

  19. Towards enhancing Sandia's capabilities in multiscale materials modeling and simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Aidun, John Bahram; Fang, Huei Eliot; Barbour, John Charles; Westrich, Henry Roger; Chen, Er-Ping

    2004-01-01

    We report our conclusions in support of the FY 2003 Science and Technology Milestone ST03-3.5. The goal of the milestone was to develop a research plan for expanding Sandia's capabilities in materials modeling and simulation. From inquiries and discussion with technical staff during FY 2003 we conclude that it is premature to formulate the envisioned coordinated research plan. The more appropriate goal is to develop a set of computational tools for making scale transitions and accumulate experience with applying these tools to real test cases so as to enable us to attack each new problem with higher confidence of success.

  20. Enhanced capability of the Combustion-Heated Scramjet Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, Kenneth E.; Andrews, Earl H.; Eggers, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The Combustion-Heated Scramjet Test Facility (CHSTF) is described together with its modifications. The expanded simulation capabilities of the facility are documented. Nozzle exit surveys and tunnel calibration information are presented. It is noted that these modifications included a new heat-sink nickel liner heater, a new Mach 4.7 nozzle, and a new 70-ft vacuum sphere exhaust system. It is found that the facility in the air ejector mode of operation performed similarly to that prior to the addition of the vacuum sphere ducting.

  1. Recent progress on the National Ignition Facility advanced radiographic capability

    SciTech Connect

    Wegner, P.; Bowers, M.; Chen, H.; Heebner, J.; Hermann, M.; Kalantar, D.; Martinez, D.

    2016-01-08

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a megajoule (million-joule)-class laser and experimental facility built for Stockpile Stewardship and High Energy Density (HED) science research [1]. Up to several times a day, 192 laser pulses from NIF's 192 laser beamlines converge on a millimeter-scale target located at the center of the facility's 10-meter diameter target chamber. The carefully synchronized pulses, typically a few nanoseconds (billionths of a second) in duration and co-times to better than 20 picoseconds (trillionths of a second), a deliver a combined energy of up to 1.8 megajoules and a peak power of 500 terawatts (trillion watts). Furthermore, this drives temperatures inside the target to tens of millions of degrees and pressures to many billion times greater than Earth's atmosphere.

  2. New Integrated Modeling Capabilities: MIDAS' Recent Behavioral Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian F.; Jarvis, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    The Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) is an integrated human performance modeling software tool that is based on mechanisms that underlie and cause human behavior. A PC-Windows version of MIDAS has been created that integrates the anthropometric character "Jack (TM)" with MIDAS' validated perceptual and attention mechanisms. MIDAS now models multiple simulated humans engaging in goal-related behaviors. New capabilities include the ability to predict situations in which errors and/or performance decrements are likely due to a variety of factors including concurrent workload and performance influencing factors (PIFs). This paper describes a new model that predicts the effects of microgravity on a mission specialist's performance, and its first application to simulating the task of conducting a Life Sciences experiment in space according to a sequential or parallel schedule of performance.

  3. End user needs for enhanced IAEA Safeguards Information Management Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Badalamente, R.; Anzelon, G.; Deland, S.; Whiteson, R.

    1994-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is undertaking a program for strengthening its safeguards on the recognition that safeguards must give assurance not only of the non-diversion of declared material or that declared facilities are not being misused, but also of the absence of any undeclared nuclear activities in States which have signed comprehensive safeguards agreements with the Agency. The IAEA has determined that the detection of undeclared nuclear activities and the creation of confidence in the continuing peaceful use of declared material and facilities is largely dependent on more information being made available to the Agency and on the capability of the Agency to make more effective use of this additional information, as well as existing information.

  4. Energy capability enhancement for isolated extended drain NMOS transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidong, Nie; Jin, Wu; Xiaohui, Ma; Zongguang, Yu

    2012-02-01

    Isolated extended drain NMOS (EDNMOS) transistors are widely used in power signal processing. The hole current induced by a high electric field can result in a serious reliability problem due to a parasitic NPN effect. By optimizing p-type epitaxial (p-epi) thickness, n-type buried layer (BLN) and nwell doping distribution, the peak electric field is decreased by 30% and the peak hole current is decreased by 60%, which obviously suppress the parasitic NPN effect. Measured I-V characteristics and transmission line pulsing (TLP) results show that the on-state breakdown voltage is increased from 28 to 37 V when 6 V Vgs is applied and the energy capability is improved by about 30%, while the on-state resistance remains unchanged.

  5. New Integrated Modeling Capabilities: MIDAS' Recent Behavioral Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian F.; Jarvis, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    The Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) is an integrated human performance modeling software tool that is based on mechanisms that underlie and cause human behavior. A PC-Windows version of MIDAS has been created that integrates the anthropometric character "Jack (TM)" with MIDAS' validated perceptual and attention mechanisms. MIDAS now models multiple simulated humans engaging in goal-related behaviors. New capabilities include the ability to predict situations in which errors and/or performance decrements are likely due to a variety of factors including concurrent workload and performance influencing factors (PIFs). This paper describes a new model that predicts the effects of microgravity on a mission specialist's performance, and its first application to simulating the task of conducting a Life Sciences experiment in space according to a sequential or parallel schedule of performance.

  6. Enhanced Microbial Detection Capabilities by a Rapid Portable Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Heather; Monaco, Lisa; Wainwright, Norm; Steele, Andrew; Damon, Michael; Schenk, Alison; Stimpson, Eric; Maule, Jake; Effinger, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We present data describing a progression of continuing technology development - from expanding the detection capabilities of the current PTS unit to re-outfitting the instrument with a protein microarray increasing the number of detectable compounds. To illustrate the adaptability of the cartridge format, on-orbit operations data from the ISS demonstrate the detection of the fungal cell wall compound beta-glucan using applicable LOCAD-PTS cartridges. LOCAD-PTS is a handheld device consisting of a spectrophotometer, an onboard pumping mechanism, and data storage capabilities. A suite of interchangeable cartridges lined with four distinct capillaries allow a hydrated sample to mix with necessary reagents in the channels before being pumped to the optical well for spectrophotometric analysis. The reagents housed in one type of cartridge trigger a reaction based on the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay, which results in the release of paranitroaniline dye. The dye is measured using a 395 nm filter. The LAL assay detects the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall molecule, endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The more dye released, the greater the concentration of endotoxin in the sample. Sampling, quantitative analysis, and data retrieval require less than 20 minutes. This is significantly faster than standard culture-based methods, which require at least a 24 hour incubation period.Using modified cartridges, we demonstrate the detection of Gram negative bacteria with protein microarray technology. Additionally, we provide data from multiple field tests where both standard and advanced PTS technologies were used. These tests investigate the transfer of target microbial molecules from one surface to another. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the new cartridges expand the number of compounds detected by LOCAD-PTS, while maintaining the rapid, in situ analysis characteristic of the instrument. The unit provides relevant data for verifying sterile sample collection

  7. Enhanced Microbial Detection Capabilities by a Rapid Portable Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Heather; Monaco, Lisa; Wainwright, Norm; Steele, Andrew; Damon, Michael; Schenk, Alison; Stimpson, Eric; Maule, Jake; Effinger, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We present data describing a progression of continuing technology development - from expanding the detection capabilities of the current PTS unit to re-outfitting the instrument with a protein microarray increasing the number of detectable compounds. To illustrate the adaptability of the cartridge format, on-orbit operations data from the ISS demonstrate the detection of the fungal cell wall compound beta-glucan using applicable LOCAD-PTS cartridges. LOCAD-PTS is a handheld device consisting of a spectrophotometer, an onboard pumping mechanism, and data storage capabilities. A suite of interchangeable cartridges lined with four distinct capillaries allow a hydrated sample to mix with necessary reagents in the channels before being pumped to the optical well for spectrophotometric analysis. The reagents housed in one type of cartridge trigger a reaction based on the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay, which results in the release of paranitroaniline dye. The dye is measured using a 395 nm filter. The LAL assay detects the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall molecule, endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The more dye released, the greater the concentration of endotoxin in the sample. Sampling, quantitative analysis, and data retrieval require less than 20 minutes. This is significantly faster than standard culture-based methods, which require at least a 24 hour incubation period.Using modified cartridges, we demonstrate the detection of Gram negative bacteria with protein microarray technology. Additionally, we provide data from multiple field tests where both standard and advanced PTS technologies were used. These tests investigate the transfer of target microbial molecules from one surface to another. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the new cartridges expand the number of compounds detected by LOCAD-PTS, while maintaining the rapid, in situ analysis characteristic of the instrument. The unit provides relevant data for verifying sterile sample collection

  8. Gamma ray treatment enhances bioactivity and osseointegration capability of titanium.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Masato; Hori, Norio; Iwasa, Fuminori; Minamikawa, Hajime; Igarashi, Yoshimasa; Anpo, Masakazu; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2012-11-01

    The time-dependent degradation of titanium bioactivity (i.e., the biological aging of titanium) has been reported in previous studies. This phenomenon is caused by the loss of hydrophilicity and the inevitable occurrence of progressive contamination of titanium surfaces by hydrocarbons. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that gamma ray treatment, owing to its high energy to decompose and remove organic contaminants, enhances the bioactivity and osteoconductivity of titanium. Titanium disks were acid-etched and stored for 4 weeks. Rat bone marrow-derived osteoblasts (BMOs) were cultured on titanium disks with or without gamma ray treatment (30 kGy) immediately before experiments. The cell density at day 2 increased by 50% on gamma-treated surfaces, which reflected the 25% higher rate of cell proliferation. Osteoblasts on gamma-treated surfaces showed 30% higher alkaline phosphatase activity at day 5 and 60% higher calcium deposition at day 20. The strength of in vivo bone-implant integration increased by 40% at the early healing stage of week 2 for gamma-treated implants. Gamma ray-treated surfaces regained hydrophilicity and showed a lower percentage of carbon (35%) as opposed to 48% on untreated aged surfaces. The data indicated that gamma ray pretreatment of titanium substantially enhances its bioactivity and osteoconductivity, in association with the significant reduction in surface carbon and the recovery of hydrophilicity. The results suggest that gamma ray treatment could be an effective surface enhancement technology to overcome biological aging of titanium and improve the biological properties of titanium implants.

  9. Improving National Capability in Biogeochemical Flux Modelling: the UK Environmental Virtual Observatory (EVOp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnes, P.; Greene, S.; Freer, J. E.; Bloomfield, J.; Macleod, K.; Reaney, S. M.; Odoni, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    The best outcomes from watershed management arise where policy and mitigation efforts are underpinned by strong science evidence, but there are major resourcing problems associated with the scale of monitoring needed to effectively characterise the sources rates and impacts of nutrient enrichment nationally. The challenge is to increase national capability in predictive modelling of nutrient flux to waters, securing an effective mechanism for transferring knowledge and management tools from data-rich to data-poor regions. The inadequacy of existing tools and approaches to address these challenges provided the motivation for the Environmental Virtual Observatory programme (EVOp), an innovation from the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). EVOp is exploring the use of a cloud-based infrastructure in catchment science, developing an exemplar to explore N and P fluxes to inland and coastal waters in the UK from grid to catchment and national scale. EVOp is bringing together for the first time national data sets, models and uncertainty analysis into cloud computing environments to explore and benchmark current predictive capability for national scale biogeochemical modelling. The objective is to develop national biogeochemical modelling capability, capitalising on extensive national investment in the development of science understanding and modelling tools to support integrated catchment management, and supporting knowledge transfer from data rich to data poor regions, The AERC export coefficient model (Johnes et al., 2007) has been adapted to function within the EVOp cloud environment, and on a geoclimatic basis, using a range of high resolution, geo-referenced digital datasets as an initial demonstration of the enhanced national capacity for N and P flux modelling using cloud computing infrastructure. Geoclimatic regions are landscape units displaying homogenous or quasi-homogenous functional behaviour in terms of process controls on N and P cycling

  10. Endophytic bacteria from Ocimum sanctum and their yield enhancing capabilities.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Rashmi; Kalra, Alok; Darokar, M P; Chandra, Mahesh; Aggarwal, Nitin; Singh, A K; Khanuja, S P S

    2010-03-01

    Endophytes are beneficial microbes that reside intercellularly inside the plants. Interaction of endophytes with the host plants and their function within their host are important to address ecological relevance of endophyte. Four endophytic bacteria OS-9, OS-10, OS-11, and OS-12 were isolated from healthy leaves of Ocimum sanctum. These isolated microbes were screened in dual culture against various phytopathogenic fungi viz. Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium solani, Alternaria solani, and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Of these, strain OS-9 was found to be antagonistic to R. solani, A. solani, F. solani, and C. lindemuthianum while OS-11 was found antagonistic against A. solani only. The growth-promoting benefits of the endophytes were initially evaluated in the glasshouse by inoculated seeds of O. sanctum. Treatment with endophytes OS-10 and OS-11 resulted in significant enhancement of growth as revealed by increase in fresh as well as dry weight. Further, field trials involving two genotypes OS Purple and CIM-Angana were conducted with strains OS-10 and OS-11. The growth-promoting effect was visible on both the genotypes tested as the endophytes significantly enhanced fresh herbage yield (t/ha). Interestingly, these endophytes increased the content of essential oil particularly in cultivar OS Purple and thereby increasing the total oil yields. Molecular characterization of strain OS-11 indicated the strain to be highly related to the type strain of Bacillus subtilis.

  11. A 16 channel discriminator VME board with enhanced triggering capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsato, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Menon, G.

    2012-08-01

    Electronics and data acquisition systems used in small and large scale laboratories often have to handle analog signals with varying polarity, amplitude and duration which have to be digitized to be used as trigger signals to validate the acquired data. In the specific case of experiments dealing with ionizing radiation, ancillary particle detectors (for instance plastic scintillators or Resistive Plate Chambers) are used to trigger and select the impinging particles for the experiment. A novel approach using commercial LVDS line receivers as discriminator devices is presented. Such devices, with a proper calibration, can handle positive and negative analog signals in a wide dynamic range (from 20 mV to 800 mV signal amplitude). The clear advantages, with respect to conventional discriminator devices, are reduced costs, high reliability of a mature technology and the possibility of high integration scale. Moreover, commercial discriminator boards with positive input signal and a wide threshold swing are not available on the market. The present paper describes the design and characterization of a VME board capable to handle 16 differential or single-ended input channels. The output digital signals, available independently for each input, can be combined in the board into three independent trigger logic units which provide additional outputs for the end user.

  12. Ion beam surface treatment: A new capability for surface enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Stinnett, R.W.; McIntyre, D.C.; Buchheit, R.G.; Neau, E.L.; Greenly, J.B.; Thompson, M.O.; Johnston, G.P.; Rej, D.J.

    1994-07-01

    The emerging capability to produce high average power (5--350 kW) pulsed ion beams at 0.2--2 MeV energies is enabling the authors to develop a new, commercial-scale thermal surface treatment technology called Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST). This new technique uses high energy, pulsed ({<=}250 ns) ion beams to directly deposit energy in the top 2--20 micrometers of the surface of any material. The depth of treatment is controllable by varying the ion energy and species. Deposition of the energy with short pulses in a thin surface layer allows melting of the layer with relatively small energies and allows rapid cooling of the melted layer by thermal diffusion into the underlying substrate. Typical cooling rates of this process (10{sup 9}--10{sup 10} K/sec) cause rapid resolidification, resulting in the production of non-equilibrium microstructures (nano-crystalline and metastable phases) that have significantly improved corrosion, wear, and hardness properties. The authors conducted IBEST feasibility experiments with results confirming surface hardening, noncrystalline grain formation, metal surface polishing, controlled melt of ceramic surfaces, and surface cleaning using pulsed ion beams.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named Kibo (Hope), is undergoing a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) in the Space Station Processing Facility. Developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), the JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-27

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), named Kibo (Hope), is undergoing a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) in the Space Station Processing Facility. Developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), the JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

  14. NEW IMPROVEMENTS TO MFIRE TO ENHANCE FIRE MODELING CAPABILITIES

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, L.; Smith, A.C.; Yuan, L.

    2016-01-01

    NIOSH's mine fire simulation program, MFIRE, is widely accepted as a standard for assessing and predicting the impact of a fire on the mine ventilation system and the spread of fire contaminants in coal and metal/nonmetal mines, which has been used by U.S. and international companies to simulate fires for planning and response purposes. MFIRE is a dynamic, transient-state, mine ventilation network simulation program that performs normal planning calculations. It can also be used to analyze ventilation networks under thermal and mechanical influence such as changes in ventilation parameters, external influences such as changes in temperature, and internal influences such as a fire. The program output can be used to analyze the effects of these influences on the ventilation system. Since its original development by Michigan Technological University for the Bureau of Mines in the 1970s, several updates have been released over the years. In 2012, NIOSH completed a major redesign and restructuring of the program with the release of MFIRE 3.0. MFIRE's outdated FORTRAN programming language was replaced with an object-oriented C++ language and packaged into a dynamic link library (DLL). However, the MFIRE 3.0 release made no attempt to change or improve the fire modeling algorithms inherited from its previous version, MFIRE 2.20. This paper reports on improvements that have been made to the fire modeling capabilities of MFIRE 3.0 since its release. These improvements include the addition of fire source models of the t-squared fire and heat release rate curve data file, the addition of a moving fire source for conveyor belt fire simulations, improvement of the fire location algorithm, and the identification and prediction of smoke rollback phenomena. All the improvements discussed in this paper will be termed as MFIRE 3.1 and released by NIOSH in the near future. PMID:27375301

  15. NEW IMPROVEMENTS TO MFIRE TO ENHANCE FIRE MODELING CAPABILITIES.

    PubMed

    Zhou, L; Smith, A C; Yuan, L

    2016-06-01

    NIOSH's mine fire simulation program, MFIRE, is widely accepted as a standard for assessing and predicting the impact of a fire on the mine ventilation system and the spread of fire contaminants in coal and metal/nonmetal mines, which has been used by U.S. and international companies to simulate fires for planning and response purposes. MFIRE is a dynamic, transient-state, mine ventilation network simulation program that performs normal planning calculations. It can also be used to analyze ventilation networks under thermal and mechanical influence such as changes in ventilation parameters, external influences such as changes in temperature, and internal influences such as a fire. The program output can be used to analyze the effects of these influences on the ventilation system. Since its original development by Michigan Technological University for the Bureau of Mines in the 1970s, several updates have been released over the years. In 2012, NIOSH completed a major redesign and restructuring of the program with the release of MFIRE 3.0. MFIRE's outdated FORTRAN programming language was replaced with an object-oriented C++ language and packaged into a dynamic link library (DLL). However, the MFIRE 3.0 release made no attempt to change or improve the fire modeling algorithms inherited from its previous version, MFIRE 2.20. This paper reports on improvements that have been made to the fire modeling capabilities of MFIRE 3.0 since its release. These improvements include the addition of fire source models of the t-squared fire and heat release rate curve data file, the addition of a moving fire source for conveyor belt fire simulations, improvement of the fire location algorithm, and the identification and prediction of smoke rollback phenomena. All the improvements discussed in this paper will be termed as MFIRE 3.1 and released by NIOSH in the near future.

  16. Subseasonal to Seasonal Forecasting at NASA in Support of the National Earth System Prediction Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Considine, D. B.; Pawson, S.; Koster, R. D.; Kovach, R. M.; Vernieres, G.; Schubert, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    NASA has developed and maintains, within the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), a seasonal-to-interannual prediction activity in support of the National ESPC, based on the GEOS-5 Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM). This system generates atmospheric, land, and ocean/ice analyses that are used to produce global forecasts. Each month, a 17-member ensemble of forecasts is made, from which various oceanic indices (e.g., El Niño, East Indian Dipole, Atlantic SST anomalies), are computed. Additionally, monthly and seasonal anomalies are computed for several variables from the atmosphere (e.g., 2-meter temperatures, precipitation, geopotential heights), land (drought indices), ocean (subsurface temperature anomalies), and sea ice. These forecasts are provided to the National Multi Model Ensemble (NMME) and the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) sea ice outlook. The quasi-operational nature of this system, with constant generation of products that are shared with the broader community, allows for continual assessment of the impacts of NASA observations on seasonal forecasts - a current example is the altimetry data from the JASON series of satellites. The GMAO's seasonal prediction system is currently being upgraded. Alongside typical enhancements, such as increased spatial resolution and use of more recent model versions with improved representation of physical processes, these developments are designed to enhance the use of NASA observations. One example is the use of aerosol information from NASA's EOS instruments (MODIS). A major motivation is also to include NASA's novel data types, such as soil-moisture from SMAP and other sources of oceanic information (such as salinity). This approach enables NASA to continue contributing to national seasonal forecasting efforts, while simultaneously introducing its novel observing capabilities into the seasonal system in a manner that can demonstrate their systematic impacts on the quality

  17. Metallothionein expression in chloroplasts enhances mercury accumulation and phytoremediation capability.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Oscar N; Alvarez, Derry; Torres, Cesar; Roman, Laura; Daniell, Henry

    2011-06-01

    Genetic engineering to enhance mercury phytoremediation has been accomplished by expression of the merAB genes that protects the cell by converting Hg[II] into Hg[0] which volatilizes from the cell. A drawback of this approach is that toxic Hg is released back into the environment. A better phytoremediation strategy would be to accumulate mercury inside plants for subsequent retrieval. We report here the development of a transplastomic approach to express the mouse metallothionein gene (mt1) and accumulate mercury in high concentrations within plant cells. Real-time PCR analysis showed that up to 1284 copies of the mt1 gene were found per cell when compared with 1326 copies of the 16S rrn gene, thereby attaining homoplasmy. Past studies in chloroplast transformation used qualitative Southern blots to evaluate indirectly transgene copy number, whereas we used real-time PCR for the first time to establish homoplasmy and estimate transgene copy number and transcript levels. The mt1 transcript levels were very high with 183,000 copies per ng of RNA or 41% the abundance of the 16S rrn transcripts. The transplastomic lines were resistant up to 20 μm mercury and maintained high chlorophyll content and biomass. Although the transgenic plants accumulated high concentrations of mercury in all tissues, leaves accumulated up to 106 ng, indicating active phytoremediation and translocation of mercury. Such accumulation of mercury in plant tissues facilitates proper disposal or recycling. This study reports, for the first time, the use of metallothioneins in plants for mercury phytoremediation. Chloroplast genetic engineering approach is useful to express metal-scavenging proteins for phytoremediation.

  18. Materials Capability Review Los Alamos National Laboratory April 29-May 2, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Antoinette J

    2012-04-20

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses Capability Reviews to assess the quality and institutional integration of science, technology and engineering (STE) and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of LANL STE. The capabilities are deliberately chosen to be crosscutting over the Laboratory and therefore will include experimental, theoretical and simulation disciplines from multiple line organizations. Capability Reviews are designed to provide a more holistic view of the STE quality, integration to achieve mission requirements, and mission relevance. The scope of these capabilities necessitate that there will be significant overlap in technical areas covered by capability reviews (e.g., materials research and weapons science and engineering). In addition, LANL staff may be reviewed in different capability reviews because of their varied assignments and expertise. The principal product of the Capability Review is the report that includes the review committee's assessments, recommendations, and recommendations for STE.

  19. Update: Partnership for the Revitalization of National Wind Tunnel Force Measurement Technology Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhew, Ray D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) chartered a team to examine the issues and risks associated with the lack of funding and focus on force measurement over the past several years, focusing specifically on strain-gage balances. NASA partnered with the U.S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) to exploit their combined capabilities and take a national level government view of the problem and established the National Force Measurement Technology Capability (NFMTC) project. This paper provides an update on the team's status for revitalizing the government's balance capability with respect to designing, fabricating, calibrating, and using the these critical measurement devices.

  20. Advances in National Capabilities for Consequence Assessment Modeling of Airborne Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Nasstrom, J; Sugiyama, G; Foster, K; Larsen, S; Kosovic, B; Eme, B; Walker, H; Goldstein, P; Lundquist, J; Pobanz, B; Fulton, J

    2007-11-26

    This paper describes ongoing advancement of airborne hazard modeling capabilities in support of multiple agencies through the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) and the Interagency Atmospheric Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC). A suite of software tools developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and collaborating organizations includes simple stand-alone, local-scale plume modeling tools for end user's computers, Web- and Internet-based software to access advanced 3-D flow and atmospheric dispersion modeling tools and expert analysis from the national center at LLNL, and state-of-the-science high-resolution urban models and event reconstruction capabilities.

  1. Response capabilities of the National Guard: a focus on domestic disaster medical response.

    PubMed

    Bochicchio, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The National Guard has a 373-year history of responding to the nation's call to duty for service both at home and abroad (The National Guard Bureau Web site: Available at http://www.ngb.army.mil/default. aspx.). The National Guard (NG) is a constitutionally unique organization (United States Constitution, US Government Printing Office Web site: Available at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/constitution/index.html.). Today's Guard conducts domestic disaster response and civilian assistance missions on a daily basis. Yet, the NG's role, mission, and capabilities are not well-known or understood. The National Response Framework (NRF) places significant responsibility on the local and state disaster planners (Department of Homeland Security: National Response Framework. US Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC, January 2008). The public health professionals are an integral component of the disaster planning community. It is critical that the public health community be knowledgeable of types and capabilities of all the response assets at their disposal.

  2. Recent Enhancements to the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. A.; Balakrishna, S.; Bobbitt, C. W.; Underwood, P.

    2003-01-01

    The National Transonic Facility continues to make enhancements to provide quality data in a safe, efficient and cost effective method for aerodynamic ground testing. Recent enhancements discussed in this paper include the restoration of reliability and improved performance of the heat exchanger systems resulting in the expansion of the NTF air operations envelope. Additionally, results are presented from a continued effort to reduce model dynamics through the use of a new stiffer balance and sting.

  3. Recent Enhancements to the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. A.; Balakrishna, S.; Bobbitt, C. W.; Underwood, P.

    2003-01-01

    The National Transonic Facility continues to make enhancements to provide quality data in a safe, efficient and cost effective method for aerodynamic ground testing. Recent enhancements discussed in this paper include the restoration of reliability and improved performance of the heat exchanger systems resulting in the expansion of the NTF air operations envelope. Additionally, results are presented from a continued effort to reduce model dynamics through the use of a new stiffer balance and sting

  4. Materials Capability Review Los Alamos National Laboratory May 4-7, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Antoniette J

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses external peer review to measure and continuously improve the quality of its science, technology and engineering (STE). LANL uses capability reviews to assess the STE quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. STE capabilities are define to cut across directorates providing a more holistic view of the STE quality, integration to achieve mission requirements, and mission relevance. The scope of these capabilities necessitate that there will be significant overlap in technical areas covered by capability reviews (e.g ., materials research and weapons science and engineering). In addition, LANL staff may be reviewed in different capability reviews because of their varied assignments and expertise. LANL plans to perform a complete review of the Laboratory's STE capabilities (hence staff) in a three-year cycle. The principal product of an external review is a report that includes the review committee's assessments, commendations, and recommendations for STE. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). This report will be used by Laboratory Management for STE assessment and planning. The report is also provided to the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of LANL's Annual Performance Plan and to the Los Alamos National Security (LANS) LLC's Science and Technology Committee (STC) as part of its responsibilities to the LANS Board of Governors. LANL has defined fourteen STE capabilities. Table 1

  5. National laboratories` capabilities summaries for the DOE Virtual Center for Multiphase Dynamics (VCMD)

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.L.

    1997-03-01

    The Virtual Center For Multiphase Dynamics (VCMD) integrates and develops the resources of industry, government, academia, and professional societies to enable reliable analysis in multiphase computational fluid dynamics. The primary means of the VCMD focus will be by the creation, support, and validation of a computerized simulation capability for multiphase flow and multiphase flow applications. This paper briefly describes the capabilities of the National Laboratories in this effort.

  6. Task Force on Defense Strategies for Ensuring the Resilience of National Space Capabilities. Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-21

    March 2017 Task Force on Defense Strategies for Ensuring the Resilience of National Space Capabilities OFFICE OF THE UNDER SECRETARY OF...the Department of Defense. The DSB Task Force on Defense Strategies for Ensuring the Resilience of National Space Capabilities completed its formal...public release. D E P A R T M E N T O F D E F E N S E | D E F E N S E S C I E N C E B O A R D DSB Task Force on Defense Strategies for

  7. Partnership for the Revitalization of National Wind Tunnel Force Measurement Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhew, Ray D.; Skelley, Marcus L.; Woike, Mark R.; Bader, Jon B.; Marshall, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    Lack of funding and lack of focus on research over the past several years, coupled with force measurement capabilities being decentralized and distributed across the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) research centers, has resulted in a significant erosion of (1) capability and infrastructure to produce and calibrate force measurement systems; (2) NASA s working knowledge of those systems; and (3) the quantity of high-quality, full-capability force measurement systems available for use in aeronautics testing. Simultaneously, and at proportional rates, the capability of industry to design, manufacture, and calibrate these test instruments has been eroding primarily because of a lack of investment by the aeronautics community. Technical expertise in this technology area is a core competency in aeronautics testing; it is highly specialized and experience-based, and it represents a niche market for only a few small precision instrument shops in the United States. With this backdrop, NASA s Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) chartered a team to examine the issues and risks associated with the problem, focusing specifically on strain- gage balances. The team partnered with the U.S. Air Force s Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) to exploit their combined capabilities and take a national level government view of the problem. This paper describes the team s approach, its findings, and its recommendations, and the current status for revitalizing the government s balance capability with respect to designing, fabricating, calibrating, and using the instruments.

  8. Los Alamos National Laboratory Training Capabilities (Possible Applications in the Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Olga

    2012-06-04

    The briefing provides an overview of the training capabilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory that can be applied to nonproliferation/responsible science education at nuclear institutes in the Former Soviet Union, as part of the programmatic effort under the Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention program (GIPP).

  9. Using superconducting undulator for enhanced imaging capabilities of MaRIE

    SciTech Connect

    Yampolsky, Nikolai

    2016-09-22

    MaRIE x-ray free electron laser (FEL) is envisioned to deliver a burst of closely spaced in time pulses for enabling the capability of studying the dynamic processes in a sample. MaRIE capability can be largely enhanced using the superconducting undulator, which has the capability of doubling its period. This technology will allow reaching the photon energy as low as ~200-500 eV. As a result, the MaRIE facility will have a broader photon energy range enabling a larger variety of experiments. The soft x-ray capability is more likely to achieve the 3D imaging of dynamic processes in noncrystal materials than the hard x-ray capability alone.

  10. US Navy Research and Development under the National Earth System Prediction Capability Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Carolyn; Peng, Melinda; Jacobs, Gregg; Richman, James; Ridout, James; Eleuterio, Daniel; Whitcomb, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The National Earth System Prediction Capability (National ESPC) is a U.S. multi-agency collaborative effort to leverage resources to develop the next generation earth prediction system. The overarching goal is to meet the need for a new operational global earth system model consisting of high-resolution atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, and space components capable of seamless prediction from hours to decades within the next ten years. This presentation will provide an overview of the US Navy's progress under this ESPC partnership. The Navy is developing a fully coupled global system including the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM), the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE), and the Wavewatch III ocean surface wave model. The design and implementation of the coupled architecture uses the earth system modeling framework (ESMF) with the National Unified Operational Prediction Capability (NUOPC) standard. Coupling NAVGEM to CICE reduces low-level polar temperature biases over the stand-alone NAVGEM system. Fully-coupled NAVGEM-HYCOM simulations have smaller SST RMSE and bias than "loosely-coupled" simulations. Fully coupled NAVGEM-HYCOM-CICE monthly and seasonal integrations have been performed for several applications. These include successful reforecasts of the Madden-Julian Oscillation during November 2011, and September minimum sea-ice extent predictions that are in line with other system predictions for 2014 and 2015. Plans for future development, with the goal of demonstrating initial operational capabilities in 2018, will also be presented.

  11. National Enhanced Elevation Assessment at a glance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Gregory I.

    2012-01-01

    Elevation data are essential for hazards mitigation, conservation, infrastructure development, national security, and many other applications. Under the leadership of the U.S. Geological Survey and the member States of the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP), Federal agencies, State agencies, and others work together to acquire high-quality elevation data for the United States and its territories. New elevation data are acquired using modern technology to replace elevation data that are, on average, more than 30 years old. Through the efforts of the NDEP, a project-by-project data acquisition approach resulted in improved, publicly available data for 28 percent of the conterminous United States and 15 percent of Alaska over the past 15 years. Although the program operates efficiently, the rate of data collection and the typical project specifications are currently insufficient to address the needs of government, the private sector, and other organizations. The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment was conducted to (1) document national-level requirements for improved elevation data, (2) estimate the benefits and costs of meeting those requirements, and (3) evaluate multiple national-level program-implementation scenarios. The assessment was sponsored by the NDEP's member agencies. The study participants came from 34 Federal agencies, agencies from all 50 States, selected local government and Tribal offices, and private and not-for-profit organizations. A total of 602 mission-critical activities were identified that need significantly more accurate data than are currently available. The results of the assessment indicate that a national-level enhanced-elevation-data program has the potential to generate from $1.2 billion to $13 billion in new benefits annually.

  12. Capability deprivation of people with Alzheimer's disease: An empirical analysis using a national survey.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Juan; Krishnakumar, Jaya; Bungener, Martine; Le Galès, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    How can one assess the quality of life of older people--particularly those with Alzheimer's disease--from the point of view of their opportunities to do valued things in life? This paper is an attempt to answer this question using as a theoretical framework the capability approach. We use data collected on 8841 individuals above 60 living in France (the 2008 Disability and Health Household Survey) and propose a latent variable modelling framework to analyse their capabilities in two fundamental dimensions: freedom to perform self-care activities and freedom to participate in the life of the household. Our results show that living as a couple, having children, being mobile and having access to local shops, health facilities and public services enhance both capabilities. Age, household size and male gender (for one of the two capabilities) act as impediments while the number of impairments reduces both capabilities. We find that people with Alzheimer's disease have a lower level and a smaller range of capabilities (freedom) when compared to those without, even when the latter have several impairments. Hence they need a special attention in policy-making.

  13. Enhancements to NASA's Land Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for Eos (LANCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, D.; Murphy, K. J.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; Mauoka, E.; Ye, G.; Conover, H.; Regner, K. J.; Harrison, S.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) provides data and imagery from Terra, Aqua and Aura satellites in less than 3 hours from satellite observation, to meet the needs of the near real-time (NRT) applications community. This article describes LANCE and enhancements made to LANCE over the last year. These enhancements include: 3 new NRT products, additional search and download data capability through Worldview, and a greater selection of NRT imagery that can be interactively viewed through Worldview and the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). LANCE is also working to ingest and process AMSR2 data in NRT. This presentation describes the enhancements, and the potential uses for the new products, which include daily NRT 8-day rolling Vegetation Indices (VI) and Land Surface Reflectance (LSR) products and a 16-day rolling Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) product.

  14. Developing a Dual-Level Capabilities Approach: Using Constructivist Grounded Theory and Feminist Ethnography to Enhance the Capabilities Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kia M. Q.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a dual-level capabilities approach to development is introduced. This approach intends to improve upon individual-focused capabilities approaches developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. Based upon seven months of ethnographic research in the Afro-descendant, autochthonous Garifuna community of Honduras, constructivist grounded…

  15. Developing a Dual-Level Capabilities Approach: Using Constructivist Grounded Theory and Feminist Ethnography to Enhance the Capabilities Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kia M. Q.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a dual-level capabilities approach to development is introduced. This approach intends to improve upon individual-focused capabilities approaches developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. Based upon seven months of ethnographic research in the Afro-descendant, autochthonous Garifuna community of Honduras, constructivist grounded…

  16. Simple SE Methods Deployed in Revitalizing the Nuclear Post- Irradiation Examination Capability for the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Larry R. Zirker; R. Douglas Hamelin; Lori Braase

    2010-07-01

    The “crown jewels” of nuclear energy research facilities (i.e., hot cells, analysis systems, and scientists) have been centered at the Idaho National Laboratory for over 40 years, but in recent years, emphasis and funding for nuclear fuel research and development have declined to adversely affect the readiness and effectiveness of research facilities and equipment. Conversely, the current national nuclear renaissance forces the need for immediate enhancements in facilities, equipment, capabilities, and staff for the post-irradiation examination (PIE) of nuclear fuel. PIE characterizes the “burn-up” and structural integrity of fuel elements and defines the effectiveness of new fuels/alloys in search for optimum fuel burn-up and alloys for current and next generation nuclear reactors. This paper details how a team of system engineers adapted simple system engineering tools and techniques for a customer unfamiliar with the power and effectiveness of system engineering, to achieve project success.

  17. Development of NASA Technical Standards Program Relative to Enhancing Engineering Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, William W.

    2003-01-01

    The enhancement of engineering capabilities is an important aspect of any organization; especially those engaged in aerospace development activities. Technical Standards are one of the key elements of this endeavor. The NASA Technical Standards Program was formed in 1997 in response to the NASA Administrator s directive to develop an Agencywide Technical Standards Program. The Program s principal objective involved the converting Center-unique technical standards into Agency wide standards and the adoption/endorsement of non-Government technical standards in lieu of government standards. In the process of these actions, the potential for further enhancement of the Agency s engineering capabilities was noted relative to value of being able to access Agencywide the necessary full-text technical standards, standards update notifications, and integration of lessons learned with technical standards, all available to the user from one Website. This was accomplished and is now being enhanced based on feedbacks from the Agency's engineering staff and supporting contractors. This paper addresses the development experiences with the NASA Technical Standards Program and the enhancement of the Agency's engineering capabilities provided by the Program s products. Metrics are provided on significant aspects of the Program.

  18. Simulation information regarding Sandia National Laboratories trinity capability improvement metric.

    SciTech Connect

    Agelastos, Anthony Michael; Lin, Paul T.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory each selected a representative simulation code to be used as a performance benchmark for the Trinity Capability Improvement Metric. Sandia selected SIERRA Low Mach Module: Nalu, which is a uid dynamics code that solves many variable-density, acoustically incompressible problems of interest spanning from laminar to turbulent ow regimes, since it is fairly representative of implicit codes that have been developed under ASC. The simulations for this metric were performed on the Cielo Cray XE6 platform during dedicated application time and the chosen case utilized 131,072 Cielo cores to perform a canonical turbulent open jet simulation within an approximately 9-billion-elementunstructured- hexahedral computational mesh. This report will document some of the results from these simulations as well as provide instructions to perform these simulations for comparison.

  19. Functionalized ZnO nanowires for microcantilever biosensors with enhanced binding capability.

    PubMed

    Stassi, Stefano; Chiadò, Alessandro; Cauda, Valentina; Palmara, Gianluca; Canavese, Giancarlo; Laurenti, Marco; Ricciardi, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    An efficient way to increase the binding capability of microcantilever biosensors is here demonstrated by growing zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) on their active surface. A comprehensive evaluation of the chemical compatibility of ZnO NWs brought to the definition of an innovative functionalization method able to guarantee the proper immobilization of biomolecules on the nanostructured surface. A noteworthy higher amount of grafted molecules was evidenced with colorimetric assays on ZnO NWs-coated devices, in comparison with functionalized and activated silicon flat samples. ZnO NWs grown on silicon microcantilever arrays and activated with the proposed immobilization strategy enhanced the sensor binding capability (and thus the dynamic range) of nearly 1 order of magnitude, with respect to the commonly employed flat functionalized silicon devices. Graphical Abstract An efficient way to increase the binding capability of microcantilever biosensors is represented by growing zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) on their active surface. ZnO NWs grown on silicon microcantilever arrays and activated with an innovative immobilization strategy enhanced the sensor binding capability of nearly 1 order of magnitude, with respect to the commonly employed flat functionalized silicon devices.

  20. Enhancement of the Feature Extraction Capability in Global Damage Detection Using Wavelet Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saleeb, Atef F.; Ponnaluru, Gopi Krishna

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess the specific capabilities of the defect energy parameter technique for global damage detection developed by Saleeb and coworkers. The feature extraction is the most important capability in any damage-detection technique. Features are any parameters extracted from the processed measurement data in order to enhance damage detection. The damage feature extraction capability was studied extensively by analyzing various simulation results. The practical significance in structural health monitoring is that the detection at early stages of small-size defects is always desirable. The amount of changes in the structure's response due to these small defects was determined to show the needed level of accuracy in the experimental methods. The arrangement of fine/extensive sensor network to measure required data for the detection is an "unlimited" ability, but there is a difficulty to place extensive number of sensors on a structure. Therefore, an investigation was conducted using the measurements of coarse sensor network. The white and the pink noises, which cover most of the frequency ranges that are typically encountered in the many measuring devices used (e.g., accelerometers, strain gauges, etc.) are added to the displacements to investigate the effect of noisy measurements in the detection technique. The noisy displacements and the noisy damage parameter values are used to study the signal feature reconstruction using wavelets. The enhancement of the feature extraction capability was successfully achieved by the wavelet theory.

  1. Destructive analysis capabilities for plutonium and uranium characterization at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, Lav; Kuhn, Kevin J; Drake, Lawrence R; Decker, Diana L; Walker, Laurie F; Colletti, Lisa M; Spencer, Khalil J; Peterson, Dominic S; Herrera, Jaclyn A; Wong, Amy S

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Actinide Analytical Chemistry (AAC) group has been in existence since the Manhattan Project. It maintains a complete set of analytical capabilities for performing complete characterization (elemental assay, isotopic, metallic and non metallic trace impurities) of uranium and plutonium samples in different forms. For a majority of the customers there are strong quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) objectives including highest accuracy and precision with well defined uncertainties associated with the analytical results. Los Alamos participates in various international and national programs such as the Plutonium Metal Exchange Program, New Brunswick Laboratory's (NBL' s) Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program (SME) and several other inter-laboratory round robin exercises to monitor and evaluate the data quality generated by AAC. These programs also provide independent verification of analytical measurement capabilities, and allow any technical problems with analytical measurements to be identified and corrected. This presentation will focus on key analytical capabilities for destructive analysis in AAC and also comparative data between LANL and peer groups for Pu assay and isotopic analysis.

  2. Development of a Semi-Span Test Capability at the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, G. M.; Parker, P. A.; Owens, L. R., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    A need for low-speed, high Reynolds number test capabilities has been identified for the design and development of advanced subsonic transport high-lift systems. In support of this need, multiple investigations have been conducted in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at the NASA Langley Research Center to develop a semi-span testing capability that will provide the low-speed, flight Reynolds number data currently unattainable using conventional sting-mounted, full-span models. Although a semi-span testing capability will effectively double the Reynolds number capability over full-span models, it does come at the expense of contending with the issue of the interaction of the flow over the model with the windtunnel wall boundary layer. To address this issue the size and shape of the semi-span model mounting geometry have been investigated, and the results are presented herein. The cryogenic operating environment of the NTF produced another semi-span test technique issue in that varying thermal gradients have developed on the large semi-span balance. The suspected cause of these thermal gradients and methods to eliminate them are presented. Data are also presented that demonstrate the successful elimination of these varying thermal gradients during cryogenic operations.

  3. The Advanced Test Reactor Irradiation Capabilities Available as a National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2008-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. The ATR is a very versatile facility with a wide variety of experimental test capabilities for providing the environment needed in an irradiation experiment. These capabilities include simple capsule experiments, instrumented and/or temperature-controlled experiments, and pressurized water loop experiment facilities. Monitoring systems have also been utilized to monitor different parameters such as fission gases for fuel experiments, to measure specimen performance during irradiation. ATR’s control system provides a stable axial flux profile throughout each reactor operating cycle, and allows the thermal and fast neutron fluxes to be controlled separately in different sections of the core. The ATR irradiation positions vary in diameter from 16 mm to 127 mm over an active core height of 1.2 m. This paper discusses the different irradiation capabilities with examples of different experiments and the cost/benefit issues related to each capability. The recent designation of ATR as a national scientific user facility will make the ATR much more accessible at very low to no cost for research by universities and possibly commercial entities.

  4. Advanced Test Reactor -- Testing Capabilities and Plans AND Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility -- Partnerships and Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall

    2008-07-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is one of the world’s premier test reactors for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The physical configuration of the ATR, a 4-leaf clover shape, allows the reactor to be operated at different power levels in the corner “lobes” to allow for different testing conditions for multiple simultaneous experiments. The combination of high flux (maximum thermal neutron fluxes of 1E15 neutrons per square centimeter per second and maximum fast [E>1.0 MeV] neutron fluxes of 5E14 neutrons per square centimeter per second) and large test volumes (up to 122 cm long and 12.7 cm diameter) provide unique testing opportunities. For future research, some ATR modifications and enhancements are currently planned. In 2007 the US Department of Energy designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper provides more details on some of the ATR capabilities, key design features, experiments, and plans for the NSUF.

  5. Basic Research in Predictability Science as it Relates to the National Earth System Prediction Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harr, P.

    2016-12-01

    The support of basic research in the atmospheric sciences by the National Science Foundation (NSF) has been balanced in relation to process and properties that span space and time scales associated with atmospheric dynamics, chemistry, physics, and thermodynamics. Because of the direct impact of the atmosphere on nearly every aspect of society, research in atmospheric science has deep roots in support of the advancement of knowledge for societal benefit. Indeed, increased knowledge of key atmospheric processes in conjunction with development of the means to incorporate that understanding into increasingly complex numerical models has provided for more accurate analyses and predictions of weather and climate. However, continued advancements in Earth-system modeling require increased knowledge of properties and processes occurring in and coupling among the atmosphere, ocean, land, cryosphere, and near-space environments. In a basic research construct, the study of predictability science is related to incomplete knowledge of properties and processes, model errors, and sensitivities to initial conditions. The NSF efforts in support of research to increase knowledge of Earth-system predictability can be placed into the context of the National Strategic Computing Initiative (NSCI, http://www.nsf.gov/nsci), in which NSF is one of three lead agencies with the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense. Leverage of the NSCI goals that aim to increase the technology base used for modeling and simulation; define a path toward a viable high-performance computing (HPC) capabilities; and increase the capacity and capability of a HPC ecosystem that includes enduring public-private partnerships, will support research into the three components of predictability science defined above. As the NSCI efforts increase, it is expected that NSF will lead advances predictability science for the benefit the national Earth System Prediction Capability.

  6. Army National Guard (ARNG) Objective Supply Capability Adaptive Redesign (OSCAR) end-user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Pelath, R.P.; Rasch, K.A.

    1997-12-01

    The Objective Supply Capability Adaptive Redesign (OSCAR) project is designed to identify and develop programs which automate requirements not included in standard army systems. This includes providing automated interfaces between standard army systems at the National Guard Bureau (NGB) level and at the state/territory level. As part of the OSCAR project, custom software has been installed at NGB to streamline management of major end items. This software allows item managers to provide automated disposition on excess equipment to states operating the Standard Army Retail Supply System Objective (SARSS-O). It also accelerates movement of excess assets to improve the readiness of the Army National Guard (ARNG)--while reducing excess on hand. The purpose of the End-User Manual is to provide direction and guidance to the customer for implementing the ARNG Excess Management Program.

  7. Modern Grid Strategy: Enhanced GridLAB-D Capabilities Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Chen, Yousu

    2009-09-09

    GridLAB-D is a software simulation environment that was initially developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Electricity (OE) for the purpose of enabling the effective analysis of emerging smart grid technologies. In order to achieve this goal GridLAB-D was developed using an open source approach with the intent that numerous people and organizations would contribute to the ongoing development. Because of the breadth and complexity of the emerging smart grid technologies the inclusion of multiple groups of developers is essential in order to address the many aspects of the smart grid. As part of the continuing Modern Grid Strategy (MGS) the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked with developing an advanced set of GridLAB-D capabilities. These capabilities were developed to enable the analysis of complex use case studies which will allow for multi-disciplinary analysis of smart grid operations. The advanced capabilities which were developed include the implementation of an unbalanced networked power flow algorithm, the implementation of an integrated transmission and distribution system solver, and a set of use cases demonstrating the capabilities of the new solvers.

  8. A Study on Coexistence Capability Evaluations of the Enhanced Channel Hopping Mechanism in WBANs

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhongcheng; Sun, Yongmei; Ji, Yuefeng

    2017-01-01

    As an important coexistence technology, channel hopping can reduce the interference among Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). However, it simultaneously brings some issues, such as energy waste, long latency and communication interruptions, etc. In this paper, we propose an enhanced channel hopping mechanism that allows multiple WBANs coexisted in the same channel. In order to evaluate the coexistence performance, some critical metrics are designed to reflect the possibility of channel conflict. Furthermore, by taking the queuing and non-queuing behaviors into consideration, we present a set of analysis approaches to evaluate the coexistence capability. On the one hand, we present both service-dependent and service-independent analysis models to estimate the number of coexisting WBANs. On the other hand, based on the uniform distribution assumption and the additive property of Possion-stream, we put forward two approximate methods to compute the number of occupied channels. Extensive simulation results demonstrate that our estimation approaches can provide an effective solution for coexistence capability estimation. Moreover, the enhanced channel hopping mechanism can significantly improve the coexistence capability and support a larger arrival rate of WBANs. PMID:28098818

  9. Evaluation of national seismograph network detection capabilities: Final report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, K.L.; Barker, T.G.; Bennett, T.J.

    1997-10-01

    This final report presents detection thresholds, detection probabilities, and location error ellipse projections for the US National Seismic Network (USNSN) with and without real-time cooperative stations in the eastern US. Network simulation methods are used with spectral noise levels at stations in the USNSN and other stations to simulate the processes of excitation, propagation, detection, and processing of seismic phases. The USNSN alone should be capable of detecting 4 or more P waves for shallow crustal earthquakes in nearly all of the eastern and central US at the magnitude 3.8 level. When real-time cooperative stations are used in conjunction with the USNSN, the network should be capable of detecting 4 or more P waves from events 0.2 to 0.3 magnitude units lower. The planned expansion of the USNSN and cooperative stations should improve detection levels by an additional 0.2 to 0.3 magnitudes units in many areas. Location uncertainties for the USNSN should be significantly improved by addition of real-time cooperative stations. Median error ellipses for magnitude 4.5 earthquakes in the eastern and central US depend strongly upon location, but uncertainties should be less than 100 square km in the central US and degrade to 200 square km or more offshore and to the south and north of the international boundaries. Close cooperation with the Canadian National Network should substantially improve detection thresholds and location uncertainties along the Canadian border.

  10. Large-Scale Testing and High-Fidelity Simulation Capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories to Support Space Power and Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, Dean; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2008-01-21

    Sandia National Laboratories, as a Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Agency, has major responsibility to ensure the safety and security needs of nuclear weapons. As such, with an experienced research staff, Sandia maintains a spectrum of modeling and simulation capabilities integrated with experimental and large-scale test capabilities. This expertise and these capabilities offer considerable resources for addressing issues of interest to the space power and propulsion communities. This paper presents Sandia's capability to perform thermal qualification (analysis, test, modeling and simulation) using a representative weapon system as an example demonstrating the potential to support NASA's Lunar Reactor System.

  11. [New strategy to promote adult spinal cord regeneration: enhance adult neurons' intrinsic growth capability].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping

    2009-01-01

    Injured adult spinal cord neurons are usually unable to regenerate their axons due to the inhibitory environment and low intrinsic regenerative capability. One of the main strategies to promote spinal cord regeneration is blocking and/or neutralizing the inhibitory factors or their common inhibitory signal pathway. However, overcoming inhibition alone is insufficient to cause extensive regeneration when neurons' intrinsic growth state has not been activated. Therefore, it becomes one of the most interested targets for promoting spinal cord regeneration that how to enhance adult neurons' intrinsic growth capability, such as elevating adult neuron cAMP/PKA level, blocking Rho/ROCK pathway, modulating transcriptional factors etc., such that they no longer response to inhibitory environment. In this paper we will review the current research findings and recent progresses in this field.

  12. Capacity and capability enhancements of FBG sensor system by utilizing intensity and WDM detection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Zhuang, Yuan-Hong; Tsai, Ning; Chow, Chi-Wai

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a multipoint fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensor system by using intensity and wavelength-division-multiplexing (I-WDM) technique to enhance the sensing capacity and capability. In the proposed multipoint sensor system, a three output port optical splitter with different output ratios of 50%, 35% and 15% is proposed to connect each intensity coding FBG sensor for strain and temperature sensing simultaneously. Different output ratios of connected ports can produce different intensity-coding for I-WDM application. Nine FBGs with different Bragg wavelengths are employed for demonstration. The proposed FBG sensor system not only can sense the strain and temperature simultaneously, but also can increase the capacity and capability.

  13. A new active array MST radar system with enhanced capabilities for high resolution atmospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durga rao, Meka; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Patra, Amit; Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Narayana Rao, T.; Kamaraj, Pandian; Jayaraj, Katta; Kmv, Prasad; Kamal Kumar, J.; Raghavendra, J.; Prasad, T. Rajendra; Thriveni, A.; Yasodha, Polisetti

    2016-07-01

    A new version of the 53-MHz MST Radar, using the 1024 solid state Transmit-Receive Modules (TRM), necessary feeder network, multi-channel receiver and a modified radar controller has been established using the existing antenna array of 1024 crossed Yagis. The new system has been configured for steering the beam on a pulse-to-pulse basis in all 360o azimuth and 20o zenith angle, providing enhanced capability to study the Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere and Ionosphere. The multi channel receiver system has been designed for Spaced Antenna (SA) and Interferometry/ Iamging applications. The new system has also been configured for radiating in circular polarization for its application in the Ionosphere Incoherent Scatter mode. The new active array MST radar at Very-High-Frequency (53-MHz) located at Gadanki (13.45°N, 79.18°E), a tropical station in India, will be used to enhance the observations of winds, turbulence during the passage of convective events over the radar site as deep convection occurs very often at tropical latitudes. The new configuration with enhanced average power, beam agility with multi-channel experiments will be a potential source for studying middle atmosphere and ionosphere. In this paper, we present the system configuration, new capabilities and the first results obtained using the new version of the MST Radar.

  14. Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC): Recent Enhancements and Goals for Future Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Barbara M.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Davis, Victoria A.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    The Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC) is the leading interactive computer tool for assessing the effects of electric thruster plumes on spacecraft subsystems. EPIC, developed by SAIC under the sponsorship of the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, has three primary modules. One is PlumeTool, which calculates plumes of electrostatic thrusters and Hall-effect thrusters by modeling the primary ion beam as well as elastic scattering and charge-exchange of beam ions with thruster-generated neutrals. ObjectToolkit is a 3-D object definition and spacecraft surface modeling tool developed for use with several SEE Program codes. The main EPIC interface integrates the thruster plume into the 3-D geometry of the spacecraft and calculates interactions and effects of the plume with the spacecraft. Effects modeled include erosion of surfaces due to sputtering, re-deposition of sputtered materials, surface heating, torque on the spacecraft, and changes in surface properties due to erosion and deposition. In support of Prometheus I (JIMO), a number of new capabilities and enhancements were made to existing EPIC models. Enhancements to EPIC include adding the ability to scale and view individual plume components, to import a neutral plume associated with a thruster (to model a grid erosion plume, for example), and to calculate the plume from new initial beam conditions. Unfortunately, changes in program direction have left a number of desired enhancements undone. Variable gridding over a surface and resputtering of deposited materials, including multiple bounces and sticking coefficients, would significantly enhance the erosion/deposition model. Other modifications such as improving the heating model and the PlumeTool neutral plume model, enabling time dependent surface interactions, and including EM1 and optical effects would enable EPIC to better serve the aerospace engineer and electric propulsion systems integrator

  15. ATR NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC USER FACILITY INSTRUMENTATION ENHANCEMENT EFFORTS

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2009-04-01

    A key component of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) effort is to enhance instrumentation techniques available to users conducting irradiation tests in this unique facility. In particular, development of sensors capable of providing ‘real-time’ measurements of key irradiation parameters is emphasized because of their potential to offer increased fidelity data and reduced post-test examination costs. This paper describes the strategy for identifying new instrumentation needed for ATR irradiations and the program underway to develop and evaluate new sensors to address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing several new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide users improved in-pile instrumentation.

  16. [Isolation of filamentous fungi capable of enhancing sludge dewaterability and study of mechanisms responsible for the sludge dewaterability enhancement].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Jun; Fu, Hao-Yi; Fan, Xian-Feng; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Zheng, Guan-Yu

    2015-02-01

    To study the influence of filamentous fungi on the sludge dewaterability is very significant for the development of biological treatment methods for enhancing sludge dewaterability. In this study, filamentous fungi capable of enhancing sludge dewaterability were isolated from sewage sludge and the related mechanisms responsible for the sludge dewaterability enhancement were investigated. A filamentous fungus Mucor circinelloides ZG-3 was successfully isolated from sludge, and sludge dewaterability could be drastically improved by this fungus. Further study revealed that the enhancement of sludge dewaterability was influenced by inoculation method, inoculum size and solid content of sludge. The optimal inoculation method was mycelia inoculation, the optimal inoculum size was 10%, and the optimal solid content of sludge was about 4%. Under the optimized conditions, the specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of sludge could be decreased by 75.1% after being treated by M. circinelloides ZG-3. After the treatment, the COD value of sludge supernatant was only 310 mg x L(-1), and the treated sludge still exhibited good settleability. During the treatment of sewage sludge by M. circinelloides ZG-3, the mechanisms responsible for the sludge dewaterability enhancement included the degradation of sludge extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and the decrease of sludge pH. Therefore, the treatment of sewage sludge using M. circinelloides ZG-3 is a useful and novel method for sludge conditioning.

  17. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System:Capabilities for Operational Land Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, C. W.; Schneider, S.; Murphy, R.

    2005-12-01

    Over the last decade, the tri-agency Integrated Program Office (IPO), comprised of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Department of Defense (DoD), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has been managing the development of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). Once operational later this decade, NPOESS will replace NOAA's Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) systems. The IPO, through its Acquisition and Operations contractor, Northrop Grumman, will launch NPOESS spacecraft into three orbital planes to provide a single, national system capable of satisfying both civil and national security requirements for space-based, remotely sensed environmental data. With the development of NPOESS, we are evolving the existing "weather" satellites into integrated environmental observing systems by expanding our capabilities to observe, assess, and predict the total Earth system - ocean, atmosphere, land, and the space environment. NPOESS will transform today's short-term, space-based ocean research missions into a sustained, operational ocean remote sensing observation program. Land measurements comprise seven of the fifty-five user-validated requirements for geophysical measurements that will be made by NPOESS sensors. In 1997, the IPO initiated a robust sensor risk reduction effort for early development of the critical sensor suites and algorithms necessary to support NPOESS. In 2001, preliminary design efforts were completed for the last of five critical imaging/sounding instruments for NPOESS. Land requirements have directly and substantially "driven" the design of two NPOESS sensors: the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Conical-scanning Microwave Imager/Sounder (CMIS). Compared to the predecessor operational systems, NPOESS will deliver higher resolution (spatial and temporal

  18. Flexible holey graphene paper electrodes with enhanced rate capability for energy storage applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Hayner, Cary M; Kung, Mayfair C; Kung, Harold H

    2011-11-22

    The unique combination of high surface area, high electrical conductivity and robust mechanical integrity has attracted great interest in the use of graphene sheets for future electronics applications. Their potential applications for high-power energy storage devices, however, are restricted by the accessible volume, which may be only a fraction of the physical volume, a consequence of the compact geometry of the stack and the ion mobility. Here we demonstrated that remarkably enhanced power delivery can be realized in graphene papers for the use in Li-ion batteries by controlled generation of in-plane porosity via a mechanical cavitation-chemical oxidation approach. These flexible, holey graphene papers, created via facile microscopic engineering, possess abundant ion binding sites, enhanced ion diffusion kinetics, and excellent high-rate lithium-ion storage capabilities, and are suitable for high-performance energy storage devices.

  19. Resolved-particle simulation by the Physalis method: Enhancements and new capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierakowski, Adam J.; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    We present enhancements and new capabilities of the Physalis method for simulating disperse multiphase flows using particle-resolved simulation. The current work enhances the previous method by incorporating a new type of pressure-Poisson solver that couples with a new Physalis particle pressure boundary condition scheme and a new particle interior treatment to significantly improve overall numerical efficiency. Further, we implement a more efficient method of calculating the Physalis scalar products and incorporate short-range particle interaction models. We provide validation and benchmarking for the Physalis method against experiments of a sedimenting particle and of normal wall collisions. We conclude with an illustrative simulation of 2048 particles sedimenting in a duct. In the appendix, we present a complete and self-consistent description of the analytical development and numerical methods.

  20. Resolved-particle simulation by the Physalis method: Enhancements and new capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Sierakowski, Adam J.; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2016-03-15

    We present enhancements and new capabilities of the Physalis method for simulating disperse multiphase flows using particle-resolved simulation. The current work enhances the previous method by incorporating a new type of pressure-Poisson solver that couples with a new Physalis particle pressure boundary condition scheme and a new particle interior treatment to significantly improve overall numerical efficiency. Further, we implement a more efficient method of calculating the Physalis scalar products and incorporate short-range particle interaction models. We provide validation and benchmarking for the Physalis method against experiments of a sedimenting particle and of normal wall collisions. We conclude with an illustrative simulation of 2048 particles sedimenting in a duct. In the appendix, we present a complete and self-consistent description of the analytical development and numerical methods.

  1. Enhanced light-harvesting capability for silicon single-nanowire solar cells coupled with metallic cavity.

    PubMed

    Gai, Feng; Zhang, Cheng; Zhan, Yaohui; Li, Xiaofeng

    2016-12-26

    Single-nanowire solar cells (SNSCs) are attracting increasing interest due to their unique optical antenna effect beneficial for achieving higher light-trapping capability. However, for conventional circular-cross-sectional SNSCs, the light-trapping performance is still far from the expectation. Here we demonstrate that integrating a silicon single nanowire into a metallic slit can dramatically enhance the absorption efficiency over almost the whole spectral band due to strengthened optical antenna effect. Especially, it is found that by using finite-size metallic blocks to form a nanoscale metallic cavity, the light-trapping performance of the SNSCs can be further improved. Through examining the detailed optical spectral response, electric field distribution, and cavity dispersion characteristics, the metallic-coupled SNSC system is optimized and the underlying physics are provided. Simulation results indicate that the photocurrent density of the SNSCs coupled with the designed metallic cavity can be enhanced by 44.4% than that of the conventional bare SNSCs.

  2. Enhancements to NASA's Land Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for EOS (LANCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Diane; Michael, Karen; Schmaltz, Jeffrey; Boller, Ryan A.; Masuoka, Ed; Ye, Gang; Roman, Miguel; Vermote, Eric; Harrison, Sherry; Rinsland, Pamela; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) supports application users interested in monitoring a wide variety of natural and man-made phenomena. Near Real- Time (NRT) data and imagery from the AIRS, AMSR2, MISR, MLS, MODIS, OMPS, OMI and VIIRS instruments are available much quicker than routine processing allows. Most data products are available within 3 hours from satellite observation. NRT imagery are generally available 3-5 hours after observation. This article describes the LANCE and the enhancements made to the LANCE over the last year. These enhancements include the addition of NRT products from AMSR2, MISR, OMPS and VIIRS. In addition, the selection of LANCE NRT imagery that can be interactively viewed through Worldview and the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) has been expanded. Next year, data from the MOPITT will be added to the LANCE.

  3. Considerations for a PDV diagnostic capability on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frayer, Daniel K.; Fratanduono, Dayne

    2016-09-01

    Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) has become widely and routinely used in many high-velocity experimental applications due to its improved ease of use, cost, experimental flexibility, data return, and robustness compared to earlier velocimetric methods. However, these earlier methods have advantages in applications with requirements beyond PDV's current capabilities. Various classes of experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) that are characterized by extremely high velocity or acceleration, or diagnostic requirements for high precision in timing and/or velocity, have historically seen a VISAR (velocity interferometer system for any surface) diagnostic employed due to such advantages. VISAR, however, requires specific, and sometimes challenging, experimental features, including planar geometry and normal incidence, high-reflectivity surface treatment, and a relatively large and inflexible diagnostic footprint. Therefore, the potential for implementing a PDV diagnostic at NIF has been evaluated by researchers from National Security Technologies, LLC and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We present the results of this study, weigh the relative merits of the two methodologies with consideration of experimental phenomena and requirements, and discuss possible implementations and future directions.

  4. Biomineral/Agarose Composite Gels Enhance Proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Osteogenic Capability

    PubMed Central

    Suzawa, Yoshika; Kubo, Norihiko; Iwai, Soichi; Yura, Yoshiaki; Ohgushi, Hajime; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) or calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formed on an organic polymer of agarose gel is a biomaterial that can be used for bone tissue regeneration. However, in critical bone defects, the regeneration capability of these materials is limited. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into bone forming osteoblasts. In this study, we loaded MSCs on HA- or CaCO3-formed agarose gel and cultured them with dexamethasone, which triggers the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. High alkaline phosphatase activity was detected on both the HA- and CaCO3-formed agarose gels; however, basal activity was only detected on bare agarose gel. Bone-specific osteocalcin content was detected on CaCO3-formed agarose gel on Day 14 of culture, and levels subsequently increased over time. Similar osteocalcin content was detected on HA-formed agarose on Day 21 and levels increased on Day 28. In contrast, only small amounts of osteocalcin were found on bare agarose gel. Consequently, osteogenic capability of MSCs was enhanced on CaCO3-formed agarose at an early stage, and both HA- and CaCO3-formed agarose gels well supported the capability at a later stage. Therefore, MSCs loaded on either HA- or CaCO3-formed agarose could potentially be employed for the repair of critical bone defects. PMID:26110392

  5. Biomineral/Agarose Composite Gels Enhance Proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Osteogenic Capability.

    PubMed

    Suzawa, Yoshika; Kubo, Norihiko; Iwai, Soichi; Yura, Yoshiaki; Ohgushi, Hajime; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-06-23

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) or calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formed on an organic polymer of agarose gel is a biomaterial that can be used for bone tissue regeneration. However, in critical bone defects, the regeneration capability of these materials is limited. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into bone forming osteoblasts. In this study, we loaded MSCs on HA- or CaCO3-formed agarose gel and cultured them with dexamethasone, which triggers the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. High alkaline phosphatase activity was detected on both the HA- and CaCO3-formed agarose gels; however, basal activity was only detected on bare agarose gel. Bone-specific osteocalcin content was detected on CaCO3-formed agarose gel on Day 14 of culture, and levels subsequently increased over time. Similar osteocalcin content was detected on HA-formed agarose on Day 21 and levels increased on Day 28. In contrast, only small amounts of osteocalcin were found on bare agarose gel. Consequently, osteogenic capability of MSCs was enhanced on CaCO3-formed agarose at an early stage, and both HA- and CaCO3-formed agarose gels well supported the capability at a later stage. Therefore, MSCs loaded on either HA- or CaCO3-formed agarose could potentially be employed for the repair of critical bone defects.

  6. Test Capability Enhancements to the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvin, S. F.; Cabell, K. F.; Gallimore, S. D.; Mekkes, G. L.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel produces true enthalpy environments simulating flight from Mach 4 to Mach 7, primarily for airbreathing propulsion and aerothermal/thermo-structural testing. Flow conditions are achieved through a methane-air heater and nozzles producing aerodynamic Mach numbers of 4, 5 or 7 and have exit diameters of 8 feet or 4.5 feet. The 12-ft long free-jet test section, housed inside a 26-ft vacuum sphere, accommodates large test articles. Recently, the facility underwent significant upgrades to support hydrocarbon fueled scramjet engine testing and to expand flight simulation capability. The upgrades were required to meet engine system development and flight clearance verification requirements originally defined by the joint NASA-Air Force X-43C Hypersonic Flight Demonstrator Project and now the Air Force X-51A Program. Enhancements to the 8-Ft. HTT were made in four areas: 1) hydrocarbon fuel delivery; 2) flight simulation capability; 3) controls and communication; and 4) data acquisition/processing. The upgrades include the addition of systems to supply ethylene and liquid JP-7 to test articles; a Mach 5 nozzle with dynamic pressure simulation capability up to 3200 psf, the addition of a real-time model angle-of-attack system; a new programmable logic controller sub-system to improve process controls and communication with model controls; the addition of MIL-STD-1553B and high speed data acquisition systems and a classified data processing environment. These additions represent a significant increase to the already unique test capability and flexibility of the facility, and complement the existing array of test support hardware such as a model injection system, radiant heaters, six-component force measurement system, and optical flow field visualization hardware. The new systems support complex test programs that require sophisticated test sequences and precise management of process fluids. Furthermore, the new systems, such

  7. Lizard Tail Regeneration As An Instructive Model of Enhanced Healing Capabilities In An Adult Amniote

    PubMed Central

    Lozito, Thomas P.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to regenerate damaged or lost tissues has remained the lofty goal of regenerative medicine. Unfortunately, humans, like most mammals, suffer from very minimal natural regenerative capabilities. Certain non-mammalian animal species, however, are not so limited in their healing capabilities, and several have attracted the attention of researchers hoping to recreate enhanced healing responses in humans. This review focuses on one such animal group with remarkable regenerative abilities, the lizards. As the closest relatives of mammals that exhibit enhanced regenerative abilities as adults, lizards potentially represent the most relevant model for direct comparison and subsequent improvement of mammalian healing. Lizards are able to regenerate amputated tails, and exhibit adaptations that both limit tissue damage in response to injury and initiate coordinated regenerative responses. This review summarizes the salient aspects of lizard tail regeneration as they relate to the overall regenerative process, and also presents the relevant information pertaining to regrowth of specific tissues, including skeletal, muscular, nervous, and vascular tissues. The goal of this review is to introduce the topic of lizard tail regeneration to new audiences with the hope of expanding the knowledge base of this under-utilized but potentially powerful model organism. PMID:27459585

  8. Lizard tail regeneration as an instructive model of enhanced healing capabilities in an adult amniote.

    PubMed

    Lozito, Thomas P; Tuan, Rocky S

    2017-03-01

    The ability to regenerate damaged or lost tissues has remained the lofty goal of regenerative medicine. Unfortunately, humans, like most mammals, suffer from very minimal natural regenerative capabilities. Certain non-mammalian animal species, however, are not so limited in their healing capabilities, and several have attracted the attention of researchers hoping to recreate enhanced healing responses in humans. This review focuses on one such animal group with remarkable regenerative abilities, the lizards. As the closest relatives of mammals that exhibit enhanced regenerative abilities as adults, lizards potentially represent the most relevant model for direct comparison and subsequent improvement of mammalian healing. Lizards are able to regenerate amputated tails and exhibit adaptations that both limit tissue damage in response to injury and initiate coordinated regenerative responses. This review summarizes the salient aspects of lizard tail regeneration as they relate to the overall regenerative process and also presents the relevant information pertaining to regrowth of specific tissues, including skeletal, muscular, nervous, and vascular tissues. The goal of this review is to introduce the topic of lizard tail regeneration to new audiences with the hope of expanding the knowledge base of this underutilized but potentially powerful model organism.

  9. Enhancing the predictive capability of the modified Paschen law using Bayesian calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva da Costa, Rennan; Ayyaswamy, Venkattraman

    2016-10-01

    Microscale gas breakdown is an important failure mechanism that needs to be mitigated for the successful long-term operation of microelectromechanical systems operating at low to moderate voltages. While the Paschen law governs traditional breakdown in macroscale gaps, several independent datasets have observed unusual breakdown at gap sizes less than 10 μm. It is now well-established that the driving mechanism for this deviation is field-induced electron emission thereby leading to what is referred to as the modified Paschen law. In spite of the existence of several models to predict breakdown in microgaps, the significant uncertainty in the field enhancement factor of a given electrode surface limits the predictive capability of these models. More recently, it has been hypothesized that there is a strong inverse correlation between the field enhancement factor and the electric field. In this context, the current work quantifies this correlation using a modified Paschen law in conjunction with several experimental datasets by performing a rigorous calibration exercise using sophisticated statistical methods. Specifically, a Bayesian approach was used, and the outcomes of this effort are anticipated to significantly add to the predictive capability of the modified Paschen law. Brazilian Scientific Mobility Program.

  10. Siting study for a consolidated waste capability at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Steven Richard

    2011-01-26

    Decision analysis was used to rank alternative sites for a new Consolidated Waste Capability (CWC) to replace current hazardous solid waste operations (hazardous/chemical, mixed lowlevel, transuranic, and low-level waste) at Los Alamos National Laboratory's TA-54 Area G. An original list of 21 site alternatives was pre-screened to ten sites that were assessed using the analytical hierarchy process with five top-level criteria and fifteen sub-criteria. Three passes of the analysis were required to assess different site scenarios: 1) a fully consolidated CWC with both transfer/storage and LL W disposal in one location (45 acre minimum), 2) CWC transfer/storage only (12 acre minimum), and 3) LLW disposal only (33 acre minimum). The top site choice for all three options is TA-63/52/46; the second choice is TA-18/36. TA-54 East, Zone 4 also deserves consideration as a LLW disposal site.

  11. Capabilities for high explosive pulsed power research at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Goforth, James H; Oona, Henn; Tasker, Douglas G; Kaul, A M

    2008-01-01

    Research on topics requiring high magnetic fields and high currents have been pursued using high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) techniques since the 1950s at Los Alamos National Laboratory. We have developed many sophisticated HEPr systems through the years, and most of them depend on technology available from the nuclear weapons program. Through the 1980s and 1990s, our budgets would sustain parallel efforts in zpinch research using both HEPr and capacitor banks. In recent years, many changes have occurred that are driven by concerns such as safety, security, and environment, as well as reduced budgets and downsizing of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) complex due to the end of the cold war era. In this paper, we review the teclmiques developed to date, and adaptations that are driven by changes in budgets and our changing complex. One new Ranchero-based solid liner z-pinch experimental design is also presented. Explosives that are cast to shape instead of being machined, and initiation systems that depend on arrays of slapper detonators are important new tools. Some materials that are seen as hazardous to the environment are avoided in designs. The process continues to allow a wide range of research however, and there are few, if any, experiments that we have done in the past that could not be perform today. The HErr firing facility at Los Alamos continues to have a 2000 lb. high explosive limit, and our 2.4 MJ capacitor bank remains a mainstay of the effort. Modem diagnostic and data analysis capabilities allow fewer personnel to achieve better results, and in the broad sense we continue to have a robust capability.

  12. [Capability of national reference laboratories in Latin America to detect emerging resistance mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Corso, Alejandra; Guerriero, Leonor; Pasterán, Fernando; Ceriana, Paola; Callejo, Raquel; Prieto, Mónica; Tuduri, Ezequiel; Lopardo, Horacio; Vay, Carlos; Smayevsky, Jorgelina; Tokumoto, Marta; Alvarez, Jorge Matheu; Pardo, Pilar Ramón; Galas, Marcelo

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the capability of 17 national reference laboratories participating in the Latin American Quality Control Program in Bacteriology and Antibiotic Resistance (LA-EQAS) to detect emerging resistance mechanisms- namely: resistance of enterobacteria to carbapenems due to the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) type IMP, and intermediate resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates to vancomycin (vancomycin-intermediate resistant S. aureus-VISA). The following three isolates were sent to the 17 participating LA-EQAS laboratories: KPC -producing Klebsiella pneumoniae PAHO-161, IMP-producing Enterobacter cloacae PAHO-166, and S. aureus PAHO-165 with intermediate resistance to vancomycin. Performance of each of the following operations was evaluated: interpretation of sensitivity tests, detection of the resistance mechanism, and assessment of either inhibition halo size (disk diffusion method) or minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Concordance in the detection of resistance mechanisms was 76.4%, 73.3%, and 66.7% for the K. pneumoniae PAHO-161, E. cloacae PAHO-166, and S. aureus PAHO-165 strains, respectively. Concordance between the inhibition areas observed by the participating laboratories and the ranges established by the coordinating laboratory was acceptable for all three isolates, at 90.8%, 92.8%, and 88.9%, respectively. Overall concordance in on the detection of KPC, MBL, and VISA resistance mechanisms was 72.1%. We consider the national reference laboratories in Latin America capable of recognizing these emerging resistance mechanisms and expect that maximum levels of concordance will be reached in the future.

  13. Cross-cultural communication capabilities of U.S. military trainers: host nation perspective.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Maysaa; Alameri, Ali; Jawad, Shakir; Alani, Yasir; Zuerlein, Scott; Nakano, Gregg; Anderson, Warner; Beadling, Charles

    2013-06-01

    A survey was conducted to assess trainee perception of the cross-cultural communication competency of U.S. military trainers and their satisfaction with the training they received. Findings from the survey show that U.S. military trainers rely significantly on local interpreters. This indicates variability in the ability of the trainers to communicate effectively with host nation partners, the variability being dependent on the capabilities of the individual interpreter. The findings illustrate the importance of providing military health personnel with training on how to work effectively with interpreters. The use of supplementary resources such as electronic translation devises when the interpreter is not capable of conveying health-related training information with the desired level of accuracy is recommended. Expanding the availability of general cultural training, which provides baseline information on local values, traditions, and customs in addition to health-specific cultural orientation, is also recommended to help military health trainers customize their training content and methods to fit the local environment. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. Image processing for the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Richard R.; Awwal, Abdul A. S.; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Miller-Kamm, Victoria; Orth, Charles; Roberts, Randy; Wilhelmsen, Karl

    2016-09-01

    The Advance Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a laser system that employs up to four petawatt (PW) lasers to produce a sequence of short-pulse kilo-Joule laser pulses with controllable delays that generate X-rays to provide backlighting for high-density internal confinement fusion (ICF) capsule targets. Multi-frame, hard-X-ray radiography of imploding NIF capsules is a capability which is critical to the success of NIF's missions. ARC is designed to employ up to eight backlighters with tens-of-picosecond temporal resolution, to record the dynamics and produce an X-ray "motion picture" of the compression and ignition of cryogenic deuterium-tritium targets. ARC will generate tens-of-picosecond temporal resolution during the critical phases of ICF shots. Additionally, ARC supports a variety of other high energy density experiments including fast ignition studies on NIF. The automated alignment image analysis algorithms use digital camera sensor images to direct ARC beams onto the tens-of-microns scale metal wires. This paper describes the ARC automatic alignment sequence throughout the laser chain from pulse initiation to target with an emphasis on the image processing algorithms that generate the crucial alignment positions for ARC. The image processing descriptions and flow diagrams detail the alignment control loops throughout the ARC laser chain beginning in the ARC high-contrast front end (HCAFE), on into the ARC main laser area, and ending in the ARC target area.

  15. Arctic Observing Network (AON): Enhancing Observing, Data Archiving and Data Discovery Capabilities as Arctic Environmental System Change Continues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, M. O.

    2008-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, under the auspices of the U.S. Inter-Agency Arctic Research Policy Committee, are leading the development of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) as part of the implementation of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) and as a legacy of International Polar Year (IPY). As the Observing Change component of SEARCH, AON complements the Understanding Change and Responding to Change components. AON addresses the need to enhance observing capabilities in a data-sparse region where environmental system changes are among the most rapid on Earth. AON data will contribute to research into understanding the causes and consequences of Arctic environmental system change and its global connections, and to improving predictive skill. AON is also a contribution to the development of a multi-nation, pan-Arctic observing network that is being discussed at the IPY 'Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks' (SAON) workshops. Enhancing Arctic observing capabilities faces many challenges, including coordination and integration of disparate observing elements and data systems that operate according to diverse policies and practices. There is wide agreement that data systems that provide archiving and discovery services are essential and integral to AON. In recognition of this, NSF is supporting the development of CADIS (Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service) as an AON portal for data discovery, a repository for data storage, and a platform for data analysis. NSF is also supporting ELOKA (Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge in the Arctic), a pilot project for a data management and networking service for community- based observing that keeps control of data in the hands of data providers while still allowing for broad searches and sharing of information. CADIS and ELOKA represent the application of cyberinfrastructure to meet AON data system needs that might also

  16. Evaluation of National Seismograph Network detection capabilities. Annual report, July 1994--July 1995: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, K.L.; Bennett, T.J.

    1996-03-01

    This first annual report presents detection thresholds and probabilities, and location error ellipse projects for the United States National Seismic Network (USNSN) with and without cooperative stations in the eastern US. Network simulation methods are used with spectral noise levels at stations to simulate the processes of excitation, propagation, detection, and processing of seismic phases. USNSN alone should be capable of detecting 4 or more P waves for shallow crustal earthquakes in nearly all the eastern and central US at magnitude 3.8 level. When cooperative stations are added, the network should be able to detect 4 or more P waves from events 0.2 to 0.3 magnitude units lower. Planned expansion of USNSN and cooperative stations should improve detection levels by an additional 0.2-0.3 magnitudes units in many areas. Location uncertainties for USNSN can be improved by adding real-time cooperative stations. Median error ellipses for magnitude 4.5 earthquakes depend strongly on location, but uncertainties should be less than 100 km{sup 2} in the central US and degrade to 200 km{sup 2} or more offshore and sosuth and north of the international boundaries. Close cooperation with the Canadian National Network should substantially improve detection thresholds and location uncertainties along the Canadian border.

  17. Use of Air Quality Observations by the National Air Quality Forecast Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajner, I.; McQueen, J.; Lee, P.; Stein, A. F.; Kondragunta, S.; Ruminski, M.; Tong, D.; Pan, L.; Huang, J. P.; Shafran, P.; Huang, H. C.; Dickerson, P.; Upadhayay, S.

    2015-12-01

    The National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) operational predictions of ozone and wildfire smoke for the United States (U.S.) and predictions of airborne dust for continental U.S. are available at http://airquality.weather.gov/. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational North American Mesoscale (NAM) weather predictions are combined with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to produce the ozone predictions and test fine particulate matter (PM2.5) predictions. The Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model provides smoke and dust predictions. Air quality observations constrain emissions used by NAQFC predictions. NAQFC NOx emissions from mobile sources were updated using National Emissions Inventory (NEI) projections for year 2012. These updates were evaluated over large U.S. cities by comparing observed changes in OMI NO2 observations and NOx measured by surface monitors. The rate of decrease in NOx emission projections from year 2005 to year 2012 is in good agreement with the observed changes over the same period. Smoke emissions rely on the fire locations detected from satellite observations obtained from NESDIS Hazard Mapping System (HMS). Dust emissions rely on a climatology of areas with a potential for dust emissions based on MODIS Deep Blue aerosol retrievals. Verification of NAQFC predictions uses AIRNow compilation of surface measurements for ozone and PM2.5. Retrievals of smoke from GOES satellites are used for verification of smoke predictions. Retrievals of dust from MODIS are used for verification of dust predictions. In summary, observations are the basis for the emissions inputs for NAQFC, they are critical for evaluation of performance of NAQFC predictions, and furthermore they are used in real-time testing of bias correction of PM2.5 predictions, as we continue to work on improving modeling and emissions important for representation of PM2.5.

  18. Transitioning Enhanced Land Surface Initialization and Model Verification Capabilities to the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Mungai, John; Sakwa, Vincent; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Limaye, Ashutosh; Blankenship, Clay B.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding, severe weather, and drought are key forecasting challenges for the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD), based in Nairobi, Kenya. Atmospheric processes leading to convection, excessive precipitation and/or prolonged drought can be strongly influenced by land cover, vegetation, and soil moisture content, especially during anomalous conditions and dry/wet seasonal transitions. It is thus important to represent accurately land surface state variables (green vegetation fraction, soil moisture, and soil temperature) in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. The NASA SERVIR and the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) programs in Huntsville, AL have established a working partnership with KMD to enhance its regional modeling capabilities. SPoRT and SERVIR are providing experimental land surface initialization datasets and model verification capabilities for capacity building at KMD. To support its forecasting operations, KMD is running experimental configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF; Skamarock et al. 2008) model on a 12-km/4-km nested regional domain over eastern Africa, incorporating the land surface datasets provided by NASA SPoRT and SERVIR. SPoRT, SERVIR, and KMD participated in two training sessions in March 2014 and June 2015 to foster the collaboration and use of unique land surface datasets and model verification capabilities. Enhanced regional modeling capabilities have the potential to improve guidance in support of daily operations and high-impact weather and climate outlooks over Eastern Africa. For enhanced land-surface initialization, the NASA Land Information System (LIS) is run over Eastern Africa at 3-km resolution, providing real-time land surface initialization data in place of interpolated global model soil moisture and temperature data available at coarser resolutions. Additionally, real-time green vegetation fraction (GVF) composites from the Suomi-NPP VIIRS instrument is being incorporated

  19. Strengthening Climate Services Capabilities and Regional Engagement at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, E.

    2008-12-01

    Information System (PaCIS) as a regional climate service prototype; and ongoing planning for enhanced climate services activities at NCDC in the context of discussions of a national climate service.

  20. Northwest Trajectory Analysis Capability: A Platform for Enhancing Computational Biophysics Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Corrigan, Abigail L.; Lins, Roberto D.; Soares, Thereza A.; Scarberry, Randall E.; Rose, Stuart J.; Williams, Leigh K.; Lai, Canhai; Critchlow, Terence J.; Straatsma, TP

    2008-07-30

    As computational resources continue to increase, the ability of computational simulations to effectively complement, and in some cases replace, experimentation in scientific exploration also increases. Today, large-scale simulations are recognized as an effective tool for scientific exploration in many disciplines including chemistry and biology. A natural side effect of this trend has been the need for an increasingly complex analytical environment. In this paper, we describe Northwest Trajectory Analysis Capability (NTRAC), an analytical software suite developed to enhance the efficiency of computational biophysics analyses. Our strategy is to layer higher-level services and introduce improved tools within the user’s familiar environment without preventing researchers from using traditional tools and methods. Our desire is to share these experiences to serve as an example for effectively analyzing data intensive large scale simulation data.

  1. Synthetic Vision Enhances Situation Awareness and RNP Capabilities for Terrain-Challenged Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III

    2003-01-01

    The Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Project of Aviation Safety Program is striving to eliminate poor visibility as a causal factor in aircraft accidents as well as enhance operational capabilities of all aircraft through the display of computer generated imagery derived from an onboard database of terrain, obstacle, and airport information. To achieve these objectives, NASA 757 flight test research was conducted at the Eagle-Vail, Colorado airport to evaluate three SVS display types (Head-Up Display, Head-Down Size A, Head-Down Size X) and two terrain texture methods (photo-realistic, generic) in comparison to the simulated Baseline Boeing-757 Electronic Attitude Direction Indicator and Navigation / Terrain Awareness and Warning System displays. These independent variables were evaluated for situation awareness, path error, and workload while making approaches to Runway 25 and 07 and during simulated engine-out Cottonwood 2 and KREMM departures. The results of the experiment showed significantly improved situation awareness, performance, and workload for SVS concepts compared to the Baseline displays and confirmed the retrofit capability of the Head-Up Display and Size A SVS concepts. The research also demonstrated that the pathway and pursuit guidance used within the SVS concepts achieved required navigation performance (RNP) criteria.

  2. Design Guidelines for Shielding Effectiveness, Current Carrying Capability, and the Enhancement of Conductivity of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, R. W.

    1997-01-01

    These guidelines address the electrical properties of composite materials which may have an effect on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). The main topics of the guidelines include the electrical shielding, fault current return, and lightning protection capabilities of graphite reinforced polymers, since they are somewhat conductive but may require enhancement to be adequate for EMC purposes. Shielding effectiveness depends heavily upon the conductivity of the material. Graphite epoxy can provide useful shielding against RF signals, but it is approximately 1,000 times more resistive than good conductive metals. The reduced shielding effectiveness is significant but is still useful in many cases. The primary concern is with gaps and seams in the material just as it is with metal. Current carrying capability of graphite epoxy is adequate for dissipation static charges, but fault currents through graphite epoxy may cause fire at the shorting contact and at joints. The effect of lightning on selected graphite epoxy material and mating surfaces is described, and protection methods are reviewed.

  3. l-Theanine prevents alcoholic liver injury through enhancing the antioxidant capability of hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Guilan; Ye, Yin; Kang, Jingjing; Yao, Xiangyang; Zhang, Yizhou; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Min; Dai, Yudong; Xin, Yinqiang; Wang, Qi; Yin, Zhimin; Luo, Lan

    2012-02-01

    l-Theanine is a unique amino acid in green tea. We here evaluated the protective effects of l-theanine on ethanol-induced liver injury in vitro and in vivo. Our results revealed that l-theanine significantly protected hepatocytes against ethanol-induced cell cytotoxicity which displayed by decrease of viability and increase of LDH and AST. Furthermore, the experiments of DAPI staining, pro-caspase3 level and PARP cleavage determination indicated that l-theanine inhibited ethanol-induced L02 cell apoptosis. Mechanically, l-theanine inhibited loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and prevented cytochrome c release from mitochondria in ethanol-treated L02 cells. l-Theanine also prevented ethanol-triggered ROS and MDA generation in L02 cells. l-Theanine restored the antioxidant capability of hepatocytes including GSH content and SOD activity which were reduced by ethanol. In vivo experiments showed that l-theanine significantly inhibited ethanol-stimulated the increase of ALT, AST, TG and MDA in mice. Histopathological examination demonstrated that l-theanine pretreated to mice apparently diminished ethanol-induced fat droplets. In accordance with the in vitro study, l-theanine significantly inhibited ethanol-induced reduction of mouse antioxidant capability which included the activities of SOD, CAT and GR, and level of GSH. These results indicated that l-theanine prevented ethanol-induced liver injury through enhancing hepatocyte antioxidant abilities.

  4. Development and integration of Raman imaging capabilities to Sandia National Laboratories hyperspectral fluorescence imaging instrument.

    SciTech Connect

    Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Nieman, Linda T.

    2005-11-01

    Raman spectroscopic imaging is a powerful technique for visualizing chemical differences within a variety of samples based on the interaction of a substance's molecular vibrations with laser light. While Raman imaging can provide a unique view of samples such as residual stress within silicon devices, chemical degradation, material aging, and sample heterogeneity, the Raman scattering process is often weak and thus requires very sensitive collection optics and detectors. Many commercial instruments (including ones owned here at Sandia National Laboratories) generate Raman images by raster scanning a point focused laser beam across a sample--a process which can expose a sample to extreme levels of laser light and requires lengthy acquisition times. Our previous research efforts have led to the development of a state-of-the-art two-dimensional hyperspectral imager for fluorescence imaging applications such as microarray scanning. This report details the design, integration, and characterization of a line-scan Raman imaging module added to this efficient hyperspectral fluorescence microscope. The original hyperspectral fluorescence instrument serves as the framework for excitation and sample manipulation for the Raman imaging system, while a more appropriate axial transmissive Raman imaging spectrometer and detector are utilized for collection of the Raman scatter. The result is a unique and flexible dual-modality fluorescence and Raman imaging system capable of high-speed imaging at high spatial and spectral resolutions. Care was taken throughout the design and integration process not to hinder any of the fluorescence imaging capabilities. For example, an operator can switch between the fluorescence and Raman modalities without need for extensive optical realignment. The instrument performance has been characterized and sample data is presented.

  5. MAINTAINING HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY CAPABILITIES FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, S.; Cordaro, J.; Reeves, G.; Mcintosh, J.; Mauldin, C.; Tietze, K.; Varble, D.

    2011-06-06

    The Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a specialized need for analyzing low mass gas species at very high resolutions. The currently preferred analytical method is electromagnetic sector mass spectrometry. This method allows the NNSA Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) to resolve species of similar masses down to acceptable minimum detection limits (MDLs). Some examples of these similar masses are helium-4/deuterium and carbon monoxide/nitrogen. Through the 1980s and 1990s, there were two vendors who supplied and supported these instruments. However, with declining procurements and down turns in the economy, the supply of instruments, service and spare parts from these vendors has become less available, and in some cases, nonexistent. The largest NSE user of this capability is the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. The Research and Development Engineering (R&DE) Group in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) investigated the areas of instrument support that were needed to extend the life cycle of these aging instruments. Their conclusions, as to the focus areas of electromagnetic sector mass spectrometers to address, in order of priority, were electronics, software and hardware. Over the past 3-5 years, the R&DE Group has designed state of the art electronics and software that will allow high resolution legacy mass spectrometers, critical to the NNSA mission, to be operated for the foreseeable future. The funding support for this effort has been from several sources, including the SRS Defense Programs, NNSA Readiness Campaign, Pantex Plant and Sandia National Laboratory. To date, electronics systems have been upgraded on one development system at SRNL, two production systems at Pantex and one production system at Sandia National Laboratory. An NSE working group meets periodically to review strategies going forward. The R&DE Group has also applied their work to the electronics for a

  6. Enhancements to NASA's Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, K.; Davies, D. K.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Boller, R. A.; Mauoka, E.; Ye, G.; Vermote, E.; Harrison, S.; Rinsland, P. L.; Protack, S.; Durbin, P. B.; Justice, C. O.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) supports application users interested in monitoring a wide variety of natural and man-made phenomena. Near Real-Time (NRT) data and imagery from the AIRS, AMSR2, MISR, MLS, MODIS, OMI and VIIRS instruments are available much quicker than routine processing allows. Most data products are available within 3 hours from satellite observation. NRT imagery are generally available 3-5 hours after observation. This article describes LANCE and enhancements made to LANCE over the last year. These enhancements include: the addition of MISR L1 Georeferenced Radiance and L2 Cloud Motion Vector products, AMSR2 Unified L2B Half-Orbit 25 km EASE-Grid Surface Soil Moisture products and VIIRS VIIRS Day/Night Band, Land Surface Reflectance and Corrected Surface reflectance products. In addition, the selection of LANCE NRT imagery that can be interactively viewed through Worldview and the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) has been expanded. LANCE is also working to ingest and process data from OMPS.

  7. Mach Stability Improvements Using an Existing Second Throat Capability at the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent data quality improvements at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) have an intended goal of reducing the Mach number variation in a data point to within unit vector A plus or minus 0.0005, with the ultimate goal of reducing the data repeatability of the drag coefficient for full-span subsonic transport models at transonic speeds to within half of a drag count. This paper will discuss the Mach stability improvements achieved through the use of an existing second throat capability at the NTF to create a minimum area at the end of the test section. These improvements were demonstrated using both the NASA Common Research Model and the NTF Pathfinder-I model in recent experiments. Sonic conditions at the throat were verified using sidewall static pressure data. The Mach variation levels from both experiments in the baseline tunnel configuration and the choked tunnel configuration will be presented. Finally, a brief discussion is given on the consequences of using the second throat in its location at the end of the test section.

  8. High heat flux testing capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories - New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Youchison, D.L.; McDonald, J.M.; Wold, L.S.

    1994-12-31

    High heat flux testing for the United States fusion power program is the primary mission of the Plasma Materials Test Facility (PMTF) located at Sandia National Laboratories - New Mexico. This facility, which is owned by the United States Department of Energy, has been in operation for over 17 years and has provided much of the high heat flux data used in the design and evaluation of plasma facing components for many of the world`s magnetic fusion, tokamak experiments. In addition to domestic tokamaks such as Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton and the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics, components for international experiments like TEXTOR, Tore-Supra, and JET also have been tested at the PMTF. High heat flux testing spans a wide spectrum including thermal shock tests on passively cooled materials, thermal response and thermal fatigue tests on actively cooled components, critical heat flux-burnout tests, braze reliability tests and safety related tests. The objective of this article is to provide a brief overview of the high heat flux testing capabilities at the PMTF and describe a few of the experiments performed over the last year.

  9. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Emergency Response Capability 2009 Baseline Needs Assessment Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2009-12-30

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and Division Leader for Fire Protection and was reviewed by Sandia/CA Fire Marshal, Martin Gresho. This document is the second of a two-part analysis of Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2009 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2004 BNA, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures. On October 1, 2007, LLNL contracted with the Alameda County Fire Department to provide emergency response services. The level of service called for in that contract is the same level of service as was provided by the LLNL Fire Department prior to that date. This Compliance Assessment will evaluate fire department services beginning October 1, 2008 as provided by the Alameda County Fire Department.

  10. Near-bottom Multibeam Survey Capabilities in the US National Deep Submergence Facility (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoerger, D. R.; McCue, S. J.; Jason; Sentry Operations Groups

    2010-12-01

    The US National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) provides near-bottom multibeam mapping capabilities from the autonomous underwater vehicle Sentry and the remotely operated vehicle Jason. These vehicles can be used to depths of 4500 and 6500m respectively. Both vehicles are equipped with Reson 7125 400khz multibeam sonars as well as compatible navigation equipment (inertial navigation systems, doppler velocity logs, and acoustic navigation systems). These vehicles have produced maps of rugged Mid-Ocean Ridge terrain in the Galapagos Rift, natural oil and gas seeps off the coast of Southern California, deep coral sites in the Gulf of Mexico, and sites for the Ocean Observing Initiative off the coast of Oregon. Multibeam surveys are conducted from heights between 20 and 80 meters, allowing the scientific user to select the tradeoff between resolution and coverage rate. In addition to conventional bathymetric mapping, the systems have used to image methane bubble plumes from natural seeps. This talk will provide summaries of these mapping efforts and describe the data processing pipeline used to produce maps shortly after each dive. Development efforts to reduce navigational errors and reconcile discrepancies between adjacent swaths will also be described.

  11. Mach Stability Improvements Using an Existing Second Throat Capability at the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, David T.; Balakrishna, Sundareswara; Walker, Eric L.; Goodliff, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent data quality improvements at the National Transonic Facility have an intended goal of reducing the Mach number variation in a data point to within plus or minus 0.0005, with the ultimate goal of reducing the data repeatability of the drag coefficient for full-span subsonic transport models at transonic speeds to within half a drag count. This paper will discuss the Mach stability improvements achieved through the use of an existing second throat capability at the NTF to create a minimum area at the end of the test section. These improvements were demonstrated using both the NASA Common Research Model and the NTF Pathfinder-I model in recent experiments. Sonic conditions at the throat were verified using sidewall static pressure data. The Mach variation levels from both experiments in the baseline tunnel configuration and the choked tunnel configuration will be presented and the correlation between Mach number and drag will also be examined. Finally, a brief discussion is given on the consequences of using the second throat in its location at the end of the test section.

  12. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Capability Roadmap Development for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Metcalf, Jordan; Peterson, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    NASA is considering a number of future human space exploration mission concepts. Although detailed requirements and vehicle architectures remain mostly undefined, near-term technology investment decisions need to be guided by the anticipated capabilities needed to enable or enhance the mission concepts. This paper describes a roadmap that NASA has formulated to guide the development of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) capabilities required to enhance the long-term operation of the International Space Station (ISS) and enable beyond-Low Earth Orbit (LEO) human exploration missions. Three generic mission types were defined to serve as a basis for developing a prioritized list of needed capabilities and technologies. Those are 1) a short duration micro gravity mission; 2) a long duration transit microgravity mission; and 3) a long duration surface exploration mission. To organize the effort, ECLSS was categorized into three major functional groups (atmosphere, water, and solid waste management) with each broken down into sub-functions. The ability of existing, flight-proven state-of-the-art (SOA) technologies to meet the functional needs of each of the three mission types was then assessed. When SOA capabilities fell short of meeting the needs, those "gaps" were prioritized in terms of whether or not the corresponding capabilities enable or enhance each of the mission types. The resulting list of enabling and enhancing capability gaps can be used to guide future ECLSS development. A strategy to fulfill those needs over time was then developed in the form of a roadmap. Through execution of this roadmap, the hardware and technologies needed to enable and enhance exploration may be developed in a manner that synergistically benefits the ISS operational capability, supports Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) development, and sustains long-term technology investments for longer duration missions. This paper summarizes NASA s ECLSS capability roadmap

  13. Providing the Nation a Significant "High-Test Peroxide" Propulsion Test Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, R.; Taylor, G.; Beckmeyer, D.; Warren, S.; Dracon, S.; Powell, B.; Goodwin, D.; Rieder, P.; Nichols, R.

    1999-01-01

    Renewed interest in high-test peroxide, as a propellant, required the development of a facility capable of testing rocket propulsion systems. The development of this capability at the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC), MS, focused on meeting this requirement. The challenges, accomplishments, and lessons learned associated with developing the SSC E3 Test Facility's high-test peroxide capability are presented herein.

  14. Enhanced lithium storage capability of sodium lithium titanate via lithium-site doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengfei; Li, Peng; Yi, Ting-Feng; Lin, Xiaoting; Yu, Haoxiang; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Qian, Shangshu; Shui, Miao; Shu, Jie

    2015-11-01

    In this work, Na2Li2Ti6O14 and its Li-site substitution Na2Li1.9M0.1Ti6O14 (Mn+ = Na+, Mg2+, Cr3+, Ti4+, V5+) samples are synthesized by a simple solid state reaction route and evaluated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Their crystal structures and ion doping behaviors are described and verified by Rietveld refinement. Electrochemical results exhibit that Na+, Mg2+ and Cr3+ dopings can effectively improve the lithium storage capability of Na2Li2Ti6O14. Especially for Na2Li1.9Cr0.1Ti6O14, it shows the best cycling and rate properties among all the as-prepared samples, with a cycling reversible capacity of 262.2 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and a rate charge capacity of 233.3 mAh g-1 at 700 mA g-1. The enhanced electrochemical properties are contributed to the reduced particle size, decreased charge transfer resistance and improved ionic diffusion coefficient of Na2Li2Ti6O14 via Cr3+ doping. Furthermore, the zero-strain characteristic should also be responsible for the outstanding lithium storage capability of Na2Li1.9Cr0.1Ti6O14. Besides, in-situ X-ray diffraction also reveals that Na2Li1.9Cr0.1Ti6O14 has high structural stability and reversibility during charge-discharge process. Therefore, Na2Li1.9Cr0.1Ti6O14 may be a probable high performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  15. The DoD's High Performance Computing Modernization Program - Ensuing the National Earth Systems Prediction Capability Becomes Operational

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, W.

    2016-12-01

    The Department of Defense's (DoD) High Performance Computing Modernization Program (HPCMP) provides high performance computing to address the most significant challenges in computational resources, software application support and nationwide research and engineering networks. Today, the HPCMP has a critical role in ensuring the National Earth System Prediction Capability (N-ESPC) achieves initial operational status in 2019. A 2015 study commissioned by the HPCMP found that N-ESPC computational requirements will exceed interconnect bandwidth capacity due to the additional load from data assimilation and passing connecting data between ensemble codes. Memory bandwidth and I/O bandwidth will continue to be significant bottlenecks for the Navy's Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) scalability - by far the major driver of computing resource requirements in the N-ESPC. The study also found that few of the N-ESPC model developers have detailed plans to ensure their respective codes scale through 2024. Three HPCMP initiatives are designed to directly address and support these issues: Productivity Enhancement, Technology, Transfer and Training (PETTT), the HPCMP Applications Software Initiative (HASI), and Frontier Projects. PETTT supports code conversion by providing assistance, expertise and training in scalable and high-end computing architectures. HASI addresses the continuing need for modern application software that executes effectively and efficiently on next-generation high-performance computers. Frontier Projects enable research and development that could not be achieved using typical HPCMP resources by providing multi-disciplinary teams access to exceptional amounts of high performance computing resources. Finally, the Navy's DoD Supercomputing Resource Center (DSRC) currently operates a 6 Petabyte system, of which Naval Oceanography receives 15% of operational computational system use, or approximately 1 Petabyte of the processing capability. The DSRC will

  16. Capabilities Enhanced for Researching the Reduction of Emissions in Future Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft future aircraft jet engines will run at higher pressures to obtain greater fuel efficiency and performance. This will require new combustor designs to keep the nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions at environmentally acceptable levels. The actual pressures and temperatures found in gas turbine combustors must be duplicated in a laboratory to verify the emissions characteristics of gas turbine engines. Recognizing this, the U.S. aircraft gas turbine industry identified a need for a national facility that could duplicate the severe inlet conditions of future combustors. Because of our expertise in combustion emissions reduction research and in the design and operation of high-pressure test facilities, the NASA Lewis Research Center was seen as the natural location for such a facility. As a national laboratory, Lewis could provide these facilities to all U.S. gas turbine engine manufacturers while protecting their proprietary interests. Called the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig, the facility will provide up to 60-atm pressures at inlet temperatures up to 1300 F and air flow rates up to 38 lb/sec. Furthermore, it will offer state-of-the-art diagnostic methods for characterizing advanced combustor concepts. Aeronautical combustion research at Lewis provided several significant accomplishments recently in support of both the High Speed Research (HSR) and Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) programs. For example, in the High Speed Research Program, NO_x reductions of up to 90 percent were achieved in prototype combustor hardware. Advanced computational analysis, gas sampling, and laser diagnostic techniques were critical to this success. Working closely with the gas turbine industry, we have successfully transferred this low-emissions combustor technology into engine prototype hardware. This hardware is now being tested at the engine manufacturers facilities. Complementary tests in Lewis currently available 30-atm test facilities are also underway, taking

  17. Defense Science Board Task Force Report on Defense Strategies for Ensuring the Resilience of National Space Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    March 2017 Task Force on Defense Strategies for Ensuring the Resilience of National Space Capabilities OFFICE OF THE UNDER SECRETARY OF...the Department of Defense. The DSB Task Force on Defense Strategies for Ensuring the Resilience of National Space Capabilities completed its formal...public release. D E P A R T M E N T O F D E F E N S E | D E F E N S E S C I E N C E B O A R D DSB Task Force on Defense Strategies for

  18. NORSOF Military Assistance Capability Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    define policy as the declared objectives that a government seeks to achieve in the pursuit of national security. In order to enhance NORSOF’s...courses of action that demonstrate how NORSOF’s enhanced MA capabilities can be pursued in order to achieve strategic objectives for Norway in the...courses of action that demonstrate how NORSOF’s enhanced MA capabilities can be pursued in order to achieve strategic objectives for Norway in the

  19. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry for thin film monitors: computer and equipment integration for enhanced capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, J. Neal; Sedayao, J.; Shergill, Gurmeet S.; Villasol, R.; Haaland, David M.

    1991-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) is a valuable technique for monitoring thin films used in semiconductor device manufacture. Determinations of the constituent contents in borophosphosilicate (BPSG) phosphosilicate (PSG) silicon oxynitride (SiON:H and spin-on-glass (SOG) thin films are a few applications. Due to the nature of the technique FTIR instrumentation is one of the most extensively computer-dependent pieces of equipment that is likely to be found in a microelectronics plant. In the role of fab monitor or reactor characterization tool FTIR instruments can rapidly generate large amounts of data. Also the drive for greater accuracy and tighter precision is leading to the development of increasingly sophisticated data processing software that tax the computing abilities of most instrument local data stations. By linking a local FTIR data station to a remote minicomputer its capabilities are greatly improved. We discuss three classes of enhancement. First the FTIR in the fab area communicates and interacts in real time with the minicomputer: transferring data segments to it instructing it to perform sophisticated processing and returning the results to the operator in the fab. Characterizations of PSG thin films by this approach are discussed. Second the spectra of large numbers of samples are processed locally. The large database is then transmitted to the minicomputer for study by statistical/graphics software. Results of CVD-reactor spatial profiling experiments for plasma SiON are presented. Third processing of calibration spectra is performed

  20. Enhanced methods for determining operational capabilities and support costs of proposed space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the work accomplished during the first two years of research to provide support to NASA in predicting operational and support parameters and costs of proposed space systems. The first year's research developed a methodology for deriving reliability and maintainability (R & M) parameters based upon the use of regression analysis to establish empirical relationships between performance and design specifications and corresponding mean times of failure and repair. The second year focused on enhancements to the methodology, increased scope of the model, and software improvements. This follow-on effort expands the prediction of R & M parameters and their effect on the operations and support of space transportation vehicles to include other system components such as booster rockets and external fuel tanks. It also increases the scope of the methodology and the capabilities of the model as implemented by the software. The focus is on the failure and repair of major subsystems and their impact on vehicle reliability, turn times, maintenance manpower, and repairable spares requirements. The report documents the data utilized in this study, outlines the general methodology for estimating and relating R&M parameters, presents the analyses and results of application to the initial data base, and describes the implementation of the methodology through the use of a computer model. The report concludes with a discussion on validation and a summary of the research findings and results.

  1. Enhanced pain modulation among triathletes: a possible explanation for their exceptional capabilities.

    PubMed

    Geva, Nirit; Defrin, Ruth

    2013-11-01

    Triathletes and ironman triathletes engage in an extremely intense sport that involves hours of considerable pain, as well as physical and psychological stress, every day. The basic pain modulation properties of these athletes has not been established and therefore it is not clear whether they present with unique features that enable them to engage in such efforts. The aim was to investigate the existence of possible alterations in pain perception and modulation of triathletes, as well as possible underlying factors. Participants were 19 triathletes and 17 non-athletes who underwent measurement of pain threshold, pain tolerance, suprathreshold perceived pain intensity, temporal summation of pain, and conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Participants also completed the fear of pain and the pain catastrophizing questionnaires, and rated the amount of perceived stress. Triathletes exhibited higher pain tolerance (P<.0001), lower pain ratings (P<.001), and lower fear of pain values (P<.05) than controls. The magnitude of CPM was significantly greater in triathletes (P<.05), and negatively correlated with fear of pain (P<.05) and with perceived mental stress during training and competition (P<.05). The results suggest that triathletes exhibit greater pain tolerance and more efficient pain modulation than controls, which may underlie their perseverance in extreme physical efforts and pain during training/competitions. This capability may be enhanced or mediated by psychological factors, enabling better coping with fear of pain and mental stress. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transformational Spaceport and Range Capabilities Roadmap Interim Review to National Research Council External Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poniatowski, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Overview/Introduction. Roadmap Approach/Considerations. Roadmap Timeline/Spirals. Requirements Development. Spaceport/Range Capabilities. Mixed Range Architecture. User Requirements/Customer Considerations. Manifest Considerations. Emerging Launch User Requirements. Capability Breakdown Structure/Assessment. Roadmap Team Observations. Transformational Range Test Concept. Roadmap Team Conclusions. Next Steps.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Japanese astronauts and other personnel in the Space Station Processing Facility observe sensors during a Multi-Equipment Interface Test (MEIT) on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. It is the first element, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-26

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Japanese astronauts and other personnel in the Space Station Processing Facility observe sensors during a Multi-Equipment Interface Test (MEIT) on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. It is the first element, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Takao Doi, an astronaut with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), watches the sensors during a Multi-Equipment Interface Test (MEIT) on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). NASDA developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. It is the first element, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-26

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Takao Doi, an astronaut with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), watches the sensors during a Multi-Equipment Interface Test (MEIT) on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). NASDA developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. It is the first element, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, Japanaese astronauts and personnel observe sensors during a Multi-Equipment Interface Test (MEIT) on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. It is the first element, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-26

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, Japanaese astronauts and personnel observe sensors during a Multi-Equipment Interface Test (MEIT) on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. It is the first element, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, personnel observe sensors during a Multi-Equipment Interface Test (MEIT) on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. It is the first element, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-26

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, personnel observe sensors during a Multi-Equipment Interface Test (MEIT) on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. It is the first element, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

  7. Siting study for a consolidated waste capability at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Steven Richard

    2010-11-05

    Decision analysis was used to rank alternative sites for a potential Consolidated Waste Capability (CWC) to replace current hazardous solid waste operations (hazardous/chemical, mixed low-level, transuranic, and low-level waste) at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Technical Area (TA)-54. An original list of 21 site alternatives was pre-screened to seven sites that were assessed using the analytical hierarchy process with five top-level criteria and fifteen sub-criteria. The top site choice is TA-63/52/46; the second choice is TA-18/36. The seven sites are as follows. TA-18/36 (62 acres) is located on Potrillo Drive that intersects Pajarito Road at the bottom of a steep grade. It has some blast zone issues on its southwest side and some important archeological sites on the southeast section. TA-60 (50 acres) is located at the end of Eniwetok Road off Diamond Drive, east of TA-3. Most of the site is within a fifty foot-deep ravine (that may have contamination in the drainage), with a small section on the mesa above. TA-63/52/46 (110 acres) lies to the north of Pajarito Road along Puye Road. It is centrally located in a brown field industrial area, with good access to generators on a controlled road. TA-46 (22 acres) is a narrow site on the south side of Pajarito Road across from TA-46 office buildings. TA-48 (14 acres) is also narrow, and is located on the north side of Pajarito Road near the west vehicle access portal (VAP). TA-51 (19 acres) is located on the south side of Pajarito Road at the top of the hill above TA-18 near the current entrance to the TA-54. TA-54 West (16 acres) is just north of the entrance to TA-54 at Pajarito Road and is close to Zone 4. Although it is near the San Ildefonso Pueblo property line, there may be adequate set-back for sight screening.

  8. ICEPOD - Developing Ice Imaging Capabilities for the New York Air National Guard's LC-130 Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detemple, J.; Frearson, N.; Zappa, C. J.; Turrin, M.; Bell, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    The ICEPOD program is a 5-year development effort to develop a polar instrumentation suite for the New York Air National Guard’s (NYANG) LC-130’s supported by the NSF American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) Major Research Instrumentation program. The fundamental goal of the ICEPOD program is to develop an instrumentation package that can capture the dynamics of the changing polar regions, focusing on ice and ocean targets. The vision is for this instrumentation to be operated both on routine flights of the NYANG in the polar regions, such as missions between McMurdo and South Pole Station and on targeted science missions, such as mapping the sea ice and outlet glaciers surrounding Ross Island or the draining systems from large subglacial lakes in East Antarctica. We are in the process of finalizing the science requirements for the system. To provide support to the ICEPOD development, we are defining the goals for imaging the surface of the ice sheet with a scanning laser system and stereo-photogrammetry, the temperature of the ice surface using an IR camera and the internal structure of the ice sheet using a depth-sounding radar and an accumulation radar. The instrumentation will be positioned using an IMU and differential GPS. We also are working toward two operational modes - low-altitude flight operations to optimize the surface imaging systems, specifically the scanning laser, and a high-altitude flight operation to facilitate wide use of the instrumentation suite during a routine NYANG support mission flight envelope. The ICEPOD program is seeking input on the science goals of the instrumentation suite to ensure the system meets the community’s need for observations. The ultimate goal of the ICEPOD program is to provide the community with a facility for dedicated and routine measurements over the polar regions using the suite of instruments. The final ICEPOD system will also be capable of supporting instrumentation developed by other groups. The

  9. New National Capability in NIMR: Rational, Development and application of meteorological sensors for HALE UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Reno K. Y.; Min, Seunghyun; Klein, Marian; Ha, Jong-Chul; Cho, Young-Jun; Cho, ChunHo

    2015-04-01

    Joint Civilian-Military Committee, under Advisory Council on Science and Technology, awarded an ambitious technology demonstration project to build a HALE (High-Altitude Long Endurance) UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) till 2017. NIMR (National Institute of Meteorological Research) is responsible for developing a payload for meteorological observation, which the committee welcomed not only for technological challenges but also for scientific advances for all parties. NIMR is also responsible for providing numerical weather predictions for flight safety for overall project. HALE UAV is an aircraft that aims to operate at lower stratospheric altitudes for days and weeks. It is an altitude where air becomes thin to prevent operation of conventional jet engines and only military reconnaissance aircrafts have reached at this high or above around 18~21km Since only a couple of unmanned aircraft demonstrated its potential scientific value, atmospheric research at stratospheric altitude offers unique opportunity of monitoring complete troposphere at close range. With advantages from both satellite (consistent observation) and airborne platforms (spatial flexibility), i.e. pseudo-satellite, water content monitoring in the atmosphere enables us to improve prediction of entire life cycle of tropical storms and torrential rains and snows, in addition to better understanding of tropopause dynamics and its prediction capability. This meteorological instrument challenges very limited payload design requirements, i.e. 4kg of weight and 50W of power consumption. With such constraints, NIMR determines to develop passive microwave radiometers (15~100GHz) onboard in the interest of 3D water vapor profiles, along with optical camera for cloud observation. There are number of technical challenges to achieve the goal, such as 1) mechanical and electronic design that works in -75°C and 60hPa with weight and power constraints, and 2) miniaturisation of conventional meteorological instruments

  10. New smoke predictions for Alaska in NOAA’s National Air Quality Forecast Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, P. M.; Ruminski, M.; Draxler, R.; Kondragunta, S.; Zeng, J.; Rolph, G.; Stajner, I.; Manikin, G.

    2009-12-01

    Smoke from wildfire is an important component of fine particle pollution, which is responsible for tens of thousands of premature deaths each year in the US. In Alaska, wildfire smoke is the leading cause of poor air quality in summer. Smoke forecast guidance helps air quality forecasters and the public take steps to limit exposure to airborne particulate matter. A new smoke forecast guidance tool, built by a cross-NOAA team, leverages efforts of NOAA’s partners at the USFS on wildfire emissions information, and with EPA, in coordinating with state/local air quality forecasters. Required operational deployment criteria, in categories of objective verification, subjective feedback, and production readiness, have been demonstrated in experimental testing during 2008-2009, for addition to the operational products in NOAA's National Air Quality Forecast Capability. The Alaska smoke forecast tool is an adaptation of NOAA’s smoke predictions implemented operationally for the lower 48 states (CONUS) in 2007. The tool integrates satellite information on location of wildfires with weather (North American mesoscale model) and smoke dispersion (HYSPLIT) models to produce daily predictions of smoke transport for Alaska, in binary and graphical formats. Hour-by hour predictions at 12km grid resolution of smoke at the surface and in the column are provided each day by 13 UTC, extending through midnight next day. Forecast accuracy and reliability are monitored against benchmark criteria for accuracy and reliability. While wildfire activity in the CONUS is year-round, the intense wildfire activity in AK is limited to the summer. Initial experimental testing during summer 2008 was hindered by unusually limited wildfire activity and very cloudy conditions. In contrast, heavier than average wildfire activity during summer 2009 provided a representative basis (more than 60 days of wildfire smoke) for demonstrating required prediction accuracy. A new satellite observation product

  11. A novel hollowed CoO-in-CoSnO₃ nanostructure with enhanced lithium storage capabilities.

    PubMed

    Guan, Cao; Li, Xianglin; Yu, Hong; Mao, Lu; Wong, Lydia Helena; Yan, Qingyu; Wang, John

    2014-11-21

    The search for well-defined porous/hollowed metal oxide nanocomposites for high performance energy storage is promising. Herein, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been utilized for the construction of a novel hollowed wire-in-tube nanostructure of CoO-in-CoSnO3, for which Co2(OH)2CO3 nanowires are first obtained by a hydrothermal method and then deposited with ALD SnO2. After a proper thermal treatment, a CoO wire-void-CoSnO3 tube was formed with the decomposition of Co2(OH)2CO3 and its simultaneous reaction with the outer SnO2 layer. In this unique wire-in-tube structure, both CoO and CoSnO3 are promising materials for lithium ion battery anodes with high theoretical capacities, and the porous + hollow feature is essential for better electrode/electrolyte contact, shorter ion diffusion path and better structure stability. After a further facile carbon coating, the hollowed wire-in-tube structure delivered an improved capacity of 1162.1 mA h g(-1), which is much higher than that of the bare CoO nanowire. Enhanced rate capability and cycling stability have also been demonstrated with the structure, showing its promising application for the anode material of lithium ion battery. The work also demonstrated an effective way of using ALD SnO2 for electrochemical energy storage that ALD SnO2 plays a key role in the structure formation and also serves as both active material and surface coating.

  12. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectrophotometry for thin film monitors: Computer and equipment integration for enhanced capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, J. N.; Sedayao, J.; Shergill, G.; Villasol, R.; Haaland, D. M.

    Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) is a valuable technique for monitoring thin films used in semiconductor device manufacture. Determinations of the constituent contents in borophosphosilicate (BPSG), phosphosilicate (PSG), silicon oxynitride (SiON:H,OH), and spin-on-glass (SOG) thin films are a few applications. Due to the nature of the technique, FTIR instrumentation is one of the most extensively computer-dependent pieces of equipment that is likely to be found in a microelectronics plant. In the role of fab monitor or reactor characterization tool, FTIR instruments can rapidly generate large amounts of data. By linking a local FTIR data station to a remote minicomputer its capabilities are greatly improved. We discuss three caused of enhancement. First, the FTIR in the fab area communicates and interacts in real time with the minicomputer: transferring data segments to it, instructing it to perform sophisticated processing, and returning the result to the operator in the fab. Characterizations of PSG thin films by this approach are discussed. Second, the spectra of large numbers of samples are processed locally. The large database is then transmitted to the minicomputer for study by statistical/graphics software. Results of CVD-reactor spatial profiling experiments for plasma SiON are presented. Third, processing of calibration spectra is performed on the minicomputer to optimize the accuracy and precision of a Partial Least Squares analysis mode. This model is then transferred to the data station in the fab. The analysis of BPSG thin films is discussed in this regard. The prospects for fully automated at-line monitoring and for real-time, in-situ monitoring will be discussed.

  13. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrophotometry for thin film monitors: Computer and equipment integration for enhanced capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.N.; Sedayao, J.; Shergill, G.; Villasol, R. ); Haaland, D.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) is a valuable technique for monitoring thin films used in semiconductor device manufacture. Determinations of the constituent contents in borophosphosilicate (BPSG), phosphosilicate (PSG), silicon oxynitride (SiON:H,OH), and spin-on-glass (SOG) thin films are a few applications. Due to the nature of the technique, FTIR instrumentation is one of the most extensively computer-dependent pieces of equipment that is likely to be found in a microelectronics plant. In the role of fab monitor or reactor characterization tool, FTIR instruments can rapidly generate large amounts of data. By linking a local FTIR data station to a remote minicomputer its capabilities are greatly improved. We discuss three caused of enhancement. First, the FTIR in the fab area communicates and interacts in real time with the minicomputer: transferring data segments to it, instructing it to perform sophisticated processing, and returning the result to the operator in the fab. Characterizations of PSG thin films by this approach are discussed. Second, the spectra of large numbers of samples are processed locally. The large database is then transmitted to the minicomputer for study by statistical/graphics software. Results of CVD-reactor spatial profiling experiments for plasma SiON are presented. Third, processing of calibration spectra is performed on the minicomputer to optimize the accuracy and precision of a Partial Least Squares'' analysis mode. This model is then transferred to the data station in the fab. The analysis of BPSG thin films is discussed in this regard. The prospects for fully automated at-line monitoring and for real-time, in-situ monitoring will be discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment Requirement Document

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2009-12-30

    This revision of the LLNL Fire Protection Baseline Needs Assessment (BNA) was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by Martin Gresho, Sandia/CA Fire Marshal. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only address emergency response. The original LLNL BNA was created on April 23, 1997 as a means of collecting all requirements concerning emergency response capabilities at LLNL (including response to emergencies at Sandia/CA) into one BNA document. The original BNA documented the basis for emergency response, emergency personnel staffing, and emergency response equipment over the years. The BNA has been updated and reissued five times since in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004. A significant format change was performed in the 2004 update of the BNA in that it was 'zero based.' Starting with the requirement documents, the 2004 BNA evaluated the requirements, and determined minimum needs without regard to previous evaluations. This 2010 update maintains the same basic format and requirements as the 2004 BNA. In this 2010 BNA, as in the previous BNA, the document has been intentionally divided into two separate documents - the needs assessment (1) and the compliance assessment (2). The needs assessment will be referred to as the BNA and the compliance assessment will be referred to as the BNA Compliance Assessment. The primary driver for separation is that the needs assessment identifies the detailed applicable regulations (primarily NFPA Standards) for emergency response capabilities based on the hazards present at LLNL and Sandia/CA and the geographical location of the facilities. The needs assessment also identifies areas where the modification of the requirements in the applicable NFPA standards is appropriate, due to the improved fire protection provided, the

  15. National Combustion Code Parallel Performance Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quealy, Angela; Benyo, Theresa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The National Combustion Code (NCC) is being developed by an industry-government team for the design and analysis of combustion systems. The unstructured grid, reacting flow code uses a distributed memory, message passing model for its parallel implementation. The focus of the present effort has been to improve the performance of the NCC code to meet combustor designer requirements for model accuracy and analysis turnaround time. Improving the performance of this code contributes significantly to the overall reduction in time and cost of the combustor design cycle. This report describes recent parallel processing modifications to NCC that have improved the parallel scalability of the code, enabling a two hour turnaround for a 1.3 million element fully reacting combustion simulation on an SGI Origin 2000.

  16. A Framework for Enhancing Airlift Planning and Execution Capabilities within the Joint Expeditionary Movement System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Bash , Deputy DIRMOBFOR, and Director of AMD. We also thank Lt Col Hans Petry and Maj Matt Lacy for guiding us through the AMD. In the AFFOR/A4, we...TPFDD Time-Phased Force Deployment Data TWCF Transportation Working Capital Fund USTRANSCOM U.S. Transportation Command ULN Unit line number UTC Unit...National security strategy National security objectives National economic objectives National mission objectives Tailor forces Deploy Operational task1

  17. Mission Enabling and Enhancing Spacecraft Capabilities with MicroNewton Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrese-Reading, Colleen M.; Ziemer, John K.; Scharf, Daniel; Martin-Mur, Tomas; Thompson, Paul; Wirz, Richie; Mueller, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    The capability to significantly improve current spacecraft pointing, precision orbit maintenance and disturbance mitigation were considered using precision, quiescent microNewton electric propulsion systems. Analysis results showed that electric propulsion systems operating in the microNewton to hundreds of microNewtons thrust range can offer significant improvements over state-of-the-art mission capabilities to enable 30 m Earth-fixed orbital tubes, constellation spacecraft position control to within nanometers and exoplanet observatory pointing with 0.1 milliarcsecond precision. Specific thrust levels and profiles required to support these capabilities are discussed.

  18. Mission Enabling and Enhancing Spacecraft Capabilities with MicroNewton Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrese-Reading, Colleen M.; Ziemer, John K.; Scharf, Daniel; Martin-Mur, Tomas; Thompson, Paul; Wirz, Richie; Mueller, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    The capability to significantly improve current spacecraft pointing, precision orbit maintenance and disturbance mitigation were considered using precision, quiescent microNewton electric propulsion systems. Analysis results showed that electric propulsion systems operating in the microNewton to hundreds of microNewtons thrust range can offer significant improvements over state-of-the-art mission capabilities to enable 30 m Earth-fixed orbital tubes, constellation spacecraft position control to within nanometers and exoplanet observatory pointing with 0.1 milliarcsecond precision. Specific thrust levels and profiles required to support these capabilities are discussed.

  19. Aspergillus PCR-Based Investigation of Fresh Tissue and Effusion Samples in Patients with Suspected Invasive Aspergillosis Enhances Diagnostic Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Reinwald, M.; Spiess, B.; Heinz, W. J.; Heussel, C. P.; Bertz, H.; Cornely, O. A.; Hahn, J.; Lehrnbecher, T.; Kiehl, M.; Laws, H. J.; Wolf, H. H.; Schwerdtfeger, R.; Schultheis, B.; Burchardt, A.; Klein, M.; Dürken, M.; Claus, B.; Schlegel, F.; Hummel, M.; Hofmann, W.-K.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is a severe complication in immunocompromised patients, diagnosing invasive fungal disease (IFD), especially invasive aspergillosis (IA), remains difficult. In certain clinical scenarios, examining tissue samples for identification of the infectious organism becomes important. As culture-based methods rarely yield results, the performance of an Aspergillus-specific nested PCR in fresh tissue or pleural effusion samples was evaluated. Fresh tissue (n = 59) and effusion (n = 47) specimens from 79 immunocompromised patients were subjected to an Aspergillus-specific PCR assay. Twenty-six patients had proven (n = 20) or probable (n = 6) IFD, according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria, while the remaining patients were classified as having either possible IFD (n = 30) or no IFD (n = 23). IA was identified as the underlying IFD in 21/26 proven/probable cases. PCR positivity was observed for 18/21 proven/probable and 6 possible IA cases; cases classified as no IA did not show positive signals. Patients with proven IFD (n = 5) with cultures positive for non-Aspergillus molds also had negative Aspergillus PCR results. Aspergillus PCR performance analysis yielded sensitivity and specificity values of 86% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65% to 95%) and 100% (95% CI, 86% to 100%), respectively, thus leading to a diagnostic odds ratio of >200. In this analysis, good diagnostic performance of the PCR assay for detection of IA was observed for tissue samples, while effusion samples showed lower sensitivity rates. PCR testing represents a complementary tool; a positive PCR result strengthens the likelihood of IA, whereas IA seems unlikely in cases with negative results but findings could indicate non-Aspergillus IFD. Thus, PCR testing of these specimens enhances the diagnostic capabilities. PMID

  20. Second-Generation Fuel Cell Stack Durability and Freeze Capability from National FCV Learning Demonstration (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Garbak, J.

    2009-11-18

    This presentation provides information about the objectives and partners of the National Fuel Cell Vehicle Learning Demonstration, the status of vehicle and station deployment, and results of vehicle and infrastructure analysis.

  1. 3 CFR 8951 - Proclamation 8951 of March 29, 2013. National Financial Capability Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... more than drive and initiative—it also requires smart financial planning. During National Financial... people avoid scams and demand fair treatment when they take out a mortgage, use a credit card, or...

  2. Wind Tunnel and Propulsion Test Facilities: An Assessment of NASA's Capabilities to Serve National Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anton, Philip S.; Gritton, Eugene C.; Mesic, Richard; Steinberg, Paul; Johnson, Dana J.

    2004-01-01

    This monograph reveals and discusses the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) wind tunnel and propulsion test facility management issues that are creating real risks to the United States' competitive aeronautics advantage.

  3. Technical Capabilities of the National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL) is a state-of-the-art test facility that conducts a wide range of emissions testing and analysis for EPA’s motor vehicle, heavy-duty engine, and nonroad engine programs.

  4. Time-over-threshold readout to enhance the high flux capabilities of single-photon-counting detectors.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Anna; Dinapoli, Roberto; Greiffenberg, Dominic; Henrich, Beat; Johnson, Ian; Mozzanica, Aldo; Radicci, Valeria; Schmitt, Bernd; Shi, Xintian; Stoppani, Laura

    2011-11-01

    The MYTHEN single-photon-counting (SPC) detector has been characterized using the time-over-threshold (ToT) readout method, i.e. measuring the time that the signal produced by the detected X-rays remains above the comparator threshold. In the following it is shown that the ToT readout preserves the sensitivity, dynamic range and capability of background suppression of the SPC mode, while enhancing the count-rate capability, which is the main limitation of state-of-the-art SPC systems.

  5. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Advanced Modeling, Simulation and Analysis Capability and Systems Engineering Capability Roadmap Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikins, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps. Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  6. Technology Transfer Activities of NASA/MSFC: Enhancing the Southeast Region's Production Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trivoli, George W.

    1998-01-01

    The researcher was charged with the task of developing a simplified model to illustrate the impact of how NASA/MSFC technology transfer activities contribute to shifting outward the Southeast region's and the nation's productive capacity. The report is a background of the impact of technological growth on the nation's production possibility frontier (ppf).

  7. Nation Before Service: The Evolution of Joint Operations to a Capabilities-Based Mindset

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    memorandum addressed to the Deputy Secretary of Defense, Secretary Donley lists the crushing impacts that sequestration will have on mission readiness of...the forest , he just has to be able to outrun the man next to him. To add another wrinkle to that, if it is possible to kick the other man in the knee...did not prescribe that each of these specialists shed their specific capabilities or values and become carbon copies of each other. Rather

  8. Enhanced visible and near-infrared capabilities of the JET mirror-linked divertor spectroscopy system

    SciTech Connect

    Lomanowski, B. A. Sharples, R. M.; Meigs, A. G.; Conway, N. J.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Heesterman, P.; Kinna, D. [EURATOM Collaboration: JET-EFDA Team

    2014-11-15

    The mirror-linked divertor spectroscopy diagnostic on JET has been upgraded with a new visible and near-infrared grating and filtered spectroscopy system. New capabilities include extended near-infrared coverage up to 1875 nm, capturing the hydrogen Paschen series, as well as a 2 kHz frame rate filtered imaging camera system for fast measurements of impurity (Be II) and deuterium Dα, Dβ, Dγ line emission in the outer divertor. The expanded system provides unique capabilities for studying spatially resolved divertor plasma dynamics at near-ELM resolved timescales as well as a test bed for feasibility assessment of near-infrared spectroscopy.

  9. Enhanced visible and near-infrared capabilities of the JET mirror-linked divertor spectroscopy systema)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomanowski, B. A.; Meigs, A. G.; Conway, N. J.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Sharples, R. M.; Heesterman, P.; Kinna, D.

    2014-11-01

    The mirror-linked divertor spectroscopy diagnostic on JET has been upgraded with a new visible and near-infrared grating and filtered spectroscopy system. New capabilities include extended near-infrared coverage up to 1875 nm, capturing the hydrogen Paschen series, as well as a 2 kHz frame rate filtered imaging camera system for fast measurements of impurity (Be II) and deuterium Dα, Dβ, Dγ line emission in the outer divertor. The expanded system provides unique capabilities for studying spatially resolved divertor plasma dynamics at near-ELM resolved timescales as well as a test bed for feasibility assessment of near-infrared spectroscopy.

  10. A deep tissue fluorescence imaging system with enhanced SHG detection capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Crosignani, Viera; Jahid, Sohail; Dvornikov, Alexander S.; Gratton, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel two-photon fluorescence microscopy system capable of producing high quality SHG images in thick turbid media by using an innovative detection system. This novel detection system is capable of detecting photons from a very large surface area. This system has proven effective in providing images of thick turbid samples, both biological and artificial. Due to its transmission detection geometry, the system is particularly suitable for detecting second harmonic generated signals (SHG) which are generally forward directed. In this paper we present comparative data acquired simultaneously on the same sample with the forward and epi-detection schemes. PMID:24610799

  11. Detection capability enhancement with a learning system for PEM mask inspection tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Ryoichi; Hatakeyama, Masahiro; Terao, Kenji; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2015-10-01

    A learning system has been exploited for the mask inspection tool with the Projection Electron Microscope (PEM). The defect is identified by the PEM system using the "defectivity". The detection capability for hp11nm EUV masks is demonstrated. The learning system for PEM consists of the library of the registered defects. The learning system totally optimizes detection capability reconciling the previously registered defects and the newly registered defect. We have verified the effectiveness of the learning system. We can provide a user-friendly mask inspection system with the higher throughput by PEM and with the smaller cost of ownership by the development.

  12. Best Practices for National Cyber Security: Building a National Computer Security Incident Management Capability, Version 2.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    in estab- lishing such an organization. Industry groups are comprised of separate firms in the same industry, for instance the several electrical ... suppliers in a nation. These groups can provide valuable information about vulnerabili- ties and incidents in a particular industry and can be

  13. Enhancements in Continuous-Energy Monte Carlo Capabilities for SCALE 6.2

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T; Petrie Jr, Lester M; Peplow, Douglas E.; Bekar, Kursat B; Wiarda, Dorothea; Celik, Cihangir; Perfetti, Christopher M; Dunn, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    SCALE is a widely used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. For more than 30 years, regulators, industry, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE provides a plug-and-play framework that includes three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that are selected based on the desired solution. SCALE includes the latest nuclear data libraries for continuous-energy and multigroup radiation transport as well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE s graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization, and convenient access to desired results. SCALE 6.2 provides several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features, especially with expanded continuous-energy Monte Carlo capabilities for criticality safety, shielding, depletion, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, and improved fidelity in nuclear data libraries. A brief overview of SCALE capabilities is provided with emphasis on new features for SCALE 6.2.

  14. A spatial database for restoration management capability on national forests in the Pacific Northwest USA

    Treesearch

    Chris Ringo; Alan A. Ager; Michelle A. Day; Sarah. Crim

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the capacity to reduce wildfire risk and restore dry forests on Western national forests is a key part of prioritizing new accelerated restoration programs initiated by the Forest Service. Although a number of social and biophysical factors influence the ability to implement restoration programs, one key driver is the suite of forest plan land...

  15. An Enhanced GINGERSimulation Code with Harmonic Emission and HDF5IO Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, William M.

    2006-09-01

    GINGER [1] is an axisymmetric, polychromatic (r-z-t) FEL simulation code originally developed in the mid-1980's to model the performance of single-pass amplifiers. Over the past 15 years GINGER's capabilities have been extended to include more complicated configurations such as undulators with drift spaces, dispersive sections, and vacuum chamber wakefield effects; multi-pass oscillators; and multi-stage harmonic cascades. Its coding base has been tuned to permit running effectively on platforms ranging from desktop PC's to massively parallel processors such as the IBM-SP. Recently, we have made significant changes to GINGER by replacing the original predictor-corrector field solver with a new direct implicit algorithm, adding harmonic emission capability, and switching to the HDF5 IO library [2] for output diagnostics. In this paper, we discuss some details regarding these changes and also present simulation results for LCLS SASE emission at {lambda} = 0.15 nm and higher harmonics.

  16. The upgraded cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer FLEXX - enhanced capabilities by new instrumental options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habicht, Klaus; Lucía Quintero-Castro, Diana; Toft-Petersen, Rasmus; Kure, Mathias; Mäde, Lucas; Groitl, Felix; Le, Manh Duc

    2015-01-01

    The upgrade of the cold neutron triple axis spectrometer FLEXX, a work-horse instrument for inelastic neutron scattering matching the sample environment capabilities at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, has been successfully accomplished. Experiments confirmed an order of magnitude gain in flux now allowing for intensity demanding options to be fully exploited at FLEXX. In this article, we describe the layout and design of two newly available FLEXX instrument options in detail. The new Heusler analyzer gives an increase of the detected polarized neutron flux due to its superior focusing properties, significantly improving the feasibility of future polarized and neutron resonance spin echo experiments. The MultiFLEXX option provides simultaneous access to large regions in wavevector and energy space for inelastic excitations thus adding mapping capabilities to the spectrometer.

  17. Development and Application of Advanced Ophthalmic Imaging Technology to Enhance Military Ocular Health Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    result for a human retina with RPE detachment . Left: 3D view of the segmented ILM and RPE; Center: 3D view of the segmented RPE; Right: the...applications to enable high resolution evaluations of the retina and optic nerve that could be easily performed by non-physician health care professionals...sub-retinal features of the retina . The system is also capable of delineate the anatomical structure of the cornea with high imaging quality. The

  18. Volunteering Information - Enhancing the Communication Capabilities of Knowledge-Based Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Conference on Artiicial Intelligence missing- in many cases this resistance will be based on the (Milan), 1987. limited communication capabilities...scientific foundations for the con- The use of knowledge-based systems will be severely limited I stiuction of intelligent systems which serve as amplifiers...locally, follow- be crucial for intelligent systems, the progress to achieve them ing a style as defined by its rules. The advice given is based on

  19. Status and capabilities of the National Full Scale Facility 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mort, K. W.; Engelbert, D. F.; Dusterberry, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The background, requirements, and aerodynamic design of the modified NASA Ames 40 x 80 ft wind tunnel are reviewed, along with the systems integration and systems test results. Advancing vehicle sizes and airspeeds required a larger wind tunnel test section and a capability for 100 and 300 knots airspeed simulation. Acoustic mufflers at the inlet and exit of the nonreturn circuit provide noise suppression. The enlarged test section is intended to accomodate the complex flowfields of wings with high lift coefficients, and the drive system is designed with minimum residual swirl. Features of the fan blades are examined, along with characteristics of the test channels, control vanes and louvers, the exit, circuit losses, temperature rises during operation of the nonreturn circuit, and the facility acoustics. Specific construction problems and solutions for the conversion process are outlined, and it is noted that operational status is expected at the end of 1982.

  20. Status and capabilities of the National Full Scale Facility 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mort, K. W.; Engelbert, D. F.; Dusterberry, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The background, requirements, and aerodynamic design of the modified NASA Ames 40 x 80 ft wind tunnel are reviewed, along with the systems integration and systems test results. Advancing vehicle sizes and airspeeds required a larger wind tunnel test section and a capability for 100 and 300 knots airspeed simulation. Acoustic mufflers at the inlet and exit of the nonreturn circuit provide noise suppression. The enlarged test section is intended to accomodate the complex flowfields of wings with high lift coefficients, and the drive system is designed with minimum residual swirl. Features of the fan blades are examined, along with characteristics of the test channels, control vanes and louvers, the exit, circuit losses, temperature rises during operation of the nonreturn circuit, and the facility acoustics. Specific construction problems and solutions for the conversion process are outlined, and it is noted that operational status is expected at the end of 1982.

  1. Development of phospholipid vesicle-based permeation assay models capable of evaluating percutaneous penetration enhancing effect.

    PubMed

    Ma, Min; Di, Hong-Jie; Zhang, Hui; Yao, Jun-Hong; Dong, Jie; Yan, Guo-Jun; Qiao, Hong-Zhi; Chen, Jun

    2017-12-01

    The phospholipid vesicle-based permeation assay (PVPA) model has recently been introduced as an in vitro model which can mimic stratum corneum (SC) barriers to estimate the skin permeability of drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the PVPA model was suitable for the evaluation of penetration enhancing effect of skin penetration enhancers (PE). The PVPA model was optimized by changing the lipid composition of both small liposomes (SL), and large liposomes (LL). The barrier properties of the PVPA model were monitored by electrical resistance and permeability measurement of the fluorescent marker Rhodamine B (RB). Then the permeation studies of the five active compounds with different physicochemical properties, namely, ferulic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin, tetrahydrocolumbamine, and tetrahydropalmatine, were performed directly on PVPA model to evaluate the penetration enhancing effect of menthol. The enhancement ratio (ER) ranking of the five active compounds observed using the optimized PVPA model was in accordance with what observed with Franz diffusion cell device using porcine ear skin. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) analysis of PVPA model and porcine ear skin after treatment with menthol has shown similar mechanism of menthol which perturbs the SC lipid arrangement and extracts the SC lipids. In summary, the optimized PVPA model was used for the first time for the evaluation of the permeation enhancing effect. The optimized PVPA model has shown potential to be applied in a more standardized, cheaper, and ethical way for the screening of PE.

  2. Additive manufacturing capabilities applied to inertial confinement confusion at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, Tana; Schmidt, Derek William; Peterson, Dominic S.

    2016-08-01

    We describe the use at Los Alamos National Laboratory of additive manufacturing (AM) for a variety of jigs and coating, assembly, and radiography fixtures. Additive manufacturing has also been used to produce shipping containers of complex design that would be too costly to have fabricated using traditional techniques. The current goal for AM use in target fabrication is to increase target accuracy and rigidity. This has been realized by implementing AM into target stalk fabrication, allowing increased complexity to address target strength and the addition of features for alignment at facilities. As a result, we will describe the fabrication of these components and our plans to utilize AM in the future.

  3. Additive manufacturing capabilities applied to inertial confinement confusion at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, Tana; Schmidt, Derek William; Peterson, Dominic S.

    2016-08-01

    We describe the use at Los Alamos National Laboratory of additive manufacturing (AM) for a variety of jigs and coating, assembly, and radiography fixtures. Additive manufacturing has also been used to produce shipping containers of complex design that would be too costly to have fabricated using traditional techniques. The current goal for AM use in target fabrication is to increase target accuracy and rigidity. This has been realized by implementing AM into target stalk fabrication, allowing increased complexity to address target strength and the addition of features for alignment at facilities. As a result, we will describe the fabrication of these components and our plans to utilize AM in the future.

  4. Enhanced EOS photovoltaic power system capability with InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), which is part of the International Mission to Planet Earth, is NASA's main contribution to the Global Change Research Program which opens a new era in international cooperation to study the Earth's environment. Five large platforms are to be launched into polar orbit, two by NASA, two by ESA, and one by the Japanese. In such an orbit the radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells combined with the potential of utilizing five micron cell structures yields an increase of 10 percent in the payload capability. If further combined with the advanced photovoltaic solar array the payload savings approaches 12 percent.

  5. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Transformational Spaceport and Range Technologies Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelly, Darin M.

    2005-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the National Research Council's diaglog to assess progress on NASA's transformational spaceport and range technologies capability roadmap development is presented. The topics include: 1) Agency Goals and Objectives; 2) Strategic Planning Transformation; 3) Advanced Planning Organizational Roles; 4) Public Involvement in Strategic Planning; 5) Strategic Roadmaps; 6) Strategic Roadmaps Schedule; 7) Capability Roadmaps; 8) Capability Charter; 9) Process for Team Selection; 10) Capability Roadmap Development Schedule Overview; 11) Purpose of NRC Review; 12) Technology Readiness Levels; 13) Capability Readiness Levels; 14) Crosswalk Matrix Trans Spaceport & Range; 15) Example linkage to other roadmaps; 16) Capability Readiness Levels Defined; and 17) Crosswalk Matrix Ratings Work In-progress.

  6. Large scale boron carbon nitride nanosheets with enhanced lithium storage capabilities.

    PubMed

    Lei, Weiwei; Qin, Si; Liu, Dan; Portehault, David; Liu, Zongwen; Chen, Ying

    2013-01-14

    Few-layered boron carbon nitride nanosheets are synthesized by a simple and environmentally friendly process. The BCN nanosheets have 2-6 atomic layers with high surface area and show enhanced storage performance in lithium batteries, as well as a stable capacity of ~100 mA h g(-1) at 2 A g(-1) for 5000 cycles.

  7. Molecular characterization of whey protein hydrolysate fractions with ferrous chelating and enhanced iron solubility capabilities.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Ian B; Kelly, Phil M; Murray, Brian A; FitzGerald, Richard J; Brodkorb, Andre

    2015-03-18

    The ferrous (Fe2+) chelating capabilities of WPI hydrolysate fractions produced via cascade membrane filtration were investigated, specifically 1 kDa permeate (P) and 30 kDa retentate (R) fractions. The 1 kDa-P possessed a Fe2+ chelating capability at 1 g L(-1) equivalent to 84.4 μM EDTA (for 30 kDa-R the value was 8.7 μM EDTA). Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was utilized to investigate the structural characteristics of hydrolysates and molecular interactions with Fe2+. Solid-phase extraction was employed to enrich for chelating activity; the most potent chelating fraction was enriched in histidine and lysine. The solubility of ferrous sulfate solutions (10 mM) over a range of pH values was significantly (P<0.05) improved in dispersions of hydrolysate fraction solutions (10 g protein L(-1)). Total iron solubility was improved by 72% in the presence of the 1 kDa-P fraction following simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) compared to control FeSO4·7H2O solutions.

  8. Design of hierarchical CuS/graphene architectures with enhanced lithium storage capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Caihua; Su, Dezhi; Ma, Wenxian; Zhao, Yongjie; Yan, Dong; Li, Jingbo; Jin, Haibo

    2017-05-01

    Metal-sulfides electrode materials usually suffer from poor cyclability and low rate capability in rechargeable batteries as a result of the pulverization of active materials and the loss of sulfur material induced by polysulfide dissolution. Herein, we reported a delicate and scalable route for rational design of CuS/graphene composites. Hierarchical CuS microparticles comprising of large amounts of self-assembled and well-arranged nanosheets uniformly mixed with flexible graphene layers. The obtained CuS/graphene electrodes exhibited high specific capacities, excellent cycling stability and desirable rate capability when being evaluated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The high specific capacities of 568 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at 50 mA g-1 and 143 mA h g-1 at 1000 mA g-1 (in rate testing) were achieved, suggesting a very promising candidate for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. The rationally designed structures of the CuS/graphene composites offered stable-hosts for Li+ insertion and alleviated the volume changes upon cycling. The presence of the graphene in composite not only constructed conductive paths and a network for fast transport of Li+, but also effectively reduced the dissolution of polysulfides into electrolyte. This graphene-based composite with hierarchical structure could be used as a safe, low-cost, and versatile material for extensively potential applications.

  9. Assessment of U.S. Government and Coalition Efforts to Develop the Logistics Sustainment Capability of the Afghan National Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-19

    No. DODIG‑2015‑047 D E C E M B E R 1 9 , 2 0 1 4 Assessment of U.S. Government and Coalition Efforts to Develop the Logistics Sustainment... Government and Coalition Efforts to Develop the Logistics Sustainment Capability of the Afghan National Army 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...the Secretary of Defense and Congress; and informs the public. Vision Our vision is to be a model oversight organization in the Federal Government by

  10. Additive manufacturing capabilities applied to inertial confinement confusion at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    DOE PAGES

    Cardenas, Tana; Schmidt, Derek William; Peterson, Dominic S.

    2016-08-01

    We describe the use at Los Alamos National Laboratory of additive manufacturing (AM) for a variety of jigs and coating, assembly, and radiography fixtures. Additive manufacturing has also been used to produce shipping containers of complex design that would be too costly to have fabricated using traditional techniques. The current goal for AM use in target fabrication is to increase target accuracy and rigidity. This has been realized by implementing AM into target stalk fabrication, allowing increased complexity to address target strength and the addition of features for alignment at facilities. As a result, we will describe the fabrication ofmore » these components and our plans to utilize AM in the future.« less

  11. Enhancing Fires and Maneuver Capability Through Greater Air-Ground Joint Interdependence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    www.rand.org as a public service of the RAND Corporation. 6Jump down to document THE ARTS CHILD POLICY CIVIL JUSTICE EDUCATION ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT HEALTH ...AND HEALTH CARE INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS NATIONAL SECURITY POPULATION AND AGING PUBLIC SAFETY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SUBSTANCE ABUSE TERRORISM AND...and lessons learned during combat operations in Afghanistan and Iraq highlight doctrinal and technical issues with air and ground integration. The

  12. Recent Enhancements to the National Transonic Facility (Mixed Mode Operations)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. Allen; Chan, David; Balakrishna, S.; Wahls, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. National Transonic Facility continues to make enhancements to provide quality data in a safe, efficient and cost effective method for aerodynamic ground testing. Recent enhancements discussed in this paper include the development of a Mixed-mode of operations that combine Air-mode operations with Nitrogen-mode operations. This implementation and operational results of this new Mixed-mode expands the ambient temperature transonic region of testing beyond the Air-mode limitations at a significantly reduced cost over Nitrogen Mode operation.

  13. Enhancing sample preparation capabilities for accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon and radiocalcium studies

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R E

    1991-08-20

    With support provided by the LLNL Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, the UCR Radiocarbon Laboratory continued its studies involving sample pretreatment and target preparation for both AMS radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) and radiocalcium ({sup 41}Ca) involving applications to archaeologically -- and paleoanthropologically- related samples. With regard to AMS {sup 14}C-related studies, we have extended the development of a series of procedures which have, as their initial goal, the capability to combust several hundred microgram amounts of a chemically-pretreated organic sample and convert the resultant CO{sub 2} to graphitic carbon which will consistently yield relatively high {sup 13}C{sup {minus}} ion currents and blanks which will yield, on a consistent basis, {sup 14}C count rates at or below 0.20% modern, giving an 2 sigma age limit of >50,000 yr BP.

  14. Enhancing sample preparation capabilities for accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon and radiocalcium studies

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.E.

    1991-08-20

    With support provided by the LLNL Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, the UCR Radiocarbon Laboratory continued its studies involving sample pretreatment and target preparation for both AMS radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) and radiocalcium ({sup 41}Ca) involving applications to archaeologically -- and paleoanthropologically- related samples. With regard to AMS {sup 14}C-related studies, we have extended the development of a series of procedures which have, as their initial goal, the capability to combust several hundred microgram amounts of a chemically-pretreated organic sample and convert the resultant CO{sub 2} to graphitic carbon which will consistently yield relatively high {sup 13}C{sup {minus}} ion currents and blanks which will yield, on a consistent basis, {sup 14}C count rates at or below 0.20% modern, giving an 2 sigma age limit of >50,000 yr BP.

  15. Plasma enhanced multistate storage capability of single ZnO nanowire based memory

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Yunfeng Xin, Pucong; Cheng, Shuying; Yu, Jinling; Zheng, Qiao

    2015-01-19

    Multiple-state storage (MSS) is common for resistive random access memory, but the effects of plasma treatment on the MSS and the switching properties have been scarcely investigated. We have demonstrated a stable four-state storage capability of single zinc oxide nanowire (ZnO NW) treated by argon plasma. The electrical switching is attributed to the electron trapping and detrapping from the oxygen vacancies (V{sub o}s). The MSS relates to the electrical-thermal induced distribution of the V{sub o}s which determines electron transport behavior to show different resistance states. Additionally, programming (set and reset) voltages decrease with plasma treatment due to the thickness modulation of the interface barrier.

  16. Genetic engineering of rice capable of synthesizing fructans and enhancing chilling tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Akira; Sato, Yutaka; Yoshida, Midori

    2008-01-01

    Fructans are water-soluble fructose oligomers and polymers that are based on sucrose, and have been implicated in protecting plants against water stress. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is highly sensitive to chilling temperatures, and is not able to synthesize fructans. Two wheat fructan-synthesizing enzymes, sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase, encoded by wft2, or sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase, encoded by wft1, were introduced into rice plants, and rice transformants that accumulate fructans were successfully obtained. The mature leaf blades of transgenic rice lines with wft2 or wft1 accumulated 16.2 mg g(-1) FW of oligo- and polysaccharides mainly composed of inulin oligomers of more than DP7, and 3.7 mg g(-1) FW of oligo- and polysaccharides, mainly composed of phlein oligomers of more than DP15, respectively. The transgenic rice seedlings with wft2 accumulated significantly higher concentrations of oligo- and polysaccharides than non-transgenic rice seedlings, and exhibited enhanced chilling tolerance. The oligo- and polysaccharide concentrations of seedlings expressing wft1 were obviously lower than those of lines expressing wft2, and no correlation between oligo- and polysaccharide concentrations and chilling tolerance was detected in wft1-expressing rice lines. The results suggest that transgenic rice lines expressing wheat-derived fructosyltransferase genes accumulated large amounts of fructans in mature leaf blades and exhibited enhanced chilling tolerance at the seedling stage. This is the first report owing that fructan accumulation enhanced tolerance to non-freezing low temperatures.

  17. A Decision Support Framework for Feasibility Analysis of International Space Station (ISS) Research Capability Enhancing Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott,Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2004-01-01

    The assembly and operation of the ISS has generated significant challenges that have ultimately impacted resources available to the program's primary mission: research. To address this, program personnel routinely perform trade-off studies on alternative options to enhance research. The approach, content level of analysis and resulting outputs of these studies vary due to many factors, however, complicating the Program Manager's job of selecting the best option. To address this, the program requested a framework be developed to evaluate multiple research-enhancing options in a thorough, disciplined and repeatable manner, and to identify the best option on the basis of cost, benefit and risk. The resulting framework consisted of a systematic methodology and a decision-support toolset. The framework provides quantifiable and repeatable means for ranking research-enhancing options for the complex and multiple-constraint domain of the space research laboratory. This paper describes the development, verification and validation of this framework and provides observations on its operational use.

  18. The National Teacher Enhancement Program (K-8) coordinated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    Teachers need help, not harassment. So do the establishments in which teachers practice their profession. Community resources must be marshalled to provide help to local schools and teachers. In 1990 the National Science Foundation (NSF) established a unique educational activity named the National Teacher Enhancement Program (NTEP). NSF took advantage of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored educational programs and resources at several large DOE contractor labs that had had prior experience with DOE supported teacher enhancement programs. While DOE concentrated on teacher enhancement activities for secondary teachers, the NSF concentrated on teachers from grades K-8. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is the lead organization for both administering and coordinating the grant. Other participating laboratories are Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FERMI), Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) with some support functions provided by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU). The program calls for a three week duration workshop to be conducted at each lab followed by in-service training and other activities during the year. The NSF/NTEP protocol calls for networking among the participating organizations and some of the teachers. An assessment effort is also an integral part of the program. 2 refs.

  19. Los Alamos neutron science center nuclear weapons stewardship and unique national scientific capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenberg, Kurt F

    2010-12-15

    This presentation gives an overview of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) and its contributions to science and the nuclear weapons program. LANSCE is made of multiple experimental facilities (the Lujan Center, the Weapons Neutron Research facility (WNR), the Ultra-Cold Neutron facility (UCN), the proton Radiography facility (pRad) and the Isotope Production Facility (IPF)) served by the its kilometer long linear accelerator. Several research areas are supported, including materials and bioscience, nuclear science, materials dynamics, irradiation response and medical isotope production. LANSCE is a national user facility that supports researchers worldwide. The LANSCE Risk Mitigation program is currently in progress to update critical accelerator equipment to help extend the lifetime of LANSCE as a key user facility. The Associate Directorate of Business Sciences (ADBS) plays an important role in the continued success of LANSCE. This includes key procurement support, human resource support, technical writing support, and training support. LANSCE is also the foundation of the future signature facility MARIE (Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes).

  20. PACStacker: an enhancement of the scientific and educational capabilities of PowerPoint.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Paritosh C; Thapa, Mahesh M; de Regt, David; Weinberger, Edward

    2009-02-01

    Our objective was to develop a way to enhance scientific and educational PowerPoint presentations containing stack-based, multiple-image techniques such as CT and MRI. We developed a PowerPoint add-in that facilitates the creation of stackable image sets in a simple and intuitive manner, permitting real-time scrolling, editing, and manipulation of imbedded image stacks. Contrast and brightness adjustments, cropping, and linking are supported. Once created, the PowerPoint presentation can be viewed without hardware or venue limitations on any computer, without reinstallation of the add-in.

  1. Idaho National Laboratory Ten-year Site Plan (2012 through 2021) -- DOE-NE's National Nuclear Capability -- Developing and Maintaining the INL Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Cal Ozaki

    2010-06-01

    To meet long-term objectives to transform the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), we are providing an integrated, long-term vision of infrastructure requirements that support research, development and demonstration (RD&D) goals outlined in the DOE strategic plans, including the NE Roadmap and reports such as Facilities for the Future of Nuclear Energy Research: A Twenty-year Outlook. The goal of the INL Ten-year Site Plan (TYSP) is to clearly link RD&D mission goals and INL core capabilities with infrastructure requirements (single and multi-program), establish the 10-year end-state vision for INL complexes, identify and prioritize infrastructure and capability gaps, as well as the most efficient and economic approaches to closing those gaps.

  2. "New turns from old STaRs": enhancing the capabilities of forensic short tandem repeat analysis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Christopher; Gelabert-Besada, Miguel; Fernandez-Formoso, Luis; García-Magariños, Manuel; Santos, Carla; Fondevila, Manuel; Ballard, David; Syndercombe Court, Denise; Carracedo, Angel; Lareu, Maria Victoria

    2014-11-01

    The field of research and development of forensic STR genotyping remains active, innovative, and focused on continuous improvements. A series of recent developments including the introduction of a sixth dye have brought expanded STR multiplex sizes while maintaining sensitivity to typical forensic DNA. New supplementary kits complimenting the core STRs have also helped improve analysis of challenging identification cases such as distant pairwise relationships in deficient pedigrees. This article gives an overview of several recent key developments in forensic STR analysis: availability of expanded core STR kits and supplementary STRs, short-amplicon mini-STRs offering practical options for highly degraded DNA, Y-STR enhancements made from the identification of rapidly mutating loci, and enhanced analysis of genetic ancestry by analyzing 32-STR profiles with a Bayesian forensic classifier originally developed for SNP population data. As well as providing scope for genotyping larger numbers of STRs optimized for forensic applications, the launch of compact next-generation sequencing systems provides considerable potential for genotyping the sizeable proportion of nucleotide variation existing in forensic STRs, which currently escapes detection with CE. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Oil-Free Turbomachinery Research Enhanced by Thrust Bearing Test Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, Steven W.

    2003-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center s Oil-Free Turbomachinery research team is developing aircraft turbine engines that will not require an oil lubrication system. Oil systems are required today to lubricate rolling-element bearings used by the turbine and fan shafts. For the Oil-Free Turbomachinery concept, researchers combined the most advanced foil (air) bearings from industry with NASA-developed high-temperature solid lubricant technology. In 1999, the world s first Oil-Free turbocharger was demonstrated using these technologies. Now we are working with industry to demonstrate Oil-Free turbomachinery technology in a small business jet engine, the EJ-22 produced by Williams International and developed during Glenn s recently concluded General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) program. Eliminating the oil system in this engine will make it simpler, lighter (approximately 15 percent), more reliable, and less costly to purchase and maintain. Propulsion gas turbines will place high demands on foil air bearings, especially the thrust bearings. Up until now, the Oil-Free Turbomachinery research team only had the capability to test radial, journal bearings. This research has resulted in major improvements in the bearings performance, but journal bearings are cylindrical, and can only support radial shaft loads. To counteract axial thrust loads, thrust foil bearings, which are disk shaped, are required. Since relatively little research has been conducted on thrust foil air bearings, their performance lags behind that of journal bearings.

  4. Fluorescent genetic barcoding in mammalian cells for enhanced multiplexing capabilities in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Smurthwaite, Cameron A; Hilton, Brett J; O'Hanlon, Ryan; Stolp, Zachary D; Hancock, Bryan M; Abbadessa, Darin; Stotland, Aleksandr; Sklar, Larry A; Wolkowicz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the green fluorescent protein from Aequorea victoria has revolutionized the field of cell and molecular biology. Since its discovery a growing panel of fluorescent proteins, fluorophores and fluorescent-coupled staining methodologies, have expanded the analytical capabilities of flow cytometry. Here, we exploit the power of genetic engineering to barcode individual cells with genes encoding fluorescent proteins. For genetic engineering, we utilize retroviral technology, which allows for the expression of ectopic genetic information in a stable manner in mammalian cells. We have genetically barcoded both adherent and nonadherent cells with different fluorescent proteins. Multiplexing power was increased by combining both the number of distinct fluorescent proteins, and the fluorescence intensity in each channel. Moreover, retroviral expression has proven to be stable for at least a 6-month period, which is critical for applications such as biological screens. We have shown the applicability of fluorescent barcoded multiplexing to cell-based assays that rely themselves on genetic barcoding, or on classical staining protocols. Fluorescent genetic barcoding gives the cell an inherited characteristic that distinguishes it from its counterpart. Once cell lines are developed, no further manipulation or staining is required, decreasing time, nonspecific background associated with staining protocols, and cost. The increasing number of discovered and/or engineered fluorescent proteins with unique absorbance/emission spectra, combined with the growing number of detection devices and lasers, increases multiplexing versatility, making fluorescent genetic barcoding a powerful tool for flow cytometry-based analysis.

  5. Enhanced Transport Capabilities via Nanotechnologies: Impacting Bioefficacy, Controlled Release Strategies, and Novel Chaperones.

    PubMed

    Panagiotou, Thomai; Fisher, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Emerging nanotechnologies have, and will continue to have, a major impact on the pharmaceutical industry. Their influence on a drug's life cycle, inception to delivery, is rapidly expanding. As the industry moves more aggressively toward continuous manufacturing modes, utilizing Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Process Intensification (PI) concepts, the critical role of transport phenomena becomes elucidated. The ability to transfer energy, mass, and momentum with directed purposeful outcomes is a worthwhile endeavor in establishing higher production rates more economically. Furthermore, the ability to obtain desired drug properties, such as size, habit, and morphology, through novel manufacturing strategies permits unique formulation control for optimum delivery methodologies. Bottom-up processing to obtain nano-sized crystals is an excellent example. Formulation and delivery are intimately coupled in improving bio-efficacy at reduced loading and/or better controlled release capabilities, minimizing side affects and providing improved therapeutic interventions. Innovative nanotechnology applications, such as simultaneous targeting, imaging and delivery to tumors, are now possible through use of novel chaperones. Other examples include nanoparticles attachment to T-cells, release from novel hydrogel implants, and functionalized encapsulants. Difficult tasks such as drug delivery to the brain via the blood brain barrier and/or the cerebrospinal fluid are now easier to accomplish.

  6. Enhanced Transport Capabilities via Nanotechnologies: Impacting Bioefficacy, Controlled Release Strategies, and Novel Chaperones

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotou, Thomai; Fisher, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging nanotechnologies have, and will continue to have, a major impact on the pharmaceutical industry. Their influence on a drug's life cycle, inception to delivery, is rapidly expanding. As the industry moves more aggressively toward continuous manufacturing modes, utilizing Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Process Intensification (PI) concepts, the critical role of transport phenomena becomes elucidated. The ability to transfer energy, mass, and momentum with directed purposeful outcomes is a worthwhile endeavor in establishing higher production rates more economically. Furthermore, the ability to obtain desired drug properties, such as size, habit, and morphology, through novel manufacturing strategies permits unique formulation control for optimum delivery methodologies. Bottom-up processing to obtain nano-sized crystals is an excellent example. Formulation and delivery are intimately coupled in improving bio-efficacy at reduced loading and/or better controlled release capabilities, minimizing side affects and providing improved therapeutic interventions. Innovative nanotechnology applications, such as simultaneous targeting, imaging and delivery to tumors, are now possible through use of novel chaperones. Other examples include nanoparticles attachment to T-cells, release from novel hydrogel implants, and functionalized encapsulants. Difficult tasks such as drug delivery to the brain via the blood brain barrier and/or the cerebrospinal fluid are now easier to accomplish. PMID:21603220

  7. Co-sensitized natural dyes potentially used to enhance light harvesting capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelia, R.; Sawitri, D.; Risanti, D. D.

    2015-01-01

    We present the photoelectrochemical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells using natural pigments containing anthocyanins, betalains, and caroteins. The dyes were adsorbed by a photoanode that was fabricated from nanocrystalline TiO2 on transparent conductive glass. TiO2 comprises of 100% anatase and 90:10 anatase:rutile fraction. The dyes extracted from mangosteen pericarp, Musa aromatica pericarp, Celosia cristata flower and red beet root were characterized through UV-vis and IPCE. The effectiveness of the dyes was explained through photocurrent as a function of incident light power. It was found that the cocktail and multilayered dyes comprised of anthocyanins and caroteins is beneficial to obtain high photocurrent, whereas betalains is not recommended to be applied on untreated TiO2. Due to the bandgap properties of rutile and anatase, the presence of 10% rutile in TiO2 is favourable to further enhance the electron transport.

  8. Using HEC-RAS to Enhance Interpretive Capabilities of Geomorphic Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefer, L. L.

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of a geomorphic assessment is to characterize and evaluate a fluvial system for determining the past watershed and channel conditions, current geomorphic character and potential future channel adjustments. The geomorphic assessment approach utilized by the Illinois State Water Survey assesses channel response to disturbance at multiple temporal and spatial scales to help identify the underlying factors and events which led to the existing channel morphology. This is accomplished through two phases of investigation that involve a historical and physical analysis of the watershed, disturbance history, and field work at increasing levels of detail. To infer future channel adjustments, the geomorphic assessment protocol combines two methods of analyses that are dependent on the quantity and detail of the available data. The first method is the compilation of multiple lines of evidence using qualitative information related to the dominant fluvial environment, channel gradient, stream power thresholds, and channel evolution models. The second method is the use of hydraulic models which provide additional interpretative skills to evaluate potential channel adjustments. The structured data collection framework of the geomorphic assessment approach is used for the development of a HEC-RAS model. The model results are then used as another tool to determine the influence of bridges and control structures on channel stability, stream power profiles to identify potential channel bed degradation zones, and provide data for physically-based bank stability models. This poster will demonstrate the advantages of using a hydraulic model, such as HEC-RAS, to expand the interpretive capabilities of geomorphic assessments. The results from applying this approach will be demonstrated for the Big Creek watershed of the Cache River Basin in southern Illinois.

  9. Enhancement of chemical sensing capability in a photonic crystal fiber with a hollow high index ring defect at the center.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Lee, Sejin; Kim, Soan; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2011-01-31

    A new type of index-guided photonic crystal fiber is proposed to enhance chemical sensing capability by introducing a hollow high index ring defect that consists of the central air hole surrounded by a high index GeO2 doped SiO2 glass ring. Optical properties of the fundamental guided mode were numerically analyzed using the full-vector finite element method varying the design parameters of both the defects in the center and the hexagonal air-silica lattice in the cladding. Enhanced evanescent wave interaction in the holey region and lower confinement loss by an order of magnitude were achieved simultaneously, which shows a high potential in hyper sensitive fiber-optic chemical sensing applications.

  10. Enhanced Capability of Photoelectrochemical CO2 Conversion System Using an AlGaN/GaN Photoelectrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, Masahiro; Yotsuhashi, Satoshi; Hashiba, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yuka; Ohkawa, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-01

    We report significantly improved photosynthesis system based on AlGaN/GaN photochemical process. The resultant energy conversion efficiency is 0.13% which is the same level as that of real plants. The capability of this system is enhanced by high cathode potential due to the reduction of energy loss while utilizing the piezoelectric effect in the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. The Faradaic efficiency of the CO2 conversion to organic materials is enhanced, accompanied by an increment in photocurrent by modification of the AlGaN/GaN photoelectrode structure and electrolytes. Furthermore, reaction products such as C2H4 and C2H5OH are generated by light illumination alone.

  11. Enhancing RHIC luminosity capabilities with in-situ beam piple coating

    SciTech Connect

    Herschcovitch,A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.; Poole, H. J.

    2009-05-04

    Electron clouds have been observed in many accelerators, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). They can limit the machine performance through pressure degradation, beam instabilities or incoherent emittance growth. The formation of electron clouds can be suppressed with beam pipe surfaces that have low secondary electron yield. At the same time, high wall resistivity in accelerators can result in levels of ohmic heating unacceptably high for superconducting magnets. This is a concern for the RHIC machine, as its vacuum chamber in the superconducting dipoles is made from relatively high resistivity 316LN stainless steel. The high resistivity can be addressed with a copper (Cu) coating; a reduction in the secondary electron yield can be achieved with a titanium nitride (TiN) or amorphous carbon (a-C) coating. Applying such coatings in an already constructed machine is rather challenging. We started developing a robotic plasma deposition technique for in-situ coating of long, small diameter tubes. The technique entails fabricating a device comprised of staged magnetrons and/or cathodic arcs mounted on a mobile mole for deposition of about 5 {micro}m (a few skin depths) of Cu followed by about 0.1 {micro}m of TiN (or a-C).

  12. NTR-Enhanced Lunar-Base Supply using Existing Launch Fleet Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Emily Colvin; Paul G. Cummings

    2009-06-01

    During the summer of 2006, students at the Center for Space Nuclear Research sought to augment the current NASA lunar exploration architecture with a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). An additional study investigated the possible use of an NTR with existing launch vehicles to provide 21 metric tons of supplies to the lunar surface in support of a lunar outpost. Current cost estimates show that the complete mission cost for an NTR-enhanced assembly of Delta-IV and Atlas V vehicles may cost 47-86% more than the estimated Ares V launch cost of $1.5B; however, development costs for the current NASA architecture have not been assessed. The additional cost of coordinating the rendezvous of four to six launch vehicles with an in-orbit assembly facility also needs more thorough analysis and review. Future trends in launch vehicle use will also significantly impact the results from this comparison. The utility of multiple launch vehicles allows for the development of a more robust and lower risk exploration architecture.

  13. Enhancing the absorption capabilities of thin-film solar cells using sandwiched light trapping structures.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, S; Kirah, K; Ghannam, R; Khalil, A S G; Anis, W

    2015-06-10

    A novel structure for thin-film solar cells is simulated with the purpose of maximizing the absorption of light in the active layer and of reducing the parasitic absorption in other layers. In the proposed structure, the active layer is formed from an amorphous silicon thin film sandwiched between silicon nanowires from above and photonic crystal structures from below. The upper electrical contact consists of an indium tin oxide layer, which serves also as an antireflection coating. A metal backreflector works additionally as the other contact. The simulation was done using a new reliable, efficient and generic optoelectronic approach. The suggested multiscale simulation model integrates the finite-difference time-domain algorithm used in solving Maxwell's equation in three dimensions with a commercial simulation platform based on the finite element method for carrier transport modeling. The absorption profile, the external quantum efficient, and the power conversion efficiency of the suggested solar cell are calculated. A noticeable enhancement is found in all the characteristics of the novel structure with an estimated 32% increase in the total conversion efficiency over a cell without any light trapping mechanisms.

  14. The benefits of enhanced integration capabilities in 3-D reservoir modelling and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    O`Rourke, S.T.; Ikwumonu, A.

    1996-12-31

    The use of proprietary, closely linked 3-D geological and reservoir simulation software has greatly enhanced the reservoir modelling process by enabling complete integration of geological and engineering data in a 3-D manner. The software were used to model and simulate a deltaic sandstone reservoir in the Nigerian Forcados Yokri field in order to describe the reservoir sweep pattern. A simple simulation of the reservoir was first carried out to identify the main controls on the reservoir performance, which in this case were the intra-reservoir shales. As they are the only baffles or barriers to flow, proper modelling of them was critical to achieving a history match. Well logs, 3-D seismic, limited core data and sequence stratigraphic concepts were used to define a three dimensional depositional model which was then used to guide the 3-D reservoir architecture modelling. The reservoir model was evaluated in the 3-D simulator and, when the initial model did not yield a proper match with the historical production data, alternative models were easily generated and simulated until an acceptable match was achieved. The result was a 10% increase in predicted ultimate recovery, a better understanding of the reservoir and an optimized reservoir depletion plan.

  15. Extending i-line capabilities through variance characterization and tool enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Dan; Salinas, Adrian; Peterson, Joel; Vickers, David; Williams, Dan

    2006-03-01

    Continuous economic pressures have moved a large percent of integrated device manufacturing (IDM) operations either overseas or to foundry operations over the last 10 years. These pressures have left the IDM fabs in the U.S. with required COO improvements in order to maintain operations domestically. While the assets of many of these factories are at a very favorable point in the depreciation life cycle, the equipment and processes are constrained to the quality of the equipment in its original state and the degradation over its installed life. With the objective to enhance output and improve process performance, this factory and their primary lithography process tool supplier have been able to extend the usable life of the existing process tools, increase the output of the tool base, and improve the distribution of the CDs on the product produced. Texas Instruments Incorporated lead an investigation with the POLARIS ® Systems & Services business of FSI International to determine the sources of variance in the i-line processing of a wide array of IC device types. Data from the sources of variance were investigated such as PEB temp, PEB delay time, develop recipe, develop time, and develop programming. While PEB processes are a primary driver of acid catalyzed resists, the develop mode is shown in this work to have an overwhelming impact on the wafer to wafer and across wafer CD performance of these i-line processes. These changes have been able to improve the wafer to wafer CD distribution by more than 80 %, and the within wafer CD distribution by more than 50 % while enabling a greater than 50 % increase in lithography cluster throughput. The paper will discuss the contribution from each of the sources of variance and their importance in overall system performance.

  16. Diagnostic capability of scanning laser polarimetry with and without enhanced corneal compensation and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Benítez-del-Castillo, Javier; Martinez, Antonio; Regi, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    To compare the abilities of the current commercially available versions of scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), SLP-variable corneal compensation (VCC), SLP-enhanced corneal compensation (ECC), and high-definition (HD) OCT, in discriminating between healthy eyes and those with early-to-moderate glaucomatous visual field loss. Healthy volunteers and patients with glaucoma who met the eligibility criteria were consecutively enrolled in this prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. Subjects underwent complete eye examination, automated perimetry, SLP-ECC, SLP-VCC, and HD-OCT. Scanning laser polarimetry parameters were recalculated in 90-degree segments (quadrants) in the calculation circle to be compared. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROCs) were calculated for every parameter in order to compare the ability of each imaging modality to differentiate between normal and glaucomatous eyes. Fifty-five normal volunteers (mean age 59.1 years) and 33 patients with glaucoma (mean age 63.8 years) were enrolled. Average visual field mean deviation was -6.69 dB (95% confidence interval -8.07 to -5.31) in the glaucoma group. The largest AUROCs were associated with nerve fiber indicator (0.880 and 0.888) for the SLP-VCC and SLP-ECC, respectively, and with the average thickness in the HD-OCT (0.897). The best performing indices for the SLP-VCC, SLP-ECC, and HD OCT gave similar AUROCs, showing moderate diagnostic accuracy in patients with early to moderate glaucoma. Further studies are needed to evaluate the ability of these technologies to discriminate between normal and glaucomatous eyes.

  17. Structural Basis of the Enhanced Pollutant-Degrading Capabilities of an Engineered Biphenyl Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Dhindwal, Sonali; Gomez-Gil, Leticia; Neau, David B.; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Sylvestre, Michel; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Bolin, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme of the biphenyl catabolic pathway, is a major determinant of which polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners are metabolized by a given bacterial strain. Ongoing efforts aim to engineer BphAE, the oxygenase component of the enzyme, to efficiently transform a wider range of congeners. BphAEII9, a variant of BphAELB400 in which a seven-residue segment, 335TFNNIRI341, has been replaced by the corresponding segment of BphAEB356, 333GINTIRT339, transforms a broader range of PCB congeners than does either BphAELB400 or BphAEB356, including 2,6-dichlorobiphenyl, 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl, 4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, and 2,3,4′-trichlorobiphenyl. To understand the structural basis of the enhanced activity of BphAEII9, we have determined the three-dimensional structure of this variant in substrate-free and biphenyl-bound forms. Structural comparison with BphAELB400 reveals a flexible active-site mouth and a relaxed substrate binding pocket in BphAEII9 that allow it to bind different congeners and which could be responsible for the enzyme's altered specificity. Biochemical experiments revealed that BphAEII9 transformed 2,3,4′-trichlorobiphenyl and 2,2′,5,5′-tetrachlorobiphenyl more efficiently than did BphAELB400 and BphAEB356. BphAEII9 also transformed the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) more efficiently than did either parental enzyme (apparent kcat/Km of 2.2 ± 0.5 mM−1 s−1, versus 0.9 ± 0.5 mM−1 s−1 for BphAEB356). Studies of docking of the enzymes with these three substrates provide insight into the structural basis of the different substrate selectivities and regiospecificities of the enzymes. IMPORTANCE Biphenyl dioxygenase is the first enzyme of the biphenyl degradation pathway that is involved in the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls. Attempts have been made to identify the residues that influence the enzyme activity for the range of substrates among various species. In this study

  18. Enhancing the Osteogenic Capability of Core-Shell Bilayered Bioceramic Microspheres with Adjustable Biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xiurong; Zhuang, Chen; Yang, Xianyan; Fu, Jia; Xu, Sanzhong; Xie, Lijun; Gou, Zhongru; Wang, Juncheng; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Guojing

    2017-07-26

    This study describes the fabrication and biological evaluation of core-shell bilayered bioceramic microspheres with adjustable compositional distribution via a coaxial bilayer capillary system. Beyond the homogeneous hybrid composites, varying the diameter of capillary nozzles and the composition of the bioceramic slurries makes it easy to create bilayered β-tricalcium phosphate (CaP)/β-calcium silicate (CaSi) microspheres with controllable compositional distribution in the core or shell layer. Primary investigations in vitro revealed that biodegradation could be adjusted by compositional distribution or shell thickness and that poorly soluble CaP located on the shell layer of CaP or CaSi@CaP microspheres was particularly beneficial for mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and growth in the early stage, but the ion release from the CaP@CaSi exhibited a potent stimulating effect on alkaline phosphatase expression of the cells at longer times. When the bilayered microspheres (CaSi@CaP, CaP@CaSi) and the monolayered microspheres (CaP, CaSi) were implanted into the critical-sized femoral bone defect in rabbit models, significant differences in osteogenic capacity over time were measured at 6-18 weeks post implantation. The CaP microspheres showed the lowest biodegradation rate and slow new bone regeneration, whereas the CaSi@CaP showed a fast degradation of the CaSi core through the porous CaP shell so that a significant osteogenic response was observed at 12-18 weeks. The CaP@CaSi microspheres possessed excellent surface bioactivity and osteogenic activity, whereas the CaSi microspheres group exhibited a poor bone augmentation in the later stage due to extreme biodegradation. These findings demonstrated that the bioactive response in such core-shell-structured bioceramic systems could be adjusted by compositional distribution, and this strategy can be used to fabricate a variety of bioceramic microspheres with adjustable biodegradation rates and enhanced biological

  19. A Description of the Development, Capabilities, and Operational Status of the Test SLATE Data Acquisition System at the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, Christopher J.; Wright, James D.; Simmons, Scott A.; Bobbitt, Lynn E.; DeMoss, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper will present a brief background of the previous data acquisition system at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) and the reasoning and goals behind the upgrade to the current Test SLATE (Test Software Laboratory and Automated Testing Environments) data acquisition system. The components, performance characteristics, and layout of the Test SLATE system within the NTF control room will be discussed. The development, testing, and integration of Test SLATE within NTF operations will be detailed. The operational capabilities of the system will be outlined including: test setup, instrumentation calibration, automatic test sequencer setup, data recording, communication between data and facility control systems, real time display monitoring, and data reduction. The current operational status of the Test SLATE system and its performance during recent NTF testing will be highlighted including high-speed, frame-by-frame data acquisition with conditional sampling post-processing applied. The paper concludes with current development work on the system including the capability for real-time conditional sampling during data acquisition and further efficiency enhancements to the wind tunnel testing process.

  20. Conceptual Evaluation for the Installation of Treatment Capability for Mixed Low Level Waste at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-11-24

    National Security Technologies, LLC, initiated an evaluation of treatment technologies that they would manage and operate as part of the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) disposal facilities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The NNSS Disposal Facility has been receiving radioactive waste from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex since the 1960s, and since 2005 the NNSS Disposal Facility has been receiving radioactive and MLLW for disposal only. In accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), all mixed waste must meet land disposal restrictions (LDRs) prior to disposal. Compliance with LDRs is attained through treatment of the waste to mitigate the characteristics of the listed waste hazard. Presently, most generators utilize commercial capacity for waste treatment prior to shipment to the NNSS Disposal Facility. The objectives of this evaluation are to provide a conceptual study of waste treatment needs (i.e., demand), identify potential waste treatment technologies to meet demand, and analyze implementation considerations for initiating MLLW treatment capacity at the NNSS Disposal Facility. A review of DOE complex waste generation forecast data indicates that current and future Departmental demand for mixed waste treatment capacity will remain steady and strong. Analysis and screening of over 30 treatment technologies narrowed the field of treatment technologies to four: • Macroencapsulation • Stabilization/microencapsulation • Sort and segregation • Bench-scale mercury amalgamation The analysis of treatment technologies also considered existing permits, current the NNSS Disposal Facility infrastructure such as utilities and procedures, and past experiences such as green-light and red-light lessons learned. A schedule duration estimate has been developed for permitting, design, and construction of onsite treatment capability at the NNSS Disposal Facility. Treatment capability can be ready in 20 months.

  1. Alignment mask design and image processing for the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Richard R.; Awwal, Abdul; Cohen, Simon; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Roberts, Randy; Salmon, Thad; Smauley, David; Wilhelmsen, Karl

    2015-09-01

    The Advance Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a laser system that employs up to four petawatt (PW) lasers to produce a sequence of short pulses that generate X-rays which backlight high-density inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. ARC is designed to produce multiple, sequential X-ray images by using up to eight back lighters. The images will be used to examine the compression and ignition of a cryogenic deuterium-tritium target with tens-of-picosecond temporal resolution during the critical phases of an ICF shot. Multi-frame, hard-X-ray radiography of imploding NIF capsules is a capability which is critical to the success of NIF's missions. As in the NIF system, ARC requires an optical alignment mask that can be inserted and removed as needed for precise positioning of the beam. Due to ARC's split beam design, inserting the nominal NIF main laser alignment mask in ARC produced a partial blockage of the mask pattern. Requirements for a new mask design were needed. In this paper we describe the ARC mask requirements, the resulting mask design pattern, and the image analysis algorithms used to detect and identify the beam and reference centers required for ARC alignment.

  2. Introductory materials for committee members: 1) instructions for the Los Alamos National Laboratory fiscal year 2010 capability reviews 2) NPAC strategic capability planning 3) Summary self-assessment for the nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics an

    SciTech Connect

    Redondo, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses external peer review to measure and continuously improve the quality of its science, technology and engineering (STE). LANL uses capability reviews to assess the STE quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. STE capabilities are define to cut across directorates providing a more holistic view of the STE quality, integration to achieve mission requirements, and mission relevance. The scope of these capabilities necessitate that there will be significant overlap in technical areas covered by capability reviews (e.g., materials research and weapons science and engineering). In addition, LANL staff may be reviewed in different capability reviews because of their varied assignments and expertise. LANL plans to perform a complete review of the Laboratory's STE capabilities (hence staff) in a three-year cycle. The principal product of an external review is a report that includes the review committee's assessments, commendations, and recommendations for STE. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). This report will be used by Laboratory Management for STE assessment and planning. The report is also provided to the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of LANL's Annual Performance Plan and to the Los Alamos National Security (LANS) LLC's Science and Technology Committee (STC) as part of its responsibilities to the LANS Board of Governors.

  3. Lysophosphatidic acid enhanced the angiogenic capability of human chondrocytes by regulating Gi/NF-kB-dependent angiogenic factor expression.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yi-Wen; Chang, Wen-Ming; Chen, Kai-Hua; Hong, Chang-Zern; Chang, Pey-Jium; Hsu, Hung-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been found to mediate myeloid differentiation, stimulate osteogenesis, alter cell proliferation and migration, and inhibit apoptosis in chondrocytes. The effect of LPA on the angiogenic capability of chondrocytes is not clear. This study aimed to investigate its effect on the angiogenic capability of human chondrocytes and the underlying mechanism of these effects. Human chondrocyte cell line, CHON-001, commercialized human chondrocytes (HC) derived from normal human articular cartilage, and human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used as cell models in this study. The angiogenic capability of chondrocytes was determined by capillary tube formation, monolayer permeability, cell migration, and cell proliferation. An angiogenesis protein array kit was used to evaluate the secretion of angiogenic factors in conditioned medium. Angiogenin, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein expressions were evaluated by Q-RT-PCR and EIA, respectively. LPA receptor (LPAR) expression was determined by RT-PCR. Signaling pathways were clarified using inhibitors, Western blot analysis, and reporter assays. The LPA treatment promoted the angiogenic capability of CHON-001 cells and HC, resulting in enhanced HUVEC capillary tube formation, monolayer permeability, migration, and cell growth. Angiogenin, IGFBP-1, IL-8, MCP-1, MMP-9, and VEGF mRNA and protein expressions were significantly enhanced in LPA-treated chondrocytes. LPA2, 3, 4 and 6 were expressed in CHON-001 and HC cells. Pretreatment with the Gi/o type G protein inhibitor, pertussis toxin (PTX), and the NF-kB inhibitor, PDTC, significantly inhibited LPA-induced angiogenin, IGFBP-1, IL-8, MCP-1, MMP-9, and VEGF expressions in chondrocytes. The PTX pretreatment also inhibited LPA-mediated NF-kB activation, suggesting

  4. Demonstration of the Capabilities of CometCIEF: A Web-based Image Enhancement Facility to Enhance Images of Cometary Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Michael Patrick; Samarasinha, Nalin; Larson, Steve

    2014-11-01

    Accurate identifications and measurements of spatial information related to coma structures of comets are an essential component of realistic quantitative interpretation of coma observations. For this purpose, there is a number of image enhancement techniques used by cometary scientists. Despite this, the wider applicability of many advanced enhancement techniques is limited due to the non-availability of relevant software as open source. We are making available a number of such techniques using a user-friendly web interface.In this image enhancement facility available at http://www.psi.edu/research/cometimen one can upload a FITS format image of a cometary coma and digitally enhance it using an image enhancement technique of the user’s choice. The user can then download the enhanced image as well as any associated images generated during the enhancement as FITS files for detailed analysis later at the user’s institution. The available image enhancement techniques at the facility are:(a) division by azimuthal average,(b) division by azimuthal median,(c) azimuthal renormalization,(d) division by 1/ρ profile, where ρ is the skyplane projected distance from the nucleus, and(e) radially variable spatial filtering.The site provides documentation describing the above enhancement techniques as well as a tutorial showing the application of the enhancement techniques to actual cometary images and how the results may vary with different input parameters. In addition, the source codes as well as the executables are available for the user to download. To provide a secure facility, all the images uploaded by the users as well as the images created at the facility are deleted using a script that runs every hour.At the Division for Planetary Sciences 2014 meeting, we will present a description of CometCIEF and its capabilities, as well as a live demonstration of the facility that includes a question-answer session.Acknowledgements: We thank the NASA Planetary Atmospheres

  5. Thermal Desorption Capability Development for Enhanced On-site Health Risk Assessment: HAPSITE (registered trademark) ER Passive Sampling in the Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-07

    passive (diffusive) sampling systems with the Hazardous Air Pollutants on Site (HAPSITE)® Extended Range (ER) Thermal Desorp- tion (TD) system for ambient...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2015-0061 THERMAL DESORPTION CAPABILITY DEVELOPMENT FOR ENHANCED ON-SITE HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT: HAPSITE® ER PASSIVE...2015 Interim November 2013 – July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Thermal Desorption Capability Development for Enhanced On-site Health Risk

  6. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Examples: Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gruebel, M.R.; Parsons, A.M.; Waters, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    The disposal of mixed low-level waste has become an issue for the U.S. Department of Energy and the States since the inception of the Federal Facilities Compliance Act in 1992. Fifteen sites, including Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), have been evaluated to estimate their technical capabilities for disposal of this type of waste after it has been subjected to treatment processes. The analyses were designed to quantify the maximum permissible concentrations of radioactive and hazardous constituents in mixed low-level waste that could potentially be disposed of in a facility at one of the fifteen sites and meet regulatory requirements. The evaluations provided several major insights about the disposal of mixed low-level waste. All of the fifteen sites have the technical capability for disposal of some waste. Maximum permissible concentrations for the radioactive component of the waste at and sites such as SNL and LANL are almost exclusively determined by pathways other than through groundwater. In general, for the hazardous component of the waste, travel times through groundwater to a point 100 meters from the disposal facility are on the order of thousands of years. The results of the evaluations will be compared to actual treated waste that may be disposed of in a facility at one of these fifteen evaluated sites. These comparisons will indicate which waste streams may exceed the disposal limitations of a site and which component of the waste limits the technical acceptability for disposal. The technical analyses provide only partial input to the decision-making process for determining the disposal sites for mixed low-level waste. Other, less quantitative factors such as social and political issues will also be considered.

  7. Diagnostic capability of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison with multi-detector CT.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Yuko; Hieda, Masashi; Akiyama, Naoko; Terada, Hiroaki; Matsuura, Noriaki; Nishiki, Masayo; Kono, Hirotaka; Kohno, Hiroshi; Irei, Toshimitsu; Yoshikawa, Yukinobu; Kuraoka, Kazuya; Taniyama, Kiyomi; Awai, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic capability of gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB)-MRI for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with multidetector CT (MDCT). Fifty patients with 57 surgically proven HCCs who underwent Gd-EOB-MRI and MDCT from March 2008 to June 2011 were evaluated. Two observers evaluated MR and CT on a lesion-by-lesion basis. We analyzed sensitivity by grading on a 5-point scale, the degree of arterial enhancement and the differences in histological grades in the diffusion-weighted images (DWI). The results showed that the sensitivity of Gd-EOB-MRI was higher than that of MDCT especially for HCCs that were 1 cm in diameter or smaller. The hepatobiliary phase was useful for the detecting of small HCC. We had few cases in which it was difficult to judge HCC in the arterial enhancement between MRI and MDCT. In the diffusion-weighted image, well differentiated HCC tended to show a low signal intensity, and poorly differentiated HCC tended to show a high signal intensity. In moderately differentiated HCC's, the mean diameter of the high signal intensity group was larger than that of the low signal intensity group (24.5 mm vs. 15.8 mm). In conclusion, Gd-EOB-MRI tended to show higher sensitivity compared to MDCT in the detection of HCC.

  8. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is capable of enhancing hammerhead ribozyme activity with long but not with short RNA substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Jankowsky, E; Strunk, G; Schwenzer, B

    1997-01-01

    Long RNA substrates are inefficiently cleaved by hammerhead ribozymes in trans. Oligonucleotide facilitators capable of affecting the ribozyme activity by interacting with the substrates at the termini of the ribozyme provide a possibility to improve ribozyme mediated cleavage of long RNA substrates. We have examined the effect of PNA as facilitator in vitro in order to test if even artificial compounds have facilitating potential. Effects of 12mer PNA- (peptide nucleic acid), RNA- and DNA-facilitators of identical sequence were measured with three substrates containing either 942, 452 or 39 nucleotides. The PNA facilitator enhances the ribozyme activity with both, the 942mer and the 452mer substrate to a slightly smaller extent than RNA and DNA facilitators. This effect was observed up to PNA facilitator:substrate ratios of 200:1. The enhancement becomes smaller as the PNA facilitator:substrate ratio exceeds 200:1. With the 39mer substrate, the PNA facilitator decreases the ribozyme activity by more than 100-fold, even at PNA facilitator:substrate ratios of 1:1. Although with long substrates the effect of the PNA facilitator is slightly smaller than the effect of identical RNA or DNA facilitators, PNA may be a more practical choice for potential applications in vivo because PNA is much more resistant to degradation by cellular enzymes. PMID:9207013

  9. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory interests and capabilities for research on the ecological effects of global climatic and atmospheric change

    SciTech Connect

    Amthor, J.S.; Houpis, J.L.; Kercher, J.R.; Ledebuhr, A.; Miller, N.L.; Penner, J.E.; Robison, W.L.; Taylor, K.E.

    1994-09-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has interests and capabilities in all three types of research that must be conducted in order to understand and predict effects of global atmospheric and climatic (i.e., environmental) changes on ecological systems and their functions (ecosystem function is perhaps most conveniently defined as mass and energy exchange and storage). These three types of research are: (1) manipulative experiments with plants and ecosystems; (2) monitoring of present ecosystem, landscape, and global exchanges and pools of energy, elements, and compounds that play important roles in ecosystem function or the physical climate system, and (3) mechanistic (i.e., hierarchic and explanatory) modeling of plant and ecosystem responses to global environmental change. Specific experimental programs, monitoring plans, and modeling activities related to evaluation of ecological effects of global environmental change that are of interest to, and that can be carried out by LLNL scientists are outlined. Several projects have the distinction of integrating modeling with empirical studies resulting in an Integrated Product (a model or set of models) that DOE or any federal policy maker could use to assess ecological effects. The authors note that any scheme for evaluating ecological effects of atmospheric and climatic change should take into account exceptional or sensitive species, in particular, rare, threatened, or endangered species.

  10. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Human Health & Support Systems Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikins, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps. Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  11. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Title of CRM Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crooke, Julie A.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps "Title." Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  12. New Graduate Nurses' Developmental Trajectories for Capability Beliefs Concerning Core Competencies for Healthcare Professionals: A National Cohort Study on Patient-Centered Care, Teamwork, and Evidence-based Practice.

    PubMed

    Ehrenberg, Anna; Gustavsson, Petter; Wallin, Lars; Boström, Anne-Marie; Rudman, Ann

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to describe the developmental trajectories of registered nurses' capability beliefs during their first 3 years of practice. The focus was on three core competencies for health professionals-patient-centered care, teamwork, and evidence-based practice. A national cohort of registered nurses (n = 1,205) was recruited during their nursing education and subsequently surveyed yearly during the first 3 years of working life. The survey included 16 items on capability beliefs divided into three subscales for the assessment of patient-centered care, teamwork, and evidence-based practice, and the data were analyzed with linear latent growth modeling. The nurses' capability beliefs for patient-centered care increased over the three first years of working life, their capability beliefs for evidence-based practice were stable over the 3 years, and their capability beliefs for teamwork showed a downward trend. Through collaboration between nursing education and clinical practice, the transition to work life could be supported and competence development in newly graduated nurses could be enhanced to help them master the core competencies. Future research should focus on determining which factors impact the development of capability beliefs in new nurses and how these factors can be developed by testing interventions. © 2016 The Authors. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Sigma Theta Tau International The Honor Society of Nursing.

  13. 77 FR 36550 - Office of Clinical and Preventive Services Funding Opportunity: National HIV Program for Enhanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ...: National HIV Program for Enhanced HIV/AIDS Screening and Engagement in Care Announcement Type: New. Funding... applications for the Office of Clinical and Preventive Services: National HIV Program for Enhanced HIV/AIDS... Syndrome (HIV/ AIDS) Program serves as the primary source for national advocacy, policy development,...

  14. Training Enhances Immune Cells Mitochondrial Biosynthesis, Fission, Fusion, and Their Antioxidant Capabilities Synergistically with Dietary Docosahexaenoic Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Busquets-Cortés, Carla; Capó, Xavier; Tur, Josep A.; Sureda, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training induces adaptations in mitochondrial metabolism, dynamics, and oxidative protection. Omega-3 fatty acids change membrane lipid composition and modulate mitochondrial function. The aim was to investigate the effect of 8-week training and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation (1.14 g/day) on the mitochondria dynamics and antioxidant status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from sportsmen. Subjects were assigned to an intervention (N = 9) or placebo groups (N = 7) in a randomized double-blind trial. Nutritional intervention significantly increased the DHA content in erythrocyte membranes from the experimental group. No significant differences were reported in terms of circulating PBMCs, Mn-superoxide dismutase protein levels, and their capability to produce reactive oxygen species. The proteins related to mitochondrial dynamics were, in general, increased after an 8-week training and this increase was enhanced by DHA supplementation. The content in mitofusins Mtf-1 and Mtf-2, optic atrophy protein-1 (Opa-1), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) were significantly higher in the DHA-supplemented group after intervention. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX-IV) activity and uncoupling proteins UCP-2 and UCP-3 protein levels were increased after training, with higher UCP-3 levels in the supplemented group. In conclusion, training induced mitochondrial adaptations which may contribute to improved mitochondrial function. This mitochondrial response was modulated by DHA supplementation. PMID:27698953

  15. Final Technical Report - 300°C Capable Electronics Platform and Temperature Sensor System For Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Cheng-Po; Shaddock, David; Sandvik, Peter; Saia, Rich; Amita Patil, Alexey Vert; Zhang, Tan

    2012-11-30

    A silicon carbide (SiC) based electronic temperature sensor prototype has been demonstrated to operate at 300°C. We showed continuous operation of 1,000 hours with SiC operational amplifier and surface mounted discreet resistors and capacitors on a ceramic circuit board. This feasibility demonstration is a major milestone in the development of high temperature electronics in general and high temperature geothermal exploration and well management tools in particular. SiC technology offers technical advantages that are not found in competing technologies such as silicon-on-insulator (SOI) at high temperatures of 200°C to 300°C and beyond. The SiC integrated circuits and packaging methods can be used in new product introduction by GE Oil and Gas for high temperature down-hole tools. The existing SiC fabrication facility at GE is sufficient to support the quantities currently demanded by the marketplace, and there are other entities in the United States and other countries capable of ramping up SiC technology manufacturing. The ceramic circuit boards are different from traditional organic-based electronics circuit boards, but the fabrication process is compatible with existing ceramic substrate manufacturing. This project has brought high temperature electronics forward, and brings us closer to commercializing tools that will enable and reduce the cost of enhanced geothermal technology to benefit the public in terms of providing clean renewable energy at lower costs.

  16. Amniotic mesenchymal stem cells enhance wound healing in diabetic NOD/SCID mice through high angiogenic and engraftment capabilities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Whan; Zhang, Hong-Zhe; Guo, Longzhe; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Moo Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Although human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (AMMs) have been recognised as a promising stem cell resource, their therapeutic potential for wound healing has not been widely investigated. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of AMMs using a diabetic mouse wound model. Quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA results revealed that the angiogenic factors, IGF-1, EGF and IL-8 were markedly upregulated in AMMs when compared with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMs) and dermal fibroblasts. In vitro scratch wound assays also showed that AMM-derived conditioned media (CM) significantly accelerated wound closure. Diabetic mice were generated using streptozotocin and wounds were created by skin excision, followed by AMM transplantation. AMM transplantation significantly promoted wound healing and increased re-epithelialization and cellularity. Notably, transplanted AMMs exhibited high engraftment rates and expressed keratinocyte-specific proteins and cytokeratin in the wound area, indicating a direct contribution to cutaneous closure. Taken together, these data suggest that AMMs possess considerable therapeutic potential for chronic wounds through the secretion of angiogenic factors and enhanced engraftment/differentiation capabilities.

  17. Phase-Resolved Heterodyne-Detected Transient Grating Enhances the Capabilities of 2D IR Echo Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Geun Young; Kim, Yung Sam

    2017-02-09

    2D IR echo spectroscopy, with high sensitivity and femtosecond time resolution, enables us to understand structure and ultrafast dynamics of molecular systems. Application of this experimental technique on weakly absorbing samples, however, had been limited by the precise and unambiguous phase determination of the echo signals. In this study, we propose a new experimental scheme that significantly increases the phase stability of the involved IR pulses. We have demonstrated that the incorporation of phase-resolved heterodyne-detected transient grating (PR-HDTG) spectroscopy greatly enhances the capabilities of 2D IR spectroscopy. The new experimental scheme has been used to obtain 2D IR spectra on weakly absorbing azide ions (N3(-)) in H2O (absorbance ∼0.025), free of phase ambiguity even at large waiting times. We report the estimated spectral diffusion time scale (1.056 ps) of azide ions in aqueous solution from the 2D IR spectra and the vibrational lifetime (750 ± 3 fs) and the reorientation time (1108 ± 24 fs) from the PR-HDTG spectra.

  18. In situ plasma fabrication of ceramic-like structure on polymeric implant with enhanced surface hardness, cytocompatibility and antibacterial capability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Haigang; Yang, Kun; Wang, Gexia; Wang, Pingli; Ji, Junhui; Chu, Paul K

    2016-05-01

    Polymeric materials are commonly found in orthopedic implants due to their unique mechanical properties and biocompatibility but the poor surface hardness and bacterial infection hamper many biomedical applications. In this study, a ceramic-like surface structure doped with silver is produced by successive plasma implantation of silicon (Si) and silver (Ag) into the polyamine 66 (PA66) substrate. Not only the surface hardness and elastic modulus are greatly enhanced due to the partial surface carbonization and the ceramic-like structure produced by the reaction between energetic Si and the carbon chain of PA66, but also the antibacterial activity is improved because of the combined effects rendered by Ag and SiC structure. Furthermore, the modified materials which exhibit good cytocompatibility upregulate bone-related genes and proteins expressions of the contacted bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). For the first time, it explores out that BMSCs osteogenesis on the antibacterial ceramic-like structure is mediated via the iNOS and nNOS signal pathways. The results reveal that in situ plasma fabrication of an antibacterial ceramic-like structure can endow PA66 with excellent surface hardness, cytocompatibility, as well as antibacterial capability. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Fe2O3 Nanoparticles Wrapped in Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes With Enhanced Lithium Storage Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Nan; Zhou, Xuhui; Li, Yan; Wang, Fang; Zhong, Hao; Wang, Hui; Chen, Qianwang

    2013-12-01

    We have designed a novel hybrid nanostructure by coating Fe2O3 nanoparticles with multi-walled carbon nanotubes to enhance the lithium storage capability of Fe2O3. The strategy to prepare Fe2O3@MWCNTs involves the synthesis of Fe nanoparticles wrapped in MWCNTs, followed by the oxidation of Fe nanoparticles under carbon dioxide. When used as the anode in a Li-ion battery, this hybrid material (70.32 wt% carbon nanotubes, 29.68 wt% Fe2O3) showed a reversible discharge capacity of 515 mAhg-1 after 50 cycles at a density of 100 mAg-1 and the capacity based on Fe2O3 nanoparticles was calculated as 1147 mAhg-1, Three factors are responsibile for the superior performance: (1) The hollow interiors of MWCNTs provide enough spaces for the accommodation of large volume expansion of inner Fe2O3 nanoparticles, which can improving the stability of electrode; (2) The MWCNTs increase the overall conductivity of the anode; (3) A stable solid electrolyte interface film formed on the surface of MWCNTs may reduce capacity fading.

  20. Training Enhances Immune Cells Mitochondrial Biosynthesis, Fission, Fusion, and Their Antioxidant Capabilities Synergistically with Dietary Docosahexaenoic Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Busquets-Cortés, Carla; Capó, Xavier; Martorell, Miquel; Tur, Josep A; Sureda, Antoni; Pons, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training induces adaptations in mitochondrial metabolism, dynamics, and oxidative protection. Omega-3 fatty acids change membrane lipid composition and modulate mitochondrial function. The aim was to investigate the effect of 8-week training and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation (1.14 g/day) on the mitochondria dynamics and antioxidant status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from sportsmen. Subjects were assigned to an intervention (N = 9) or placebo groups (N = 7) in a randomized double-blind trial. Nutritional intervention significantly increased the DHA content in erythrocyte membranes from the experimental group. No significant differences were reported in terms of circulating PBMCs, Mn-superoxide dismutase protein levels, and their capability to produce reactive oxygen species. The proteins related to mitochondrial dynamics were, in general, increased after an 8-week training and this increase was enhanced by DHA supplementation. The content in mitofusins Mtf-1 and Mtf-2, optic atrophy protein-1 (Opa-1), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) were significantly higher in the DHA-supplemented group after intervention. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX-IV) activity and uncoupling proteins UCP-2 and UCP-3 protein levels were increased after training, with higher UCP-3 levels in the supplemented group. In conclusion, training induced mitochondrial adaptations which may contribute to improved mitochondrial function. This mitochondrial response was modulated by DHA supplementation.

  1. Fe2O3 Nanoparticles Wrapped in Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes With Enhanced Lithium Storage Capability

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Nan; Zhou, Xuhui; Li, Yan; Wang, Fang; Zhong, Hao; Wang, Hui; Chen, Qianwang

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a novel hybrid nanostructure by coating Fe2O3 nanoparticles with multi-walled carbon nanotubes to enhance the lithium storage capability of Fe2O3. The strategy to prepare Fe2O3@MWCNTs involves the synthesis of Fe nanoparticles wrapped in MWCNTs, followed by the oxidation of Fe nanoparticles under carbon dioxide. When used as the anode in a Li-ion battery, this hybrid material (70.32 wt% carbon nanotubes, 29.68 wt% Fe2O3) showed a reversible discharge capacity of 515 mAhg−1 after 50 cycles at a density of 100 mAg−1 and the capacity based on Fe2O3 nanoparticles was calculated as 1147 mAhg−1, Three factors are responsibile for the superior performance: (1) The hollow interiors of MWCNTs provide enough spaces for the accommodation of large volume expansion of inner Fe2O3 nanoparticles, which can improving the stability of electrode; (2) The MWCNTs increase the overall conductivity of the anode; (3) A stable solid electrolyte interface film formed on the surface of MWCNTs may reduce capacity fading. PMID:24292097

  2. Assessment of human immediate response capability related to tsunami threats in Indonesia at a sub-national scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, J.; Wegscheider, S.; Mück, M.; Zosseder, K.; Kiefl, R.; Steinmetz, T.; Strunz, G.

    2009-07-01

    Human immediate response is contextualized into different time compartments reflecting the tsunami early warning chain. Based on the different time compartments the available response time and evacuation time is quantified. The latter incorporates accessibility of safe areas determined by a hazard assessment, as well as environmental and demographic impacts on evacuation speed properties assessed using a Cost Distance Weighting GIS approach. Approximately 4.35 million Indonesians live in tsunami endangered areas on the southern coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali and have between 20 and 150 min to reach a tsunami-safe area. Most endangered areas feature longer estimated-evacuation times and hence the population possesses a weak immediate response capability leaving them more vulnerable to being directly impacted by a tsunami. At a sub-national scale these hotspots were identified and include: the Mentawai islands off the Sumatra coast, various sub-districts on Sumatra and west and east Java. Based on the presented approach a temporal dynamic estimation of casualties and displacements as a function of available response time is obtained for the entire coastal area. As an example, a worst case tsunami scenario for Kuta (Bali) results in casualties of 25 000 with an optimal response time (direct evacuation when receiving a tsunami warning) and 120 000 for minimal response time (no evacuation). The estimated casualties correspond well to observed/reported values and overall model uncertainty is low with a standard error of 5%. The results obtained allow for prioritization of intervention measures such as early warning chain, evacuation and contingency planning, awareness and preparedness strategies down to a sub-district level and can be used in tsunami early warning decision support.

  3. Extending enhanced-vision capabilities by integration of advanced surface movement guidance and control systems (A-SMGCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, Peter; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich; Korn, Bernd; Ludwig, T.

    2001-08-01

    DLR has set up a number of projects to increase flight safety and economics of aviation. Within these activities one field of interest is the development and validation of systems for pilot assistance in order to increase the situation awareness of the aircrew. All flight phases ('gate-to-gate') are taken into account, but as far as approaches, landing and taxiing are the most critical tasks in the field of civil aviation, special emphasis is given to these operations. As presented in previous contributions within SPIE's Enhanced and Synthetic Vision Conferences, DLR's Institute of Flight Guidance has developed an Enhanced Vision System (EVS) as a tool assisting especially approach and landing by improving the aircrew's situational awareness. The combination of forward looking imaging sensors (such as EADS's HiVision millimeter wave radar), terrain data stored in on-board databases plus information transmitted from ground or other aircraft via data link is used to help pilots handling these phases of flight especially under adverse weather conditions. A second pilot assistance module being developed at DLR is the Taxi And Ramp Management And Control - Airborne System (TARMAC-AS), which is part of an Advanced Surface Management Guidance and Control System (ASMGCS). By means of on-board terrain data bases and navigation data a map display is generated, which helps the pilot performing taxi operations. In addition to the pure map function taxi instructions and other traffic can be displayed as the aircraft is connected to TARMAC-planning and TARMAC-communication, navigation and surveillance modules on ground via data-link. Recent experiments with airline pilots have shown, that the capabilities of taxi assistance can be extended significantly by integrating EVS- and TARMAC-AS-functionalities. Especially an extended obstacle detection and warning coming from the Enhanced Vision System increases the safety of ground operations. The presented paper gives an overview

  4. Gigapixel panoramas of Glacier National Park create enhanced education experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagre, D. B.; McKeon, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    Repeat photography has proven to be an effective means to communicate the pace and scope of climate change impacts to Glacier National Park, Montana for broad audiences. The repeat photographs of glaciers vividly document their rate of disappearance and have been used in books, magazines, TV documentaries, on websites, and in several art museum exhibits. In our ongoing efforts to enhance information transfer about climate change to audiences, we have capitalized on an emerging technology by partnering with GigaPan Systems to test the effectiveness of a Gigapan camera system. A Gigapan camera system is a robotically controlled DSLR camera mount that is programmed to take multiple high-resolution digital photographs of objects or entire landscapes in sequence and with overlap between adjoining photographs. The multiple (e.g. 800) photographs are digitally stitched with post production software into one large merged image and served online as a gigapixel panorama. Key objects or parts of the image can be zoomed into at great detail and highlighted as “snapshots”. The snapshot images retain high image resolution and can then be annotated and information such as datasets, maps, or additional images can be linked to that part of the image. GigaPan images can be georeferenced in Google Earth and embedded in websites. We have used this visually compelling technology to photograph alpine glaciers in Glacier Park and create interactive experiences for online users. Results are available at: http://gigapan.org/ Gigapan system with robotically controlled camera

  5. Water-the Nation's Fundamental Climate Issue A White Paper on the U.S. Geological Survey Role and Capabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lins, Harry F.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Kiang, Julie

    2010-01-01

    , they are not a substitute for observations. The second key idea is that measurement needs to be done over a period of many decades. When viewing hydrologic records over time scales of a few years to a few decades, trends commonly appear. However, when viewed in the context of many decades to centuries, these short-term trends are recognized as being part of much longer term oscillations. Thus, while we might want to initiate monitoring of important aspects of our natural resources, the data that will prove to be most useful in the next few years are those records that already have long-term continuity. USGS streamflow and groundwater level data are excellent examples of such long-term records. These measured data span many decades, follow standard protocols for collection and quality assurance, and are stored in a database that provides access to the full period of record. The third point from the Keeling quote relates to the notion of ?poring over the records.? Important trends will not generally jump off the computer screen at us. Thoughtful analyses are required to get past a number of important but confounding influences in the record, such as the role of seasonal variation, changes in water management, or influences of quasi-periodic phenomena, such as El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). No organization is better situated to pore over the records than the USGS because USGS scientists know the data, quality-assure the data, understand the factors that influence the data, and have the ancillary information on the watersheds within which the data are collected. To fulfill the USGS role in understanding climatic variability and change, we need to continually improve and strengthen two of our key capabilities: (1) preserving continuity of long-term water data collection and (2) analyzing and interpreting water data to determine how the Nation's water resources are changing. Understanding change in water resources

  6. Ni catalyst wash-coated on metal monolith with enhanced heat-transfer capability for steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jae-Hong; Lee, Kwan-Young; La, Howon; Kim, Hak-Joo; Yang, Jung-Il; Jung, Heon

    A commercial Ni-based catalyst is wash-coated on a monolith made of 50 μm-thick fecralloy plates. Compared with the same volume of coarsely powdered Ni catalysts, the monolith wash-coated Ni catalysts give higher methane conversion in the steam reforming reaction, especially at gas hourly space velocities (GHSV) higher than 28,000 h -1, and with no pressure drop. A higher conversion of the monolith catalyst is obtained, even though it contains a lower amount of active catalyst (3 g versus 17 g for a powdered catalyst), which indicates that the heat-transfer capability of the wash-coated Ni catalyst is significantly enhanced by the use of a metal monolith. The efficacy of the monolith catalyst is tested using a shell-and-tube type heat-exchanger reactor with 912 cm 3 of the monolith catalyst charged on to the tube side and hot combusted gas supplied to the shell side in a counter-current direction to the reactant flow. A methane conversion greater than 94% is obtained at a GHSV of 7300 h -1 and an average temperature of 640 °C. Nickel catalysts should first be reduced to become active for steam reforming. Doping a small amount (0.12 wt.%) of noble metal (Ru or Pt) in the commercial Ni catalyst renders the wash-coated catalyst as active as a pre-reduced Ni catalyst. Thus, noble metal-doped Ni appears useful for steam reforming without any pre-reduction procedure.

  7. Enhancing The National Map Through Tactical Planning and Performance Monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Tactical planning and performance monitoring are initial steps toward improving 'the way The National Map works' and supporting the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Science Strategy. This Tactical Performance Planning Summary for The National Map combines information from The National Map 2.0 Tactical Plan and The National Map Performance Milestone Matrix. The National Map 2.0 Tactical Plan is primarily a working document to guide The National Map program's execution, production, and metrics monitoring for fiscal years (FY) 2008 and 2009. The Tactical Plan addresses data, products, and services, as well as supporting and enabling activities. The National Map's 2-year goal for FY 2008 and FY 2009 is to provide a range of geospatial products and services that further the National Spatial Data Infrastructure and underpin USGS science. To do this, the National Geospatial Program will develop a renewed understanding during FY 2008 of key customer needs and requirements, develop the infrastructure to support The National Map business model, modernize its business processes, and reengineer its workforce. Priorities for The National Map will be adjusted if necessary to respond to changes to the project that may impact resources, constrain timeframes, or change customer needs. The supporting and enabling activities that make it possible to produce the products and services of The National Map will include partnership activities, improved compatibility of systems, outreach, and integration of data themes.

  8. Silver nanoclusters with enhanced fluorescence and specific ion recognition capability triggered by alcohol solvents: a highly selective fluorimetric strategy for detecting iodide ions in urine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Luping; Sun, Zongzhao; Liu, Huan; Liu, Min; Jiang, Yao; Fan, Chuan; Cai, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Sheng; Xu, Jihong; Wang, Hua

    2017-08-22

    Alcohol solvents especially isopropanol were demonstrated for the first time to endow silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) in water with dramatically enhanced red fluorescence. More importantly, the specific iodide recognition capability of the AgNCs could thus be obtained towards a highly selective fluorimetric assay for detecting iodide ions in urine.

  9. 76 FR 32968 - Proposed Extensions and Waivers: National Center To Enhance the Professional Development of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... Proposed Extensions and Waivers: National Center To Enhance the Professional Development of School Personnel Who Share Responsibility AGENCY: Office of Special Education Programs, Office of Special Education... period and waiver for the National Center to Enhance the Professional Development of School Personnel Who...

  10. Implementation of the Enhanced Flight Termination System at National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tow, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodology, requirements, tests, and results of the implementation of the current operating capability for the Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). The implementation involves the development of the EFTS at NASA DFRC starting from the requirements to system safety review to full end to end system testing, and concluding with the acceptance of the system as an operational system. The paper discusses the first operational usage and subsequent flight utilizing EFTS successfully.

  11. Peripheral Social Learning in the Workplace and the Development of Corporate Capability: The Role of National Vocational Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, Len; Stephenson, John

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with over 200 people in 8 British and 2 Australian organizations identified 8 features of a healthy learning environment that contributes to organizational capability. Differences emerged between organization-driven and learner-driven learning activities. (Conains 74 references.) (SK)

  12. Assessment of U.S. Government and Coalition Efforts to Develop the Logistics Sustainment Capability of the Afghan National Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-09

    Cooperation, • Tactical Logistics Operations, and • Literacy . 1 A kandak is the Afghan equivalent to...logistic resupply convoy operation. Literacy Developing a sustainable ANA logistics capability requires soldiers with effective literacy skills...Arguably, literacy is some of the most important ANSF training conducted today. In the past year, literacy training provided by NTM-A/CSTC-A

  13. Peripheral Social Learning in the Workplace and the Development of Corporate Capability: The Role of National Vocational Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, Len; Stephenson, John

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with over 200 people in 8 British and 2 Australian organizations identified 8 features of a healthy learning environment that contributes to organizational capability. Differences emerged between organization-driven and learner-driven learning activities. (Conains 74 references.) (SK)

  14. Army National Guard: Enhancing Public and Employer Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-24

    rundowns/rundown.php?prgId=2&prgDate=4-18- 2009 (accessed 9 October 2010). 20 John Stimac, “Four Governors visit Gaud Troops in Iraq.” National Guard...The National Guard, A Great Value for America, 6. 33 LTC Michael Peeters , businessman, entrepreneur and member of the USAR, interviewed by author, 22

  15. National Infrastructure Protection Plan: Partnering to Enhance Protection and Resiliency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Homeland Security, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goal of the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) is to build a safer, more secure, and more resilient America by preventing, deterring, neutralizing, or mitigating the effects of deliberate efforts by terrorists to destroy, incapacitate, or exploit elements of our Nation's critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR)…

  16. Enhancing Both Cooperative Extension and National Environmental Education Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Martha C.

    2012-01-01

    State Extension programs can contribute to the successful adoption of national environmental education programs by making locally relevant resources available, creating reference materials to bridge between 4-H project books and other resources, and developing companion materials that supplement national materials with local issues and resources.…

  17. National Infrastructure Protection Plan: Partnering to Enhance Protection and Resiliency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA) Control Objects for Information and Related Technology ( COBIT ), and the National... COBIT ), and the NIST Special Publication 800 series). Appendix 1A: Cross-Sector Cybersecurity 117 processes, technology, and acquisition throughout

  18. Enhancing the Educational Potential of Non-Oral Children through Matching Communication Device Capabilities to Children's Needs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Colette L.; And Others

    The report describes activities and results of a project to identify communication characteristics that would help match augmentative communication system (ACS) capabilities to the needs of nonoral children. Ss had a variety of handicapping conditions, including cerebral palsy and other developmental disabilities. Introductory sections cover the…

  19. ADAPTIVE MONITORING TO ENHANCE WATER SENSOR CAPABILITIES FOR CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANT DETECTION IN DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Optoelectronic and other conventional water quality sensors offer a potential for real-time online detection of chemical and biological contaminants in a drinking water supply and distribution system. The nature of the application requires sensors of detection capabilities at lo...

  20. ADAPTIVE MONITORING TO ENHANCE WATER SENSOR CAPABILITIES FOR CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANT DETECTION IN DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Optoelectronic and other conventional water quality sensors offer a potential for real-time online detection of chemical and biological contaminants in a drinking water supply and distribution system. The nature of the application requires sensors of detection capabilities at lo...

  1. Educational support for research utilization and capability beliefs regarding evidence-based practice skills: a national survey of senior nursing students.

    PubMed

    Florin, Jan; Ehrenberg, Anna; Wallin, Lars; Gustavsson, Petter

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate Swedish university nursing students' experience of educational support for research utilization and capability beliefs regarding evidence-based practice skills. Nursing programmes are offered at 26 universities in Sweden and even though there are common regulations for nursing education at the national level, substantial variations are found in local curricula. Little is known about students' capability beliefs regarding evidence-based practice skills, particularly in comparison across universities. A cross-sectional survey design using self-administered postal questionnaires was conducted in 2006. A total of 1440 students (from 26 different universities) participated, constituting 68% of the national population of nursing students in their 6th and final semester. Campus education supported the students to a greater extent than clinical education in following the development of knowledge in an area of interest, using research findings, and acquiring knowledge on how to pursue changes in clinical practice. Perceived support during campus education varied between universities. Students reported high capability beliefs regarding evidence-based practice skills, but large differences were found between universities for: stating a searchable question, seeking out relevant knowledge and critically appraising and compiling best knowledge. The identified differences between universities concerning the students' perceived support for research utilization and their capability beliefs regarding evidence-based practice skills have implications for curricula, pedagogical perspectives in nursing education and the potential to implement evidence-based practice in healthcare settings. Further studies are warranted to investigate students' individual characteristics and organizational characteristics as determinants of research utilization support and capability beliefs regarding evidence-based practice skills. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of

  2. Status, quality and specific needs of Zika virus (ZIKV) diagnostic capacity and capability in National Reference Laboratories for arboviruses in 30 EU/EEA countries, May 2016.

    PubMed

    Mögling, Ramona; Zeller, Hervé; Revez, Joana; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal

    2017-09-07

    With international travel, Zika virus (ZIKV) is introduced to Europe regularly. A country's ability to robustly detect ZIKV introduction and local transmission is important to minimise the risk for a ZIKV outbreak. Therefore, sufficient expertise and diagnostic capacity and capability are required in European laboratories. To assess the capacity, quality, operational specifics (guidelines and algorithms), technical and interpretation issues and other possible difficulties that were related to ZIKV diagnostics in European countries, a questionnaire was conducted among national reference laboratories in 30 countries in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in May 2016. While the coverage and capacity of ZIKV diagnostics in the EU/EEA national reference laboratories were found to be adequate, the assessment of the quality and needs indicated several crucial points of improvement that will need support at national and EU/EEA level to improve ZIKV preparedness, response and EU/EEA ZIKV surveillance activities. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  3. The Interagency Cometh: Is the National Security System of 1947 Capable of Handling the Challenges of 2009?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    1932-1945 (Oxford University Press, New York, 1995) 117, 147-157, 239-242 10 Charles Stevenson, “Underlying Assumptions of the National Security... Moeller , Robert T. and Mary C. Yates. 2008. “The Road to a New Unified Command”, Joint Force Quarterly, [Autumn 2008], Issue 51 67-73 Murdock

  4. Using the Developer/Demonstrators of the National Diffusion Network to Expand Higher Education's Professional Development Capability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasch, Marvin

    A feasibility study was conducted to assess the level of interest by the Developer/Demonstrator (D/D) programs of the federally-supported National Diffusion Network in collaborating with Cleveland State University's College of Education in a program of professional development for educators in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. Of the 100 D/D project…

  5. Current and future capabilities of the neutron reflectometer MIRROR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, W. A.; Smith, G. S.; Taylor, G. B.; Larkins, B. M.; Porcar, L.

    2006-11-01

    The peripatetic ORNL HFIR Center for Neutron Scattering reflectometer instrument MIRROR has recently been re-installed in an interim beam line position in the reactor beam room. In 2006 an upgraded version of the instrument will move to a high intensity guide hall position fed by the new HFIR cold source. In this short note, we present some aspects of current instrument operation-particularly with respect to data reduction from the instrument's linear reflection plane detector-with examples of ongoing research and analysis, and a brief outline of the expected capabilities of the fully upgraded guide hall instrument.

  6. Bio-Inspired Fluoro-polydopamine Meets Barium Titanate Nanowires: A Perfect Combination to Enhance Energy Storage Capability of Polymer Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanyao; Huang, Xingyi; Jiang, Pingkai

    2017-03-01

    Rapid evolution of energy storage devices expedites the development of high-energy-density materials with excellent flexibility and easy processing. The search for such materials has triggered the development of high-dielectric-constant (high-k) polymer nanocomposites. However, the enhancement of k usually suffers from sharp reduction of breakdown strength, which is detrimental to substantial increase of energy storage capability. Herein, the combination of bio-inspired fluoro-polydopamine functionalized BaTiO3 nanowires (NWs) and a fluoropolymer matrix offers a new thought to prepare polymer nanocomposites. The elaborate functionalization of BaTiO3 NWs with fluoro-polydopamine has guaranteed both the increase of k and the maintenance of breakdown strength, resulting in significantly enhanced energy storage capability. The nanocomposite with 5 vol % functionalized BaTiO3 NWs discharges an ultrahigh energy density of 12.87 J cm(-3) at a relatively low electric field of 480 MV m(-1), more than three and a half times that of biaxial-oriented polypropylene (BOPP, 3.56 J cm(-3) at 600 MV m(-1)). This superior energy storage capability seems to rival or exceed some reported advanced nanoceramics-based materials at 500 MV m(-1). This new strategy permits insights into the construction of polymer nanocomposites with high energy storage capability.

  7. THE FUTURE OF THE EUROPEAN AIR TRANSPORT COMMAND: AN ANALYSIS OF CAPABILITY ENHANCEMENTS FROM THE ITALIAN AIR FORCE AND AIR MOBILITY COMMAND

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-15

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE FUTURE OF THE EUROPEAN AIR TRANSPORT COMMAND: AN ANALYSIS OF CAPABILITY ENHANCEMENTS FROM THE ITALIAN ...AIR FORCE AND AIR MOBILITY COMMAND By Luca Mazzini, Lieutenant Colonel, Italian Air Force A Research Report Submitted to the Faculty In...official policy or position of the US government, the Department of Defense, the Air University, or the Italian Air Force. In accordance with Air

  8. Enhanced defect detection capability using learning system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask inspection tool with projection electron microscope optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Ryoichi; Hatakeyama, Masahiro; Terao, Kenji; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2016-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) patterned mask defect detection is a major issue that must be addressed to realize EUVL-based device fabrication. We have designed projection electron microscope (PEM) optics for integration into a mask inspection system, and the resulting PEM system performs well in half-pitch (hp) 16-nm-node EUVL patterned mask inspection applications. A learning system has been used in this PEM patterned mask inspection tool. The PEM identifies defects using the "defectivity" parameter that is derived from the acquired image characteristics. The learning system has been developed to reduce the labor and the costs associated with adjustment of the PEM's detection capabilities to cope with newly defined mask defects. The concepts behind this learning system and the parameter optimization flow are presented here. The learning system for the PEM is based on a library of registered defects. The learning system then optimizes the detection capability by reconciling previously registered defects with newly registered defects. Functional verification of the learning system is also described, and the system's detection capability is demonstrated by applying it to the inspection of hp 11-nm EUV masks. We can thus provide a user-friendly mask inspection system with reduced cost of ownership.

  9. Enhancing National Security by Strengthening the Legal Immigration System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Trinkunas, PhD Chairman, Department of National Security Affairs iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT One of the biggest challenges...15 A. THE UNITED STATES LEGAL IMMIGRATION SYSTEM: HISTORICAL CONTEXT...66 2. Strengthen Information Sharing with Federal, State and Local Law Enforcement Entities

  10. The National Water Data Exchange-capabilities and trends in the dissemination and exchange of water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the programmes of the National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX) in providing access to US Geological Survey (USGS) water data and water-related information. NAWDEX dissseminates water data and water-related information by working cooperatively through a network of 68 Assistance Centers to more than 430 member organizations. In addition, NAWDEX provides access to the USGS Water Data Storage System (WATSTORE) and the US Environmental Protection Agency's Storage and Retrieval System (STORET). Recently, the trend has been to make water resources data available over the World Wide Web on the Internet. The NAWDEX homepage, located at Uniform Resource Locator http://h2o.er.usgs.gov/public/nawdex/nawdex.html, provides links to (a) Selected Water Resources Abstracts; (b) National Water Conditions Report; (c) historical streamflow data: and (d) real-time streamflow conditions. NAWDEX also transfers data to users over the Internet through the file transfer protocol (FTP).

  11. Defense Civil Support: DOD Needs to Identify National Guards Cyber Capabilities and Address Challenges in Its Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    a cyber attack could present a significant risk to U.S. national security. House Report 114- 102 included a provision that GAO assess DOD’s plans...appropriate, that will clarify these roles and responsibilities. House Report 114-102 included a provision that GAO assess DOD’s plans for providing...Page 26 GAO-16-574 Defense Civil Support List of Committees The Honorable John McCain Chairman The Honorable Jack Reed Ranking Member

  12. Defense Acquisition Structures and Capabilities Review. Addendum. National Defense Authorization Act Fiscal Year 2006 Section 814 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    National Security Agency ( NSA ), one significant short- fall in coordinating requirements occurs with respect to NSA and the Information Assurance...funding issues and potential performance and schedule problems. A formal review process for all NSA requirements should therefore be implemented to...issues between Service networks to permit true “joint access. j. Establish a formal review process for all NSA , or any other non-DoD requirements. 3

  13. CAPABILITIES AND SKILLS*

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James J.; Corbin, Chase O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of recent research on the economics of human development to the work of the Human Development and Capability Association. The recent economics of human development brings insights about the dynamics of skill accumulation to an otherwise static literature on capabilities. Skills embodied in agents empower people. Enhanced skills enhance opportunities and hence promote capabilities. We address measurement problems common to both the economics of human development and the capability approach. The economics of human development analyzes the dynamics of preference formation, but is silent about which preferences should be used to evaluate alternative policies. This is both a strength and a limitation of the approach. PMID:28261378

  14. An avian leukosis virus subgroup J isolate with a Rous sarcoma virus-like 5'-LTR shows enhanced replication capability.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanni; Guan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yongzhen; Li, Xiaofei; Yun, Bingling; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was first isolated from meat-producing chickens that had developed myeloid leukosis. However, ALV-J infections associated with hemangiomas have occurred in egg-producing (layer) flocks in China. In this study, we identified an ALV-J layer isolate (HLJ13SH01) as a recombinant of ALV-J and a Rous sarcoma virus Schmidt-Ruppin B strain (RSV-SRB), which contained the RSV-SRB 5'-LTR and the other genes of ALV-J. Replication kinetic testing indicated that the HLJ13SH01 strain replicated faster than other ALV-J layer isolates in vitro. Sequence analysis indicated that the main difference between the two isolates was the 5'-LTR sequences, particularly the U3 sequences. A 19 nt insertion was uniquely found in the U3 region of the HLJ13SH01 strain. The results of a Dual-Glo luciferase assay revealed that the 19 nt insertion in the HLJ13SH01 strain increased the enhancer activity of the U3 region. Moreover, an additional CCAAT/enhancer element was found in the 19 nt insertion and the luciferase assay indicated that this element played a key role in increasing the enhancer activity of the 5'-U3 region. To confirm the potentiation effect of the 19 nt insertion and the CCAAT/enhancer element on virus replication, three infectious clones with 5'-U3 region variations were constructed and rescued. Replication kinetic testing of the rescued viruses demonstrated that the CCAAT/enhancer element in the 19 nt insertion enhanced the replication capacity of the ALV-J recombinant in vitro.

  15. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Relocation of Technical Area 18 Capabilities and Materials at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-09-20

    The National Nuclear Security Administration, a separately organized agency within DOE, is responsible for providing the Nation with nuclear weapons, ensuring the safety and reliability of those nuclear weapons, and supporting programs that reduce global nuclear proliferation. These missions are accomplished with a core team of highly trained nuclear experts. One of the major training facilities for these personnel is located at Technical Area 18 (TA-18), within the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico. Principal TA-18 operational activities involve research in and the design, development, construction, and application of experiments on nuclear criticality. Though TA-18 is judged to be secure by DOE's independent inspection office, its buildings and infrastructure are from 30 to more than 50 years old and are increasingly expensive to maintain and operate. Additionally, the TA-18 operations are located in a relatively isolated area, resulting in increasingly high costs to maintain a security Category I infrastructure. NNSA wishes to maintain the important capabilities currently provided at TA-18 in a manner that reduces the long-term costs for safeguards and security. NNSA proposes to accomplish this by relocating the TA-18 security Category I/II capabilities and materials to new locations. The TA-18 Relocation EIS evaluates the potential direct, indirect, and cumulative environmental impacts associated with this proposed action at the following DOE sites: (1) a different site at LANL at Los Alamos, New Mexico; (2) the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico at Albuquerque, New Mexico; (3) the Nevada Test Site near Las Vegas, Nevada (the Preferred Alternative); and (4) the Argonne National Laboratory-West near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The EIS also analyzes the alternatives of upgrading the existing TA-18 facilities and the No Action Alternative of maintaining the operations at the current TA-18 location.

  16. South Fork Clearwater River Habitat Enhancement, Nez Perce National Forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Siddall, Phoebe

    1992-04-01

    In 1984, the Nez Perce National forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into a contractual agreement which provided for improvement of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead trout habitat in south Fork Clearwater River tributaries. Project work was completed in seven main locations: Crooked River, Red River, Meadow Creek Haysfork Gloryhole, Cal-Idaho Gloryhole, Fisher Placer and Leggett Placer. This report describes restoration activities at each of these sites.

  17. Political Objective Denial: Enhancing Deterrence in the National Strategy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    many that the Soviets would not attack Western Europe suggests a subconscious understanding of the I nature of any Soviet political decision that...the minds of * the decisionmaking elites. It is possible, however, to develop plans for dealing with political 2 objectives without knowing exact...political in nature, such as -a nation being compelled to adopt a certain ideology, form of government or alliance. Clausewitz had in mind those

  18. Ceramic-Metal Brazing, From Fundamentals to Applications: A Review of Sandia National Laboratories Brazing Capabilities, Needs and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    HOSKING, F. MICHAEL; STEPHENS JR., JOHN J.; GLASS, S. JILL; JOHANNES, JUSTINE E.; KOTULA, PAUL G.; LAPETINA, NEIL A.; LOEHMAN, RONALD E.; SWILER, THOMAS P.; WEBB III, EDMUND B.; CADDEN, CHARLES H.; OYAMA, T.; TOMSIA, A.P.

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of the report is to summarize discussions from a Ceramic/Metal Brazing: From Fundamentals to Applications Workshop that was held at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM on April 4, 2001. Brazing experts and users who bridge common areas of research, design, and manufacturing participated in the exercise. External perspectives on the general state of the science and technology for ceramics and metal brazing were given. Other discussions highlighted and critiqued Sandia's brazing research and engineering programs, including the latest advances in braze modeling and materials characterization. The workshop concluded with a facilitated dialogue that identified critical brazing research needs and opportunities.

  19. Substantial enhancement of energy storage capability in polymer nanocomposites by encapsulation of BaTiO3 NWs with variable shell thickness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanyao; Huang, Yanhui; Wang, Yuxin; Jiang, Pingkai; Huang, Xingyi

    2017-08-09

    Dielectric polymer nanocomposites have received keen interest due to their potential application in energy storage. Nevertheless, the large contrast in dielectric constant between the polymer and nanofillers usually results in a significant decrease of breakdown strength of the nanocomposites, which is unfavorable for enhancing energy storage capability. Herein, BaTiO3 nanowires (NWs) encapsulated by TiO2 shells of variable thickness were utilized to fabricate dielectric polymer nanocomposites. Compared with nanocomposites with bare BaTiO3 NWs, significantly enhanced energy storage capability was achieved for nanocomposites with TiO2 encapsulated BaTiO3 NWs. For instance, an ultrahigh energy density of 9.53 J cm(-3) at 440 MV m(-1) could be obtained for nanocomposites comprising core-shell structured nanowires, much higher than that of nanocomposites with 5 wt% raw ones (5.60 J cm(-3) at 360 MV m(-1)). The discharged energy density of the proposed nanocomposites with 5 wt% mTiO2@BaTiO3-1 NWs at 440 MV m(-1) seems to rival or exceed those of some previously reported nanocomposites (mostly comprising core-shell structured nanofillers). More notably, this study revealed that the energy storage capability of the nanocomposites can be tailored by the TiO2 shell thickness. Finite element simulations were employed to analyze the electric field distribution in the nanocomposites. The enhanced energy storage capability should be mainly attributed to the smoother gradient of dielectric constant between the nanofillers and polymer matrix, which alleviated the electric field concentration and leakage current in the polymer matrix. The methods and results herein offer a feasible approach to construct high-energy-density polymer nanocomposites with core-shell structured nanowires.

  20. Postmobilization Training Resource Requirements. Army National Guard Heavy Enhanced Brigades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    because the enhanced brigades do not have aviation. The light infantry training team ( Tarantulas ) was not fully utilized because the requirement was...These organizations are modeled on the NTC Operations Group’s Maneuver Battalion Training teams, or "Scorpions, Cobras, Dragons, and Tarantulas ." It is...Operations HQ Staff Scorpions: Mechanized Infantry Team Sidewinders: Engineer Team Tarantulas : Light Infantry Team (some Heavy) Werewolves: Field

  1. Mussel-inspired Fluoro-Polydopamine Functionalization of Titanium Dioxide Nanowires for Polymer Nanocomposites with Significantly Enhanced Energy Storage Capability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanyao; Huang, Xingyi; Jiang, Pingkai

    2017-01-01

    High-dielectric-constant polymer nanocomposites are demonstrated to show great promise as energy storage materials. However, the large electrical mismatch and incompatibility between nanofillers and polymer matrix usually give rise to significantly reduced breakdown strength and weak energy storage capability. Therefore, rational selection and elaborate functionalization of nanofillers to optimize the performance of polymer nanocomposites are vital. Herein, inspired by adhesive proteins in mussels, a facile modification by fluoro-polydopamine is employed to reinforce the compatibility of TiO2 nanowires in the fluoropolymer matrix. The loading of 2.5 vol % f-DOPA@TiO2 NWs leads to an ultrahigh discharged energy density of 11.48 J cm−3 at 530 MV m−1, more than three times of commercial biaxial-oriented polypropylene (BOPP, 3.56 J cm−3 at 600 MV m−1). A gratifying high energy density of 9.12 J cm−3 has also been obtained with nanofiller loading as high as 15 vol % at 360 MV m−1, which is nearly double to that of pure P(VDF-HFP) (4.76 J cm−3 at 360 MV m−1). This splendid energy storage capability seems to rival or exceed most of previously reported nano-TiO2 based nanocomposites. The methods presented here provide deep insights into the design of polymer nanocomposites for energy storage applications. PMID:28225047

  2. Mussel-inspired Fluoro-Polydopamine Functionalization of Titanium Dioxide Nanowires for Polymer Nanocomposites with Significantly Enhanced Energy Storage Capability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanyao; Huang, Xingyi; Jiang, Pingkai

    2017-02-22

    High-dielectric-constant polymer nanocomposites are demonstrated to show great promise as energy storage materials. However, the large electrical mismatch and incompatibility between nanofillers and polymer matrix usually give rise to significantly reduced breakdown strength and weak energy storage capability. Therefore, rational selection and elaborate functionalization of nanofillers to optimize the performance of polymer nanocomposites are vital. Herein, inspired by adhesive proteins in mussels, a facile modification by fluoro-polydopamine is employed to reinforce the compatibility of TiO2 nanowires in the fluoropolymer matrix. The loading of 2.5 vol % f-DOPA@TiO2 NWs leads to an ultrahigh discharged energy density of 11.48 J cm(-3) at 530 MV m(-1), more than three times of commercial biaxial-oriented polypropylene (BOPP, 3.56 J cm(-3) at 600 MV m(-1)). A gratifying high energy density of 9.12 J cm(-3) has also been obtained with nanofiller loading as high as 15 vol % at 360 MV m(-1), which is nearly double to that of pure P(VDF-HFP) (4.76 J cm(-3) at 360 MV m(-1)). This splendid energy storage capability seems to rival or exceed most of previously reported nano-TiO2 based nanocomposites. The methods presented here provide deep insights into the design of polymer nanocomposites for energy storage applications.

  3. Mussel-inspired Fluoro-Polydopamine Functionalization of Titanium Dioxide Nanowires for Polymer Nanocomposites with Significantly Enhanced Energy Storage Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanyao; Huang, Xingyi; Jiang, Pingkai

    2017-02-01

    High-dielectric-constant polymer nanocomposites are demonstrated to show great promise as energy storage materials. However, the large electrical mismatch and incompatibility between nanofillers and polymer matrix usually give rise to significantly reduced breakdown strength and weak energy storage capability. Therefore, rational selection and elaborate functionalization of nanofillers to optimize the performance of polymer nanocomposites are vital. Herein, inspired by adhesive proteins in mussels, a facile modification by fluoro-polydopamine is employed to reinforce the compatibility of TiO2 nanowires in the fluoropolymer matrix. The loading of 2.5 vol % f-DOPA@TiO2 NWs leads to an ultrahigh discharged energy density of 11.48 J cm-3 at 530 MV m-1, more than three times of commercial biaxial-oriented polypropylene (BOPP, 3.56 J cm-3 at 600 MV m-1). A gratifying high energy density of 9.12 J cm-3 has also been obtained with nanofiller loading as high as 15 vol % at 360 MV m-1, which is nearly double to that of pure P(VDF-HFP) (4.76 J cm-3 at 360 MV m-1). This splendid energy storage capability seems to rival or exceed most of previously reported nano-TiO2 based nanocomposites. The methods presented here provide deep insights into the design of polymer nanocomposites for energy storage applications.

  4. Effects of an Integrated Separator/Electrode Assembly on Enhanced Thermal Stability and Rate Capability of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Gong, Seokhyeon; Jeon, Hyunkyu; Lee, Hoogil; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2017-05-31

    To improve the rate capability and safety of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), we developed an integrated separator/electrode by gluing polyethylene (PE) separators and electrodes using a polymeric adhesive (poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVdF). To fabricate thin and uniform polymer coating layers on the substrate, we applied the polymer solution using a spray-coating technique. PVdF was chosen because of its superior mechanical properties and stable electrochemical properties within the voltage range of commercial LIBs. The integrated separator/electrode showed superior thermal stability compared to that of the control PE separators. Although PVdF coating layers partially blocked the porous structures of the PE separators, resulting in reduced ionic conductivity (control PE = 0.666 mS cm(-1), PVdF-coated PE = 0.617 mS cm(-1)), improved interfacial properties between the separators and the electrodes were obtained due to the intimate contact, and the rate capabilities of the LIBs based on integrated separators/electrodes showed 176.6% improvement at the 7 C rate (LIBs based on PVdF-coated and control PE maintained 48.4 and 27.4% of the initial discharge capacity, respectively).

  5. NATIONAL STORMWATER CALCULATOR: LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT STORMWATER CONTROL COST ESTIMATION PROGRAMMING & FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Stormwater Calculator: Low Impact Development Stormwater Control Cost Estimation Programming & Future EnhancementsJason Berner1; Michael Tryby1; Scott Struck2, Dan Pankani2, Marion Deerhake3, Michelle Simon11. USEPA2. GeoSyntec, Inc.3. RTI, Inc.The National Stormwater Ca...

  6. NATIONAL STORMWATER CALCULATOR: LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT STORMWATER CONTROL COST ESTIMATION PROGRAMMING & FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Stormwater Calculator: Low Impact Development Stormwater Control Cost Estimation Programming & Future EnhancementsJason Berner1; Michael Tryby1; Scott Struck2, Dan Pankani2, Marion Deerhake3, Michelle Simon11. USEPA2. GeoSyntec, Inc.3. RTI, Inc.The National Stormwater Ca...

  7. Associations of behavioural risk factors and health status with changes in physical capability over 10 years of follow-up: the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rachel; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Kuh, Diana

    2016-04-18

    (1) To describe changes in objective measures of physical capability between ages 53 and 60-64 years; (2) to investigate the associations of behavioural risk factors (obesity, physical inactivity, smoking) and number of health conditions (range 0-4: hand osteoarthritis (OA); knee OA; severe respiratory symptoms; other disabling or life-threatening conditions (ie, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes)) at age 53 years with these changes. Nationally representative prospective birth cohort study. England, Scotland and Wales. Up to 2093 men and women from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, who have been followed-up since birth in 1946, and underwent physical capability assessments performed by nurses following standard protocols in 1999 and 2006-2010. Grip strength and chair rise speed were assessed at ages 53 and 60-64 years. Four categories of change in grip strength and chair rise speed were identified: decline, stable high, stable low, a reference group who maintained physical capability within a 'normal' range. Less healthy behavioural risk scores and an increase in the number of health conditions experienced were associated in a stepwise fashion with increased risk of decline in physical capability, and also of having low levels at baseline and remaining low. For example, the sex and mutually adjusted relative-risk ratios (95% CI) of being in the stable low versus reference category of chair rise speed were 1.58 (1.35-1.86) and 1.97 (1.57-2.47) per 1 unit change in behavioural risk score and health indicator count, respectively. These findings provide evidence of the associations of a range of modifiable factors with age-related changes in physical capability. They suggest the need to target multiple risk factors at least as early as mid-life when aiming to promote maintenance and prevent decline in physical capability in later life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  8. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels National Metrics Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lori Braase

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), in collaboration with the nuclear industry, has been conducting research and development (R&D) activities on advanced Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuels for the last few years. The emphasis for these activities was on improving the fuel performance in terms of increased burnup for waste minimization and increased power density for power upgrades, as well as collaborating with industry on fuel reliability. After the events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in Japan in March 2011, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. In the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012, Conference Report 112-75, the U.S. Congress directed DOE-NE to: • Give “priority to developing enhanced fuels and cladding for light water reactors to improve safety in the event of accidents in the reactor or spent fuel pools.” • Give “special technical emphasis and funding priority…to activities aimed at the development and near-term qualification of meltdown-resistant, accident-tolerant nuclear fuels that would enhance the safety of present and future generations of light water reactors.” • Report “to the Committee, within 90 days of enactment of this act, on its plan for development of meltdown-resistant fuels leading to reactor testing and utilization by 2020.” Fuels with enhanced accident tolerance are those that, in comparison with the standard UO2-zirconium alloy system currently used by the nuclear industry, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, and operational transients, as well as design-basis and beyond design-basis events. The overall draft strategy for development and demonstration is comprised of three phases: Feasibility Assessment and Down-selection; Development and Qualification; and

  9. Geologic studies of Yellowstone National Park imagery using an electronic image enhancement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedes, H. W.

    1970-01-01

    The image enhancement system is described, as well as the kinds of enhancement attained. Results were obtained from various kinds of remote sensing imagery (mainly black and white multiband, color, color infrared, thermal infrared, and side-looking K-band radar) of parts of Yellowstone National Park. Possible additional fields of application of these techniques are considered.

  10. Capability of tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy about nanoscale analysis of strained silicon for semiconductor devices production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Arianna; Cacioppo, Onofrio Antonino; Iulianella, Enrico; Latessa, Luca; Moccia, Giuseppe; Passeri, Daniele; Rossi, Marco

    2017-03-01

    Localized strained silicon was observed with a suitable resolution in a real semiconductor device by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). The device was made via a standard industrial process and its silicon trench isolation structures were used for the silicon strain analysis obtaining results according to finite element method-based simulation data. We have achieved a reliable and repeatable enhancement factor obtaining a trace of strained silicon along the structure with suitable nanometer spatial resolution compatible with IC industry requirements. We demonstrate that the complexity to analyze a real 3D structure, directly from the production lines and not ad hoc realized, entails the challenges to individuate the optimal tip shape, tip contact angle, tip composition, tip positioning system, laser power, and wavelength to achieve an appropriate plasmon resonance inducing a relevant signal to noise ratio. This work gives the base to address the development in TERS optimization for real industrial applications.

  11. National plan to enhance aviation safety through human factors improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, Clay

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this section of the plan is to establish a development and implementation strategy plan for improving safety and efficiency in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system. These improvements will be achieved through the proper applications of human factors considerations to the present and future systems. The program will have four basic goals: (1) prepare for the future system through proper hiring and training; (2) develop a controller work station team concept (managing human errors); (3) understand and address the human factors implications of negative system results; and (4) define the proper division of responsibilities and interactions between the human and the machine in ATC systems. This plan addresses six program elements which together address the overall purpose. The six program elements are: (1) determine principles of human-centered automation that will enhance aviation safety and the efficiency of the air traffic controller; (2) provide new and/or enhanced methods and techniques to measure, assess, and improve human performance in the ATC environment; (3) determine system needs and methods for information transfer between and within controller teams and between controller teams and the cockpit; (4) determine how new controller work station technology can optimally be applied and integrated to enhance safety and efficiency; (5) assess training needs and develop improved techniques and strategies for selection, training, and evaluation of controllers; and (6) develop standards, methods, and procedures for the certification and validation of human engineering in the design, testing, and implementation of any hardware or software system element which affects information flow to or from the human.

  12. Second-order sliding mode control for DFIG-based wind turbines fault ride-through capability enhancement.

    PubMed

    Benbouzid, Mohamed; Beltran, Brice; Amirat, Yassine; Yao, Gang; Han, Jingang; Mangel, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the fault ride-through capability assessment of a doubly fed induction generator-based wind turbine using a high-order sliding mode control. Indeed, it has been recently suggested that sliding mode control is a solution of choice to the fault ride-through problem. In this context, this paper proposes a second-order sliding mode as an improved solution that handle the classical sliding mode chattering problem. Indeed, the main and attractive features of high-order sliding modes are robustness against external disturbances, the grids faults in particular, and chattering-free behavior (no extra mechanical stress on the wind turbine drive train). Simulations using the NREL FAST code on a 1.5-MW wind turbine are carried out to evaluate ride-through performance of the proposed high-order sliding mode control strategy in case of grid frequency variations and unbalanced voltage sags.

  13. validation and Enhancement of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer Predictive Capabilities for Generation IV Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Spall; Barton Smith; Thomas Hauser

    2008-12-08

    Nationwide, the demand for electricity due to population and industrial growth is on the rise. However, climate change and air quality issues raise serious questions about the wisdom of addressing these shortages through the construction of additional fossil fueled power plants. In 1997, the President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology Energy Research and Development Panel determined that restoring a viable nuclear energy option was essential and that the DOE should implement a R&D effort to address principal obstacles to achieving this option. This work has addressed the need for improved thermal/fluid analysis capabilities, through the use of computational fluid dynamics, which are necessary to support the design of generation IV gas-cooled and supercritical water reactors.

  14. Tritium Plasma Experiment Upgrade and Improvement of Surface Diagnostic Capabilities at STAR Facility for Enhancing Tritium and Nuclear PMI Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, M.; Taylor, C. N.; Pawelko, R. J.; Cadwallader, L. C.; Merrill, B. J.

    2016-04-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) is a unique high-flux linear plasma device that can handle beryllium, tritium, and neutron-irradiated plasma facing materials, and is the only existing device dedicated to directly study tritium retention and permeation in neutron-irradiated materials with tritium [M. Shimada et.al., Rev. Sci. Instru. 82 (2011) 083503 and and M. Shimada, et.al., Nucl. Fusion 55 (2015) 013008]. The plasma-material-interaction (PMI) determines a boundary condition for diffusing tritium into bulk PFCs, and the tritium PMI is crucial for enhancing fundamental sciences that dictate tritium fuel cycles and safety and are high importance to an FNSF and DEMO. Recently the TPE has undergone major upgrades in its electrical and control systems. New DC power supplies and a new control center enable remote plasma operations from outside of the contamination area for tritium, minimizing the possible exposure risk with tritium and beryllium. We discuss the electrical upgrade, enhanced operational safety, improved plasma performance, and development of optical spectrometer system. This upgrade not only improves operational safety of the worker, but also enhances plasma performance to better simulate extreme plasma-material conditions expected in ITER, Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), and Demonstration reactor (DEMO). This work was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under the DOE Idaho Field Office contract number DE-AC07-05ID14517.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, astronaut Soichi Noguchi (right), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), stands inside the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) that is undergoing a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) with the U.S. Node 2. The JEM, developed by NASDA, is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. Noguchi is assigned to mission STS-114 as a mission specialist. Node 2 provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, as well as European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-03

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, astronaut Soichi Noguchi (right), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), stands inside the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) that is undergoing a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) with the U.S. Node 2. The JEM, developed by NASDA, is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. Noguchi is assigned to mission STS-114 as a mission specialist. Node 2 provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, as well as European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS.

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Soichi Noguchi (left), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), works at a console during a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) of the U.S. Node 2 and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) in the Space Station Processing Facility. The JEM, developed by NASDA, is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. Noguchi is assigned to mission STS-114 as a mission specialist. Node 2 provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, as well as European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-03

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Soichi Noguchi (left), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), works at a console during a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) of the U.S. Node 2 and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) in the Space Station Processing Facility. The JEM, developed by NASDA, is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. Noguchi is assigned to mission STS-114 as a mission specialist. Node 2 provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, as well as European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS.

  17. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The container with the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)’s pressurized module is inside the Space Station Processing Facility. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. The Pressurized Module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-06

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The container with the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)’s pressurized module is inside the Space Station Processing Facility. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. The Pressurized Module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The JEM is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, overhead cranes are removed from the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module now on its work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, overhead cranes are removed from the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module now on its work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Soichi Noguchi (right), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), is inside the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), undergoing a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) in the Space Station Processing Facility. Noguchi is assigned to mission STS-114 as a mission specialist. Node 2 attaches to the end of the U.S. Lab on the ISS and provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. It will provide the primary docking location for the Shuttle when a pressurized mating adapter is attached to Node 2. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS. The JEM, developed by NASDA, is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-03

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Soichi Noguchi (right), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), is inside the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), undergoing a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) in the Space Station Processing Facility. Noguchi is assigned to mission STS-114 as a mission specialist. Node 2 attaches to the end of the U.S. Lab on the ISS and provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. It will provide the primary docking location for the Shuttle when a pressurized mating adapter is attached to Node 2. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS. The JEM, developed by NASDA, is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Soichi Noguchi, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), works at a console during a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) of the U.S. Node 2 and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). Noguchi is assigned to mission STS-114 as a mission specialist. Node 2 attaches to the end of the U.S. Lab on the ISS and provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. It will provide the primary docking location for the Shuttle when a pressurized mating adapter is attached to Node 2. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS. The JEM, developed by NASDA, is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-03

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Soichi Noguchi, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), works at a console during a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) of the U.S. Node 2 and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). Noguchi is assigned to mission STS-114 as a mission specialist. Node 2 attaches to the end of the U.S. Lab on the ISS and provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. It will provide the primary docking location for the Shuttle when a pressurized mating adapter is attached to Node 2. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS. The JEM, developed by NASDA, is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

  1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Technicians in the Space Station Processing Facility work on a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) of the U.S. Node 2 and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). Node 2 attaches to the end of the U.S. Lab on the ISS and provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. It will provide the primary docking location for the Shuttle when a pressurized mating adapter is attached to Node 2. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS. The JEM, developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-03

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Technicians in the Space Station Processing Facility work on a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) of the U.S. Node 2 and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). Node 2 attaches to the end of the U.S. Lab on the ISS and provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. It will provide the primary docking location for the Shuttle when a pressurized mating adapter is attached to Node 2. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS. The JEM, developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is exposed after removal of the lid of its shipping container. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is exposed after removal of the lid of its shipping container. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane moves the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module past other ISS elements to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane moves the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module past other ISS elements to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Removed from its shipping canister (lower right), the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Removed from its shipping canister (lower right), the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is moved toward a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is moved toward a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Soichi Noguchi, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), rests inside the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), undergoing a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) in the Space Station Processing Facility. Noguchi is assigned to mission STS-114 as a mission specialist. Node 2 attaches to the end of the U.S. Lab on the ISS and provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. It will provide the primary docking location for the Shuttle when a pressurized mating adapter is attached to Node 2. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS. The JEM, developed by NASDA, is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-03

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Soichi Noguchi, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), rests inside the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), undergoing a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) in the Space Station Processing Facility. Noguchi is assigned to mission STS-114 as a mission specialist. Node 2 attaches to the end of the U.S. Lab on the ISS and provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. It will provide the primary docking location for the Shuttle when a pressurized mating adapter is attached to Node 2. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS. The JEM, developed by NASDA, is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the lid is removed from the container with the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module inside. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the lid is removed from the container with the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module inside. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - An overhead crane is attached to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module inside its canister. The module will be removed and transferred to a work stand in the Space Station Processing Facility. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - An overhead crane is attached to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module inside its canister. The module will be removed and transferred to a work stand in the Space Station Processing Facility. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is moved past other ISS elements in the Space Station Processing Facility to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is moved past other ISS elements in the Space Station Processing Facility to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Soichi Noguchi (left), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), points to data on the console during a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) of the U.S. Node 2 and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) in the Space Station Processing Facility. The JEM, developed by NASDA, is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. Noguchi is assigned to mission STS-114 as a mission specialist. Node 2 provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, as well as European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-03

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Soichi Noguchi (left), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), points to data on the console during a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) of the U.S. Node 2 and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) in the Space Station Processing Facility. The JEM, developed by NASDA, is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. Noguchi is assigned to mission STS-114 as a mission specialist. Node 2 provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, as well as European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is lowered onto a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is lowered onto a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility look over paperwork during a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) of the U.S. Node 2 and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). Node 2 attaches to the end of the U.S. Lab on the ISS and provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. It will provide the primary docking location for the Shuttle when a pressurized mating adapter is attached to Node 2. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS. The JEM, developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-03

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility look over paperwork during a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) of the U.S. Node 2 and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). Node 2 attaches to the end of the U.S. Lab on the ISS and provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. It will provide the primary docking location for the Shuttle when a pressurized mating adapter is attached to Node 2. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS. The JEM, developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Soichi Noguchi, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), signals success during a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT ) of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) in the Space Station Processing Facility. Noguchi is assigned to mission STS-114 as a mission specialist. Node 2 attaches to the end of the U.S. Lab on the ISS and provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. It will provide the primary docking location for the Shuttle when a pressurized mating adapter is attached to Node 2. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS. The JEM, developed by NASDA, is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-03

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Soichi Noguchi, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), signals success during a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT ) of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) in the Space Station Processing Facility. Noguchi is assigned to mission STS-114 as a mission specialist. Node 2 attaches to the end of the U.S. Lab on the ISS and provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. It will provide the primary docking location for the Shuttle when a pressurized mating adapter is attached to Node 2. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS. The JEM, developed by NASDA, is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility prepare to remove the lid of the container with the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module inside. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility prepare to remove the lid of the container with the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module inside. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers check the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module on its work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers check the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module on its work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility observe consoles during a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) of the U.S. Node 2 and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). Node 2 attaches to the end of the U.S. Lab on the ISS and provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. It will provide the primary docking location for the Shuttle when a pressurized mating adapter is attached to Node 2. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS. The JEM, developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-03

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility observe consoles during a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) of the U.S. Node 2 and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). Node 2 attaches to the end of the U.S. Lab on the ISS and provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. It will provide the primary docking location for the Shuttle when a pressurized mating adapter is attached to Node 2. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS. The JEM, developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

  17. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Soichi Noguchi, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), is inside the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), undergoing a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) in the Space Station Processing Facility. Noguchi is assigned to mission STS-114 as a mission specialist. Node 2 attaches to the end of the U.S. Lab on the ISS and provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. It will provide the primary docking location for the Shuttle when a pressurized mating adapter is attached to Node 2. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS. The JEM, developed by NASDA, is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-03

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Soichi Noguchi, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), is inside the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), undergoing a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) in the Space Station Processing Facility. Noguchi is assigned to mission STS-114 as a mission specialist. Node 2 attaches to the end of the U.S. Lab on the ISS and provides attach locations for the Japanese laboratory, European laboratory, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module and, eventually, Multipurpose Logistics Modules. It will provide the primary docking location for the Shuttle when a pressurized mating adapter is attached to Node 2. Installation of the module will complete the U.S. Core of the ISS. The JEM, developed by NASDA, is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments.

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is ready to be lifted out of the shipping canister and transferred to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is ready to be lifted out of the shipping canister and transferred to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Removed from its shipping canister, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Removed from its shipping canister, the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility attach an overhead crane to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module inside its canister. The module will be removed and transferred to a work stand in the Space Station Processing Facility. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility attach an overhead crane to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module inside its canister. The module will be removed and transferred to a work stand in the Space Station Processing Facility. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane lifts the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module out of the shipping canister to move it to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane lifts the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module out of the shipping canister to move it to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane begins to lift the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module out of the shipping canister to move it to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane begins to lift the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module out of the shipping canister to move it to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The JEM Pressurized Module is seen in the hold of the ship that carried it from Japan. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) built the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. The Pressurized Module is the first element of the JEM, Japan’s primary contribution to the space station, to be delivered to KSC. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional shirt-sleeve environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes two logistics modules, an exposed pallet for space environment experiments and a robotic manipulator system that are still under construction in Japan. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three space shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The JEM Pressurized Module is seen in the hold of the ship that carried it from Japan. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) built the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo. The Pressurized Module is the first element of the JEM, Japan’s primary contribution to the space station, to be delivered to KSC. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional shirt-sleeve environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes two logistics modules, an exposed pallet for space environment experiments and a robotic manipulator system that are still under construction in Japan. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three space shuttle missions.

  4. Enhancing army analysis capability for warfighter protection: TRADOC-RDECOM M&S decision support environment collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athmer, Keith; Gaughan, Chris; McDonnell, Joseph S.; Leach, Robert; Davis, Bert; Truong, Kiet; Borum, Howard; Leslie, Richard; Ma, Lein

    2012-05-01

    The development of an Integrated Base Defense (IBD) is a significant challenge for the Army with many analytical gaps. The IBD problem space is complex, with evolving requirements and a large stakeholder base. In order to evaluate and analyze IBD decisions, the Training & Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Maneuver Support Center of Excellence (MSCoE) led and continues to lead a series of IBD focused experiments and wargames. Modeling and Simulation (M&S) significantly contributes to this effort. To improve IBD M&S capabilities, a collaborative demonstration with the Research, Development and Engineering Command's (RDECOM's) M&S Decision Support Environment (MSDSE) was held in September 2011. The results of this demonstration provided key input to MSCoE IBD related concepts and technologies. Moreover, it established an initial M&S toolset that will significantly improve force protection in combat zones and Army installations worldwide by providing leaders a capability to conduct analysis of defense and mission rehearsals. The demonstration was executed with a "human in the loop" Battle Captain, who was aided by mission command assets such as Base Expeditionary Targeting and Surveillance Sensors-Combined (BETSS-C). The Common Operating Picture was populated and stimulated using Science & Technology (S&T) M&S, allowing for a realistic representation of physical phenomena without the need for real systems. Novel methods were used for simulation orchestration, and for initializing the simulations and Opposing Force (OPFOR) activities. Ultimately, this demonstration showed that the MSDSE is suitable to support TRADOC IBD analyses and that S&T M&S is ready to be used in a demanding simulation environment. This paper will highlight the event's outcomes and lessons identified.

  5. Enhancement of the Wear Particle Monitoring Capability of Oil Debris Sensors Using a Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform with Optimal Decomposition Depth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan; Peng, Juan; Liang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Oil debris sensors are effective tools to monitor wear particles in lubricants. For in situ applications, surrounding noise and vibration interferences often distort the oil debris signature of the sensor. Hence extracting oil debris signatures from sensor signals is a challenging task for wear particle monitoring. In this paper we employ the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT) with optimal decomposition depth to enhance the wear particle monitoring capability. The sensor signal is decomposed by the MODWT into different depths for detecting the wear particle existence. To extract the authentic particle signature with minimal distortion, the root mean square deviation of kurtosis value of the segmented signal residue is adopted as a criterion to obtain the optimal decomposition depth for the MODWT. The proposed approach is evaluated using both simulated and experimental wear particles. The results show that the present method can improve the oil debris monitoring capability without structural upgrade requirements. PMID:24686730

  6. SPARROW MODELING - Enhancing Understanding of the Nation's Water Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Preston, Stephen D.; Alexander, Richard B.; Woodside, Michael D.; Hamilton, Pixie A.

    2009-01-01

    The information provided here is intended to assist water-resources managers with interpretation of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) SPARROW model and its products. SPARROW models can be used to explain spatial patterns in monitored stream-water quality in relation to human activities and natural processes as defined by detailed geospatial information. Previous SPARROW applications have identified the sources and transport of nutrients in the Mississippi River basin, Chesapeake Bay watershed, and other major drainages of the United States. New SPARROW models with improved accuracy and interpretability are now being developed by the USGS National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program for six major regions of the conterminous United States. These new SPARROW models are based on updated geospatial data and stream-monitoring records from local, State, and other federal agencies.

  7. Synthesis of hierarchical porous carbon monoliths with incorporated metal-organic frameworks for enhancing volumetric based CO₂ capture capability.

    PubMed

    Qian, Dan; Lei, Cheng; Hao, Guang-Ping; Li, Wen-Cui; Lu, An-Hui

    2012-11-01

    This work aims to optimize the structural features of hierarchical porous carbon monolith (HCM) by incorporating the advantages of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) (Cu₃(BTC)₂) to maximize the volumetric based CO₂ capture capability (CO₂ capacity in cm³ per cm³ adsorbent), which is seriously required for the practical application of CO₂ capture. The monolithic HCM was used as a matrix, in which Cu₃(BTC)₂ was in situ synthesized, to form HCM-Cu₃(BTC)₂ composites by a step-by-step impregnation and crystallization method. The resulted HCM-Cu₃(BTC)₂ composites, which retain the monolithic shape and exhibit unique hybrid structure features of both HCM and Cu₃(BTC)₂, show high CO₂ uptake of 22.7 cm³ cm⁻³ on a volumetric basis. This value is nearly as twice as the uptake of original HCM. The dynamic gas separation measurement of HCM-Cu₃(BTC)₂, using 16% (v/v) CO₂ in N₂ as feedstock, illustrates that CO₂ can be easily separated from N₂ under the ambient conditions and achieves a high separation factor for CO₂ over N₂, ranging from 67 to 100, reflecting a strongly competitive CO₂ adsorption by the composite. A facile CO₂ release can be realized by purging an argon flow through the fixed-bed adsorber at 25 °C, indicating the good regeneration ability.

  8. 2D wax-printed paper substrates with extended solvent supply capabilities allow enhanced ion signal in paper spray ionization.

    PubMed

    Damon, Deidre E; Maher, Yosef S; Yin, Mengzhen; Jjunju, Fred P M; Young, Iain S; Taylor, Stephen; Maher, Simon; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K

    2016-06-21

    Paper-based microfluidic channels were created from solid wax printing, and the resultant 2D wax-printed paper substrates were used for paper spray (PS) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of small organic compounds. Controlling fluid flow at the tip of the wax-printed paper triangles enabled the use of lower spray voltages (0.5-1 kV) and extended signal lifetime (10 minutes) in PS-MS. High sensitivity (sub ng mL(-1) levels) and quantitation precision (<10% RSD) have been achieved in the analysis of illicit drugs in 4 μL of raw urine (fresh and dry), as well as corrosion inhibitors and pesticides in water samples. The reported study encourages the future development of disposable 3D microfluidic paper-based analytical devices, which function with simple operation but capable of on-chip analyte detection by MS; such a device can replace the traditional complex laboratory procedures for MS analysis to enable on-site in situ sampling with portable mass spectrometers.

  9. Solid-state synthesis of Ti2Nb10O29/reduced graphene oxide composites with enhanced lithium storage capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wan Lin; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Park, Ju-Young; Ki, Hangil; Jang, Jaewon; Lee, Gab-Yong; Gu, Hal-Bon; Ham, Moon-Ho

    2015-12-01

    Owing to their multiple redox couples, titanium-niobium-based oxides are still considered promising candidates for use as anodes for safe, rechargeable lithium ion batteries with high energy and power densities. Titanium-niobium-based oxide electrodes have, however, exhibited relatively poor cycling performance as a result of pulverization. In this study, we report on a simple two-step solid-state reaction route for producing hybrid composites of Ti2Nb10O29 (TNO) anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and the electrochemical performance of the resulting TNO/RGO composites. Solid-state reactions enable both the formation of TNO and the uniform distribution of RGO in the TNO/RGO composites. The TNO/RGO composites exhibited discharge and charge capacities of 261 and 256 mAh g-1, respectively, with much better cycling performance (182 mAh g-1 after the 50th cycles) and rate capability (165 mAh g-1 at a current density of 500 mA g-1) compared to the pure TNO.

  10. Laser fabrication of Ag-HA nanocomposites on Ti6Al4V implant for enhancing bioactivity and antibacterial capability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangmei; Man, H C

    2017-01-01

    For titanium alloy implants, both surface bioactivity and antibacterial infection are the two critical factors in determining the success of clinical implantation of these metallic implants. In the present work, a novel nanocomposite layer of nano-silver-containing hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) was prepared on the surface of biomedical Ti6Al4V by laser processing. Analysis using SEM, EDS and XRD shows the formation of an Ag-HA layer of about 200μm fusion bonded to the substrate. Mineralization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed that laser fabricated Ag-HA nanocomposite layer favors the deposition of apatite on the surface of the implants. Antibacterial tests confirmed that all Ag-HA nanocomposite layers can kill bacteria while a higher Ag content would lower the cytocompatibility of these coatings. Cell viability decreases when the Ag content reaches 5% in these coatings, due to the larger amount of Ag leached out, as confirmed by ion release evaluation. Our results reveal that laser fabricated Ag-HA nanocomposite coatings containing 2% Ag show both excellent cytocompatibility and antibacterial capability.

  11. New intelligent multifunctional SiO2/VO2 composite films with enhanced infrared light regulation performance, solar modulation capability, and superhydrophobicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Zhao, Li; Liang, Zihui; Dong, Binghai; Wan, Li; Wang, Shimin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Highly transparent, energy-saving, and superhydrophobic nanostructured SiO2/VO2 composite films have been fabricated using a sol–gel method. These composite films are composed of an underlying infrared (IR)-regulating VO2 layer and a top protective layer that consists of SiO2 nanoparticles. Experimental results showed that the composite structure could enhance the IR light regulation performance, solar modulation capability, and hydrophobicity of the pristine VO2 layer. The transmittance of the composite films in visible region (T lum) was higher than 60%, which was sufficient to meet the requirements of glass lighting. Compared with pristine VO2 films and tungsten-doped VO2 film, the near IR control capability of the composite films was enhanced by 13.9% and 22.1%, respectively, whereas their solar modulation capability was enhanced by 10.9% and 22.9%, respectively. The water contact angles of the SiO2/VO2 composite films were over 150°, indicating superhydrophobicity. The transparent superhydrophobic surface exhibited a high stability toward illumination as all the films retained their initial superhydrophobicity even after exposure to 365 nm light with an intensity of 160 mW.cm−2 for 10 h. In addition, the films possessed anti-oxidation and anti-acid properties. These characteristics are highly advantageous for intelligent windows or solar cell applications, given that they can provide surfaces with anti-fogging, rainproofing, and self-cleaning effects. Our technique offers a simple and low-cost solution to the development of stable and visible light transparent superhydrophobic surfaces for industrial applications. PMID:28970866

  12. Enhancement of the national strong-motion network in Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulkan, Polat; Ceken, U.; Colakoglu, Z.; Ugras, T.; Kuru, T.; Apak, A.; Anderson, J.G.; Sucuoglu, H.; Celebi, M.; Akkar, D.S.; Yazgan, U.; Denizlioglu, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Two arrays comprising 20 strong-motion sensors were established in western Turkey. The 14 stations of BYTNet follow a N-S trending line about 65 km in length, normal to strands of the North Anatolian fault that runs between the cities of Bursa and Yalova. Here the dominant character of the potential fault movement is a right-lateral transform slip. The DATNet array, comprising a total of eight stations, is arranged along a 110-km-long E-W trending direction along the Menderes River valley between Denizli and Aydin. (Two stations in this array were incorporated from the existing Turkish national strong-motion network.) This is an extensional tectonic environment, and the network mornitors potential large normal-faulting earthquakes on the faults in the valley. The installation of the arrays was supported by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) under its Science for Peace Program. Maintenance and calibration is performed by the General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (GDDA) according to a protocol between Middle East Technical University (METU) and GDDA. Many young engineers and scientists have been trained in network operation and evaluation during the course of the project, and an international workshop dealing with strong-motion instrumentation has been organized as part of the project activities.

  13. Multifunctional non-viral gene vectors with enhanced stability, improved cellular and nuclear uptake capability, and increased transfection efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhe; Jiang, Zhaozhong; Cao, Zhong; Zhang, Chao; Gao, Di; Luo, Xingen; Zhang, Xiaofang; Luo, Huiyan; Jiang, Qing; Liu, Jie

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a new multifunctional, non-viral gene delivery platform consisting of cationic poly(amine-co-ester) (PPMS) for DNA condensation, PEG shell for nanoparticle stabilization, poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) and mTAT (a cell-penetrating peptide) for accelerated cellular uptake, and a nuclear localization signal peptide (NLS) for enhanced intracellular transport of DNA to the nucleus. In vitro study showed that coating of the binary PPMS/DNA polyplex with γ-PGA promotes cellular uptake of the polyplex particles, particularly by γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive cells through the GGT-mediated endocytosis pathway. Conjugating PEG to the γ-PGA led to the formation of a ternary PPMS/DNA/PGA-g-PEG polyplex with decreased positive charges on the surface of the polyplex particles and substantially higher stability in serum-containing aqueous medium. The cellular uptake rate was further improved by incorporating mTAT into the ternary polyplex system. Addition of the NLS peptide was designed to facilitate intracellular delivery of the plasmid to the nucleus--a rate-limiting step in the gene transfection process. As a result, compared with the binary PPMS/LucDNA polyplex, the new mTAT-quaternary PPMS/LucDNA/NLS/PGA-g-PEG-mTAT system exhibited reduced cytotoxicity, remarkably faster cellular uptake rate, and enhanced transport of DNA to the nucleus. All these advantageous functionalities contribute to the remarkable gene transfection efficiency of the mTAT-quaternary polyplex both in vitro and in vivo, which exceeds that of the binary polyplex and commercial Lipofectamine™ 2000/DNA lipoplex. The multifunctional mTAT-quaternary polyplex system with improved efficiency and reduced cytotoxicity represents a new type of promising non-viral vectors for the delivery of therapeutic genes to treat tumors.We have developed a new multifunctional, non-viral gene delivery platform consisting of cationic poly(amine-co-ester) (PPMS) for DNA condensation, PEG shell

  14. An ontology-based approach to enhance querying capabilities of general practice medicine for better management of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mabotuwana, Thusitha; Warren, Jim

    2009-10-01

    Hypertension is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions and is directly correlated to deadly risks; yet, despite the availability of effective treatment, there is still clear room for improving patient outcomes. Use of relational databases is widespread for storing patient data, but formulating queries to identify patients whose clinical management can be improved is challenging due to the temporal nature of chronic illness and the mismatch in levels of abstraction between key management concepts and coded clinical data. The objective of this work is to develop a sharable and extensible analysis tool that can be used to identify hypertensive patients who satisfy any of a set of evidence-based criteria for quality improvement potential. We developed an ontology driven framework to enhance and facilitate some important temporal querying requirements in general practice medicine, focusing on prescribing for hypertension. The Web Ontology Language has been used to develop the ontology and the specific queries have been written in Semantic Query-enhanced Web Rule Language. We have used production electronic medical record (EMR) data from a General Medical Practice in New Zealand to populate the ontology. A unified patient management ontology consisting of a disease management ontology, a patient data ontology, and a plan violation taxonomy has been created and populated with EMR data. We have queried this ontology to determine patient cohorts that satisfy any of eight quality audit criteria, thereby identifying patients whose clinical management can be improved. A prescription timeline visualisation tool has also been developed to aid a clinician in understanding a patient's antihypertensive prescribing patterns, as well as visually validating the query results. The presented framework shows potential to provide answers to clinically relevant queries with complex temporal relationships. The framework can be used to successfully identify hypertensive patients who

  15. GMI Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strode, Sarah; Rodriguez, Jose; Steenrod, Steve; Liu, Junhua; Strahan, Susan; Nielsen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We describe the capabilities of the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemical transport model (CTM) with a special focus on capabilities related to the Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom). Several science results based on GMI hindcast simulations and preliminary results from the ATom simulations are highlighted. We also discuss the relationship between GMI and GEOS-5.

  16. Soluble (pro)renin receptor via β-catenin enhances urine concentration capability as a target of liver X receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaohan; Wang, Fei; Xu, Chuanming; Soodvilai, Sunny; Peng, Kexin; Su, Jiahui; Zhao, Long; Yang, Kevin T.; Feng, Yumei; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Yang, Tianxin

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular domain of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is cleaved to produce a soluble (pro)renin receptor (sPRR) that is detected in biological fluid and elevated under certain pathological conditions. The present study was performed to define the antidiuretic action of sPRR and its potential interaction with liver X receptors (LXRs), which are known regulators of urine-concentrating capability. Water deprivation consistently elevated urinary sPRR excretion in mice and humans. A template-based algorithm for protein–protein interaction predicted the interaction between sPRR and frizzled-8 (FZD8), which subsequently was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. A recombinant histidine-tagged sPRR (sPRR-His) in the nanomolar range induced a remarkable increase in the abundance of renal aquaporin 2 (AQP2) protein in primary rat inner medullary collecting duct cells. The AQP2 up-regulation relied on sequential activation of FZD8-dependent β-catenin signaling and cAMP–PKA pathways. Inhibition of FZD8 or tankyrase in rats induced polyuria, polydipsia, and hyperosmotic urine. Administration of sPRR-His alleviated the symptoms of diabetes insipidus induced in mice by vasopressin 2 receptor antagonism. Administration of the LXR agonist TO901317 to C57/BL6 mice induced polyuria and suppressed renal AQP2 expression associated with reduced renal PRR expression and urinary sPRR excretion. Administration of sPRR-His reversed most of the effects of TO901317. In cultured collecting duct cells, TO901317 suppressed PRR protein expression, sPRR release, and PRR transcriptional activity. Overall we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that sPRR exerts antidiuretic action via FZD8-dependent stimulation of AQP2 expression and that inhibition of this pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes insipidus induced by LXR agonism. PMID:26984496

  17. Soluble (pro)renin receptor via β-catenin enhances urine concentration capability as a target of liver X receptor.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaohan; Wang, Fei; Xu, Chuanming; Soodvilai, Sunny; Peng, Kexin; Su, Jiahui; Zhao, Long; Yang, Kevin T; Feng, Yumei; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Yang, Tianxin

    2016-03-29

    The extracellular domain of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is cleaved to produce a soluble (pro)renin receptor (sPRR) that is detected in biological fluid and elevated under certain pathological conditions. The present study was performed to define the antidiuretic action of sPRR and its potential interaction with liver X receptors (LXRs), which are known regulators of urine-concentrating capability. Water deprivation consistently elevated urinary sPRR excretion in mice and humans. A template-based algorithm for protein-protein interaction predicted the interaction between sPRR and frizzled-8 (FZD8), which subsequently was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. A recombinant histidine-tagged sPRR (sPRR-His) in the nanomolar range induced a remarkable increase in the abundance of renal aquaporin 2 (AQP2) protein in primary rat inner medullary collecting duct cells. The AQP2 up-regulation relied on sequential activation of FZD8-dependent β-catenin signaling and cAMP-PKA pathways. Inhibition of FZD8 or tankyrase in rats induced polyuria, polydipsia, and hyperosmotic urine. Administration of sPRR-His alleviated the symptoms of diabetes insipidus induced in mice by vasopressin 2 receptor antagonism. Administration of the LXR agonist TO901317 to C57/BL6 mice induced polyuria and suppressed renal AQP2 expression associated with reduced renal PRR expression and urinary sPRR excretion. Administration of sPRR-His reversed most of the effects of TO901317. In cultured collecting duct cells, TO901317 suppressed PRR protein expression, sPRR release, and PRR transcriptional activity. Overall we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that sPRR exerts antidiuretic action via FZD8-dependent stimulation of AQP2 expression and that inhibition of this pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes insipidus induced by LXR agonism.

  18. Hollow-spherical composites of Polyaniline/Cobalt Sulfide/Carbon nanodots with enhanced magnetocapacitance and electromagnetic wave absorption capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Chuanjun; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Jian; Jin, Feng; Liu, Jichang; Bi, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Hollow-spherical composites of polyaniline/cobalt sulfide/carbon nanodots (PANI/CoS/CDs-0.5T) have been synthesized by in situ polymerization under an applied magnetic field (MF) of 0.5 T. As a control, PANI/CoS/CDs-0T composites have been synthesized without a MF. Both composites acting as electrodes present obvious magnetocapacitances at a scan rate of 100 mV s-1 while the electrochemical cell tested under an external MF of 0.5 T. Notably, PANI/CoS/CDs-0.5T composites show larger magnetocapacitances than PANI/CoS/CDs-0T composites at different scan rates from 5 to 100 mV s-1. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results indicate that MF can reduce charge transfer resistance at electrode/electrolyte interface. More importantly, PANI/CoS/CDs-0.5T composites show a much stronger electromagnetic wave (EMW) absorbing capability than PANI/CoS/CDs-0T in the range of 2-18 GHz which is attributed to an increased dielectric loss and a magnetic loss in low frequency range of 2-12.5 GHz. MF-induced ferromagnetic nanodomains of Co2+ clusters in the PANI/CoS/CDs-0.5T composites increase the complex permittivity and create more interfacial polarizations or the Maxwell-Wagner effect, which leads to increased dielectric loss. Compared with PANI/CoS/CDs-0T composites with diamagnetic behaviour, MF-induced weak ferromagnetism of CoS in the PANI/CoS/CDs-0.5T composites has caused additional magnetic loss. This work provides an efficient way for modulating electrochemical or electromagnetic properties of inorganic/polymer nanocomposites by employing an external MF.

  19. Metrology measurement capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Shroyer, K.

    1997-02-01

    Since 1958, the AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: (1) mechanical; (2) environmental, gas, liquid; (3) electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/Microwave); and (4) optical and radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of the suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in the report.

  20. Nanocomposite semi-solid redox ionic liquid electrolytes with enhanced charge-transport capabilities for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Iwona A; Marszalek, Magdalena; Orlowska, Justyna; Ozimek, Weronika; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Kulesza, Pawel J; Grätzel, Michael

    2015-08-10

    The ability of Pt nanostructures to induce the splitting of the II bond in iodine (triiodide) molecules is explored here to enhance electron transfer in the iodine/iodide redox couple. Following the dispersal of Pt nanoparticles at 2 % (weight) level, charge transport was accelerated in triiodide/iodide-containing 1,3-dialkylimidazolium room-temperature ionic liquid. If both Pt nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were introduced into the ionic-liquid-based system, a solid-type (nonfluid) electrolyte was obtained. By using solid-state voltammetric (both sandwich-type and microelectrode-based) methodology, the apparent diffusion coefficients for charge transport increased to approximately 1×10(-6)  cm(2)  s(-1) upon the incorporation of the carbon-nanotube-supported iodine-modified Pt nanostructures. A dye-sensitized solar cell comprising TiO2 covered with a heteroleptic Ru(II) -type sensitizer (dye) and the semisolid triiodide/iodide ionic liquid electrolyte admixed with carbon-nanotube-supported Pt nanostructures yielded somewhat higher power conversion efficiencies (up to 7.9 % under standard reporting conditions) than those of the analogous Pt-free system. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System: Capabilities for Atmospheric Remote Sensing for NWP and Climate -- Moving Towards a Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mango, S. A.; Hinnant, F.; Hoffman, C. W.; Smehil, D. L.; Schneider, S. R.; Simione, S.; Needham, B.; Stockton, D.

    2005-12-01

    Over the last decade, the tri-agency Integrated Program Office (IPO), comprised of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Department of Defense (DoD), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has been managing the development of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). Once operational later this decade, NPOESS will replace NOAA's Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) systems. The IPO, through its Acquisition and Operations contractor, Northrop Grumman, will launch NPOESS spacecraft into three orbital planes to provide a single, national system capable of satisfying both civil and national security requirements for space-based, remotely sensed environmental data. With the development of NPOESS, we are evolving the existing "weather" satellites into integrated environmental observing systems by expanding our capabilities to observe, assess, and predict the total Earth system - ocean, atmosphere, land, and the space environment. The NPOESS will enable more accurate short-term weather forecasts and severe storm warnings and improved monitoring of atmospheric phenomena. NPOESS will also provide continuity of critical data for monitoring, understanding, and predicting climate change and assessing the impacts of climate change on seasonal and longer time scales. For these purposes, the NPOESS Integrated Program Office [IPO] is developing a suite of advanced, atmospheric sounding/probing instruments as a major part of the next generation meteorological, environmental and climate operational satellite system in polar, low earth orbit [LEO]. The IPO is developing the CrIS, Cross-track Infrared Sounder, an Ozone Mapping & Profiler Suite [OMPS]and a Visible and Infrared Imager and Radiometer Suite [VIIRS] and NASA is developing an Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder [ATMS]. These four instruments will be key

  2. LANL Analytical and Radiochemistry Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert E.; Burns, Carol J.; Lamont, Stephen P.; Tandon, Lav

    2012-07-27

    The overview of this presentation is: (1) Introduction to nonproliferation efforts; (2) Scope of activities Los Alamos National Laboratory; (3) Facilities for radioanalytical work at LANL; (4) Radiochemical characterization capabilities; and (5) Bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities.

  3. Fast-pulverization enabled simultaneous enhancement on cycling stability and rate capability of C@NiFe2O4 hierarchical fibrous bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zerui; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xiaoling; Sun, Wenping; Dou, Shixue; Huang, Xin; Shi, Bi

    2017-09-01

    Electrochemical-grinding induced pulverization is the origin of capacity fading in NiFe2O4. Increasing current density normally accelerates the pulverization that deteriorates lithium storage properties of NiFe2O4. Here we show that the high current induced fast-pulverization can serve as an efficient activation strategy for quick and simultaneous enhancement on cycling stability and rate capability of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) that are densely packed on the hierarchically structured carbon nanofiber strand. At a high current density, the pulverization of NiFe2O4 NPs can be accomplished in a few cycles exposing more active surface. During the fast-pulverization, the hierarchically structured carbon nanofiber strand maintains conductive contact for the densely packed NiFe2O4 NPs regardless of charge or discharge, which also effectively suppresses the repetitive breaks and growths of solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) via multiple-level structural adaption that favourites the quick formation of a thin and dense SEI, thus providing strong interparticle connectivity with enhancement on cycling stability and rate capability (e.g. doubled capacity). Our findings demonstrate the potential importance of high current induced fast-pulverization as an efficient activation strategy for achieving durable electrode materials suffering from electrochemical-grinding effects.

  4. An Energy-Equivalent d+/d− Damage Model with Enhanced Microcrack Closure-Reopening Capabilities for Cohesive-Frictional Materials

    PubMed Central

    Cervera, Miguel; Tesei, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an energy-equivalent orthotropic d+/d− damage model for cohesive-frictional materials is formulated. Two essential mechanical features are addressed, the damage-induced anisotropy and the microcrack closure-reopening (MCR) effects, in order to provide an enhancement of the original d+/d− model proposed by Faria et al. 1998, while keeping its high algorithmic efficiency unaltered. First, in order to ensure the symmetry and positive definiteness of the secant operator, the new formulation is developed in an energy-equivalence framework. This proves thermodynamic consistency and allows one to describe a fundamental feature of the orthotropic damage models, i.e., the reduction of the Poisson’s ratio throughout the damage process. Secondly, a “multidirectional” damage procedure is presented to extend the MCR capabilities of the original model. The fundamental aspects of this approach, devised for generic cyclic conditions, lie in maintaining only two scalar damage variables in the constitutive law, while preserving memory of the degradation directionality. The enhanced unilateral capabilities are explored with reference to the problem of a panel subjected to in-plane cyclic shear, with or without vertical pre-compression; depending on the ratio between shear and pre-compression, an absent, a partial or a complete stiffness recovery is simulated with the new multidirectional procedure. PMID:28772793

  5. An Energy-Equivalent d⁺/d(-) Damage Model with Enhanced Microcrack Closure-Reopening Capabilities for Cohesive-Frictional Materials.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Miguel; Tesei, Claudia

    2017-04-20

    In this paper, an energy-equivalent orthotropic d⁺/d(-) damage model for cohesive-frictional materials is formulated. Two essential mechanical features are addressed, the damage-induced anisotropy and the microcrack closure-reopening (MCR) effects, in order to provide an enhancement of the original d⁺/d(-) model proposed by Faria et al. 1998, while keeping its high algorithmic efficiency unaltered. First, in order to ensure the symmetry and positive definiteness of the secant operator, the new formulation is developed in an energy-equivalence framework. This proves thermodynamic consistency and allows one to describe a fundamental feature of the orthotropic damage models, i.e., the reduction of the Poisson's ratio throughout the damage process. Secondly, a "multidirectional" damage procedure is presented to extend the MCR capabilities of the original model. The fundamental aspects of this approach, devised for generic cyclic conditions, lie in maintaining only two scalar damage variables in the constitutive law, while preserving memory of the degradation directionality. The enhanced unilateral capabilities are explored with reference to the problem of a panel subjected to in-plane cyclic shear, with or without vertical pre-compression; depending on the ratio between shear and pre-compression, an absent, a partial or a complete stiffness recovery is simulated with the new multidirectional procedure.

  6. LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbeck, D.A.; Krantz, E.A.; Hunt, G.L.; Meyer, O.R.

    1980-01-01

    The outline of the LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program is presented. This program utilizes the LOFT (Loss-of-Fluid Test) reactor facility which is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the LOFT operational transient experiment series as a test bed for methods of enhancing the reactor operator's capability for safer operation. The design of an Operational Diagnotics and Display System is presented which was backfit to the existing data acquisition computers. Basic color-graphic displays of the process schematic and trend type are presented. In addition, displays were developed and are presented which represent safety state vector information. A task analysis method was applied to LOFT reactor operating procedures to test its usefulness in defining the operator's information needs and workload.

  7. Priming of mononuclear cells with a combination of growth factors enhances wound healing via high angiogenic and engraftment capabilities.

    PubMed

    Jin, Enze; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Sung-Whan

    2013-12-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that a specific combination of growth factors enhances the survival, adhesion and angiogenic potential of mononuclear cells (MNCs). In this study, we sought to investigate the changes of the angiogenic potential of MNCs after short-time priming with a specific combination of growth factors. MNCs were isolated using density gradient centrifugation and incubated with a priming cocktail containing epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, FMS-like tyrosine kinase (Flt)-3L , Angiopoietin (Ang)-1, granulocyte chemotactic protein (GCP)-2 and thrombopoietin (TPO) (all 400 ng/ml) for 15, 30 and 60 min. Wounds in nonobese diabetic-severe combined immune deficiency (NOD-SCID) mice were created by skin excision followed by cell transplantation. We performed a qRT-PCR analysis on the growth factor-primed cells. The angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, FGF-2, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and interleukin (IL)-8 and the anti-apoptotic factors IGF-1 and transforming growth factor-β1 were significantly elevated in the MNCs primed for 30 min. (T30) compared with the non-primed MNCs (T0). The scratch wound assay revealed that T30- conditioned media (CM) significantly increased the rate of fibroblast-mediated wound closure compared with the rates from T0-CM and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)-CM at 20 hrs. In vivo wound healing results revealed that the T30-treated wounds demonstrated accelerated wound healing at days 7 and 14 compared with those treated with T0. The histological analyses demonstrated that the number of engrafted cells and transdifferentiated keratinocytes in the wounds were significantly higher in the T30-transplanted group than in the T0-transplanted group. In conclusion, this study suggests that short-term priming of MNCs with growth factors might be alternative therapeutic option for cell

  8. Enhanced bone-integration capability of alkali- and heat-treated nanopolymorphic titanium in micro-to-nanoscale hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Takeshi; Tsukimura, Naoki; Yamada, Masahiro; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2011-10-01

    , for which nanofeatures have specific and substantial roles beyond those of microfeatures. Nanofeature-enhanced osteoconductivity, which resulted in both the acceleration and elevation of bone-implant integration, has clearly been demonstrated.

  9. Regional assessments of the Nation's water quality—Improved understanding of stream nutrient sources through enhanced modeling capabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Preston, Stephen D.; Alexander, Richard B.; Woodside, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed assessments of stream nutrients in six major regions extending over much of the conterminous United States. SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) models were developed for each region to explain spatial patterns in monitored stream nutrient loads in relation to human activities and natural resources and processes. The model information, reported by stream reach and catchment, provides contrasting views of the spatial patterns of nutrient source contributions, including those from urban (wastewater effluent and diffuse runoff from developed land), agricultural (farm fertilizers and animal manure), and specific background sources (atmospheric nitrogen deposition, soil phosphorus, forest nitrogen fixation, and channel erosion).

  10. Capability Disillusionment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Defense AT&L: July–August 2011 22 Capability Disillusionment Cochrane is an operations research analyst and has worked for the past 6 years at the... Disillusionment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...unsup- ported by either academic investigation or practical utility. The definition of “capability” in the literature suggests that capabilities are

  11. Enhancing U.S. National Security: The Case for Hemispheric Free Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-15

    TITLE (Include Security Classification) Enhancing U.S. National Security: The Case for Hemispheric Free Trade 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Rafael L. Marn...world’s undisputed military power, and our national values of democracy, respect for human rights, and the freedom of the market are again the beacons...United States, in turn, would receive like access to their markets. This more mature relationship would help consolidate our shared respect for

  12. NEW GUN CAPABILITY WITH INTERCHANGABLE BARRELS TO INVESTIGATE LOW VELOCITY IMPACT REGIMES AT THE LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY HIGH EXPLOSIVES APPLICATIONS FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Vandersall, K S; Behn, A; Gresshoff, M; Jr., L F; Chiao, P I

    2009-09-16

    A new gas gun capability is being activated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories located in the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF). The single stage light gas (dry air, nitrogen, or helium) gun has interchangeable barrels ranging from 25.4 mm to 76.2 mm in diameter with 1.8 meters in length and is being fabricated by Physics Applications, Inc. Because it is being used for safety studies involving explosives, the gun is planned for operation inside a large enclosed firing tank, with typical velocities planned in the range of 10-300 m/s. Three applications planned for this gun include: low velocity impact of detonator or detonator/booster assemblies with various projectile shapes, the Steven Impact test that involves impact initiation of a cased explosive target, and the Taylor impact test using a cylindrical explosive sample impacted onto a rigid anvil for fracture studies of energetic materials. A highlight of the gun features, outline on work in progress for implementing this capability, and discussion of the planned areas of research will be included.

  13. Analysis of the confluence of three patterns using the Centering and Pointing System (CAPS) images for the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Richard R.; Awwal, Abdul; Bliss, Erlan; Roberts, Randy; Rushford, Michael; Wilhelmsen, Karl; Zobrist, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The Advance Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a laser system that employs up to four petawatt (PW) lasers to produce a sequence of short pulses that generate X-rays which backlight highdensity internal confinement fusion (ICF) targets. Employing up to eight backlighters, ARC can produce an X-ray "motion picture" to diagnose the compression and ignition of a cryogenic deuterium-tritium target with tens-ofpicosecond temporal resolution during the critical phases of an ICF shot. Multi-frame, hard-X-ray radiography of imploding NIF capsules is a capability which is critical to the success of NIF's missions. The function of the Centering and Pointing System (CAPS) in ARC is to provide superimposed near-field and far-field images on a common optical path. The Images are then analyzed to extract beam centering and pointing data for the control system. The images contain the confluence of pointing, centering, and reference patterns. The patterns may have uneven illumination, particularly when the laser is misaligned. In addition, the simultaneous appearance of three reference patterns may be co-incidental, possibly masking one or more of the patterns. Image analysis algorithms have been developed to determine the centering and pointing position of ARC from these images. In the paper we describe the image analysis algorithms used to detect and identify the centers of these patterns. Results are provided, illustrating how well the process meets system requirements.

  14. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenie, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability. Roadmaps for Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis. Agency Objectives. Strategic Planning Transformation. Review Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Review Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  15. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenie, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability. Roadmaps for Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis. Agency Objectives. Strategic Planning Transformation. Review Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Review Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  16. Community Psychology and the Capabilities Approach

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    What makes for a good life? The capabilities approach to this question has much to offer community psychology, particularly with respect to marginalized groups. Capabilities are freedoms to engage in valued social activities and roles—what people can do and be given both their capacities, and environmental opportunities and constraints. Economist Amartya Sen’s focus on freedoms and agency resonates with psychological calls for empowerment, and philosopher Martha Nussbaum’s specification of requirements for a life that is fully human provides an important guide for social programs. Community psychology’s focus on mediating structures has much to offer the capabilities approach. Parallels between capabilities, as enumerated by Nussbaum, and settings that foster positive youth development, as described in a National Research Council Report (Eccles and Gootman (Eds) in Community programs to promote youth development. National Academy Press, Washington, 2002) suggest extensions of the approach to children. Community psychologists can contribute to theory about ways to create and modify settings to enhance capabilities as well as empowerment and positive youth development. Finally, capabilities are difficult to measure, because they involve freedoms to choose but only choices actually made or enacted can be observed. The variation in activities or goals across members of a setting provides a measure of the capabilities that the setting fosters. PMID:25822113

  17. Community psychology and the capabilities approach.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Marybeth

    2015-06-01

    What makes for a good life? The capabilities approach to this question has much to offer community psychology, particularly with respect to marginalized groups. Capabilities are freedoms to engage in valued social activities and roles-what people can do and be given both their capacities, and environmental opportunities and constraints. Economist Amartya Sen's focus on freedoms and agency resonates with psychological calls for empowerment, and philosopher Martha Nussbaum's specification of requirements for a life that is fully human provides an important guide for social programs. Community psychology's focus on mediating structures has much to offer the capabilities approach. Parallels between capabilities, as enumerated by Nussbaum, and settings that foster positive youth development, as described in a National Research Council Report (Eccles and Gootman (Eds) in Community programs to promote youth development. National Academy Press, Washington, 2002) suggest extensions of the approach to children. Community psychologists can contribute to theory about ways to create and modify settings to enhance capabilities as well as empowerment and positive youth development. Finally, capabilities are difficult to measure, because they involve freedoms to choose but only choices actually made or enacted can be observed. The variation in activities or goals across members of a setting provides a measure of the capabilities that the setting fosters.

  18. Navy Global Coupled Numerical System Development and Field Research Contributing to the U.S. National Earth System Prediction Capability (ESPC) Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleuterio, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    The National Earth System Prediction Capability (ESPC) represents part of the U.S. response to this need for improved coordination of research towards more skillful and extended range operational environmental prediction. Synoptic/sub-seasonal to seasonal global earth system models are under development at several U.S. centers consisting of high-resolution atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, land, and near space components with the goal of seamless prediction at lead times from a few hours to months or years in operations by 2025. The National ESPC will address the scientific, technical, computational, and organizational challenges to meet this ambitious goal. This presentation will describe Navy sponsored and Naval research in global coupled environmental numerical prediction model development and extended range predictability and prediction. The Naval Research Laboratory is developing a global fully coupled system including NAVGEM (atmosphere), HYCOM (ocean), CICE (sea ice), wave (WW 3) and land model (LIS) utilizing the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). The near-term focus of the Navy ESPC demonstration and validation work includes high impact weather, S2S, and polar prediction efforts that are in line with the WWRP/THORPEX-WCRP HIWeather, S2S, and PPP goals. Recent simulation results from the prototype forecast system are compared to recent field project observations such as the 2011 Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) period, as well as a dicussion of future process studies such as the Propagation of Intra-Seasonal Tropical Oscilations (PISTON).

  19. 77 FR 41190 - Office of Clinical and Preventive Services Funding Opportunity: National HIV Program for Enhanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Office of Clinical and Preventive Services Funding Opportunity: National HIV Program for Enhanced HIV/AIDS Screening and Engagement in Care AGENCY: Indian Health...

  20. The enhanced forest inventory and analysis program - national sampling design and estimation procedures

    Treesearch

    William A. Bechtold; Paul L. Patterson; [Editors

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service is in the process of moving from a system of quasiindependent, regional, periodic inventories to an enhanced program featuring greater national consistency, annual measurement of a proportion of plots in each State, new reporting requirements, and integration with the...

  1. Management Enhancement Team Approach (META) for the Australian National Training Authority. An Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, David J.; Dunn, John G.

    The management enhancement team approach (META) is a team-driven management development program designed for managers within Australia's National Vocational Education and Training Sector (NVETS). META, which has been piloted at more than 70 sites across Australia, is designed to identify and address management development needs within the context…

  2. National Writing Project's Multimodal Literacies and Teacher Collaboration: Enhanced Student Learning on Global Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyengar, Kalpana; Hood, Caleb

    2016-01-01

    Iyengar and Hood, both teacher consultants with the San Antonio Writing Project (SAWP), and instructors of an undergraduate society and social issues class, collaborated to enhance their undergraduate students' writing experiences using the National Writing Project model (Lieberman & Wood, 2003). Iyengar and Hood used strategies such as…

  3. Bio-inspired dewetted surfaces based on SiC/Si interlocked structures for enhanced-underwater stability and regenerative-drag reduction capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, By Junghan; Zhang, Zhuo; Baek, Seunghyun; Kim, Sangkuk; Kim, Donghyung; Yong, Kijung

    2016-04-01

    Drag reduction has become a serious issue in recent years in terms of energy conservation and environmental protection. Among diverse approaches for drag reduction, superhydrophobic surfaces have been mainly researched due to their high drag reducing efficiency. However, due to limited lifetime of plastron (i.e., air pockets) on superhydrophobic surfaces in underwater, the instability of dewetted surfaces has been a sticking point for practical applications. This work presents a breakthrough in improving the underwater stability of superhydrophobic surfaces by optimizing nanoscale surface structures using SiC/Si interlocked structures. These structures have an unequaled stability of underwater superhydrophobicity and enhance drag reduction capabilities,with a lifetime of plastron over 18 days and maximum velocity reduction ratio of 56%. Furthermore, through photoelectrochemical water splitting on a hierarchical SiC/Si nanostructure surface, the limited lifetime problem of air pockets was overcome by refilling the escaping gas layer, which also provides continuous drag reduction effects.

  4. Bio-inspired dewetted surfaces based on SiC/Si interlocked structures for enhanced-underwater stability and regenerative-drag reduction capability

    PubMed Central

    Lee, By Junghan; Zhang, Zhuo; Baek, Seunghyun; Kim, Sangkuk; Kim, Donghyung; Yong, Kijung

    2016-01-01

    Drag reduction has become a serious issue in recent years in terms of energy conservation and environmental protection. Among diverse approaches for drag reduction, superhydrophobic surfaces have been mainly researched due to their high drag reducing efficiency. However, due to limited lifetime of plastron (i.e., air pockets) on superhydrophobic surfaces in underwater, the instability of dewetted surfaces has been a sticking point for practical applications. This work presents a breakthrough in improving the underwater stability of superhydrophobic surfaces by optimizing nanoscale surface structures using SiC/Si interlocked structures. These structures have an unequaled stability of underwater superhydrophobicity and enhance drag reduction capabilities,with a lifetime of plastron over 18 days and maximum velocity reduction ratio of 56%. Furthermore, through photoelectrochemical water splitting on a hierarchical SiC/Si nanostructure surface, the limited lifetime problem of air pockets was overcome by refilling the escaping gas layer, which also provides continuous drag reduction effects. PMID:27095674

  5. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progesss on NASA's Human Exploration Systems and Mobility Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps: Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Technology and Capability Readiness Levels. Relationships Between Roadmaps. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Team Progress to Date).

  6. Mediterranean diets supplemented with virgin olive oil and nuts enhance plasmatic antioxidant capabilities and decrease xanthine oxidase activity in people with metabolic syndrome: The PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    Sureda, Antoni; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Martorell, Miquel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Marti, Amelia; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed plasmatic antioxidant capabilities and xanthine oxidase (XOX) activity in metabolic syndrome patients after 5 years intervention with Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or with nuts or with low-fat diet (the PREDIMED [PREvención con Dieta MEDiterránea] study). Seventy-five participants were randomly selected. Daily energy and nutrient intake were assessed with a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire, and adherence to the MeDiet was assessed using a 14-item questionnaire. Catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase, XOX activities and protein levels, and protein carbonyl derivatives, nitrotyrosine, nitrite and nitrate levels were determined in overnight fasting venous blood samples. The plasma activity and protein levels of SOD and catalase were significantly higher and XOX activity was lower in MeDiet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil and MeDiet supplemented with nuts than in the control group. Participants in both MeDiet groups showed higher plasma nitrate levels than in the control group. Adherence to the MeDiet showed a positive correlation with SOD and catalase plasma antioxidant activities. A MeDiet enriched with either virgin olive oil or nuts enhances the plasma antioxidant capabilities and decreases XOX activity in patients with the metabolic syndrome but we did not observe changes in myeloperoxidase or markers of oxidative damage. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. PTTI Capabilities of the Modernized LORAN System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    is steered to UTC by the LORAN signal (Figure 11). ANTENNA INTERFACE E -FIELD ANTENNA BIAS SELECT BANDPASS FILTER ATTENUATOR AMPLIFIER LOWPASS...A. Lombardi, T. Celano, and E . D. Powers, 2005, “The Potential Role of Enhanced LORAN -C in the National Timing Infrastructure,” in Proceedings of...40th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 507 PTTI CAPABILITIES OF THE MODERNIZED LORAN SYSTEM Kirk Montgomery

  8. Self-assembled three-dimensional mesoporous ZnFe2O4-graphene composites for lithium ion batteries with significantly enhanced rate capability and cycling stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yucheng; Xia, Yang; Chui, Ying-San; Cao, Chenwei; Zapien, Juan Antonio

    2015-02-01

    We report a facile, one-pot hydrothermal strategy to prepare self-assembled three-dimensional mesoporous ZnFe2O4 submicron-sized spheres wrapped in graphene sheets as high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries. The mesoporous submicron-sized spheres are composed of numerous nanoparticles where the void spaces between the neighboring nanoparticles provide a cushion to alleviate volume variation issues during the conversion/alloying process and also provide large contact areas with the electrolyte to facilitate lithium ion diffusion and electron transport during cycling. The synergistic effects between ZnFe2O4 submicron-sized spheres and graphene sheets are another positive effect to enhance the electrochemical performance. The electrochemical characterization of ZnFe2O4-graphene composites exhibits a high specific capacity of 1182 mAh g-1 cycling at a specific current of 100 mA g-1, and significantly enhanced rate capability and cycling stability after long-term testing resulting from their unique structure features.

  9. Isolation of Bacillus sp. strains capable of decomposing alkali lignin and their application in combination with lactic acid bacteria for enhancing cellulase performance.

    PubMed

    Chang, Young-Cheol; Choi, Dubok; Takamizawa, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Shintaro

    2014-01-01

    Effective biological pretreatment method for enhancing cellulase performance was investigated. Two alkali lignin-degrading bacteria were isolated from forest soils in Japan and named CS-1 and CS-2. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that CS-1 and CS-2 were Bacillus sp. Strains CS-1 and CS-2 displayed alkali lignin degradation capability. With initial concentrations of 0.05-2.0 g L(-1), at least 61% alkali lignin could be degraded within 48 h. High laccase activities were observed in crude enzyme extracts from the isolated strains. This result indicated that alkali lignin degradation was correlated with laccase activities. Judging from the net yields of sugars after enzymatic hydrolysis, the most effective pretreatment method for enhancing cellulase performance was a two-step processing procedure (pretreatment using Bacillus sp. CS-1 followed by lactic acid bacteria) at 68.6%. These results suggest that the two-step pretreatment procedure is effective at accelerating cellulase performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced binding capability of nuclear factor-κB with demethylated P2X3 receptor gene contributes to cancer pain in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, You-Lang; Jiang, Guo-Qin; Wei, Jinrong; Zhang, Hong-Hong; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Hongyan; Hu, Shufen; Jiang, Xinghong; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling is implicated in both cancer development and inflammation processes. However, the roles and mechanisms of NF-κB signaling in the development of cancer-induced pain (CIP) remain unknown. This study was designed to investigate the roles of the p65 subunit of NF-κB in regulation of the purinergic receptor (P2X3R) plasticity in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of CIP rats. We showed here that tumor cell injection produced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, and an enhanced body weight–bearing difference, which was correlated with an upregulation of p65 and P2X3R expression in lumber DRGs and a potentiation of ATP-evoked responses of tibia-innervating DRG neurons. Inhibition of NF-κB signaling using p65 inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, BAY-11-7082, or lentiviral-p65 short-hairpin RNA significantly attenuated CIP and reversed the activities of P2X3R. Interestingly, tumor cell injection led to a significant demethylation of CpG island in p2x3r gene promoter and enhanced ability of p65 to bind the promoter of p2x3r gene. Our findings suggest that upregulation of P2X3R expression was mediated by the enhanced binding capability of p65 with demethylated promoter of p2x3r gene, thus contributing to CIP. NF-κBp65 might be a potential target for treating CIP, a neuropathic pain generated by tumor cell–induced injury to nerves that innervate the skin. PMID:26049406

  11. Enhanced binding capability of nuclear factor-κB with demethylated P2X3 receptor gene contributes to cancer pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, You-Lang; Jiang, Guo-Qin; Wei, Jinrong; Zhang, Hong-Hong; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Hongyan; Hu, Shufen; Jiang, Xinghong; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling is implicated in both cancer development and inflammation processes. However, the roles and mechanisms of NF-κB signaling in the development of cancer-induced pain (CIP) remain unknown. This study was designed to investigate the roles of the p65 subunit of NF-κB in regulation of the purinergic receptor (P2X3R) plasticity in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of CIP rats. We showed here that tumor cell injection produced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, and an enhanced body weight-bearing difference, which was correlated with an upregulation of p65 and P2X3R expression in lumber DRGs and a potentiation of ATP-evoked responses of tibia-innervating DRG neurons. Inhibition of NF-κB signaling using p65 inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, BAY-11-7082, or lentiviral-p65 short-hairpin RNA significantly attenuated CIP and reversed the activities of P2X3R. Interestingly, tumor cell injection led to a significant demethylation of CpG island in p2x3r gene promoter and enhanced ability of p65 to bind the promoter of p2x3r gene. Our findings suggest that upregulation of P2X3R expression was mediated by the enhanced binding capability of p65 with demethylated promoter of p2x3r gene, thus contributing to CIP. NF-κBp65 might be a potential target for treating CIP, a neuropathic pain generated by tumor cell-induced injury to nerves that innervate the skin.

  12. The National Institutes of Health system for enhancing the science, safety, and ethics of recombinant DNA research.

    PubMed

    Shipp, Allan C; Patterson, Amy P

    2003-04-01

    Oversight of recombinant DNA research by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is predicated on ethical and scientific responsibilities that are akin, in many ways, to those that pertain to the oversight of animal research. The NIH system of oversight, which originated more than 25 years ago, is managed by the NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA), which uses various tools to fulfill its oversight responsibilities. These tools include the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines) and the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee. The OBA also undertakes special initiatives to promote the analysis and dissemination of information key to our understanding of recombinant DNA, and in particular, human gene transfer research. These initiatives include a new query-capable database, an analytical board of scientific and medical experts, and conferences and symposia on timely scientific, safety, and policy issues. Veterinary scientists can play an important role in the oversight of recombinant DNA research and in enhancing our understanding of the many safety and scientific dimensions of the field. These roles include developing appropriate animal models, reporting key safety data, enhancing institutional biosafety review, and promoting compliance with the NIH Guidelines.

  13. Metrology measurement capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroyer, K.

    1995-01-01

    During the past 36 years, the Kansas City Division's (KCD) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; Electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/Microwave); and (3) Optical and Radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. KCD Metrology was established in 1958 to provide a measurement base for the Kansas City Plant. The Metrology Engineering Department provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement which falls into the broad areas listed above. The engineering staff currently averages almost 19 years of measurement experience. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on Metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in the following pages.

  14. Metrology measurement capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, L.M.

    1997-06-01

    Since 1958, the AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: mechanical; environmental, gas, liquid; electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/microwave); and optical and radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. FM and T Metrology was established in 1958 to provide a measurement base for the Department of energy`s Kansas City Plant. The Metrology Engineering Department provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement which falls into the broad areas listed above. The engineering staff currently averages almost 16 years of measurement experience. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of the suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on Metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in this report.

  15. Metrology measurement capability

    SciTech Connect

    Shroyer, K.

    1995-01-01

    During the past 36 years, the Kansas City Division`s (KCD) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; Electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/Microwave); and (3) Optical and Radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. KCD Metrology was established in 1958 to provide a measurement base for the Kansas City Plant. The Metrology Engineering Department provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement which falls into the broad areas listed above. The engineering staff currently averages almost 19 years of measurement experience. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on Metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in the following pages.

  16. Visual Absorption Capability

    Treesearch

    Lee Anderson; Jerry Mosier; Geoffrey Chandler

    1979-01-01

    Visual absorption capability (VAC) is a tool to assess a landscape's susceptibility to visual change caused by man's activities. This paper explores different descriptive approaches to VAC and addresses in depth the development of the VAC process used on the Klamath National Forest. Four biophysical factors were selected to assess VAC for the lands within the...

  17. Remote Controlled Orbiter Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garske, Michael; delaTorre, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The Remote Control Orbiter (RCO) capability allows a Space Shuttle Orbiter to perform an unmanned re-entry and landing. This low-cost capability employs existing and newly added functions to perform key activities typically performed by flight crews and controllers during manned re-entries. During an RCO landing attempt, these functions are triggered by automation resident in the on-board computers or uplinked commands from flight controllers on the ground. In order to properly route certain commands to the appropriate hardware, an In-Flight Maintenance (IFM) cable was developed. Currently, the RCO capability is reserved for the scenario where a safe return of the crew from orbit may not be possible. The flight crew would remain in orbit and await a rescue mission. After the crew is rescued, the RCO capability would be used on the unmanned Orbiter in an attempt to salvage this national asset.

  18. Annual Report to The President and The Congress of the Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction (2nd). II. Toward a National Strategy for Combating Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    capability or processes in existence at the time could have recognized the motivations, intentions, and capabilities of Timothy MacVeigh before his bombing of...General Accounting Office Timothy Beres Lewis M. Chapman Office for State and Local Domestic Federal Bureau of Investigation Preparedness Support...VERIDIAN Jerome Hauer John Landry SAIC National Intelligence Council Jane Hindmarsh Colonel Timothy Lampe California Office of Emergency Services Defense

  19. Project CAPABLE: Model Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madawaska School District, ME.

    Project CAPABLE (Classroom Action Program: Aim: Basic Learning Effectiveness) is a classroom approach which integrates the basic learning skills with content. The goal of the project is to use basic learning skills to enhance the learning of content and at the same time use the content to teach basic learning skills. This manual illustrates how…

  20. Enhanced Computational Infrastructure for Data Analysis at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schissel, D.P.; Peng, Q.; Schachter, J.; Terpstra, T.B.; Casper, T.A.; Freeman, J.; Jong, R.; Keith, K.M.; Meyer, W.H.; Parker, C.T.

    1999-08-01

    Recently a number of enhancements to the computer hardware infrastructure have been implemented at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility. Utilizing these improvements to the hardware infrastructure, software enhancements are focusing on streamlined analysis, automation, and graphical user interface (GUI) systems to enlarge the user base. The adoption of the load balancing software package LSF Suite by Platform Computing has dramatically increased the availability of CPU cycles and the efficiency of their use. Streamlined analysis has been aided by the adoption of the MDSplus system to provide a unified interface to analyzed DIII-D data. The majority of MDSplus data is made available in between pulses giving the researcher critical information before setting up the next pulse. Work on data viewing and analysis tools focuses on efficient GUI design with object-oriented programming (OOP) for maximum code flexibility. Work to enhance the computational infrastructure at DIII-D has included a significant effort to aid the remote collaborator since the DIII-D National Team consists of scientists from 9 national laboratories, 19 foreign laboratories, 16 universities, and 5 industrial partnerships. As a result of this work, DIII-D data is available on a 24 x 7 basis from a set of viewing and analysis tools that can be run either on the collaborators' or DIII-Ds computer systems. Additionally, a Web based data and code documentation system has been created to aid the novice and expert user alike.

  1. National Alliance for Photonics Education in Manufacturing: training in the application of photonics to enhance national manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Susan A.; Gaines Walker, Janice M.

    1995-10-01

    NAPEM-The National Alliance for Photonics Education in Manufacturing is delivering photonics-based courses in four major manufacturing sectors: semiconductor manufacturing, laser materials processing, durable goods manufacturing, and dual-use manufacturing and end-to-end system testing. NAPEM's mission is to enhance industry competitiveness through providing practical continuing education programs on applying technology in manufacturing processes. Funded through a matching Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP) grant, NAPEM's unique approach unites the strengths of a professional photonics society, university educators, and industry training and human resources personnel in designing, assessing, implementing, and evaluating these innovative programs. This paper will outline the NAPEM program, to date, from SPIE-The International Society of Optical Engineering's administrative perspective. It will identify successful models and lessons learned in program development, delivery and evaluation, and specify recommendations to assist others addressing similar educational issues in training an engineering workforce for the 21st century.

  2. IAC - INTEGRATED ANALYSIS CAPABILITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    Integration via Mesh Interpolation Coefficients), which transforms field values from one model to another; LINK, which simplifies incorporation of user specific modules into IAC modules; and DATAPAC, the National Bureau of Standards statistical analysis package. The IAC database contains structured files which provide a common basis for communication between modules and the executive system, and can contain unstructured files such as NASTRAN checkpoint files, DISCOS plot files, object code, etc. The user can define groups of data and relations between them. A full data manipulation and query system operates with the database. The current interface modules comprise five groups: 1) Structural analysis - IAC contains a NASTRAN interface for standalone analysis or certain structural/control/thermal combinations. IAC provides enhanced structural capabilities for normal modes and static deformation analysis via special DMAP sequences. IAC 2.5 contains several specialized interfaces from NASTRAN in support of multidisciplinary analysis. 2) Thermal analysis - IAC supports finite element and finite difference techniques for steady state or transient analysis. There are interfaces for the NASTRAN thermal analyzer, SINDA/SINFLO, and TRASYS II. FEMNET, which converts finite element structural analysis models to finite difference thermal analysis models, is also interfaced with the IAC database. 3) System dynamics - The DISCOS simulation program which allows for either nonlinear time domain analysis or linear frequency domain analysis, is fully interfaced to the IAC database management capability. 4) Control analysis - Interfaces for the ORACLS, SAMSAN, NBOD2, and INCA programs allow a wide range of control system analyses and synthesis techniques. Level 2.5 includes EIGEN, which provides tools for large order system eigenanalysis, and BOPACE, which allows for geometric capabilities and finite element analysis with nonlinear material. Also included in IAC level 2.5 is SAMSAN 3.1, an

  3. IAC - INTEGRATED ANALYSIS CAPABILITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    Integration via Mesh Interpolation Coefficients), which transforms field values from one model to another; LINK, which simplifies incorporation of user specific modules into IAC modules; and DATAPAC, the National Bureau of Standards statistical analysis package. The IAC database contains structured files which provide a common basis for communication between modules and the executive system, and can contain unstructured files such as NASTRAN checkpoint files, DISCOS plot files, object code, etc. The user can define groups of data and relations between them. A full data manipulation and query system operates with the database. The current interface modules comprise five groups: 1) Structural analysis - IAC contains a NASTRAN interface for standalone analysis or certain structural/control/thermal combinations. IAC provides enhanced structural capabilities for normal modes and static deformation analysis via special DMAP sequences. IAC 2.5 contains several specialized interfaces from NASTRAN in support of multidisciplinary analysis. 2) Thermal analysis - IAC supports finite element and finite difference techniques for steady state or transient analysis. There are interfaces for the NASTRAN thermal analyzer, SINDA/SINFLO, and TRASYS II. FEMNET, which converts finite element structural analysis models to finite difference thermal analysis models, is also interfaced with the IAC database. 3) System dynamics - The DISCOS simulation program which allows for either nonlinear time domain analysis or linear frequency domain analysis, is fully interfaced to the IAC database management capability. 4) Control analysis - Interfaces for the ORACLS, SAMSAN, NBOD2, and INCA programs allow a wide range of control system analyses and synthesis techniques. Level 2.5 includes EIGEN, which provides tools for large order system eigenanalysis, and BOPACE, which allows for geometric capabilities and finite element analysis with nonlinear material. Also included in IAC level 2.5 is SAMSAN 3.1, an

  4. Hitchhiker capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, Theodore C.

    1988-01-01

    A carrier system has been developed for economical and quick response flight of small attached payloads on the space shuttle. Hitchhiker can accommodate up to 750 lb of customer payloads in canisters or mounted to an exposed side-mount plate, or up to 1200 lb mounted on a cross-bay structure. The carrier connects to the orbiter's electrical systems and provides up to six customers with standard electrical services including power, real time telemetry and commands. A transparent data and command system concept is employed to allow the customer to easily use his own ground support equipment and personnel to control his payload during integration and flight operations. A general description of the Hitchhiker program and the Shuttle Payload of Opportunity Carrier (SPOC) is given and future enhancements are outlined.

  5. Enhancing the National Incident-Based Reporting System: A Policy Proposal.

    PubMed

    Bierie, David M

    2015-09-01

    The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is an important data set serving social scientists, policy makers, the business community, and the press. However, it is hampered by low participation rates among the nation's police agencies. This article outlines a strategy for enhancing NIBRS by (a) providing police agencies free and supported software to extract and transmit an agency's Record Management System (RMS) data in NIBRS format (or a data-entry system if an RMS does not exist), (b) including personal identifiers of arrestees, and (c) allowing police agencies to access the national data for routine police work. The article describes how taking these steps would decrease the costs of implementing and maintaining NIBRS, encourage widespread adoption, and increase data quality. These enhancements could foster substantial improvements in policing as well as other aspects of the criminal justice system. These changes would also open up new and exciting areas for academics and analysts, including the ability to study criminal careers over time as well as criminal networks within NIBRS. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Fusion of antigen to a dendritic cell targeting chemokine combined with adjuvant yields a malaria DNA vaccine with enhanced protective capabilities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kun; Zhang, Hong; Zavala, Fidel; Biragyn, Arya; Espinosa, Diego A; Markham, Richard B

    2014-01-01

    Although sterilizing immunity to malaria can be elicited by irradiated sporozoite vaccination, no clinically practical subunit vaccine has been shown to be capable of preventing the approximately 600,000 annual deaths attributed to this infection. DNA vaccines offer several potential advantages for a disease that primarily affects the developing world, but new approaches are needed to improve the immunogenicity of these vaccines. By using a novel, lipid-based adjuvant, Vaxfectin, to attract immune cells to the immunization site, in combination with an antigen-chemokine DNA construct designed to target antigen to immature dendritic cells, we elicited a humoral immune response that provided sterilizing immunity to malaria challenge in a mouse model system. The chemokine, MIP3αCCL20, did not significantly enhance the cellular infiltrate or levels of cytokine or chemokine expression at the immunization site but acted with Vaxfectin to reduce liver stage malaria infection by orders of magnitude compared to vaccine constructs lacking the chemokine component. The levels of protection achieved were equivalent to those observed with irradiated sporozoites, a candidate vaccine undergoing development for further large scale clinical trial. Only vaccination with the combined regimen of adjuvant and chemokine provided 80-100% protection against the development of bloodstream infection. Treating the immunization process as requiring the independent steps of 1) attracting antigen-presenting cells to the site of immunization and 2) specifically directing vaccine antigen to the immature dendritic cells that initiate the adaptive immune response may provide a rational strategy for the development of a clinically applicable malaria DNA vaccine.

  7. Enhancement of the capability of hydroxyapatite formation on Zr with anodic ZrO₂ nanotubular arrays via an effective dipping pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu-Ning; Adams, Alissa; Luo, Jing-Li

    2011-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) depositions on metallic biomedical implants are widely applied to generate bioactive surfaces in simulated biological environments. Highly ordered anodic ZrO₂ nanotubes have attracted increasing interest for biomedical applications. However, previous reports showed that at least 14-28 days were required to obtain HA coating on ZrO₂ nanotubular arrays under biomimetic condition, thus capability to grow HA coating on ZrO ₂nanotubular at room temperature needs to be enhanced. In the present work, we demonstrate that ZrO₂ nanotubular arrays are suitable for an effective dipping treatment to induce more rapid HA coating. A series of ZrO₂ nanotubular arrays having different dimensions were fabricated in fluoride containing electrolyte. Then, we used a dipping treatment for biomimetic formation of an adhesive HA coating on the nanotubular arrays. The coatings formed rapidly using this procedure under biomimetic conditions and did not require a high-temperature annealing process. The as-formed ZrO₂ nanotubular arrays were treated using several dip-and-dry steps, through which the nanotubular arrays were filled and covered with calcium phosphate (CaP) nucleation sites. The specimens readily grew HA once immersed in the simulated biological fluid after 2 days immersion. The carbonated HA coating had several micron thickness after 8 days of immersion while only a thin layer of CaP were observed on annealed ZrO₂ nanotubes immersed in the same solution for the same duration. Tensile testing showed that bonding strength between HA coating and substrate was 21.6 ± 1.6 MPa. This treatment dramatically improves efficiency for promoting HA formation on anodic ZrO₂ nanotubes at room temperature. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Carbon-Stabilized Interlayer-Expanded Few-Layer MoSe2 Nanosheets for Sodium Ion Batteries with Enhanced Rate Capability and Cycling Performance.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongchao; Zhao, Zongbin; Wang, Yuwei; Dong, Yanfeng; Liu, Yang; Wang, Xuzhen; Qiu, Jieshan

    2016-11-30

    Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered as a promising alternative to lithium ion batteries, owing to the abundant reserve and low-cost accessibility of the sodium source. To date, the pursuit of high-performance anode materials remains a great challenge for the SIBs. In this work, carbon-stabilized interlayer-expanded few-layer MoSe2 nanosheets (MoSe2@C) have been fabricated by an oleic acid (OA) functionalized synthesis-polydopamine (PDA) stabilization-carbonization strategy, and their structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties have been carefully characterized and compared with the carbon-free MoSe2. When evaluated as anode for sodium ion half batteries, the MoSe2@C exhibits a remarkably enhanced rate capability of 367 mA h g(-1) at 5 A g(-1), a high reversible discharge capacity of 445 mA h g(-1) at 1 A g(-1), and a long-term cycling stability over 100 cycles. To further explore the potential applications, the MoSe2@C is assembled into sodium ion full batteries with Na3V2(PO4)3 (NVP) as cathode materials, showing an impressively high reversible capacity of 421 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 A g(-1) after 100 cycles. Such results are primarily attributed to the unique carbon-stabilized interlayer-expanded few-layer MoSe2 nanosheets structure, which facilitates the permeation of electrolyte into the inner of MoSe2 nanosheets, promoting charge transfer efficiency among MoSe2 nanosheets, and accommodating the volume change from discharge-charge cycling.

  9. Fusion of Antigen to a Dendritic Cell Targeting Chemokine Combined with Adjuvant Yields a Malaria DNA Vaccine with Enhanced Protective Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kun; Zhang, Hong; Zavala, Fidel; Biragyn, Arya; Espinosa, Diego A.; Markham, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Although sterilizing immunity to malaria can be elicited by irradiated sporozoite vaccination, no clinically practical subunit vaccine has been shown to be capable of preventing the approximately 600,000 annual deaths attributed to this infection. DNA vaccines offer several potential advantages for a disease that primarily affects the developing world, but new approaches are needed to improve the immunogenicity of these vaccines. By using a novel, lipid-based adjuvant, Vaxfectin, to attract immune cells to the immunization site, in combination with an antigen-chemokine DNA construct designed to target antigen to immature dendritic cells, we elicited a humoral immune response that provided sterilizing immunity to malaria challenge in a mouse model system. The chemokine, MIP3αCCL20, did not significantly enhance the cellular infiltrate or levels of cytokine or chemokine expression at the immunization site but acted with Vaxfectin to reduce liver stage malaria infection by orders of magnitude compared to vaccine constructs lacking the chemokine component. The levels of protection achieved were equivalent to those observed with irradiated sporozoites, a candidate vaccine undergoing development for further large scale clinical trial. Only vaccination with the combined regimen of adjuvant and chemokine provided 80–100% protection against the development of bloodstream infection. Treating the immunization process as requiring the independent steps of 1) attracting antigen-presenting cells to the site of immunization and 2) specifically directing vaccine antigen to the immature dendritic cells that initiate the adaptive immune response may provide a rational strategy for the development of a clinically applicable malaria DNA vaccine. PMID:24599116

  10. Joint Defense Capabilities Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    program does not best meet Joint needs, or provide the best value for the nation’s defense investment. Capabilities-Based Process The Study Team...planning function integrates the highly related logistics support functions of supply, maintenance, and transportation . In addition, current logistics...strengthens the role of the Defense Logistics Executive (DLE) as the single Logistics Global Supply Chain Manager with oversight and decision authority

  11. Enhancing national capacity to conduct child and family disaster mental health research.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Maida, Carl A; Steinberg, Alan M; Beaton, Randal D; Pynoos, Robert S; Fairbank, John A; Brymer, Melissa J; Kurklinsky, Andrew K

    2010-01-01

    A substantial number of children and families experience emotional difficulties in the aftermath of disasters and terrorist events. Only recently has training in disaster preparedness and response been systematically incorporated into the curricula of mental health disciplines. The goal of the Child & Family Disaster Research Training & Education Program is to enhance the nation's capacity and infrastructure needed to conduct rigorous disaster mental health research on children and families. This article describes the creation and training of 10 specialized research teams, curriculum development, implementation of the program, and progress to date as well as lessons learned and challenges to sustainability.

  12. Space Logistics: Launch Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furnas, Randall B.

    1989-01-01

    The current maximum launch capability for the United States are shown. The predicted Earth-to-orbit requirements for the United States are presented. Contrasting the two indicates the strong National need for a major increase in Earth-to-orbit lift capability. Approximate weights for planned payloads are shown. NASA is studying the following options to meet the need for a new heavy-lift capability by mid to late 1990's: (1) Shuttle-C for near term (include growth versions); and (2) the Advanced Lauching System (ALS) for the long term. The current baseline two-engine Shuttle-C has a 15 x 82 ft payload bay and an expected lift capability of 82,000 lb to Low Earth Orbit. Several options are being considered which have expanded diameter payload bays. A three-engine Shuttle-C with an expected lift of 145,000 lb to LEO is being evaluated as well. The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a potential joint development between the Air Force and NASA. This program is focused toward long-term launch requirements, specifically beyond the year 2000. The basic approach is to develop a family of vehicles with the same high reliability as the Shuttle system, yet offering a much greater lift capability at a greatly reduced cost (per pound of payload). The ALS unmanned family of vehicles will provide a low end lift capability equivalent to Titan IV, and a high end lift capability greater than the Soviet Energia if requirements for such a high-end vehicle are defined.In conclusion, the planning of the next generation space telescope should not be constrained to the current launch vehicles. New vehicle designs will be driven by the needs of anticipated heavy users.

  13. Space Logistics: Launch Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furnas, Randall B.

    1989-01-01

    The current maximum launch capability for the United States are shown. The predicted Earth-to-orbit requirements for the United States are presented. Contrasting the two indicates the strong National need for a major increase in Earth-to-orbit lift capability. Approximate weights for planned payloads are shown. NASA is studying the following options to meet the need for a new heavy-lift capability by mid to late 1990's: (1) Shuttle-C for near term (include growth versions); and (2) the Advanced Lauching System (ALS) for the long term. The current baseline two-engine Shuttle-C has a 15 x 82 ft payload bay and an expected lift capability of 82,000 lb to Low Earth Orbit. Several options are being considered which have expanded diameter payload bays. A three-engine Shuttle-C with an expected lift of 145,000 lb to LEO is being evaluated as well. The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a potential joint development between the Air Force and NASA. This program is focused toward long-term launch requirements, specifically beyond the year 2000. The basic approach is to develop a family of vehicles with the same high reliability as the Shuttle system, yet offering a much greater lift capability at a greatly reduced cost (per pound of payload). The ALS unmanned family of vehicles will provide a low end lift capability equivalent to Titan IV, and a high end lift capability greater than the Soviet Energia if requirements for such a high-end vehicle are defined.In conclusion, the planning of the next generation space telescope should not be constrained to the current launch vehicles. New vehicle designs will be driven by the needs of anticipated heavy users.

  14. A survey of the governance capacity of national public health associations to enhance population health.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, James; Shukla, Mahesh; Rice, James; Rispel, Laetitia

    2016-03-11

    National public health associations (PHAs) are key partners with governments and communities to improve, protect and promote the public's health. Governance and organizational capacity are among the key determinants of a PHA's effectiveness as an advocate for appropriate public health policies and practice. During 2014, the World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA) conducted an on-line survey of its 82 PHA members, to identify the state of organizational governance of national public health associations, as well as the factors that influence optimal organizational governance. The survey consisted of 13 questions and focused on the main elements of organizational governance: cultivating accountability; engaging stakeholders; setting shared direction; stewarding resources; and, continuous governance enhancement. Four questions included a qualitative open-ended response for additional comments. The survey data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The qualitative data was analyzed using thematic content analysis Responses were received from 62 PHAs, constituting a 75.6 % response rate. The two most important factors that support governance effectiveness were a high degree of integrity and ethical behavior of the PHA's leaders (77 %) and the competence of people serving on the PHA's governing body (76 %). The lack of financial resources was considered as the most important factor that negatively affected organizational governance effectiveness (73 %). The lack of mentoring for future PHA leaders; ineffective or incompetent leadership; lack of understanding about good governance practices; and lack of accurate information for strategic planning were identified as factors influencing PHA governance effectiveness. Critical elements for PHA sustainability included diversity, gender-responsiveness and inclusive governance practices, and strategies to build the future generation of public health leaders. National PHA have a responsibility to put into place

  15. RISKIND: An enhanced computer code for National Environmental Policy Act transportation consequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-03-01

    The RISKIND computer program was developed for the analysis of radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or other radioactive materials. The code is intended to provide scenario-specific analyses when evaluating alternatives for environmental assessment activities, including those for major federal actions involving radioactive material transport as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). As such, rigorous procedures have been implemented to enhance the code`s credibility and strenuous efforts have been made to enhance ease of use of the code. To increase the code`s reliability and credibility, a new version of RISKIND was produced under a quality assurance plan that covered code development and testing, and a peer review process was conducted. During development of the new version, the flexibility and ease of use of RISKIND were enhanced through several major changes: (1) a Windows{sup {trademark}} point-and-click interface replaced the old DOS menu system, (2) the remaining model input parameters were added to the interface, (3) databases were updated, (4) the program output was revised, and (5) on-line help has been added. RISKIND has been well received by users and has been established as a key component in radiological transportation risk assessments through its acceptance by the U.S. Department of Energy community in recent environmental impact statements (EISs) and its continued use in the current preparation of several EISs.

  16. Five-Year Implementation Plan For Advanced Separations and Waste Forms Capabilities at the Idaho National Laboratory (FY 2011 to FY 2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2011-03-01

    DOE-NE separations research is focused today on developing a science-based understanding that builds on historical research and focuses on combining a fundamental understanding of separations and waste forms processes with small-scale experimentation coupled with modeling and simulation. The result of this approach is the development of a predictive capability that supports evaluation of separations and waste forms technologies. The specific suite of technologies explored will depend on and must be integrated with the fuel development effort, as well as an understanding of potential waste form requirements. This five-year implementation plan lays out the specific near-term tactical investments in people, equipment and facilities, and customer capture efforts that will be required over the next five years to quickly and safely bring on line the capabilities needed to support the science-based goals and objectives of INL’s Advanced Separations and Waste Forms RD&D Capabilities Strategic Plan.

  17. Environmental Assessment for Enhanced Operations of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory-East, Argonne, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-06-27

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with continued and enhanced operation of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), including modifications, upgrades, and new facilities, at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) in DuPage County, Illinois. This proposed action is needed to meet DOE's mission of sponsoring cutting-edge science and technology. Continued operation would include existing research activities. In 2002, 23 user teams had beamlines in use in 28 sectors of the experiment hall, and approximately 2,000 individual users visited annually (see Section 3.1.1). Enhanced scientific capabilities would include research on Biosafety Level-3 (BSL-3) materials in an existing area originally constructed for such work, and would not require new construction or workforce (see Section 3.1.2). A new experimental unit, the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), would be constructed along the west side of the APS facility and would be used for bench-scale research in nanoscience (see Section 3.1.3). Under the No Action Alternative, current APS operations would continue. However, initiation of BSL-3 research would not occur, and the proposed CNM research facility would not be constructed. The environmental consequences of the Proposed Action are minor. Potential effects to the environment are primarily related to ecological effects during construction and operation of the proposed CNM and human health effects during BSL-3 activities. The potential ecological effects of construction and operation of the CNM would be impacts of stormwater runoff into a restored wetland to the north of the CNM. DOE would minimize stormwater impacts during construction of the CNM by ensuring adequate erosion control before and during construction. Stormwater impacts would be minimized during operation of the CNM by

  18. Reimagining What's Possible: How NREL's Energy Analysis and Decision Support Capabilities are Guiding Energy Systems Transformation at Home and Around the World; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This engaging brochure shows examples of how NREL enables energy system transformation through robust capabilities in energy analysis and decision support. By reimagining what's possible for renewable energy, NREL contributes to the Department of Energy mission to create energy systems that are cleaner, more reliable, and more secure.

  19. The applicability and availability of Former Soviet Union (FSU) space-related capabilities and facilities to energy-related space activities of Department of Energy, Department of Defense and National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellechi, M.

    1993-01-01

    A senior-level Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) team visited the former Soviet Union (FSU) from 16-28 Oct. 1992. The purpose of the visit was to investigate the applicability and availability of FSU space-related capabilities and facilities to the energy-related space activities of the three agencies. This included renewable energy, nuclear power and propulsion, radiation effects, remote sensing, optics, and lasers. The U.S. delegation was successful in identifying some capabilities that would be useful to the three organizations. Efforts to utilize some of the FSU capabilities viewed are being initiated. Concurrently, there will be a technical assessment performed on the information gained from this and other recent visits to the FSU relative to space research.

  20. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years.

  1. Enhancing remote surveillance and assessment capabilities in support of non-proliferation using agricultural targets. Annual progress report, September 14, 1995--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, E.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the Department of Energy`s Airborne Multisensor Pod System (ANIPS) missions which include agricultural targets to improve which include agricultural targets. The emphasis is on the use of these agricultural targets to improve nuclear non-proliferation assessment capability. Three areas of application of agricultural targets to non-proliferation is introduced: extending vegetation monitoring capability with radar, assessment of soil and crop damage using data fusion, and the use of data fusion for improved plant stress monitoring using hyperspectral data. Also, new algorithm development and future AMPS mission needs are discussed.

  2. Advancing Test Capabilities at NASA Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James

    2015-01-01

    NASA maintains twelve major wind tunnels at three field centers capable of providing flows at 0.1 M 10 and unit Reynolds numbers up to 45106m. The maintenance and enhancement of these facilities is handled through a unified management structure under NASAs Aeronautics and Evaluation and Test Capability (AETC) project. The AETC facilities are; the 11x11 transonic and 9x7 supersonic wind tunnels at NASA Ames; the 10x10 and 8x6 supersonic wind tunnels, 9x15 low speed tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, and Propulsion Simulator Laboratory, all at NASA Glenn; and the National Transonic Facility, Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, LAL aerothermodynamics laboratory, 8 High Temperature Tunnel, and 14x22 low speed tunnel, all at NASA Langley. This presentation describes the primary AETC facilities and their current capabilities, as well as improvements which are planned over the next five years. These improvements fall into three categories. The first are operations and maintenance improvements designed to increase the efficiency and reliability of the wind tunnels. These include new (possibly composite) fan blades at several facilities, new temperature control systems, and new and much more capable facility data systems. The second category of improvements are facility capability advancements. These include significant improvements to optical access in wind tunnel test sections at Ames, improvements to test section acoustics at Glenn and Langley, the development of a Supercooled Large Droplet capability for icing research, and the development of an icing capability for large engine testing. The final category of improvements consists of test technology enhancements which provide value across multiple facilities. These include projects to increase balance accuracy, provide NIST-traceable calibration characterization for wind tunnels, and to advance optical instruments for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) validation. Taken as a whole, these individual projects provide significant

  3. Advanced-capability alkaline fuel cell powerplant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deronck, Henry J.

    The alkaline fuel cell powerplant utilized in the Space Shuttle Orbiter has established an excellent performance and reliability record over the past decade. Recent AFC technology programs have demonstrated significant advances in cell durability and power density. These capabilities provide the basis for substantial improvement of the Orbiter powerplant, enabling new mission applications as well as enhancing performance in the Orbiter. Improved durability would extend the powerplant's time between overhaul fivefold, and permit longer-duration missions. The powerplant would also be a strong candidate for lunar/planetary surface power systems. Higher power capability would enable replacement of the Orbiter's auxiliary power units with electric motors, and benefits mass-critical applications such as the National AeroSpace Plane.

  4. Research for new UAV capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.; Leadabrand, R.

    1996-07-01

    This paper discusses research for new Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) capabilities. Findings indicate that UAV performance could be greatly enhanced by modest research. Improved sensors and communications enhance near term cost effectiveness. Improved engines, platforms, and stealth improve long term effectiveness.

  5. National inventory of core capabilities for pandemic influenza preparedness and response: results from 36 countries with reviews in 2008 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Moen, Ann; Kennedy, Pamela J; Cheng, Po-Yung; MacDonald, Goldie

    2014-03-01

    Re-emergence in 2003 of human cases of avian H5N1 and the resultant spread of the disease highlighted the need to improve the capacity of countries to detect and contain novel viruses. To assess development in this capacity, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) produced a tool for assessing a country's capability in 12 critical areas related to pandemic preparedness, including monitoring and identifying novel influenza viruses. Capabilities the CDC tool assesses range from how well a country has planned and is prepared for an outbreak to how prepared a country is to respond when a pandemic occurs. Included in this assessment tool are questions to determine whether a country has a detailed preparedness plan and the laboratory capacity to identify various strains of influenza quickly and accurately. The tool was used first in 2008 when 40 countries in collaboration with CDC calculated baseline scores and used a second time in 2010 by 36 of the original 40 countries to determine whether they had improved their preparedness. Using basic mathematical comparison and statistical analyses, we compared data at the aggregate capability level as well as at the indicator and country levels. Additionally, we examined the comments of respondents to the assessment questionnaire for reasons (positive and negative) that would explain changes in scores from 2008 to 2010. Analysis of results of two assessments in 36 countries shows statistically significant improvement in all 12 capabilities on an aggregate level and 47 of 50 indicators. © 2013 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Building Community Resilience to Disasters: A Way Forward to Enhance National Health Security.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Anita; Acosta, Joie; Howard, Stefanie; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Williams, Malcolm; Yeung, Douglas; Garnett, Jeffrey; Meredith, Lisa S

    2011-01-01

    Community resilience, or the sustained ability of a community to withstand and recover from adversity, has become a key policy issue at federal, state, and local levels, including in the National Health Security Strategy. Because resources are limited in the wake of an emergency, it is increasingly recognized that resilience is critical to a community's ability to reduce long recovery periods after an emergency. This article shares details of a report that provides a roadmap for federal, state, and local leaders who are developing plans to enhance community resilience for health security threats and describes options for building community resilience in key areas. Based on findings from a literature review and a series of community and regional focus groups, the authors provide a definition of community resilience in the context of national health security and a set of eight levers and five core components for building resilience. They then describe suggested activities that communities are pursuing and may want to strengthen for community resilience, and they identify challenges to implementation.

  7. Implementation of the Spanish National Enhanced Recovery Program (ERAS) in Bariatric Surgery: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Royo, Pablo; Muñoz, José L; Duran, Manuel; Redondo, Elisabeth; Ramirez, Jose M

    2016-12-01

    The essence of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programs is the multimodal approach, and many authors have demonstrated safety and feasibility in fast track bariatric surgery. According to this concept, a multidisciplinary ERAS program for bariatric surgery has been developed by the Spanish fast track group (ERAS Spain). The aim of this study was to analyze the initial implementation of this Spanish National ERAS protocol in bariatric surgery. A multicentric prospective pilot study was performed, including 125 consecutive patients undergoing bariatric surgery at 3 Spanish hospitals between January and June 2015, after the Spanish National ERAS protocol in bariatric surgery. Compliance with the protocol, morbidity, mortality, hospital stay, and readmission were evaluated. Bariatric techniques performed included 68 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (54.4%) and 57 laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (45.6%) cases. All surgeries were laparoscopically performed with conversion in only 1 case (0.8%). Median postoperative pain evaluated by visual analogic scale 24 hours after surgery was 2 (range, 0 to 5). Postoperative nausea or vomiting appeared in 7 patients (5.6%). Complications appeared in 6 patients (4.8%). The reoperation rate was 4%. The mortality rate was 0.8%. The median hospital stay was 2 days (range, 2 to 10 d) and readmission rate was 2.4%. The compliance of all the items of the protocol was achieved in 78.4% of the patients. The Spanish National ERAS protocol is a safe issue with a high implementation rate. It can be recommended to establish this protocol to other institutions.

  8. Data Analysis Software Tools for Enhanced Collaboration at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schachter, J.; Peng, Q.; Schissel, D.P.

    1999-07-01

    Data analysis at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility is simplified by the use of two software packages in analysis codes. The first is GAP1otObj, an IDL-based object-oriented library used in visualization tools for dynamic plotting. GAPlotObj gives users the ability to manipulate graphs directly through mouse and keyboard-driven commands. The second software package is MDSplus, which is used at DIED as a central repository for analyzed data. GAPlotObj and MDSplus reduce the effort required for a collaborator to become familiar with the DIII-D analysis environment by providing uniform interfaces for data display and retrieval. Two visualization tools at DIII-D that benefit from them are ReviewPlus and EFITviewer. ReviewPlus is capable of displaying interactive 2D and 3D graphs of raw, analyzed, and simulation code data. EFITviewer is used to display results from the EFIT analysis code together with kinetic profiles and machine geometry. Both bring new possibilities for data exploration to the user, and are able to plot data from any fusion research site with an MDSplus data server.

  9. Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory1st Quarter FY08 Milestone Report: Report Initial Work on Developing Plasma Modeling Capability in WARP for NDCX ExperimentsReport Initial work on developing Plasma Modeling Capability in WARP for NDCX Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Cohen, R.H.; Grote, D.P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2007-12-10

    This milestone has been accomplished. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) has developed and implemented an initial beam-in-plasma implicit modeling capability in Warp; has carried out tests validating the behavior of the models employed; has compared the results of electrostatic and electromagnetic models when applied to beam expansion in an NDCX-I relevant regime; has compared Warp and LSP results on a problem relevant to NDCX-I; has modeled wave excitation by a rigid beam propagating through plasma; and has implemented and begun testing a more advanced implicit method that correctly captures electron drift motion even when timesteps too large to resolve the electron gyro-period are employed. The HIFS-VNL is well on its way toward having a state-of-the-art source-to-target simulation capability that will enable more effective support of ongoing experiments in the NDCX series and allow more confident planning for future ones.

  10. Assessment of U.S. and Coalition Efforts to Develop the Logistics and Maintenance Sustainment Capability of the Afghan National Police

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-30

    be limited to the national level in the Kabul area. Observation 4 DODIG-2015-067 │ 25 Our Response The response partially addressed the...connectivity, a shortage of functioning connection ports limited the ANP’s use of CoreIMS. While some Internet connectivity existed in Kabul and Wardak, at...Web access, but only the computers of senior officers were connected to the Internet. Similarly, at the Medical Warehouse in Kabul , the ANP staff had

  11. A water balance approach to enhance national (GB) Daily Landslide Hazard Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Tom; Reeves, Helen; Freeborough, Katy; Dashwood, Claire; Pennington, Catherine; Jordan, Hannah; Hobbs, Peter; Richardson, Jennifer; Banks, Vanessa; Cole, Steven; Wells, Steven; Moore, Robert

    2017-04-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a member of the Natural Hazards Partnership (NHP) and delivers a national (GB) daily landslide hazard assessment (DLHA). The DLHA is based largely on 'expert' driven evaluations of the likelihood of landslides in response to antecedent ground conditions, adverse weather and reported landslide events. It concentrates on shallow translational slides and debris flows - events that most frequently have societal consequences by disrupting transport infrastructure and affecting buildings. Considerable experience with the issuing of DLHAs has been gained since 2012. However, it remains very difficult to appropriately assess changing ground conditions throughout GB even when good quality precipitation forecasts are available. Soil moisture sensors are available, but the network is sparse and not yet capable of covering GB to the detail required to underpin the forecasts. Therefore, we developed an approach where temporal and spatial variations in soil moisture can be obtained from a water balance model, representing processes in the near-surface and configured on a relatively coarse grid of 1 km2. Model outputs are not intended to be relevant to the slope scale. The assumption is that the likelihood of landslides being triggered by rainfall is dependent upon the soil moisture conditions of the near-surface, in combination with how much rain is forecast to occur for the following day. These variables form the basis for establishing thresholds to guide the issuing of DLHA and early warnings. The main aim is to obtain an insight into regional patterns of change and threshold exceedance. The BGS water balance model is still in its infancy and it requires substantial work to fine-tune and validate it. To test the performance of the BGS model we focused on an analysis of Scottish landslides (2004-2015) comprising translational slides and debris flows where the BGS model is conditionally evaluated against the Grid-to-Grid (G2G) Model. G2G is

  12. NASA Capability Roadmaps Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willcoxon, Rita; Thronson, Harley; Varsi, Guilio; Mueller, Robert; Regenie, Victoria; Inman, Tom; Crooke, Julie; Coulter, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This document is the result of eight months of hard work and dedication from NASA, industry, other government agencies, and academic experts from across the nation. It provides a summary of the capabilities necessary to execute the Vision for Space Exploration and the key architecture decisions that drive the direction for those capabilities. This report is being provided to the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) team for consideration in development of an architecture approach and investment strategy to support NASA future mission, programs and budget requests. In addition, it will be an excellent reference for NASA's strategic planning. A more detailed set of roadmaps at the technology and sub-capability levels are available on CD. These detailed products include key driving assumptions, capability maturation assessments, and technology and capability development roadmaps.

  13. Uniform Surface Modification of 3D Bioglass®-Based Scaffolds with Mesoporous Silica Particles (MCM-41) for Enhancing Drug Delivery Capability

    PubMed Central

    Boccardi, Elena; Philippart, Anahí; Juhasz-Bortuzzo, Judith A.; Beltrán, Ana M.; Novajra, Giorgia; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Spiecker, Erdmann; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2015-01-01

    The design and characterization of a new family of multifunctional scaffolds based on bioactive glass (BG) of 45S5 composition for bone tissue engineering and drug delivery applications are presented. These BG-based scaffolds are developed via a replication method of polyurethane packaging foam. In order to increase the therapeutic functionality, the scaffolds were coated with mesoporous silica particles (MCM-41), which act as an in situ drug delivery system. These sub-micron spheres are characterized by large surface area and pore volume with a narrow pore diameter distribution. The solution used for the synthesis of the silica mesoporous particles was designed to obtain a high-ordered mesoporous structure and spherical shape – both are key factors for achieving the desired controlled drug release. The MCM-41 particles were synthesized directly inside the BG-based scaffolds, and the drug-release capability of this combined system was evaluated. Moreover, the effect of MCM-41 particle coating on the bioactivity of the BG-based scaffolds was assessed. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain a multifunctional scaffold system characterized by high and interconnected porosity, high bioactivity, and sustained drug delivery capability. PMID:26594642

  14. Utilizing national and international registries to enhance pre-market medical device regulatory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yue, Lilly Q; Campbell, Gregory; Lu, Nelson; Xu, Yunling; Zuckerman, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory decisions are made based on the assessment of risk and benefit of medical devices at the time of pre-market approval and subsequently, when post-market risk-benefit balance needs reevaluation. Such assessments depend on scientific evidence obtained from pre-market studies, post-approval studies, post-market surveillance studies, patient perspective information, as well as other real world data such as national and international registries. Such registries provide real world evidence and are playing a more and more important role in enhancing the safety and effectiveness evaluation of medical devices. While these registries provide large quantities of data reflecting real world practice and can potentially reduce the cost of clinical trials, challenges arise concerning (1) data quality adequate for regulatory decision-making, (2) bias introduced at every stage and aspect of study, (3) scientific validity of study designs, and (4) reliability and interpretability of study results. This article will discuss related statistical and regulatory challenges and opportunities with examples encountered in medical device regulatory reviews.

  15. Using videovoice methods to enhance community outreach and engagement for the National Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Warren, Christopher M; Knight, Roger; Holl, Jane L; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2014-05-01

    The National Children's Study (NCS) is a prospective observational study examining the effects of environmental influences on child health and development in the United States. Videovoice is a health advocacy and promotion methodology wherein participants use participatory videography and interviewing techniques to identify issues of concern, communicate knowledge, and advocate for community health. This study describes a videovoice project, implemented in six Cook County, IL, communities targeted by the NCS for participant recruitment. A 6-week, videovoice training was conducted to train and empower NCS community outreach and engagement personnel. Pre/post evaluations were administered, and participant footage was qualitatively analyzed to identify overarching themes informing future outreach. Participants reported significant increases (p < .05) in videography/photography skills, community outreach/communication abilities, and awareness of important community health issues. Major themes included the following: high community knowledge of local health issues, low community knowledge of the NCS, and identification of barriers to participation. Two promotional videos were created to address these barriers and educate communities about the NCS. A 6-week, videovoice project was effective in training NCS community outreach personnel and enhancing NCS community engagement within six target Cook County, IL, communities via the production of community-engaged NCS promotional videos.

  16. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, Fisheries Resource Management, Yakima Indian Nation1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, Larry

    1984-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate enhancement methodologies that can be used to rebuild runs of spring chinook to the Yakima River system. In January, 1983, 100,000 fish raised at Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery were transported to Nile Springs Rearing Ponds on the Naches River. These fish were allowed a volitional release as smolts in April. An additional 100,000 smolts were transported from Leavenworth Hatchery in April and immediately released to the Upper Yakima River. Relative survival of smolts from their points of release to a trap at Prosser (RM48) was 1.69:1 for fish from Nile Springs, versus the trucked smolts. The fish from Nile Springs arrived at Prosser and McNary Dam approximately 1 week earlier than the transported fish. To better determine the magnitude and location of releases, distribution and abundance studies were undertaken. There is a decrease in abundance from upstream areas over time, indicating a general downstream movement. In the Naches System, the lower Naches River is heavily utilized by juvenile spring chinook during the early summer. A preliminary study evaluated physical limitations of production. On a single evening 67 fish were killed on diversion screens at Chandler Canal. This constituted 5.7% of the wild spring chinook entering the canal and 8.2% of the fall chinook. The larger hatchery spring chinook sustained a 2.3% loss. Adult returns resulted in 443 redds in the Yakima System, with 360 in the Yakima River and 83 in the Naches System.

  17. The National Children's Study: Recruitment Outcomes Using an Enhanced Household-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, Laura L; Zellner, Jennifer A; King, Alison A; Faustman, Elaine; Wilhelm, Mari; Hudak, Mark L; Annett, Robert D

    2016-06-01

    Ten National Children's Study (NCS) study locations with diverse demographic characteristics used an enhanced household-based recruitment (EHBR) approach to enroll preconceptional and pregnant women. Study centers used different types and dosages of community outreach and engagement (COE) activities and supplemental strategies. The goal of the study was to determine whether variability in enumeration and recruitment outcomes correlated with study location characteristics or types and dosages of COE activities (number of COE events, number of advance household mailings, total media expenditures, and total COE expenditures). Each of the sites provided data on COE activities, protocol implementation, supplemental recruitment activities, location demographic characteristics, and enumeration/recruitment outcomes. COE activities varied across sites in breadth and scope. Numerous strategies were used, including media advertising, social media, participation in community-wide events, presentations to stakeholders, and creation of advisory boards. Some sites included supplemental recruitment efforts. EHBR sites enrolled 1404 women at the initial pregnancy screening. No significant relationships were found between study location demographic characteristics or between the types and dosages of COE activities and recruitment outcomes. Probability sampling for a long-term study requires a positive image with stakeholders and within communities; this requirement may be especially true for door-to-door recruitment. EHBR sites successfully recruited a representative sample of preconceptional and pregnant women. Sites reported implementing similar COE activities but with varying dosage and cost; however, analyses did not support a benefit of COE strategies on study recruitment. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. The National Children’s Study: Recruitment Outcomes Using an Enhanced Household-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Blaisdell, Laura L.; Zellner, Jennifer A.; King, Alison A.; Faustman, Elaine; Wilhelm, Mari; Hudak, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Ten National Children’s Study (NCS) study locations with diverse demographic characteristics used an enhanced household-based recruitment (EHBR) approach to enroll preconceptional and pregnant women. Study centers used different types and dosages of community outreach and engagement (COE) activities and supplemental strategies. The goal of the study was to determine whether variability in enumeration and recruitment outcomes correlated with study location characteristics or types and dosages of COE activities (number of COE events, number of advance household mailings, total media expenditures, and total COE expenditures). METHODS: Each of the sites provided data on COE activities, protocol implementation, supplemental recruitment activities, location demographic characteristics, and enumeration/recruitment outcomes. RESULTS: COE activities varied across sites in breadth and scope. Numerous strategies were used, including media advertising, social media, participation in community-wide events, presentations to stakeholders, and creation of advisory boards. Some sites included supplemental recruitment efforts. EHBR sites enrolled 1404 women at the initial pregnancy screening. No significant relationships were found between study location demographic characteristics or between the types and dosages of COE activities and recruitment outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Probability sampling for a long-term study requires a positive image with stakeholders and within communities; this requirement may be especially true for door-to-door recruitment. EHBR sites successfully recruited a representative sample of preconceptional and pregnant women. Sites reported implementing similar COE activities but with varying dosage and cost; however, analyses did not support a benefit of COE strategies on study recruitment. PMID:27251868

  19. Coast Guard Acquisitions: Enhanced Oversight of Testing Could Benefit National Security Cutter Program and Future DHS Acquisitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-03

    COAST GUARD ACQUISITIONS Enhanced Oversight of Testing Could Benefit National Security Cutter Program and Future DHS...Acquisitions Statement of Michele Mackin, Director, Acquisition and Sourcing Management Testimony before the Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime...Highlights of GAO-16-314T, a testimony before the Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation, Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure

  20. NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON URBAN STORM WATER: ENHANCING PROGRAMS AT THE LOCAL LEVEL - PROCEEDINGS CHICAGO, IL FEBRUARY 17-20, 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide array of effective storm water management and resource protection tools have been developed for urban environments, but their implementation continues to be hampered by a lack of technology transfer opportunities. At the national conference Urban Storm Water: Enhancing Pro...

  1. NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON URBAN STORM WATER: ENHANCING PROGRAMS AT THE LOCAL LEVEL - PROCEEDINGS CHICAGO, IL FEBRUARY 17-20, 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide array of effective storm water management and resource protection tools have been developed for urban environments, but their implementation continues to be hampered by a lack of technology transfer opportunities. At the national conference Urban Storm Water: Enhancing Pro...

  2. Integration of remediation strategy with waste management capabilities and regulatory drivers for radioactive waste storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, J.T.; Hepworth, H.K.; Hooyman, J.H.

    1995-04-01

    This paper addresses the plans and strategies for remediation of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) system tanks that have been removed from service at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO), the EPA-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA is January 1, 1992. One requirement of the FFA is that LLLW tanks that are removed from service must be evaluated and remediated through the CERCLA process. The Environmental Restoration Program intends to meet this requirement by using a {open_quotes}streamlined{close_quote} approach for selected tanks. This approach will combine the CERCLA Site Investigation. Remedial Action, Feasibility Study, and Proposed Plan requirements into a single Interim Proposed Plan document. This streamlined approach is expected to reduce the time required to complete the regulatory process while attaining acceptable risk reduction in a cost-effective way.

  3. Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle - New capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, William G.

    1987-10-01

    The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) program is reviewed with reference to the current status of the program, vehicle description, and mission capabilities. The OMV, which will be available in 1991, will be able to economically deliver and retreive spacecraft from orbits beyond the practical limits of the Shuttle. It will be capable of meeting the present needs of the Space Transportation System and its payloads and the future space activities associated with the Space Station. In addition to the inherent capability of the OMV, it can be enhanced by the addition of special purpose mission kits to meet special mission needs, such as servicing, refueling, and recovery of tumbling satellites.

  4. Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle - New capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, William G.

    1987-01-01

    The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) program is reviewed with reference to the current status of the program, vehicle description, and mission capabilities. The OMV, which will be available in 1991, will be able to economically deliver and retreive spacecraft from orbits beyond the practical limits of the Shuttle. It will be capable of meeting the present needs of the Space Transportation System and its payloads and the future space activities associated with the Space Station. In addition to the inherent capability of the OMV, it can be enhanced by the addition of special purpose mission kits to meet special mission needs, such as servicing, refueling, and recovery of tumbling satellites.

  5. Capability enhancement and amputee care in Operation Iraqi Freedom: The role of a rehabilitation and prosthetics assistance team in reconstruction operations.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Matthew

    2009-05-01

    Defining the role of the U.S. Army Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Assistance Team in reconstruction operations was a key component of this first of its kind Army Medical Department (AMEDD) mission in a combat theater of operations. In the tradition of civil-military operations, a five-man team trained 11 Iraqi rehabilitation and prosthetic providers on best clinical, technical, and business practices to manage the nation's growing amputee population. The team instructed, assisted, and supervised Iraqi clinicians in the delivery of prosthetic and rehabilitation services to 124 patients over 350 patient clinical visits. After a successful transition from Multi-National Force-Iraq oversight to the Iraqi Ministry of Defense (MoD), the premier prosthetics and rehabilitation clinic in Iraq now provides services to patients from current and past conflicts, including civilians and pediatric patients.

  6. Capability Enhancement and Amputee Care in Operation Iraqi Freedom: The Role of a Rehabilitation and Prosthetics Assistance Team in Reconstruction Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    therapists (FTs) work within a scope of practice with a limited ability to independently evaluate, diagnose, and prescribe therapeutic interventions...clinical, technical, and busines,s practices to manage the nation’s growing amputee population. The leam instrticted. assisted, and supervised Iraqi...Baghdad. Additional clinics were al.so opened in BrbÜ and at the Ibn Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science. University of Maryland

  7. Associations of behavioural risk factors and health status with changes in physical capability over 10 years of follow-up: the MRC National Survey of Health and Development

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Rachel; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Kuh, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To describe changes in objective measures of physical capability between ages 53 and 60–64 years; (2) to investigate the associations of behavioural risk factors (obesity, physical inactivity, smoking) and number of health conditions (range 0–4: hand osteoarthritis (OA); knee OA; severe respiratory symptoms; other disabling or life-threatening conditions (ie, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes)) at age 53 years with these changes. Design Nationally representative prospective birth cohort study. Setting England, Scotland and Wales. Participants Up to 2093 men and women from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, who have been followed-up since birth in 1946, and underwent physical capability assessments performed by nurses following standard protocols in 1999 and 2006–2010. Main outcome measures Grip strength and chair rise speed were assessed at ages 53 and 60–64 years. Four categories of change in grip strength and chair rise speed were identified: decline, stable high, stable low, a reference group who maintained physical capability within a ‘normal’ range. Results Less healthy behavioural risk scores and an increase in the number of health conditions experienced were associated in a stepwise fashion with increased risk of decline in physical capability, and also of having low levels at baseline and remaining low. For example, the sex and mutually adjusted relative-risk ratios (95% CI) of being in the stable low versus reference category of chair rise speed were 1.58 (1.35–1.86) and 1.97 (1.57–2.47) per 1 unit change in behavioural risk score and health indicator count, respectively. Conclusions These findings provide evidence of the associations of a range of modifiable factors with age-related changes in physical capability. They suggest the need to target multiple risk factors at least as early as mid-life when aiming to promote maintenance and prevent decline in physical capability

  8. Enhancing FTIR imaging capabilities with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS): A study of concentration gradients of collagen and proteoglycans in human patellar cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Eric Y.; Rieppo, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    This paper explores a new application of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) in FTIR spectroscopic imaging analysis of biological samples. A particular example demonstrated in this paper is the characterization of concentration gradients of collagen and proteoglycans in human patellar cartilage. A focal plane array detector-based FTIR imaging system has been proven to be an efficient tool to detect early collagen and proteoglycans degradation in developing osteoarthrosis through evaluating compositional changes of osteoarthritic cartilage along the depth. However, the closely overlapped bands of collagen and proteoglycans make normal spectral and spatial analysis difficult. With 2DCOS analysis of the imaging data, it is possible to enhance the spectral resolution and reveal distinctive compositional changes that are normally hidden with conventional approaches. The combined technique, FTIR imaging enhanced with 2DCOS, provides new possibilities to solve challenging problems in the analysis of complex biological systems.

  9. Gold-nanopatterned single interleukin-6 sandwich immunoassay chips with zeptomolar detection capability based on evanescent field-enhanced fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungah; Kang, Seong Ho

    2013-06-21

    We developed a gold-nanopatterned immunoassay chip for single-molecule detection of interleukin-6 based on evanescent field-enhanced fluorescence imaging. The detection limit (496 zM) means that only four molecules need to be present per spot for detection. The sensitivity of this chip is ~5.4 × 10(4)-fold greater than that of a commercial ELISA for IL-6.

  10. Fluorination Induced the Surface Segregation of High Voltage Spinel on Lithium-Rich Layered Cathodes for Enhanced Rate Capability in Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi-Chun; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2016-02-17

    This study is aimed to explore the effect of fluoride doping and the associated structural transformation on lithium-rich layered cathode materials. The polymeric fluoride source is first adopted for synthesizing lithium intercalated oxide through a newly developed organic precipitation process. A heterostructured spinel/layered composite cathode material is obtained after appreciable fluorination and a superior rate capability is successfully achieved. The fluoride dopant amount and the surface spinel phase are evidenced and systematically examined by various structural spectroscopy and electrochemical analysis. It appears the reversible Ni(2+/4+) redox couple at high voltage regime around 4.8 V because of the formation of spinel LiNi1/2Mn3/2O4 phase. The mechanism of "layer to spinel" phase transformation is discussed in detail.

  11. Time of flight assisted ΔE - E method for enhanced isotope separation capabilities in heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschbaumer, S.; Bergmaier, A.; Seiler, D.; Dollinger, G.

    2017-09-01

    The time of flight energy (TOF-E) setup installed at the scattering chamber of the Q3D magnetic spectrograph to perform heavy ion elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis at the 14 MV Munich Tandem Accelerator has recently been upgraded. Now, the energy detector of the TOF-E setup is additionally capable of performing ΔE - E measurements for high energy recoil ions obtained from e.g. a 170 MeV 127 I projectile beam. Time of flight information is simultaneously acquired with the ΔE - E data for each detected ion. The combination of the TOF-E and the ΔE - E data gives the opportunity to set effective filter conditions to select for both, the elemental and the mass of the detected ion. As an example a boron doped carbon layer is analyzed and 10B and 11B is separated with the help of the combination of both methods.

  12. NUCLEAR INCIDENT CAPABILITIES, KNOWLEDGE & ENABLER LEVERAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, J.; Newman, J.; Goodwyn, A.; Dewes, J.

    2011-04-18

    action. Much work needs to be accomplished to enhance nuclear preparedness and to substantially bolster and clarify the capacity to deploy competent resources. Until detailed plans are scripted, and personnel and other resources are postured, and exercised, IND specific planning remains an urgent need requiring attention and action. Although strategic guidance, policies, concepts of operations, roles, responsibilities, and plans governing the response and consequence management for the IND scenario exist, an ongoing integration challenge prevails regarding how best to get capable and competent surge capacity personnel (disaster reservists) and other resources engaged and readied in an up-front manner with pre-scripted assignments to augment the magnitude of anticipated demands of expertise. With the above in mind, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) puts science to work to create and deploy practical, high-value, cost-effective nuclear solutions. As the Department of Energy's (DOE) applied research and development laboratory, SRNL supports Savannah River Site (SRS) operations, DOE, national initiatives, and other federal agencies, across the country and around the world. SRNL's parent at SRS also employs more than 8,000 personnel. The team is a great asset that seeks to continue their service in the interest of national security and stands ready to accomplish new missions. Overall, an integral part of the vision for SRNL's National and Homeland Security Directorate is the establishment of a National Security Center at SRNL, and development of state of the science capabilities (technologies and trained technical personnel) for responding to emergency events on local, regional, or national scales. This entails leveraging and posturing the skills, knowledge and experience base of SRS personnel to deliver an integrated capability to support local, state, and federal authorities through the development of pre-scripted requests for assistance, agreements, and plans. It

  13. Lunar Capabilities Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G. Y.; Lawrence, D. J.; Neal, C. R.; Clark, P. E.; Green, R. O.; Horanyi, M.; Johnson, M. D.; Kelso, R. M.; Sultana, M.; Thompson, D. R.

    2016-11-01

    A Lunar Capabilities Roadmap (LCR) is required to highlight capabilities critical for science and exploration of the Moon as well as beyond. The LCR will focus mainly on capabilities with examples of specific technologies to satisfy those needs.

  14. Weapons Evaluation Test Laboratory at Pantex: Testing and data handling capabilities of Sandia National Laboratories at the Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, W.R.

    1993-08-01

    The Weapons Evaluation Test Laboratory (WETL), operated by Sandia Laboratories at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, is engaged primarily in the testing of weapon systems in the stockpile or of newly produced weapon systems for the Sandia Surety Assessment Center. However, the WETL`s unique testing equipment and data-handling facilities are frequently used to serve other organizations. Service to other organizations includes performing special tests on weapon components, subassemblies, and systems for purposes such as basic development and specific problem investigation. The WETL staff also sends equipment to other laboratories for specific tests that cannot be performed at Pantex. For example, we modified and sent equipment to Brookhaven National Laboratory for testing with their Neutral Particle Beam. WETL supplied the engineering expertise to accomplish the needed modifications to the equipment and the technicians to help perform many special tests at Brookhaven. A variety of testing is possible within the WETL, including: Accelerometer, decelerometer, and G-switch g-level/closure testing; Neutron generator performance testing; weapon systems developmental tests; weapon system component testing; weapon system failure-mode-duplication tests; simultaneity measurements; environmental extreme testing; parachute deployment testing; permissive action link (PAL) testing and trajectory-sensing signal generator (TSSG) testing. WETL`s existing equipment configurations do not restrict the testing performed at the WETL. Equipment and facilities are adapted to specific requirements. The WETL`s facilities can often eliminate the need to build or acquire new test equipment, thereby saving time and expense.

  15. Enhancing Outreach using Social Networks at the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkimer, L.; Lücke, O. H.

    2014-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high seismicity rate and geological processes are part of everyday life. Traditionally, information about these processes has been provided by conventional mass media (television and radio). However, due to the new trends in information flow a new approach towards Science Education is necessary for transmitting knowledge from scientific research for the general public in Costa Rica. Since 1973, the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. In this study, we describe the different channels to report earthquake information that the RSN is currently using: email, social networks, and a website, as well as the development of a smartphone application. Since the RSN started actively participating in Social Networks, an increase in awareness in the general public has been noticed particularly regarding felt earthquakes. Based on this trend, we have focused on enhancing public outreach through Social Media. We analyze the demographics and geographic distribution of the RSN Facebook Page, the growth of followers, and the significance of their feedback for reporting intensity data. We observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high Internet connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We noticed that the growth of RSN users on Facebook has a strong correlation with the seismic events as opposed to Twitter that displays a steady growth with no clear correlations with specific seismic events. We see the Social Networks as opportunities to engage non-science audiences and encourage the population to participate in reporting seismic observations, thus providing intensity data. With the increasing access to Internet from mobile phones in Costa Rica, we see this approach to science education as an opportunity

  16. Diet supplementation with DHA-enriched food in football players during training season enhances the mitochondrial antioxidant capabilities in blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Capó, Xavier; Martorell, Miquel; Sureda, Antoni; Llompart, Isabel; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2015-02-01

    Exercise induces oxidative stress and causes adaptations in antioxidant defenses. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a 2-month diet supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the pro-oxidant and antioxidant status of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during football training and after acute exercise. Fifteen male football players, in a randomized double-blind trial, ingested a beverage enriched with DHA or a placebo for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected in basal conditions before and after the training period and after an acute and intense exercise. The training season increased the carbonyl and nitrotyrosine index but decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Basal catalase activity decreased in both groups after 8 weeks of training, whereas glutathione peroxidase activity increased mainly in the placebo group. Protein levels of uncoupling proteins (UCP2 and UCP3) and inducible nitric oxide synthase significantly increased after the training period. Acute exercise induced redistribution in the number of circulating cells, increased the MDA levels and nitrotyrosine index, and decreased the levels of nitrate. Acute exercise also increased PBMCs reactive oxygen species (ROS) production after immune stimulation. Diet supplementation with DHA significantly increased the UCP3 levels after training and the superoxide dismutase protein levels after acute exercise, and reduced the production of ROS after acute exercise. Docosahexaenoic acid increased the antioxidant capabilities while reducing the mitochondrial ROS production in a regular football training period and reduced the oxidative damage markers in response to acute exercise.

  17. Protein and Molecular Characterization of a Clinically Compliant Amniotic Fluid Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicle Fraction Capable of Accelerating Muscle Regeneration Through Enhancement of Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mellows, Ben; Mitchell, Robert; Antonioli, Manuela; Kretz, Oliver; Chambers, David; Zeuner, Marie-Theres; Denecke, Bernd; Musante, Luca; Ramachandra, Durrgah L; Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Holthofer, Harry; Joch, Barbara; Ray, Steve; Widera, Darius; David, Anna L; Huber, Tobias B; Dengjel, Joern; De Coppi, Paolo; Patel, Ketan

    2017-09-15

    The secretome of human amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) has great potential as a therapeutic agent in regenerative medicine. However, it must be produced in a clinically compliant manner before it can be used in humans. In this study, we developed a means of producing a biologically active secretome from AFSCs that is free of all exogenous molecules. We demonstrate that the full secretome is capable of promoting stem cell proliferation, migration, and protection of cells against senescence. Furthermore, it has significant anti-inflammatory properties. Most importantly, we show that it promotes tissue regeneration in a model of muscle damage. We then demonstrate that the secretome contains extracellular vesicles (EVs) that harbor much, but not all, of the biological activity of the whole secretome. Proteomic characterization of the EV and free secretome fraction shows the presence of numerous molecules specific to each fraction that could be key regulators of tissue regeneration. Intriguingly, we show that the EVs only contain miRNA and not mRNA. This suggests that tissue regeneration in the host is mediated by the action of EVs modifying existing, rather than imposing new, signaling pathways. The EVs harbor significant anti-inflammatory activity as well as promote angiogenesis, the latter may be the mechanistic explanation for their ability to promote muscle regeneration after cardiotoxin injury.

  18. Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Kevin W

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  19. Enhance the light-harvesting capability of the ITO-free inverted small molecule solar cell by ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Wu, Shang-Hsuan; Hsiao, Li-Jen; Budiawan, Widhya; Boopathi, Karunakara Moorthy; Tu, Wei-Chen; Chang, Yia-Chung; Chu, Chih-Wei

    2016-08-08

    The ITO-free inverted SMPV1:PC71BM solar cells with an Al doped ZnO (AZO) transparent electrodes are fabricated. The AZO thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique exhibits high transmission (>85%) and low sheet resistance (~30 Ω/sq) and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices based on AZO electrode can reach around 4%. To further enhance the light harvesting of the absorption layer of solar cells, ZnO nanorods interlayer is grown on the AZO layer before the deposition the active layer. The absorption spectrums of devices under various conditions are also simulated by RCWA method to identify the optical saturation length of the ZnO nanorods. The PCE of ITO-free inverted small molecule solar cell improved with ZnO nanorods can reach 6.6%.

  20. Enhanced self-repairing capability of sol-gel derived SrTiO{sub 3}/nano Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite films

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Manwen Peng, Yong; Xiao, Ruihua; Li, Qiuxia; Yao, Xi

    2016-08-29

    SrTiO{sub 3}/nano Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} inorganic nanocomposites were prepared by using a conventional sol-gel spin coating process. For comparison, SrTiO{sub 3} films doped by equivalent amount of sol-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} have also been investigated. Aluminum deposited by using vacuum evaporation was used as the top electrode. The nanocomposites exhibited a significantly enhanced dielectric strength of 506.9 MV/m, which was increased by 97.4% as compared with the SrTiO{sub 3} films doped with sol-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The leakage current maintained of the same order of microampere until the ultimate breakdown of the nanocomposites. The excellent electrical performances are ascribed to the anodic oxidation reaction in origin, which can repair the internal and/or surface defects of the films.

  1. Dissecting the functional role of key residues in triheme cytochrome PpcA: a path to rational design of G. sulfurreducens strains with enhanced electron transfer capabilities.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Leonor; Lourenço, Sílvia; Londer, Yuri Y; Schiffer, Marianne; Pokkuluri, P Raj; Salgueiro, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    PpcA is the most abundant member of a family of five triheme cytochromes c7 in the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens (Gs) and is the most likely carrier of electrons destined for outer surface during respiration on solid metal oxides, a process that requires extracellular electron transfer. This cytochrome has the highest content of lysine residues (24%) among the family, and it was suggested to be involved in e-/H(+) energy transduction processes. In the present work, we investigated the functional role of lysine residues strategically located in the vicinity of each heme group. Each lysine was replaced by glutamine or glutamic acid to evaluate the effects of a neutral or negatively charged residue in each position. The results showed that replacing Lys9 (located near heme IV), Lys18 (near heme I) or Lys22 (between hemes I and III) has essentially no effect on the redox properties of the heme groups and are probably involved in redox partner recognition. On the other hand, Lys43 (near heme IV), Lys52 (between hemes III and IV) and Lys60 (near heme III) are crucial in the regulation of the functional mechanism of PpcA, namely in the selection of microstates that allow the protein to establish preferential e-/H(+) transfer pathways. The results showed that the preferred e-/H(+) transfer pathways are only established when heme III is the last heme to oxidize, a feature reinforced by a higher difference between its reduction potential and that of its predecessor in the order of oxidation. We also showed that K43 and K52 mutants keep the mechanistic features of PpcA by establishing preferential e-/H+ transfer pathways at lower reduction potential values than the wild-type protein, a property that can enable rational design of Gs strains with optimized extracellular electron transfer capabilities.

  2. Enhancing the high rate capability and cycling stability of LiMn₂O₄ by coating of solid-state electrolyte LiNbO₃.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Jia; Chou, Shu-Lei; Gu, Qin-Fen; Liu, Hua-Kun; Li, Hui-Jun; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Wang, Jia-Zhao

    2014-12-24

    To study the influence of solid-state electrolyte coating layers on the performance of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries in combination with organic liquid electrolyte, LiNbO3-coated Li1.08Mn1.92O4 cathode materials were synthesized by using a facile solid-state reaction method. The 0.06LiNbO3-0.97Li1.08Mn1.92O4 cathode exhibited an initial discharge capacity of 125 mAh g(-1), retaining a capacity of 119 mAh g(-1) at 25 °C, while at 55 °C, it exhibited an initial discharge capacity of 130 mAh g(-1), retaining a capacity of 111 mAh g(-1), both at a current density of 0.5 C (where 1 C is 148 mAh g(-1)). Very good rate capability was demonstrated, with the 0.06LiNbO3-0.97Li1.08Mn1.92O4 cathode showing more than 85% capacity at the rate of 50 C compared with the capacity at 0.5 C. The 0.06LiNbO3-0.97Li1.08Mn1.92O4 cathode showed a high lithium diffusion coefficient (1.6 × 10(-10) cm(2) s(-1) at 55 °C), and low apparent activation energy (36.9 kJ mol(-1)). The solid-state electrolyte coating layer is effective for preventing Mn dissolution and maintaining the high ionic conductivity between the electrode and the organic liquid electrolyte, which may improve the design and construction of next-generation large-scale lithium-ion batteries with high power and safety.

  3. Enhanced charging capability of lithium metal batteries based on lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-lithium bis(oxalato)borate dual-salt electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Hongfa; Shi, Pengcheng; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Chen, Xilin; Mei, Donghai; Bowden, Mark E.; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2016-06-01

    Rechargeable lithium (Li) metal batteries with conventional LiPF6-carbonate electrolytes have been reported to fail quickly at charging current densities of about 1.0 mA cm-2 and above. In this work, we demonstrate the rapid charging capability of the Li||LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cells enabled by a dual-salt electrolyte of LiTFSI-LiBOB in a carbonate solvent mixture. It is found that the thickness of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on Li metal anode largely increases with increasing charging current density. However, the cells using the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt electrolyte significantly outperforms those using the LiPF6 electrolyte at high charging current densities. At the charging current density of 1.50 mA cm-2, the Li||NCA cells with the dual-salt electrolyte can still deliver a discharge capacity of 131 mAh g-1 and a capacity retention of 80% after 100 cycles, while those with the LiPF6 electrolyte start to show fast capacity fading after the 30th cycle and only exhibit a low capacity of 25 mAh g-1 and a low retention of 15% after 100 cycles. The reasons for the good chargeability and cycling stability of the cells using LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt electrolyte can be attributed to the good film-formation ability of the electrolyte on lithium metal anode and the highly conductive nature of the sulfur-rich interphase layer.

  4. Evaluation of plasma produced by first and second harmonic nano-second laser for enhancing the capability of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, Hosam; Abdel-Wahab, Essam A.; Abdel-Rahim, Farid M.; Allam, Sami H.; Nossair, Abd ElDaim M. A.

    2014-05-01

    Evaluation of plasmas produced and optimized for improving the capability of convenential laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for analytical purposes of solid samples is the main goal of the present work. The plasma produced in the present study was generated by focusing a single nano-second Nd:YAG laser at the fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm and at the second harmonic wavelength of 532 nm on an Al target in air at atmospheric pressure. The emission spectrum was recorded time resolved over the whole UV-NIR (200-1000 nm) spectral range. This work describes an extension of previously reported studies and focuses now on the determination of the plasma parameters at the optimum condition - highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and minimum limit of detection (LOD) - of the LIBS technique, which is now widely applied to the elemental analysis of materials in atmospheric air. Parameters of the produced plasma in the time interval from 0 to 10 μs are determined for to further understanding the LIBS plasma dynamics. O I and Mn I spectral lines are used in the present work as thermometric lines for the determination of the plasma temperature based on Boltzmann plots. Stark broadening of lines yields the electron density. The widths of the Hα-line at 656.27 nm, of the O I line at 844.65 nm, of Al II lines at 281.65 nm and 466.30 nm and of the Si I line at 288.15 nm has been utilized for that. The plasma temperature ranged from 0.73 eV to around 1 eV for the different laser energies with both laser wavelengths for the optimized plasma used for LIBS analysis. This temperature is very close to that well known for the other spectrochemical analytical techniques or in excitation sources such as inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).

  5. Enhanced charging capability of lithium metal batteries based on lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-lithium bis(oxalato)borate dual-salt electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Hongfa; Shi, Pengcheng; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Chen, Xilin; Mei, Donghai; Bowden, Mark E.; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2016-06-01

    Rechargeable lithium (Li) metal batteries with conventional LiPF6-carbonate electrolytes have been reported to fail quickly at charging current densities of about 1.0 mA cm-2 and above. In this work, we demonstrate the rapid charging capability of Li||LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cells can be enabled by a dual-salt electrolyte of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) in a carbonate solvent mixture. The cells using the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt electrolyte significantly outperform those using the LiPF6 electrolyte at high charging current densities. At the charging current density of 1.50 mA cm-2, the Li||NCA cells with the dual-salt electrolyte can still deliver a discharge capacity of 131 mAh g-1 and a capacity retention of 80% after 100 cycles. The Li||NCA cells with the LiPF6 electrolyte start to show fast capacity fading after the 30th cycle and only exhibit a low capacity of 25 mAh g-1 and a low retention of 15% after 100 cycles. The reasons for the good chargeability and cycling stability of the cells using the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt electrolyte can be attributed to the good film-formation ability of the electrolyte on the Li metal anode and the highly conductive nature of the sulfur-rich interphase layer.

  6. Dietary protein enhances non-specific immunity, anti-oxidative capability and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Labeo rohita fingerlings pre-exposed to short feed deprivation stress.

    PubMed

    Yengkokpam, Sona; Debnath, Dipesh; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Jain, K K; Baruah, Kartik

    2016-12-01

    Present experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary protein levels on growth, immunity and anti-oxidative status of Labeo rohita fingerlings during feed deprivation followed by refeeding. Fish (5.44 ± 0.10 g) were deprived of feed for 3 weeks and then re-fed to satiation for 5 weeks with one of the diets containing 25 (25P), 30 (30P), 35 (35P) or 40 (40P) percent crude protein (CP) level. In addition to these groups, a control group (C) was also maintained by feeding to satiation level twice daily with a diet containing 30% CP throughout the experimental period. At the end of 8-weeks' trial, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and survival was recorded for the next 7 days. Complete recovery of growth in terms of weight gain percentage was achieved in the fish fed 35 and 40% protein during refeeding. The body indices (condition factor and hepatosomatic index), haematological parameters and serum protein contents at the end of the experimental trial were not significantly different (P > 0.05) among different groups suggesting that the overall health of the fish was not compromised. However, respiratory burst activity and serum lysozyme activity were indicative of a better immune function in the higher protein fed groups (35P and 40P) than the lower protein groups (25P and 30P). Following challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila, survival rate, blood monocyte%, respiratory burst activity, serum lysozyme activity, serum protein and globulin were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the 35P and 40P groups compared to the other groups. Further, fish fed lower dietary protein were not able to restore the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the liver. Conclusively, an improved disease resistance capability and immune status was observed in the fish fed a higher dietary protein (35-40%), even out-performing the daily-fed fish.

  7. Enhanced Computational Infrastructure for Data Analysis at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schissel, D.P.; Peng, Q.; Schachter, J.; Tepstra, T.B.; Casper, T.A.; Freeman, J.; Jong, R.; Keith, K.M.; McHarg, B.B., Jr; Meyer, W.H.; Parker, C.T.; Warner, A.M.

    1999-07-01

    The DIII-D National Team consists of about 120 operating staff and 100 research scientists drawn from 9 U.S. National Laboratories, 19 foreign laboratories, 16 universities, and 5 industrial partnerships. This multi-institution collaboration carries out the integrated DIII-D program mission which is to establish the scientific basis for the optimization of the tokamak approach to fusion energy production. Presently, about two-thirds of the research physics staff are from the national and international collaborating institutions.

  8. Enhanced production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) copolymer and antimicrobial yellow pigmentation from Cupriavidus sp. USMAHM13 with antibiofilm capability.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Iszatty; Gurusamy, Tana Poorani; Ramachandran, Hema; Al-Ashraf Amirul, Abdullah

    2017-04-21

    Antibiofilm polymers have the ability to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation, which is known to occur ubiquitously in the environment and pose risks of infection. In this study, production of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer and antimicrobial yellow pigment from Cupriavidus sp. USMAHM13 are enhanced through medium optimization. Before the improvement of yellow pigment production, screening for the best additional supplement was performed resulting in high-yield yellow pigmentation using yeast extract with optimum concentration of 2 g/L. Effects of different concentrations of 1,4-butanediol, ammonium acetate, and yeast extract were studied using central composite design. Under optimal conditions, 53 wt% of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) content, 0.35 g/L of pigment concentration, and 5.87 g/L of residual biomass were achieved at 0.56 wt% C of 1,4-butanediol, 1.14 g/L of ammonium acetate, and 2 g/L of yeast extract. Antibiofilm tests revealed that the yellow pigment coated on P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer had significant effect on the inhibition of bacteria proliferation and colonization from 6 hr onward reaching 100% inhibition by 12 hr, hence effectively inhibiting the biofilm formation.

  9. SnO2 particles anchored on N-doped graphene surface as sodium-ion battery anode with enhanced electrochemical capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gui-Zhi; Feng, Jian-Min; Dong, Lei; Li, Xi-Fei; Li, De-Jun

    2017-02-01

    The small-size SnO2 particles uniformly dispersed on the nitrogen doping graphene nanocomposites (SnO2-N-GNS) have been successfully synthesized by a mild hydrothermal method with the precursors of graphene oxide, urea and SnCl4.5H2O. The phase (XRD, EDX and XPS) and morphology (SEM, TEM) analysis further confirm the obtained products. When the composite served as anode material in sodium ion batteries (SIBs), it delivers superior sodium storage performance with reversible discharge capacity of 294.4 mAh g-1 at a current density of 50 mA g-1 in the voltage range from 0.01-3 V after 50 discharge/charge cycles, which is much higher than that of SnO2-GNS (182.9 mAh g-1) and N-GNS (114.9 mAh g-1). Besides, the SnO2-N-GNS electrode also exhibits admirable rate stability with the discharge capacity of 206 mAh g-1 even at 800 mA g-1. More importantly, the SnO2-N-GNS shows lower internal resistance and larger sodium-ion diffusion coefficient. These enhanced electrochemical performances of SnO2-N-GNS are due to the N-doping defects and the homogeneous dispersion of SnO2 particles.

  10. Xanthomonas campestris expansin-like X domain is a structurally disordered beta-sheet macromolecule capable of synergistically enhancing enzymatic efficiency of cellulose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Junior, Atílio Tomazini; Dolce, Luciano Graciani; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; Polikarpov, Igor

    2015-12-01

    To biochemically characterize an expansin-like X protein domain from Xanthomonas campestris (XcEXLX1) and to study its synergy with cellulases in cellulose depolymerization. The protein was purified using a combination of ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography rendering about 30 mg pure protein/l culture medium. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering studies of XcEXLX1 reveal that it is a strongly disordered β-sheet protein. Its low resolution envelope fits nicely the crystallographic structure of the homologous protein EXLX1 from Bacillus subtillis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that XcEXLX1 shows a synergistic, pH-dependent effect when combined with a commercial enzymatic preparation (Accellerase 1500), enhancing its hydrolytic activity on a cellulosic substrate. The strongest effect was observed in acid pHs with an increase in sugar release of up to 36 %. The synergistic effect arising from the action of the expansin-like protein was considerable in the presence of significantly larger amounts of the commercial enzymatic cocktail then previously observed (0.35 FPU of Accellerase 1500/g substrate).

  11. Therapeutic endorsement enhances compliance with national glaucoma guidelines in Australian and New Zealand optometrists.

    PubMed

    Zangerl, Barbara; Hayen, Andrew; Mitchell, Paul; Jamous, Khalid F; Stapleton, Fiona; Kalloniatis, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies confirmed that optometrists have access to and confidence in applying clinical tests recommended for glaucoma assessment. Less is known about factors best predicting compliance with national clinical guidelines and thus by inference, the provision of suitable care by primary care ophthalmic practitioners. We utilised the unique two-tiered profession (therapeutic and non-therapeutic scope of practice) in Australia and New Zealand to assess the prospective adherence to glaucoma guidelines dependent on the clinician's background. Australian and New Zealand optometrists were surveyed on ophthalmic techniques for glaucoma assessment, criteria for the evaluation of the optic nerve head, glaucoma risk categories and review times while also recording background, training, and experience. Parameters identifying progression/conversion and patients' risk levels were analysed comparatively to ophthalmologists' opinions. Linear regression analysis identified variables significantly improving the likelihood of concordance with guidelines. Reported application of techniques complied well with glaucoma guidelines although gonioscopy and pachymetry, pupil dilation for optic nerve head examination, and acquisition of permanent records were less frequently employed. The main predictors for entry-level diagnostic standards were therapeutic endorsement together with the associated knowledge of relevant guidance and procedural confidence. Other findings suggested a potential underestimation in the value of optic disc size and intraocular pressure for the prediction of glaucoma risk, while optometrists more frequently relied on the outcomes of non-standardised automated perimetry and auxiliary imaging. Optometrists in Australia and New Zealand may not always exercise optimal clinical acumen regarding techniques/criteria for glaucoma diagnosis. Therapeutic endorsement was gradually adopted in different jurisdictions in various forms since 1999 and is mandatory for

  12. Designing poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]-based polyurethane block copolymers for electrospun nanofiber scaffolds with improved mechanical properties and enhanced mineralization capability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kerh Li; Choo, Eugene Shi Guang; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu; He, Chao Bin; Wang, John; Li, Jun

    2010-06-10

    Efforts to mineralize electrospun hydrophobic polyester scaffold often require prior surface modification such as plasma or alkaline treatment, which may affect the mechanical integrity of the resultant scaffold. Here through rational design we developed a series of polyurethane block copolymers containing poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) as hard segment and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as soft segment that could be easily fabricated into mineralizable electrospun scaffold without the need of additional surface treatment. To ensure that the block copolymers do not swell excessively in water, PEG content in the polymers was kept below 50 wt %. To obtain good dry and hydrated state mechanical properties with limited PEG, low-molecular-weight PHB-diol with M(n) 1230 and 1790 were used in various molar feed ratios. The macromolecular characteristics of the block copolymers were confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and thermal gravimetric analyses (TGA). With the incorporation of the hydrophilic PEG segments, the surface and bulk hydrophilicity of the block copolymers were significantly improved. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that the block copolymers had low PHB crystallinity and no PEG crystallinity. This was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD) in both dry and hydrated states. With short PHB segments and soft PEG coupled together, the block copolymers were no longer brittle. Tensile measurements showed that the block copolymers with higher PEG content or shorter PHB segments were more ductile. Furthermore, their ductility was enhanced in hydrated states with one particular example showing increment in strain at break from 1090 to 1962%. The block copolymers were fabricated into an electrospun fibrous scaffold that was easily mineralized by simple incubation in simulated body fluid. The materials have good potential for bone regeneration application and may be extended to other applications by

  13. Video-enhanced contrast, differential interference contrast (AVEC-DIC) microscopy: a new method capable of analyzing microtubule-related motility in the reticulopodial network of Allogromia laticollaris.

    PubMed

    Allen, R D; Allen, N S; Travis, J L

    1981-01-01

    A new method called Allen Video-enhanced Contrast, Differential Interference Contrast (AVEC-DIC) microscopy is shown to be sufficiently sensitive to detect several new features of microtubule-related motility in the reticulopodial network of the foraminifer, Allogromia. The method takes advantage of the variable gain and offset features of a binary video camera to operate the DIC microscope under conditions highly favorable for video imaging, but in which the optical image is virtually invisible to the eye yet retains its full information when viewed by a suitable video camera. The improvements are made possible by setting a dé Senarmont compensator to lambda/9-lambda/4 at maximal working aperture of internally corrected planapochromatic objectives. Under these conditions, the offset feature of the video camera can reject so much stray light from the instrument and specimen that contrast compares favorably with that observed in high-extinction images, and polarizing rectifiers offer scarcely any advantage. Freed from the constraints of the light-limited conditions of DIC microscopy, video images can be recorded 60 times per second, or over 1,000 times the rate of photomicrographs at comparable magnifications under high-extinction conditions. Application of this method to the reticulopodial network of Allogromia has shown that cytoplasmic organelles are translocated only in contact with single microtubules or bundles of microtubules, and that these organelles fail to move when separated from microtubules. Microtubules themselves undergo both axial translatory ("sliding") and lateral "zipping and unzipping" movements that have been suggested to occur during mitosis and other biological processes.

  14. Enhancing participatory approach in water resources management: development of a survey to evaluate stakeholders needs and priorities related to software capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foglia, L.; Rossetto, R.; Borsi, I.; Josef, S.; Boukalova, Z.; Triana, F.; Ghetta, M.; Sabbatini, T.; Bonari, E.; Cannata, M.; De Filippis, G.

    2016-12-01

    The EU H2020 FREEWAT project (FREE and open source software tools for WATer resource management) aims at simplifying the application of EU-water related Directives, by developing an open source and public domain, GIS-integrated platform for planning and management of ground- and surface-water resources. The FREEWAT platform is conceived as a canvas, where several distributed and physically-based simulation codes are virtually integrated. The choice of such codes was supported by the result of a survey performed by means of questionnaires distributed to 14 case study FREEWAT project partners and several stakeholders. This was performed in the first phase of the project within the WP 6 (Enhanced science and participatory approach evidence-based decision making), Task 6.1 (Definition of a "needs/tools" evaluation grid). About 30% among all the invited entities and institutions from several EU and non-EU Countries expressed their interest in contributing to the survey. Most of them were research institutions, government and geoenvironmental companies and river basin authorities.The result of the questionnaire provided a spectrum of needs and priorities of partners/stakeholders, which were addressed during the development phase of the FREEWAT platform. The main needs identified were related to ground- and surface-water quality, sustainable water management, interaction between groundwater/surface-water bodies, and design and management of Managed Aquifer Recharge schemes. Needs and priorities were then connected to the specific EU Directives and Regulations to be addressed.One of the main goals of the questionnaires was to collect information and suggestions regarding the use of existing commercial/open-source software tools to address needs and priorities, and regarding the needs to address specific water-related processes/problems.

  15. Improving Department of Energy capabilities for Mitigating Beyond Design Basis Events

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this Operating Experience (OE) document is to (1) provide results from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, initiatives related to beyond design basis events (BDBEs), and (2) provide direction for enhancing capabilities for mitigating BDBEs at DOE sites

  16. Enhanced surveillance for the Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States, Apia, Samoa, September 2014

    PubMed Central

    Saketa, Salanieta; Durand, Alexis; Vaai-Nielsen, Saine; Leong-Lui, Tile Ah; Naseri, Take; Matalima, Ailuai; Amosa, Filipina; Mercier, Alize; Lepers, Christelle; Lal, Vjesh; Wojcik, Richard; Lewis, Sheri; Roth, Adam; Souares, Yvan; Merilles, Onofre Edwin; Hoy, Damian

    2017-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Samoa, in partnership with the Pacific Community, successfully implemented enhanced surveillance for the high-profile Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States held concurrently with the popular local Teuila festival during a widespread chikungunya outbreak in September 2014. Samoa’s weekly syndromic surveillance system was expanded to 12 syndromes and 10 sentinel sites from four syndromes and seven sentinel sites; sites included the national hospital, four private health clinics and three national health service clinics. Daily situation reports were produced and were disseminated through PacNet (the e-mail alert and communication tool of the Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network) together with daily prioritized line lists of syndrome activity to facilitate rapid response and investigation by the Samoan EpiNet team. Standard operating procedures for surveillance and response were introduced, together with a sustainability plan, including a monitoring and evaluation framework, to facilitate the transition of the mass gathering surveillance improvements to routine surveillance. The enhanced surveillance performed well, providing vital disease early warning and health security assurance. A total of 2386 encounters and 708 syndrome cases were reported. Influenza-like illness was the most frequently seen syndrome (17%). No new infectious disease outbreaks were recorded. The experience emphasized: (1) the need for a long lead time to pilot the surveillance enhancements and to maximize their sustainability; (2) the importance of good communication between key stakeholders; and (3) having sufficient staff dedicated to both surveillance and response. PMID:28409055

  17. Enhanced surveillance for the Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States, Apia, Samoa, September 2014.

    PubMed

    White, Paul; Saketa, Salanieta; Durand, Alexis; Vaai-Nielsen, Saine; Leong-Lui, Tile Ah; Naseri, Take; Matalima, Ailuai; Amosa, Filipina; Mercier, Alize; Lepers, Christelle; Lal, Vjesh; Wojcik, Richard; Lewis, Sheri; Roth, Adam; Souares, Yvan; Merilles, Onofre Edwin; Hoy, Damian

    2017-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Samoa, in partnership with the Pacific Community, successfully implemented enhanced surveillance for the high-profile Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States held concurrently with the popular local Teuila festival during a widespread chikungunya outbreak in September 2014. Samoa's weekly syndromic surveillance system was expanded to 12 syndromes and 10 sentinel sites from four syndromes and seven sentinel sites; sites included the national hospital, four private health clinics and three national health service clinics. Daily situation reports were produced and were disseminated through PacNet (the e-mail alert and communication tool of the Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network) together with daily prioritized line lists of syndrome activity to facilitate rapid response and investigation by the Samoan EpiNet team. Standard operating procedures for surveillance and response were introduced, together with a sustainability plan, including a monitoring and evaluation framework, to facilitate the transition of the mass gathering surveillance improvements to routine surveillance. The enhanced surveillance performed well, providing vital disease early warning and health security assurance. A total of 2386 encounters and 708 syndrome cases were reported. Influenza-like illness was the most frequently seen syndrome (17%). No new infectious disease outbreaks were recorded. The experience emphasized: (1) the need for a long lead time to pilot the surveillance enhancements and to maximize their sustainability; (2) the importance of good communication between key stakeholders; and (3) having sufficient staff dedicated to both surveillance and response.

  18. Plant Pathogen Forensics: Capabilities, Needs, and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, J.; Bender, C.; Budowle, B.; Cobb, W. T.; Gold, S. E.; Ishimaru, C. A.; Luster, D.; Melcher, U.; Murch, R.; Scherm, H.; Seem, R. C.; Sherwood, J. L.; Sobral, B. W.; Tolin, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    A biological attack on U.S. crops, rangelands, or forests could reduce yield and quality, erode consumer confidence, affect economic health and the environment, and possibly impact human nutrition and international relations. Preparedness for a crop bioterror event requires a strong national security plan that includes steps for microbial forensics and criminal attribution. However, U.S. crop producers, consultants, and agricultural scientists have traditionally focused primarily on strategies for prevention and management of diseases introduced naturally or unintentionally rather than on responding appropriately to an intentional pathogen introduction. We assess currently available information, technologies, and resources that were developed originally to ensure plant health but also could be utilized for postintroduction plant pathogen forensics. Recommendations for prioritization of efforts and resource expenditures needed to enhance our plant pathogen forensics capabilities are presented. PMID:16760310

  19. Encouraging Governments to Enhance the Happiness of Their Nation: Step 1: Understand Subjective Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Robert A.; Lau, Anna A. L. D.; Mellor, David; Stokes, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the issue of facilitating policies that enhance population happiness. An impediment to such action is the failure of most policy makers to understand that subjective wellbeing can be measured and understood within the framework of science. Additionally, they fail to realize that enhancing the subjective wellbeing of…

  20. Encouraging Governments to Enhance the Happiness of Their Nation: Step 1: Understand Subjective Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Robert A.; Lau, Anna A. L. D.; Mellor, David; Stokes, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the issue of facilitating policies that enhance population happiness. An impediment to such action is the failure of most policy makers to understand that subjective wellbeing can be measured and understood within the framework of science. Additionally, they fail to realize that enhancing the subjective wellbeing of…