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Sample records for enhanced recombinant m-csf

  1. Crystallization of M-CSF.alpha.

    DOEpatents

    Pandit, Jayvardhan; Jancarik, Jarmila; Kim, Sung-Hou; Koths, Kirston; Halenbeck, Robert; Fear, Anna Lisa; Taylor, Eric; Yamamoto, Ralph; Bohm, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed to methods for crystallizing macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and to a crystalline M-CSF produced thereby. The present invention is also directed to methods for designing and producing M-CSF agonists and antagonists using information derived from the crystallographic structure of M-CSF. The invention is also directed to methods for screening M-CSF agonists and antagonists. In addition, the present invention is directed to an isolated, purified, soluble and functional M-CSF receptor.

  2. Heterogeneous effects of M-CSF isoforms on the progression of MLL-AF9 leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Feng, Wenli; Yang, Feifei; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Lina; Chen, Chong; Hu, Yuting; Ren, Qian; Zheng, Guoguang

    2018-02-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) regulates both malignant cells and microenvironmental cells. Its splicing isoforms show functional heterogeneity. However, their roles on leukemia have not been well established. Here, the expression of total M-CSF in patients with hematopoietic malignancies was analyzed. The roles of M-CSF isoforms on the progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were studied by establishing MLL-AF9-induced mouse AML models with high level membrane-bound M-CSF (mM-CSF) or soluble M-CSF (sM-CSF). Total M-CSF was highly expressed in myeloid leukemia patients. Furthermore, mM-CSF but not sM-CSF prolonged the survival of leukemia mice. While sM-CSF was more potent to promote proliferation and self-renew, mM-CSF was more potent to promote differentiation. Moreover, isoforms had different effects on leukemia-associated macrophages (LAMs) though they both increase monocytes/macrophages by growth-promoting and recruitment effects. In addition, mM-CSF promoted specific phagocytosis of leukemia cells by LAMs. RNA-seq analysis revealed that mM-CSF enhanced phagocytosis-associated genes and activated oxidative phosphorylation and metabolism pathway. These results highlight heterogeneous effects of M-CSF isoforms on AML progression and the mechanisms of mM-CSF, that is, intrinsically promoting AML cell differentiation and extrinsically enhancing infiltration of macrophages and phagocytosis by macrophages, which may provide potential clues for clinical diagnosis and therapy. © 2017 Australasian Society for Immunology Inc.

  3. Identification of M-CSF agonists and antagonists

    DOEpatents

    Pandit, Jayvardhan [Mystic, CT; Jancarik, Jarmila [Walnut Creek, CA; Kim, Sung-Hou [Moraga, CA; Koths, Kirston [El Cerrito, CA; Halenbeck, Robert [San Rafael, CA; Fear, Anna Lisa [Oakland, CA; Taylor, Eric [Oakland, CA; Yamamoto, Ralph [Martinez, CA; Bohm, Andrew [Armonk, NY

    2000-02-15

    The present invention is directed to methods for crystallizing macrophage colony stimulating factor. The present invention is also directed to methods for designing and producing M-CSF agonists and antagonists using information derived from the crystallographic structure of M-CSF. The invention is also directed to methods for screening M-CSF agonists and antagonists. In addition, the present invention is directed to an isolated, purified, soluble and functional M-CSF receptor.

  4. Lymphatic Endothelial Cells Produce M-CSF, Causing Massive Bone Loss in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wensheng; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Xichao; Li, Xing; Sun, Wen; Dellinger, Michael; Boyce, Brendan F; Xing, Lianping

    2017-05-01

    Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare bone disorder characterized by aggressive osteolysis associated with lymphatic vessel invasion within bone marrow cavities. The etiology of GSD is not known, and there is no effective therapy or animal model for the disease. Here, we investigated if lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) affect osteoclasts (OCs) to cause a GSD osteolytic phenotype in mice. We examined the effect of a mouse LEC line on osteoclastogenesis in co-cultures. LECs significantly increased receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated OC formation and bone resorption. LECs expressed high levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), but not RANKL, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). LEC-mediated OC formation and bone resorption were blocked by an M-CSF neutralizing antibody or Ki20227, an inhibitor of the M-CSF receptor, c-Fms. We injected LECs into the tibias of wild-type (WT) mice and observed massive osteolysis on X-ray and micro-CT scans. Histology showed that LEC-injected tibias had significant trabecular and cortical bone loss and increased OC numbers. M-CSF protein levels were significantly higher in serum and bone marrow plasma of mice given intra-tibial LEC injections. Immunofluorescence staining showed extensive replacement of bone and marrow by podoplanin+ LECs. Treatment of LEC-injected mice with Ki20227 significantly decreased tibial bone destruction. In addition, lymphatic vessels in a GSD bone sample were stained positively for M-CSF. Thus, LECs cause bone destruction in vivo in mice by secreting M-CSF, which promotes OC formation and activation. Blocking M-CSF signaling may represent a new therapeutic approach for treatment of patients with GSD. Furthermore, tibial injection of LECs is a useful mouse model to study GSD. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  5. M-CSF increases proliferation and phagocytosis while modulating receptor and transcription factor expression in adult human microglia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microglia are the primary immune cells of the brain whose phenotype largely depends on their surrounding micro-environment. Microglia respond to a multitude of soluble molecules produced by a variety of brain cells. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a cytokine found in the brain whose receptor is expressed by microglia. Previous studies suggest a critical role for M-CSF in brain development and normal functioning as well as in several disease processes involving neuroinflammation. Methods Using biopsy tissue from patients with intractable temporal epilepsy and autopsy tissue, we cultured primary adult human microglia to investigate their response to M-CSF. Mixed glial cultures were treated with 25 ng/ml M-CSF for 96 hours. Proliferation and phagocytosis assays, and high through-put immunocytochemistry, microscopy and image analysis were performed to investigate microglial phenotype and function. Results We found that the phenotype of primary adult human microglia was markedly changed following exposure to M-CSF. A greater number of microglia were present in the M-CSF- treated cultures as the percentage of proliferating (BrdU and Ki67-positive) microglia was greatly increased. A number of changes in protein expression occurred following M-CSF treatment, including increased transcription factors PU.1 and C/EBPβ, increased DAP12 adaptor protein, increased M-CSF receptor (CSF-1R) and IGF-1 receptor, and reduced HLA-DP, DQ, DR antigen presentation protein. Furthermore, a distinct morphological change was observed with elongation of microglial processes. These changes in phenotype were accompanied by a functional increase in phagocytosis of Aβ1-42 peptide. Conclusions We show here that the cytokine M-CSF dramatically influences the phenotype of adult human microglia. These results pave the way for future investigation of M-CSF-related targets for human therapeutic benefit. PMID:23866312

  6. M-CSF Mediates Host Defense during Bacterial Pneumonia by Promoting the Survival of Lung and Liver Mononuclear Phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Bettina, Alexandra; Zhang, Zhimin; Michels, Kathryn; Cagnina, R Elaine; Vincent, Isaah S; Burdick, Marie D; Kadl, Alexandra; Mehrad, Borna

    2016-06-15

    Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia is a common and dangerous infection with diminishing treatment options due to increasing antibiotic resistance among causal pathogens. The mononuclear phagocyte system is a heterogeneous group of leukocytes composed of tissue-resident macrophages, dendritic cells, and monocyte-derived cells that are critical in defense against pneumonia, but mechanisms that regulate their maintenance and function during infection are poorly defined. M-CSF has myriad effects on mononuclear phagocytes but its role in pneumonia is unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that M-CSF is required for mononuclear phagocyte-mediated host defenses during bacterial pneumonia in a murine model of infection. Genetic deletion or immunoneutralization of M-CSF resulted in reduced survival, increased bacterial burden, and greater lung injury. M-CSF was necessary for the expansion of lung mononuclear phagocytes during infection but did not affect the number of bone marrow or blood monocytes, proliferation of precursors, or recruitment of leukocytes to the lungs. In contrast, M-CSF was essential to survival and antimicrobial functions of both lung and liver mononuclear phagocytes during pneumonia, and its absence resulted in bacterial dissemination to the liver and hepatic necrosis. We conclude that M-CSF is critical to host defenses against bacterial pneumonia by mediating survival and antimicrobial functions of mononuclear phagocytes in the lungs and liver. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. M-CSF mediates host defense during bacterial pneumonia by promoting the survival of lung and liver mononuclear phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bettina, Alexandra; Zhang, Zhimin; Michels, Kathryn; Cagnina, R. Elaine; Vincent, Isaah S.; Burdick, Marie D.; Kadl, Alexandra; Mehrad, Borna

    2016-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia is a common and dangerous infection with diminishing treatment options due to increasing antibiotic resistance among causal pathogens. The mononuclear phagocyte system is a heterogeneous group of leukocytes composed of tissue-resident macrophages, dendritic cells and monocyte-derived cells that are critical in defense against pneumonia, but mechanisms that regulate their maintenance and function during infection are poorly defined. Macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) has myriad effects on mononuclear phagocytes but its role in pneumonia is unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that M-CSF is required for mononuclear phagocyte-mediated host defenses during bacterial pneumonia in a murine model of infection. Genetic deletion or immunoneutralization of M-CSF resulted in reduced survival, increased bacterial burden and greater lung injury. M-CSF was necessary for the expansion of lung mononuclear phagocytes during infection but did not affect the number of bone marrow or blood monocytes, the proliferation of precursors or the recruitment of leukocytes to the lungs. In contrast, M-CSF was essential to survival and anti-microbial functions of both lung and liver mononuclear phagocytes during pneumonia and its absence resulted in bacterial dissemination to the liver and hepatic necrosis. We conclude that M-CSF is critical to host defenses against bacterial pneumonia by mediating survival and anti-microbial functions of mononuclear phagocytes in the lungs and liver. PMID:27183631

  8. M-CSF improves protection against bacterial and fungal infections after hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazin, Sandrine; Redelberger, David

    2016-01-01

    Myeloablative treatment preceding hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and progenitor cell (HS/PC) transplantation results in severe myeloid cytopenia and susceptibility to infections in the lag period before hematopoietic recovery. We have previously shown that macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1; M-CSF) directly instructed myeloid commitment in HSCs. In this study, we tested whether this effect had therapeutic benefit in improving protection against pathogens after HS/PC transplantation. M-CSF treatment resulted in an increased production of mature myeloid donor cells and an increased survival of recipient mice infected with lethal doses of clinically relevant opportunistic pathogens, namely the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. M-CSF treatment during engraftment or after infection efficiently protected from these pathogens as early as 3 days after transplantation and was effective as a single dose. It was more efficient than granulocyte CSF (G-CSF), a common treatment of severe neutropenia, which showed no protective effect under the tested conditions. M-CSF treatment showed no adverse effect on long-term lineage contribution or stem cell activity and, unlike G-CSF, did not impede recovery of HS/PCs, thrombocyte numbers, or glucose metabolism. These results encourage potential clinical applications of M-CSF to prevent severe infections after HS/PC transplantation. PMID:27811055

  9. Recombinant Temporal Aberration Detection Algorithms for Enhanced Biosurveillance

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sean Patrick; Burkom, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Objective Broadly, this research aims to improve the outbreak detection performance and, therefore, the cost effectiveness of automated syndromic surveillance systems by building novel, recombinant temporal aberration detection algorithms from components of previously developed detectors. Methods This study decomposes existing temporal aberration detection algorithms into two sequential stages and investigates the individual impact of each stage on outbreak detection performance. The data forecasting stage (Stage 1) generates predictions of time series values a certain number of time steps in the future based on historical data. The anomaly measure stage (Stage 2) compares features of this prediction to corresponding features of the actual time series to compute a statistical anomaly measure. A Monte Carlo simulation procedure is then used to examine the recombinant algorithms’ ability to detect synthetic aberrations injected into authentic syndromic time series. Results New methods obtained with procedural components of published, sometimes widely used, algorithms were compared to the known methods using authentic datasets with plausible stochastic injected signals. Performance improvements were found for some of the recombinant methods, and these improvements were consistent over a range of data types, outbreak types, and outbreak sizes. For gradual outbreaks, the WEWD MovAvg7+WEWD Z-Score recombinant algorithm performed best; for sudden outbreaks, the HW+WEWD Z-Score performed best. Conclusion This decomposition was found not only to yield valuable insight into the effects of the aberration detection algorithms but also to produce novel combinations of data forecasters and anomaly measures with enhanced detection performance. PMID:17947614

  10. Role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-dependent macrophages in gastric ulcer healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Y; Nakase, Y; Isomoto, Y; Matsuda, N; Amagase, K; Kato, S; Takeuchi, K

    2011-08-01

    We examined the role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-dependent macrophages in the healing of gastric ulcers in mice. Male M-CSF-deficient (op/op) and M-CSF-expressing heterozygote (+/?) mice were used. Gastric ulcers were induced by thermal cauterization under ether anesthesia, and healing was observed for 14 days after ulceration. The numbers of macrophages and microvessels in the gastric mucosa were determined immunohistochemically with anti-CD68 and anti-CD31 antibodies, respectively. Expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA was determined via real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the mucosal content of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) was determined via enzyme immunoassay on day 10 after ulceration. The healing of gastric ulcers was significantly delayed in op/op mice compared with +/? mice. Further, significantly fewer macrophages were observed in the normal gastric mucosa of op/op mice than in +/? mice. Ulcer induction caused a marked accumulation of macrophages around the ulcer base in +/? mice, but this response was attenuated in op/op mice. The mucosal PGE(2) content as well as the expression of COX-2, VEGF, and TNF-α mRNA were all upregulated in the ulcerated area of +/? mice but significantly suppressed in op/op mice. The degree of vascularization in the ulcerated area was significantly lower in op/op mice than in +/? mice. Taken together, these results suggest that M-CSF-dependent macrophages play an important role in the healing of gastric ulcers, and that this action may be associated with angiogenesis promoted by upregulation of COX-2/PGE(2) production.

  11. Ankylosing spondylitis M-CSF-derived macrophages are undergoing unfolded protein response (UPR) and express higher levels of interleukin-23.

    PubMed

    Rezaiemanesh, Alireza; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar; Vojdanian, Mahdi; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 pathway involves in the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The exact mechanism implicated in overexpression of IL-23 and activation of the IL-23/IL-17 axis is not clear. The aim of the study was to clarify whether macrophages of AS patients undergo unfolded protein response (UPR) and secret increased IL-23. Peripheral blood monocyte isolated from 10 HLA-B27 + patients and five HLA-B27 + normal subjects were differentiated to macrophages by macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) for seven days. Flow cytometry was used to detect monocyte purity and expression of macrophage markers. Analysis of mRNA expression for HLA-B and B27, UPR-associated proteins (BiP, CHOP, MDG1, and XBP1) and IL-23 was performed by RT-qPCR. RT-qPCR data showed a significant overexpression of HLA-B27, UPR genes (BiP, CHOP, and XBP1), and IL-23 in M-CSF-derived macrophages from AS patients compared to healthy controls. Increased expression of MDG1 was not significant. Our data suggest that UPR activation occurs in M-CSF-derived macrophages of AS patients and is accompanied by overexpression of HLA-B27. UPR appears to be associated with overproduction of IL-23 in AS macrophages.

  12. M-CSF in a new biomarker panel with HE4 and CA 125 in the diagnostics of epithelial ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Będkowska, Grażyna Ewa; Ławicki, Sławomir; Gacuta, Ewa; Pawłowski, Przemysław; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2015-05-03

    We investigated plasma levels of M-CSF and conventional tumor markers (HE4 and CA 125) in epithelial ovarian cancer patients as compared to control groups: benign ovarian tumor patients (cysts) and healthy subjects. M-CSF levels were determined by ELISA, HE4 and CA 125 levels - by CMIA method. Our results have demonstrated significant differences in the concentration levels of M-CSF, CA 125 and HE4 between the groups of ovarian cancer patients, cysts patients and the healthy controls. In the groups tested M-CSF demonstrated equal to or higher values than both CA 125 and HE4 in diagnostic sensitivity (SE), positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV), and in the area under the ROC curve (AUC), particularly in the group with the serous epithelial sub-type of OC. Moreover, CA 125 showed better results of the aforementioned diagnostic criteria than HE4. The combined use of the parameters studied resulted in a further, significant increase in the value of the diagnostic indicators and in the value of the diagnostic power (AUC), especially in the early stages of ovarian cancer. These findings suggest a high usefulness of M-CSF in diagnosing the serous sub-type of epithelial ovarian cancer and in discriminating between cancer and non-carcinoma lesions, particularly in new diagnostic panels in combination with CA 125 and HE4 for the detection of EOC in the early stages.

  13. Biological role of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) on cells of the myeloid lineage

    PubMed Central

    Ushach, Irina; Zlotnik, Albert

    2016-01-01

    M-CSF and GM-CSF are 2 important cytokines that regulate macrophage numbers and function. Here, we review their known effects on cells of the macrophage-monocyte lineage. Important clues to their function come from their expression patterns. M-CSF exhibits a mostly homeostatic expression pattern, whereas GM-CSF is a product of cells activated during inflammatory or pathologic conditions. Accordingly, M-CSF regulates the numbers of various tissue macrophage and monocyte populations without altering their "activation" status. Conversely, GM-CSF induces activation of monocytes/macrophages and also mediates differentiation to other states that participate in immune responses [i.e., dendritic cells (DCs)]. Further insights into their function have come from analyses of mice deficient in either cytokine. M-CSF signals through its receptor (CSF-1R). Interestingly, mice deficient in CSF-1R expression exhibit a more significant phenotype than mice deficient in M-CSF. This observation was explained by the discovery of a novel cytokine (IL-34) that represents a second ligand of CSF-1R. Information about the function of these ligands/receptor system is still developing, but its complexity is intriguing and strongly suggests that more interesting biology remains to be elucidated. Based on our current knowledge, several therapeutic molecules targeting either the M-CSF or the GM-CSF pathways have been developed and are currently being tested in clinical trials targeting either autoimmune diseases or cancer. It is intriguing to consider how evolution has directed these pathways to develop; their complexity likely mirrors the multiple functions in which cells of the monocyte/macrophage system are involved. PMID:27354413

  14. [Macrophage colony stimulating factor enhances non-small cell lung cancer invasion and metastasis by promoting macrophage M2 polarization].

    PubMed

    Li, Y J; Yang, L; Wang, L P; Zhang, Y

    2017-06-23

    Objective: To investigate the key cytokine which polarizes M2 macrophages and promotes invasion and metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: After co-culture with A549 cells in vitro, the proportion of CD14(+) CD163(+) M2 macrophages in monocytes and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) levels in culture supernatant were detected by flow cytometry, ELISA assay and real-time qPCR, respectively. The effects of CD14(+) CD163(+) M2 macrophages on invasion of A549 cells and angiogenesis of HUVEC cells were measured by transwell assay and tubule formation assay, respectively. The clinical and prognostic significance of M-CSF expression in NSCLC was further analyzed. Results: The percentage of CD14(+) CD163(+) M2 macrophages in monocytes and the concentration of M-CSF in the supernatant followed by co-culture was (12.03±0.46)% and (299.80±73.76)pg/ml, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in control group [(2.80±1.04)% and (43.07±11.22)pg/ml, respectively, P < 0.05]. Human recombinant M-CSF promoted M2 polarization of macrophages in vitro . M2 macrophages enhanced the invasion of A549 cells (66 cells/field vs. 26 cells/field) and the angiogenesis of HUVEC cells (22 tubes/field vs. 8 tubes/field). The mRNA expression of M-CSF in stage Ⅰ-Ⅱ patients (16.23±4.83) was significantly lower than that in stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ (53.84±16.08; P <0.05). M-CSF levels were associated with poorer overall survival and disease-free survival in NSCLC patients ( P <0.05). Conclusions: Tumor-derived M-CSF can induce CD14(+) CD163(+) M2 polarization of macrophages, which can further promote the metastasis and angiogenesis of NSCLC. M-CSF could be used as a potential therapeutic target of NSCLC.

  15. Chronic Inflammation: Synergistic Interactions of Recruiting Macrophages (TAMs) and Eosinophils (Eos) with Host Mast Cells (MCs) and Tumorigenesis in CALTs. M-CSF, Suitable Biomarker for Cancer Diagnosis!

    PubMed

    Khatami, Mahin

    2014-01-27

    tumorigenesis. Activated MFs (TAMs or M2) and Eos that are recruited by tissues (e.g., conjunctiva or perhaps lung airways) whose principal resident immune cells are MCs and lymphocytes are suggested to play crucial synergistic roles in enhancing growth promoting capacities of host toward tumorigenesis. Under oxidative stress, M-CSF may produce signals that are cumulative/synergistic with host mediators (e.g., low levels of histamine), facilitating tumor-directed expression of decoy receptors and immune suppressive factors (e.g., dTNFR, IL-5, IL-10, TGF-b, PGE2). M-CSF, possessing superior sensitivity and specificity, compared with conventional markers (e.g., CA-125, CA-19-9) is potentially a suitable biomarker for cancer diagnosis and technology development. Systematic monitoring of interactions between resident and recruited cells should provide key information not only about early events in loss of immune surveillance, but it would help making informed decisions for balancing the inherent tumoricidal (Yin) and tumorigenic (Yang) properties of immune system and effective preventive and therapeutic approaches and accurate risk assessment toward improvement of public health.

  16. Genetically enhanced cellulase production in Pseudomonas cellulosa using recombinant DNA technology

    DOEpatents

    Dees, H. Craig

    1999-01-01

    An enhanced strain of Pseudomonas celllulosa was obtained by introducing a recombinant genetic construct comprising a heterologous cellulase gene operably connected to a promoter into ATCC 55702, mutagenizing the transformants by treatment with MNNG, and selecting a high cellulase producing transformant. The transformant, designated Pseudomonas cellulosa ATCC XXXX, exhibits enhanced levels of cellulase production relative to the untransformed Pseudomonas cellulosa strain #142 ATCC 55702.

  17. Fluid-Phase Pinocytosis of Native Low Density Lipoprotein Promotes Murine M-CSF Differentiated Macrophage Foam Cell Formation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qing; Bohnacker, Thomas; Wymann, Matthias P.; Kruth, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    During atherosclerosis, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol accumulates in macrophages to form foam cells. Macrophage uptake of LDL promotes foam cell formation but the mechanism mediating this process is not clear. The present study investigates the mechanism of LDL uptake for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-differentiated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. LDL receptor-null (LDLR−/−) macrophages incubated with LDL showed non-saturable accumulation of cholesterol that did not down-regulate for the 24 h examined. Incubation of LDLR−/− macrophages with increasing concentrations of 125I-LDL showed non-saturable macrophage LDL uptake. A 20-fold excess of unlabeled LDL had no effect on 125I-LDL uptake by wild-type macrophages and genetic deletion of the macrophage scavenger receptors CD36 and SRA did not affect 125I-LDL uptake, showing that LDL uptake occurred by fluid-phase pinocytosis independently of receptors. Cholesterol accumulation was inhibited approximately 50% in wild-type and LDLR−/− mice treated with LY294002 or wortmannin, inhibitors of all classes of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). Time-lapse, phase-contrast microscopy showed that macropinocytosis, an important fluid-phase uptake pathway in macrophages, was blocked almost completely by PI3K inhibition with wortmannin. Pharmacological inhibition of the class I PI3K isoforms alpha, beta, gamma or delta did not affect macrophage LDL-derived cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis. Furthermore, macrophages from mice expressing kinase-dead class I PI3K beta, gamma or delta isoforms showed no decrease in cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis when compared with wild-type macrophages. Thus, non-class I PI3K isoforms mediated macropinocytosis in these macrophages. Further characterization of the components necessary for LDL uptake, cholesterol accumulation, and macropinocytosis identified dynamin, microtubules, actin, and vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase as

  18. Improved eco-friendly recombinant Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 with enhanced nitrogen biofertilizer potential.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Photosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing Anabaena strains are native to tropical paddy fields and contribute to the carbon and nitrogen economy of such soils. Genetic engineering was employed to improve the nitrogen biofertilizer potential of Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120. Constitutive enhanced expression of an additional integrated copy of the hetR gene from a light-inducible promoter elevated HetR protein expression and enhanced functional heterocyst frequency in the recombinant strain. The recombinant strain displayed consistently higher nitrogenase activity than the wild-type strain and appeared to be in homeostasis with compatible modulation of photosynthesis and respiration. The enhanced combined nitrogen availability from the recombinant strain positively catered to the nitrogen demand of rice seedlings in short-term hydroponic experiments and supported better growth. The engineered strain is stable, eco-friendly, and useful for environmental application as nitrogen biofertilizer in paddy fields.

  19. Improved Eco-Friendly Recombinant Anabaena sp. Strain PCC7120 with Enhanced Nitrogen Biofertilizer Potential▿

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Photosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing Anabaena strains are native to tropical paddy fields and contribute to the carbon and nitrogen economy of such soils. Genetic engineering was employed to improve the nitrogen biofertilizer potential of Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120. Constitutive enhanced expression of an additional integrated copy of the hetR gene from a light-inducible promoter elevated HetR protein expression and enhanced functional heterocyst frequency in the recombinant strain. The recombinant strain displayed consistently higher nitrogenase activity than the wild-type strain and appeared to be in homeostasis with compatible modulation of photosynthesis and respiration. The enhanced combined nitrogen availability from the recombinant strain positively catered to the nitrogen demand of rice seedlings in short-term hydroponic experiments and supported better growth. The engineered strain is stable, eco-friendly, and useful for environmental application as nitrogen biofertilizer in paddy fields. PMID:21057013

  20. A Recombinant Measles Vaccine with Enhanced Resistance to Passive Immunity.

    PubMed

    Julik, Emily; Reyes-Del Valle, Jorge

    2017-09-21

    Current measles vaccines suffer from poor effectiveness in young infants due primarily to the inhibitory effect of residual maternal immunity on vaccine responses. The development of a measles vaccine that resists such passive immunity would strongly contribute to the stalled effort toward measles eradication. In this concise communication, we show that a measles virus (MV) with enhanced hemagglutinin (H) expression and incorporation, termed MVvac2-H2, retained its enhanced immunogenicity, previously established in older mice, when administered to very young, genetically modified, MV-susceptible mice in the presence of passive anti-measles immunity. This immunity level mimics the sub-neutralizing immunity prevalent in infants too young to be vaccinated. Additionally, toward a more physiological small animal model of maternal anti-measles immunity interference, we document vertical transfer of passive anti-MV immunity in genetically-modified, MV susceptible mice and show in this physiological model a better MVvac2-H2 immunogenic profile than that of the parental vaccine strain. In sum, these data support the notion that enhancing MV hemagglutinin incorporation can circumvent in vivo neutralization. This strategy merits additional exploration as an alternative pediatric measles vaccine.

  1. A Recombinant Measles Vaccine with Enhanced Resistance to Passive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Julik, Emily; Reyes-del Valle, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Current measles vaccines suffer from poor effectiveness in young infants due primarily to the inhibitory effect of residual maternal immunity on vaccine responses. The development of a measles vaccine that resists such passive immunity would strongly contribute to the stalled effort toward measles eradication. In this concise communication, we show that a measles virus (MV) with enhanced hemagglutinin (H) expression and incorporation, termed MVvac2-H2, retained its enhanced immunogenicity, previously established in older mice, when administered to very young, genetically modified, MV-susceptible mice in the presence of passive anti-measles immunity. This immunity level mimics the sub-neutralizing immunity prevalent in infants too young to be vaccinated. Additionally, toward a more physiological small animal model of maternal anti-measles immunity interference, we document vertical transfer of passive anti-MV immunity in genetically-modified, MV susceptible mice and show in this physiological model a better MVvac2-H2 immunogenic profile than that of the parental vaccine strain. In sum, these data support the notion that enhancing MV hemagglutinin incorporation can circumvent in vivo neutralization. This strategy merits additional exploration as an alternative pediatric measles vaccine. PMID:28934110

  2. Design of Recombinant Stem Cell Factor macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Fusion Proteins and their Biological Activity In Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Yang, Jie; Wang, Yuelang; Zhan, Chenyang; Zang, Yuhui; Qin, Junchuan

    2005-05-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) can act in synergistic way to promote the growth of mononuclear phagocytes. SCF-M-CSF fusion proteins were designed on the computer using the Homology and Biopolymer modules of the software packages InsightII. Several existing crystal structures were used as templates to generate models of the complexes of receptor with fusion protein. The structure rationality of the fusion protein incorporated a series of flexible linker peptide was analyzed on InsightII system. Then, a suitable peptide GGGGSGGGGSGG was chosen for the fusion protein. Two recombinant SCF-M-CSF fusion proteins were generated by construction of a plasmid in which the coding regions of human SCF (1-165aa) and M-CSF (1-149aa) cDNA were connected by this linker peptide coding sequence followed by subsequent expression in insect cell. The results of Western blot and activity analysis showed that these two recombinant fusion proteins existed as a dimer with a molecular weight of 84 KD under non-reducing conditions and a monomer of 42 KD at reducing condition. The results of cell proliferation assays showed that each fusion protein induced a dose-dependent proliferative response. At equimolar concentration, SCF/M-CSF was about 20 times more potent than the standard monomeric SCF in stimulating TF-1 cell line growth, while M-CSF/SCF was 10 times of monomeric SCF. No activity difference of M-CSF/SCF or SCF/M-CSF to M-CSF (at same molar) was found in stimulating the HL-60 cell linear growth. The synergistic effect of SCF and M-CSF moieties in the fusion proteins was demonstrated by the result of clonogenic assay performed with human bone mononuclear, in which both SCF/M-CSF and M-CSF/SCF induced much higher number of CFU-M than equimolar amount of SCF or M-CSF or that of two cytokines mixture.

  3. Enhanced production of recombinant proteins with Corynebacterium glutamicum by deletion of insertion sequences (IS elements).

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Woong; Yim, Sung Sun; Kim, Min Jeong; Jeong, Ki Jun

    2015-12-29

    In most bacteria, various jumping genetic elements including insertion sequences elements (IS elements) cause a variety of genetic rearrangements resulting in harmful effects such as genome and recombinant plasmid instability. The genetic stability of a plasmid in a host is critical for high-level production of recombinant proteins, and in this regard, the development of an IS element-free strain could be a useful strategy for the enhanced production of recombinant proteins. Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is a workhorse in the industrial-scale production of various biomolecules including recombinant proteins, also has several IS elements, and it is necessary to identify the critical IS elements and to develop IS element deleted strain. From the cultivation of C. glutamicum harboring a plasmid for green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene expression, non-fluorescent clones were isolated by FACS (fluorescent activated cell sorting). All the isolated clones had insertions of IS elements in the GFP coding region, and two major IS elements (ISCg1 and ISCg2 families) were identified. By co-cultivating cells harboring either the isolated IS element-inserted plasmid or intact plasmid, it was clearly confirmed that cells harboring the IS element-inserted plasmids became dominant during the cultivation due to their growth advantage over cells containing intact plasmids, which can cause a significant reduction in recombinant protein production during cultivation. To minimize the harmful effects of IS elements on the expression of heterologous genes in C. glutamicum, two IS element free C. glutamicum strains were developed in which each major IS element was deleted, and enhanced productivity in the engineered C. glutamicum strain was successfully demonstrated with three models: GFP, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] and γ-aminobutyrate (GABA). Our findings clearly indicate that the hopping of IS elements could be detrimental to the production of recombinant proteins in C

  4. Surface modifications of photoanodes in dye sensitized solar cells: enhanced light harvesting and reduced recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Vibha; Aswal, D. K.

    2015-06-01

    In a quest to harvest solar power, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have potential for low-cost eco-friendly photovoltaic devices. The major processes which govern the efficiency of a DSSC are photoelectron generation, injection of photo-generated electrons to the conduction band (CB) of the mesoporous nanocrystalline semiconductor (nc-SC); transport of CB electrons through nc-SC and subsequent collection of CB electrons at the counter electrode (CE) through the external circuit; and dye regeneration by redox couple or hole transport layer (HTL). Most of these processes occur at various interfaces of the photoanode. In addition, recombination losses of photo-generated electrons with either dye or redox molecules take place at the interfaces. Therefore, one of the key requirements for high efficiency is to improve light harvesting of the photoanode and to reduce the recombination losses at various interfaces. In this direction, surface modification of the photoanode is the simplest method among the various other approaches available in the literature. In this review, we present a comprehensive discussion on surface modification of the photoanode, which has been adopted in the literature for not only enhancing light harvesting but also reducing recombination. Various approaches towards surface modification of the photoanode discussed are (i) fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/nc-SC interface modified via a compact layer of semiconductor material which blocks exposed sites of FTO to electrolyte (or HTL), (ii) nc-SC/dye interface modification either through acid treatment resulting in enhanced dye loading due to a positively charged surface or by depositing insulating/semiconducting blocking layer on the nc-SC surface, which acts as a tunneling barrier for recombination, (iii) nc-SC/dye interface modified by employing co-adsorbents which helps in reducing the dye aggregation and thereby recombination, and (iv) dye/electrolyte (or dye/HTL) interface modification using

  5. Directed Evolution of RecA Variants with Enhanced Capacity for Conjugational Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taejin; Chitteni-Pattu, Sindhu; Cox, Benjamin L.; Wood, Elizabeth A.; Sandler, Steven J.; Cox, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    The recombination activity of Escherichia coli (E. coli) RecA protein reflects an evolutionary balance between the positive and potentially deleterious effects of recombination. We have perturbed that balance, generating RecA variants exhibiting improved recombination functionality via random mutagenesis followed by directed evolution for enhanced function in conjugation. A recA gene segment encoding a 59 residue segment of the protein (Val79-Ala137), encompassing an extensive subunit-subunit interface region, was subjected to degenerate oligonucleotide-mediated mutagenesis. An iterative selection process generated at least 18 recA gene variants capable of producing a higher yield of transconjugants. Three of the variant proteins, RecA I102L, RecA V79L and RecA E86G/C90G were characterized based on their prominence. Relative to wild type RecA, the selected RecA variants exhibited faster rates of ATP hydrolysis, more rapid displacement of SSB, decreased inhibition by the RecX regulator protein, and in general displayed a greater persistence on DNA. The enhancement in conjugational function comes at the price of a measurable RecA-mediated cellular growth deficiency. Persistent DNA binding represents a barrier to other processes of DNA metabolism in vivo. The growth deficiency is alleviated by expression of the functionally robust RecX protein from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. RecA filaments can be a barrier to processes like replication and transcription. RecA regulation by RecX protein is important in maintaining an optimal balance between recombination and other aspects of DNA metabolism. PMID:26047498

  6. Enhanced production of GDP-L-fucose by overexpression of NADPH regenerator in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Heong; Chin, Young-Wook; Han, Nam Soo; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2011-08-01

    Biosynthesis of guanosine 5'-diphosphate-L-fucose (GDP-L-fucose) requires NADPH as a reducing cofactor. In this study, endogenous NADPH regenerating enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (Icd), and NADP(+)-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MaeB) were overexpressed to increase GDP-L-fucose production in recombinant Escherichia coli. The effects of overexpression of each NADPH regenerating enzyme on GDP-L-fucose production were investigated in a series of batch and fed-batch fermentations. Batch fermentations showed that overexpression of G6PDH was the most effective for GDP-L-fucose production. However, GDP-L-fucose production was not enhanced by overexpression of G6PDH in the glucose-limited fed-batch fermentation. Hence, a glucose feeding strategy was optimized to enhance GDP-L-fucose production. Fed-batch fermentation with a pH-stat feeding mode for sufficient supply of glucose significantly enhanced GDP-L-fucose production compared with glucose-limited fed-batch fermentation. A maximum GDP-L-fucose concentration of 235.2 ± 3.3 mg l(-1), corresponding to a 21% enhancement in the GDP-L-fucose production compared with the control strain overexpressing GDP-L-fucose biosynthetic enzymes only, was achieved in the pH-stat fed-batch fermentation of the recombinant E. coli overexpressing G6PDH. It was concluded that sufficient glucose supply and efficient NADPH regeneration are crucial for NADPH-dependent GDP-L-fucose production in recombinant E. coli.

  7. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Distinct Metabolic Differences Between Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) and Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) Grown Macrophages Derived from Murine Bone Marrow Cells.

    PubMed

    Na, Yi Rang; Hong, Ji Hye; Lee, Min Yong; Jung, Jae Hun; Jung, Daun; Kim, Young Won; Son, Dain; Choi, Murim; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2015-10-01

    Macrophages are crucial in controlling infectious agents and tissue homeostasis. Macrophages require a wide range of functional capabilities in order to fulfill distinct roles in our body, one being rapid and robust immune responses. To gain insight into macrophage plasticity and the key regulatory protein networks governing their specific functions, we performed quantitative analyses of the proteome and phosphoproteome of murine primary GM-CSF and M-CSF grown bone marrow derived macrophages (GM-BMMs and M-BMMs, respectively) using the latest isobaric tag based tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Strikingly, metabolic processes emerged as a major difference between these macrophages. Specifically, GM-BMMs show significant enrichment of proteins involving glycolysis, the mevalonate pathway, and nitrogen compound biosynthesis. This evidence of enhanced glycolytic capability in GM-BMMs is particularly significant regarding their pro-inflammatory responses, because increased production of cytokines upon LPS stimulation in GM-BMMs depends on their acute glycolytic capacity. In contrast, M-BMMs up-regulate proteins involved in endocytosis, which correlates with a tendency toward homeostatic functions such as scavenging cellular debris. Together, our data describes a proteomic network that underlies the pro-inflammatory actions of GM-BMMs as well as the homeostatic functions of M-BMMs. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Deleting multiple lytic genes enhances biomass yield and production of recombinant proteins by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Zhenmin; Zhao, Ruili; Jin, Tingting; Zhang, Xiaoming; Chen, Xiangdong

    2014-08-31

    Bacillus subtilis is widely used in agriculture and industrial biotechnology; however, cell autolysis significantly decreases its yield in liquid cultures. Numerous factors mediate the lysis of B. subtilis, such as cannibalism factors, prophages, and peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases. The aim of this work was to use molecular genetic techniques to develop a new strategy to prevent cell lysis and enhance biomass as well as the production of recombinant proteins. Five genes or genetic elements representing three different functional categories were studied as follows: lytC encoding PG hydrolases, the prophage genes xpf and yqxG-yqxH-cwlA (yGlA), and skfA and sdpC that encode cannibalism factors. Cell lysis was reduced and biomass was enhanced by deleting individually skfA, sdpC, xpf, and lytC. We constructed the multiple deletion mutant LM2531 (skfA sdpC lytC xpf) and found that after 4 h of culture, its biomass yield was significantly increased compared with that of prototypical B. subtilis 168 (wild-type) strain and that 15% and 92% of the cells were lysed in cultures of LM2531 and wild-type, respectively. Moreover, two expression vectors were constructed for producing recombinant proteins (β-galactosidase and nattokinase) under the control of the P43 promoter. Cultures of LM2531 and wild-type transformants produced 13741 U/ml and 7991 U/ml of intracellular β-galactosidase, respectively (1.72-fold increase). Further, the level of secreted nattokinase produced by strain LM2531 increased by 2.6-fold compared with wild-type (5226 IU/ml vs. 2028 IU/ml, respectively). Our novel, systematic multigene deletion approach designed to inhibit cell lysis significantly increased the biomass yield and the production of recombinant proteins by B. subtilis. These findings show promise for guiding efforts to manipulate the genomes of other B. subtilis strains that are used for industrial purposes.

  9. Generation of a Recombinant Akabane Virus Expressing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein

    PubMed Central

    Takenaka-Uema, Akiko; Murata, Yousuke; Gen, Fumihiro; Ishihara-Saeki, Yukari; Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Kato, Kentaro; Murakami, Shin; Haga, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We generated a recombinant Akabane virus (AKAV) expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP-AKAV) by using reverse genetics. We artificially constructed an ambisense AKAV S genome encoding N/NSs on the negative-sense strand, and eGFP on the positive-sense strand with an intergenic region (IGR) derived from the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) S genome. The recombinant virus exhibited eGFP fluorescence and had a cytopathic effect in cell cultures, even after several passages. These results indicate that the gene encoding eGFP in the ambisense RNA could be stably maintained. Transcription of N/NSs and eGFP mRNAs of eGFP-AKAV was terminated within the IGR. The mechanism responsible for this appears to be different from that in RVFV, where the termination sites for N and NSs are determined by a defined signal sequence. We inoculated suckling mice intraperitoneally with eGFP-AKAV, which resulted in neurological signs and lethality equivalent to those seen for the parent AKAV. Fluorescence from eGFP in frozen brain slices from the eGFP-AKAV-infected mice was localized to the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata. Our approach to producing a fluorescent virus, using an ambisense genome, helped obtain eGFP-AKAV, a fluorescent bunyavirus whose viral genes are intact and which can be easily visualized. IMPORTANCE AKAV is the etiological agent of arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome in ruminants, which causes considerable economic loss to the livestock industry. We successfully generated a recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged AKAV containing an artificial ambisense S genome. This virus could become a useful tool for analyzing AKAV pathogenesis in host animals. In addition, our approach of using an ambisense genome to generate an orthobunyavirus stably expressing a foreign gene could contribute to establishing alternative vaccine strategies, such as bivalent vaccine virus constructs, for veterinary use against infectious diseases. PMID

  10. Recombinant avian adeno-associated virus: transgene expression in vivo and enhancement of expression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Carlos; Villegas, Pedro

    2006-06-01

    Recombinant avian adeno-associated viruses coding for the LacZ gene were used to inoculate embryonating chicken eggs, to assess the usefulness of the system for the expression of a transgene in vivo. The results obtained indicate significantly higher levels of expression of the reporter gene at various time intervals in the embryos inoculated with the recombinant virus in comparison with the mock-inoculated controls. At the embryo level, significant differences were evident at 120 hr postinoculation; hatched chicks showed transgene expression up to 14 days of age. In a second experiment, different cell-line cultures were transfected with plasmids encoding for a reporter gene flanked by the avian adeno-associated virus inverted terminal repeats (ITR), either alone or in the presence of the major nonstructural proteins of the virus (Rep 78/68) to assess the ability of these proteins and DNA elements to enhance gene expression. Results indicate that the inclusion of the viral ITR alone or during coexpression of the Rep proteins significantly enhances the expression of the transgene in all cell lines tested, as evidenced by the detection of the beta-galacrosidase protein through chemiluminescence reactions and staining of transfected monolayers.

  11. Modulation of guanosine nucleotides biosynthetic pathways enhanced GDP-L-fucose production in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Heong; Shin, So-Yeon; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Han, Nam Soo; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2012-03-01

    Guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) is the key substrate for biosynthesis of guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-L-fucose. In this study, improvement of GDP-L-fucose production was attempted by manipulating the biosynthetic pathway for guanosine nucleotides in recombinant Escherichia coli-producing GDP-L-fucose. The effects of overexpression of inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) dehydrogenase, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) synthetase (GuaB and GuaA), GMP reductase (GuaC) and guanosine-inosine kinase (Gsk) on GDP-L-fucose production were investigated in a series of fed-batch fermentations. Among the enzymes tested, overexpression of Gsk led to a significant improvement of GDP-L-fucose production. Maximum GDP-L-fucose concentration of 305.5 ± 5.3 mg l(-1) was obtained in the pH-stat fed-batch fermentation of recombinant E. coli-overexpressing Gsk, which corresponds to a 58% enhancement in the GDP-L-fucose production compared with the control strain overexpressing GDP-L-fucose biosynthetic enzymes. Such an enhancement of GDP-L-fucose production could be due to the increase in the intracellular level of GMP.

  12. Enhanced delignification of lignocellulosic substrates by Pichia GS115 expressed recombinant laccase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vidya Pradeep; Kolte, Atul P; Dhali, Arindam; Naik, Chandrashekar; Sridhar, Manpal

    2018-04-25

    Utilization of energy-rich crop residues by ruminants is restricted by the presence of lignin, which is recalcitrant to digestion. Application of lignin degrading enzymes on the lignocellulosic biomass exposes the cellulose for easy digestion by ruminants. Laccases have been found to be considerably effective in improving the digestibility by way of delignification. However, laccase yields from natural hosts are not sufficient for industrial scale applications, which restricts their use. A viable option would be to express the laccase gene in compatible hosts to achieve higher production yields. A codon-optimized synthetic variant of Schizophyllum commune laccase gene was cloned into a pPIC9K vector and expressed in P. pastoris GS115 (his4) under the control of an alcohol oxidase promoter. Colonies were screened for G418 resistance and the methanol utilization phenotype was established. The transformant yielded a laccase activity of 344 U·mL -1 after 5 days of growth at 30°C (0.019 g·mL -1 wet cell weight). The laccase protein produced by the recombinant Pichia clone was detected as two bands with apparent molecular weights of 55 kDa and 70 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Activity staining on native PAGE confirmed the presence of bioactive laccase. Treatment of five common crop residues with recombinant laccase recorded a lignin loss ranging between 1.64% in sorghum stover, to 4.83% in finger millet, with an enhancement in digestibility ranging between 8.71% in maize straw to 24.61% in finger millet straw. Treatment with recombinant laccase was effective in enhancing the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass for ruminant feeding through delignification. To date, a number of hosts have been adventured to produce laccase in large quantities, but, to our knowledge, there are no reports of the expression of laccase protein from Schizophyllum commune in Pichia pastoris, and also on the treatment of crop residues using recombinant laccase for ruminant feeding.

  13. MicroRNA-Mediated Down-Regulation of M-CSF Receptor Contributes to Maturation of Mouse Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Riepsaame, Joey; van Oudenaren, Adri; den Broeder, Berlinda J. H.; van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Pothof, Joris; Leenen, Pieter J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) maturation is a tightly regulated process that requires coordinated and timed developmental cues. Here we investigate whether microRNAs are involved in this process. We identify microRNAs in mouse GM-CSF-generated, monocyte-related DC (GM-DC) that are differentially expressed during both spontaneous and LPS-induced maturation and characterize M-CSF receptor (M-CSFR), encoded by the Csf1r gene, as a key target for microRNA-mediated regulation in the final step toward mature DC. MicroRNA-22, -34a, and -155 are up-regulated in mature MHCIIhi CD86hi DC and mediate Csf1r mRNA and protein down-regulation. Experimental inhibition of Csf1r-targeting microRNAs in vitro results not only in sustained high level M-CSFR protein expression but also in impaired DC maturation upon stimulation by LPS. Accordingly, over-expression of Csf1r in GM-DC inhibits terminal differentiation. Taken together, these results show that developmentally regulated microRNAs control Csf1r expression, supplementing previously identified mechanisms that regulate its transcription and protein surface expression. Furthermore, our data indicate a novel function for Csf1r in mouse monocyte-derived DC, showing that down-regulation of M-CSFR expression is essential for final DC maturation. PMID:24198819

  14. Prophylactic antibiotics or G(M)-CSF for the prevention of infections and improvement of survival in cancer patients receiving myelotoxic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Skoetz, Nicole; Bohlius, Julia; Engert, Andreas; Monsef, Ina; Blank, Oliver; Vehreschild, Jörg-Janne

    2015-12-21

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) and other infectious complications are some of the most serious treatment-related toxicities of chemotherapy for cancer, with a mortality rate of 2% to 21%. The two main types of prophylactic regimens are granulocyte (macrophage) colony-stimulating factors (G(M)-CSF) and antibiotics, frequently quinolones or cotrimoxazole. Current guidelines recommend the use of colony-stimulating factors when the risk of febrile neutropenia is above 20%, but they do not mention the use of antibiotics. However, both regimens have been shown to reduce the incidence of infections. Since no systematic review has compared the two regimens, a systematic review was undertaken. To compare the efficacy and safety of G(M)-CSF compared to antibiotics in cancer patients receiving myelotoxic chemotherapy. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, databases of ongoing trials, and conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society of Hematology (1980 to December 2015). We planned to include both full-text and abstract publications. Two review authors independently screened search results. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing prophylaxis with G(M)-CSF versus antibiotics for the prevention of infection in cancer patients of all ages receiving chemotherapy. All study arms had to receive identical chemotherapy regimes and other supportive care. We included full-text, abstracts, and unpublished data if sufficient information on study design, participant characteristics, interventions and outcomes was available. We excluded cross-over trials, quasi-randomised trials and post-hoc retrospective trials. Two review authors independently screened the results of the search strategies, extracted data, assessed risk of bias, and analysed data according to standard Cochrane methods. We did final interpretation together with an experienced clinician. In this updated review, we included no new randomised controlled

  15. Enhancement of Th1 immune responses to recombinant influenza nucleoprotein by Ribi adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Cargnelutti, Diego E; Sanchez, María A V; Alvarez, Paula; Boado, Lorena; Mattion, Nora; Scodeller, Eduardo A

    2013-04-01

    A broad coverage influenza vaccine against multiple viral strains based on the viral nucleoprotein (NP) is a goal pursued by many laboratories. If the goal is to formulate the vaccine with recombinant NP it is essential to count on adjuvants capable of inducing cellular immunity. This work have studied the effect of the monophosphoryl lipid A and trehalose dimycolate, known as the Ribi Adjuvant System (RAS), in the immune response induced in mice immunized with recombinant NP. The NP was formulated with RAS and used to immunize BALB/c mice. Immunizations with NP-RAS increased the humoral and cellular immune responses compared to unadjuvanted NP. The predominant antibody isotype was IgG2a, suggesting the development of a Th1 response. Analysis of the cytokines from mice immunized with NP-RAS showed a significant increase in the production of IFN-g and a decreased production of IL-10 and IL-4 compared to controls without RAS. These results are similar to those usually obtained using Freund’s adjuvant, known to induce Th1 and CTL responses when co-administered with purified proteins, and suggest that a similar approach may be possible to enhance the performance of a T-cell vaccine containing NP.

  16. mCSF1, a nucleus-encoded CRM protein required for the processing of many mitochondrial introns, is involved in the biogenesis of respiratory complexes I and IV in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zmudjak, Michal; Colas des Francs-Small, Catherine; Keren, Ido; Shaya, Felix; Belausov, Eduard; Small, Ian; Ostersetzer-Biran, Oren

    2013-07-01

    The coding regions of many mitochondrial genes in plants are interrupted by intervening sequences that are classified as group II introns. Their splicing is essential for the expression of the genes they interrupt and hence for respiratory function, and is facilitated by various protein cofactors. Despite the importance of these cofactors, only a few of them have been characterized. CRS1-YhbY domain (CRM) is a recently recognized RNA-binding domain that is present in several characterized splicing factors in plant chloroplasts. The Arabidopsis genome encodes 16 CRM proteins, but these are largely uncharacterized. Here, we analyzed the intracellular location of one of these hypothetical proteins in Arabidopsis, mitochondrial CAF-like splicing factor 1 (mCSF1; At4 g31010), and analyzed the growth phenotypes and organellar activities associated with mcsf1 mutants in plants. Our data indicated that mCSF1 resides within mitochondria and its functions are essential during embryogenesis. Mutant plants with reduced mCSF1 displayed inhibited germination and retarded growth phenotypes that were tightly associated with reduced complex I and IV activities. Analogously to the functions of plastid-localized CRM proteins, analysis of the RNA profiles in wildtype and mcsf1 plants showed that mCSF1 acts in the splicing of many of the group II intron RNAs in Arabidopsis mitochondria. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Convection Enhanced Delivery of Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus into the Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Nash, Kevin R; Gordon, Marcia N

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has become an extremely useful tool for the study of gene over expression or knockdown in the central nervous system of experimental animals. One disadvantage of intracranial injections of rAAV vectors into the brain parenchyma has been restricted distribution to relatively small volumes of the brain. Convection enhanced delivery (CED) is a method for delivery of clinically relevant amounts of therapeutic agents to large areas of the brain in a direct intracranial injection procedure. CED uses bulk flow to increase the hydrostatic pressure and thus improve volume distribution. The CED method has shown robust gene transfer and increased distribution within the CNS and can be successfully used for different serotypes of rAAV for increased transduction of the mouse CNS. This chapter details the surgical injection of rAAV by CED into a mouse brain.

  18. Expression of interleukin-6 by a recombinant rabies virus enhances its immunogenicity as a potential vaccine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Zhang, Boyue; Wu, Yuting; Tian, Qin; Zhao, Jing; Lyu, Ziyu; Zhang, Qiong; Mei, Mingzhu; Luo, Yongwen; Guo, Xiaofeng

    2017-02-07

    Several studies have confirmed that interleukin-6 (IL6) mediates multiple biological effects that enhance immune responses when used as an adjuvant. In the present study, recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing canine IL6 (rHEP-CaIL6) was rescued and its pathogenicity and immunogenicity were investigated in mice. We demonstrated that mice received a single intramuscular immunization with rHEP-CaIL6 showed an earlier increase and higher maximum titres of virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) as well as anti-RABV antibodies compared with mice immunized with the parent strain. Moreover, survival rates of mice immunized with rHEP-CaIL6 were higher compared with mice immunized with parent HEP-Flury according to the challenge assay. Flow cytometry further confirmed that immunization with rHEP-CaIL6 induced the strong recruitment of mature B cells and CD8 + T cells to lymph nodes, which may partially explain the high levels of VNA and enhanced cellular immunity. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that rHEP-CaIL6 induced stronger inflammatory and immune responses in the central nervous system, which might have allowed virus clearance in the early infection phase. Furthermore, mice infected intranasally with rHEP-CaIL6 developed no clinical symptoms while mice infected with HEP-Flury showed piloerection. In summary, these data indicate that rHEP-CaIL6 induces a strong, protective immune response with a good safety profile. Therefore, a recombinant RABV strain expressing canine IL6 may aid the development of an effective, safe attenuated rabies vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. RNA Recombination Enhances Adaptability and Is Required for Virus Spread and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yinghong; Rouzine, Igor M; Bianco, Simone; Acevedo, Ashley; Goldstein, Elizabeth Faul; Farkov, Mikhail; Brodsky, Leonid; Andino, Raul

    2016-04-13

    Mutation and recombination are central processes driving microbial evolution. A high mutation rate fuels adaptation but also generates deleterious mutations. Recombination between two different genomes may resolve this paradox, alleviating effects of clonal interference and purging deleterious mutations. Here we demonstrate that recombination significantly accelerates adaptation and evolution during acute virus infection. We identified a poliovirus recombination determinant within the virus polymerase, mutation of which reduces recombination rates without altering replication fidelity. By generating a panel of variants with distinct mutation rates and recombination ability, we demonstrate that recombination is essential to enrich the population in beneficial mutations and purge it from deleterious mutations. The concerted activities of mutation and recombination are key to virus spread and virulence in infected animals. These findings inform a mathematical model to demonstrate that poliovirus adapts most rapidly at an optimal mutation rate determined by the trade-off between selection and accumulation of detrimental mutations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-radiative carrier recombination enhanced by two-level process: A first-principles study

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Ji -Hui; Shi, Lin; Wang, Lin -Wang; ...

    2016-02-16

    In this study, non-radiative recombination plays an important role in the performance of optoelectronic semiconductor devices such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes. Most textbook examples assume that the recombination process occurs through a single defect level, where one electron and one hole are captured and recombined. Based on this simple picture, conventional wisdom is that only defect levels near the center of the bandgap can be effective recombination centers. Here, we present a new two-level recombination mechanism: first, one type of carrier is captured through a defect level forming a metastable state; then the local defect configuration rapidly changesmore » to a stable state, where the other type of carrier is captured and recombined through another defect level. This novel mechanism is applied to the recombination center Te 2+ cd in CdTe. We show that this two-level process can significantly increase the recombination rate (by three orders of magnitude) in agreement with experiments. We expect that this two-level recombination process can exist in a wide range of semiconductors, so its effect should be carefully examined in characterizing optoelectronic materials.« less

  1. Non-Radiative Carrier Recombination Enhanced by Two-Level Process: A First-Principles Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ji-Hui; Shi, Lin; Wang, Lin-Wang; Wei, Su-Huai

    2016-02-01

    Non-radiative recombination plays an important role in the performance of optoelectronic semiconductor devices such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes. Most textbook examples assume that the recombination process occurs through a single defect level, where one electron and one hole are captured and recombined. Based on this simple picture, conventional wisdom is that only defect levels near the center of the bandgap can be effective recombination centers. Here, we present a new two-level recombination mechanism: first, one type of carrier is captured through a defect level forming a metastable state; then the local defect configuration rapidly changes to a stable state, where the other type of carrier is captured and recombined through another defect level. This novel mechanism is applied to the recombination center in CdTe. We show that this two-level process can significantly increase the recombination rate (by three orders of magnitude) in agreement with experiments. We expect that this two-level recombination process can exist in a wide range of semiconductors, so its effect should be carefully examined in characterizing optoelectronic materials.

  2. Enhanced effect of fluorescent whitening agent on peroral infection for recombinant baculovirus in the host Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Shang, Jinyan; Liu, Xunli; Cui, Weizheng; Wu, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Na

    2007-01-01

    The low efficiency of the oral infectivity of recombinant polyhedrin-negative baculovirus is a major bottleneck in the application of the baculovirus expression system in the silkworm (Bombyx mori L). In this study, the effects of a fluorescent whitening agent on improving the oral infection for the recombinant Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus in silkworm larva and their possible mechanism were investigated. The results showed that the peroral infection can be remarkably enhanced by adding VBL into the larval artificial diet. The maximum infection rate reached as high as 90% with the concentration of VBL (1%), which was then considered as optimal. The total protease activity and pH value of the larval intestinal juice were found to be lower when compared to the control, indicating an abnormal physiological change of the larval digestive system by VBL, which, in turn, resulted in improved peroral infection of recombinant virus.

  3. Enhancing GDP-fucose production in recombinant Escherichia coli by metabolic pathway engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yafei; Han, Donglei; Pan, Ying; Wang, Shuaishuai; Fang, Junqiang; Wang, Peng; Liu, Xian-wei

    2015-02-01

    Guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-fucose is the indispensible donor substrate for fucosyltransferase-catalyzed synthesis of fucose-containing biomolecules, which have been found involving in various biological functions. In this work, the salvage pathway for GDP-fucose biosynthesis from Bacterioides fragilis was introduced into Escherichia coli. Besides, the biosynthesis of guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), an essential substrate for GDP-fucose biosynthesis, was enhanced via overexpression of enzymes involved in the salvage pathway of GTP biosynthesis. The production capacities of metabolically engineered strains bearing different combinations of recombinant enzymes were compared. The shake flask fermentation of the strain expressing Fkp, Gpt, Gmk and Ndk obtained the maximum GDP-fucose content of 4.6 ± 0.22 μmol/g (dry cell mass), which is 4.2 fold that of the strain only expressing Fkp. Through fed-batch fermentation, the GDP-fucose content further rose to 6.6 ± 0.14 μmol/g (dry cell mass). In addition to a better productivity than previous fermentation processes based on the de novo pathway for GDP-fucose biosynthesis, the established schemes in this work also have the advantage to be a potential avenue to GDP-fucose analogs encompassing chemical modification on the fucose residue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Distinct Properties of Human M-CSF and GM-CSF Monocyte-Derived Macrophages to Simulate Pathological Lung Conditions In Vitro: Application to Systemic and Inflammatory Disorders with Pulmonary Involvement.

    PubMed

    Lescoat, Alain; Ballerie, Alice; Augagneur, Yu; Morzadec, Claudie; Vernhet, Laurent; Fardel, Olivier; Jégo, Patrick; Jouneau, Stéphane; Lecureur, Valérie

    2018-03-17

    Macrophages play a central role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and fibrotic lung diseases. However, alveolar macrophages (AM) are poorly available in humans to perform in vitro studies due to a limited access to broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL). In this study, to identify the best alternative in vitro model for human AM, we compared the phenotype of AM obtained from BAL of patients suffering from three lung diseases (lung cancers, sarcoidosis and Systemic Sclerosis (SSc)-associated interstitial lung disease) to human blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) differentiated with M-CSF or GM-CSF. The expression of eight membrane markers was evaluated by flow cytometry. Globally, AM phenotype was closer to GM-CSF MDMs. However, the expression levels of CD163, CD169, CD204, CD64 and CD36 were significantly higher in SSc-ILD than in lung cancers. Considering the expression of CD204 and CD36, the phenotype of SSc-AM was closer to MDMs, from healthy donors or SSc patients, differentiated by M-CSF rather than GM-CSF. The comparative secretion of IL-6 by SSc-MDMs and SSc-AM is concordant with these phenotypic considerations. Altogether, these results support the M-CSF MDM model as a relevant in vitro alternative to simulate AM in fibrotic disorders such as SSc.

  5. Gelatin nanoparticles enhance delivery of hepatitis C virus recombinant NS2 gene

    PubMed Central

    George, Marina A.; El-Shorbagy, Haidan M.; Bassiony, Heba; Farroh, Khaled Y.; Youssef, Tareq; Salaheldin, Taher A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Development of an effective non-viral vaccine against hepatitis C virus infection is of a great importance. Gelatin nanoparticles (Gel.NPs) have an attention and promising approach as a viable carrier for delivery of vaccine, gene, drug and other biomolecules in the body. Aim of work The present study aimed to develop stable Gel.NPs conjugated with nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) gene of Hepatitis C Virus genotype 4a (HCV4a) as a safe and an efficient vaccine delivery system. Methods and results Gel.NPs were synthesized and characterized (size: 150±2 nm and zeta potential +17.6 mv). NS2 gene was successfully cloned and expressed into E. coli M15 using pQE-30 vector. Antigenicity of the recombinant NS2 protein was confirmed by Western blotting to verify the efficiency of NS2 as a possible vaccine. Then NS2 gene was conjugated to gelatin nanoparticles and a successful conjugation was confirmed by labeling and imaging using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM). Interestingly, the transformation of the conjugated NS2/Gel.NPs complex into E. coli DH5-α was 50% more efficient than transformation with the gene alone. In addition, conjugated NS2/Gel.NPs with ratio 1:100 (w/w) showed higher transformation efficiency into E. coli DH5-α than the other ratios (1:50 and 2:50). Conclusion Gel.NPs effectively enhanced the gene delivery in bacterial cells without affecting the structure of NS2 gene and could be used as a safe, easy, rapid, cost-effective and non-viral vaccine delivery system for HCV. PMID:28746382

  6. Expression and characterization of an enhanced recombinant heparinase I with chitin binding domain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuqin; Qiu, Meiling; Zhang, Xuanyue; Chen, Jinghua

    2017-12-01

    Heparinase I (Hep I) can efficiently depolymerize heparin and heparin sulfate to oligosaccharides or unsaturated disaccharides, which resulted in loss of physiological function such as blood coagulation. In order to realize the immobilization of Hep I on chitin carriers, we cloned Hep I with the chitin binding domain (ChBD) as a chitin-affinity tag, and the Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO) linker as a solvation enhancer in different fusion sequence. DNA and protein gels suggested that 4 kinds of recombinants were successfully constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli). And the triple functional heparinases isolated from cell lysate could be efficiently purified by chitin beads. After optimizing fermentation conditions, it gave the specific enzyme activities of 1.88±0.11, 3.69±0.45, 3.44±0.38, and 2.73±0.29IU/mg total proteins for ChBD-Hep I, ChBD-SUMO-Hep I, SUMO-ChBD-Hep I, and ChBD-Hep I-SUMO, respectively, with unfractionated heparin as substrate. The optimal reaction temperature and pH were determined to be 30°C and 7.0 for all the fusion enzymes. ChBD-SUMO-Hep I exhibited the maximum half-life (48min) at 30°C and best thermo-stability under 15-50°C. All the fusion enzymes showed broad pH-stability in the range of 5.4-9.0. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator enhances microparticle release from mouse brain-derived endothelial cells through plasmin.

    PubMed

    Garraud, Marie; Khacef, Kahina; Vion, Anne-Clémence; Leconte, Claire; Yin, Min; Renard, Jean-Marie; Marchand-Leroux, Catherine; Boulanger, Chantal M; Margaill, Isabelle; Beray-Berthat, Virginie

    2016-11-15

    Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is currently the only approved pharmacological strategy for acute ischemic stroke. However, rt-PA exhibits vascular toxicity mainly due to endothelial damage. To investigate the mechanisms underlying rt-PA-induced endothelial alterations, we assessed the role of rt-PA in the generation of endothelial microparticles (EMPs), emerging biological markers and effectors of endothelial dysfunction. The mouse brain-derived endothelial cell line bEnd.3 was used. Cells were treated with rt-PA at 20, 40 or 80μg/ml for 15 or 24h, and EMPs were quantified in the culture media using Annexin-V staining coupled with flow cytometry. Rt-PA enhanced EMP release from bEnd.3 cells with a maximal increase at the 40μg/ml dose for 24h (+78% compared to controls). Using tranexamic acid and aprotinin we demonstrated that plasmin is responsible for rt-PA-induced EMP release. The p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 and the poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) inhibitor PJ34 also reduced rt-PA-induced EMP production, suggesting that p38 MAPK and PARP are downstream intracellular effectors of rt-PA/plasmin. Rt-PA also altered through plasmin the morphology and the confluence of bEnd.3 cells. By contrast, these changes did not implicate p38 MAPK and PARP. This study demonstrates that rt-PA induces the production of microparticles by cerebral endothelial cells, through plasmin, p38 MAPK and PARP pathways. Determining the phenotype of these EMPs to clarify their role on the endothelium in ischemic conditions could thus be of particular interest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Interfamilial recombination between viruses led to acquisition of a novel translation-enhancing RNA element that allows resistance breaking.

    PubMed

    Miras, Manuel; Sempere, Raquel N; Kraft, Jelena J; Miller, W Allen; Aranda, Miguel A; Truniger, Veronica

    2014-04-01

    Many plant viruses depend on functional RNA elements, called 3'-UTR cap-independent translation enhancers (3'-CITEs), for translation of their RNAs. In this manuscript we provide direct proof for the existing hypothesis that 3'-CITEs are modular and transferable by recombination in nature, and that this is associated with an advantage for the created virus. By characterizing a newly identified Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV; Tombusviridae) isolate, which is able to overcome eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-mediated resistance, we found that it contains a 55 nucleotide insertion in its 3'-UTR. We provide strong evidence that this insertion was acquired by interfamilial recombination with the 3'-UTR of an Asiatic Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV; Luteoviridae). By constructing chimeric viruses, we showed that this recombined sequence is responsible for resistance breaking. Analysis of the translational efficiency of reporter constructs showed that this sequence functions as a novel 3'-CITE in both resistant and susceptible plants, being essential for translation control in resistant plants. In conclusion, we showed that a recombination event between two clearly identified viruses from different families led to the transfer of exactly the sequence corresponding to a functional RNA element, giving rise to a new isolate with the capacity to infect an otherwise nonsusceptible host. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Interfamilial recombination between viruses led to acquisition of a novel translation-enhancing RNA element that allows resistance breaking

    PubMed Central

    Miras, Manuel; Sempere, Raquel N.; Kraft, Jelena J.; Miller, W. Allen; Aranda, Miguel A.; Truniger, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Summary Many plant viruses depend on functional RNA elements, called 3′-UTR cap-independent translation enhancers (3′-CITEs), for translation of their RNAs. In this manuscript we provide direct proof for the existing hypothesis that 3′-CITEs are modular and transferable by recombination in nature, and that this is associated with an advantage for the created virus. By characterizing a newly identified Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV; Tombusviridae) isolate, which is able to overcome eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-mediated resistance, we found that it contains a 55 nucleotide insertion in its 3′-UTR. We provide strong evidence that this insertion was acquired by interfamilial recombination with the 3′-UTR of an Asiatic Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV; Luteoviridae). By constructing chimeric viruses, we showed that this recombined sequence is responsible for resistance breaking. Analysis of the translational efficiency of reporter constructs showed that this sequence functions as a novel 3′-CITE in both resistant and susceptible plants, being essential for translation control in resistant plants. In conclusion, we showed that a recombination event between two clearly identified viruses from different families led to the transfer of exactly the sequence corresponding to a functional RNA element, giving rise to a new isolate with the capacity to infect an otherwise non-susceptible host. PMID:24372390

  10. Recombination-enhanced surface expansion of clusters in intense soft x-ray laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Rupp, Daniela; Flückiger, Leonie; Adolph, Marcus

    Here, we studied the nanoplasma formation and explosion dynamics of single large xenon clusters in ultrashort, intense x-ray free-electron laser pulses via ion spectroscopy. The simultaneous measurement of single-shot diffraction images enabled a single-cluster analysis that is free from any averaging over the cluster size and laser intensity distributions. The measured charge state-resolved ion energy spectra show narrow distributions with peak positions that scale linearly with final ion charge state. These two distinct signatures are attributed to highly efficient recombination that eventually leads to the dominant formation of neutral atoms in the cluster. The measured mean ion energies exceed themore » value expected without recombination by more than an order of magnitude, indicating that the energy release resulting from electron-ion recombination constitutes a previously unnoticed nanoplasma heating process. This conclusion is supported by results from semiclassical molecular dynamics simulations.« less

  11. Recombination-enhanced surface expansion of clusters in intense soft x-ray laser pulses

    DOE PAGES

    Rupp, Daniela; Flückiger, Leonie; Adolph, Marcus; ...

    2016-10-07

    Here, we studied the nanoplasma formation and explosion dynamics of single large xenon clusters in ultrashort, intense x-ray free-electron laser pulses via ion spectroscopy. The simultaneous measurement of single-shot diffraction images enabled a single-cluster analysis that is free from any averaging over the cluster size and laser intensity distributions. The measured charge state-resolved ion energy spectra show narrow distributions with peak positions that scale linearly with final ion charge state. These two distinct signatures are attributed to highly efficient recombination that eventually leads to the dominant formation of neutral atoms in the cluster. The measured mean ion energies exceed themore » value expected without recombination by more than an order of magnitude, indicating that the energy release resulting from electron-ion recombination constitutes a previously unnoticed nanoplasma heating process. This conclusion is supported by results from semiclassical molecular dynamics simulations.« less

  12. A 5′ Noncoding Exon Containing Engineered Intron Enhances Transgene Expression from Recombinant AAV Vectors in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jiamiao; Williams, James A.; Luke, Jeremy; Zhang, Feijie; Chu, Kirk; Kay, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    We previously developed a mini-intronic plasmid (MIP) expression system in which the essential bacterial elements for plasmid replication and selection are placed within an engineered intron contained within a universal 5′ UTR noncoding exon. Like minicircle DNA plasmids (devoid of bacterial backbone sequences), MIP plasmids overcome transcriptional silencing of the transgene. However, in addition MIP plasmids increase transgene expression by 2 and often >10 times higher than minicircle vectors in vivo and in vitro. Based on these findings, we examined the effects of the MIP intronic sequences in a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector system. Recombinant AAV vectors containing an intron with a bacterial replication origin and bacterial selectable marker increased transgene expression by 40 to 100 times in vivo when compared with conventional AAV vectors. Therefore, inclusion of this noncoding exon/intron sequence upstream of the coding region can substantially enhance AAV-mediated gene expression in vivo. PMID:27903072

  13. Enhancement of extracellular expression of Bacillus naganoensis pullulanase from recombinant Bacillus subtilis: Effects of promoter and host.

    PubMed

    Song, Wan; Nie, Yao; Mu, Xiao Qing; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Pullulanase plays an important role in industrial applications of starch processing. However, extracellular production of pullulanase from recombinant Bacillus subtilis is yet limited due to the issues on regulatory elements of B. subtilis expression system. In this study, the gene encoding B. naganoensis pullulanase (PUL) was expressed in B. subtilis WB800 under the promoter PHpaII in the shuttle vector pMA0911. The extracellular activity of expressed pullulanase was 3.9 U ml(-1) from the recombinant B. subtilis WB800/pMA0911-PHpaII-pul. To further enhance the yield of PUL, the promoter PHpaII in pMA0911 was replaced by a stronger constitutive promoter P43. Then the activity was increased to 8.7 U ml(-1) from the recombinant B. subtilis WB800/pMA0911-P43-pul. Effect of host on pullulanase expression was further investigated by comparison between B. subtilis WB600 and B. subtilis WB800. In addition to the available B. subtilis WB800 recombinants, the constructed plasmids pMA0911-PHpaII-pul and pMA0911-P43-pul were transformed into B. subtilis WB600, respectively. Consequently, the extracellular production of PUL was significantly enhanced by B. subtilis WB600/pMA0911-P43-pul, resulting in the extracellular pullulanase activity of 24.5 U ml(-1). Therefore, promoter and host had an impact on pullulanase expression and their optimization would be useful to improve heterologous protein expression in B. subtilis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhalation of Nebulized Perfluorochemical Enhances Recombinant Adenovirus and Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Gene Expression in Lung Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, Travis; Bonneau, Laura; Howard, Alan; Blanchard, James; Borda, Juan; Weiner, Daniel J.; Wang, Lili; Gao, Guang Ping; Kolls, Jay K.; Bohm, Rudolf; Liggitt, Denny

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Use of perfluorochemical liquids during intratracheal vector administration enhances recombinant adenovirus and adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated lung epithelial gene expression. We hypothesized that inhalation of nebulized perfluorochemical vapor would also enhance epithelial gene expression after subsequent intratracheal vector administration. Freely breathing adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed for selected times to nebulized perflubron or sterile saline in a sealed Plexiglas chamber. Recombinant adenoviral vector was administered by transtracheal puncture at selected times afterward and mice were killed 3 days after vector administration to assess transgene expression. Mice tolerated the nebulized perflubron without obvious ill effects. Vector administration 6 hr after nebulized perflubron exposure resulted in an average 540% increase in gene expression in airway and alveolar epithelium, compared with that with vector alone or saline plus vector control (p<0.05). However, vector administration 1 hr, 1 day, or 3 days after perflubron exposure was not different from either nebulized saline with vector or vector alone and a 60-min exposure to nebulized perflubron is required. In parallel pilot studies in macaques, inhalation of nebulized perflubron enhanced recombinant AAV2/5 vector expression throughout the lung. Serial chest radiographs, bronchoalveolar lavages, and results of complete blood counts and serum biochemistries demonstrated no obvious adverse effects of nebulized perflubron. Further, one macaque receiving nebulized perflubron only was monitored for 1 year with no obvious adverse effects of exposure. These results demonstrate that inhalation of nebulized perflubron, a simple, clinically more feasible technique than intratracheal administration of liquid perflubron, safely enhances lung gene expression. PMID:22568624

  15. Enhanced production of recombinant nattokinase in Bacillus subtilis by the elimination of limiting factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po Ting; Chao, Yun-Peng

    2006-10-01

    By systematic investigation, glutamate and a mixture of metal ions were identified as factors limiting the production of nattokinase in Bacillus subtilis. Consequently, in medium supplemented with these materials, the recombinant strain secreted 4 times more nattokinase (260 mg l(-1)) than when grown in the unsupplemented medium.

  16. Enhancement of xylose utilization from corn stover by a recombinant bacterium for ethanol production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effects of substrate-selective inoculum prepared by growing on glucose, xylose, arabinose, GXA (glucose, xylose, arabinose, 1:1:1) and corn stover hydrolyzate (dilute acid pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed, CSH) on ethanol production from CSH by a mixed sugar utilizing recombinant Escherichia ...

  17. An overview on molecular chaperones enhancing solubility of expressed recombinant proteins with correct folding.

    PubMed

    Mamipour, Mina; Yousefi, Mohammadreza; Hasanzadeh, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    The majority of research topics declared that most of the recombinant proteins have been expressed by Escherichia coli in basic investigations. But the majority of high expressed proteins formed as inactive recombinant proteins that are called inclusion body. To overcome this problem, several methods have been used including suitable promoter, environmental factors, ladder tag to secretion of proteins into the periplasm, gene protein optimization, chemical chaperones and molecular chaperones sets. Co-expression of the interest protein with molecular chaperones is one of the common methods The chaperones are a group of proteins, which are involved in making correct folding of recombinant proteins. Chaperones are divided two groups including; cytoplasmic and periplasmic chaperones. Moreover, periplasmic chaperones and proteases can be manipulated to increase the yields of secreted proteins. In this article, we attempted to review cytoplasmic chaperones such as Hsp families and periplasmic chaperones including; generic chaperones, specialized chaperones, PPIases, and proteins involved in disulfide bond formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Immune enhancement of Taishan Robinia pseudoacacia polysaccharide on recombinant Proteus mirabilis OmpA in chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongbing; Yang, Shifa; Zhao, Xue; Yang, Ya; Li, Bing; Zhu, Fujie; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Taishan Robinia pseudoacacia polysaccharide (TRPPS) on immune responses of chickens immunized with Proteus mirabilis outer membrane protein A (OmpA) recombinant protein vaccine. OmpA was expressed in Pichia pastoris and mixed with TRPPS. 360 chickens were randomly divided into six groups. Groups I to IV were treated with OmpA which contained TRPPS of three different dosages, Freund's adjuvant, respectively. Groups V and VI were treated with pure OmpA and physiological saline, respectively. The data showed that the antibody titers against OmpA, the concentration of IL-2, CD4 +, and CD8 +, T lymphocyte proliferation rate in Group II were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those in the other groups, little difference in SIgA content was observed among groups I to VI. These results indicated that TRPPS strengthened humoral and cellular immune responses against recombinant OmpA vaccine. Moreover, 200 mg/mL TRPPS showed significance (P < 0.05) compared with Freund's adjuvant. Therefore, TRPPS can be developed into an adjuvant for recombinant subunit vaccine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced homologous recombination is induced by alpha-particle radiation in somatic cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Po; Liu, Ping; Wu, Yuejin

    Almost 9 percent of cosmic rays which strike the earth's atmosphere are alpha particles. As one of the ionizing radiations (IR), its biological effects have been widely studied. However, the plant genomic instability induced by alpha-particle radiation was not largely known. In this research, the Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic for GUS recombination substrate was used to evaluate the genomic instability induced by alpha-particle radiation (3.3MeV). The pronounced effects of systemic exposure to alpha-particle radiation on the somatic homologous recombination frequency (HRF) were found at different doses. The 10Gy dose of radiation induced the maximal HRF which was 1.9-fold higher than the control. The local radiation of alpha-particle (10Gy) on root also resulted in a 2.5-fold increase of somatic HRF in non-radiated aerial plant, indicating that the signal(s) of genomic instability was transferred to non-radiated parts and initiated their genomic instability. Concurrent treatment of seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana with alpha-particle and DMSO(ROS scavenger) both in systemic and local radiation signifi- cantly suppressed the somatic HR, indicating that the free radicals produced by alpha-particle radiation took part in the production of signal of genomic instability rather than the signal transfer. Key words: alpha-particle radiation, somatic homologous recombination, genomic instability

  20. Recombinant allergens

    PubMed Central

    Jutel, Marek; Solarewicz-Madejek, Katarzyna; Smolinska, Sylwia

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only known causative treatment of allergic diseases. Recombinant allergen-based vaccination strategies arose from a strong need to both to improve safety and enhance efficacy of SIT. In addition, new vaccines can be effective in allergies including food allergy or atopic dermatitis, which poorly respond to the current treatment with allergen extracts. A number of successful clinical studies with both wild-type and hypoallergenic derivatives of recombinant allergens vaccines have been reported for the last decade. They showed high efficacy and safety profile as well as very strong modulation of T and B cell responses to specific allergens. PMID:23095874

  1. IL-2 Enhances the Function of Recombinant Poxvirus-Based Vaccines in the Treatment of Established Pulmonary Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Bronte, Vincenzo; Tsung, Kangla; Rao, Jay B.; Chen, Pauline W.; Wang, Michael; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2007-01-01

    Neoplastic cells are generally poor immunogens. Transfection of the murine tumor CT-26 with β-galactosidase (β-gal), a proteinfrom Escherichia coli, did not alter its growth rate in vivo, or its lethality, and did not elicit a measurable anti-β-gal immune response. Immunization with β-gal-expressing recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVV) elicited specific anti-β-gal cytolytic T lymphocytes, but rVV-β-gal was only marginally therapeutic when given to tumor-bearing mice. With the aim of expanding the immune response against β-gal, used here as a model tumor Ag, we gave mice exogenous IL-2 starting 12 h after the poxvirus. The therapeutic effectiveness of the combination of poxvirus and IL-2 was far greater than either of these treatments alone. When the cDNA for IL-2 was inserted into the viral genome of the rVV construct to make a double recombinant (drVV), antitumor activity was further augmented. One mechanism of action may be the enhanced activation or expansion of cytotoxicT cells, because a marked increase in primary cytotoxic responses against vaccinia determinants was observed. Interestingly, other cytokines (mGM-CSF, mTNF-α, and mIFN-γ) inserted into the rVV genome did not modify the efficacy of the rVV constructs. The increase in specific CTL responses against β-gal by drVV expressing the tumor-associated Ags (TAA) and IL-2 was morepronounced inmice bearing the lacZ-transduced tumor than in those bearing the parental cell line, suggesting that the TAA presented by growing tumor cells can either pre-activate or otherwise amplify the immune response induced by the rVV. Unfortunately, in several long-term surviving mice, tumor recurred that no longer expressed β-gal. These results indicate that treatment of disseminated tumors by using recombinant viruses expressing TAA can be enhanced by IL-2 provided exogenously, or encoded within the recombinant virus. PMID:7730632

  2. IMGT/GeneInfo: enhancing V(D)J recombination database accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Thierry-Pascal; Pasqual, Nicolas; Thuderoz, Florence; Hierle, Vivien; Chaume, Denys; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Jouvin-Marche, Evelyne; Marche, Patrice-Noël; Demongeot, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    IMGT/GeneInfo is a user-friendly online information system that provides information on data resulting from the complex mechanisms of immunoglobulin (IG) and T cell receptor (TR) V(D)J recombinations. For the first time, it is possible to visualize all the rearrangement parameters on a single page. IMGT/GeneInfo is part of the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® (IMGT), a high-quality integrated knowledge resource specializing in IG, TR, major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and related proteins of the immune system of human and other vertebrate species. The IMGT/GeneInfo system was developed by the TIMC and ICH laboratories (with the collaboration of LIGM), and is the first example of an external system being incorporated into IMGT. In this paper, we report the first part of this work. IMGT/GeneInfo_TR deals with the human and mouse TRA/TRD and TRB loci of the TR. Data handling and visualization are complementary to the current data and tools in IMGT, and will subsequently allow the modelling of V(D)J gene use, and thus, to predict non-standard recombination profiles which may eventually be found in conditions such as leukaemias or lymphomas. Access to IMGT/GeneInfo is free and can be found at http://imgt.cines.fr/GeneInfo. PMID:14681357

  3. Magnetic field enhancement of generation-recombination and shot noise in organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Djidjou, T. K.; Basel, Tek; Rogachev, A.

    We have studied the effect of magnetic field on noise in series of 2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene-based organic light emitting diodes with dominant hole injection, dominant electron injection, and balanced electron and hole injection. The noise spectra of the balanced devices revealed the generation-recombination (g-r) noise term, which we associated with bimolecular electron-hole recombination. The presence of the g-r noise term is correlated with the strong organic magnetoresistance (up to 25%) observed in the balanced devices. The noise spectra also have the shot noise contribution with the Fano factor 0.25–0.4. We found that time constant of the g-r term decreases and the magnitudemore » of shot noise increases when magnetic field is applied. This behavior can be consistently explained within the polaron-polaron model of organic magnetoresistance. We have not found any evidence that the magnetoresistance in studied devices is affected by traps.« less

  4. Enhanced Purification of Recombinant Rat NADPH-P450 Reductase by Using a Hexahistidine-Tag.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyoung-Goo; Lim, Young-Ran; Han, Songhee; Jeong, Dabin; Kim, Donghak

    2017-05-28

    NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR) transfers electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450 and heme oxygenase enzymes to support their catalytic activities. This protein is localized within the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and utilizes FMN, FAD, and NADPH as cofactors. Although NPR is essential toward enabling the biochemical and pharmacological analyses of P450 enzymes, its production as a recombinant purified protein requires a series of tedious efforts and a high cost due to the use of NADP + in the affinity chromatography process. In the present study, the rat NPR clone containing a 6× Histidine-tag (NPR-His) was constructed and heterologously expressed. The NPR-His protein was purified using Ni 2+ -affinity chromatography, and its functional features were characterized. A single band at 78 kDa was observed from SDS-PAGE and the purified protein displayed a maximum absorbance at 455 nm, indicating the presence of an oxidized flavin cofactor. Cytochrome c and nitroblue tetrazolium were reduced by purified NPR-His in an NADPH-dependent manner. The purified NPR-His successfully supported the catalytic activities of human P450 1A2 and 2A6 and fungal CYP52A21, yielding results similar to those obtained using conventional purified rat reductase. This study will facilitate the use of recombinant NPR-His protein in the various fields of P450 research.

  5. Absolute Measurements of Field Enhanced Dielectronic Recombination and Electron Impact Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, Daniel Wolf

    Absolute measurements have been made of the dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficient for C^ {3+}, via the 2s-2p core -excitation, in an external electric field of 11.4 +/- 0.9(1sigma) V cm ^{-1}; and of the electron impact excitation (EIE) rate coefficient for C ^{3+}(2s-2p) at energies near threshold. The ion-rest-frame FWHM of the electron energy spread was 1.74 +/- 0.22(1sigma) eV. The measured DR rate, at a mean electron energy of 8.26 +/- 0.07(1sigma ) eV, was (2.76+/- 0.75)times 10^{-10} cm^{3 } s^{-1}. The uncertainty quoted for the DR rate is the total experimental uncertainty at a 1sigma<=vel. The present DR result appears to agree with an intermediate coupling calculation which uses the isolated-resonance, single-configuration approximation. In comparing with theory, a semi-classical formula was used to determine which recombined ions were field-ionized by the 4.65 kV cm^{-1} fields in the final-charge-state analyzer and not detected. A more precise treatment of field-ionization, which includes the lifetime of the high Rydberg C^{2+} ions in the external field and the time evolution and rotation of the fields experienced by the recombined ions, is needed before a definitive comparison between experiment and theory can be made. For the EIE results, at an ion-rest-frame energy of 10.10 eV, the measured rate coefficient was (7.79+/- 2.10)times 10^{ -8} cm^3 s^ {-1}. The measured cross section was (4.15+/- 1.12)times 10^{ -16} cm^2. The uncertainties quoted here represent the total experimental uncertainty at a 90 percent confidence level. Good agreement is found with other measurements. Agreement is not good with Coulomb -Born with exchange and two-state close-coupling calculations which fall outside the 90-percent-confidence uncertainty limits. Agreement is better with a nine-state close-coupling calculation which lies at the extreme of the uncertainty limits. Taking into account previous measurements in C ^{3+} and also a measurement of EIE in Be

  6. N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride: An immune-enhancing adjuvant for hepatitis E virus recombinant polypeptide vaccine in mice.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wei; Zheng, Hai-Qun; Fu, Ting; He, Zhuo-Jing; Hong, Yan

    2017-08-03

    Adjuvants are essential for enhancing vaccine potency by improving the humoral and/or cell-mediated immune response to vaccine antigens. This study was performed to evaluate the immuno-enhancing characteristic of N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC), the cationically modified chitosan, as an adjuvant for hepatitis E virus (HEV) recombinant polypeptide vaccine. Animal experiments showed that HTCC provides adjuvant activity when co-administered with HEV recombinant polypeptide vaccine by intramuscularly route. Vaccination using HTCC as an adjuvant was associated with increases of the serum HEV-specific IgG antibodies, splenocytes proliferation and the growths of CD4 + CD8 - T lymphocytes and IFN-γ-secreting T lymphocytes in peripheral blood. These findings suggested that HTCC had strong immuno-enhancing effect. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that HTCC is safe and effective in inducing a good antibody response and stimulating Th1-biased immune responses for HEV recombinant polypeptide vaccine.

  7. Development of a high-copy plasmid for enhanced production of recombinant proteins in Leuconostoc citreum.

    PubMed

    Son, Yeon Jeong; Ryu, Ae Jin; Li, Ling; Han, Nam Soo; Jeong, Ki Jun

    2016-01-15

    Leuconostoc is a hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacteria, and its importance is widely recognized in the dairy industry. However, due to limited genetic tools including plasmids for Leuconostoc, there has not been much extensive research on the genetics and engineering of Leuconostoc yet. Thus, there is a big demand for high-copy-number plasmids for useful gene manipulation and overproduction of recombinant proteins in Leuconostoc. Using an existing low-copy plasmid, the copy number of plasmid was increased by random mutagenesis followed by FACS-based high-throughput screening. First, a random library of plasmids was constructed by randomizing the region responsible for replication in Leuconostoc citreum; additionally, a superfolder green fluorescent protein (sfGFP) was used as a reporter protein. With a high-speed FACS sorter, highly fluorescent cells were enriched, and after two rounds of sorting, single clone exhibiting the highest level of sfGFP was isolated. The copy number of the isolated plasmid (pCB4270) was determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR). It was found that the isolated plasmid has approximately a 30-fold higher copy number (approx. 70 copies per cell) than that of the original plasmid. From the sequence analysis, a single mutation (C→T) at position 4690 was found, and we confirmed that this single mutation was responsible for the increased plasmid copy number. The effectiveness of the isolated high-copy-number plasmid for the overproduction of recombinant proteins was successfully demonstrated with two protein models Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and α-amylase. The high-copy number plasmid was successfully isolated by FACS-based high-throughput screening of a plasmid library in L. citreum. The isolated plasmid could be a useful genetic tool for high-level gene expression in Leuconostoc, and for extending the applications of this useful bacteria to various areas in the dairy and pharmaceutical industries.

  8. N-Glycosylation enhances functional and structural stability of recombinant β-glucuronidase expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shuping; Huang, Shen; Kaleem, Imdad; Li, Chun

    2013-03-10

    Recombinant β-glucuronidase (GUS) expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 is an important glycoprotein, encoded by a gene with four potential N-glycosylation sites. To investigate the impact of N-linked carbohydrate moieties on the stability of recombinant GUS, it was deglycosylated by peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase-F) under native conditions. The enzymatic activities of the glycosylated and deglycosylated GUS were compared under various conditions such as temperature, pH, organic solvents, detergents and chaotropic agent. The results demonstrated that the glycosylated GUS retained greater fraction of maximum enzymatic activity against various types of denaturants compared with the deglycosylated. The conformational stabilities of both GUS were analyzed by monitoring the unfolding equilibrium by using the denaturant guanidinium chloride (dn-HCl). The glycosylated GUS displayed a significant increase in its conformational stability than the deglycosylated counterpart. These results affirmed the key role of N-glycosylation on the structural and functional stability of β-glucuronidase and could have potential applications in the functional enhancement of industrial enzymes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Promotion of Homologous Recombination and Genomic Stability byRAD51AP1 via RAD51 Recombinase Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Wiese, Claudia; Dray, Eloise; Groesser, Torsten

    2007-04-11

    Homologous recombination (HR) repairs chromosome damage and is indispensable for tumor suppression in humans. RAD51 mediates the DNA strand pairing step in HR. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) is a RAD51-interacting protein whose function has remained elusive. Knockdown of RAD51AP1 in human cells by RNA interference engenders sensitivity to different types of genotoxic stress. Moreover, RAD51AP1-depleted cells are impaired for the recombinational repair of a DNA double-strand break and exhibit chromatid breaks both spontaneously and upon DNA damaging treatment. Purified RAD51AP1 binds dsDNA and RAD51, and it greatly stimulates the RAD51-mediated D-loop reaction. Biochemical and cytological results show that RAD51AP1more » functions at a step subsequent to the assembly of the RAD51-ssDNA nucleoprotein filament. Our findings provide the first evidence that RAD51AP1 helps maintain genomic integrity via RAD51 recombinase enhancement.« less

  10. Recombinant fibronectin fragment III8-10/polylactic acid hybrid nanofibers enhance the bioactivity of titanium surface.

    PubMed

    Guillem-Marti, Jordi; Boix-Lemonche, Gerard; Gugutkov, Dencho; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Altankov, George; Manero, Jose M

    2018-04-01

    To develop a nanofiber (NF)-based biomimetic coating on titanium (Ti) that mimics the complex spatiotemporal organization of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Recombinant cell attachment site (CAS) of fibronectin type III8-10 domain was co-electrospun with polylactic acid (PLA) and covalently bound on polished Ti discs. Osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells were used to evaluate their complex bioactivity. A significant increase of cell spreading was found on CAS/PLA hybrid NFs, followed by control pure PLA NFs and bare Ti discs. Cell proliferation showed similar trend being about twice higher on CAS/PLA NFs. The significantly increased ALP activity at day 21 indicated an enhanced differentiation of SaOS-2 cells. Coating of Ti implants with hybrid CAS/PLA NFs may improve significantly their osseointegration potential.

  11. Morphology of single Shockley-type stacking faults generated by recombination enhanced dislocation glide in 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuhata, Hirofumi; Sekiguchi, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    Morphology of single Shockley-type stacking faults (SFs) generated by recombination enhanced dislocation glide (REDG) in 4H-SiC are discussed and analysed. A complete set of the 12 different dissociated states of basal-plane dislocation loops is obtained using the crystallographic space group operations. From this set, six different double rhombic-shaped SFs are derived. These tables indicate the rules that connect shapes of SFs with the locations of partial dislocations having different core structures, the positions of slip planes in a unit cell, and the Burgers vectors of partial dislocations. We applied these tables for the analysis of SFs generated by the REDG effect reported in the past articles. Shapes, growing process of SFs and perfect dislocations for origins of SFs were well analysed systematically.

  12. SS-mPEG chemical modification of recombinant phospholipase C for enhanced thermal stability and catalytic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xian; Wang, Xueting; Li, Guiling; Zeng, Jun; Li, Jian; Liu, Jingwen

    2018-05-01

    PEGylation is one of the most promising and extensively studied strategies for improving the properties of proteins as well as enzymic physical and thermal stability. Phospholipase C, hydrolyzing the phospholipids offers tremendous applications in diverse fields. However, the poor thermal stability and higher cost of production have restricted its industrial application. This study focused on improving the stabilization of recombinant PLC by chemical modification with methoxypolyethylene glycol-Succinimidyl Succinate (SS-mPEG, MW 5000). PLC gene from isolate Bacillus cereus HSL3 was fused with SUMO, a novel small ubiquitin-related modifier expression vector and over expressed in Escherichia coli. The soluble fraction of SUMO-PLC reached 80% of the total recombinant protein. The enzyme exhibited maximum catalytic activity at 80 °C and was relatively thermostable at 40-70 °C. It showed extensive substrate specificity pattern and marked activity toward phosphatidylcholine, which made it a typical non-specific PLC for industrial purpose. SS-mPEG-PLC complex exhibited an enhanced thermal stability at 70-80 °C and the catalytic efficiency (K cat /K m ) had increased by 3.03 folds compared with free PLC. CD spectrum of SS-mPEG-PLC indicated a possible enzyme aggregation after chemical modification, which contributed to the higher thermostability of SS-mPEG-PLC. The increase of antiparallel β sheets in secondary structure also made it more stable than parallel β sheets. The presence of SS-mPEG chains on the enzyme molecule surface somewhat changed the binding rate of the substrates, leading to a significant improvement in catalytic efficiency. This study provided an insight into the addition of SS-mPEG for enhancing the industrial applications of phospholipase C at higher temperature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced sialylation and in vivo efficacy of recombinant human α-galactosidase through in vitro glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Youngsoo; Lee, Jung Mi; Park, Heung-Rok; Jung, Sung-Chul; Park, Tai Hyun; Oh, Doo-Byoung

    2013-01-01

    Human α-galactosidase A (GLA) has been used in enzyme replacement therapy for patients with Fabry disease. We expressed recombinant GLA from Chinese hamster ovary cells with very high productivity. When compared to an approved GLA (agalsidase beta), its size and charge were found to be smaller and more neutral. These differences resulted from the lack of terminal sialic acids playing essential roles in the serum half-life and proper tissue targeting. Because a simple sialylation reaction was not enough to increase the sialic acid content, a combined reaction using galactosyltransferase, sialyltransferase, and their sugar substrates at the same time was developed and optimized to reduce the incubation time. The product generated by this reaction had nearly the same size, isoelectric points, and sialic acid content as agalsidase beta. Furthermore, it had better in vivo efficacy to degrade the accumulated globotriaosylceramide in target organs of Fabry mice compared to an unmodified version. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(3): 157-162] PMID:23527859

  14. Transduction of Recombinant M3-p53-R12 Protein Enhances Human Leukemia Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tsung Chi; Zhao, Guan- Hao; Chen, Yao Yun; Chien, Chia-Ying; Huang, Chi-Hung; Lin, Kwang Hui; Chen, Shen Liang

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppressor protein p53 plays important roles in initiating cell cycle arrest and promoting tumor cell apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that p53 is either mutated or defective in approximately 50% of human cancers; therefore restoring normal p53 activity in cancer cells might be an effective anticancer therapeutic approach. Herein, we designed a chimeric p53 protein flanked with the MyoD N-terminal transcriptional activation domain (amino acids 1-62, called M3) and a poly-arginine (R12) cell penetrating signal in its N-and C-termini respectively. This chimeric protein, M3-p53-R12, can be expressed in E. coli and purified using immobilized metal ion chromatography followed by serial refolding dialysis. The purified M3-p53-R12 protein retains DNA-binding activity and gains of cell penetrating ability. Using MTT assay, we demonstrated that M3-p53-R12 inhibited the growth of K562, Jurkat as well as HL-60 leukemia cells carrying mutant p53 genes. Results from FACS analysis also demonstrated that transduction of M3-p53-R12 protein induced cell cycle arrest of these leukemia cells. Of special note, M3-p53-R12 has no apoptotic effect on normal mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and leukocytes, highlighting its differential effects on normal and tumor cells. To sum up, our results reveal that purified recombinant M3-p53-R12 protein has functions of suppressing the leukemia cell lines' proliferation and launching cell apoptosis, suggesting the feasibility of using M3-p53-R12 protein as an anticancer drug. In the future we will test whether this chimeric protein can preferentially trigger the death of malignant cancer cells without affecting normal cells in animals carrying endogenous or xenographic tumors. PMID:27390612

  15. Petaloid recombinant peptide enhances in vitro cartilage formation by synovial mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Naritomi, Mana; Mizuno, Mitsuru; Katano, Hisako; Ozeki, Nobutake; Otabe, Koji; Komori, Keiichiro; Fujii, Shizuka; Ichinose, Shizuko; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Koga, Hideyuki; Muneta, Takeshi; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2018-05-07

    In vitro chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) mimics in vivo chondrogenesis of MSCs. However, the size of the cartilage pellets that can be attained in vitro is limited by current methods; therefore, some modifications are required to obtain larger pellets. Petaloid pieces of recombinant peptide (petaloid RCP) have the advantage of creating spaces between cells in culture. The RCP used here is based on the alpha-1 sequence of human collagen type I and contains 12 Arg-Gly-Asp motifs. We examined the effect and mechanisms of adding petaloid RCP on the in vitro chondrogenesis of human synovial MSCs by culturing 125k cells with or without 0.125 mg petaloid RCP in chondrogenic medium for 21 days. The cartilage pellets were sequentially analyzed by weight, sulfated glycosaminoglycan content, DNA retention, and histology. Petaloid RCP significantly increased the weight of the cartilage pellets: the petaloid RCP group weighed 7.7 ± 1.2 mg (n = 108), whereas the control group weighed 5.3 ± 1.6 mg. Sulfated glycosaminoglycan and DNA contents were significantly higher in the petaloid RCP group than in the control group. Light and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the petaloid RCP formed the framework of the pellet at day 1, the framework was broken by production of cartilage matrix by the synovial MSCs at day 7, and the cartilage pellet grew larger, with diffuse petaloid RCP remaining, at day 21. Therefore, petaloid RCP formed a framework for the pellet, maintained a higher cell number, and promoted in vitro cartilage formation of synovial MSCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Phosphorylation enhances recombinant HSP27 neuroprotection against focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Y; Tanaka, R; Shimura, H; Yamashiro, K; Urabe, T; Hattori, N

    2014-10-10

    Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) exerts cytoprotection against many cellular insults including cerebral ischemia. We previously indicated that intravenous injection of HSP27 purified from human lymphocytes (hHSP27) significantly reduced infarct volume following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, while recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27) was less effective. Phosphorylation is important for HSP27 function, and hHSP27 was more highly phosphorylated than rHSP27. We hypothesized that MAPKAP kinase 2 in vitro-phosphorylated rHSP27 (prHSP27) might increase its brain protection. Mice underwent transient 1-h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and then received tail-vein injections of one of the following 1h after reperfusion: hHSP27 as positive control, rHSP27, prHSP27, or bovine serum albumin (BSA) as control. We measured infarct volume, neurological deficits, neurological severity, physiological parameters, cell-death, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Compared with BSA controls (30.7±3.1mm(3), n=5), infarct volume was reduced by 67% in the hHSP27 positive-control group (10.1±4.6mm(3), P<0.001, n=5), 17% following rHSP27 (25.4±3.6mm(3), P<0.05, n=5), and 46% following prHSP27 (16.5±4.0mm(3), P<0.001, n=9). Compared to the rHSP27 and BSA-treated groups, prHSP27 also reduced functional deficits, and significantly suppressed apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses. Here, we showed the superior neuroprotective effects of phosphorylated HSP27 by administering prHSP27. prHSP27 may be a useful therapeutic agent to protect against acute cerebral ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Low levels of aflatoxin B1, ricin and milk enhance recombinant protein production in mammalian cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Changing the optimal tissue culture medium by adding low levels of environmental stress such as 1 µM of the fungal toxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), 1 ng of the castor bean protein toxin ricin in transduced mammalian cells or 1% reconstituted milk enhances transcription and increases production of the foll...

  18. Recombinant host cells and nucleic acid constructs encoding polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity

    SciTech Connect

    Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  19. Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3); Construction and rescue of an infectious, recombinant virus expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability to rescue an infectious, recombinant, RNA virus from a cDNA clone, has led to new opportunities for measuring viral replication from a viral expressed reporter gene. In this protocol, the process of inserting enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene into the human parainfluenza vi...

  20. Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 Enhances Oocyte Reprogramming Potential and Subsequent Development of the Cloned Yak Embryos.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yangyang; He, Honghong; Cui, Yan; Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Li, Qin; Fan, Jiangfeng; He, Junfeng; Yu, Sijiu

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) supplementation in the medium during in vitro maturation (IVM) on the developmental potential of oocytes and in the subsequent development of cloned yak embryos. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated from the antral follicles of yak ovaries and cultured with different concentrations of recombinant human BMP6 in oocyte maturation medium. Following maturation, the metaphase II (MII) oocytes were used for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and these were cultured in vitro. The development of blastocysts and cell numbers were detected on day 8. The apoptosis and histone modifications of yak cloned blastocysts were evaluated by detecting the expression of relevant genes and proteins (Bax, Bcl-2, H3K9ac, H3K18ac, and H3K9me3) using relative quantitative RT-PCR or immunofluorescence. The presence of 100 ng/mL BMP6 significantly enhanced the oocyte maturation ratios (66.12 ± 2.04% vs. 73.11 ± 1.38%), cleavage rates (69.40 ± 1.03% vs. 78.16 ± 0.93%), and blastocyst formation rates (20.63 ± 1.32% vs. 28.16 ± 1.67%) of cloned yak embryos. The total blastocysts (85.24 ± 3.12 vs. 103.36 ± 5.28), inner cell mass (ICM) cell numbers (19.59 ± 2.17 vs. 32.20 ± 2.61), and ratio of ICM to trophectoderm (TE) (22.93 ± 1.43% vs. 31.21 ± 1.62%) were also enhanced (p < 0.05). The ratio of the Bax to the Bcl-2 gene was lowest in the SCNT + BMP6 groups (p < 0.05). The H3K9ac and H3K18ac levels were increased in SCNT + BMP6 groups (p < 0.05), whereas the H3K9me3 level was decreased; the differences in blastocysts were not significant (p > 0.05). These study results demonstrate that addition of oocyte maturation medium with recombinant BMP6 enhances yak oocyte developmental potential and the subsequent developmental competence of SCNT embryos, and provides evidence that BMP6 is an important determinant of mammalian oocyte

  1. Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 Enhances Oocyte Reprogramming Potential and Subsequent Development of the Cloned Yak Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yangyang; He, Honghong; Cui, Yan; Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Li, Qin; Fan, Jiangfeng; He, Junfeng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the effects of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) supplementation in the medium during in vitro maturation (IVM) on the developmental potential of oocytes and in the subsequent development of cloned yak embryos. Cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated from the antral follicles of yak ovaries and cultured with different concentrations of recombinant human BMP6 in oocyte maturation medium. Following maturation, the metaphase II (MII) oocytes were used for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and these were cultured in vitro. The development of blastocysts and cell numbers were detected on day 8. The apoptosis and histone modifications of yak cloned blastocysts were evaluated by detecting the expression of relevant genes and proteins (Bax, Bcl-2, H3K9ac, H3K18ac, and H3K9me3) using relative quantitative RT-PCR or immunofluorescence. The presence of 100 ng/mL BMP6 significantly enhanced the oocyte maturation ratios (66.12 ± 2.04% vs. 73.11 ± 1.38%), cleavage rates (69.40 ± 1.03% vs. 78.16 ± 0.93%), and blastocyst formation rates (20.63 ± 1.32% vs. 28.16 ± 1.67%) of cloned yak embryos. The total blastocysts (85.24 ± 3.12 vs. 103.36 ± 5.28), inner cell mass (ICM) cell numbers (19.59 ± 2.17 vs. 32.20 ± 2.61), and ratio of ICM to trophectoderm (TE) (22.93 ± 1.43% vs. 31.21 ± 1.62%) were also enhanced (p < 0.05). The ratio of the Bax to the Bcl-2 gene was lowest in the SCNT + BMP6 groups (p < 0.05). The H3K9ac and H3K18ac levels were increased in SCNT + BMP6 groups (p < 0.05), whereas the H3K9me3 level was decreased; the differences in blastocysts were not significant (p > 0.05). These study results demonstrate that addition of oocyte maturation medium with recombinant BMP6 enhances yak oocyte developmental potential and the subsequent developmental competence of SCNT embryos, and provides evidence that BMP6 is an important determinant of mammalian

  2. Advax-Adjuvanted Recombinant Protective Antigen Provides Protection against Inhalational Anthrax That Is Further Enhanced by Addition of Murabutide Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Feinen, Brandon; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Verma, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Subunit vaccines against anthrax based on recombinant protective antigen (PA) potentially offer more consistent and less reactogenic anthrax vaccines but require adjuvants to achieve optimal immunogenicity. This study sought to determine in a murine model of pulmonary anthrax infection whether the polysaccharide adjuvant Advax or the innate immune adjuvant murabutide alone or together could enhance PA immunogenicity by comparison to an alum adjuvant. A single immunization with PA plus Advax adjuvant afforded significantly greater protection against aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain 7702 than three immunizations with PA alone. Murabutide had a weaker adjuvant effect than Advax when used alone, but when murabutide was formulated together with Advax, an additive effect on immunogenicity and protection was observed, with complete protection after just two doses. The combined adjuvant formulation stimulated a robust, long-lasting B-cell memory response that protected mice against an aerosol challenge 18 months postimmunization with acceleration of the kinetics of the anamnestic IgG response to B. anthracis as reflected by ∼4-fold-higher anti-PA IgG titers by day 2 postchallenge versus mice that received PA with Alhydrogel. In addition, the combination of Advax plus murabutide induced approximately 3-fold-less inflammation than Alhydrogel as measured by in vivo imaging of cathepsin cleavage resulting from injection of ProSense 750. Thus, the combination of Advax and murabutide provided enhanced protection against inhalational anthrax with reduced localized inflammation, making this a promising next-generation anthrax vaccine adjuvanting strategy. PMID:24554695

  3. Advax-adjuvanted recombinant protective antigen provides protection against inhalational anthrax that is further enhanced by addition of murabutide adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Feinen, Brandon; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Verma, Anita; Merkel, Tod J

    2014-04-01

    Subunit vaccines against anthrax based on recombinant protective antigen (PA) potentially offer more consistent and less reactogenic anthrax vaccines but require adjuvants to achieve optimal immunogenicity. This study sought to determine in a murine model of pulmonary anthrax infection whether the polysaccharide adjuvant Advax or the innate immune adjuvant murabutide alone or together could enhance PA immunogenicity by comparison to an alum adjuvant. A single immunization with PA plus Advax adjuvant afforded significantly greater protection against aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain 7702 than three immunizations with PA alone. Murabutide had a weaker adjuvant effect than Advax when used alone, but when murabutide was formulated together with Advax, an additive effect on immunogenicity and protection was observed, with complete protection after just two doses. The combined adjuvant formulation stimulated a robust, long-lasting B-cell memory response that protected mice against an aerosol challenge 18 months postimmunization with acceleration of the kinetics of the anamnestic IgG response to B. anthracis as reflected by ∼4-fold-higher anti-PA IgG titers by day 2 postchallenge versus mice that received PA with Alhydrogel. In addition, the combination of Advax plus murabutide induced approximately 3-fold-less inflammation than Alhydrogel as measured by in vivo imaging of cathepsin cleavage resulting from injection of ProSense 750. Thus, the combination of Advax and murabutide provided enhanced protection against inhalational anthrax with reduced localized inflammation, making this a promising next-generation anthrax vaccine adjuvanting strategy.

  4. Nanodiamond enhances immune responses in mice against recombinant HA/H7N9 protein.

    PubMed

    Pham, Ngoc Bich; Ho, Thuong Thi; Nguyen, Giang Thu; Le, Thuy Thi; Le, Ngoc Thu; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Pham, Minh Dinh; Conrad, Udo; Chu, Ha Hoang

    2017-10-05

    The continuing spread of the newly emerged H7N9 virus among poultry in China, as well as the possibility of human-to-human transmission, has attracted numerous efforts to develop an effective vaccine against H7N9. The use of nanoparticles in vaccinology is inspired by the fact that most pathogens have a dimension within the nano-size range and therefore can be processed efficiently by the immune system, which leads to a potent immune response. Herein, we report a facile approach to increase antigen size to achieve not only fast but also effective responses against the recombinant HA/H7N9 protein via a simple conjugation of the protein onto the surface of nanodiamond particles. In this study, trimeric Haemagglutinin (H7) that is transiently expressed in N. benthamiana was purified using affinity chromatography, and its trimeric state was revealed successfully by the cross-linking reaction. The trimeric H7 solution was subsequently mixed with a nanodiamond suspension in different ratios. The successful conjugation of the trimeric H7 onto the surface of nanodiamond particles was demonstrated by the changes in size and Zeta-potential of the particles before and after protein coating, Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and Western-blot analysis. Next, biofunction of the protein-nanodiamond conjugates was screened using a haemagglutination assay. A mixture containing 5 µg of trimeric H7 and 60 µg of nanodiamond corresponds to a ratio of 1:12 (w/w) of agglutinated chicken red blood cells at HA titer of 1024, which is 512-fold higher than the HA titer of free trimeric H7. After the 2nd and 3rd immunization in mice, ELISA and Western blot analyses demonstrated that the physical mixture of trimeric H7 protein and nanodiamond (1:12, w/w) elicited statistically significant stronger H7-specific-IgG response demonstrated by higher amounts of H7N9-specific IgG (over 15.4-fold with P < 0.05 after the second immunization). These results

  5. Correlation Between Expression of Recombinant Proteins and Abundance of H3K4Me3 on the Enhancer of Human Cytomegalovirus Major Immediate-Early Promoter.

    PubMed

    Soo, Benjamin P C; Tay, Julian; Ng, Shirelle; Ho, Steven C L; Yang, Yuansheng; Chao, Sheng-Hao

    2017-08-01

    Role of epigenetic regulation in the control of gene expression is well established. The impact of several epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation, on recombinant protein production in mammalian cells has been investigated recently. Here we investigate the correlation between the selected epigenetic markers and five trastuzumab biosimilar-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines in which the expression of trastuzumab is driven by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate-early (MIE) promoter. We chose the producing clones in which transcription was the determinative step for the production of recombinant trastuzumab. We found that the abundance of trimethylation of histone 3 at lysine 4 (H3K4Me3) on the enhancer of HCMV MIE promoter correlated well with the relative titers of recombinant trastuzumab among the clones. Such close correlation was not observed between the recombinant protein and other epigenetic markers examined in our study. Our results demonstrate that the HCMV MIE enhancer-bound H3K4Me3 epigenetic marker may be used as the epigenetic indicator to predict the relative production of recombinant proteins between the producing CHO cell lines.

  6. Enhancement of recombinant myricetin on the radiosensitivity of lung cancer A549 and H1299 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Myricetin, a common dietary flavonoid is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, and is used as a health food supplement based on its immune function, anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of myricetin on combination with radiotherapy enhance radiosensitivity of lung cancer A549 and H1299 cells. Methods A549 cells and H1299 cells were exposed to X-ray with or without myricetin treatment. Colony formation assays, CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry and Caspase-3 level detection were used to evaluate the radiosensitization activity of myricetin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. Nude mouse tumor xenograft model was built to assessed radiosensitization effect of myricetin in vivo. Results Compared with the exposed group without myricetin treatment, the groups treated with myricetin showed significantly suppressed cell surviving fraction and proliferation, increased the cell apoptosis and increased Caspase-3 protein expression after X-ray exposure in vitro. And in vivo assay, growth speed of tumor xenografts was significantly decreased in irradiated mice treated with myricetin. Conclusions The study demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo evidence that combination of myricetin with radiotherapy can enhance tumor radiosensitivity of pulmonary carcinoma A549 and H1299 cells, and myricetin could be a potential radiosensitizer for lung cancer therapy. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5791518001210633 PMID:24650056

  7. Targeting Homologous Recombination by Pharmacological Inhibitors Enhances the Killing Response of Glioblastoma Cells Treated with Alkylating Drugs.

    PubMed

    Berte, Nancy; Piée-Staffa, Andrea; Piecha, Nadine; Wang, Mengwan; Borgmann, Kerstin; Kaina, Bernd; Nikolova, Teodora

    2016-11-01

    Malignant gliomas exhibit a high level of intrinsic and acquired drug resistance and have a dismal prognosis. First- and second-line therapeutics for glioblastomas are alkylating agents, including the chloroethylating nitrosoureas (CNU) lomustine, nimustine, fotemustine, and carmustine. These agents target the tumor DNA, forming O 6 -chloroethylguanine adducts and secondary DNA interstrand cross-links (ICL). These cross-links are supposed to be converted into DNA double-strand breaks, which trigger cell death pathways. Here, we show that lomustine (CCNU) with moderately toxic doses induces ICLs in glioblastoma cells, inhibits DNA replication fork movement, and provokes the formation of DSBs and chromosomal aberrations. Since homologous recombination (HR) is involved in the repair of DSBs formed in response to CNUs, we elucidated whether pharmacologic inhibitors of HR might have impact on these endpoints and enhance the killing effect. We show that the Rad51 inhibitors RI-1 and B02 greatly ameliorate DSBs, chromosomal changes, and the level of apoptosis and necrosis. We also show that an inhibitor of MRE11, mirin, which blocks the formation of the MRN complex and thus the recognition of DSBs, has a sensitizing effect on these endpoints as well. In a glioma xenograft model, the Rad51 inhibitor RI-1 clearly enhanced the effect of CCNU on tumor growth. The data suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of HR, for example by RI-1, is a reasonable strategy for enhancing the anticancer effect of CNUs. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(11); 2665-78. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Enhanced biological fixation of methane for microbial lipid production by recombinant Methylomicrobium buryatense.

    PubMed

    Fei, Qiang; Puri, Aaron W; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy; Pienkos, Philip T

    2018-01-01

    Due to the success of shale gas development in the US, the production cost of natural gas has been reduced significantly, which in turn has made methane (CH 4 ), the major component of natural gas, a potential alternative substrate for bioconversion processes compared with other high-price raw material sources or edible feedstocks. Therefore, exploring effective ways to use CH 4 for the production of biofuels is attractive. Biological fixation of CH 4 by methanotrophic bacteria capable of using CH 4 as their sole carbon and energy source has obtained great attention for biofuel production from this resource. In this study, a fast-growing and lipid-rich methanotroph , Methylomicrobium buryatense 5GB1 and its glycogen-knock-out mutant (AP18) were investigated for the production of lipids derived from intracellular membranes, which are key precursors for the production of green diesel. The effects of culture conditions on cell growth and lipid production were investigated in high cell density cultivation with continuous feeding of CH 4 and O 2 . The highest dry cell weight observed was 21.4 g/L and the maximum lipid productivity observed was 45.4 mg/L/h obtained in batch cultures, which corresponds to a 2-fold enhancement in cell density and 3-fold improvement in lipid production, compared with previous reported data from cultures of 5GB1. A 90% enhancement of lipid content was achieved by limiting the biosynthesis of glycogen in strain AP18. Increased CH 4 /O 2 uptake and CO 2 evaluation rates were observed in AP18 cultures suggesting that more carbon substrate and energy are needed for AP18 growth while producing lipids. The lipid produced by M. buryatense was estimated to have a cetane number of 75, which is 50% higher than biofuel standards requested by US and EU. Cell growth and lipid production were significantly influenced by culture conditions for both 5GB1 and AP18. Enhanced lipid production in terms of titer, productivity, and content was achieved under

  9. Enhanced biological fixation of methane for microbial lipid production by recombinant Methylomicrobium buryatense

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Qiang; Puri, Aaron W.; Smith, Holly

    Due to the success of shale gas development in the US, the production cost of natural gas has been reduced significantly, which in turn has made methane (CH 4), the major component of natural gas, a potential alternative substrate for bioconversion processes compared with other high-price raw material sources or edible feedstocks. Therefore, exploring effective ways to use CH 4 for the production of biofuels is attractive. Biological fixation of CH 4 by methanotrophic bacteria capable of using CH 4 as their sole carbon and energy source has obtained great attention for biofuel production from this resource. Here, a fast-growingmore » and lipid-rich methanotroph, Methylomicrobium buryatense 5GB1 and its glycogen-knock-out mutant (AP18) were investigated for the production of lipids derived from intracellular membranes, which are key precursors for the production of green diesel. The effects of culture conditions on cell growth and lipid production were investigated in high cell density cultivation with continuous feeding of CH 4 and O2. The highest dry cell weight observed was 21.4 g/L and the maximum lipid productivity observed was 45.4 mg/L/h obtained in batch cultures, which corresponds to a 2-fold enhancement in cell density and 3-fold improvement in lipid production, compared with previous reported data from cultures of 5GB1. A 90% enhancement of lipid content was achieved by limiting the biosynthesis of glycogen in strain AP18. Increased CH 4/O 2 uptake and CO 2 evaluation rates were observed in AP18 cultures suggesting that more carbon substrate and energy are needed for AP18 growth while producing lipids. The lipid produced by M. buryatense was estimated to have a cetane number of 75, which is 50% higher than biofuel standards requested by US and EU. Cell growth and lipid production were significantly influenced by culture conditions for both 5GB1 and AP18. Enhanced lipid production in terms of titer, productivity, and content was achieved under high cell

  10. Enhanced biological fixation of methane for microbial lipid production by recombinant Methylomicrobium buryatense

    DOE PAGES

    Fei, Qiang; Puri, Aaron W.; Smith, Holly; ...

    2018-05-04

    Due to the success of shale gas development in the US, the production cost of natural gas has been reduced significantly, which in turn has made methane (CH 4), the major component of natural gas, a potential alternative substrate for bioconversion processes compared with other high-price raw material sources or edible feedstocks. Therefore, exploring effective ways to use CH 4 for the production of biofuels is attractive. Biological fixation of CH 4 by methanotrophic bacteria capable of using CH 4 as their sole carbon and energy source has obtained great attention for biofuel production from this resource. Here, a fast-growingmore » and lipid-rich methanotroph, Methylomicrobium buryatense 5GB1 and its glycogen-knock-out mutant (AP18) were investigated for the production of lipids derived from intracellular membranes, which are key precursors for the production of green diesel. The effects of culture conditions on cell growth and lipid production were investigated in high cell density cultivation with continuous feeding of CH 4 and O2. The highest dry cell weight observed was 21.4 g/L and the maximum lipid productivity observed was 45.4 mg/L/h obtained in batch cultures, which corresponds to a 2-fold enhancement in cell density and 3-fold improvement in lipid production, compared with previous reported data from cultures of 5GB1. A 90% enhancement of lipid content was achieved by limiting the biosynthesis of glycogen in strain AP18. Increased CH 4/O 2 uptake and CO 2 evaluation rates were observed in AP18 cultures suggesting that more carbon substrate and energy are needed for AP18 growth while producing lipids. The lipid produced by M. buryatense was estimated to have a cetane number of 75, which is 50% higher than biofuel standards requested by US and EU. Cell growth and lipid production were significantly influenced by culture conditions for both 5GB1 and AP18. Enhanced lipid production in terms of titer, productivity, and content was achieved under high cell

  11. Biological insights into the expression of translation initiation factors from recombinant CHOK1SV cell lines and their relationship to enhanced productivity.

    PubMed

    Mead, Emma J; Masterton, Rosalyn J; Feary, Marc; Obrezanova, Olga; Zhang, Lin; Young, Robert; Smales, C Mark

    2015-12-15

    Translation initiation is on the critical pathway for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by mammalian cells. Formation of a closed loop structure comprised of mRNA, a number of eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) and ribosomal proteins has been proposed to aid re-initiation of translation and therefore increase global translational efficiency. We have determined mRNA and protein levels of the key components of the closed loop, eIFs (eIF3a, eIF3b, eIF3c, eIF3h, eIF3i and eIF4G1), poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) 1 and PABP-interacting protein 1 (PAIP1), across a panel of 30 recombinant mAb-producing GS-CHOK1SV cell lines with a broad range of growth characteristics and production levels of a model recombinant mAb. We have used a multi-level statistical approach to investigate the relationship between key performance indicators (cell growth and recombinant antibody productivity) and the intracellular amounts of target translation initiation factor proteins and the mRNAs encoding them. We show that high-producing cell lines maintain amounts of the translation initiation factors involved in the formation of the closed loop mRNA, maintaining these proteins at appropriate levels to deliver enhanced recombinant protein production. We then utilize knowledge of the amounts of these factors to build predictive models for and use cluster analysis to identify, high-producing cell lines. The present study therefore defines the translation initiation factor amounts that are associated with highly productive recombinant GS-CHOK1SV cell lines that may be targets for screening highly productive cell lines or to engineer new host cell lines with the potential for enhanced recombinant antibody productivity. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  12. Improved photovoltaic performance and stability of quantum dot sensitized solar cells using Mn-ZnSe shell structure with enhanced light absorption and recombination control.

    PubMed

    Gopi, Chandu V V M; Venkata-Haritha, M; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-08-07

    To make quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) competitive, photovoltaic parameters comparable to those of other emerging solar cell technologies are necessary. In the present study, ZnSe was used as an alternative to ZnS, one of the most widely used passivation materials in QDSSCs. ZnSe was deposited on a TiO2-CdS-CdSe photoanode to form a core-shell structure, which was more efficient in terms of reducing the electron recombination in QDSSCs. The development of an efficient passivation layer is a requirement for preventing recombination processes in order to attain high-performance and stable QDSSCs. A layer of inorganic Mn-ZnSe was applied to a QD-sensitized photoanode to enhance the adsorption and strongly inhibit interfacial recombination processes in QDSSCs, which greatly improved the power conversion efficiency. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the combined Mn doping with ZnSe treatment reduces interfacial recombination and increases charge collection efficiency compared with Mn-ZnS, ZnS, and ZnSe. A solar cell based on the CdS-CdSe-Mn-ZnSe photoanode yielded excellent performance with a solar power conversion efficiency of 5.67%, Voc of 0.584 V, and Jsc of 17.59 mA cm(-2). Enhanced electron transport and reduced electron recombination are responsible for the improved Jsc and Voc of the QDSSCs. The effective electron lifetime of the device with Mn-ZnSe was higher than those with Mn-ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnS, leading to more efficient electron-hole separation and slower electron recombination.

  13. Enhanced recombinant factor VII expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells by optimizing signal peptides and fed-batch medium.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lin; Yu, Xiao; Li, Chengyuan; Cai, Yanfei; Chen, Yun; He, Yang; Yang, Jianfeng; Jin, Jian; Li, Huazhong

    2016-04-01

    Signal peptides play an important role in directing and efficiently transporting secretory proteins to their proper locations in the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian cells. The aim of this study was to enhance the expression of recombinant coagulation factor VII (rFVII) in CHO cells by optimizing the signal peptides and type of fed-batch culture medium used. Five sub-clones (O2, I3, H3, G2 and M3) with different signal peptide were selected by western blot (WB) analysis and used for suspension culture. We compared rFVII expression levels of 5 sub-clones and found that the highest rFVII expression level was obtained with the IgK signal peptide instead of Ori, the native signal peptide of rFVII. The high protein expression of rFVII with signal peptide IgK was mirrored by a high transcription level during suspension culture. After analyzing culture and feed media, the combination of M4 and F4 media yielded the highest rFVII expression of 20 mg/L during a 10-day suspension culture. After analyzing cell density and cell cycle, CHO cells feeding by F4 had a similar percentage of cells in G0/G1 and a higher cell density compared to F2 and F3. This may be the reason for high rFVII expression in M4+F4. In summary, rFVII expression was successfully enhanced by optimizing the signal peptide and fed-batch medium used in CHO suspension culture. Our data may be used to improve the production of other therapeutic proteins in fed-batch culture.

  14. Auxotrophic recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG overexpressing Ag85B enhances cytotoxicity on superficial bladder cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Begnini, Karine Rech; Rizzi, Caroline; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Borsuk, Sibele; Schultze, Eduarda; Yurgel, Virginia Campello; Nedel, Fernanda; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Collares, Tiago; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling

    2013-02-01

    BCG therapy remains at the forefront of immunotherapy for treating patients with superficial bladder cancer. The high incidence of local side effects and the presence of non-responder diseases have led to efforts to improve the therapy. Hence, we proposed that an auxotrophic recombinant BCG strain overexpressing Ag85B (BCG ∆leuD/Ag85B), could enhance the cytotoxicity to the human bladder carcinoma cell line 5637. The rBCG was generated using an expression plasmid encoding the mycobacterial antigen Ag85B to transform a BCG ∆leuD strain. The inhibitory effect of BCG ∆leuD/Ag85B on 5637 cells was determined by the MTT method, morphology observation and a LIVE/DEAD assay. Gene expression profiles for apoptotic, cell cycle-related and oxidative stress-related genes were investigated by qRT-PCR. Bax, bcl-2 and p53 induction by BCG ∆leuD/Ag85B treatment was evaluated by Western blotting. BCG ∆leuD/Ag85B revealed a superior cytotoxicity effect compared to the control strains used in this study. The results showed that the expression level of pro-apoptotic and cell cycle-related genes increased after BCG ∆leuD/Ag85B treatment, whereas the mRNA levels of anti-apoptotic genes decreased. Interestingly, BCG ∆leuD/Ag85B also increased the mRNA level of antioxidant enzymes in the bladder cancer cell line. Bax and p53 proteins levels increased following treatment. In conclusion, these results suggest that treatment with BCG ∆leuD/Ag85B enhances cytotoxicity for superficial bladder cancer cells in vitro. Therefore, rBCG therapy may have potential benefits in the treatment of bladder cancer.

  15. Recombinant Vaccinia Viruses Coding Transgenes of Apoptosis-Inducing Proteins Enhance Apoptosis But Not Immunogenicity of Infected Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tkachenko, Anastasiya; Richter, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Genetic modifications of the oncolytic vaccinia virus (VV) improve selective tumor cell infection and death, as well as activation of antitumor immunity. We have engineered a double recombinant VV, coding human GM-CSF, and apoptosis-inducing protein apoptin (VV-GMCSF-Apo) for comparing with the earlier constructed double recombinant VV-GMCSF-Lact, coding another apoptosis-inducing protein, lactaptin, which activated different cell death pathways than apoptin. We showed that both these recombinant VVs more considerably activated a set of critical apoptosis markers in infected cells than the recombinant VV coding GM-CSF alone (VV-GMCSF-dGF): these were phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase-3 and caspase-7 activation, DNA fragmentation, and upregulation of proapoptotic protein BAX. However, only VV-GMCSF-Lact efficiently decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential of infected cancer cells. Investigating immunogenic cell death markers in cancer cells infected with recombinant VVs, we demonstrated that all tested recombinant VVs were efficient in calreticulin and HSP70 externalization, decrease of cellular HMGB1, and ATP secretion. The comparison of antitumor activity against advanced MDA-MB-231 tumor revealed that both recombinants VV-GMCSF-Lact and VV-GMCSF-Apo efficiently delay tumor growth. Our results demonstrate that the composition of GM-CSF and apoptosis-inducing proteins in the VV genome is very efficient tool for specific killing of cancer cells and for activation of antitumor immunity. PMID:28951871

  16. Recombinant human IGF-1 produced by transgenic plant cell suspension culture enhances new bone formation in calvarial defects.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Sher Bahadur; Bhattarai, Govinda; Kook, Sung-Ho; Shin, Yun-Ji; Kwon, Tae-Ho; Lee, Seung-Youp; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2017-10-01

    Transgenic plant cell suspension culture systems have been utilized extensively as convenient and efficient expression systems for the production of recombinant human growth factors. We produced insulin-like growth factor-1 using a plant suspension culture system (p-IGF-1) and explored its effect on new bone formation in calvarial defects. We also compared the bone regenerating potential of p-IGF-1 with commercial IGF-1 derived from Escherichia coli (e-IGF-1). Male C57BL/6 mice underwent calvarial defect surgery, and the defects were loaded with absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) only (ACS group) or ACS impregnated with 13μg of p-IGF-1 (p-IGF-1 group) or e-IGF-1 (e-IGF-1 group). The sham group did not receive any treatment with ACS or IGFs after surgery. Live μCT and histological analyses showed critical-sized bone defects in the sham group, whereas greater bone formation was observed in the p-IGF-1 and e-IGF-1 groups than the ACS group both 5 and 10weeks after surgery. Bone mineral density, bone volume, and bone surface values were also higher in the IGF groups than in the ACS group. Local delivery of p-IGF-1 or e-IGF-1 more greatly enhanced the expression of osteoblast-specific markers, but inhibited osteoclast formation, in newly formed bone compared with ACS control group. Specifically, p-IGF-1 treatment induced higher expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and osteopontin in the defect site than did e-IGF-1. Furthermore, treatment with p-IGF-1, but not e-IGF-1, increased mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells, with the attendant upregulation of osteogenic marker genes. Collectively, our findings suggest the potential of p-IGF-1 in promoting the processes required for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A 70-Kilodalton Recombinant Heat Shock Protein of Candida albicans Is Highly Immunogenic and Enhances Systemic Murine Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Bromuro, Carla; La Valle, Roberto; Sandini, Silvia; Urbani, Francesca; Ausiello, Clara M.; Morelli, Luisella; Fé d’ostiani, Cristiana; Romani, Luigina; Cassone, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    The 70-kDa recombinant Candida albicans heat shock protein (CaHsp70) and its 21-kDa C-terminal and 28-kDa N-terminal fragments (CaHsp70-Cter and CaHsp70-Nter, respectively) were studied for their immunogenicity, including proinflammatory cytokine induction in vitro and in vivo, and protection in a murine model of hematogenous candidiasis. The whole protein and its two fragments were strong inducers of both antibody (Ab; immunoglobulin G1 [IgG1] and IgG2b were the prevalent isotypes) and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) responses in mice. CaHsp70 preparations were also recognized as CMI targets by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy human subjects. Inoculation of CaHsp70 preparations into immunized mice induced rapid production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha, peaking at 2 to 5 h and declining within 24 h. CaHsp70 and CaHsp70-Cter also induced gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-12, and IL-10 but not IL-4 production by CD4+ lymphocytes cocultured with splenic accessory cells from nonimmunized mice. In particular, the production of IFN-γ was equal if not superior to that induced in the same cells by whole, heat-inactivated fungal cells or the mitogenic lectin concanavalin A. In immunized mice, however, IL-4 but not IL-12 was produced in addition to IFN-γ upon in vitro stimulation of CD4+ cells with CaHsp70 and CaHsp70-Cter. These animals showed a decreased median survival time compared to nonimmunized mice, and their mortality was strictly associated with organ invasion by fungal hyphae. Their enhanced susceptibility was attributable to the immunization state, as it did not occur in congenitally athymic nude mice, which were unable to raise either Ab or CMI responses to CaHsp70 preparations. Together, our data demonstrate the elevated immunogenicity of CaHsp70, with which, however, no protection against but rather some enhancement of Candida infection seemed to occur in the mouse model used. PMID:9573102

  18. Maltose-Binding Protein Enhances Secretion of Recombinant Human Granzyme B Accompanied by In Vivo Processing of a Precursor MBP Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Dälken, Benjamin; Jabulowsky, Robert A.; Oberoi, Pranav; Benhar, Itai; Wels, Winfried S.

    2010-01-01

    Background The apoptosis-inducing serine protease granzyme B (GrB) is an important factor contributing to lysis of target cells by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Expression of enzymatically active GrB in recombinant form is a prerequisite for functional analysis and application of GrB for therapeutic purposes. Methods and Findings We investigated the influence of bacterial maltose-binding protein (MBP) fused to GrB via a synthetic furin recognition motif on the expression of the MBP fusion protein also containing an N-terminal α-factor signal peptide in the yeast Pichia pastoris. MBP markedly enhanced the amount of GrB secreted into culture supernatant, which was not the case when GrB was fused to GST. MBP-GrB fusion protein was cleaved during secretion by an endogenous furin-like proteolytic activity in vivo, liberating enzymatically active GrB without the need of subsequent in vitro processing. Similar results were obtained upon expression of a recombinant fragment of the ErbB2/HER2 receptor protein or GST as MBP fusions. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that combination of MBP as a solubility enhancer with specific in vivo cleavage augments secretion of processed and functionally active proteins from yeast. This strategy may be generally applicable to improve folding and increase yields of recombinant proteins. PMID:21203542

  19. Recombinant influenza H7 hemagglutinin containing CFLLC minidomain in the transmembrane domain showed enhanced cross-protection in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Jialing; Lin, Ying; Wu, Zhihui; Wei, Ying; Wei, Xiaona; Qin, Jianru; Xue, Chunyi; Liu, George Dacai; Cao, Yongchang

    2017-10-15

    Since February 2013, H7N9 influenza virus, causing human infections with high mortality in China, has been a potential pandemic threat. The H7N9 viruses are found to diverge into distinct genotypes as other influenza viruses; thus a vaccine that can provide sufficient cross-protection against different genotypes of H7N9 viruses is urgently needed. Our previous studies demonstrated that the HA-based structural design approach by introducing a CFLLC minidomain into transmembrane domain (TM) of H1, H5 or H9 hemagglutinin (HA) proteins by replacing with H3 subtype HA TM could enhance their cross-protection. In this study, we used Sf9 insect cell expression system to express recombinant H7 HA proteins H7-53WT, in which HA gene was derived from H7N9-53 strain, and H7-53TM containing CFLLC minidomian by replacing its TM domain with H3 HA TM. We investigated whether introduction of CFLLC minidomain into H7 HA (H7-53TM) could increase its cross-reactivity and cross-protection against different genotypes of H7N9 viruses. The results showed that the H7-53TM either with or without squalene adjuvant induced increased HI antibodies, serum IgG antibodies, and IFN-γ production to a panel of 7 H7N9 viruses in mice. Vaccinated animals with H7-53TM alone showed complete protection against challenge with heterologous H7N9-MCX strain, while H7-53WT alone showed incomplete protection (80%). Furthermore, mice vaccinated with H7-53TM HA showed less body weight loss and less pulmonary lesions and inflammation after challenge with homologous or heterologous H7N9 viruses, comparing to H7-53WT. In summary, this study presents a better subunit vaccine candidate (H7-53TM) against potential H7N9 pandemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Re-directing bacterial microcompartment systems to enhance recombinant expression of lysis protein E from bacteriophage ΦX174 in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, Mimi C.; Bourguet, Feliza A.; Carpenter, Timothy S.

    Recombinant expression of toxic proteins remains a challenging problem. Furthermore, one potential method to shield toxicity and thus improve expression of these proteins is to encapsulate them within protein compartments to sequester them away from their targets. Many bacteria naturally produce so-called bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) in which enzymes comprising a biosynthetic pathway are encapsulated in a proteinaeous shell, which is in part thought to shield the cells from the toxicity of reaction intermediates. As a proof-of-concept, we attempted to encapsulate toxic, lysis protein E (E) from bacteriophage ΦX174 inside recombinant BMCs to enhance its expression and achieve higher yields duringmore » downstream purification.« less

  1. Re-directing bacterial microcompartment systems to enhance recombinant expression of lysis protein E from bacteriophage ΦX174 in Escherichia coli

    DOE PAGES

    Yung, Mimi C.; Bourguet, Feliza A.; Carpenter, Timothy S.; ...

    2017-04-26

    Recombinant expression of toxic proteins remains a challenging problem. Furthermore, one potential method to shield toxicity and thus improve expression of these proteins is to encapsulate them within protein compartments to sequester them away from their targets. Many bacteria naturally produce so-called bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) in which enzymes comprising a biosynthetic pathway are encapsulated in a proteinaeous shell, which is in part thought to shield the cells from the toxicity of reaction intermediates. As a proof-of-concept, we attempted to encapsulate toxic, lysis protein E (E) from bacteriophage ΦX174 inside recombinant BMCs to enhance its expression and achieve higher yields duringmore » downstream purification.« less

  2. A recombinant adenovirus bicistronically expressing porcine interferon-α and interferon-γ enhances antiviral effects against foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Mi; Kim, Se-Kyung; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Ko, Young-Joon; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Seo, Min-Goo; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Kim, Byounghan

    2014-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a virulent and economically costly disease in domestic livestock. Since the current vaccine available against FMD provides no protection until 7days postvaccination, the only alternative method to halt the spread of the FMD virus (FMDV) during outbreaks is by the application of anti-viral agents. The combination of recombinant adenovirus expressing type I interferon (IFN-α) and adenovirus expressing type II IFN (IFN-γ) has been reported to be an effective anti-viral treatment strategy against FMDV. Nevertheless, the recombinant adenovirus mixture may be inefficient because of the low anti-viral efficiency of IFN-γ compared to that of IFN-α. In this study, we generated a recombinant adenovirus co-expressing porcine IFN-α and IFN-γ in tandem using an FMDV 2A sequence to mediate effective cleavage of the two proteins (referred to as Ad-porcine IFN-αγ). We demonstrated that both recombinant porcine IFN-α and IFN-γ were expressed and interferon stimulated gene (ISG)s related with IFN-α and IFN-γ were induced in porcine kidney (IBRS-2) cells infected with Ad-porcine IFN-αγ. Additionally, the anti-viral effects of Ad-porcine IFN-αγ against FMDV were enhanced both in IBRS-2 cells and in CD-1 (ICR) suckling mice compared to that of adenovirus expressing only a single protein. We propose that Ad-porcine IFN-αγ could be a rapid, highly efficient, convenient anti-viral agent against FMDV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel fed-batch based strategy for enhancing cell-density and recombinant cyprosin B production in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, P N; Pais, M S; Fonseca, L P

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, the dairy industry is continuously looking for new and more efficient clotting enzymes to create innovative products. Cyprosin B is a plant aspartic protease characterized by clotting activity that was previously cloned in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BJ1991 strain. The production of recombinant cyprosin B by a batch and fed-batch culture was compared using glucose and galactose as carbon sources. The strategy for fed-batch cultivation involved two steps: in the first batch phase, the culture medium presented glucose 1 % (w/v) and galactose 0.5 % (w/v), while in the feed step the culture medium was constituted by 5 % (w/v) galactose with the aim to minimize the GAL7 promoter repression. Based on fed-batch, in comparison to batch growth, an increase in biomass (6.6-fold), protein concentration (59 %) and cyprosin B activity (91 %) was achieved. The recombinant cyprosin B was purified by a single hydrophobic chromatography, presenting a specific activity of 6 × 10(4) U·mg(-1), corresponding to a purification degree of 12.5-fold and a recovery yield of 16.4 %. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed that recovery procedure is suitable for achieving the purified recombinant cyprosin B. The results show that the recombinant cyprosin B production can be improved based on two distinct steps during the fed-batch, presenting that this strategy, associated with a simplified purification procedure, could be applied to large-scale production, constituting a new and efficient alternative for animal and fungal enzymes widely used in cheese making.

  4. Enhancing thermo-induced recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli by temperature oscillations and post-induction nutrient feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Caspeta, Luis; Lara, Alvaro R; Pérez, Néstor O; Flores, Noemí; Bolívar, Francisco; Ramírez, Octavio T

    2013-08-10

    Traditional strategies for production of thermo-induced recombinant protein in Escherichia coli consist of a two-phase culture, with an initial growth stage at low temperature (commonly 30°C) followed by a production stage where temperature is increased stepwise (commonly up to 42°C). A disadvantage of such strategies is that growth is inhibited upon temperature increase, limiting the duration of the production stage and consequently limiting recombinant protein production. In this work, a novel oscillatory thermo-induction strategy, consisting on temperature fluctuations between 37 and 42°C or 30 and 42°C, was tested for improving recombinant protein production. In addition, the induction schemes were combined with one of three different nutrient feeding strategies: two exponential and one linear. Recombinant human preproinsulin (HPPI), produced under control of the λP(L)-cI857 system in the E. coli BL21 strain, was used as the model protein. Compared to the conventional induction scheme at constant temperature (42°C), longer productive times were attained under oscillatory induction, which resulted in a 1.3- to 1.7-fold increase in maximum HPPI concentration. Temperature oscillations led to a 2.3- to 4.0-fold increase in biomass accumulation and a decrease of 48-62% in the concentration of organic acids, compared to conventional induction. Under constant induction, growth ceased upon temperature increase and the maximum concentration of HPPI was 3.9 g/L, regardless of the post-induction feeding strategy used. In comparison, the combination of temperature oscillations and a high nutrient-feeding rate allowed sustained growth after induction and reaching up to 5.8 g/L of HPPI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Single-walled carbon nanotubes as delivery vehicles enhance the immunoprotective effects of a recombinant vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Liu, Lei; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue; Xu, Xin-Gang

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the economic losses caused by diseases in aquaculture industry, more efficient and economic prophylactic measures should be urgently investigated. In this research, the effects of a novel functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) applied as a delivery vehicle for recombinant Aeromonas hydrophila vaccine administration via bath or injection in juvenile grass carp were studied. The results showed that SWCNT as a vector for the recombinant protein aerA, augmented the production of specific antibodies, apparently stimulated the induction of immune-related genes, and induced higher level of survival rate compared with free aerA subunit vaccine. Furthermore, we compared the routes of bath and intramuscular injection immunization by SWCNTs-aerA vaccine, and found that similar antibody levels induced by SWCNTs-aerA were observed in both immunization routes. Meanwhile, a similar relative percentage survival (approximately 80%) was found in both a 40 mg/L bath immunization group, and a 20 μg injection group. The results indicate that functionalized SWCNTs could be a promising delivery vehicle to potentiate the immune response of recombinant vaccines, and might be used to vaccinate juvenile fish by bath administration method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recombination enhances HIV-1 envelope diversity by facilitating the survival of latent genomic fragments in the plasma virus population

    SciTech Connect

    Immonen, Taina T.; Conway, Jessica M.; Romero-Severson, Ethan O.

    HIV-1 is subject to immune pressure exerted by the host, giving variants that escape the immune response an advantage. Virus released from activated latent cells competes against variants that have continually evolved and adapted to host immune pressure. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that virus displaying a signal of latency survives in patient plasma despite having reduced fitness due to long-term immune memory. We investigated the survival of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments by simulating within-host HIV-1 sequence evolution and the cycling of viral lineages in and out of the latent reservoir. Our model incorporates a detailed mutation processmore » including nucleotide substitution, recombination, latent reservoir dynamics, diversifying selection pressure driven by the immune response, and purifying selection pressure asserted by deleterious mutations. We evaluated the ability of our model to capture sequence evolution in vivo by comparing our simulated sequences to HIV-1 envelope sequence data from 16 HIV-infected untreated patients. Empirical sequence divergence and diversity measures were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of our simulated HIV-1 populations, suggesting that our model invokes realistic trends of HIV-1 genetic evolution. Moreover, reconstructed phylogenies of simulated and patient HIV-1 populations showed similar topological structures. Our simulation results suggest that recombination is a key mechanism facilitating the persistence of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments in the productively infected cell population. Recombination increased the survival probability of latent virus forms approximately 13-fold. Prevalence of virus with latent fragments in productively infected cells was observed in only 2% of simulations when we ignored recombination, while the proportion increased to 27% of simulations when we allowed recombination. We also found that the selection pressures exerted by different

  7. Recombination enhances HIV-1 envelope diversity by facilitating the survival of latent genomic fragments in the plasma virus population

    DOE PAGES

    Immonen, Taina T.; Conway, Jessica M.; Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; ...

    2015-12-22

    HIV-1 is subject to immune pressure exerted by the host, giving variants that escape the immune response an advantage. Virus released from activated latent cells competes against variants that have continually evolved and adapted to host immune pressure. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that virus displaying a signal of latency survives in patient plasma despite having reduced fitness due to long-term immune memory. We investigated the survival of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments by simulating within-host HIV-1 sequence evolution and the cycling of viral lineages in and out of the latent reservoir. Our model incorporates a detailed mutation processmore » including nucleotide substitution, recombination, latent reservoir dynamics, diversifying selection pressure driven by the immune response, and purifying selection pressure asserted by deleterious mutations. We evaluated the ability of our model to capture sequence evolution in vivo by comparing our simulated sequences to HIV-1 envelope sequence data from 16 HIV-infected untreated patients. Empirical sequence divergence and diversity measures were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of our simulated HIV-1 populations, suggesting that our model invokes realistic trends of HIV-1 genetic evolution. Moreover, reconstructed phylogenies of simulated and patient HIV-1 populations showed similar topological structures. Our simulation results suggest that recombination is a key mechanism facilitating the persistence of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments in the productively infected cell population. Recombination increased the survival probability of latent virus forms approximately 13-fold. Prevalence of virus with latent fragments in productively infected cells was observed in only 2% of simulations when we ignored recombination, while the proportion increased to 27% of simulations when we allowed recombination. We also found that the selection pressures exerted by different

  8. Reduction of adenovirus E1A mRNA by RNAi results in enhanced recombinant protein expression in transiently transfected HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Hacker, David L; Bertschinger, Martin; Baldi, Lucia; Wurm, Florian M

    2004-10-27

    Human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, a widely used host for large-scale transient expression of recombinant proteins, are transformed with the adenovirus E1A and E1B genes. Because the E1A proteins function as transcriptional activators or repressors, they may have a positive or negative effect on transient transgene expression in this cell line. Suspension cultures of HEK293 EBNA (HEK293E) cells were co-transfected with a reporter plasmid expressing the GFP gene and a plasmid expressing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting the E1A mRNAs for degradation by RNA interference (RNAi). The presence of the shRNA in HEK293E cells reduced the steady state level of E1A mRNA up to 75% and increased transient GFP expression from either the elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha) promoter or the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate early promoter up to twofold. E1A mRNA depletion also resulted in a twofold increase in transient expression of a recombinant IgG in both small- and large-scale suspension cultures when the IgG light and heavy chain genes were controlled by the EF-1alpha promoter. Finally, transient IgG expression was enhanced 2.5-fold when the anti-E1A shRNA was expressed from the same vector as the IgG light chain gene. These results demonstrated that E1A has a negative effect on transient gene expression in HEK293E cells, and they established that RNAi can be used to enhance recombinant protein expression in mammalian cells.

  9. Recombination-Enhanced Effect in Green/Yellow Luminescence from BeZnCdSe Quantum Wells Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Ryoichi

    2018-02-01

    The recombination-enhanced defect reaction (REDR) effect in single green/yellow emission BeZnCdSe quantum wells (QWs) has been investigated using photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and time-resolved PL measurements. Even though a lattice hardening effect is expected in BeZnCdSe QWs alloyed with beryllium, PL intensity enhancement due to photoannealing as well as subsequent degradation due to generation of dark spot defects (DSDs) and dark line defects (DLDs) were observed. PL microscopy provided insights into the REDR effect during photoannealing. PL images were spatially inhomogeneous in intensity for the as-grown wafer, with the darker areas having size from submicrometer to 1 μm becoming brighter with the progress of photoannealing, revealing a built-in distribution of point defects incorporated in the structure during crystal growth. In addition, we showed that the PL lifetime increased with the progress of photoannealing; hence, the density of point defects decreased due to the REDR effect. A nonradiative decay channel insensitive to the REDR effect was also found in the area free from DSDs and DLDs, suggesting that another type of defect remained in the structure (note that this is not the defect reported in study of slow-mode degradation in long-lived laser diodes). As the degradation progresses, a nonradiative channel such as photocarrier diffusion and subsequent trapping by a patch of DLDs will emerge before radiative recombination.

  10. Enhancement in photo-electrochemical efficiency by reducing recombination rate in branched TiO2 nanotube array on functionalizing with ZnO micro crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boda, Muzaffar Ahmad; Ashraf Shah, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    In this study, branched TiO2 nanotube array were fabricated through electrochemical anodization process at constant voltage using third generation electrolyte. On account of morphological advantage, these nanotubes shows significant enhancement in photo-electrochemical property than compact or conventional titania nanotube array. However, their photo-electrochemical efficiency intensifies on coating with ZnO micro-crystals. ZnO coated branched TiO2 nanotube array shows a photocurrent density of 27.8 mA cm‑2 which is 1.55 times the photocurrent density (17.2 mA cm‑2) shown by bare branched titania nanotubes. The significant enhancement in photocurrent density shown by the resulting ZnO/TiO2 hybrid structure is attributed to suppression in electron–hole recombination phenomenon by offering smooth pathway to photo generated excitons on account of staggered band edge positions in individual semiconductors.

  11. Genetic Recombination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, H. L. K.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the mechanisms of genetic recombination with particular emphasis on the study of the fungus Sordaria brevicollis. The study of recombination is facilitated by the use of mutants of this fungus in which the color of the ascospores is affected. (JR)

  12. Enhanced cell disruption strategy in the release of recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen from Pichia pastoris using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cell disruption strategies by high pressure homogenizer for the release of recombinant Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) from Pichia pastoris expression cells were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on the central composite design (CCD). The factors studied include number of passes, biomass concentration and pulse pressure. Polynomial models were used to correlate the above mentioned factors to project the cell disruption capability and specific protein release of HBsAg from P. pastoris cells. Results The proposed cell disruption strategy consisted of a number of passes set at 20 times, biomass concentration of 7.70 g/L of dry cell weight (DCW) and pulse pressure at 1,029 bar. The optimized cell disruption strategy was shown to increase cell disruption efficiency by 2-fold and 4-fold for specific protein release of HBsAg when compared to glass bead method yielding 75.68% cell disruption rate (CDR) and HBsAg concentration of 29.20 mg/L respectively. Conclusions The model equation generated from RSM on cell disruption of P. pastoris was found adequate to determine the significant factors and its interactions among the process variables and the optimum conditions in releasing HBsAg when validated against a glass bead cell disruption method. The findings from the study can open up a promising strategy for better recovery of HBsAg recombinant protein during downstream processing. PMID:23039947

  13. Enhanced production and purification of recombinant surface array protein (Sap) for use in detection of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Nidhi; Tripathi, N K; Pal, V; Goel, Ajay Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Surface array protein (Sap) can be an important biomarker for specific detection of Bacillus anthracis , which is released by the bacterium during its growth in culture broth. In the present work, we have cloned and expressed Sap in Escherichia coli . The culture conditions and cultivation media were optimized and used in batch fermentation process for scale up of Sap in soluble form. The recombinant Sap was purified employing affinity chromatography followed by diafiltration. The final yield of purified protein was 20 and 46 mg/l of culture during shake flasks and batch fermentation, respectively. The protein purity and its reactivity were confirmed employing SDS-PAGE and Western blot, respectively. The antibodies raised against purified Sap were evaluated by Western blotting for detection of Sap released by B. anthracis . Our results showed that the Sap could be a novel marker for detection and confirmation of B. anthracis .

  14. Efficiency enhancement in dye sensitized solar cells using dual function mesoporous silica as scatterer and back recombination inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanvi; Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R. K.; Kumar, Subodh; Saxena, Vibha; Aswal, D. K.

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, we report the usage of mesoporous silica for improving light harvesting as well as for suppression of back recombination without affecting the extent of dye loading on TiO2 films. Synthesized mesoporous SiO2 was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer Emmett and Teller measurement, Scanning electron microscopy and Transmission electron microscopy. DSSCs were fabricated by incorporating different wt% of mesoporous SiO2 in TiO2 paste. An improvement of 50% was observed for devices fabricated using 0.75 wt% of mesoporous SiO2. The mechanism behind the improvement was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  15. The substitution of cysteine 17 of recombinant human G-CSF with alanine greatly enhanced its stability.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, M; Iijima, H; Satake-Ishikawa, R; Tsumura, H; Iwamatsu, A; Kadoya, T; Shimada, Y; Fukamachi, H; Kobayashi, K; Matsuki, S

    1992-02-01

    Human recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) has one free cysteine at position 17 and has two disulfide bridges (Cys36-Cys42 and Cys64-Cys74). The Cys17 of rhG-CSF was substituted with Gly, Ala, Ser, Ile, Tyr, Arg, and Pro, or deleted using site-directed mutagenesis in order to improve its thermostability. With the exception of Pro17-rhG-CSF, all mutant proteins retained biological activity which promotes the growth of mouse bone marrow cells in vitro. Among these mutant proteins, Ala17-rhG-CSF had more than 5 times higher stability than rhG-CSF. But Ser17-rhG-CSF had almost same stability as rhG-CSF and other mutant proteins had only lower stability.

  16. Enhancement of 2,3-butanediol production from Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract by a recombinant Bacillus sp. strain BRC1 with increased inulinase activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Jang Min; Oh, Baek-Rock; Kang, In Yeong; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Park, Seung-Moon; Hong, Won-Kyung; Kim, Chul Ho

    2017-07-01

    A Bacillus sp. strain named BRC1 is capable of producing 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) using hydrolysates of the Jerusalem artichoke tuber (JAT), a rich source of the fructose polymer inulin. To enhance 2,3-BD production, we undertook an extensive analysis of the Bacillus sp. BRC1 genome, identifying a putative gene (sacC) encoding a fructan hydrolysis enzyme and characterizing the activity of the resulting recombinant protein expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli. Introduction of the sacC gene into Bacillus sp. BRC1 using an expression vector increased enzymatic activity more than twofold. Consistent with this increased enzyme expression, 2,3-BD production from JAT was also increased from 3.98 to 8.10 g L -1 . Fed-batch fermentation of the recombinant strain produced a maximal level of 2,3-BD production of 28.6 g L -1 , showing a high theoretical yield of 92.3%.

  17. Significantly enhancing recombinant alkaline amylase production in Bacillus subtilis by integration of a novel mutagenesis-screening strategy with systems-level fermentation optimization.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingfang; Shen, Wei; Chen, Xianzhong; Liu, Long; Zhou, Zhemin; Xu, Fei; Yang, Haiquan

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline amylase has significant potential for applications in the textile, paper and detergent industries, however, low yield of which cannot meet the requirement of industrial application. In this work, a novel ARTP mutagenesis-screening method and fermentation optimization strategies were used to significantly improve the expression level of recombinant alkaline amylase in B. subtilis 168. The activity of alkaline amylase in mutant B. subtilis 168 mut-16# strain was 1.34-fold greater than that in the wild-type, and the highest specific production rate was improved from 1.31 U/(mg·h) in the wild-type strain to 1.57 U/(mg·h) in the mutant strain. Meanwhile, the growth of B. subtilis was significantly enhanced by ARTP mutagenesis. When the agitation speed was 550 rpm, the highest activity of recombinant alkaline amylase was 1.16- and 1.25-fold of the activities at 450 and 650 rpm, respectively. When the concentration of soluble starch and soy peptone in the initial fermentation medium was doubled, alkaline amylase activity was increased 1.29-fold. Feeding hydrolyzed starch and soy peptone mixture or glucose significantly improved cell growth, but inhibited the alkaline amylase production in B. subtilis 168 mut-16#. The highest alkaline amylase activity by feeding hydrolyzed starch reached 591.4 U/mL, which was 1.51-fold the activity by feeding hydrolyzed starch and soy peptone mixture. Single pulse feeding-based batch feeding at 10 h favored the production of alkaline amylase in B. subtilis 168 mut-16#. The results indicated that this novel ARTP mutagenesis-screening method could significantly improve the yield of recombinant proteins in B. subtilis . Meanwhile, fermentation optimization strategies efficiently promoted expression of recombinant alkaline amylase in B. subtilis 168 mut-16#. These findings have great potential for facilitating the industrial-scale production of alkaline amylase and other enzymes, using B. subtilis cultures as microbial cell

  18. Recombination monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S. Y.; Blaskiewicz, M.

    This is a brief report on LEReC recombination monitor design considerations. The recombination produced Au 78+ ion rate is reviewed. Based on this two designs are discussed. One is to use the large dispersion lattice. It is shown that even with the large separation of the Au 78+ beam from the Au 79+ beam, the continued monitoring of the recombination is not possible. Accumulation of Au 78+ ions is needed, plus collimation of the Au79+ beam. In another design, it is shown that the recombination monitor can be built based on the proposed scheme with the nominal lattice. From machinemore » operation point of view, this design is preferable. Finally, possible studies and the alternative strategies with the basic goal of the monitor are discussed.« less

  19. Recombinant myostatin (GDF-8) propeptide enhances the repair and regeneration of both muscle and bone in a model of deep penetrant musculoskeletal injury.

    PubMed

    Hamrick, Mark W; Arounleut, Phonepasong; Kellum, Ethan; Cain, Matthew; Immel, David; Liang, Li-Fang

    2010-09-01

    Myostatin (GDF-8) is known as a potent inhibitor of muscle growth and development, and myostatin is also expressed early in the fracture healing process. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a new myostatin inhibitor, a recombinant myostatin propeptide, can enhance the repair and regeneration of both muscle and bone in cases of deep penetrant injury. We used a fibula osteotomy model with associated damage to lateral compartment muscles (fibularis longus and brevis) in mice to test the hypothesis that blocking active myostatin with systemic injections of a recombinant myostatin propeptide would improve muscle and bone repair. Mice were assigned to two treatment groups after undergoing a fibula osteotomy: those receiving either vehicle (saline) or recombinant myostatin propeptide (20 mg/kg). Mice received one injection on the day of surgery, another injection 5 days after surgery, and a third injection 10 days after surgery. Mice were killed 15 days after the osteotomy procedure. Bone repair was assessed using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and histologic evaluation of the fracture callus. Muscle healing was assessed using Masson trichrome staining of the injury site, and image analysis was used to quantify the degree of fibrosis and muscle regeneration. Three propeptide injections over a period of 15 days increased body mass by 7% and increased muscle mass by almost 20% (p < 0.001). Micro-CT analysis of the osteotomy site shows that by 15 days postosteotomy, bony callus tissue was observed bridging the osteotomy gap in 80% of the propeptide-treated mice but only 40% of the control (vehicle)-treated mice (p < 0.01). Micro-CT quantification shows that bone volume of the fracture callus was increased by ∼ 30% (p < 0.05) with propeptide treatment, and the increase in bone volume was accompanied by a significant increase in cartilage area (p = 0.01). Propeptide treatment significantly decreased the fraction of fibrous tissue in the wound site

  20. Recombinant growth differentiation factor 11 influences short-term memory and enhances Sox2 expression in middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Jadavji, Nafisa M; Yoo, Hyung-Suk; Smith, Patrice D

    2018-04-02

    Previous evidence suggests that a significant decline in cognitive ability begins during middle-age and continues to deteriorate with increase in age. Recent work has demonstrated the potential rejuvenation impact of growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) in aged mice. We carried out experiments to evaluate the impact of a single dose of recombinant (rGDF-11) on short-term visual and spatial memory in middle-aged male mice. On the novel object recognition task, we observed middle-aged mice treated rGDF-11 showed improved performance on the novel object recognition task. However, middle-aged mice did not show increased expression of phosphorylated-Smad2/3, a downstream effector of GDF-11. We noted however that the expression of the transcription factor, Sox2 was increased within the dentate gyrus. Our data suggest that a single injection of rGDF-11 contributes to improvements in cognitive function of middle-aged animals, which may be critical in the preservation of short-term memory capacity in old age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Recombinant Dengue 2 Virus NS3 Helicase Protein Enhances Antibody and T-Cell Response of Purified Inactivated Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Monika; Sun, Peifang; Putnak, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus purified inactivated vaccines (PIV) are highly immunogenic and protective over the short term, but may be poor at inducing cell-mediated immune responses and long-term protection. The dengue nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is considered the main target for T-cell responses during viral infection. The amino (N)-terminal protease and the carboxy (C)-terminal helicase domains of DENV-2 NS3 were expressed in E. coli and analyzed for their immune-potentiating capacity. Mice were immunized with DENV-2 PIV with and without recombinant NS3 protease or NS3 helicase proteins, and NS3 proteins alone on days 0, 14 and 28. The NS3 helicase but not the NS3 protease was effective in inducing T-cell responses quantified by IFN-γ ELISPOT. In addition, markedly increased total IgG antibody titer against virus antigen was seen in mice immunized with the PIV/NS3 helicase combination in the ELISA, as well as increased neutralizing antibody titer measured by the plaque reduction neutralization test. These results indicate the potential immunogenic properties of the NS3 helicase protein and its use in a dengue vaccine formulation. PMID:27035715

  2. Rev1 Recruits Ung to Switch Regions and Enhances dU Glycosylation for Immunoglobulin Class Switch DNA Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Hong; White, Clayton A.; Thomas, Lisa M.; Mai, Thach; Li, Guideng; Xu, Zhenming; Zhang, Jinsong; Casali, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY By diversifying the biological effector functions of antibodies, class switch DNA recombination (CSR) plays a critical role in the maturation of the immune response. It is initiated by AID-mediated dC deamination, yielding dUs, and dU glycosylation by Ung in antibody switch (S) region DNA. Here we showed that the translesion DNA synthesis polymerase Rev1 directly interacted with Ung and targeted in an AID-dependent and Ung-independent fashion the S regions undergoing CSR. Rev1–/– Ung+/+ B cells reduced Ung recruitment to S regions, DNA-dU glycosylation and CSR. This together with an S region spectrum of mutations similar to that of Rev1+/+ Ung–/– B cells suggested that Rev1 operated in the same pathway as Ung, as emphasized by further decreased CSR in Rev1–/– Msh2–/– B cells. Rescue of CSR in Rev1–/– B cells by a catalytically inactive Rev1 mutant showed that the important role of Rev1 in CSR is mediated by Rev1 scaffold, not enzymatic function. PMID:23140944

  3. Rational plasmid design and bioprocess optimization to enhance recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) productivity in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Emmerling, Verena V; Pegel, Antje; Milian, Ernest G; Venereo-Sanchez, Alina; Kunz, Marion; Wegele, Jessica; Kamen, Amine A; Kochanek, Stefan; Hoerer, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Viral vectors used for gene and oncolytic therapy belong to the most promising biological products for future therapeutics. Clinical success of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) based therapies raises considerable demand for viral vectors, which cannot be met by current manufacturing strategies. Addressing existing bottlenecks, we improved a plasmid system termed rep/cap split packaging and designed a minimal plasmid encoding adenoviral helper function. Plasmid modifications led to a 12-fold increase in rAAV vector titers compared to the widely used pDG standard system. Evaluation of different production approaches revealed superiority of processes based on anchorage- and serum-dependent HEK293T cells, exhibiting about 15-fold higher specific and volumetric productivity compared to well-established suspension cells cultivated in serum-free medium. As for most other viral vectors, classical stirred-tank bioreactor production is thus still not capable of providing drug product of sufficient amount. We show that manufacturing strategies employing classical surface-providing culture systems can be successfully transferred to the new fully-controlled, single-use bioreactor system Integrity(TM) iCELLis(TM) . In summary, we demonstrate substantial bioprocess optimizations leading to more efficient and scalable production processes suggesting a promising way for flexible large-scale rAAV manufacturing. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Enhanced late gas generation potential of petroleum source rocks via recombination reactions: Evidence from the Norwegian North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Michael; Horsfield, Brian

    2006-08-01

    Gas generation in the deep reaches of sedimentary basins is usually considered to take place via the primary cracking of short alkyl groups from overmature kerogen or the secondary cracking of petroleum. Here, we show that recombination reactions ultimately play the dominant role in controlling the timing of late gas generation in source rocks which contain mixtures of terrigeneous and marine organic matter. These reactions, taking place at low levels of maturation, result in the formation of a thermally stable bitumen, which is the major source of methane at very high maturities. The inferences come from pyrolysis experiments performed on samples of the Draupne Formation (liptinitic Type II kerogen) and Heather Formation (mixed marine-terrigeneous Type III kerogen), both Upper Jurassic source rocks stemming from the Norwegian northern North Sea Viking Graben system. Non-isothermal closed system micro scale sealed vessel (MSSV) pyrolysis, non-isothermal open system pyrolysis and Rock Eval type pyrolysis were performed on the solvent extracted, concentrated kerogens of the two immature samples. The decrease of C 6+ products in the closed system MSSV pyrolysis provided the basis for the calculation of secondary gas (C 1-5) formation. Subtraction of the calculated secondary gas from the total observed gas yields a "remaining" gas. In the case of the Draupne Formation this is equivalent to primary gas cracked directly from the kerogen, as detected by a comparison with multistep open pyrolysis data. For the Heather Formation the calculated remaining gas formation profile is initially attributable to primary gas but there is a second major gas pulse at very high temperature (>550 °C at 5.0 K min -1) that is not primary. This has been explained by a recondensation process where first formed high molecular weight compounds in the closed system yield a macromolecular material that undergoes secondary cracking at elevated temperatures. The experiments provided the input for

  5. Functional Requirements for DjlA- and RraA-Mediated Enhancement of Recombinant Membrane Protein Production in the Engineered Escherichia coli Strains SuptoxD and SuptoxR.

    PubMed

    Gialama, Dimitra; Delivoria, Dafni Chrysanthi; Michou, Myrsini; Giannakopoulou, Artemis; Skretas, Georgios

    2017-06-16

    In previous work, we have generated the engineered Escherichia coli strains SuptoxD and SuptoxR, which upon co-expression of the effector genes djlA or rraA, respectively, are capable of suppressing the cytotoxicity caused by membrane protein (MP) overexpression and of producing dramatically enhanced yields for a variety of recombinant MPs of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic origin. Here, we investigated the functional requirements for DnaJ-like protein A (DjlA)- and regulator of ribonuclease activity A (RraA)-mediated enhancement of recombinant MP production in these strains and show that: (i) DjlA and RraA act independently, that is, the beneficial effects of each protein on recombinant MP production occur through a mechanism that does not involve the other, and in a non-additive manner; (ii) full-length and membrane-bound DjlA is required for exerting its beneficial effects on recombinant MP production in E. coli SuptoxD; (iii) the MP production-promoting properties of DjlA in SuptoxD involve the action of the molecular chaperone DnaK but do not rely on the activation of the regulation of capsular synthesis response, a well-established consequence of djlA overexpression; (iv) the observed RraA-mediated effects in E. coli SuptoxR involve the ribonucleolytic activity of RNase E, but not that of its paralogous ribonuclease RNase G; and (v) DjlA and RraA are unique among similar E. coli proteins in their ability to promote bacterial recombinant MP production. These observations provide important clues about the molecular requirements for suppressed toxicity and enhanced MP accumulation in SuptoxD/SuptoxR and will guide future studies aiming to decipher the exact mechanism of DjlA- and RraA-mediated enhancement of recombinant MP production in these strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Untangling the mechanism of 3-methyladenine (3-MA) in enhancing the specific productivity: Transcriptome analysis of recombinant CHO cells treated with 3-MA.

    PubMed

    Baek, Eric; Lee, Jae Seong; Lee, Gyun Min

    2018-06-25

    3-Methyladenine (3-MA) is a chemical additive that enhances the specific productivity (q p ) in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cell lines. Different from its widely known function of inhibiting autophagy, 3-MA has instead shown to increase autophagic flux in various rCHO cell lines. Thus, the mechanism by which 3-MA enhances the q p requires investigation. To evaluate the effect of 3-MA on transcriptome dynamics in rCHO cells, RNA-seq was performed with Fc-fusion protein-producing rCHO cells treated with 3-MA. By analyzing genes that were differentially expressed following the addition of 3-MA during culture, the role of 3-MA in the biological processes of rCHO cells was identified. One pathway markedly influenced by the addition of 3-MA was the unfolded protein response (UPR). Having a close relationship with autophagy, the UPR reestablishes protein folding homeostasis under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The addition of 3-MA increased the expression of key regulators of the UPR, such as Atf4, Ddit3, and Creb3l3, further supporting the idea that the enhancement of ER capacity acts as a key in increasing the q p . Consequently, the downstream effectors of UPR, which include autophagy-promoting genes, were upregulated as well. Hence, the role of 3-MA in increasing UPR pathway could have made a salient contribution to the increased autophagic flux in rCHO cells. Taken together, transcriptome analysis improved the understanding of the role of 3-MA in gene expression dynamics in rCHO cells and its mechanism in enhancing the q p . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancement of short-pulse recombination-pumped gain by soft-x-ray photoionization of the ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apruzese, J. P.; Umstadter, D.

    1996-02-01

    The gain achieved in lasing to the ground state following short-pulse field ionization by a pump laser is highly transient. It will usually persist for only tens of picoseconds because of the rapid filling and negligible emptying of the ground state. Employing a detailed atomic model of lasing in hydrogen, we show that the removal of ground-state population by an appropriate broadband ionizing radiation field can enhance and prolong the gain in such a laser.

  8. Enhancing recovery of recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen in lab-scale and large-scale anion-exchange chromatography by optimizing the conductivity of buffers.

    PubMed

    Mojarrad Moghanloo, Gol Mohammad; Khatami, Maryam; Javidanbardan, Amin; Hosseini, Seyed Nezamedin

    2018-01-01

    In biopharmaceutical science, ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) is a well-known purification technique to separate the impurities such as host cell proteins from recombinant proteins. However, IEC is one of the limiting steps in the purification process of recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (rHBsAg), due to its low recovery rate (<50%). In the current study, we hypothesized that ionic strengths of IEC buffers are easy-to-control parameters which can play a major role in optimizing the process and increasing the recovery. Thus, we investigated the effects of ionic strengths of buffers on rHBsAg recovery via adjusting Tris-HCl and NaCl concentrations. Increasing the conductivity of equilibration (Eq.), washing (Wash.) and elution (Elut.) buffers from their initial values of 1.6 mS/cm, 1.6 mS/cm, and 7.0 mS/cm to 1.6 mS/cm, 7 mS/cm and 50 mS/cm, respectively yielded an average recovery rate of 82% in both lab-scale and large-scale weak anion-exchange chromatography without any harsh effect on the purity percentage of rHBsAg. The recovery enhancement via increasing the conductivity of Eq. and Wash. buffers can be explained by their roles in reducing the binding strength and aggregation of retained particles in the column. Moreover, further increase in the salt concentration of Elut. Buffer could substantially promote the ion exchange process and the elution of retained rHBsAg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced growth inhibition of prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo by a recombinant adenovirus-mediated dual-aptamer modified drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Jing, Pei; Cao, Shousong; Xiao, Shuangli; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Ke, Siyun; Ke, Famin; Yu, Xin; Wang, Li; Wang, Shurong; Luo, Yuling; Zhong, Zhirong

    2016-12-28

    The peptide aptamer DUP-1 targets prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-negative cells, while the RNA aptamer A10-3.2 targets PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells. Moreover, the tumor-suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) effectively inhibit prostate cancer, and a recombinant adenovirus (Ad5) mediates high gene transfer efficiency. Here, we design a dual-aptamer modified tumor targeting gene and DOX delivery system mediated by recombinant adenovirus (A10-3.2(DOX)/DUP-1-PEG-Ad5, ADDP-Ad5). DUP-1 and A10-3.2 are connected to the adenovirus through polyethylene glycol (PEG), PTEN is integrated into Ad5, and DOX is embedded into the double chain of aptamer A10-3.2. The PEG-modification rate of Ad5 is 98.70 ± 2.43%. The DUP-1 and A10-3.2 modified products yield 80.40 ± 1.36% and 82.20 ± 2.14%, respectively. The uptake of ADDP-Ad5 and the expression of the reporter gene are enhanced by the system in PSMA-positive LNCaP and PSMA-negative PC3 human prostate cancer cells. ADDP-Ad5 significantly inhibits the cell growth of both LNCaP and PC3 cells. More importantly, ADDP-Ad5 is active in vivo against LNCaP and PC3 tumor xenografts and exhibits no significant toxicity to the mice. Therefore, ADDP-Ad5 may have clinical potential in prostate cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel HBV recombinants between genotypes B and C in 3'-terminal reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences are associated with enhanced viral DNA load, higher RT point mutation rates and place of birth among Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoming; Yang, Jing-Xian; Yan, Ling; Zhuang, Hui; Li, Tong

    2018-01-01

    As one of the major global public health concerns, hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be divided into at least eight genotypes, which may be related to disease severity and treatment response. We previously demonstrated that genotypes B and C HBV, with distinct geographical distribution in China, had divergent genotype-dependent amino acid polymorphisms and variations in reverse transcriptase (RT) gene region, a target of antiviral therapy using nucleos(t)ide analogues. Recently recombination between HBV genotypes B and C was reported to occur in the RT region. However, their frequency and clinical significance is poorly understood. Here full-length HBV RT sequences from 201 Chinese chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients were amplified and sequenced, among which 31.34% (63/201) were genotype B whereas 68.66% (138/201) genotype C. Although no intergenotypic recombination was detected among C-genotype HBV, 38.10% (24/63) of B-genotype HBV had recombination with genotype C in the 3'-terminal RT sequences. The patients with B/C intergenotypic recombinants had significantly (P<0.05) higher serum HBV DNA level than the "pure" B-genotype cohort did. Moreover, the B/C intergenotypic recombinants were prone to more substitutions at several specific residues in the RT region than genotype B or C. Besides, unlike their parental genotypes, the recombinant HBV appeared to display an altered geographic distribution feature in China. Our findings provide novel insight into the virological, clinical and epidemiological features of new HBV B/C intergenotypic recombinants at the 3' end of RT sequences among Chinese CHB patients. The highly complex genetic background of the novel recombinant HBV carrying new mutations affecting RT protein may contribute to an enhanced heterogeneity in treatment response or prognosis among CHB patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Simultaneous inhibition of sulfate-reducing bacteria, removal of H2S and production of rhamnolipid by recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl: Applications for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Ji-Dong; Ma, Fang; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Ying

    2016-05-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are widely existed in oil production system, and its H2S product inhibits rhamnolipid producing bacteria. In-situ production of rhamnolipid is promising for microbial enhanced oil recovery. Inhibition of SRB, removal of H2S and production of rhamnolipid by recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl were investigated. Strain Rhl can simultaneously remove S(2-) (>92%) and produce rhamnolipid (>136mg/l) under S(2-) stress below 33.3mg/l. Rhl reduced the SRB numbers from 10(9) to 10(5)cells/ml, and the production of H2S was delayed and decreased to below 2mg/l. Rhl also produced rhamnolipid and removed S(2-) under laboratory simulated oil reservoir conditions. High-throughput sequencing data demonstrated that addition of strain Rhl significantly changed the original microbial communities of oilfield production water and decreased the species and abundance of SRB. Bioaugmentation of strain Rhl in oilfield is promising for simultaneous control of SRB, removal of S(2-) and enhance oil recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular identification and expression analysis of a natural killer cell enhancing factor (NKEF) from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus and the biological activity of its recombinant protein

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju-Won; Choi, Hye-Sung; Kwon, Mun-Gyeong; Park, Myoung-Ae; Hwang, Jee-Youn; Kim, Do-Hyung; Park, Chan-Il

    2011-01-01

    Natural killer cell enhancing factor (NKEF) belongs to the defined peroxiredoxin (Prx) family. Rock bream NKEF cDNA was identified by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of rock bream liver that was stimulated with the LPS. The full-length RbNKEF cDNA (1062 bp) contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 594 bp encoding 198 amino acids. RbNKEF was significantly expressed in the gill, liver, and intestine. mRNA expression of NKEF in the head kidney was examined under viral and bacterial challenge via real-time RT-PCR. Experimental challenge of rock bream with Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, and RSIV resulted in significant increases in RbNKEF mRNA in the head kidney. To obtain a recombinant NKEF, the RbNKEF ORF was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the purified soluble protein exhibited a single band corresponding to the predicted molecular mass. When kidney leucocytes were treated with a high concentration of rRbNKEF (10 μg/mL), they exhibited significantly enhanced cell proliferation and viability under oxidative stress. PMID:24371552

  13. A mechanistic dissection of polyethylenimine mediated transfection of CHO cells: to enhance the efficiency of recombinant DNA utilization.

    PubMed

    Mozley, Olivia L; Thompson, Ben C; Fernandez-Martell, Alejandro; James, David C

    2014-01-01

    cytotoxicity. The combination of propyl-PEI and Clone 4 doubled the efficiency of recombinant DNA utilization and reporter protein production. These data show that for maximal efficacy, strategies to increase polyplex internalization into cells must be used in concert with strategies to offset the inherent cytotoxicity of this process. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Enhanced performance of solar cells with optimized surface recombination and efficient photon capturing via anisotropic-etching of black silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H. Y.; Peng, Y., E-mail: gdyuan@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: py@usst.edu.cn; Hong, M.

    2014-05-12

    We report an enhanced conversion efficiency of femtosecond-laser treated silicon solar cells by surface modification of anisotropic-etching. The etching improves minority carrier lifetime inside modified black silicon area substantially; moreover, after the etching, an inverted pyramids/upright pyramids mixed texture surface is obtained, which shows better photon capturing capability than that of conventional pyramid texture. Combing of these two merits, the reformed solar cells show higher conversion efficiency than that of conventional pyramid textured cells. This work presents a way for fabricating high performance silicon solar cells, which can be easily applied to mass-production.

  15. Expression of rabbit IL-4 by recombinant myxoma viruses enhances virulence and overcomes genetic resistance to myxomatosis.

    PubMed

    Kerr, P J; Perkins, H D; Inglis, B; Stagg, R; McLaughlin, E; Collins, S V; Van Leeuwen, B H

    2004-06-20

    Rabbit IL-4 was expressed in the virulent standard laboratory strain (SLS) and the attenuated Uriarra (Ur) strain of myxoma virus with the aim of creating a Th2 cytokine environment and inhibiting the development of an antiviral cell-mediated response to myxomatosis in infected rabbits. This allowed testing of a model for genetic resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits that have undergone 50 years of natural selection for resistance to myxomatosis. Expression of IL-4 significantly enhanced virulence of both virulent and attenuated virus strains in susceptible (laboratory) and resistant (wild) rabbits. SLS-IL-4 completely overcame genetic resistance in wild rabbits. The pathogenesis of SLS-IL-4 was compared in susceptible and resistant rabbits. The results support a model for resistance to myxomatosis of an enhanced innate immune response controlling virus replication and allowing an effective antiviral cell-mediated immune response to develop in resistant rabbits. Expression of IL-4 did not overcome immunity to myxomatosis induced by immunization.

  16. Spectrum Recombination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  17. Enhanced protective immune response to PCV2 subunit vaccine by co-administration of recombinant porcine IFN-γ in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Ping; Liu, Dan; Guo, Long-Jun; Tang, Qing-Hai; Wei, Yan-Wu; Wu, Hong-Li; Liu, Jian-Bo; Li, Sheng-Bin; Huang, Li-Ping; Liu, Chang-Ming

    2013-01-21

    The capsid (Cap) protein of PCV2 is the major immunogenic protein that is crucial to induce PCV2-specific neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity; thus, it is a suitable target antigen for the research and development of genetically engineered vaccines against PCV2 infection. IFN-γ has exhibited potential efficacy as an immune adjuvant that enhances the immunogenicity of certain vaccines in experimental animal models. In this study, three recombinant proteins: PCV2-Cap protein, porcine IFN-γ (PoIFN-γ), and the fusion protein (Cap-PoIFN-γ) of PCV2-Cap protein and PoIFN-γ were respectively expressed in the baculovirus system, and analyzed by Western blot and indirect ELISA. Additionally, we evaluated the enhancement of the protective immune response to the Cap protein-based PCV2 subunit vaccine elicited by co-administration of PoIFN-γ in mice. Vaccination of mice with the PCV2-Cap+PoIFN-γ vaccine elicited significantly higher levels of PCV2-specific IPMA antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and lymphocyte proliferative responses compared to the Cap-PoIFN-γ vaccine, the PCV2-Cap vaccine, and LG-strain. Following virulent PCV2 challenge, no viraemia was detected in all immunized groups, and the viral loads in lungs of the PCV2-Cap+PoIFN-γ group were significantly lower compared to the Cap-PoIFN-γ group, the LG-strain group, and the mock group, but slightly lower compared to the PCV2-Cap group. These findings suggested that PoIFN-γ substantially enhanced the protective immune response to the Cap protein-based PCV2 subunit vaccine, and that the PCV2-Cap+PoIFN-γ subunit vaccine potentially serves as an attractive candidate vaccine for the prevention and control of PCV2-associated diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Silica Gel for Enhanced Activity and Hypochlorite Protection of Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase in Recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Radian, Adi; Aukema, Kelly G; Aksan, Alptekin; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2015-11-03

    Chlorinated isocyanuric acids are widely used water disinfectants that generate hypochlorite, but with repeated application, they build up cyanuric acid (CYA) that must be removed to maintain disinfection. 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-treated Escherichia coli cells expressing cyanuric acid hydrolase (CAH) from Moorella thermoacetica exhibited significantly high CYA degradation rates and provided protection against enzyme inactivation by hypochlorite (chlorine). APTES coating or encapsulation of cells had two benefits: (i) overcoming diffusion limitations imposed by the cell wall and (ii) protecting against hypochlorite inactivation of CAH activity. Cells encapsulated in APTES gels degraded CYA three times faster than nonfunctionalized tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) gels, and cells coated with APTES degraded CYA at a rate of 29 µmol/min per mg of CAH protein, similar to the rate with purified enzyme. UV spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy showed that the higher rates were due to APTES increasing membrane permeability and enhancing cyanuric acid diffusion into the cytoplasm to reach the CAH enzyme. Purified CAH enzyme was shown to be rapidly inactivated by hypochlorite. APTES aggregates surrounding cells protected via the amine groups reacting with hypochlorite as shown by pH changes, zeta potential measurements, and infrared spectroscopy. APTES-encapsulated E. coli cells expressing CAH degraded cyanuric acid at high rates in the presence of 1 to 10 ppm hypochlorite, showing effectiveness under swimming pool conditions. In contrast, CAH activity in TEOS gels or free cells was completely inactivated by hypochlorite. These studies show that commercially available silica materials can selectively enhance, protect, and immobilize whole-cell biocatalysts for specialized applications. Hypochlorite is used in vast quantities for water disinfection, killing bacteria on surfaces, and washing and whitening. In pools, spas, and other

  19. Perfluorochemical (PFC) liquid enhances recombinant adenovirus vector-mediated viral interleukin-10 (AdvIL-10) expression in rodent lung.

    PubMed

    Li, John T; Bonneau, Laura A; Zimmerman, Jerry J; Weiss, Daniel J

    2007-05-01

    Adenovirus and cationic liposome mediated transfer of Interleukin-10 (IL-10), a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, has been shown to decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and overall lung inflammation in models of lung transplantation and injury. Limitations to current approaches of IL-10 gene therapy include poor vector delivery methods and pro-inflammatory properties of human IL-10 under certain conditions. We hypothesize that using perfluorochemical (PFC) liquid to deliver the highly homologous viral IL-10 (vIL-10), which is predominantly anti-inflammatory with minimal pro-inflammatory activities, can potentially be a more effective strategy to combat inflammatory lung diseases. In this study, we compare the use of PFC liquid versus aerosolized method to deliver adenovirus encoding the vIL-10 gene (AdvIL-10) in C57Bl6 mice. Detectable vIL-10 levels were measured from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung homogenates at one, four, ten and thirty days after AdvIL-10. Furthermore, we determined if use of PFC liquid could allow for the use of a lower dose of AdvIL-10 by comparing the levels of detectable vIL-10 at different doses of AdvIL-10 delivered +/- PFC liquid. Results showed that PFC liquid enhanced detectable vIL-10 by up to ten fold and that PFC liquid allowed the use of ten-fold less vector. PFC liquid increased detectable vIL-10 in lung homogenates at all time points; however, the increase in detectable vIL-10 in BAL fluid peaked at four days and was no longer evident by thirty days after intratracheal instillation. In summary, this is the first report utilizing PFC liquid to enhance the delivery of a potentially therapeutic molecule, vIL-10. We believe this strategy can be used to perform future studies on the use of the predominantly anti-inflammatory vIL-10 to treat inflammatory lung diseases.

  20. Optimization of culture medium for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid by recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, F; Mandlaa, M; Hao, J; Liang, X; Shi, R; Han, S; Zhang, Y

    2014-08-01

    Response surface methodology was employed to enhance the anaerobic production of rhamnolipid by recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl. Glycerol is a promising carbon source used to anaerobically produce rhamnolipid. In a Plackett-Burman design, glycerol, KH2 PO4 and yeast extract were significant factors. The proposed optimized medium contained the following: 46·55 g l(-1) glycerol; 3 g l(-1) NaNO3 ; 5·25 g l(-1) K2 HPO4 ·3H2 O; 5·71 g l(-1) KH2 PO4 ; 0·40 g l(-1) MgSO4 ·7H2 O; 0·13 g l(-1) CaCl2 ; 1·0 g l(-1) KCl; 1·0 g l(-1) NaCl; and 2·69 g l(-1) yeast extract. Using this optimized medium, we obtained an anaerobic yield of rhamnolipid of 3·12 ± 0·11 g l(-1) with a 0·85-fold increase. Core flooding test results also revealed that Ps. stutzeri Rhl grown in an optimized medium enhanced the oil recovery efficiency by 15·7%, which was 6·6% higher than in the initial medium. Results suggested that the optimized medium is a promising nutrient source that could effectively mobilize oil by enhancing the in situ production of rhamnolipid. The ex situ application of rhamnolipid for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is costly and complex in terms of rhamnolipid production, purification and transportation. Compared with ex situ applications, the in situ production of rhamnolipid in anaerobic oil reservoir is more advantageous for MEOR. This study is the first to report the anaerobic production optimization of rhamnolipid. Results showed that the optimized medium enhanced not only the anaerobic production of rhamnolipid but also crude oil recovery. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. LY294002 enhances expression of proteins encoded by recombinant replication-defective adenoviruses via mTOR- and non-mTOR-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Shepelev, Mikhail V; Korobko, Elena V; Vinogradova, Tatiana V; Kopantsev, Eugene P; Korobko, Igor V

    2013-03-04

    Adenovirus-based drugs are efficient when combined with other anticancer treatments. Here we show that treatment with LY294002 and LY303511 upregulates expression of recombinant proteins encoded by replication-defective adenoviruses, including expression of therapeutically valuable combination of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase controlled by human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (Ad-hTERT-HSVtk). In line with this, treatment with LY294002 synergized with Ad-hTERT-HSVtk infection in the presence of gancyclovir prodrug on Calu-I lung cancer cell death. The effect of LY294002 and LY303511 on adenovirus-delivered transgene expression was demonstrated in 4 human lung cancer cell lines. LY294002-induced upregulation of adenovirally delivered transgene is mediated in part by direct inhibition of mTOR protein kinase in mTORC2 signaling complex thus suggesting that anticancer drugs targeting mTOR will also enhance expression of transgenes delivered with adenoviral vectors. As both LY294002 and LY303511 are candidate prototypic anticancer drugs, and many mTOR inhibitors for cancer treatment are under development, our results have important implication for development of future therapeutic strategies with adenoviral gene delivery.

  2. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with a progressive reduction of recombination using Cu-doped CdS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthalif, Mohammed Panthakkal Abdul; Lee, Young-Seok; Sunesh, Chozhidakath Damodharan; Kim, Hee-Je; Choe, Youngson

    2017-02-01

    In this article, we have systematically probed the effect of Cu-doping in CdS quantum dots (QDs) to enhance the photovoltaic performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The Cu-doped CdS photoanodes were prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and the corresponding cell devices were fabricated using CuS counter electrodes with a polysulfide electrolyte. The photovoltaic performance results demonstrate that 3 mM Cu-doped CdS QDs based QDSSCs exhibit the efficiency (η) of 3% including JSC = 9.40 mA cm-2, VOC = 0.637 V, FF = 0.501, which are higher than those with bare CdS (η = 2.05%, JSC = 7.12 mA cm-2, VOC = 0.588 V, FF = 0.489). The structural, topographical and optical properties of the thin films have been studied with the help of X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis spectrophotometer. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and open circuit voltage decay (OCVD) measurements indicate that Cu-dopant can inhibit the charge recombination at the photoanode/electrolyte interface and extend the lifetime of electrons. These results reveal that incorporation of copper metal in CdS QDs is a simple and effective method to improve the photovoltaic properties of QDSSCs.

  3. Cooperation between two ClpB isoforms enhances the recovery of the recombinant β-galactosidase from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Izabela; Zolkiewski, Michal; Kędzierska-Mieszkowska, Sabina

    2012-10-05

    Bacterial ClpB is a molecular chaperone that solubilizes and reactivates aggregated proteins in cooperation with the DnaK chaperone system. The mechanism of protein disaggregation mediated by ClpB is linked to translocation of substrates through the central channel within the ring-hexameric structure of ClpB. Two isoforms of ClpB are produced in vivo: the full-length ClpB95 and the truncated ClpB80 (ClpBΔN), which does not contain the N-terminal domain. The functional specificity of the two ClpB isoforms and the biological role of the N-terminal domain are still not fully understood. Recently, it has been demonstrated that ClpB may achieve its full potential as an aggregate-reactivating chaperone through the functional interaction and synergistic cooperation of its two isoforms. It has been found that the most efficient resolubilization and reactivation of stress-aggregated proteins occurred in the presence of both ClpB95 and ClpB80. In this work, we asked if the two ClpB isoforms functionally cooperate in the solubilization and reactivation of proteins from insoluble inclusion bodies (IBs) in Escherichia coli cells. Using the model β-galactosidase fusion protein (VP1LAC), we found that solubilization and reactivation of enzymes entrapped in IBs occurred more efficiently in the presence of ClpB95 with ClpB80 than with either ClpB95 or ClpB80 alone. The two isoforms of ClpB chaperone acting together enhanced the solubility and enzymatic activity of β-galactosidase sequestered into IBs. Both ClpB isoforms were associated with IBs of β-galactosidase, what demonstrates their affinity to this type of aggregates. These results demonstrate a synergistic cooperation between the two isoforms of ClpB chaperone. In addition, no significant recovery of the β-galactosidase from IBs in ΔclpB mutant cells suggests that ClpB is a key chaperone in IB protein release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cooperation between two ClpB isoforms enhances the recovery of the recombinant {beta}-galactosidase from inclusion bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, Izabela; Zolkiewski, Michal; Kedzierska-Mieszkowska, Sabina, E-mail: kedzie@biotech.ug.gda.pl

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An important role of synergistic cooperation between the two ClpB isoforms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both ClpB isoforms are associated with IBs of {beta}-galactosidase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ClpB is a key chaperone in IB protein release. -- Abstract: Bacterial ClpB is a molecular chaperone that solubilizes and reactivates aggregated proteins in cooperation with the DnaK chaperone system. The mechanism of protein disaggregation mediated by ClpB is linked to translocation of substrates through the central channel within the ring-hexameric structure of ClpB. Two isoforms of ClpB are produced in vivo: the full-length ClpB95 and the truncated ClpB80 (ClpB{Delta}N), which does not contain the N-terminalmore » domain. The functional specificity of the two ClpB isoforms and the biological role of the N-terminal domain are still not fully understood. Recently, it has been demonstrated that ClpB may achieve its full potential as an aggregate-reactivating chaperone through the functional interaction and synergistic cooperation of its two isoforms. It has been found that the most efficient resolubilization and reactivation of stress-aggregated proteins occurred in the presence of both ClpB95 and ClpB80. In this work, we asked if the two ClpB isoforms functionally cooperate in the solubilization and reactivation of proteins from insoluble inclusion bodies (IBs) in Escherichia coli cells. Using the model {beta}-galactosidase fusion protein (VP1LAC), we found that solubilization and reactivation of enzymes entrapped in IBs occurred more efficiently in the presence of ClpB95 with ClpB80 than with either ClpB95 or ClpB80 alone. The two isoforms of ClpB chaperone acting together enhanced the solubility and enzymatic activity of {beta}-galactosidase sequestered into IBs. Both ClpB isoforms were associated with IBs of {beta}-galactosidase, what demonstrates their affinity to this type of aggregates. These results demonstrate a

  5. Novel responses of human skin to intradermal recombinant granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor: Langerhans cell recruitment, keratinocyte growth, and enhanced wound healing

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (rGM-CSF), prepared from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and Escherichia coli, was administered to 35 patients with the borderline and polar lepromatous forms of leprosy by the intradermal and subcutaneous routes at doses of 7.5-45.0 micrograms/d for 10 d. With each of these doses and routes, increases in the number of circulating eosinophils were noted. After the intradermal injection, the local skin sites demonstrated zones of roughening and micronodularity that appeared within 24-48 h and persisted for more than 6 d. Reinjection of sites led to enhanced areas of epidermal reaction. GM-CSF prepared from CHO cells was a more potent inducer of this effect. GM-CSF given by the subcutaneous route, at higher doses, failed to initiate these changes. At the microscopic level, the epidermis became thickened (+75%) with increased numbers and layers of enlarged keratinocytes. These contained increased numbers of ribosomes and prominent nucleoli, and were imbedded in a looser meshwork of the zona Pellucida. The modified keratinocytes remained MHC class II antigen negative throughout the course of the response. A major change in the dermis was the progressive accumulation of CD1+, Birbeck granule-positive cells. These Langerhans were recognizable at 48 h after intradermal injection and reached maximum numbers by 4 d. During this period the number of epidermal Langerhans cells remained relatively constant. No increment in dermal Langerhans cells occurred when GLM-CSF was injected by the subcutaneous route. No appreciable increase in the numbers of T cells and monocytes was noted, and granulocytes and eosinophils were largely present within the dermal microvasculature. 4-mm punch biopsies taken from injected sites and adjacent controls were compared in terms of the rapidity of wound healing. 22 of 26 sites demonstrated more rapid filling and hemostasis, whereas four were equivalent to controls. We conclude that r

  6. A Novel Solid-Phase Site-Specific PEGylation Enhances the In Vitro and In Vivo Biostabilty of Recombinant Human Keratinocyte Growth Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingui; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Youting; Ye, Chaohui; Wang, Xiaojie; Ilghari, Dariush; Li, Xiaokun

    2012-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor 1 (KGF-1) has proven useful in the treatment of pathologies associated with dermal adnexae, liver, lung, and the gastrointestinal tract diseases. However, poor stability and short plasma half-life of the protein have restricted its therapeutic applications. While it is possible to improve the stability and extend the circulating half-life of recombinant human KGF-1 (rhKGF-1) using solution-phase PEGylation, such preparations have heterogeneous structures and often low specific activities due to multiple and/or uncontrolled PEGylation. In the present study, a novel solid-phase PEGylation strategy was employed to produce homogenous mono-PEGylated rhKGF-1. RhKGF-1 protein was immobilized on a Heparin-Sepharose column and then a site-selective PEGylation reaction was carried out by a reductive alkylation at the N-terminal amino acid of the protein. The mono-PEGylated rhKGF-1, which accounted for over 40% of the total rhKGF-1 used in the PEGylation reaction, was purified to homogeneity by SP Sepharose ion-exchange chromatography. Our biophysical and biochemical studies demonstrated that the solid-phase PEGylation significantly enhanced the in vitro and in vivo biostability without affecting the over all structure of the protein. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analysis showed that modified rhKGF-1 had considerably longer plasma half-life than its intact counterpart. Our cell-based analysis showed that, similar to rhKGF-1, PEGylated rhKGF-1 induced proliferation in NIH 3T3 cells through the activation of MAPK/Erk pathway. Notably, PEGylated rhKGF-1 exhibited a greater hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced injury in rats compared to rhKGF-1. PMID:22574160

  7. Enhanced protective efficacy against tuberculosis provided by a recombinant urease deficient BCG expressing heat shock protein 70-major membrane protein-II having PEST sequence.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Yumiko; Maeda, Yumi; Tamura, Toshiki; Mukai, Tetsu; Mitarai, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Saburo; Makino, Masahiko

    2016-12-07

    Enhancement of the T cell-stimulating ability of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG) is necessary to develop an effective tuberculosis vaccine. For this purpose, we introduced the PEST-HSP70-major membrane protein-II (MMPII)-PEST fusion gene into ureC-gene depleted recombinant (r) BCG to produce BCG-PEST. The PEST sequence is involved in the proteasomal processing of antigens. BCG-PEST secreted the PEST-HSP70-MMPII-PEST fusion protein and more efficiently activated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) in terms of phenotypic changes and cytokine productions than an empty-vector-introduced BCG or HSP70-MMPII gene-introduced ureC gene-depleted BCG (BCG-DHTM). Autologous human naïve CD8 + T cells and naïve CD4 + T cells were effectively activated by BCG-PEST and produced IFN-γ in an antigen-specific manner through DCs. These T cell activations were closely associated with phagosomal maturation and intraproteasomal protein degradation in antigen-presenting cells. Furthermore, BCG-PEST produced long-lasting memory-type T cells in C57BL/6 mice more efficiently than control rBCGs. Moreover, a single subcutaneous injection of BCG-PEST more effectively reduced the multiplication of subsequent aerosol-challenged Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the standard H37Rv strain and clinically isolated Beijing strain in the lungs than control rBCGs. The vaccination effect of BCG-PEST lasted for at least 6months. These results indicate that BCG-PEST may be able to efficiently control the spread of tuberculosis in human. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Site directed recombination

    DOEpatents

    Jurka, Jerzy W.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced homologous recombination is obtained by employing a consensus sequence which has been found to be associated with integration of repeat sequences, such as Alu and ID. The consensus sequence or sequence having a single transition mutation determines one site of a double break which allows for high efficiency of integration at the site. By introducing single or double stranded DNA having the consensus sequence flanking region joined to a sequence of interest, one can reproducibly direct integration of the sequence of interest at one or a limited number of sites. In this way, specific sites can be identified and homologous recombination achieved at the site by employing a second flanking sequence associated with a sequence proximal to the 3'-nick.

  9. Characterization of recombinant human HBP/CAP37/azurocidin, a pleiotropic mediator of inflammation-enhancing LPS-induced cytokine release from monocytes.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, P B; Bjørn, S; Hastrup, S; Nielsen, P F; Norris, K; Thim, L; Wiberg, F C; Flodgaard, H

    1996-07-15

    Neutrophil-derived heparin-binding protein (HBP) is a strong chemoattractant for monocytes. We report here for the first time the expression of recombinant HBP. A baculovirus containing the human HBP cDNA mediated in insect cells the secretion of a 7-residue N-terminally extended HBP form (pro-HBP). Deletion of the pro-peptide-encoding cDNA sequence resulted in correctly processed HBP at the N-terminus. Electrospray mass spectrum analysis of recombinant HBP yielded a molecular weight of 27.237 +/- 3 amu. Consistent with this mass is a HBP form of 225 amino acids (mature part +3 amino acid C-terminal extension). The biological activity of recombinant HBP was confirmed by its chemotactic action towards monocytes. Furthermore, we have shown that recombinant HBP stimulates in a dose-dependent manner the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine release from human monocytes.

  10. Recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH) enhances somatic growth by regulating the GH-IGF axis in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Vélez, Emilio J; Perelló, Miquel; Azizi, Sheida; Moya, Alberto; Lutfi, Esmail; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Navarro, Isabel; Blasco, Josefina; Fernández-Borràs, Jaume; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2018-02-01

    The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) endocrine axis is the main growth-regulator system in vertebrates. Some authors have demonstrated the positive effects on growth of a sustained-release formulation of a recombinant bovine GH (rBGH) in different fish species. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of a single injection of rBGH in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream on growth, GH-IGF axis, and both myogenic and osteogenic processes. Thus, body weight and specific growth rate were significantly increased in rBGH-treated fish respect to control fish at 6weeks post-injection, whereas the hepatosomatic index was decreased and the condition factor and mesenteric fat index were unchanged, altogether indicating enhanced somatic growth. Moreover, rBGH injection increased the plasma IGF-I levels in parallel with a rise of hepatic mRNA from total IGF-I, IGF-Ic and IGF-II, the binding proteins IGFBP-1a and IGFBP-2b, and also the receptors IGF-IRb, GHR-I and GHR-II. In skeletal muscle, the expression of IGF-Ib and GHR-I was significantly increased but that of IGF-IRb was reduced; the mRNA levels of myogenic regulatory factors, proliferation and differentiation markers (PCNA and MHC, respectively), or that of different molecules of the signaling pathway (TOR/AKT) were unaltered. Besides, the growth inhibitor myostatin (MSTN1 and MSTN2) and the hypertrophic marker (MLC2B) expression resulted significantly enhanced, suggesting altogether that the muscle is in a non-proliferative stage of development. Contrarily in bone, although the expression of most molecules of the GH/IGF axis was decreased, the mRNA levels of several osteogenic genes were increased. The histology analysis showed a GH induced lipolytic effect with a clear decrease in the subcutaneous fat layer. Overall, these results reveal that a better growth potential can be achieved on this species and supports the possibility to improve growth and quality through the optimization of its

  11. Enhanced Production of a Recombinant Multidomain Thermostable GH9 Processive Endo-1,4-β-Glucanase (CenC) from Ruminiclostridium thermocellum in a Mesophilic Host Through Various Cultivation and Induction Strategies.

    PubMed

    Haq, Ikram Ul; Akram, Fatima

    2017-09-01

    Commonly, unintentional induction and inadvertently preparing medium for engineered Escherichia coli BL21 CodonPlus (DE3)-RIPL, give poor or variable yields of heterologous proteins. Therefore, to enhance the activity and production of an industrially relevant recombinant processive endo-1,4-β-glucanase (CenC) propagated in Escherichia coli BL21 CodonPlus(DE3)-RIPL through various cultivation and induction strategies. Investigation of various growth media and induction parameters revealed that high-cell-density and optimal CenC expression were obtained in ZYBM9 medium induced either with 0.5 mM IPTG/150 mM lactose, after 6 h induction at 37 °C; and before induction, bacterial cells were given heat shock (42 °C) for 1 h when culture density (OD 600nm ) reached at 0.6. Intracellular enzyme activity was enhanced by 6.67 and 3.20-fold in ZYBM9 and 3×ZYBM9 medium, respectively, under optimal conditions. Using YNG auto-induction medium, activity was 2.5-fold increased after 10 h incubation at 37 °C. Approximately similar results were obtained by transferring the optimized process at the bioreactor level. Results showed that the effective process strategy is essential to enhance recombinant bacterial cell mass and enzyme production from small to large-scale. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever report on enhanced production of thermostable processive endo-1,4-β-glucanase cloned from Ruminiclostridium thermocellum, which is a suitable candidate for industrial applications. Graphical Abstract Flow Chart Summary of Enhanced Production of a Recombinant Multidomain Thermostable GH9 Processive Endo-1,4-β-glucanase from Ruminiclostridium thermocellum.

  12. Evaluation of a Plasmodium-Specific Carrier Protein To Enhance Production of Recombinant Pfs25, a Leading Transmission-Blocking Vaccine Candidate.

    PubMed

    Parzych, Elizabeth M; Miura, Kazutoyo; Ramanathan, Aarti; Long, Carole A; Burns, James M

    2018-01-01

    Challenges with the production and suboptimal immunogenicity of malaria vaccine candidates have slowed the development of a Plasmodium falciparum multiantigen vaccine. Attempting to resolve these issues, we focused on the use of highly immunogenic merozoite surface protein 8 (MSP8) as a vaccine carrier protein. Previously, we showed that a genetic fusion of the C-terminal 19-kDa fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1 19 ) to P. falciparum MSP8 ( Pf MSP8) facilitated antigen production and folding and the induction of neutralizing antibodies to conformational B cell epitopes of MSP1 19 Here, using the Pf MSP1/8 construct, we further optimized the recombinant Pf MSP8 (r Pf MSP8) carrier by the introduction of two cysteine-to-serine substitutions (CΔS) to improve the yield of the monomeric product. We then sought to test the broad applicability of this approach using the transmission-blocking vaccine candidate Pf s25. The production of r Pf s25-based vaccines has presented challenges. Antibodies directed against the four highly constrained epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains of Pf s25 block sexual-stage development in mosquitoes. The sequence encoding mature Pf s25 was codon harmonized for expression in Escherichia coli We produced a r Pf s25- Pf MSP8 fusion protein [r Pf s25/8(CΔS)] as well as unfused, mature r Pf s25. r Pf s25 was purified with a modest yield but required the incorporation of refolding protocols to obtain a proper conformation. In comparison, chimeric r Pf s25/8(CΔS) was expressed and easily purified, with the Pf s25 domain bearing the proper conformation without renaturation. Both antigens were immunogenic in rabbits, inducing IgG that bound native Pf s25 and exhibited potent transmission-reducing activity. These data further demonstrate the utility of Pf MSP8 as a parasite-specific carrier protein to enhance the production of complex malaria vaccine targets. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, David E.; Horton, Philip G.; Ben-Bassat, Arie

    1996-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  14. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Beall, David S.; Burchhardt, Gerhard F. H.; Guimaraes, Walter V.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.

    1995-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  15. A simple and effective strategy for solving the problem of inclusion bodies in recombinant protein technology: His-tag deletions enhance soluble expression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shaozhou; Gong, Cuiyu; Ren, Lu; Li, Xingzhou; Song, Dawei; Zheng, Guojun

    2013-01-01

    The formation of inclusion bodies (IBs) in recombinant protein biotechnology has become one of the most frequent undesirable occurrences in both research and industrial applications. So far, the pET System is the most powerful system developed for the production of recombinant proteins when Escherichia coli is used as the microbial cell factory. Also, using fusion tags to facilitate detection and purification of the target protein is a commonly used tactic. However, there is still a large fraction of proteins that cannot be produced in E. coli in a soluble (and hence functional) form. Intensive research efforts have tried to address this issue, and numerous parameters have been modulated to avoid the formation of inclusion bodies. However, hardly anyone has noticed that adding fusion tags to the recombinant protein to facilitate purification is a key factor that affects the formation of inclusion bodies. To test this idea, the industrial biocatalysts uridine phosphorylase from Aeropyrum pernix K1 and (+)-γ-lactamase and (-)-γ-lactamase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 6 were expressed in E. coli by using the pET System and then examined. We found that using a histidine tag as a fusion partner for protein expression did affect the formation of inclusion bodies in these examples, suggesting that removing the fusion tag can promote the solubility of heterologous proteins. The production of soluble and highly active uridine phosphorylase, (+)-γ-lactamase, and (-)-γ-lactamase in our results shows that the traditional process needs to be reconsidered. Accordingly, a simple and efficient structure-based strategy for the production of valuable soluble recombinant proteins in E. coli is proposed.

  16. A Strategy to Enhance the Efficiency of Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells by Decreasing Electron Recombination with Polyoxometalate/TiO2 as the Electronic Interface Layer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Chen, Weilin; Li, Jianping; Wang, Jiabo; Wang, Enbo

    2017-07-21

    Electron recombination occurring at the TiO 2 /quantum dot sensitizer/electrolyte interface is the key reason for hindering further efficiency improvements to quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Polyoxometalate (POM) can act as an electron-transfer medium to decrease electron recombination in a photoelectric device owing to its excellent oxidation/reduction properties and thermostability. A POM/TiO 2 electronic interface layer prepared by a simple layer-by-layer self-assembly method was added between fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and mesoporous TiO 2 in the photoanode of QDSCs, and the effect on the photovoltaic performance was systematically investigated. Photovoltaic experimental results and the electron transmission mechanism show that the POM/TiO 2 electronic interface layer in the QDSCs can clearly suppress electron recombination, increase the electron lifetime, and result in smoother electron transmission. In summary, the best conversion efficiency of QDSCs with POM/TiO 2 electronic interface layers increases to 8.02 %, which is an improvement of 25.1 % compared with QDSCs without POM/TiO 2 . This work first builds an electron-transfer bridge between FTO and the quantum dot sensitizer and paves the way for further improved efficiency of QDSCs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Managing the SOS Response for Enhanced CRISPR-Cas-Based Recombineering in E. coli through Transient Inhibition of Host RecA Activity.

    PubMed

    Moreb, Eirik Adim; Hoover, Benjamin; Yaseen, Adam; Valyasevi, Nisakorn; Roecker, Zoe; Menacho-Melgar, Romel; Lynch, Michael D

    2017-12-15

    Phage-derived "recombineering" methods are utilized for bacterial genome editing. Recombineering results in a heterogeneous population of modified and unmodified chromosomes, and therefore selection methods, such as CRISPR-Cas9, are required to select for edited clones. Cells can evade CRISPR-Cas-induced cell death through recA-mediated induction of the SOS response. The SOS response increases RecA dependent repair as well as mutation rates through induction of the umuDC error prone polymerase. As a result, CRISPR-Cas selection is more efficient in recA mutants. We report an approach to inhibiting the SOS response and RecA activity through the expression of a mutant dominant negative form of RecA, which incorporates into wild type RecA filaments and inhibits activity. Using a plasmid-based system in which Cas9 and recA mutants are coexpressed, we can achieve increased efficiency and consistency of CRISPR-Cas9-mediated selection and recombineering in E. coli, while reducing the induction of the SOS response. To date, this approach has been shown to be independent of recA genotype and host strain lineage. Using this system, we demonstrate increased CRISPR-Cas selection efficacy with over 10 000 guides covering the E. coli chromosome. The use of dominant negative RecA or homologues may be of broad use in bacterial CRISPR-Cas-based genome editing where the SOS pathways are present.

  18. Selections that isolate recombinant mitochondrial genomes in animals

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hansong; O'Farrell, Patrick H

    2015-01-01

    Homologous recombination is widespread and catalyzes evolution. Nonetheless, its existence in animal mitochondrial DNA is questioned. We designed selections for recombination between co-resident mitochondrial genomes in various heteroplasmic Drosophila lines. In four experimental settings, recombinant genomes became the sole or dominant genome in the progeny. Thus, selection uncovers occurrence of homologous recombination in Drosophila mtDNA and documents its functional benefit. Double-strand breaks enhanced recombination in the germline and revealed somatic recombination. When the recombination partner was a diverged Drosophila melanogaster genome or a genome from a different species such as Drosophila yakuba, sequencing revealed long continuous stretches of exchange. In addition, the distribution of sequence polymorphisms in recombinants allowed us to map a selected trait to a particular region in the Drosophila mitochondrial genome. Thus, recombination can be harnessed to dissect function and evolution of mitochondrial genome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07247.001 PMID:26237110

  19. Enhancement or inhibition of PLCγ2 expression in rat hepatocytes by recombinant adenoviral vectors that contain full-length gene or siRNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, X G; Liu, Y M; Lv, Q X; Ma, J

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of recombinant adenovirus vectors that overexpress or silence PLCγ2 on the expression of this gene during hepatocyte proliferation. Hepatocytes were isolated, identified by immunofluorescent cytochemical staining and infected by previously constructed Ad-PLCγ2 and Ad-PLCγ2 siRNA1, siRNA2 and siRNA3. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Infection percentage was calculated by flow cytometry. mRNA and protein levels of PLCγ2 were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting, respectively. The viability of the infected hepatocytes was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. We found that nearly 97% of cells were positive for the hepatocyte marker, CK18. After infection of Ad-PLCγ2 and Ad-PLCγ2 siRNA, more than 99% of hepatocytes expressed GFP significantly, and mRNA and protein expression of PLCγ2 was up-regulated significantly in Ad-PLCγ2 infected hepatocytes, but down-regulated in Ad-PLCγ2 siRNA2 infected cells. The cell proliferation rate decreased in PLCγ2-overexpressing cells, while the rate increased in PLCγ2-silencing cells. We verified that recombinant Ad-PLCγ2 and Ad-PLCγ2 siRNA2 were constructed successfully. These two recombinant vectors promoted or decreased the expression of PLCγ2 in rat hepatocytes and affected the cell proliferation rate, which provides a useful tool for further investigation of the role of PLCγ2 in hepatocyte apoptosis.

  20. Visualized and precise design of artificial small RNAs for regulating T7 RNA polymerase and enhancing recombinant protein folding in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yujia; Fan, Jingjing; Li, Jinlin; Li, Jun; Zhou, Xiaohong; Li, Chun

    2016-12-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) have received much attention in recent years due to their unique biological properties, which can efficiently and specifically tune target gene expressions in bacteria. Inspired by natural sRNAs, recent works have proposed the use of artificial sRNAs (asRNAs) as genetic tools to regulate desired gene that has been applied in several fields, such as metabolic engineering and bacterial physiology studies. However, the rational design of asRNAs is still a challenge. In this study, we proposed structure and length as two criteria to implement rational visualized and precise design of asRNAs. T7 expression system was one of the most useful recombinant protein expression systems. However, it was deeply limited by the formation of inclusion body. To settle this problem, we designed a series of asRNAs to inhibit the T7 RNA polymerase (Gene1) expression to balance the rate between transcription and folding of recombinant protein. Based on the heterologous expression of Aspergillus oryzae Li-3 glucuronidase in E. coli , the asRNA-antigene1-17bp can effectively decrease the inclusion body and increase the enzyme activity by 169.9%.

  1. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  2. Enhanced synthesis of L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine by high-density whole-cell biocatalyst of recombinant L-threonine aldolase from Streptomyces avelmitilis.

    PubMed

    Baik, Sang-Ho; Yoshioka, Hideki

    2009-03-01

    L-threo-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS) is a chiral unnatural beta-hydroxy amino acid used for the treatment of Parkinson disease. We developed a continuous bioconversion system for DOPS production that uses whole-cell biocatalyst of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing L-threonine aldolase (L-TA) genes cloned from Streptomyces avelmitilis MA-4680. Maximum conversion rates were observed at 2 M glycine, 145 mM 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 0.75% Triton-X, 5 g E. coli cells/l, pH 6.5 and 10 degrees C. In the optimized condition, overall productivity was 8 g/l, which represents 40 times the synthesis yield possible with no optimization of conditions.

  3. The use of halloysite clay and carboxyl-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes for recombinant LipL32 antigen delivery enhanced the IgG response

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Daiane D; Bacelo, Kátia L; Oliveira, Thaís L; Schuch, Rodrigo; Seixas, Fabiana K; Collares, Tiago; Rodrigues, Oscar; Hartleben, Cláudia P; Dellagostin, Odir A

    2015-01-01

    We studied the feasibility of using halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs) and carboxyl-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs) as antigen carriers to improve immune responses against a recombinant LipL32 protein (rLipL32). Immunisation using the HNTs or COOH-MWCNTs significantly increased the rLipL32-specific IgG antibody titres (p < 0.05) of Golden Syrian hamsters. None of the vaccines tested conferred protection against a challenge using a virulent Leptospira interrogans strain. These results demonstrated that nanotubes can be used as antigen carriers for delivery in hosts and the induction of a humoral immune response against purified leptospiral antigens used in subunit vaccine preparations. PMID:25742273

  4. The use of halloysite clay and carboxyl-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes for recombinant LipL32 antigen delivery enhanced the IgG response.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Daiane D; Bacelo, Kátia L; Oliveira, Thaís L; Schuch, Rodrigo; Seixas, Fabiana K; Collares, Tiago; Rodrigues, Oscar; Hartleben, Cláudia P; Dellagostin, Odir A

    2015-02-01

    We studied the feasibility of using halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs) and carboxyl-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs) as antigen carriers to improve immune responses against a recombinant LipL32 protein (rLipL32). Immunisation using the HNTs or COOH-MWCNTs significantly increased the rLipL32-specific IgG antibody titres (p < 0.05) of Golden Syrian hamsters. None of the vaccines tested conferred protection against a challenge using a virulent Leptospira interrogans strain. These results demonstrated that nanotubes can be used as antigen carriers for delivery in hosts and the induction of a humoral immune response against purified leptospiral antigens used in subunit vaccine preparations.

  5. Enhanced Mitogenic Activity of Recombinant Human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor VEGF121 Expressed in E. coli Origami B (DE3) with Molecular Chaperones.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Ondřej; Zárubová, Jana; Mikulová, Barbora; Filová, Elena; Bártová, Jiřina; Bačáková, Lucie; Brynda, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    We describe the production of a highly-active mutant VEGF variant, α2-PI1-8-VEGF121, which contains a substrate sequence for factor XIIIa at the aminoterminus designed for incorporation into a fibrin gel. The α2-PI1-8-VEGF121 gene was synthesized, cloned into a pET-32a(+) vector and expressed in Escherichia coli Origami B (DE3) host cells. To increase the protein folding and the solubility, the resulting thioredoxin-α2-PI1-8-VEGF121 fusion protein was co-expressed with recombinant molecular chaperones GroES/EL encoded by independent plasmid pGro7. The fusion protein was purified from the soluble fraction of cytoplasmic proteins using affinity chromatography. After cleavage of the thioredoxin fusion part with thrombin, the target protein was purified by a second round of affinity chromatography. The yield of purified α2-PI1-8-VEGF121 was 1.4 mg per liter of the cell culture. The α2-PI1-8-VEGF121 expressed in this work increased the proliferation of endothelial cells 3.9-8.7 times in comparison with commercially-available recombinant VEGF121. This very high mitogenic activity may be caused by co-expression of the growth factor with molecular chaperones not previously used in VEGF production. At the same time, α2-PI1-8-VEGF121 did not elicit considerable inflammatory activation of human endothelial HUVEC cells and human monocyte-like THP-1 cells.

  6. Identification of metabolic engineering targets for the enhancement of 1,4-butanediol production in recombinant E. coli using large-scale kinetic models.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, Stefano; Chakrabarti, Anirikh; Soh, Keng Cher; Burgard, Anthony; Yang, Tae Hoon; Van Dien, Stephen; Miskovic, Ljubisa; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily

    2016-05-01

    Rational metabolic engineering methods are increasingly employed in designing the commercially viable processes for the production of chemicals relevant to pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and food and beverage industries. With the growing availability of omics data and of methodologies capable to integrate the available data into models, mathematical modeling and computational analysis are becoming important in designing recombinant cellular organisms and optimizing cell performance with respect to desired criteria. In this contribution, we used the computational framework ORACLE (Optimization and Risk Analysis of Complex Living Entities) to analyze the physiology of recombinant Escherichia coli producing 1,4-butanediol (BDO) and to identify potential strategies for improved production of BDO. The framework allowed us to integrate data across multiple levels and to construct a population of large-scale kinetic models despite the lack of available information about kinetic properties of every enzyme in the metabolic pathways. We analyzed these models and we found that the enzymes that primarily control the fluxes leading to BDO production are part of central glycolysis, the lower branch of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the novel BDO production route. Interestingly, among the enzymes between the glucose uptake and the BDO pathway, the enzymes belonging to the lower branch of TCA cycle have been identified as the most important for improving BDO production and yield. We also quantified the effects of changes of the target enzymes on other intracellular states like energy charge, cofactor levels, redox state, cellular growth, and byproduct formation. Independent earlier experiments on this strain confirmed that the computationally obtained conclusions are consistent with the experimentally tested designs, and the findings of the present studies can provide guidance for future work on strain improvement. Overall, these studies demonstrate the potential and

  7. Enhancement of Recombinant Protein Production in Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana Plant Cell Suspension Cultures with Co-Cultivation of Agrobacterium Containing Silencing Suppressors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ting-Kuo; Falk, Bryce W; Dandekar, Abhaya M; McDonald, Karen A

    2018-05-24

    We have previously demonstrated that the inducible plant viral vector (CMViva) in transgenic plant cell cultures can significantly improve the productivity of extracellular functional recombinant human alpha-1-antiryspin (rAAT) compared with either a common plant constitutive promoter ( Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S) or a chemically inducible promoter (estrogen receptor-based XVE) system. For a transgenic plant host system, however, viral or transgene-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) has been identified as a host response mechanism that may dramatically reduce the expression of a foreign gene. Previous studies have suggested that viral gene silencing suppressors encoded by a virus can block or interfere with the pathways of transgene-induced PTGS in plant cells. In this study, the capability of nine different viral gene silencing suppressors were evaluated for improving the production of rAAT protein in transgenic plant cell cultures (CMViva, XVE or 35S system) using an Agrobacterium -mediated transient expression co-cultivation process in which transgenic plant cells and recombinant Agrobacterium carrying the viral gene silencing suppressor were grown together in suspension cultures. Through the co-cultivation process, the impacts of gene silencing suppressors on the rAAT production were elucidated, and promising gene silencing suppressors were identified. Furthermore, the combinations of gene silencing suppressors were optimized using design of experiments methodology. The results have shown that in transgenic CMViva cell cultures, the functional rAAT as a percentage of total soluble protein is increased 5.7 fold with the expression of P19, and 17.2 fold with the co-expression of CP, P19 and P24.

  8. Sodium Chloride Enhances Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Production in a Serum-Free Suspension Manufacturing Platform Using the Herpes Simplex Virus System

    PubMed Central

    Adamson-Small, Laura; Potter, Mark; Byrne, Barry J.; Clément, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    The increase in effective treatments using recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors has underscored the importance of scalable, high-yield manufacturing methods. Previous work from this group reported the use of recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (rHSV) vectors to produce rAAV in adherent HEK293 cells, demonstrating the capacity of this system and quality of the product generated. Here we report production and optimization of rAAV using the rHSV system in suspension HEK293 cells (Expi293F) grown in serum and animal component-free medium. Through adjustment of salt concentration in the medium and optimization of infection conditions, titers greater than 1 × 1014 vector genomes per liter (VG/liter) were observed in purified rAAV stocks produced in Expi293F cells. Furthermore, this system allowed for high-titer production of multiple rAAV serotypes (2, 5, and 9) as well as multiple transgenes (green fluorescent protein and acid α-glucosidase). A proportional increase in vector production was observed as this method was scaled, with a final 3-liter shaker flask production yielding an excess of 1 × 1015 VG in crude cell harvests and an average of 3.5 × 1014 total VG of purified rAAV9 material, resulting in greater than 1 × 105 VG/cell. These results support the use of this rHSV-based rAAV production method for large-scale preclinical and clinical vector production. PMID:28117600

  9. Photoionization and Recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2000-01-01

    Theoretically self-consistent calculations for photoionization and (e + ion) recombination are described. The same eigenfunction expansion for the ion is employed in coupled channel calculations for both processes, thus ensuring consistency between cross sections and rates. The theoretical treatment of (e + ion) recombination subsumes both the non-resonant recombination ("radiative recombination"), and the resonant recombination ("di-electronic recombination") processes in a unified scheme. In addition to the total, unified recombination rates, level-specific recombination rates and photoionization cross sections are obtained for a large number of atomic levels. Both relativistic Breit-Pauli, and non-relativistic LS coupling, calculations are carried out in the close coupling approximation using the R-matrix method. Although the calculations are computationally intensive, they yield nearly all photoionization and recombination parameters needed for astrophysical photoionization models with higher precision than hitherto possible, estimated at about 10-20% from comparison with experimentally available data (including experimentally derived DR rates). Results are electronically available for over 40 atoms and ions. Photoionization and recombination of He-, and Li-like C and Fe are described for X-ray modeling. The unified method yields total and complete (e+ion) recombination rate coefficients, that can not otherwise be obtained theoretically or experimentally.

  10. Recombinant human interleukin-3 (rhIL-3) enhances the mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells by recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Huhn, R D; Yurkow, E J; Tushinski, R; Clarke, L; Sturgill, M G; Hoffman, R; Sheay, W; Cody, R; Philipp, C; Resta, D; George, M

    1996-06-01

    To identify a precisely timed and safe protocol for progenitor cell mobilization, we studied the effects of rhIL-3 and rhG-CSF administration to normal volunteers. rhG-CSF 5 micrograms/kg/d was administered subcutaneously (s.c.) for 7 consecutive days either alone or preceded by rhIL-3 5 micrograms/kg/d s.c. for 4 consecutive days in sequential or partially overlapping schedules. The combined cytokines were well-tolerated--adverse effects were similar to those of the individual agents. Total white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts rose briskly in response to rhG-CSF, and peak mean values were similar between treatment cohorts. Mean platelet counts were modestly elevated during rhG-CSF treatment only in the cohorts receiving rhIL-3 and rhG-CSF. Mean circulating CD34+ cells peaked on day 5 in the rhG-CSF group (38.9+/-14.3/microliter), day 6 in the sequential rhIL-3/rhG-CSF group (56.4+/-12.4/microliter), and day 6 in the partial overlap group (46.1+/-10.9/microliter). On day 3, mean CD34+ cell counts of the subjects who received sequential treatment were markedly higher than observed in the other groups (p<0.05) and were estimated to have been sufficient for collection of adequate grafts by single 10-L leukapheresis procedures in 60% of subjects. Circulating clonogenic cells (CFU-GM and/or BFU-E) were substantially higher in the sequential group than the rhG-CSF group on days 3-6 but were only minimally elevated above baseline in the partial overlap group. The numbers of circulating CD34+/Lin-/Thy-1+ cells (putative stem cells) were increased substantially, especially in the sequential group. On the basis of this pilot trial, we conclude that priming with rhIL-3 is a safe and well-tolerated method for enhancing the mobilization of human blood progenitors and stem cells by rhG-CSF.

  11. Association of ABCA1 with syntaxin 13 and flotillin-1 and enhanced phagocytosis in tangier cells.

    PubMed

    Bared, Salim Maa; Buechler, Christa; Boettcher, Alfred; Dayoub, Rania; Sigruener, Alexander; Grandl, Margot; Rudolph, Christian; Dada, Ashraf; Schmitz, Gerd

    2004-12-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) facilitates the cellular release of cholesterol and choline-phospholipids to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and several studies indicate that vesicular transport is associated with ABCA1 function. Syntaxins play a major role in vesicular fusion and have also been demonstrated to interact with members of the ABC-transporter family. Therefore, we focused on the identification of syntaxins that directly interact with ABCA1. The expression of syntaxins and ABCA1 in cultured human monocytes during M-CSF differentiation and cholesterol loading was investigated and syntaxins 3, 6, and 13 were found induced in foam cells together with ABCA1. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a direct association of syntaxin 13 and full-length ABCA1, whereas syntaxin 3 and 6 failed to interact with ABCA1. The colocalization of ABCA1 and syntaxin 13 was also shown by immunofluorescence microscopy. Silencing of syntaxin 13 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) led to reduced ABCA1 protein levels and hence to a significant decrease in apoA-I-dependent choline-phospholipid efflux. ABCA1 is localized in Lubrol WX-insoluble raft microdomains in macrophages and syntaxin 13 and flotillin-1 were also detected in these detergent resistant microdomains along with ABCA1. Syntaxin 13, flotillin-1, and ABCA1 were identified as phagosomal proteins, indicating the involvement of the phagosomal compartment in ABCA1-mediated lipid efflux. In addition, the uptake of latex phagobeads by fibroblasts with mutated ABCA1 was enhanced when compared with control cells and the recombinant expression of functional ABCA1 normalized the phagocytosis rate in Tangier fibroblasts. It is concluded that ABCA1 forms a complex with syntaxin 13 and flotillin-1, residing at the plasma membrane and in phagosomes that are partially located in raft microdomains.

  12. Association of ABCA1 with Syntaxin 13 and Flotillin-1 and Enhanced Phagocytosis in Tangier Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bared, Salim Maa; Buechler, Christa; Boettcher, Alfred; Dayoub, Rania; Sigruener, Alexander; Grandl, Margot; Rudolph, Christian; Dada, Ashraf; Schmitz, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) facilitates the cellular release of cholesterol and choline-phospholipids to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and several studies indicate that vesicular transport is associated with ABCA1 function. Syntaxins play a major role in vesicular fusion and have also been demonstrated to interact with members of the ABC-transporter family. Therefore, we focused on the identification of syntaxins that directly interact with ABCA1. The expression of syntaxins and ABCA1 in cultured human monocytes during M-CSF differentiation and cholesterol loading was investigated and syntaxins 3, 6, and 13 were found induced in foam cells together with ABCA1. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a direct association of syntaxin 13 and full-length ABCA1, whereas syntaxin 3 and 6 failed to interact with ABCA1. The colocalization of ABCA1 and syntaxin 13 was also shown by immunofluorescence microscopy. Silencing of syntaxin 13 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) led to reduced ABCA1 protein levels and hence to a significant decrease in apoA-I–dependent choline-phospholipid efflux. ABCA1 is localized in Lubrol WX–insoluble raft microdomains in macrophages and syntaxin 13 and flotillin-1 were also detected in these detergent resistant microdomains along with ABCA1. Syntaxin 13, flotillin-1, and ABCA1 were identified as phagosomal proteins, indicating the involvement of the phagosomal compartment in ABCA1-mediated lipid efflux. In addition, the uptake of latex phagobeads by fibroblasts with mutated ABCA1 was enhanced when compared with control cells and the recombinant expression of functional ABCA1 normalized the phagocytosis rate in Tangier fibroblasts. It is concluded that ABCA1 forms a complex with syntaxin 13 and flotillin-1, residing at the plasma membrane and in phagosomes that are partially located in raft microdomains. PMID:15469992

  13. Enhanced direct-gap light emission from Si-capped n+-Ge epitaxial layers on Si after post-growth rapid cyclic annealing: impact of non-radiative interface recombination toward Ge/Si double heterostructure lasers.

    PubMed

    Higashitarumizu, Naoki; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko

    2017-09-04

    Enhanced direct-gap light emission is reported for Si-capped n + -Ge layers on Si after post-growth rapid cyclic annealing (RCA), and impact of non-radiative recombination (NRR) at the Ge/Si interface is discussed toward Ge/Si double heterostructure (DH) lasers. P-doped n + -Ge layer (1 × 10 19 cm -3 , 400 nm) is grown on Si by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition, followed by a growth of Si capping layer (5 nm) to form a Si/Ge/Si DH structure. Post-growth RCA to eliminate defects in Ge is performed in N 2 at temperatures between 900°C and 780°C, where the annealing time is minimized to be 5 s in each RCA cycle to prevent an out-diffusion of P dopants from the Ge surface. Direct-gap photoluminescence (PL) intensity at 1.6 µm increases with the RCA cycles up to 40, although the threading dislocation density in Ge is not reduced after 3 cycles in the present condition. The PL enhancement is ascribed to the suppression of NRR at the Ge/Si interface, where an intermixed SiGe alloy is formed. For Ge/Si DH lasers, NRR at the Ge/Si interface is found to have a significant impact on the threshold current density Jth. In order to achieve Jth on the order of 1 kA/cm 2 , similar to III-V lasers, the interface recombination velocity S is required below 10 3 cm/s in spite of S as large as 10 5 cm/s at the ordinary defect-rich Ge/Si interface.

  14. Administration of recombinant Reishi immunomodulatory protein (rLZ-8) diet enhances innate immune responses and elicits protection against nervous necrosis virus in grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yen-Chou; Sheu, Fuu; Lee, Guo-Chi; Tsai, Ming-Wei; Hung, Chih-Liang; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2012-06-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection during larvae and juvenile stage in grouper (Epinephelus coioides) has caused severe economic losses in the aquaculture industry in Asia. The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of recombinant Reishi protein, rLZ-8, on the innate immune responses and the viral resisting ability in fish. Groupers were fed with rLZ-8 supplemented diet (1.25-37.5 mg (rLZ-8)/kg(diet)), and the cytokine gene expression, innate immune responses, and survival rate after NNV challenge were examined. The fish fed with rLZ-8 diet showed 6- to 11-fold upregulated TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression, along with significant increased respiratory burst and phagocytic activity. Moreover, feeding the fish with 37.5 mg/kg rLZ-8 diet elicited significant improvement in post viral challenge survival rate (85.7%). These discoveries indicated that rLZ-8 could be utilized as an ant-pathogen immunostimulant, and provided a new candidate to fight against NNV infection in fish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancement in production of recombinant two-chain Insulin Glargine by over-expression of Kex2 protease in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Sreenivas, Suma; Krishnaiah, Sateesh M; Govindappa, Nagaraja; Basavaraju, Yogesh; Kanojia, Komal; Mallikarjun, Niveditha; Natarajan, Jayaprakash; Chatterjee, Amarnath; Sastry, Kedarnath N

    2015-01-01

    Glargine is an analog of Insulin currently being produced by recombinant DNA technology using two different hosts namely Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. Production from E. coli involves the steps of extraction of inclusion bodies by cell lysis, refolding, proteolytic cleavage and purification. In P. pastoris, a single-chain precursor with appropriate disulfide bonding is secreted to the medium. Downstream processing currently involves use of trypsin which converts the precursor into two-chain final product. The use of trypsin in the process generates additional impurities due to presence of Lys and Arg residues in the Glargine molecule. In this study, we describe an alternate approach involving over-expression of endogenous Kex2 proprotein convertase, taking advantage of dibasic amino acid sequence (Arg-Arg) at the end of B-chain of Glargine. KEX2 gene over-expression in Pichia was accomplished by using promoters of varying strengths to ensure production of greater levels of fully functional two-chain Glargine product, confirmed by HPLC and mass analysis. In conclusion, this new production process involving Kex2 protease over-expression improves the downstream process efficiency, reduces the levels of impurities generated and decreases the use of raw materials.

  16. An enhanced surface passivation effect in InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire light emitting diodes for mitigating Shockley-Read-Hall recombination.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Prabaswara, Aditya; Conroy, Michele; Jahangir, Shafat; Frost, Thomas; O'Connell, John; Holmes, Justin D; Parbrook, Peter J; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Ooi, Boon S

    2015-10-28

    We present a detailed study of the effects of dangling bond passivation and the comparison of different sulfide passivation processes on the properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-disk (Qdisk)-in-nanowire based light emitting diodes (NW-LEDs). Our results demonstrated the first organic sulfide passivation process for nitride nanowires (NWs). The results from Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that octadecylthiol (ODT) effectively passivated the surface states, and altered the surface dynamic charge, and thereby recovered the band-edge emission. The effectiveness of the process with passivation duration was also studied. Moreover, we also compared the electro-optical performance of NW-LEDs emitting at green wavelength before and after ODT passivation. We have shown that the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) non-radiative recombination of NW-LEDs can be greatly reduced after passivation by ODT, which led to a much faster increasing trend of quantum efficiency and higher peak efficiency. Our results highlighted the possibility of employing this technique to further design and produce high performance NW-LEDs and NW-lasers.

  17. Recombination of cluster ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsen, Rainer

    1993-01-01

    Some of our recent work on molecular band emissions from recombination of molecular dimer ions (N4(+) and CO(+) CO) is discussed. Much of the experimental work was done by Y. S. Cao; the results on N4(+) recombination have been published. A brief progress report is given on our ongoing measurements of neutral products of recombination using the flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe technique in conjunction with laser-induced fluorescence.

  18. Recombination Catalysts for Hypersonic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinitz, W.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of commercially-viable access to space will require technologies that reduce propulsion system weight and complexity, while extracting maximum energy from the products of combustion. This work is directed toward developing effective nozzle recombination catalysts for the supersonic and hypersonic aeropropulsion engines used to provide such access to space. Effective nozzle recombination will significantly reduce rk=le length (hence, propulsion system weight) and reduce fuel requirements, further decreasing the vehicle's gross lift-off weight. Two such catalysts have been identified in this work, barium and antimony compounds, by developing chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms for these materials and determining the engine performance enhancement for a typical flight trajectory. Significant performance improvements are indicated, using only 2% (mole or mass) of these compounds in the combustor product gas.

  19. Expression of recombinant human α-lactalbumin in milk of transgenic cloned pigs is sufficient to enhance intestinal growth and weight gain of suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jin; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Yan; Wen, Xiao; Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Zaihu; Zhang, Jiuming; Yu, Zhengquan; Li, Ning

    2016-06-10

    Human α-lactalbumin (HLA) has very high nutritional value and important physiological functions during the neonatal period. The peptides derived from HLA provide diverse health benefits including antimicrobial, antiviral, immune-modulating, and antihypertensive effects. Thus, it is worth investigating the effects on offspring development of increasing HLA in milk. In this study, we found that recombinant human α-lactalbumin (rHLA) exhibits efficient inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) activity in an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion system. Using a BAC clone containing the complete HLA gene as a candidate vector, we generated two lines of transgenic cloned sows via somatic cell nuclear transfer that over-expressed rHLA. The average concentrations of rHLA in milk from the two lines of transgenic cloned sows were 2.24 ± 0.71 mg/ml and 2.67 ± 1.29 mg/ml. The feeding experiments revealed that rHLA represses dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) activity in vivo. Furthermore, the piglets reared by rHLA transgenic cloned sows exhibit better performance in gain of body weight and intestine growth than the control piglets reared by non-transgenic sows. Therefore, these findings indicate that rHLA could serve as a natural precursor for a DPP-IV inhibitor, and the transgenic technology that produced the over-expression of rHLA could be a useful method for pig breeders to improve lactation performance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Local HPV Recombinant Vaccinia Boost Following Priming with an HPV DNA Vaccine Enhances Local HPV-Specific CD8+ T Cell Mediated Tumor Control in the Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yun-Yan; Peng, Shiwen; Han, Liping; Qiu, Jin; Song, Liwen; Tsai, Yachea; Yang, Benjamin; Roden, Richard B.S.; Trimble, Cornelia L.; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, are expressed in all human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected cells, from initial infection in the genital tract to metastatic cervical cancer. Intramuscular vaccination of women with high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3) twice with a naked DNA vaccine, pNGVL4a-sig/E7(detox)/HSP70, and a single boost with HPVE6/E7 recombinant vaccinia vaccine (TA-HPV) elicited systemic HPV-specific CD8 T cell responses that could traffic to the lesion and was associated with regression in some patients (NCT00788164). Experimental Design Here we examine whether alteration of this vaccination regimen by administration of TA-HPV vaccination in the cervicovaginal tract, rather than IM delivery, can more effectively recruit antigen-specific T cells in an orthotopic syngeneic mouse model of HPV16+ cervical cancer (TC-1 luc). Results We found that pNGVL4a-sig/E7(detox)/HSP70 vaccination followed by cervicovaginal vaccination with TA-HPV increased accumulation of total and E7-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervicovaginal tract and better controlled E7-expressing cervicovaginal TC-1 luc tumor than IM administration of TA-HPV. Furthermore, the E7-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervicovaginal tract generated through the cervicovaginal route of vaccination expressed the α4β7 integrin and CCR9, which are necessary for the homing of the E7-specific CD8+ T cells to the cervicovaginal tract. Finally, we show that cervicovaginal vaccination with TA-HPV can induce potent local HPV-16 E7 antigen-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses regardless of whether an HPV DNA vaccine priming vaccination was administered IM or within the cervicovaginal tract. Conclusions Our results support future clinical translation using cervicovaginal TA-HPV vaccination. PMID:26420854

  1. Bone Regeneration Using N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone as an Enhancer for Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in a Rabbit Sinus Augmentation Model.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Chang; Thoma, Daniel S; Yoon, So-Ra; Cha, Jae-Kook; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Ui-Won

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) can decrease the dose of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in sinus augmentation of rabbits. In each of 15 rabbits, 2 sinuses were randomly grafted using 1 of 3 treatment modalities: (i) biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP; control), (ii) rhBMP-2-coated BCP (BMP), or (iii) rhBMP-2-coated BCP soaked in NMP solution (BMP/NMP). The rabbits were sacrificed 2 weeks postoperatively. Histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed. Bone formation in all groups was predominantly located close to the access window and the lateral walls. Newly formed bone within the total augmented area (NB TA ) was greatest in BMP/NMP (1.94 ± 0.69 mm 2 ), followed by BMP (1.50 ± 0.72 mm 2 ) and BCP (1.28 ± 0.52 mm 2 ) ( P > 0.05). In the center of the augmentation (NB ROI_C ) and the area close to the sinus membrane (NB ROI_M ), BMP/NMP produced the largest area of NB (NB ROI_C : 0.10 ± 0.11 mm 2 ; NB ROI_M : 0.17 ± 0.08 mm 2 ); the corresponding NB values for BCP were 0.05 ± 0.05 mm 2 and 0.08 ± 0.09 mm 2 , respectively ( P > 0.05 for all comparisons). The effect of NMP on bone regeneration was inconsistent between the specimens. Adding NMP as an adjunct to rhBMP-2-coated BCP produced inconsistent effects on bone regeneration, resulting in no significant benefit compared to controls.

  2. Bone Regeneration Using N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone as an Enhancer for Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in a Rabbit Sinus Augmentation Model

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Daniel S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) can decrease the dose of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in sinus augmentation of rabbits. In each of 15 rabbits, 2 sinuses were randomly grafted using 1 of 3 treatment modalities: (i) biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP; control), (ii) rhBMP-2-coated BCP (BMP), or (iii) rhBMP-2-coated BCP soaked in NMP solution (BMP/NMP). The rabbits were sacrificed 2 weeks postoperatively. Histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed. Bone formation in all groups was predominantly located close to the access window and the lateral walls. Newly formed bone within the total augmented area (NBTA) was greatest in BMP/NMP (1.94 ± 0.69 mm2), followed by BMP (1.50 ± 0.72 mm2) and BCP (1.28 ± 0.52 mm2) (P > 0.05). In the center of the augmentation (NBROI_C) and the area close to the sinus membrane (NBROI_M), BMP/NMP produced the largest area of NB (NBROI_C: 0.10 ± 0.11 mm2; NBROI_M: 0.17 ± 0.08 mm2); the corresponding NB values for BCP were 0.05 ± 0.05 mm2 and 0.08 ± 0.09 mm2, respectively (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). The effect of NMP on bone regeneration was inconsistent between the specimens. Adding NMP as an adjunct to rhBMP-2-coated BCP produced inconsistent effects on bone regeneration, resulting in no significant benefit compared to controls. PMID:28680881

  3. Enhancement of γ-aminobutyric acid production in recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum by co-expressing two glutamate decarboxylase genes from Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Jiang, Junjun; Li, Yongfu; Li, Youxin; Xie, Yilong

    2013-11-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a non-protein amino acid, is a bioactive component in the food, feed and pharmaceutical fields. To establish an effective single-step production system for GABA, a recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum strain co-expressing two glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) genes (gadB1 and gadB2) derived from Lactobacillus brevis Lb85 was constructed. Compared with the GABA production of the gadB1 or gadB2 single-expressing strains, GABA production by the gadB1-gadB2 co-expressing strain increased more than twofold. By optimising urea supplementation, the total production of L-glutamate and GABA increased from 22.57 ± 1.24 to 30.18 ± 1.33 g L⁻¹, and GABA production increased from 4.02 ± 0.95 to 18.66 ± 2.11 g L⁻¹ after 84-h cultivation. Under optimal urea supplementation, L-glutamate continued to be consumed, GABA continued to accumulate after 36 h of fermentation, and the pH level fluctuated. GABA production increased to a maximum level of 27.13 ± 0.54 g L⁻¹ after 120-h flask cultivation and 26.32 g L⁻¹ after 60-h fed-batch fermentation. The conversion ratio of L-glutamate to GABA reached 0.60-0.74 mol mol⁻¹. By co-expressing gadB1 and gadB2 and optimising the urea addition method, C. glutamicum was genetically improved for de novo biosynthesis of GABA from its own accumulated L-glutamate.

  4. Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara generating excess early double-stranded RNA transiently activates protein kinase R and triggers enhanced innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Wolferstätter, Michael; Schweneker, Marc; Späth, Michaela; Lukassen, Susanne; Klingenberg, Marieken; Brinkmann, Kay; Wielert, Ursula; Lauterbach, Henning; Hochrein, Hubertus; Chaplin, Paul; Suter, Mark; Hausmann, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is an important molecular pattern associated with viral infection and is detected by various extra- and intracellular recognition molecules. Poxviruses have evolved to avoid producing dsRNA early in infection but generate significant amounts of dsRNA late in infection due to convergent transcription of late genes. Protein kinase R (PKR) is activated by dsRNA and triggers major cellular defenses against viral infection, including protein synthesis shutdown, apoptosis, and type I interferon (IFN-I) production. The poxviral E3 protein binds and sequesters viral dsRNA and is a major antagonist of the PKR pathway. We found that the highly replication-restricted modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) engineered to produce excess amounts of dsRNA early in infection showed enhanced induction of IFN-β in murine and human cells in the presence of an intact E3L gene. IFN-β induction required a minimum overlap length of 300 bp between early complementary transcripts and was strongly PKR dependent. Excess early dsRNA produced by MVA activated PKR early but transiently in murine cells and induced enhanced systemic levels of IFN-α, IFN-γ, and other cytokines and chemokines in mice in a largely PKR-dependent manner. Replication-competent chorioallantois vaccinia virus Ankara (CVA) generating excess early dsRNA also enhanced IFN-I production and was apathogenic in mice even at very high doses but showed no in vitro host range defect. Thus, genetically adjuvanting MVA and CVA to generate excess early dsRNA is an effective method to enhance innate immune stimulation by orthopoxvirus vectors and to attenuate replicating vaccinia virus in vivo. Efficient cellular sensing of pathogen-specific components, including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), is an important prerequisite of an effective antiviral immune response. The prototype poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) and its derivative modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) produce dsRNA as a by-product of viral

  5. Toll-like receptor 9 agonist enhances anti-tumor immunity and inhibits tumor-associated immunosuppressive cells numbers in a mouse cervical cancer model following recombinant lipoprotein therapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Li-Sheng; Leng, Chih-Hsiang; Yeh, Yi-Chen; Wu, Chiao-Chieh; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Huang, Hai-Mei; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2014-03-19

    Although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a major role in eradicating cancer cells during immunotherapy, the cancer-associated immunosuppressive microenvironment often limits the success of such therapies. Therefore, the simultaneous induction of cancer-specific CTLs and reversal of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment may be more effectively achieved through a single therapeutic vaccine. A recombinant lipoprotein with intrinsic Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist activity containing a mutant form of E7 (E7m) and a bacterial lipid moiety (rlipo-E7m) has been demonstrated to induce robust CTL responses against small tumors. This treatment in combination with other TLR agonists is able to eliminate large tumors. Mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) were employed to determine the synergistic production of pro-inflammatory cytokines upon combination of rlipo-E7m and other TLR agonists. Antigen-specific CTL responses were investigated using immunospots or in vivo cytolytic assays after immunization in mice. Mice bearing various tumor sizes were used to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of the formulation. Specific subpopulations of immunosuppressive cells in the tumor infiltrate were quantitatively determined by flow cytometry. We demonstrate that a TLR9 agonist (unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, CpG ODN) enhances CTL responses and eradicates large tumors when combined with rlipo-E7m. Moreover, combined treatment with rlipo-E7m and CpG ODN effectively increases tumor infiltration by CTLs and reduces the numbers of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the tumor microenvironment. These findings suggest that the dramatic anti-tumor effects of the recombinant lipoprotein together with CpG ODN may reflect the amplification of CTL responses and the repression of the immunosuppressive environment. This promising approach could be applied for the development of additional

  6. Vaccination with Combination DNA and Virus-Like Particles Enhances Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses upon Boost with Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Proteins.

    PubMed

    Gangadhara, Sailaja; Kwon, Young-Man; Jeeva, Subbiah; Quan, Fu-Shi; Wang, Baozhong; Moss, Bernard; Compans, Richard W; Amara, Rama Rao; Jabbar, M Abdul; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2017-12-19

    Heterologous prime boost with DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) vaccines is considered as a promising vaccination approach against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). To further enhance the efficacy of DNA-rMVA vaccination, we investigated humoral and cellular immune responses in mice after three sequential immunizations with DNA, a combination of DNA and virus-like particles (VLP), and rMVA expressing HIV-1 89.6 gp120 envelope proteins (Env). DNA prime and boost with a combination of VLP and DNA vaccines followed by an rMVA boost induced over a 100-fold increase in Env-specific IgG antibody titers compared to three sequential immunizations with DNA and rMVA. Cellular immune responses were induced by VLP-DNA and rMVA vaccinations at high levels in CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells secreting interferon (IFN)-γ, and spleen cells producing interleukin (IL)-2, 4, 5 cytokines. This study suggests that a DNA and VLP combination vaccine with MVA is a promising strategy in enhancing the efficacy of DNA-rMVA vaccination against HIV-1.

  7. Inclusion of a universal tetanus toxoid CD4(+) T cell epitope P2 significantly enhanced the immunogenicity of recombinant rotavirus ΔVP8* subunit parenteral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaobo; Wen, Ke; Cao, Dianjun; Li, Guohua; Jones, Ronald W; Li, Jianping; Szu, Shousun; Hoshino, Yasutaka; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-07-31

    Currently available live oral rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix(®) and RotaTeq(®), are highly efficacious in developed countries. However, the immunogenicity and efficacy of such vaccines in some developing countries are low. We reported previously that bacterially-expressed rotavirus ΔVP8* subunit vaccine candidates with P[8], P[4] or P[6] specificity elicited high-titer virus neutralizing antibodies in animals immunized intramuscularly. Of note was the finding that antibodies induced with the P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine neutralized both homotypic P[8] and heterotypic P[4] rotavirus strains to high titer. To further improve its vaccine potential, a tetanus toxoid universal CD4(+) T cell epitope P2 was introduced into P[8] or P[6]ΔVP8* construct. The resulting recombinant fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli were of high solubility and were produced with high yield. Two doses (10 or 20 μg/dose) of the P2-P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine or P2-P[6]ΔVP8* vaccine with aluminum phosphate adjuvant elicited significantly higher geometric mean homologous neutralizing antibody titers than the vaccines without P2 in intramuscularly immunized guinea pigs. Interestingly, high levels of neutralizing antibody responses induced in guinea pigs with 3 doses of the P2-P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine persisted for at least 6 months. Furthermore, in the gnotobiotic piglet challenge study, three intramuscular doses (50 μg/dose) of the P2-P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine with aluminum phosphate adjuvant significantly delayed the onset of diarrhea and significantly reduced the duration of diarrhea and the cumulative diarrhea score after oral challenge with virulent human rotavirus Wa (G1P[8]) strain. The P2-P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine induced serum virus neutralizing antibody and VP4-specific IgG antibody production prechallenge, and primed the pigs for higher antibody and intestinal and systemic virus-specific IFN-γ producing CD4(+) T cell responses postchallenge. These two subunit vaccines could be used at a minimum singly or

  8. Diffusion controlled initial recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christen, T.; Büttiker, M.

    1998-08-01

    This work addresses nucleation rates in systems with strong initial recombination. Initial (or ``geminate'') recombination is a process where a dissociated structure (anion, vortex, kink, etc.) recombines with its twin brother (cation, antivortex, antikink) generated in the same nucleation event. Initial recombination is important if there is an asymptotically vanishing interaction force instead of a generic saddle-type activation barrier. At low temperatures, initial recombination strongly dominates homogeneous recombination. In a first part, we discuss the effect in one-, two-, and three-dimensional diffusion controlled systems with spherical symmetry. Since there is no well-defined saddle, we introduce a threshold which is to some extent arbitrary but which is restricted by physically reasonable conditions. We show that the dependence of the nucleation rate on the specific choice of this threshold is strongest for one-dimensional systems and decreases in higher dimensions. We also discuss the influence of a weak driving force, and show that the transport current is directly determined by the imbalance of the activation rate in the direction of the field and the rate against this direction. In a second part, we apply the results to the overdamped sine-Gordon system at equilibrium. It turns out that diffusive initial recombination is the essential mechanism which governs the equilibrium kink nucleation rate. We emphasize analogies between the single particle problem with initial recombination and the multidimensional kink-antikink nucleation problem.

  9. Enhanced cell surface expression, immunogenicity and genetic stability resulting from a spontaneous truncation of HIV Env expressed by a recombinant MVA

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, Linda S.; Belyakov, Igor M.; Earl, Patricia L.

    2008-03-15

    During propagation of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding HIV 89.6 Env, a few viral foci stained very prominently. Virus cloned from such foci replicated to higher titers than the parent and displayed enhanced genetic stability on passage. Sequence analysis showed a single nucleotide deletion in the 89.6 env gene of the mutant that caused a frame shift and truncation of 115 amino acids from the cytoplasmic domain. The truncated Env was more highly expressed on the cell surface, induced higher antibody responses than the full-length Env, reacted with HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and mediated CD4/co-receptor-dependent fusion. Intramuscular (IM), intradermalmore » (ID) needleless, and intrarectal (IR) catheter inoculations gave comparable serum IgG responses. However, intraoral (IO) needleless injector route gave the highest IgA in lung washings and IR gave the highest IgA and IgG responses in fecal extracts. Induction of CTL responses in the spleens of individual mice as assayed by intracellular cytokine staining was similar with both the full-length and truncated Env constructs. Induction of acute and memory CTL in the spleens of mice immunized with the truncated Env construct by ID, IO, and IR routes was comparable and higher than by the IM route, but only the IR route induced CTL in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Thus, truncation of Env enhanced genetic stability as well as serum and mucosal antibody responses, suggesting the desirability of a similar modification in MVA-based candidate HIV vaccines.« less

  10. Efficient Planar Structured Perovskite Solar Cells with Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage and Suppressed Charge Recombination Based on a Slow Grown Perovskite Layer from Lead Acetate Precursor.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Zhibin; Bai, Yiming; Liu, Lin; Wang, Fuzhi; Zhou, Erjun; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Tan, Zhan'ao

    2017-12-06

    For planar structured organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PerSCs) with the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hole transport layer, the open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of the device is limited to be about 1.0 V, resulting in inferior performance in comparison with TiO 2 -based planar counterparts. Therefore, increasing V oc of the PEDOT:PSS-based planar device is an important way to enhance the efficiency of the PerSCs. Herein, we demonstrate a novel approach for perovskite film formation and the film is formed by slow growth from lead acetate precursor via a one-step spin-coating process without the thermal annealing (TA) process. Because the perovskite layer grows slowly and naturally, high-quality perovskite film can be achieved with larger crystalline particles, less defects, and smoother surface morphology. Ultraviolet absorption, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy (photoluminescence), and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy are used to clarify the crystallinity, morphology, and internal defects of perovskite thin films. The power conversion efficiency of p-i-n PerSCs based on slow-grown film (16.33%) shows greatly enhanced performance compared to that of the control device based on traditional thermally annealed perovskite film (14.33%). Furthermore, the V oc of the slow-growing device reaches 1.12 V, which is 0.1 V higher than that of the TA device. These findings indicate that slow growth of the perovskite layer from lead acetate precursor is a promising approach to achieve high-quality perovskite film for high-performance PerSCs.

  11. Dissociative recombination in aeronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of dissociative recombination in planetary aeronomy is summarized, and two examples are discussed. The first is the role of dissociative recombination of N2(+) in the escape of nitrogen from Mars. A previous model is updated to reflect new experimental data on the electronic states of N produced in this process. Second, the intensity of the atomic oxygen green line on the nightside of Venus is modeled. Use is made of theoretical rate coefficients for production of O (1S) in dissociative recombination from different vibrational levels of O2(+).

  12. Expression and purification of recombinant nattokinase in Spodoptera frugiperda cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xiaoli; Xiong, Shaoling; Zhang, Jing; Cai, Litao; Yang, Yanyan

    2007-10-01

    A recombinant baculovirus, rv-egfp-NK, containing a reporter gene encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), was used to express nattokinase (NK), a fibrinolytic enzyme, in Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) cells. The recombinant protein also included a histidine tag for purification using Ni(2+) resins. The recombinant NK, approximately 30 kDa, retained fibrinolytic activity (60 U/ml). The integration of the EGFP expression cassette in the Bac-to-Bac system is thus an effective method for the expression and purification of recombinant NK protein in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells.

  13. Enhancement of recombinant BmK AngM1 production in Pichia pastoris by regulating gene dosage, co-expressing with chaperones and fermenting in fed-batch mode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Hua; Liang, Lan; Liu, Wan-Cang; Gong, Ting; Chen, Jing-Jing; Hou, Qi; Yang, Jin-Ling; Zhu, Ping

    2017-06-01

    The scorpion peptide BmK AngM1 was reported to exhibit evident analgesic effect, but its yield by extraction from scorpion venom limits the research and application. The heterologous expression of BmK AngM1 was achieved in Pichia pastoris in our previous study. In order to realize high-level expression of recombinant BmK AngM1 (rBmK AngM1), the gene dosage of BmK AngM1 was optimized in engineered strains. The yield of rBmK AngM1 in the four-copy strain reached up to 100 mg/L, which was further enhanced to 190 mg/L by co-expressing with chaperones of PDI, BiP, and HAC1. Moreover, the yield of rBmK AngM1 was up to 1200 mg/L by high-density fermentation in 10 L fermenter. Finally, 360 mg rBmK AngM1 was purified from 1 L cultures by a two-step purification method. The efficient and convenient techniques presented in this study could facilitate further scale-up for industrial production of rBmK AngM1.

  14. Improvement of FK506 Production in Streptomyces tsukubaensis by Genetic Enhancement of the Supply of Unusual Polyketide Extender Units via Utilization of Two Distinct Site-Specific Recombination Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Qinglin; Cen, Peilin

    2012-01-01

    FK506 is a potent immunosuppressant that has a wide range of clinical applications. Its 23-member macrocyclic scaffold, mainly with a polyketide origin, features two methoxy groups at C-13 and C-15 and one allyl side chain at C-21, due to the region-specific incorporation of two unusual extender units derived from methoxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) and allylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA), respectively. Whether their intracellular formations can be a bottleneck for FK506 production remains elusive. In this study, we report the improvement of FK506 yield in the producing strain Streptomyces tsukubaensis by the duplication of two sets of pathway-specific genes individually encoding the biosyntheses of these two extender units, thereby providing a promising approach to generate high-FK506-producing strains via genetic manipulation. Taking advantage of the fact that S. tsukubaensis is amenable to two actinophage (ΦC31 and VWB) integrase-mediated recombination systems, we genetically enhanced the biosyntheses of methoxymalonyl-ACP and allylmalonyl-CoA, as indicated by transcriptional analysis. Together with the optimization of glucose supplementation, the maximal FK506 titer eventually increased by approximately 150% in comparison with that of the original strain. The strategy of engineering the biosynthesis of unusual extender units described here may be applicable to improving the production of other polyketide or nonribosomal peptide natural products that contain pathway-specific building blocks. PMID:22582065

  15. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  16. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  17. Experimental evolution across different thermal regimes yields genetic divergence in recombination fraction but no divergence in temperature associated plastic recombination.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Kathryn P; Singh, Nadia D

    2018-04-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is pervasive in nature. One mechanism underlying the evolution and maintenance of such plasticity is environmental heterogeneity. Indeed, theory indicates that both spatial and temporal variation in the environment should favor the evolution of phenotypic plasticity under a variety of conditions. Cyclical environmental conditions have also been shown to yield evolved increases in recombination frequency. Here, we use a panel of replicated experimental evolution populations of D. melanogaster to test whether variable environments favor enhanced plasticity in recombination rate and/or increased recombination rate in response to temperature. In contrast to expectation, we find no evidence for either enhanced plasticity in recombination or increased rates of recombination in the variable environment lines. Our data confirm a role of temperature in mediating recombination fraction in D. melanogaster, and indicate that recombination is genetically and plastically depressed under lower temperatures. Our data further suggest that the genetic architectures underlying plastic recombination and population-level variation in recombination rate are likely to be distinct. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Anomalous Abundances in Gaseous Nebulae From Recombination and Collisional Lines: Improved Photoionization and Recombination Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Anil Kumar; Nahar, S. N.; Eissner, W. B.; Montenegro, M.

    2011-01-01

    A perplexing anomaly arises in the determination of abundances of common elements in gaseous nebulae, as derived from collisionally excited lines (CEL) as opposed to those from Recombination Lines (RCL). The "abundance discrepancy factors" can range from a factor of 2 to an order of magnitude or more. That has led to quite different interpretation of the physical structure and processes in gaseous nebulae, such as temperature fluctuations across the object, or metal-rich concentrations leading to a dual-abundnace scenario. We show that the problem may lie in inaccuracies in photoionization and recombination models neglecting low-energy resonance phenomena due to fine structure. Whereas the atomic physics of electron impact excitation of forbidden lines is well understood, and accurate collision strengths have long been available, that is not generally the case for electron-ion recombination cross sections. A major problem is the inclusion of relativisitic effects as it pertains to the existence of very low-energy fine structure resonances in photoionization cross sections. We carry out new relativistic calculations for photoionization and recombination cross sections using a recently extended version of the Breit-Pauli R-matrix codes, and the unified electron-ion recombination method that subsumes both the radiative and the dielectronic recombination (RR and DR) processes in an ab initio and self-consistent manner. We find that near-thresold resonances manifest themselves within fine structure levels of the ground state of ions, enhancing low-temperature recombination rate coefficients at 1000-10,000 K. The resulting enahncement in level-specific and total recombination rate coefficients should therefore lead to reduced abundances derived from RCL, and in accordance with those from CEL. We present results for photoionization of O II into, and recombination from, O III. Theoretical cross sections are benchmarked against high-resolution measurements from synchrotron

  19. Regulation of Meiotic Recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory p. Copenhaver

    Meiotic recombination results in the heritable rearrangement of DNA, primarily through reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome or gene conversion. In plants these events are critical for ensuring proper chromosome segregation, facilitating DNA repair and providing a basis for genetic diversity. Understanding this fundamental biological mechanism will directly facilitate trait mapping, conventional plant breeding, and development of genetic engineering techniques that will help support the responsible production and conversion of renewable resources for fuels, chemicals, and the conservation of energy (1-3). Substantial progress has been made in understanding the basal recombination machinery, much of which is conserved in organisms as diversemore » as yeast, plants and mammals (4, 5). Significantly less is known about the factors that regulate how often and where that basal machinery acts on higher eukaryotic chromosomes. One important mechanism for regulating the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination is crossover interference - or the ability of one recombination event to influence nearby events. The MUS81 gene is thought to play an important role in regulating the influence of interference on crossing over. The immediate goals of this project are to use reverse genetics to identify mutants in two putative MUS81 homologs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, characterize those mutants and initiate a novel forward genetic screen for additional regulators of meiotic recombination. The long-term goal of the project is to understand how meiotic recombination is regulated in higher eukaryotes with an emphasis on the molecular basis of crossover interference. The ability to monitor recombination in all four meiotic products (tetrad analysis) has been a powerful tool in the arsenal of yeast geneticists. Previously, the qrt mutant of Arabidopsis, which causes the four pollen products of male meiosis to remain attached, was developed as a

  20. Genome-wide recombination dynamics are associated with phenotypic variation in maize.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qingchun; Li, Lin; Yang, Xiaohong; Tong, Hao; Xu, Shutu; Li, Zhigang; Li, Weiya; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Li, Jiansheng; Yan, Jianbing

    2016-05-01

    Meiotic recombination is a major driver of genetic diversity, species evolution, and agricultural improvement. Thus, an understanding of the genetic recombination landscape across the maize (Zea mays) genome will provide insight and tools for further study of maize evolution and improvement. Here, we used c. 50 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms to precisely map recombination events in 12 artificial maize segregating populations. We observed substantial variation in the recombination frequency and distribution along the ten maize chromosomes among the 12 populations and identified 143 recombination hot regions. Recombination breakpoints were partitioned into intragenic and intergenic events. Interestingly, an increase in the number of genes containing recombination events was accompanied by a decrease in the number of recombination events per gene. This kept the overall number of intragenic recombination events nearly invariable in a given population, suggesting that the recombination variation observed among populations was largely attributed to intergenic recombination. However, significant associations between intragenic recombination events and variation in gene expression and agronomic traits were observed, suggesting potential roles for intragenic recombination in plant phenotypic diversity. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the maize recombination landscape, and show an association between recombination, gene expression and phenotypic variation, which may enhance crop genetic improvement. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Effect of interface roughness on Auger recombination in semiconductor quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chee-Keong; Sun, Wei; Wierer, Jonathan J.; Tansu, Nelson

    2017-03-01

    Auger recombination in a semiconductor is a three-carrier process, wherein the energy from the recombination of an electron and hole pair promotes a third carrier to a higher energy state. In semiconductor quantum wells with increased carrier densities, the Auger recombination becomes an appreciable fraction of the total recombination rate and degrades luminescence efficiency. Gaining insight into the variables that influence Auger recombination in semiconductor quantum wells could lead to further advances in optoelectronic and electronic devices. Here we demonstrate the important role that interface roughness has on Auger recombination within quantum wells. Our computational studies find that as the ratio of interface roughness to quantum well thickness is increased, Auger recombination is significantly enhanced. Specifically, when considering a realistic interface roughness for an InGaN quantum well, the enhancement in Auger recombination rate over a quantum well with perfect heterointerfaces can be approximately four orders of magnitude.

  2. Transcription and recombination: when RNA meets DNA.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Andrés; Gaillard, Hélène

    2014-08-01

    A particularly relevant phenomenon in cell physiology and proliferation is the fact that spontaneous mitotic recombination is strongly enhanced by transcription. The most accepted view is that transcription increases the occurrence of double-strand breaks and/or single-stranded DNA gaps that are repaired by recombination. Most breaks would arise as a consequence of the impact that transcription has on replication fork progression, provoking its stalling and/or breakage. Here, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for the cross talk between transcription and recombination, with emphasis on (1) the transcription-replication conflicts as the main source of recombinogenic DNA breaks, and (2) the formation of cotranscriptional R-loops as a major cause of such breaks. The new emerging questions and perspectives are discussed on the basis of the interference between transcription and replication, as well as the way RNA influences genome dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. Transcription and Recombination: When RNA Meets DNA

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Andrés; Gaillard, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    A particularly relevant phenomenon in cell physiology and proliferation is the fact that spontaneous mitotic recombination is strongly enhanced by transcription. The most accepted view is that transcription increases the occurrence of double-strand breaks and/or single-stranded DNA gaps that are repaired by recombination. Most breaks would arise as a consequence of the impact that transcription has on replication fork progression, provoking its stalling and/or breakage. Here, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for the cross talk between transcription and recombination, with emphasis on (1) the transcription–replication conflicts as the main source of recombinogenic DNA breaks, and (2) the formation of cotranscriptional R-loops as a major cause of such breaks. The new emerging questions and perspectives are discussed on the basis of the interference between transcription and replication, as well as the way RNA influences genome dynamics. PMID:25085910

  4. Population-specific recombination sites within the human MHC region.

    PubMed

    Lam, T H; Shen, M; Chia, J-M; Chan, S H; Ren, E C

    2013-08-01

    Genetic rearrangement by recombination is one of the major driving forces for genome evolution, and recombination is known to occur in non-random, discreet recombination sites within the genome. Mapping of recombination sites has proved to be difficult, particularly, in the human MHC region that is complicated by both population variation and highly polymorphic HLA genes. To overcome these problems, HLA-typed individuals from three representative populations: Asian, European and African were used to generate phased HLA haplotypes. Extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) plots constructed from the phased haplotype data revealed discreet EHH drops corresponding to recombination events and these signatures were observed to be different for each population. Surprisingly, the majority of recombination sites detected are unique to each population, rather than being common. Unique recombination sites account for 56.8% (21/37 of total sites) in the Asian cohort, 50.0% (15/30 sites) in Europeans and 63.2% (24/38 sites) in Africans. Validation carried out at a known sperm typing recombination site of 45 kb (HLA-F-telomeric) showed that EHH was an efficient method to narrow the recombination region to 826 bp, and this was further refined to 660 bp by resequencing. This approach significantly enhanced mapping of the genomic architecture within the human MHC, and will be useful in studies to identify disease risk genes.

  5. Recombineering Pseudomonas syringae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here we report the identification of functions that promote genomic recombination of linear DNA introduced into Pseudomonas cells by electroporation. The genes encoding these functions were identified in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a based on similarity to the lambda Red Exo/Beta and RecE...

  6. Introduction to dissociative recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.; Mitchell, J. Brian A.

    1989-01-01

    Dissociative recombination (DR) of molecular ions with electrons has important consequences in many areas of physical science. Ab-initio calculations coupled with resonant scattering theory and multichannel quantum defect studies have produced detailed results illuminating the role of ion vibrational excitation, the quantum yields of the DR products, and the role of Rydberg states. The theoretical and experimental results are discussed.

  7. Recombinant DNA for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, James G., III

    1992-01-01

    A science teacher describes his experience at a workshop to learn to teach the Cold Spring Harbor DNA Science Laboratory Protocols. These protocols lead students through processes for taking E. coli cells and transforming them into a new antibiotic resistant strain. The workshop featured discussions of the role of DNA recombinant technology in…

  8. Quantification Of 4H- To 3C-Polymorphism In Silicon Carbide (SiC) Epilayers And An Investigation Of Recombination-Enhanced Dislocation Motion In SiC By Optical Emission Microscopy (Oem) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speer, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    quantifying and mapping defects on both the substrate and mesa surfaces, and of quantifying polymorphic changes in the grown materials. In addition, an optical emission microscopy (OEM) system is developed that will facilitate comprehensive study of recombination-enhanced dislocation motion (REDM).

  9. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Elizabeth A.; Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for “molecular pharming” in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity. PMID:24596570

  10. Precise genotyping and recombination detection of Enterovirus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) with different genotypes cause diverse infectious diseases in humans and mammals. A correct EV typing result is crucial for effective medical treatment and disease control; however, the emergence of novel viral strains has impaired the performance of available diagnostic tools. Here, we present a web-based tool, named EVIDENCE (EnteroVirus In DEep conception, http://symbiont.iis.sinica.edu.tw/evidence), for EV genotyping and recombination detection. We introduce the idea of using mixed-ranking scores to evaluate the fitness of prototypes based on relatedness and on the genome regions of interest. Using phylogenetic methods, the most possible genotype is determined based on the closest neighbor among the selected references. To detect possible recombination events, EVIDENCE calculates the sequence distance and phylogenetic relationship among sequences of all sliding windows scanning over the whole genome. Detected recombination events are plotted in an interactive figure for viewing of fine details. In addition, all EV sequences available in GenBank were collected and revised using the latest classification and nomenclature of EV in EVIDENCE. These sequences are built into the database and are retrieved in an indexed catalog, or can be searched for by keywords or by sequence similarity. EVIDENCE is the first web-based tool containing pipelines for genotyping and recombination detection, with updated, built-in, and complete reference sequences to improve sensitivity and specificity. The use of EVIDENCE can accelerate genotype identification, aiding clinical diagnosis and enhancing our understanding of EV evolution. PMID:26678286

  11. Enhanced Functional Recombinant Factor VII Production by HEK 293 Cells Stably Transfected with VKORC1 where the Gamma-Carboxylase Inhibitor Calumenin is Stably Suppressed by shRNA Transfection

    PubMed Central

    Wajih, Nadeem; Owen, John; Wallin, Reidar

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Recombinant members of the vitamin K-dependent protein family (factors IX and VII and protein C) have become important pharmaceuticals in treatment of bleeding disorders and sepsis. However, because the in vivo γ-carboxylation system in stable cell lines used for transfection has a limited capacity of post translational γ carboxylation, the recovery of fully γ-carboxylated and functional proteins is low. Materials and Methods In this work we have engineered recombinant factor VII producing HEK 293 cells to stably overexpress VKORC1, the reduced vitamin K γ-carboxylase cofactor and in addition stably silenced the γ-carboxylase inhibitory protein calumenin. Results and Conclusions Stable cell lines transfected with only a factor VII cDNA had a 9% production of functional recombinant factor VII. On the other hand, these recombinant factor VII producing cells when engineered to overexpress VKORC1 and having calumenin stably suppressed more than 80% by shRNA expression, produced 68% functional factor VII. The technology presented should be applicable to all vertebrae members of the vitamin K-dependent protein family and should lower the production cost of the clinically used factors VII, IX and protein C. PMID:18177690

  12. Enhanced functional recombinant factor VII production by HEK 293 cells stably transfected with VKORC1 where the gamma-carboxylase inhibitor calumenin is stably suppressed by shRNA transfection.

    PubMed

    Wajih, Nadeem; Owen, John; Wallin, Reidar

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant members of the vitamin K-dependent protein family (factors IX and VII and protein C) have become important pharmaceuticals in treatment of bleeding disorders and sepsis. However, because the in vivo gamma-carboxylation system in stable cell lines used for transfection has a limited capacity of post translational gamma-carboxylation, the recovery of fully gamma-carboxylated and functional proteins is low. In this work we have engineered recombinant factor VII producing HEK 293 cells to stably overexpress VKORC1, the reduced vitamin K gamma-carboxylase cofactor and in addition stably silenced the gamma-carboxylase inhibitory protein calumenin. Stable cell lines transfected with only a factor VII cDNA had a 9% production of functional recombinant factor VII. On the other hand, these recombinant factor VII producing cells when engineered to overexpress VKORC1 and having calumenin stably suppressed more than 80% by shRNA expression, produced 68% functional factor VII. The technology presented should be applicable to all vertebrae members of the vitamin K-dependent protein family and should lower the production cost of the clinically used factors VII, IX and protein C.

  13. Combined Administration of Recombinant Human Megakaryocyte Growth and Development Factor and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Enhances Multilineage Hematopoietic Reconstitution in Nonhuman Primates after Radiation-Induced Marrow Aplasia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    dose would yield an equivalent or better biological activity. Neupogen ® ( Filgrastim ), r-metHuG-CSF, was produced in E. coli as a...recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on hematopoiesis of normal dogs and on hematopoi- etic recovery after otherwise lethal total body

  14. Recombinant Collagenlike Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fertala, Andzej

    2007-01-01

    A group of collagenlike recombinant proteins containing high densities of biologically active sites has been invented. The method used to express these proteins is similar to a method of expressing recombinant procollagens and collagens described in U. S. Patent 5,593,859, "Synthesis of human procollagens and collagens in recombinant DNA systems." Customized collagenous proteins are needed for biomedical applications. In particular, fibrillar collagens are attractive for production of matrices needed for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Prior to this invention, there was no way of producing customized collagenous proteins for these and other applications. Heretofore, collagenous proteins have been produced by use of such biological systems as yeasts, bacteria, and transgenic animals and plants. These products are normal collagens that can also be extracted from such sources as tendons, bones, and hides. These products cannot be made to consist only of biologically active, specific amino acid sequences that may be needed for specific applications. Prior to this invention, it had been established that fibrillar collagens consist of domains that are responsible for such processes as interaction with cells, binding of growth factors, and interaction with a number of structural proteins present in the extracellular matrix. A normal collagen consists of a sequence of domains that can be represented by a corresponding sequence of labels, e.g., D1D2D3D4. A collagenlike protein of the present invention contains regions of collagen II that contain multiples of a single domain (e.g., D1D1D1D1 or D4D4D4D4) chosen for its specific biological activity. By virtue of the multiplicity of the chosen domain, the density of sites having that specific biological activity is greater than it is in a normal collagen. A collagenlike protein according to this invention can thus be made to have properties that are necessary for tissue engineering.

  15. Recombinant BCG vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Hernàndez-Pando, Rogelio; Castañòn, Mauricio; Espitia, Clara; Lopez-Vidal, Yolanda

    2007-06-01

    Given the variable protective efficacy provided by Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin), there is a concerted effort worldwide to develop better vaccines that could be used to reduce the burden of tuberculosis. Recombinant BCG (rBCG) are vaccine candidates that offer some potential in this area. In this paper, we will discuss the molecular methods used to generate rBCG, and the results obtained with some of these new vaccines as compared with the conventional BCG vaccine in diverse animal models. Tuberculosis vaccine candidates based on rBCG are promising candidates, and some of them are now being tested in clinical trials.

  16. Recombinant antibodies and their use in biosensors.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangqun; Shen, Zhihong; Mernaugh, Ray

    2012-04-01

    Inexpensive, noninvasive immunoassays can be used to quickly detect disease in humans. Immunoassay sensitivity and specificity are decidedly dependent upon high-affinity, antigen-specific antibodies. Antibodies are produced biologically. As such, antibody quality and suitability for use in immunoassays cannot be readily determined or controlled by human intervention. However, the process through which high-quality antibodies can be obtained has been shortened and streamlined by use of genetic engineering and recombinant antibody techniques. Antibodies that traditionally take several months or more to produce when animals are used can now be developed in a few weeks as recombinant antibodies produced in bacteria, yeast, or other cell types. Typically most immunoassays use two or more antibodies or antibody fragments to detect antigens that are indicators of disease. However, a label-free biosensor, for example, a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) needs one antibody only. As such, the cost and time needed to design and develop an immunoassay can be substantially reduced if recombinant antibodies and biosensors are used rather than traditional antibody and assay (e.g. enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, ELISA) methods. Unlike traditional antibodies, recombinant antibodies can be genetically engineered to self-assemble on biosensor surfaces, at high density, and correctly oriented to enhance antigen-binding activity and to increase assay sensitivity, specificity, and stability. Additionally, biosensor surface chemistry and physical and electronic properties can be modified to further increase immunoassay performance above and beyond that obtained by use of traditional methods. This review describes some of the techniques investigators have used to develop highly specific and sensitive, recombinant antibody-based biosensors for detection of antigens in simple or complex biological samples.

  17. Multiple exciton generation and recombination in carbon nanotubes and nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2013-06-18

    optical phenomena. The breakdown of the k-conversion rule and strong Coulomb interactions between carriers in NCs enhance Auger recombination rate and decrease the energy threshold for multiple exciton generation. We discuss this impact of the k-conservation rule on two-carrier radiative recombination and the three-carrier Auger recombination processes in indirect-gap semiconductor Si NCs. In NCs and SWCNTs, multiple exciton generation competes with Auger recombination, surface trapping of excitons, and cooling of hot electrons or excitons. In addition, we explore heterostructured NCs and impurity-doped NCs in the context of the optimization of charge carrier extraction from excitons in NCs.

  18. Dissociative recombination of HCl.

    PubMed

    Larson, Åsa; Fonseca Dos Santos, Samantha; E Orel, Ann

    2017-08-28

    The dissociative recombination of HCl + , including both the direct and indirect mechanisms, is studied. For the direct process, the relevant electronic states are calculated ab initio by combining electron scattering calculations to obtain resonance positions and autoionization widths with multi-reference configuration interaction calculations of the ion and Rydberg states. The cross section for the direct dissociation along electronic resonant states is computed by solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. For the indirect process, an upper bound value for the cross section is obtained using a vibrational frame transformation of the elements of the scattering matrix at energies just above the ionization threshold. Vibrational excitations of the ionic core from the ground vibrational state, v = 0, to the first three excited vibrational states, v = 1, v = 2, and  v = 3, are considered. Autoionization is neglected and the effect of the spin-orbit splitting of the ionic potential energy upon the indirect dissociative recombination cross section is considered. The calculated cross sections are compared to measurements.

  19. Dissociative recombination of HCl+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Åsa; Fonseca dos Santos, Samantha; E. Orel, Ann

    2017-08-01

    The dissociative recombination of HCl+, including both the direct and indirect mechanisms, is studied. For the direct process, the relevant electronic states are calculated ab initio by combining electron scattering calculations to obtain resonance positions and autoionization widths with multi-reference configuration interaction calculations of the ion and Rydberg states. The cross section for the direct dissociation along electronic resonant states is computed by solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. For the indirect process, an upper bound value for the cross section is obtained using a vibrational frame transformation of the elements of the scattering matrix at energies just above the ionization threshold. Vibrational excitations of the ionic core from the ground vibrational state, v = 0 , to the first three excited vibrational states, v = 1 , v = 2 , and v = 3 , are considered. Autoionization is neglected and the effect of the spin-orbit splitting of the ionic potential energy upon the indirect dissociative recombination cross section is considered. The calculated cross sections are compared to measurements.

  20. Expression of Recombinant Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with “human-like” post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications. PMID:23908655

  1. Selfish genes, pleiotropy and the origin of recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Hey, J

    1998-01-01

    If multiple linked polymorphisms are under natural selection, then conflicts arise and the efficiency of natural selection is hindered relative to the case of no linkage. This simple interaction between linkage and natural selection creates an opportunity for mutations that raise the level of recombination to increase in frequency and have an enhanced chance of fixation. This important finding by S. Otto and N. Barton means that mutations that raise the recombination rate, but are otherwise neutral, will be selectively favored under fairly general circumstances of multilocus selection and linkage. The effect described by Otto and Barton, which was limited to neutral modifiers, can also be extended to include all modifiers of recombination, both beneficial and deleterious. Computer simulations show that beneficial mutations that also increase recombination have an increased chance of fixation. Similarly, deleterious mutations that also decrease recombination have an increased chance of fixation. The results suggest that a simple model of recombination modifiers, including both neutral and pleiotropic modifiers, is a necessary explanation for the evolutionary origin of recombination. PMID:9691060

  2. Recombineering: A Homologous Recombination-Based Method of Genetic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Shyam K.; Thomason, Lynn C.; Kuznetsov, Sergey G.; Court, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Recombineering is an efficient method of in vivo genetic engineering applicable to chromosomal as well as episomal replicons in E. coli. This method circumvents the need for most standard in vitro cloning techniques. Recombineering allows construction of DNA molecules with precise junctions without constraints being imposed by restriction enzyme site location. Bacteriophage homologous recombination proteins catalyze these recombineering reactions using double- and single-strand linear DNA substrates, so-called targeting constructs, introduced by electroporation. Gene knockouts, deletions and point mutations are readily made, gene tags can be inserted, and regions of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) or the E. coli genome can be subcloned by gene retrieval using recombineering. Most of these constructs can be made within about a week's time. PMID:19180090

  3. Recombinant glucose uptake system

    DOEpatents

    Ingrahm, Lonnie O.; Snoep, Jacob L.; Arfman, Nico

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant organisms are disclosed that contain a pathway for glucose uptake other than the pathway normally utilized by the host cell. In particular, the host cell is one in which glucose transport into the cell normally is coupled to PEP production. This host cell is transformed so that it uses an alternative pathway for glucose transport that is not coupled to PEP production. In a preferred embodiment, the host cell is a bacterium other than Z. mobilis that has been transformed to contain the glf and glk genes of Z. mobilis. By uncoupling glucose transport into the cell from PEP utilization, more PEP is produced for synthesis of products of commercial importance from a given quantity of biomass supplied to the host cells.

  4. Auger recombination in sodium iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Andrew; Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Åberg, Daniel; Schleife, André

    2014-03-01

    Scintillators are an important tool used to detect high energy radiation - both in the interest of national security and in medicine. However, scintillator detectors currently suffer from lower energy resolutions than expected from basic counting statistics. This has been attributed to non-proportional light yield compared to incoming radiation, but the specific mechanism for this non-proportionality has not been identified. Auger recombination is a non-radiative process that could be contributing to the non-proportionality of scintillating materials. Auger recombination comes in two types - direct and phonon-assisted. We have used first-principles calculations to study Auger recombination in sodium iodide, a well characterized scintillating material. Our findings indicate that phonon-assisted Auger recombination is stronger in sodium iodide than direct Auger recombination. Computational resources provided by LLNL and NERSC. Funding provided by NA-22.

  5. Co-administration of recombinant major envelope proteins (rA27L and rH3L) of buffalopox virus provides enhanced immunogenicity and protective efficacy in animal models.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Yogisharadhya, Revanaiah; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa; Pandey, Awadh Bihari; Shivachandra, Sathish Bhadravati

    2017-05-01

    Buffalopox virus (BPXV) and other vaccinia-like viruses (VLVs) are causing an emerging/re-emerging zoonosis affecting buffaloes, cattle and humans in India and other countries. A27L and H3L are immuno-dominant major envelope proteins of intracellular mature virion (IMV) of orthopoxviruses (OPVs) and are highly conserved with an ability to elicit neutralizing antibodies. In the present study, two recombinant proteins namely; rA27L ( 21 S to E 110 ; ∼30 kDa) and rH3L( 1 M to I 280 ; ∼50 kDa) of BPXV-Vij/96 produced from Escherichia coli were used in vaccine formulation. A combined recombinant subunit vaccine comprising rA27L and rH3L antigens (10 μg of each) was used for active immunization of adult mice (20μg/dose/mice) with or without adjuvant (FCA/FIA) by intramuscular route. Immune responses revealed a gradual increase in antigen specific serum IgG as well as neutralizing antibody titers measured by using indirect-ELISA and serum neutralization test (SNT) respectively, which were higher as compared to that elicited by individual antigens. Suckling mice passively administered with combined anti-A27L and anti-H3L sera showed a complete (100%) pre-exposure protection upon challenge with virulent BPXV. Conclusively, this study highlights the potential utility of rA27L and rH3L proteins as safer candidate prophylactic antigens in combined recombinant subunit vaccine for buffalopox as well as passive protective efficacy of combined sera in employing better pre-exposure protection against virulent BPXV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Trends in recombinant protein use in animal production.

    PubMed

    Gifre, Laia; Arís, Anna; Bach, Àlex; Garcia-Fruitós, Elena

    2017-03-04

    Recombinant technologies have made possible the production of a broad catalogue of proteins of interest, including those used for animal production. The most widely studied proteins for the animal sector are those with an important role in reproduction, feed efficiency, and health. Nowadays, mammalian cells and fungi are the preferred choice for recombinant production of hormones for reproductive purposes and fibrolytic enzymes to enhance animal performance, respectively. However, the development of low-cost products is a priority, particularly in livestock. The study of cell factories such as yeast and bacteria has notably increased in the last decades to make the new developed reproductive hormones and fibrolytic enzymes a real alternative to the marketed ones. Important efforts have also been invested to developing new recombinant strategies for prevention and therapy, including passive immunization and modulation of the immune system. This offers the possibility to reduce the use of antibiotics by controlling physiological processes and improve the efficacy of preventing infections. Thus, nowadays different recombinant fibrolytic enzymes, hormones, and therapeutic molecules with optimized properties have been successfully produced through cost-effective processes using microbial cell factories. However, despite the important achievements for reducing protein production expenses, alternative strategies to further reduce these costs are still required. In this context, it is necessary to make a giant leap towards the use of novel strategies, such as nanotechnology, that combined with recombinant technology would make recombinant molecules affordable for animal industry.

  7. Effectiveness of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone for Pharyngocutaneous Fistula Closure

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Murat; Midi, Ahmet; Yumusakhuylu, Ali Cemal; Findik, Ozan; Binnetoglu, Adem

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In laryngeal cancer, which comprises 25% of head and neck cancer, chemotherapy has come into prominence with the increase in organ-protective treatments. With such treatment, salvage surgery has increased following recurrence; the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula has also increased in both respiratory and digestive system surgery. We investigated the effects of recombinant human growth hormone on pharyngocutaneous fistula closure in Sprague-Dawley rats, based on an increase in amino acid uptake and protein synthesis for wound healing, an increase in mitogenesis, and enhancement of collagen formation by recombinant human growth hormone. Methods This study was experimental animal study. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into two groups, and pharyngoesophagotomy was performed. The pharyngoesophagotomy was sutured with vicryl in both groups. Rats in group 1 (control group) received no treatment, while those in group 2 were administered a subcutaneous injection of recombinant human growth hormone daily. On day 14, the pharynx, larynx, and upper oesophagus were excised and examined microscopically. Results Pharyngocutaneous fistula exhibited better closure macroscopically in the recombinant human growth hormone group. There was a significant difference in collagen formation and epithelisation in the recombinant human growth hormone group compared to the control group. Conclusion This study is believed to be the first in which the effect of recombinant human growth hormone on pharyngocutaneous fistula closure was evaluated, and the findings suggest the potential of use of growth hormone for treatment of pharyngocutaneous fistula. PMID:26622960

  8. Effectiveness of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone for Pharyngocutaneous Fistula Closure.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Nurten; Sari, Murat; Midi, Ahmet; Yumusakhuylu, Ali Cemal; Findik, Ozan; Binnetoglu, Adem

    2015-12-01

    In laryngeal cancer, which comprises 25% of head and neck cancer, chemotherapy has come into prominence with the increase in organ-protective treatments. With such treatment, salvage surgery has increased following recurrence; the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula has also increased in both respiratory and digestive system surgery. We investigated the effects of recombinant human growth hormone on pharyngocutaneous fistula closure in Sprague-Dawley rats, based on an increase in amino acid uptake and protein synthesis for wound healing, an increase in mitogenesis, and enhancement of collagen formation by recombinant human growth hormone. This study was experimental animal study. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into two groups, and pharyngoesophagotomy was performed. The pharyngoesophagotomy was sutured with vicryl in both groups. Rats in group 1 (control group) received no treatment, while those in group 2 were administered a subcutaneous injection of recombinant human growth hormone daily. On day 14, the pharynx, larynx, and upper oesophagus were excised and examined microscopically. Pharyngocutaneous fistula exhibited better closure macroscopically in the recombinant human growth hormone group. There was a significant difference in collagen formation and epithelisation in the recombinant human growth hormone group compared to the control group. This study is believed to be the first in which the effect of recombinant human growth hormone on pharyngocutaneous fistula closure was evaluated, and the findings suggest the potential of use of growth hormone for treatment of pharyngocutaneous fistula.

  9. Mitochondrial Recombination and Introgression during Speciation by Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Henault, Mathieu; Charron, Guillaume; Nielly-Thibault, Lou; Terrat, Yves; Fiumera, Heather L; Shapiro, B Jesse; Landry, Christian R

    2017-08-01

    Genome recombination is a major source of genotypic diversity and contributes to adaptation and speciation following interspecies hybridization. The contribution of recombination in these processes has been thought to be largely limited to the nuclear genome because organelles are mostly uniparentally inherited in animals and plants, which prevents recombination. Unicellular eukaryotes such as budding yeasts do, however, transmit mitochondria biparentally, suggesting that during hybridization, both parents could provide alleles that contribute to mitochondrial functions such as respiration and metabolism in hybrid populations or hybrid species. We examined the dynamics of mitochondrial genome transmission and evolution during speciation by hybridization in the natural budding yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus. Using population-scale mitochondrial genome sequencing in two endemic North American incipient species SpB and SpC and their hybrid species SpC*, we found that both parental species contributed to the hybrid mitochondrial genome through recombination. We support our findings by showing that mitochondrial recombination between parental types is frequent in experimental crosses that recreate the early step of this speciation event. In these artificial hybrids, we observed that mitochondrial genome recombination enhances phenotypic variation among diploid hybrids, suggesting that it could play a role in the phenotypic differentiation of hybrid species. Like the nuclear genome, the mitochondrial genome can, therefore, also play a role in hybrid speciation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Review of HxPyOz-Catalyzed H + OH Recombination in Scramjet Nozzle Expansions; and Possible Phosphoric Acid Enhancement of Scramjet Flameholding, from Extinction of H3PO4 + H2 - Air Counterflow Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Recent detailed articles by Twarowski indicate that small quantities of phosphorus oxides and acids in the fuel-rich combustion products of H2 + phosphine (PH3) + air should significantly catalyze H, OH and O recombination kinetics during high-speed nozzle expansions -- to reform H2O, release heat, and approach equilibrium more rapidly and closely than uncatalyzed kinetics. This paper is an initial feasibility study to determine (a) if addition of phosphoric acid vapor (H3PO4) to a H2 fuel jet -- which is much safer than using PH3 -- will allow combustion in a high-speed scramjet engine test without adverse effects on localized flameholding, and (b) if phosphorus-containing exhaust emissions are environmentally acceptable. A well-characterized axisymmetric straight-tube opposed jet burner (OJB) tool is used to evaluate H3PO4 addition effects on the air velocity extinction limit (flame strength) of a H2 versus air counterflow diffusion flame. Addition of nitric oxide (NO), also believed to promote catalytic H-atom recombination, was evaluated for comparison. Two to five mass percent H3PO4 in the H2 jet increased flame strength 4.2%, whereas airside addition decreased it 1%. Adding 5% NO to the H2 caused a 2% decrease. Products of H-atom attack on H3PO4 produced an intense green chemiluminescence near the stagnation point. The resultant exothermic production of phosphorus oxides and acids, with accelerated H-atom recombination, released sufficient heat near the stagnation point to increase flame strength. In conclusion, the addition of H3PO4 vapor (or more reactive P sources) to hydrogen in scramjet engine tests may positively affect flameholding stability in the combustor and thrust production during supersonic expansion -- a possible dual benefit with system design / performance implications. Finally, a preliminary assessment of possible environmental effects indicates that scramjet exhaust emissions should consist of phosphoric acid aerosol, with gradual

  11. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kraft, H.; Ledjeff, K.

    1984-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive the discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  12. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  13. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kraft, Helmut; Ledjeff, Konstantin

    1985-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive he discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  14. Three Decades of Recombinant DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Jackie

    1985-01-01

    Discusses highlights in the development of genetic engineering, examining techniques with recombinant DNA, legal and ethical issues, GenBank (a national database of nucleic acid sequences), and other topics. (JN)

  15. [Vaccine application of recombinant herpesviruses].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, N; Xuan, X; Mikami, T

    2000-04-01

    Recently, genetic engineering using recombinant DNA techniques has been applied to design new viral vaccines in order to reduce some problems which the present viral vaccines have. Up to now, many viruses have been investigated for development of recombinant attenuated vaccines or live viral vectors for delivery of foreign genes coding immunogenic antigens. In this article, we introduced the new vaccine strategy using genetically engineered herpesviruses.

  16. Identification of Cytomegalovirus-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes In Vitro Is Greatly Enhanced by the Use of Recombinant Virus Lacking the US2 to US11 Region or Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing Individual Viral Genes

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naeem; Bruton, Rachel; Taylor, Graham S.; Cobbold, Mark; Jones, Thomas R.; Rickinson, Alan B.; Moss, Paul A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) elicits a potent T-cell response in humans that appears to protect the host from virus-associated disease. Despite facing strong host defense mechanisms, CMV remains as a lifelong infection that may reactivate and cause life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals. This persistence is probably assisted by expression of immune subversion proteins of the virus encoded by genes belonging to the US gene family. These proteins modulate major histocompatibility complex expression in infected cells and bias in vitro experiments toward the detection of only certain specificities. We have combined the use of recombinant CMV, lacking the US2 to US11 region genes, and cytoplasmic gamma interferon staining to define a more accurate assessment of CMV-specific responses in vivo. Recombinant CMV stimulation reveals a CD8 response much larger than that of parental virus in all donors tested. In some cases, this represented up to 10-fold increases in the number of cells detected. Responses were directed mainly against pp65, IE-1, and pp50 in the majority of donors. In addition, previously unreported IE-2-specific T-cell responses could be detected in a minority of cases. Furthermore, we observed a less marked increase in the response to mutant CMV by CD4 T cells in some donors. This suggests that a much broader T-cell response to CMV exists in vivo than is revealed by restimulation with wild-type virus and adds to the evidence that the efficacy of immune evasion strategies may not be as absolute as previously believed. PMID:15709006

  17. Targeting vector construction through recombineering.

    PubMed

    Malureanu, Liviu A

    2011-01-01

    Gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells is an essential, yet still very expensive and highly time-consuming, tool and method to study gene function at the organismal level or to create mouse models of human diseases. Conventional cloning-based methods have been largely used for generating targeting vectors, but are hampered by a number of limiting factors, including the variety and location of restriction enzymes in the gene locus of interest, the specific PCR amplification of repetitive DNA sequences, and cloning of large DNA fragments. Recombineering is a technique that exploits the highly efficient homologous recombination function encoded by λ phage in Escherichia coli. Bacteriophage-based recombination can recombine homologous sequences as short as 30-50 bases, allowing manipulations such as insertion, deletion, or mutation of virtually any genomic region. The large availability of mouse genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries covering most of the genome facilitates the retrieval of genomic DNA sequences from the bacterial chromosomes through recombineering. This chapter describes a successfully applied protocol and aims to be a detailed guide through the steps of generation of targeting vectors through recombineering.

  18. Trap-assisted and Langevin-type recombination in organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Kuik, M.; Nicolai, H. T.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2011-04-01

    Trapping of charges is known to play an important role in the charge transport of organic semiconductors, but the role of traps in the recombination process has not been addressed. Here we show that the ideality factor of the current of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in the diffusion-dominated regime has a temperature-independent value of 2, which reveals that nonradiative trap-assisted recombination dominates the current. In contrast, the ideality factor of the light output approaches unity, demonstrating that luminance is governed by recombination of the bimolecular Langevin type. This apparent contradiction can be resolved by measuring the current and luminance ideality factor for a white-emitting polymer, where both free and trapped charge carriers recombine radiatively. With increasing bias voltage, Langevin recombination becomes dominant over trap-assisted recombination due to its stronger dependence on carrier density, leading to an enhancement in OLED efficiency.

  19. Modulating Cellular Recombination Potential through Alterations in RecA Structure and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bakhlanova, Irina V.; Dudkina, Alexandra V.; Baitin, Dima M.; Knight, Kendall L.; Cox, Michael M.; Lanzov, Vladislav A.

    2010-01-01

    The wild type E. coli RecA protein is a recombinase platform with unrealized recombination potential. We have explored the factors affecting recombination during conjugation with a quantitative assay. Regulatory proteins that affect RecA function have the capacity to increase or decrease recombination frequencies by factors up to 6 fold. Autoinhibition by the RecA C-terminus can affect recombination frequency by factors up to 4 fold. The greatest changes in recombination frequency measured here are brought about by point mutations in the recA gene. RecA variants can increase recombination frequencies by more than 50 fold. The RecA protein thus possesses an inherently broad functional range. The RecA protein of Escherichia coli (EcRecA) is not optimized for recombination function. Instead, much of the recombination potential of EcRecA is structurally suppressed, probably reflecting cellular requirements. One point mutation in EcRecA with a particularly dramatic effect on recombination frequency, D112R, exhibits an enhanced capacity to load onto SSB-coated ssDNA, overcome the effects of regulatory proteins such as PsiB and RecX, and to pair homologous DNAs. Comparisons of key RecA protein mutants reveal two components to RecA recombination function – filament formation and the inherent DNA pairing activity of the formed filaments. PMID:21143322

  20. Radiative recombination and photon recycling in gallium arsenide solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstrom, M. S.; Melloch, M. R.; Lush, G. B.; Patkar, M. P.; Young, M.; Durbin, S. M.; Gray, J. L.; MacMillan, H. F.; Keyes, B. M.; Levi, D. H.; Ahrenkiel, R. K.

    1992-12-01

    This talk reviews experimental work to develop a detailed understanding of radiative recombination in n-GaAs. Photoluminescence decay studies of minority carrier lifetimes versus doping in n-GaAs are presented. We show that when the substrate is removed by etching, photon recycling is enhanced, and lifetimes increase by nearly a factor of 10. The doping-dependent absorption coefficient is measured, and detailed balance arguments are used to relate absorption and recombination. Modeling surfaces, verified by comparison with experiments, are used to examine the effects of recycling in conventional solar cells and to explore new design options.

  1. Electron-Beam Recombination Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, Robert Lewis

    1992-01-01

    The first known instance of electron-beam pumping of the 546.1 nm mercury laser is reported. This has been achieved using high-energy electrons to create intense ionization in a coaxial diode chamber containing a mixture of noble gases with a small amount of mercury vapor. Also reported are the results of a study of the 585.3 nm neon laser in He:Ne:Ar mixtures under similar experimental conditions. Both of these lasers are believed to be predominantly pumped by recombination. For the mercury laser, kinetic processes in the partially ionized plasma following the excitation pulse of high-energy electrons should favor the production of atomic mercury ions and molecular ions containing mercury. Subsequent recombination with electrons heavily favors the production of the 7^3S and 6^3 D states of Hg, of which 7^3S is the upper level of the reported laser. For the neon laser, the dominant recombining ion has been previously shown to be Ne_2^{+}. One of the dominant roles of helium in recombination lasers is inferred from the data for the neon laser at low helium concentrations. Helium appears to be necessary for the rapid relaxation of the electron energy which then increases the reaction rates for all known recombination processes thus increasing the pump rate into the upper state.

  2. The Dissociative Recombination of OH(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical quantum chemical calculations of the cross sections and rates for the dissociative recombination of the upsilon = 0 level of the ground state of OH(+) show that recombination occurs primarily along the 2 (2)Pi diabatic route. The products are 0((1)D) and a hot H atom with 6.1 eV kinetic energy. The coupling to the resonances is very small and the indirect recombination mechanism plays only a minor role. The recommended value for the rate coefficient is (6.3 +/- 0.7) x 10(exp -9)x (T(e)/1300)(exp -0.48) cu.cm/s for 10 less than T(e) less than 1000 K.

  3. Theoretical studies of dissociative recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, S. L.

    1985-01-01

    The calculation of dissociative recombination rates and cross sections over a wide temperature range by theoretical quantum chemical techniques is described. Model calculations on electron capture by diatomic ions are reported which illustrate the dependence of the rates and cross sections on electron energy, electron temperature, and vibrational temperature for three model crossings of neutral and ionic potential curves. It is shown that cross sections for recombination to the lowest vibrational level of the ion can vary by several orders of magnitude depending upon the position of the neutral and ionic potential curve crossing within the turning points of the v = 1 vibrational level. A new approach for calculating electron capture widths is reported. Ab initio calculations are described for recombination of O2(+) leading to excited O atoms.

  4. [Therapy with recombinant growth hormone].

    PubMed

    Wabitsch, Martin

    2007-06-07

    Therapy with recombinant growth hormone is currently approved for the indications growth hormone deficiency,Turner syndrome, chronic renal failure, small for gestational age (SGA) and Prader-Willi syndrome. Positive experience from on-going clinical studies (e.g. on obesity, type 2 diabetes, Crohn's disease) support an extended range of applications for recombinant growth hormone. However, growth hormone therapy is very expensive. On the other hand, biosimilars are already available that are significantly lower in price. During the coming years, research must show whether the efficacy and safety of biosimilars (including possible new indications) are equal to that of the established preparations.

  5. Mice immunized with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells stimulated with recombinant Coxiella burnetii Com1 and Mip demonstrate enhanced bacterial clearance in association with a Th1 immune response.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaolu; Meng, Yanfen; Wang, Xile; Qi, Yong; Li, Jiaming; Duan, Changsong; Wen, Bohai

    2012-11-06

    The recombinant membrane-associated proteins of Coxiella burnetii, Com1, Mip and GroEL, were used in vitro to stimulate BALB/c mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). The antigen-activated BMDCs were transferred into naïve BALB/c mice. Seven days after challenge of C. burnetii, the bacterial loads of mice receiving BMDCs activated with Com1 or Mip, but not GroEL, were significantly lower than that of mice receiving BMDCs pulsed with TrxA (Esherichia coli thioredoxin) in a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. After in vitro interaction with cognate antigen-pulsed BMDCs, the percentages of CD69-positive cells and TNF-α-positive cells in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells isolated from the spleens of mice receiving Com1-, Mip-, or GroEL-pulsed BMDCs were significantly higher than that of mice receiving mock-pulsed BMDCs in flow cytometric analysis. The percentages of IFN-γ-positive cells in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from mice receiving Com1- or Mip-pulsed BMDCs were significantly greater than that of mice receiving GroEL-pulsed BMDCs. However, the percentage of IL-4-positive cells in CD4(+) T cells of mice receiving GroEL-pulsed BMDCs was obviously higher than that of mice receiving Com1- or Mip-pulsed BMDCs. Our results demonstrate that Com1 and Mip are protective antigens and strongly indicate that they favor to induce IFN-γ-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells, whereas the non-protective antigen GroEL is biased to induce a Th2 response. Therefore, Com1 and Mip are key antigens to induce a protective immune response against C. burnetii infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Local HPV Recombinant Vaccinia Boost Following Priming with an HPV DNA Vaccine Enhances Local HPV-Specific CD8+ T-cell-Mediated Tumor Control in the Genital Tract.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yun-Yan; Peng, Shiwen; Han, Liping; Qiu, Jin; Song, Liwen; Tsai, Yachea; Yang, Benjamin; Roden, Richard B S; Trimble, Cornelia L; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2016-02-01

    Two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, are expressed in all human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected cells, from initial infection in the genital tract to metastatic cervical cancer. Intramuscular vaccination of women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3) twice with a naked DNA vaccine, pNGVL4a-sig/E7(detox)/HSP70, and a single boost with HPVE6/E7 recombinant vaccinia vaccine (TA-HPV) elicited systemic HPV-specific CD8 T-cell responses that could traffic to the lesion and was associated with regression in some patients (NCT00788164). Here, we examine whether alteration of this vaccination regimen by administration of TA-HPV vaccination in the cervicovaginal tract, rather than intramuscular (IM) delivery, can more effectively recruit antigen-specific T cells in an orthotopic syngeneic mouse model of HPV16(+) cervical cancer (TC-1 luc). We found that pNGVL4a-sig/E7(detox)/HSP70 vaccination followed by cervicovaginal vaccination with TA-HPV increased accumulation of total and E7-specific CD8(+) T cells in the cervicovaginal tract and better controlled E7-expressing cervicovaginal TC-1 luc tumor than IM administration of TA-HPV. Furthermore, the E7-specific CD8(+) T cells in the cervicovaginal tract generated through the cervicovaginal route of vaccination expressed the α4β7 integrin and CCR9, which are necessary for the homing of the E7-specific CD8(+) T cells to the cervicovaginal tract. Finally, we show that cervicovaginal vaccination with TA-HPV can induce potent local HPV-16 E7 antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell immune responses regardless of whether an HPV DNA vaccine priming vaccination was administered IM or within the cervicovaginal tract. Our results support future clinical translation using cervicovaginal TA-HPV vaccination. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Th1 immune response to Plasmodium falciparum recombinant thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) antigen is enhanced by TLR3-specific adjuvant, poly(I:C) in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Mehrizi, A A; Ameri Torzani, M; Zakeri, S; Jafary Zadeh, A; Babaeekhou, L

    2018-07-01

    Sporozoite-based malaria vaccines have provided a gold standard for malaria vaccine development, and thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) serves as the main vaccine candidate antigen on sporozoites. As recombinant malaria vaccine candidate antigens are poorly immunogenic, additional appropriate immunostimulants, such as an efficient adjuvant, are highly essential to modulate Th1-cell predominance and also to induce a protective and long-lived immune response. In this study, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], the ligand of TLR3, was considered as the potential adjuvant for vaccines targeting stronger Th1-based immune responses. For this purpose, BALB/c mice were immunized with rPfTRAP delivered in putative poly(I:C) adjuvant, and humoural and cellular immune responses were determined in different immunized mouse groups. Delivery of rPfTRAP with poly(I:C) induced high levels and titres of persisted and also high-avidity anti-rPfTRAP IgG antibodies comparable to complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)/incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) adjuvant after the second boost. In addition, rPfTRAP formulated with poly(I:C) elicited a higher ratio of IFN-γ/IL-5, IgG2a/IgG1, and IgG2b/IgG1 than with CFA/IFA, indicating that poly(I:C) supports the induction of a stronger Th1-based immune response. This is a first time study which reveals the potential of rPfTRAP delivery in poly(I:C) to increase the level, avidity and durability of both anti-PfTRAP cytophilic antibodies and Th1 cytokines. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Marker-Dependent Recombination in T4 Bacteriophage. IV. Recombinational Effects of Antimutator T4 DNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Shcherbakov, V. P.; Plugina, L. A.; Kudryashova, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    Recombinational effects of the antimutator allele tsL42 of gene 43 of phage T4, encoding DNA polymerase, were studied in crosses between rIIB mutants. Recombination under tsL42-restricted conditions differed from the normal one in several respects: (1) basic recombination was enhanced, especially within very short distances; (2) mismatch repair tracts were shortened, while the contribution of mismatch repair to recombination was not changed; (3) marker interference at very short distances was augmented. We infer that the T4 DNA polymerase is directly involved in mismatch repair, performing both excision of a nonmatched single strand (by its 3' -> 5' exonuclease) and filling the resulting gap. A pathway for the mismatch repair was substantiated; it includes sequential action of endo VII (gp49) -> 3'->5' exonuclease (gp43) -> DNA polymerase (gp43) -> DNA ligase (gp30). It is argued that the marker interference at very short distances may result from the same sequence of events during the final processing of recombinational intermediates. PMID:7635281

  9. Determinants of High Titer in Recombinant Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Ian; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Bartosch, Birke; Stoye, Jonathan P.

    2004-01-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) pose a potential stumbling block for therapeutic xenotransplantation, with the greatest threat coming from viruses generated by recombination between members of the PERV subgroup A (PERV-A) and PERV-C families (PERV-A/C recombinants). PERV-A and PERV-B have been shown to infect human cells in culture, albeit with low titers. PERV-C has a more restricted host range and cannot infect human cells. A recombinant PERV-A/C virus (PERV-A14/220) contains the PERV-A sequence between the end of pol and the middle of the SU region in env. The remaining sequence is derived from PERV-C. PERV-A14/220 is approximately 500-fold more infectious than PERV-A. To determine the molecular basis for the increased infectivity of PERV-A14/220, we have made a series of vector constructs. The primary determinant for the enhanced replicative potential of the recombinant virus appeared to be the env gene. Using a series of chimeric env genes, we could identify two determinants of high infectivity; one was an isoleucine to valine substitution at position 140 between variable regions A and B, and the other lies within the proline rich region. Taken together, these results show that the novel juxtaposition of env gene sequences enhanced the infectivity of PERV-A14/220 for human cells, perhaps by stabilization of the envelope glycoprotein or increased receptor binding. PMID:15564495

  10. Role of Recombinant DNA Technology to Improve Life

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Suliman; Ullah, Muhammad Wajid; Siddique, Rabeea; Nabi, Ghulam; Manan, Sehrish; Yousaf, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    In the past century, the recombinant DNA technology was just an imagination that desirable characteristics can be improved in the living bodies by controlling the expressions of target genes. However, in recent era, this field has demonstrated unique impacts in bringing advancement in human life. By virtue of this technology, crucial proteins required for health problems and dietary purposes can be produced safely, affordably, and sufficiently. This technology has multidisciplinary applications and potential to deal with important aspects of life, for instance, improving health, enhancing food resources, and resistance to divergent adverse environmental effects. Particularly in agriculture, the genetically modified plants have augmented resistance to harmful agents, enhanced product yield, and shown increased adaptability for better survival. Moreover, recombinant pharmaceuticals are now being used confidently and rapidly attaining commercial approvals. Techniques of recombinant DNA technology, gene therapy, and genetic modifications are also widely used for the purpose of bioremediation and treating serious diseases. Due to tremendous advancement and broad range of application in the field of recombinant DNA technology, this review article mainly focuses on its importance and the possible applications in daily life. PMID:28053975

  11. Role of Recombinant DNA Technology to Improve Life.

    PubMed

    Khan, Suliman; Ullah, Muhammad Wajid; Siddique, Rabeea; Nabi, Ghulam; Manan, Sehrish; Yousaf, Muhammad; Hou, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In the past century, the recombinant DNA technology was just an imagination that desirable characteristics can be improved in the living bodies by controlling the expressions of target genes. However, in recent era, this field has demonstrated unique impacts in bringing advancement in human life. By virtue of this technology, crucial proteins required for health problems and dietary purposes can be produced safely, affordably, and sufficiently. This technology has multidisciplinary applications and potential to deal with important aspects of life, for instance, improving health, enhancing food resources, and resistance to divergent adverse environmental effects. Particularly in agriculture, the genetically modified plants have augmented resistance to harmful agents, enhanced product yield, and shown increased adaptability for better survival. Moreover, recombinant pharmaceuticals are now being used confidently and rapidly attaining commercial approvals. Techniques of recombinant DNA technology, gene therapy, and genetic modifications are also widely used for the purpose of bioremediation and treating serious diseases. Due to tremendous advancement and broad range of application in the field of recombinant DNA technology, this review article mainly focuses on its importance and the possible applications in daily life.

  12. Improving recombinant protein purification yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Production of adequate amounts of recombinant proteins is essential for antibody production, biochemical activity study, and structural determination during the post-genomic era. It’s technologically challenging and a limiting factor for tung oil research because analytical reagents such as high qua...

  13. Genetic Confirmation of Mungbean (Vigna radiata) and Mashbean (Vigna mungo) Interspecific Recombinants using Molecular Markers.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ghulam; Hameed, Amjad; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ahsan, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad J; Iqbal, Nayyer

    2015-01-01

    Molecular confirmation of interspecific recombinants is essential to overcome the issues like self-pollination, environmental influence, and inadequacy of morphological characteristics during interspecific hybridization. The present study was conducted for genetic confirmation of mungbean (female) and mashbean (male) interspecific crosses using molecular markers. Initially, polymorphic random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), universal rice primers (URP), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers differentiating parent genotypes were identified. Recombination in hybrids was confirmed using these polymorphic DNA markers. The NM 2006 × Mash 88 was most successful interspecific cross. Most of true recombinants confirmed by molecular markers were from this cross combination. SSR markers were efficient in detecting genetic variability and recombination with reference to specific chromosomes and particular loci. SSR (RIS) and RAPD identified variability dispersed throughout the genome. In conclusion, DNA based marker assisted selection (MAS) efficiently confirmed the interspecific recombinants. The results provided evidence that MAS can enhance the authenticity of selection in mungbean improvement program.

  14. Variation in recombination rate may bias human genetic disease mapping studies.

    PubMed

    Boyle, A Susannah; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2004-11-01

    The availability of the human genome sequence and variability information (as from the International HapMap project) will enhance our ability to map genetic disorders and choose targets for therapeutic intervention. However, several factors, such as regional variation in recombination rate, can bias conclusions from genetic mapping studies. Here, we examine the impact of regional variation in recombination rate across the human genome. Through computer simulations and literature surveys, we conclude that genetic disorders have been mapped to regions of low recombination more often than expected if such diseases were randomly distributed across the genome. This concentration in low recombination regions may be an artifact, and disorders appearing to be caused by a few genes of large effect may be polygenic. Future genetic mapping studies should be conscious of this potential complication by noting the regional recombination rate of regions implicated in diseases.

  15. Oligonucleotide recombination in corynebacteria without the expression of exogenous recombinases.

    PubMed

    Krylov, Alexander A; Kolontaevsky, Egor E; Mashko, Sergey V

    2014-10-01

    Brevibacterium lactofermentum and Corynebacterium glutamicum are important biotechnology species of the genus Corynebacterium. The single-strand DNA annealing protein (SSAP)-independent oligonucleotide-mediated recombination procedure was successfully applied to the commonly used wild-type strains B. lactofermentum AJ1511 and C. glutamicum ATCC13032. When the rpsL gene was used as a target, the optimized protocol yielded up to (1.4±0.3)×10(3) and (6.7±1.3)×10(3) streptomycin-resistant colonies per 10(8) viable cells for the corresponding strains. We tested the influence of several parameters that are known to enhance the efficiency of oligonucleotide-mediated recombination in other bacterial species. Among them, increasing the concentration of oligonucleotides and targeting the lagging strand of the chromosome have proven to have positive effects on both of the tested species. No difference in the efficiency of recombination was observed between the oligonucleotides phosphorothiorated at the 5' ends and the unmodified oligonucleotides or between the oligonucleotides with four mutated nucleotides and those with one mutated nucleotide. The described approach demonstrates that during the adaptation of the recombineering technique, testing SSAP-independent oligonucleotide-mediated recombination could be a good starting point. Such testing could decrease the probability of an incorrect interpretation of the effect of exogenous protein factors (such as SSAP and/or corresponding exonucleases) due to non-optimal experimental conditions. In addition, SSAP-independent recombination itself could be useful in combination with suitable selection/enrichment methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of manipulating recombination rates on response to selection in livestock breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Battagin, Mara; Gorjanc, Gregor; Faux, Anne-Michelle; Johnston, Susan E; Hickey, John M

    2016-06-22

    In this work, we performed simulations to explore the potential of manipulating recombination rates to increase response to selection in livestock breeding programs. We carried out ten replicates of several scenarios that followed a common overall structure but differed in the average rate of recombination along the genome (expressed as the length of a chromosome in Morgan), the genetic architecture of the trait under selection, and the selection intensity under truncation selection (expressed as the proportion of males selected). Recombination rates were defined by simulating nine different chromosome lengths: 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 Morgan, respectively. One Morgan was considered to be the typical chromosome length for current livestock species. The genetic architecture was defined by the number of quantitative trait variants (QTV) that affected the trait under selection. Either a large (10,000) or a small (1000 or 500) number of QTV was simulated. Finally, the proportions of males selected under truncation selection as sires for the next generation were equal to 1.2, 2.4, 5, or 10 %. Increasing recombination rate increased the overall response to selection and decreased the loss of genetic variance. The difference in cumulative response between low and high recombination rates increased over generations. At low recombination rates, cumulative response to selection tended to asymptote sooner and the genetic variance was completely eroded. If the trait under selection was affected by few QTV, differences between low and high recombination rates still existed, but the selection limit was reached at all rates of recombination. Higher recombination rates can enhance the efficiency of breeding programs to turn genetic variation into response to selection. However, to increase response to selection significantly, the recombination rate would need to be increased 10- or 20-fold. The biological feasibility and consequences of such large increases in

  17. The Effects of the Recombinant CCR5 T4 Lysozyme Fusion Protein on HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qingwen; Chen, Hong; Wang, Xingxia; Zhao, Liandong; Xu, Qingchen; Wang, Huijuan; Li, Guanyu; Yang, Xiaofan; Ma, Hongming; Wu, Haoquan; Ji, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    Insertion of T4 lysozyme (T4L) into the GPCR successfully enhanced GPCR protein stability and solubilization. However, the biological functions of the recombinant GPCR protein have not been analyzed. We engineered the CCR5-T4L mutant and expressed and purified the soluble recombinant protein using an E.coli expression system. The antiviral effects of this recombinant protein in THP-1 cell lines, primary human macrophages, and PBMCs from different donors were investigated. We also explored the possible mechanisms underlying the observed antiviral effects. Our data showed the biphasic inhibitory and promotion effects of different concentrations of soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L protein on R5 tropic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection in THP-1 cell lines, human macrophages, and PBMCs from clinical isolates. We demonstrated that soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L acts as a HIV-1 co-receptor, interacts with wild type CCR5, down-regulates the surface CCR5 expression in human macrophages, and interacts with CCL5 to inhibit macrophage migration. Using binding assays, we further determined that recombinant CCR5-T4L and [125I]-CCL5 compete for the same binding site on wild type CCR5. Our results suggest that recombinant CCR5-T4L protein marginally promotes HIV-1 infection at low concentrations and markedly inhibits infection at higher concentrations. This recombinant protein may be helpful in the future development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutic agents.

  18. An att site-based recombination reporter system for genome engineering and synthetic DNA assembly.

    PubMed

    Bland, Michael J; Ducos-Galand, Magaly; Val, Marie-Eve; Mazel, Didier

    2017-07-14

    Direct manipulation of the genome is a widespread technique for genetic studies and synthetic biology applications. The tyrosine and serine site-specific recombination systems of bacteriophages HK022 and ΦC31 are widely used for stable directional exchange and relocation of DNA sequences, making them valuable tools in these contexts. We have developed site-specific recombination tools that allow the direct selection of recombination events by embedding the attB site from each system within the β-lactamase resistance coding sequence (bla). The HK and ΦC31 tools were developed by placing the attB sites from each system into the signal peptide cleavage site coding sequence of bla. All possible open reading frames (ORFs) were inserted and tested for recombination efficiency and bla activity. Efficient recombination was observed for all tested ORFs (3 for HK, 6 for ΦC31) as shown through a cointegrate formation assay. The bla gene with the embedded attB site was functional for eight of the nine constructs tested. The HK/ΦC31 att-bla system offers a simple way to directly select recombination events, thus enhancing the use of site-specific recombination systems for carrying out precise, large-scale DNA manipulation, and adding useful tools to the genetics toolbox. We further show the power and flexibility of bla to be used as a reporter for recombination.

  19. Interchromosomal recombination in Zea mays.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, W; Timmermans, M C; Messing, J

    1998-01-01

    A new allele of the 27-kD zein locus in maize has been generated by interchromosomal recombination between chromosomes of two different inbred lines. A continuous patch of at least 11,817 bp of inbred W64A, containing the previously characterized Ra allele of the 27-kD zein gene, has been inserted into the genome of A188 by a single crossover. While both junction sequences are conserved, sequences of the two homologs between these junctions differ considerably. W64A contains the 7313-bp-long retrotransposon, Zeon-1. A188 contains a second copy of the 27-kD zein gene and a 2-kb repetitive element. Therefore, recombination results in a 7.3-kb insertion and a 14-kb deletion compared to the original S+A188 allele. If nonpairing sequences are looped out, 206 single base changes, frequently clustered, are present. The structure of this allele may explain how a recently discovered example of somatic recombination occurred in an A188/W64A hybrid. This would indicate that despite these sequence differences, pairing between these alleles could occur early during plant development. Therefore, such a somatically derived chimeric chromosome can also be heritable and give rise to new alleles. PMID:9799274

  20. Photocharge accumulation and recombination in perovskite solar cells regarding device performance and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yusheng; Li, Yiming; Shi, Jiangjian; Li, Hongshi; Zhang, Huiyin; Wu, Jionghua; Li, Dongmei; Luo, Yanhong; Wu, Huijue; Meng, Qingbo

    2018-01-01

    Photocharge accumulation and recombination in perovskite solar cells have been systematically investigated in this paper by electrochemical spectroscopy and transient photocurrent/photovoltage methods. It is found that the non-equilibrium photocharges stored in the selective charge transport layers follow a backward recombination mechanism. That is, the photocharges are first captured by the interface defects corresponding to the fast photovoltage decay, while the bulk charge recombination instead of the diffusion process dominates the slow photovoltage decay process. Further investigation reveals that the device degradation preferentially takes place at the interface under working conditions, which thus can confirm the importance of interface engineering to enhance the device stability.

  1. Gene Delivery into Plant Cells for Recombinant Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene delivery into plant cells for large-scale manufacturing of recombinant proteins. General gene delivery methodologies in plants are first summarized, followed by extensive discussion on the application and scalability of each agroinfiltration method. New development of a spray-based agroinfiltration and its application on field-grown plants is highlighted. The discussion of agroinfiltration vectors focuses on their applications for producing complex and heteromultimeric proteins and is updated with the development of bridge vectors. Progress on agroinfiltration in Nicotiana and non-Nicotiana plant hosts is subsequently showcased in context of their applications for producing high-value human biologics and low-cost and high-volume industrial enzymes. These new advancements in agroinfiltration greatly enhance the robustness and scalability of transgene delivery in plants, facilitating the adoption of plant transient expression systems for manufacturing recombinant proteins with a broad range of applications. PMID:26075275

  2. Male recombination in Brazilian populations of Drosophila ananassae.

    PubMed

    Goñi, Beatriz; Matsuda, Muneo; Tobari, Yoshiko N

    2016-07-01

    With few exceptions, spontaneous crossing over does not normally occur in male Drosophila. Drosophila ananassae males show considerable amounts of crossing over. In wild males of D. ananassae from Asian (2008) and Brazilian populations (1986 and 2007) variable frequencies of meiotic crossing over, estimated from chiasmata counts, suggested the existence of factors controlling male crossing over in these populations. To corroborate for such prediction, we present data on spontaneous recombination in F1 males of D. ananassae heterozygous for chromosomes of the same Brazilian populations (1986) and marker chromosomes using three testers stocks. Mean recombination value was low, although high variability existed between individual frequencies. Recombination frequencies between lines in each tester stock were not significantly different, excepting when the 3ple-px and 3ple-cy testers were compared (p < 0.05). These two testers differ in respect to the regional distribution of crossovers. The occurrence of recombination in chromosomes 2 and 3 in F1 males tested with e(65) se; bri ru was not related, suggesting they are under independent genetic control. Our data are consistent with proposed genetic factors controlling male crossing over in the tester stocks and to the presence of enhancers and suppressors of male crossing over segregating in the Brazilian populations (1986).

  3. Fine-Scale Recombination Maps of Fungal Plant Pathogens Reveal Dynamic Recombination Landscapes and Intragenic Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Stukenbrock, Eva H.; Dutheil, Julien Y.

    2018-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is an important driver of evolution. Variability in the intensity of recombination across chromosomes can affect sequence composition, nucleotide variation, and rates of adaptation. In many organisms, recombination events are concentrated within short segments termed recombination hotspots. The variation in recombination rate and positions of recombination hotspot can be studied using population genomics data and statistical methods. In this study, we conducted population genomics analyses to address the evolution of recombination in two closely related fungal plant pathogens: the prominent wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici and a sister species infecting wild grasses Z. ardabiliae. We specifically addressed whether recombination landscapes, including hotspot positions, are conserved in the two recently diverged species and if recombination contributes to rapid evolution of pathogenicity traits. We conducted a detailed simulation analysis to assess the performance of methods of recombination rate estimation based on patterns of linkage disequilibrium, in particular in the context of high nucleotide diversity. Our analyses reveal overall high recombination rates, a lack of suppressed recombination in centromeres, and significantly lower recombination rates on chromosomes that are known to be accessory. The comparison of the recombination landscapes of the two species reveals a strong correlation of recombination rate at the megabase scale, but little correlation at smaller scales. The recombination landscapes in both pathogen species are dominated by frequent recombination hotspots across the genome including coding regions, suggesting a strong impact of recombination on gene evolution. A significant but small fraction of these hotspots colocalize between the two species, suggesting that hotspot dynamics contribute to the overall pattern of fast evolving recombination in these species. PMID:29263029

  4. Fine-Scale Recombination Maps of Fungal Plant Pathogens Reveal Dynamic Recombination Landscapes and Intragenic Hotspots.

    PubMed

    Stukenbrock, Eva H; Dutheil, Julien Y

    2018-03-01

    Meiotic recombination is an important driver of evolution. Variability in the intensity of recombination across chromosomes can affect sequence composition, nucleotide variation, and rates of adaptation. In many organisms, recombination events are concentrated within short segments termed recombination hotspots. The variation in recombination rate and positions of recombination hotspot can be studied using population genomics data and statistical methods. In this study, we conducted population genomics analyses to address the evolution of recombination in two closely related fungal plant pathogens: the prominent wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici and a sister species infecting wild grasses Z. ardabiliae We specifically addressed whether recombination landscapes, including hotspot positions, are conserved in the two recently diverged species and if recombination contributes to rapid evolution of pathogenicity traits. We conducted a detailed simulation analysis to assess the performance of methods of recombination rate estimation based on patterns of linkage disequilibrium, in particular in the context of high nucleotide diversity. Our analyses reveal overall high recombination rates, a lack of suppressed recombination in centromeres, and significantly lower recombination rates on chromosomes that are known to be accessory. The comparison of the recombination landscapes of the two species reveals a strong correlation of recombination rate at the megabase scale, but little correlation at smaller scales. The recombination landscapes in both pathogen species are dominated by frequent recombination hotspots across the genome including coding regions, suggesting a strong impact of recombination on gene evolution. A significant but small fraction of these hotspots colocalize between the two species, suggesting that hotspot dynamics contribute to the overall pattern of fast evolving recombination in these species. Copyright © 2018 Stukenbrock and Dutheil.

  5. Recombination-assisted megaprimer (RAM) cloning

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Jacques; Alvarez, Emilia; Alvarez, Pedro J.J.

    2014-01-01

    No molecular cloning technique is considered universally reliable, and many suffer from being too laborious, complex, or expensive. Restriction-free cloning is among the simplest, most rapid, and cost-effective methods, but does not always provide successful results. We modified this method to enhance its success rate through the use of exponential amplification coupled with homologous end-joining. This new method, recombination-assisted megaprimer (RAM) cloning, significantly extends the application of restriction-free cloning, and allows efficient vector construction with much less time and effort when restriction-free cloning fails to provide satisfactory results. The following modifications were made to the protocol:•Limited number of PCR cycles for both megaprimer synthesis and the cloning reaction to reduce error propagation.•Elimination of phosphorylation and ligation steps previously reported for cloning methods that used exponential amplification, through the inclusion of a reverse primer in the cloning reaction with a 20 base pair region of homology to the forward primer.•The inclusion of 1 M betaine to enhance both reaction specificity and yield. PMID:26150930

  6. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    DOEpatents

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2015-09-29

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  7. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    DOEpatents

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2016-11-29

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  8. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    DOEpatents

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-08-05

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  9. Bacteriophage recombination systems and biotechnical applications.

    PubMed

    Nafissi, Nafiseh; Slavcev, Roderick

    2014-04-01

    Bacteriophage recombination systems have been widely used in biotechnology for modifying prokaryotic species, for creating transgenic animals and plants, and more recently, for human cell gene manipulation. In contrast to homologous recombination, which benefits from the endogenous recombination machinery of the cell, site-specific recombination requires an exogenous source of recombinase in mammalian cells. The mechanism of bacteriophage evolution and their coexistence with bacterial cells has become a point of interest ever since bacterial viruses' life cycles were first explored. Phage recombinases have already been exploited as valuable genetic tools and new phage enzymes, and their potential application to genetic engineering and genome manipulation, vectorology, and generation of new transgene delivery vectors, and cell therapy are attractive areas of research that continue to be investigated. The significance and role of phage recombination systems in biotechnology is reviewed in this paper, with specific focus on homologous and site-specific recombination conferred by the coli phages, λ, and N15, the integrase from the Streptomyces phage, ΦC31, the recombination system of phage P1, and the recently characterized recombination functions of Yersinia phage, PY54. Key steps of the molecular mechanisms involving phage recombination functions and their application to molecular engineering, our novel exploitations of the PY54-derived recombination system, and its application to the development of new DNA vectors are discussed.

  10. Vaccine platform recombinant measles virus.

    PubMed

    Mühlebach, Michael D

    2017-10-01

    The classic development of vaccines is lengthy, tedious, and may not necessarily be successful as demonstrated by the case of HIV. This is especially a problem for emerging pathogens that are newly introduced into the human population and carry the inherent risk of pandemic spread in a naïve population. For such situations, a considerable number of different platform technologies are under development. These are also under development for pathogens, where directly derived vaccines are regarded as too complicated or even dangerous due to the induction of inefficient or unwanted immune responses causing considerable side-effects as for dengue virus. Among platform technologies are plasmid-based DNA vaccines, RNA replicons, single-round infectious vector particles, or replicating vaccine-based vectors encoding (a) critical antigen(s) of the target pathogens. Among the latter, recombinant measles viruses derived from vaccine strains have been tested. Measles vaccines are among the most effective and safest life-attenuated vaccines known. Therefore, the development of Schwarz-, Moraten-, or AIK-C-strain derived recombinant vaccines against a wide range of mostly viral, but also bacterial pathogens was quite straightforward. These vaccines generally induce powerful humoral and cellular immune responses in appropriate animal models, i.e., transgenic mice or non-human primates. Also in the recent first clinical phase I trial, the results have been quite encouraging. The trial indicated the expected safety and efficacy also in human patients, interestingly independent from the level of prevalent anti-measles immunity before the trial. Thereby, recombinant measles vaccines expressing additional antigens are a promising platform for future vaccines.

  11. Detection of biomarkers using recombinant antibodies coupled to nanostructured platforms

    PubMed Central

    Kierny, Michael R.; Cunningham, Thomas D.; Kay, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    The utility of biomarker detection in tomorrow's personalized health care field will mean early and accurate diagnosis of many types of human physiological conditions and diseases. In the search for biomarkers, recombinant affinity reagents can be generated to candidate proteins or post-translational modifications that differ qualitatively or quantitatively between normal and diseased tissues. The use of display technologies, such as phage-display, allows for manageable selection and optimization of affinity reagents for use in biomarker detection. Here we review the use of recombinant antibody fragments, such as scFvs and Fabs, which can be affinity-selected from phage-display libraries, to bind with both high specificity and affinity to biomarkers of cancer, such as Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2) and Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). We discuss how these recombinant antibodies can be fabricated into nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes, nanowires, and quantum dots, for the purpose of enhancing detection of biomarkers at low concentrations (pg/mL) within complex mixtures such as serum or tissue extracts. Other sensing technologies, which take advantage of ‘Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering’ (gold nanoshells), frequency changes in piezoelectric crystals (quartz crystal microbalance), or electrical current generation and sensing during electrochemical reactions (electrochemical detection), can effectively provide multiplexed platforms for detection of cancer and injury biomarkers. Such devices may soon replace the traditional time consuming ELISAs and Western blots, and deliver rapid, point-of-care diagnostics to market. PMID:22833780

  12. Dissociative recombination in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, John H.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    1989-01-01

    Molecular ions play a significant role in the chemistry and evolution of interstellar molecular clouds, even though these regions are overwhelmingly neutral. The dissociative recombination (DR) process governs the abundances of many of these ions and of related neutral species. The gas-phase ion-molecule chemistry of the simplest species is summarized, with emphasis on those problems which are most sensitive to uncertain rates or product branching ratios of DR processes. Examples of the kinds of information needed about DR processes are presented. The importance of the H3(+) ion and prospects for its direct observation are discussed.

  13. Annealing Vs. Invasion in Phage λ Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, M. M.; Thomason, L.; Poteete, A. R.; Tarkowski, T.; Kuzminov, A.; Stahl, F. W.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic recombination catalyzed by λ's Red pathway was studied in rec(+) and recA mutant bacteria by examining both intracellular λ DNA and mature progeny particles. Recombination of nonreplicating phage chromosomes was induced by double-strand breaks delivered at unique sites in vivo. In rec(+) cells, cutting only one chromosome gave nearly maximal stimulation of recombination; the recombinants formed contained relatively short hybrid regions, suggesting strand invasion. In contrast, in recA mutant cells, cutting the two parental chromosomes at non-allelic sites was required for maximal stimulation; the recombinants formed tended to be hybrid over the entire region between the two cuts, implying strand annealing. We conclude that, in the absence of RecA and the presence of non-allelic DNA ends, the Red pathway of λ catalyzes recombination primarily by annealing. PMID:9383045

  14. Recombinant DNA production of spider silk proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tokareva, Olena; Michalczechen-Lacerda, Valquíria A; Rech, Elíbio L; Kaplan, David L

    2013-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is considered to be the toughest biopolymer on Earth due to an extraordinary combination of strength and elasticity. Moreover, silks are biocompatible and biodegradable protein-based materials. Recent advances in genetic engineering make it possible to produce recombinant silks in heterologous hosts, opening up opportunities for large-scale production of recombinant silks for various biomedical and material science applications. We review the current strategies to produce recombinant spider silks. PMID:24119078

  15. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, B.E.

    1998-10-13

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol. 13 figs.

  16. Production of microbial polyester by fermentation of recombinant microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y; Choi, J I

    2001-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) can be produced from renewable sources and are biodegradable with similar material properties and processibility to conventional plastic materials. With recent advances in our understanding of the biochemistry and genetics of PHA biosynthesis and cloning of the PHA biosynthesis genes from a number of different bacteria, many different recombinant bacteria have been developed to improve PHA production for commercial applications. For enhancing PHA synthetic capacity, homologous or heterologous expression of the PHA biosynthetic enzymes has been attempted. Several genes that allow utilization of various substrates were transformed into PHA producers, or non-PHA producers utilizing inexpensive carbon substrate were transformed with the PHA biosynthesis genes. Novel PHAs have been synthesized by introducing a new PHA biosynthesis pathway or a new PHA synthase gene. In this article, recent advances in the production of PHA by recombinant bacteria are described.

  17. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.

    1998-01-01

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol.

  18. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous gene

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.

    2007-03-20

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol.

  19. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.

    2000-08-22

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol.

  20. Microbial factories for recombinant pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Domingo-Espín, Joan; Corchero, José Luis; Vázquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Most of the hosts used to produce the 151 recombinant pharmaceuticals so far approved for human use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and/or by the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) are microbial cells, either bacteria or yeast. This fact indicates that despite the diverse bottlenecks and obstacles that microbial systems pose to the efficient production of functional mammalian proteins, namely lack or unconventional post-translational modifications, proteolytic instability, poor solubility and activation of cell stress responses, among others, they represent convenient and powerful tools for recombinant protein production. The entering into the market of a progressively increasing number of protein drugs produced in non-microbial systems has not impaired the development of products obtained in microbial cells, proving the robustness of the microbial set of cellular systems (so far Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisae) developed for protein drug production. We summarize here the nature, properties and applications of all those pharmaceuticals and the relevant features of the current and potential producing hosts, in a comparative way. PMID:19317892

  1. Dissociative recombination in planetary ionospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Ionization in planetary atmospheres can be produced by solar photoionization, photoelectron impact ionization, and, in auroral regions, by impact of precipitating particles. This ionization is lost mainly in dissociative recombination (DR) of molecular ions. Although atomic ions cannot undergo DR, they can be transformed locally through ion-molecule reactions into molecular ions, or they may be transported vertically or horizontally to regions of the atmosphere where such transformations are possible. Because DR reactions tend to be very exothermic, they can be an important source of kinetically or internally excited fragments. In interplanetary thermospheres, the neutral densities decrease exponentially with altitude. Below the homopause (or turbopause), the atmosphere is assumed to be throughly mixed by convection and/or turbulence. Above the homopause, diffusion is the major transport mechanism, and each species is distributed according to its mass, with the logarithmic derivative of the density with repect to altitude given approximately by -1/H, where H = kT/mg is the scale height. In this expression, T is the neutral temperature, g is the local acceleratiion of gravity, and m is the mass of the species. Thus lighter species become relatively more abundant, and heavier species less abundant, as the altitude increases. This variation of the neutral composition can lead to changes in the ion composition; furthermore, as the neutral densities decrease, dissociative recombination becomes more important relative to ion-neutral reactions as a loss mechanism for molecular ions.

  2. Monitoring Recombination During Meiosis in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Owens, Shannon; Tang, Shangming; Hunter, Neil

    2018-01-01

    Homologous recombination is fundamental to sexual reproduction, facilitating accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes at the first division of meiosis, and creating novel allele combinations that fuel evolution. Following initiation of meiotic recombination by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), homologous pairing and DNA strand exchange form joint molecule (JM) intermediates that are ultimately resolved into crossover and noncrossover repair products. Physical monitoring of the DNA steps of meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) cultures undergoing synchronous meiosis has provided seminal insights into the molecular basis of meiotic recombination and affords a powerful tool for dissecting the molecular roles of recombination factors. This chapter describes a suit of electrophoretic and Southern hybridization techniques used to detect and quantify the DNA intermediates of meiotic recombination at recombination hotspots in budding yeast. DSBs and recombination products (crossovers and noncrossovers) are resolved using one-dimensional electrophoresis and distinguished by restriction site polymorphisms between the parental chromosomes. Psoralen cross-linking is used to stabilize branched JMs, which are resolved from linear species by native/native two-dimensional electrophoresis. Native/denaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis is employed to determine the component DNA strands of JMs and to measure the processing of DSBs. These techniques are generally applicable to any locus where the frequency of recombination is high enough to detect intermediates by Southern hybridization. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Oral Administration of Recombinant Lactococcus lactis Expressing the Cellulase Gene Increases Digestibility of Fiber in Geese.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haizhu; Gao, Yunhang; Gao, Guang; Lou, Yujie

    2015-12-01

    Enhancing cellulose digestibility in animals is important for improving the utilization of forage, which can decrease the amount of food used in animal production. The aim of the present study was to achieve recombinant expression of the cellulase gene in Lactococcus lactis and evaluate the effects of oral administration of the recombinant L. lactis on fiber digestibility in geese. Cellulase (Cell) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes were cloned into a L. lactis expression vector (pNZ8149) to construct the recombinant expression plasmid (pNZ8149-GFP-Cell). Then, the recombinant expression plasmid was transformed into L. lactis (NZ3900) competent cells by electroporation to obtain recombinant L. lactis (pNZ8149-GFP-Cell/NZ3900) in which protein expression was induced by Nisin. Expression of GFP and Cell by the recombinant L. lactis was confirmed using SDS-PAGE, fluorescence detection, and Congo red assays. A feeding experiment showed that oral administration of pNZ8149-GFP-Cell/NZ3900 significantly increased the digestibility of dietary fiber in geese fed either a maize stalk diet or a rice chaff diet. Therefore, oral administration of recombinant L. lactis cells expressing the cellulase gene increases fiber digestibility in geese, offering a way to increase the utilization of dietary fiber in geese.

  4. Better understanding of homologous recombination through a 12-week laboratory course for undergraduates majoring in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Shen, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yan; Hu, Xiaomei; Hu, Fuquan; Rao, Xiancai

    2017-07-08

    Homologous recombination, a central concept in biology, is defined as the exchange of DNA strands between two similar or identical nucleotide sequences. Unfortunately, undergraduate students majoring in biotechnology often experience difficulties in understanding the molecular basis of homologous recombination. In this study, we developed and implemented a 12-week laboratory course for biotechnology undergraduates in which gene targeting in Streptococcus suis was used to facilitate their understanding of the basic concept and process of homologous recombination. Students worked in teams of two to select a gene of interest to create a knockout mutant using methods that relied on homologous recombination. By integrating abstract knowledge and practice in the process of scientific research, students gained hands-on experience in molecular biology techniques while learning about the principle and process of homologous recombination. The learning outcomes and survey-based assessment demonstrated that students substantially enhanced their understanding of how homologous recombination could be used to study gene function. Overall, the course was very effective for helping biotechnology undergraduates learn the theory and application of homologous recombination, while also yielding positive effects in developing confidence and scientific skills for future work in research. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):329-335, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. The generation of O(1S) from the dissociative recombination of O2(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.; Giusti-Suzor, Annick

    1991-01-01

    The multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT) method and large scale wave functions are applied to the calculation of the cross sections and rates for dissociative recombination of O2(+) along the 1Sigma-u(+) dissociative potential. Indirect dissociative recombination is accounted for by simultaneously including both the vibronic and electronic coupling to the intermediate Rydberg resonances. An enhanced MQDT approach involving a second-order K matrix is described. Cross sections and rates for the lowest three vibrational levels of the ion are reported. The shapes of the cross sections are discussed in terms of Fano's profile index. It is found that, for each of the three ion vibrational levels, the intermediate Rydberg resonances reduce the dissociative recombination rate below the direct recombination rate. Just above threshold, resonances with centers below threshold play an important role.

  6. Recombinant proteins and peptides as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for arthropod allergies.

    PubMed

    Ramos, John Donnie A; Valmonte, Gardette R; de Guia, Roldan M

    2007-01-01

    Domestic arthropods are chief sources of potent allergens that trigger sensitization and stimulate IgE-mediated allergies. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of arthropod allergies rely on the use of natural allergen extracts which are associated with low specificity and efficacy, the risk of anaphylactic reactions, and the extended period of treatment. Most of the problems associated with natural allergen extracts for allergy diagnosis and immunotherapy can be circumvented with the use of recombinant allergens and peptides. Recombinant allergens are recently developed for microarray-based multi-allergen tests which provide component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) of the patient's sensitization profile. Moreover, recombinant protein technology and peptide chemistry have been used to construct isoallergens, allergen mutants, allergoids, T and B cell peptides, hypoallergens, and mimotopes with reduced allergenicity but enhanced immunogenicity for allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) and vaccination. The basics of recombinant arthropod allergen technology are in place providing a lucid future for the advancement of diagnosis and immunotherapy of arthropod allergies.

  7. A Protein Chimera Strategy Supports Production of a Model "Difficult-to-Express" Recombinant Target.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Hirra; Fisher, David I; Roth, Robert G; Abbott, W Mark; Carballo-Amador, Manuel Alejandro; Warwicker, Jim; Dickson, Alan J

    2018-06-22

    Due in part to the needs of the biopharmaceutical industry, there has been an increased drive to generate high quality recombinant proteins in large amounts. However, achieving high yields can be a challenge as the novelty and increased complexity of new targets often makes them 'difficult-to-express'. This study aimed to define the molecular features that restrict the production of a model 'difficult-to-express' recombinant protein, Tissue Inhibitor Metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3). Building from experimental data, computational approaches were used to rationalise the re-design of this recombinant target to generate a chimera with enhanced secretion. The results highlight the importance of early identification of unfavourable sequence attributes, enabling the generation of engineered protein forms that bypass 'secretory' bottlenecks and result in efficient recombinant protein production. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Recombining without Hotspots: A Comprehensive Evolutionary Portrait of Recombination in Two Closely Related Species of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Smukowski Heil, Caiti S; Ellison, Chris; Dubin, Matthew; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2015-10-01

    Meiotic recombination rate varies across the genome within and between individuals, populations, and species in virtually all taxa studied. In almost every species, this variation takes the form of discrete recombination hotspots, determined in some mammals by a protein called PRDM9. Hotspots and their determinants have a profound effect on the genomic landscape, and share certain features that extend across the tree of life. Drosophila, in contrast, are anomalous in their absence of hotspots, PRDM9, and other species-specific differences in the determination of recombination. To better understand the evolution of meiosis and general patterns of recombination across diverse taxa, we present a truly comprehensive portrait of recombination across time, combining recently published cross-based contemporary recombination estimates from each of two sister species with newly obtained linkage-disequilibrium-based historic estimates of recombination from both of these species. Using Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila miranda as a model system, we compare recombination rate between species at multiple scales, and we suggest that Drosophila replicate the pattern seen in human-chimpanzee in which recombination rate is conserved at broad scales. We also find evidence of a species-wide recombination modifier(s), resulting in both a present and historic genome-wide elevation of recombination rates in D. miranda, and identify broad scale effects on recombination from the presence of an inversion. Finally, we reveal an unprecedented view of the distribution of recombination in D. pseudoobscura, illustrating patterns of linked selection and where recombination is taking place. Overall, by combining these estimation approaches, we highlight key similarities and differences in recombination between Drosophila and other organisms. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Recombining without Hotspots: A Comprehensive Evolutionary Portrait of Recombination in Two Closely Related Species of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Smukowski Heil, Caiti S.; Ellison, Chris; Dubin, Matthew; Noor, Mohamed A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination rate varies across the genome within and between individuals, populations, and species in virtually all taxa studied. In almost every species, this variation takes the form of discrete recombination hotspots, determined in some mammals by a protein called PRDM9. Hotspots and their determinants have a profound effect on the genomic landscape, and share certain features that extend across the tree of life. Drosophila, in contrast, are anomalous in their absence of hotspots, PRDM9, and other species-specific differences in the determination of recombination. To better understand the evolution of meiosis and general patterns of recombination across diverse taxa, we present a truly comprehensive portrait of recombination across time, combining recently published cross-based contemporary recombination estimates from each of two sister species with newly obtained linkage-disequilibrium-based historic estimates of recombination from both of these species. Using Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila miranda as a model system, we compare recombination rate between species at multiple scales, and we suggest that Drosophila replicate the pattern seen in human–chimpanzee in which recombination rate is conserved at broad scales. We also find evidence of a species-wide recombination modifier(s), resulting in both a present and historic genome-wide elevation of recombination rates in D. miranda, and identify broad scale effects on recombination from the presence of an inversion. Finally, we reveal an unprecedented view of the distribution of recombination in D. pseudoobscura, illustrating patterns of linked selection and where recombination is taking place. Overall, by combining these estimation approaches, we highlight key similarities and differences in recombination between Drosophila and other organisms. PMID:26430062

  10. On the conservative nature of intragenic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, D. Allan; Silberg, Jonathan J.; Meyer, Michelle M.; Wilke, Claus O.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2005-01-01

    Intragenic recombination rapidly creates protein sequence diversity compared with random mutation, but little is known about the relative effects of recombination and mutation on protein function. Here, we compare recombination of the distantly related β-lactamases PSE-4 and TEM-1 to mutation of PSE-4. We show that, among β-lactamase variants containing the same number of amino acid substitutions, variants created by recombination retain function with a significantly higher probability than those generated by random mutagenesis. We present a simple model that accurately captures the differing effects of mutation and recombination in real and simulated proteins with only four parameters: (i) the amino acid sequence distance between parents, (ii) the number of substitutions, (iii) the average probability that random substitutions will preserve function, and (iv) the average probability that substitutions generated by recombination will preserve function. Our results expose a fundamental functional enrichment in regions of protein sequence space accessible by recombination and provide a framework for evaluating whether the relative rates of mutation and recombination observed in nature reflect the underlying imbalance in their effects on protein function. PMID:15809422

  11. On the conservative nature of intragenic recombination.

    PubMed

    Drummond, D Allan; Silberg, Jonathan J; Meyer, Michelle M; Wilke, Claus O; Arnold, Frances H

    2005-04-12

    Intragenic recombination rapidly creates protein sequence diversity compared with random mutation, but little is known about the relative effects of recombination and mutation on protein function. Here, we compare recombination of the distantly related beta-lactamases PSE-4 and TEM-1 to mutation of PSE-4. We show that, among beta-lactamase variants containing the same number of amino acid substitutions, variants created by recombination retain function with a significantly higher probability than those generated by random mutagenesis. We present a simple model that accurately captures the differing effects of mutation and recombination in real and simulated proteins with only four parameters: (i) the amino acid sequence distance between parents, (ii) the number of substitutions, (iii) the average probability that random substitutions will preserve function, and (iv) the average probability that substitutions generated by recombination will preserve function. Our results expose a fundamental functional enrichment in regions of protein sequence space accessible by recombination and provide a framework for evaluating whether the relative rates of mutation and recombination observed in nature reflect the underlying imbalance in their effects on protein function.

  12. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

    1985-09-01

    The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

  13. Radiofrequency recombination lines from the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.

    1971-01-01

    Observations of recombination lines form normal H II regions, extended H II regions, nonthermal sources, and the H I medium are discussed. Detection of recombination lines from elements other than hydrogen may provide a means of identifying fossil Stromgren spheres at high temperature.

  14. RNAi and heterochromatin repress centromeric meiotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Ellermeier, Chad; Higuchi, Emily C.; Phadnis, Naina; Holm, Laerke; Geelhood, Jennifer L.; Thon, Genevieve; Smith, Gerald R.

    2010-01-01

    During meiosis, the formation of viable haploid gametes from diploid precursors requires that each homologous chromosome pair be properly segregated to produce an exact haploid set of chromosomes. Genetic recombination, which provides a physical connection between homologous chromosomes, is essential in most species for proper homologue segregation. Nevertheless, recombination is repressed specifically in and around the centromeres of chromosomes, apparently because rare centromeric (or pericentromeric) recombination events, when they do occur, can disrupt proper segregation and lead to genetic disabilities, including birth defects. The basis by which centromeric meiotic recombination is repressed has been largely unknown. We report here that, in fission yeast, RNAi functions and Clr4-Rik1 (histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase) are required for repression of centromeric recombination. Surprisingly, one mutant derepressed for recombination in the heterochromatic mating-type region during meiosis and several mutants derepressed for centromeric gene expression during mitotic growth are not derepressed for centromeric recombination during meiosis. These results reveal a complex relation between types of repression by heterochromatin. Our results also reveal a previously undemonstrated role for RNAi and heterochromatin in the repression of meiotic centromeric recombination and, potentially, in the prevention of birth defects by maintenance of proper chromosome segregation during meiosis. PMID:20421495

  15. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, John; Piddington, Chris S.; Kovacevich, Brian R.; Young, Kevin D.; Denome, Sylvia A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous.

  16. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, J.; Piddington, C.S.; Kovacevich, B.R.; Young, K.D.; Denome, S.A.

    1994-10-18

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous. 13 figs.

  17. Heterologous mitochondrial DNA recombination in human cells.

    PubMed

    D'Aurelio, Marilena; Gajewski, Carl D; Lin, Michael T; Mauck, William M; Shao, Leon Z; Lenaz, Giorgio; Moraes, Carlos T; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2004-12-15

    Inter-molecular heterologous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) recombination is known to occur in yeast and plants. Nevertheless, its occurrence in human cells is still controversial. To address this issue we have fused two human cytoplasmic hybrid cell lines, each containing a distinct pathogenic mtDNA mutation and specific sets of genetic markers. In this hybrid model, we found direct evidence of recombination between these two mtDNA haplotypes. Recombinant mtDNA molecules in the hybrid cells were identified using three independent experimental approaches. First, recombinant molecules containing genetic markers from both parental alleles were demonstrated with restriction fragment length polymorphism of polymerase chain reaction products, by measuring the relative frequencies of each marker. Second, fragments of recombinant mtDNA were cloned and sequenced to identify the regions involved in the recombination events. Finally, recombinant molecules were demonstrated directly by Southern blot using appropriate combinations of polymorphic restriction sites and probes. This combined approach confirmed the existence of heterogeneous species of recombinant mtDNA molecules in the hybrid cells. These findings have important implications for mtDNA-related diseases, the interpretation of human evolution and population genetics and forensic analyses based on mtDNA genotyping.

  18. Recombination rate plasticity: revealing mechanisms by design

    PubMed Central

    Sefick, Stephen; Rushton, Chase

    2017-01-01

    For over a century, scientists have known that meiotic recombination rates can vary considerably among individuals, and that environmental conditions can modify recombination rates relative to the background. A variety of external and intrinsic factors such as temperature, age, sex and starvation can elicit ‘plastic’ responses in recombination rate. The influence of recombination rate plasticity on genetic diversity of the next generation has interesting and important implications for how populations evolve. Further, many questions remain regarding the mechanisms and molecular processes that contribute to recombination rate plasticity. Here, we review 100 years of experimental work on recombination rate plasticity conducted in Drosophila melanogaster. We categorize this work into four major classes of experimental designs, which we describe via classic studies in D. melanogaster. Based on these studies, we highlight molecular mechanisms that are supported by experimental results and relate these findings to studies in other systems. We synthesize lessons learned from this model system into experimental guidelines for using recent advances in genotyping technologies, to study recombination rate plasticity in non-model organisms. Specifically, we recommend (1) using fine-scale genome-wide markers, (2) collecting time-course data, (3) including crossover distribution measurements, and (4) using mixed effects models to analyse results. To illustrate this approach, we present an application adhering to these guidelines from empirical work we conducted in Drosophila pseudoobscura. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolutionary causes and consequences of recombination rate variation in sexual organisms’. PMID:29109222

  19. Enhancing the Immune Response to Recombinant Plague Antigens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    protection against rotavirus infection of mice stimulated by intranasal immunization with chimeric VP4 or VP6 protein. J Virol 1999;73(9):7574–81. [13] Choi...AH, Basu M, McNeal MM, Flint J, VanCott JL, Clements JD, et al. Functional mapping of protective domains and epitopes in the rotavirus VP6 protein. J...McNeal MM, Rae MN, Bean JA, Ward RL. Antibody-dependent and -independent protection following intranasal immunization of mice with rotavirus particles. J

  20. Enhancing the Immune Response to Recombinant Plague Antigens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Wakelin. 2003. Effect of priming/booster immunisation protocols on immune response to canine parvovirus peptide induced by vaccination with a chimaeric...onset, the high mortality, and the rapid spread of the disease. Immunization against aerosolized plague presents a particular challenge for vaccine ...homologous boosting at increasing the magnitude and/or duration of the antibody response. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Biological warfare, vaccine , adjuvant

  1. Evolution of recombination in a constant environment

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Marcus W.; Christiansen, Freddy B.; Brooks, Lisa D.

    1980-01-01

    The theory of evolution at a selectively neutral locus that controls the recombination between two major loci that are under selection is studied. If the major loci are at a stable equilibrium in linkage disequilibrium under selection and recombination, then a mutation at the modifier locus will increase in frequency when rare if and only if it decreases the recombination fraction. If the major loci are in disequilibrium at a balance between selection against deleterious alleles and mutation towards them, then two new phenomena are observed. First, a recombination increasing mutation will succeed if the disequilibrium is negative and the modifier is sufficiently tightly linked to the major loci. Second, depending on the strength of selection, even if the disequilibrium is negative, recombination reduction may occur for looser linkage between the major and modifier loci. PMID:16592864

  2. Recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone: new biotechnology for infertility.

    PubMed

    Prevost, R R

    1998-01-01

    The frequency of infertility in developed countries is approximately 8-10%. New drugs are available for assisted reproduction techniques. Two recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) products, follitropin-beta (Follistim in the United States, Puregon in Europe) and follitropin-alpha (Gonal-F), join compounds derived through transfecting nonhuman cell lines with genetic material capable of replicating identical amino acid sequences to human compounds. The cell line used for recombinant (r)-FSH production is the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO). Previously, the only agents that showed benefit in controlled ovulatory stimulation were derived from the urine of menopausal women. Those compounds contain additional substances, such as urinary proteins and various amounts of luteininzing hormone. The amino acid sequence of r-FSH is identical to that of human FSH, but the two recombinant products exist in many different isoforms and differ from each other and from human FSH due to varied carbohydrate side chains. Due to variation in the carbohydrate side chains, follitropin-beta in solution has a higher pH than urine-derived FSH, which enhances receptor affinity and therefore is a greater inducer of folliculogenesis. Follitropin-beta does not cause endogenous production of anti-CHO or anti-FSH antibodies, and is well tolerated.

  3. Site-specific genetic recombination: hops, flips, and flops.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, P D

    1993-06-01

    Genetic recombination plays a key role in the life of organisms as diverse as bacteriophages and humans. Contrary to our idea that chromosomes are stable structures, studies of recombination over the past few decades have shown that in fact DNA replicons are remarkably plastic, undergoing frequent recombination-induced rearrangements. This review summarizes our recent knowledge of the biochemistry of the two major classes of site-specific recombination: 1) transpositional recombination, and 2) conservative site-specific recombination.

  4. The Effects of Rm-CSF and Ril-6 Therapy on Immunosuppressed Antiorthostatically Suspended Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstong, Jason W.; Kirby-Dobbels, Kathy; Chapes, Steven K.

    1995-01-01

    Antiorthostatically suspended mice had suppressed macrophage development in both unloaded and loaded bones, indicating a systemic effect. Bone marrow cells from those mice secreted less macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) than did control mice. Because M-CSF and IL-6 are important to bone marrow macrophage maturation, we formulated the hypothesis that suppressed macrophage development occurred as a result of the depressed levels of either M-CSF or IL-6. To test the hypothesis, mice were administered recombinant M-CSF or IL-6 intraperitoneally. We showed that recombinant M-CSF therapy, but not recombinant IL-6 therapy, reversed the suppressive effects of orthostatic suspension on macrophage development. These data suggest that bone marrow cells that produce M-CSF are affected by antiorthostatic suspension and may contribute to the inhibited maturation of bone marrow macrophage progenitors.

  5. Recombinant raccoon pox vaccine protects mice against lethal plague

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osorio, J.E.; Powell, T.D.; Frank, R.S.; Moss, K.; Haanes, E.J.; Smith, S.R.; Rocke, T.E.; Stinchcomb, D.T.

    2003-01-01

    Using a raccoon poxvirus (RCN) expression system, we have developed new recombinant vaccines that can protect mice against lethal plague infection. We tested the effects of a translation enhancer (EMCV-IRES) in combination with a secretory (tPA) signal or secretory (tPA) and membrane anchoring (CHV-gG) signals on in vitro antigen expression of F1 antigen in tissue culture and the induction of antibody responses and protection against Yersinia pestis challenge in mice. The RCN vector successfully expressed the F1 protein of Y. pestis in vitro. In addition, the level of expression was increased by the insertion of the EMCV-IRES and combinations of this and the secretory signal or secretory and anchoring signals. These recombinant viruses generated protective immune responses that resulted in survival of 80% of vaccinated mice upon challenge with Y. pestis. Of the RCN-based vaccines we tested, the RCN-IRES-tPA-YpF1 recombinant construct was the most efficacious. Mice vaccinated with this construct withstood challenge with as many as 1.5 million colony forming units of Y. pestis (7.7×104 LD50). Interestingly, vaccination with F1 fused to the anchoring signal (RCN-IRES-tPA-YpF1-gG) elicited significant anti-F1 antibody titers, but failed to protect mice from plague challenge. Our studies demonstrate, in vitro and in vivo, the potential importance of the EMCV-IRES and secretory signals in vaccine design. These molecular tools provide a new approach for improving the efficacy of vaccines. In addition, these novel recombinant vaccines could have human, veterinary, and wildlife applications in the prevention of plague.

  6. Improved expression of recombinant plant-made hEGF.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David Rhys; Walmsley, Amanda Maree

    2014-11-01

    The yield of recombinant hEGF was increased approximately tenfold through a range of optimisations. Further, the recombinant protein was found to have biological activity comparable to commercial hEGF. Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) is a powerful mitogen that can enhance the healing of a wide range of injuries, including burns, cuts, diabetic ulcers and gastric ulcers. However, despite its clinical value, hEGF is only consistently used for the treatment of chronic diabetic ulcers due to its high cost. In this study, hEGF was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and targeted to the apoplast, ER and vacuole. Several other approaches were also included in a stepwise fashion to identify the optimal conditions for the expression of recombinant hEGF. Expression was found to be highest in the vacuole, while targeting hEGF to the ER caused a decrease in total soluble protein (TSP). Using a codon optimised sequence was found to increase vacuolar targeted hEGF yield by ~34 %, while it was unable to increase the yield of ER targeted hEGF. The use of the P19 silencing inhibitor was able to further increase expression by over threefold, and using 5-week-old plants significantly increased expression compared to 4- or 6-week-old-plants. The combined effect of these optimisations increased expression tenfold over the initial apoplast targeted construct to an average yield of 6.24 % of TSP. The plant-made hEGF was then shown to be equivalent to commercial E. coli derived hEGF in its ability to promote the proliferation of mouse keratinocytes. This study supports the potential for plants to be used for the commercial production of hEGF, and identifies a potential limitation for the further improvement of recombinant protein yields.

  7. Induction of homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Simon, J R; Moore, P D

    1988-09-01

    We have investigated the effects of UV irradiation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to distinguish whether UV-induced recombination results from the induction of enzymes required for homologous recombination, or the production of substrate sites for recombination containing regions of DNA damage. We utilized split-dose experiments to investigate the induction of proteins required for survival, gene conversion, and mutation in a diploid strain of S. cerevisiae. We demonstrate that inducing doses of UV irradiation followed by a 6 h period of incubation render the cells resistant to challenge doses of UV irradiation. The effects of inducing and challenge doses of UV irradiation upon interchromosomal gene conversion and mutation are strictly additive. Using the yeast URA3 gene cloned in non-replicating single- and double-stranded plasmid vectors that integrate into chromosomal genes upon transformation, we show that UV irradiation of haploid yeast cells and homologous plasmid DNA sequences each stimulate homologous recombination approximately two-fold, and that these effects are additive. Non-specific DNA damage has little effect on the stimulation of homologous recombination, as shown by studies in which UV-irradiated heterologous DNA was included in transformation/recombination experiments. We further demonstrate that the effect of competing single- and double-stranded heterologous DNA sequences differs in UV-irradiated and unirradiated cells, suggesting an induction of recombinational machinery in UV-irradiated S. cerevisiae cells.

  8. Recombinant DNA production of spider silk proteins.

    PubMed

    Tokareva, Olena; Michalczechen-Lacerda, Valquíria A; Rech, Elíbio L; Kaplan, David L

    2013-11-01

    Spider dragline silk is considered to be the toughest biopolymer on Earth due to an extraordinary combination of strength and elasticity. Moreover, silks are biocompatible and biodegradable protein-based materials. Recent advances in genetic engineering make it possible to produce recombinant silks in heterologous hosts, opening up opportunities for large-scale production of recombinant silks for various biomedical and material science applications. We review the current strategies to produce recombinant spider silks. © 2013 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Spacecraft thermal energy accommodation from atomic recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carleton, Karen L.; Marinelli, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of atomic recombination probabilities important in determining energy release to reusable spacecraft thermal protection surfaces during reentry are presented. An experimental apparatus constructed to examine recombination of atomic oxygen from thermal protection and reference materials at reentry temperatures is described. The materials are examined under ultrahigh vacuum conditions to develop and maintain well characterized surface conditions that are free of contamination. When compared with stagnation point heat transfer measurements performed in arc jet facilities, these measurements indicate that a significant fraction of the excess energy available from atom recombination is removed from the surface as metastable O2.

  10. DSMC modeling of flows with recombination reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimelshein, Sergey; Wysong, Ingrid

    2017-06-01

    An empirical microscopic recombination model is developed for the direct simulation Monte Carlo method that complements the extended weak vibrational bias model of dissociation. The model maintains the correct equilibrium reaction constant in a wide range of temperatures by using the collision theory to enforce the number of recombination events. It also strictly follows the detailed balance requirement for equilibrium gas. The model and its implementation are verified with oxygen and nitrogen heat bath relaxation and compared with available experimental data on atomic oxygen recombination in argon and molecular nitrogen.

  11. Dissociative Recombination without a Curve Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1994-01-01

    Ab initio calculations show that a curve crossing is not always needed for a high dissociative- recombination cross section. For HeH(+), in which no neutral states cross the ion potential curve, dissociative recombination is driven by the nuclear kinetic-energy operator on adiabatic potential curves. The kinetic-energy derivative operator allows for capture into repulsive curves that are outside of the classical turning points for the nuclear motion. The dominant dissociative route is the C (2)Sigma(+) state leading to H(n = 2) atoms. An analogous mechanism is proposed for the dissociative recombination of H3(+).

  12. Recombinant protein production and streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    Anné, Jozef; Maldonado, Bárbara; Van Impe, Jan; Van Mellaert, Lieve; Bernaerts, Kristel

    2012-04-30

    The biopharmaceutical market has come a long way since 1982, when the first biopharmaceutical product, recombinant human insulin, was launched. Just over 200 biopharma products have already gained approval. The global market for biopharmaceuticals which is currently valued at over US$99 billion has been growing at an impressive compound annual growth rate over the previous years. To produce these biopharmaceuticals and other industrially important heterologous proteins, different prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems are used. All expression systems have some advantages as well as some disadvantages that should be considered in selecting which one to use. Choosing the best one requires evaluating the options--from yield to glycosylation, to proper folding, to economics of scale-up. No host cell from which all the proteins can be universally expressed in large quantities has been found so far. Therefore, it is important to provide a variety of host-vector expression systems in order to increase the opportunities to screen for the most suitable expression conditions or host cell. In this overview, we focus on Streptomyces lividans, a Gram-positive bacterium with a proven excellence in secretion capacity, as host for heterologous protein production. We will discuss its advantages and disadvantages, and how with systems biology approaches strains can be developed to better producing cell factories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An inducible expression system for high-level expression of recombinant proteins in slow growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Leotta, Lisa; Spratt, Joanne M; Kong, Carlyn U; Triccas, James A

    2015-09-01

    A novel protein expression vector utilising the inducible hspX promoter of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was constructed and evaluated in this study. High-level induction of three mycobacterial antigens, comprising up to 9% of bacterial sonicate, was demonstrated in recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG when grown under low-oxygen tension, which serves to enhance hspX promoter activity. Recombinant proteins were efficiently purified from bacterial lysates in a soluble form by virtue of a C-terminal 6-histidine tag. Purification of the immunodominant M. tuberculosis Ag85B antigen using this system resulted in a recombinant protein that stimulated significant IFN-γ release from Ag85B-reactive T cells generated after vaccination of mice with an Ag85B-expressing vaccine. Further, the M. tuberculosis L-alanine dehydrogenase (Ald) protein purified from recombinant BCG displayed strong enzymatic activity in recombinant form. This study demonstrated that high levels of native-like recombinant mycobacterial proteins can be produced in mycobacterial hosts, and this may aid the analysis of mycobacterial protein function and the development of new treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Novel Hybrid Clonal Selection Algorithm with Combinatorial Recombination and Modified Hypermutation Operators for Global Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jingjing; Jing, Honglei

    2016-01-01

    Artificial immune system is one of the most recently introduced intelligence methods which was inspired by biological immune system. Most immune system inspired algorithms are based on the clonal selection principle, known as clonal selection algorithms (CSAs). When coping with complex optimization problems with the characteristics of multimodality, high dimension, rotation, and composition, the traditional CSAs often suffer from the premature convergence and unsatisfied accuracy. To address these concerning issues, a recombination operator inspired by the biological combinatorial recombination is proposed at first. The recombination operator could generate the promising candidate solution to enhance search ability of the CSA by fusing the information from random chosen parents. Furthermore, a modified hypermutation operator is introduced to construct more promising and efficient candidate solutions. A set of 16 common used benchmark functions are adopted to test the effectiveness and efficiency of the recombination and hypermutation operators. The comparisons with classic CSA, CSA with recombination operator (RCSA), and CSA with recombination and modified hypermutation operator (RHCSA) demonstrate that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the performance of classic CSA. Moreover, comparison with the state-of-the-art algorithms shows that the proposed algorithm is quite competitive. PMID:27698662

  15. Exploring optimization parameters to increase ssDNA recombineering in Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus reuteri

    PubMed Central

    van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; Neoh, Kar Mun; Sirias, Denise; Findley, Anthony S.; Britton, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a technology which is used to make subtle changes in the chromosome of several bacterial genera. Cells which express a single-stranded DNA binding protein (RecT or Bet) are transformed with an oligonucleotide which is incorporated via an annealing and replication-dependent mechanism. By in silico analysis we identified ssDNA binding protein homologs in the genus Lactobacillus and Lactococcus lactis. To assess whether we could further improve the recombineering efficiency in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 we expressed several RecT homologs in this strain. RecT derived from Enterococcus faecalis CRMEN 19 yielded comparable efficiencies compared with a native RecT protein, but none of the other proteins further increased the recombineering efficiency. We successfully improved recombineering efficiency 10-fold in L. lactis by increasing oligonucleotide concentration combined with the use of oligonucleotides containing phosphorothioate-linkages (PTOs). Surprisingly, neither increased oligonucleotide concentration nor PTO linkages enhanced recombineering in L. reuteri 6475. To emphasize the utility of this technology in improving probiotic features we modified six bases in a transcriptional regulatory element region of the pdu-operon of L. reuteri 6475, yielding a 3-fold increase in the production of the antimicrobial compound reuterin. Directed genetic modification of lactic acid bacteria through ssDNA recombineering will simplify strain improvement in a way that, when mutating a single base, is genetically indistinguishable from strains obtained through directed evolution. PMID:22750793

  16. Recombinant production and film properties of full-length hornet silk proteins.

    PubMed

    Kambe, Yusuke; Sutherland, Tara D; Kameda, Tsunenori

    2014-08-01

    Full-length versions of the four main components of silk cocoons of Vespa simillima hornets, Vssilk1-4, were produced as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. In shake flasks, the recombinant Vssilk proteins yielded 160-330mg recombinant proteinl(-1). Films generated from solutions of single Vssilk proteins had a secondary structure similar to that of films generated from native hornet silk. The films made from individual recombinant hornet silk proteins had similar or enhanced mechanical performance compared with films generated from native hornet silk, possibly reflecting the homogeneity of the recombinant proteins. The pH-dependent changes in zeta (ζ) potential of each Vssilk film were measured, and isoelectric points (pI) of Vssilk1-4 were determined as 8.9, 9.1, 5.0 and 4.2, respectively. The pI of native hornet silk, a combination of the four Vssilk proteins, was 4.7, a value similar to that of Bombyx mori silkworm silk. Films generated from Vssilk1 and 2 had net positive charge under physiological conditions and showed significantly higher cell adhesion activity. It is proposed that recombinant hornet silk is a valuable new material with potential for cell culture applications. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Recombinant IκBα-loaded curcumin nanoparticles for improved cancer therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Subhamoy; Sahoo, Amaresh Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Arun; Sankar Ghosh, Siddhartha

    2014-08-01

    The field of recombinant protein therapeutics has been evolving rapidly, making significant impact on clinical applications for several diseases, including cancer. However, the functional aspects of proteins rely exclusively on their structural integrity, in which nanoparticle mediated delivery offers unique advantages over free proteins. In the present work, a novel strategy has been developed where the nanoparticles (NPs) used for the delivery of the recombinant protein could contribute to enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of the recombinant protein. The transcription factor, NFκB, involved in cell growth and its inhibitor, IκBα, regulates its proliferation. Another similar naturally available molecule, which inhibits the function of NFκB, is curcumin. Hence, we have developed a ‘green synthesis’ method for preparing water-soluble curcumin nanoparticles to stabilize recombinant IκBα protein. The NPs were characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering before administration into human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and glioblastoma (U87MG) cells. Experimental results demonstrated that this combined module had enhanced therapeutic efficacy, causing apoptotic cell death, which was confirmed by cytotoxicity assay and flowcytometry analyses. The expression of apoptotic genes studied by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR delineated the molecular pathways involved in cell death. Thus, our study revealed that the functional delivery of recombinant IκBα-loaded curcumin NPs has promise as a natural-product-based protein therapeutics against cancer cells.

  18. Recombinant IκBα-loaded curcumin nanoparticles for improved cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Subhamoy; Sahoo, Amaresh Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Arun; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar

    2014-08-29

    The field of recombinant protein therapeutics has been evolving rapidly, making significant impact on clinical applications for several diseases, including cancer. However, the functional aspects of proteins rely exclusively on their structural integrity, in which nanoparticle mediated delivery offers unique advantages over free proteins. In the present work, a novel strategy has been developed where the nanoparticles (NPs) used for the delivery of the recombinant protein could contribute to enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of the recombinant protein. The transcription factor, NFκB, involved in cell growth and its inhibitor, IκBα, regulates its proliferation. Another similar naturally available molecule, which inhibits the function of NFκB, is curcumin. Hence, we have developed a 'green synthesis' method for preparing water-soluble curcumin nanoparticles to stabilize recombinant IκBα protein. The NPs were characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering before administration into human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and glioblastoma (U87MG) cells. Experimental results demonstrated that this combined module had enhanced therapeutic efficacy, causing apoptotic cell death, which was confirmed by cytotoxicity assay and flowcytometry analyses. The expression of apoptotic genes studied by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR delineated the molecular pathways involved in cell death. Thus, our study revealed that the functional delivery of recombinant IκBα-loaded curcumin NPs has promise as a natural-product-based protein therapeutics against cancer cells.

  19. Recombinant von Willebrand factor: preclinical development.

    PubMed

    Plaimauer, B; Schlokat, U; Turecek, P L; Mitterer, A; Mundt, W; Auer, W; Pichler, L; Gritsch, H; Schwarz, H P

    2001-08-01

    Von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a multimeric glycoprotein (GP) that attracts platelets to the site of vascular injury, mediates platelet-platelet interaction, and stabilizes factor VIII (FVIII) in the circulation. Quantitative and qualitative defects of vWF result in von Willebrand disease (vWD), manifested by modest to severe bleeding episodes. Substitution therapy, with plasma-derived FVIII/vWF complex concentrates, is used for patients suffering the more severe forms of vWD. Efficacy of these preparations is often unsatisfactory because inadvertent proteolytic degradation during the manufacturing process causes them to lack the hemostatically most active high-molecular-weight multimers. In contrast, recombinant vWF (r-vWF), which is constitutively expressed at high yields in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and secreted into the conditioned medium under perfusion fermentation in "protein-free" medium, has high-molecular-weight multimers of extraordinary structural integrity. Functional analysis has shown that r-vWF promotes ristocetin cofactor-mediated platelet aggregation, collagen interaction and FVIII binding, and platelet-collagen adhesion under shear stress. Infusing vWF-deficient animals with r-vWF corrected vWF concentration and reduced blood loss, subsequently stabilizing endogenous FVIII associated with the reduction of bleeding time. Compared with plasma-derived vWF preparations, r-vWF was found to have a prolonged half-life, further enhancing the potential value of r-vWF as a therapeutic agent for treating patients suffering from vWD.

  20. Bimolecular recombination quenching in Langmuir Blodgett multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J. E.; Jeong, I. S.; Scott, K.; Donovan, K. J.; Wilson, E. G.

    2000-11-01

    A model is developed that describes bimolecular recombination of photogenerated carriers in two dimensional systems. Carriers are free to diffuse in two dimensions and undergo bimolecular recombination, while drifting under the influence of an electric field in the third dimension. The model describes a competition between carrier loss due to transiting and loss due to bimolecular recombination. This model of recombination quenching is then used to obtain information on microscopic parameters associated with photogeneration efficiency and charge transport in organic quantum wells formed from Langmuir Blodgett films of conjugated molecules. The ratio of the intralayer to interlayer tunneling rates is found along with the quantum efficiency for photocarrier generation for two bis-phthalocyanine amphiphilic molecules.

  1. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  2. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  3. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Bivalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  4. Chemical recombination in an expansion tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakos, Robert J.; Morgan, Richard G.

    1994-01-01

    The note describes the theoretical basis of chemical recombination in an expansion tube which simulates energy, Reynolds number, and stream chemistry at near-orbital velocities. Expansion tubes can satisfy ground-based hypersonic propulsion and aerothermal testing requirements.

  5. The Kinetics of Nitrogen Atom Recombination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, G. Ronald; Winkler, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a study of the kinetics of the recombination of nitrogen atoms in which concentration-time relations are determined directly by utilizing visual observations of emissions to make gas phase titrations of N atoms with NO. (MLH)

  6. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  7. Recombination-generation currents in degenerate semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Roos, O.

    1978-01-01

    The classical Shockley-Read-Hall theory of free carrier recombination and generation via traps is extended to degenerate semiconductors. A concise and simple expression is found which avoids completely the concept of a Fermi level, a concept which is alien to nonequilibrium situations. Assumptions made in deriving the recombination generation current are carefully delineated and are found to be basically identical to those made in the original theory applicable to nondegenerate semiconductors.

  8. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying the peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  9. Evidence for Mitotic Recombination in W(ei)/+ Heterozygous Mice

    PubMed Central

    Panthier, J. J.; Guenet, J. L.; Condamine, H.; Jacob, F.

    1990-01-01

    A number of alleles at coat color loci of the house mouse give rise to areas of wild-type pigmentation on the coats of otherwise mutant animals. Such unstable alleles include both recessive and dominant mutations. Among the latter are several alleles at the W locus. In this report, phenotypic reversions of the W(ei) allele at the W locus were studied Mice heterozygous in repulsion for both W(ei) and buff (bf) [i.e. W(ei)+/+bf] were examined for the occurrence of phenotypic reversion events. Buff (bf) is a recessive mutation, which lies 21 cM from W on the telomeric side of chromosome 5 and is responsible for the khaki colored coat of nonagouti buff homozygotes (a/a; bf/bf). Two kinds of fully pigmented reversion spots were recovered on the coats of a/a; W(ei)+/+bf mice: either solid black or khaki colored. Furthermore phenotypic reversions of W(ei)/+ were enhanced significantly following X-irradiation of 9.25-day-old W(ei)/+ embryos (P < 0.04). These observations are consistent with the suggestion of a role for mitotic recombination in the origin of these phenotypic reversions. In addition these results rise the intriguing possibility that some W mutations may enhance mitotic recombination in the house mouse. PMID:2341029

  10. Dissociation of recombinant prion autocatalysis from infectivity.

    PubMed

    Noble, Geoffrey P; Supattapone, Surachai

    2015-01-01

    Within the mammalian prion field, the existence of recombinant prion protein (PrP) conformers with self-replicating (ie. autocatalytic) activity in vitro but little to no infectious activity in vivo challenges a key prediction of the protein-only hypothesis of prion replication--that autocatalytic PrP conformers should be infectious. To understand this dissociation of autocatalysis from infectivity, we recently performed a structural and functional comparison between a highly infectious and non-infectious pair of autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers derived from the same initial prion strain. (1) We identified restricted, C-terminal structural differences between these 2 conformers and provided evidence that these relatively subtle differences prevent the non-infectious conformer from templating the conversion of native PrP(C) substrates containing a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. (1) In this article we discuss a model, consistent with these findings, in which recombinant PrP, lacking post-translational modifications and associated folding constraints, is capable of adopting a wide variety of autocatalytic conformations. Only a subset of these recombinant conformers can be adopted by post-translationally modified native PrP(C), and this subset represents the recombinant conformers with high specific infectivity. We examine this model's implications for the generation of highly infectious recombinant prions and the protein-only hypothesis of prion replication.

  11. Recombination rate predicts inversion size in Diptera.

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, M; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A

    1999-01-01

    Most species of the Drosophila genus and other Diptera are polymorphic for paracentric inversions. A common observation is that successful inversions are of intermediate size. We test here the hypothesis that the selected property is the recombination length of inversions, not their physical length. If so, physical length of successful inversions should be negatively correlated with recombination rate across species. This prediction was tested by a comprehensive statistical analysis of inversion size and recombination map length in 12 Diptera species for which appropriate data are available. We found that (1) there is a wide variation in recombination map length among species; (2) physical length of successful inversions varies greatly among species and is inversely correlated with the species recombination map length; and (3) neither the among-species variation in inversion length nor the correlation are observed in unsuccessful inversions. The clear differences between successful and unsuccessful inversions point to natural selection as the most likely explanation for our results. Presumably the selective advantage of an inversion increases with its length, but so does its detrimental effect on fertility due to double crossovers. Our analysis provides the strongest and most extensive evidence in favor of the notion that the adaptive value of inversions stems from their effect on recombination. PMID:10471710

  12. DNA recombination activity in soybean mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Manchekar, Medha; Scissum-Gunn, Karyn; Song, Daqing; Khazi, Fayaz; McLean, Stephanie L; Nielsen, Brent L

    2006-02-17

    Mitochondrial genomes in higher plants are much larger and more complex as compared to animal mitochondrial genomes. There is growing evidence that plant mitochondrial genomes exist predominantly as a collection of linear and highly branched DNA molecules and replicate by a recombination-dependent mechanism. However, biochemical evidence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) recombination activity in plants has previously been lacking. We provide the first report of strand-invasion activity in plant mitochondria. Similar to bacterial RecA, this activity from soybean is dependent on the presence of ATP and Mg(2+). Western blot analysis using an antibody against the Arabidopsis mitochondrial RecA protein shows cross-reaction with a soybean protein of about 44 kDa, indicating conservation of this protein in at least these two plant species. mtDNA structure was analyzed by electron microscopy of total soybean mtDNA and molecules recovered after field-inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE). While most molecules were found to be linear, some molecules contained highly branched DNA structures and a small but reproducible proportion consisted of circular molecules (many with tails) similar to recombination intermediates. The presence of recombination intermediates in plant mitochondria preparations is further supported by analysis of mtDNA molecules by 2-D agarose gel electrophoresis, which indicated the presence of complex recombination structures along with a considerable amount of single-stranded DNA. These data collectively provide convincing evidence for the occurrence of homologous DNA recombination in plant mitochondria.

  13. Mitigating Mitochondrial Genome Erosion Without Recombination.

    PubMed

    Radzvilavicius, Arunas L; Kokko, Hanna; Christie, Joshua R

    2017-11-01

    Mitochondria are ATP-producing organelles of bacterial ancestry that played a key role in the origin and early evolution of complex eukaryotic cells. Most modern eukaryotes transmit mitochondrial genes uniparentally, often without recombination among genetically divergent organelles. While this asymmetric inheritance maintains the efficacy of purifying selection at the level of the cell, the absence of recombination could also make the genome susceptible to Muller's ratchet. How mitochondria escape this irreversible defect accumulation is a fundamental unsolved question. Occasional paternal leakage could in principle promote recombination, but it would also compromise the purifying selection benefits of uniparental inheritance. We assess this tradeoff using a stochastic population-genetic model. In the absence of recombination, uniparental inheritance of freely-segregating genomes mitigates mutational erosion, while paternal leakage exacerbates the ratchet effect. Mitochondrial fusion-fission cycles ensure independent genome segregation, improving purifying selection. Paternal leakage provides opportunity for recombination to slow down the mutation accumulation, but always at a cost of increased steady-state mutation load. Our findings indicate that random segregation of mitochondrial genomes under uniparental inheritance can effectively combat the mutational meltdown, and that homologous recombination under paternal leakage might not be needed. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  14. Biochemistry of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczykowski, S C; Dixon, D A; Eggleston, A K; Lauder, S D; Rehrauer, W M

    1994-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a fundamental biological process. Biochemical understanding of this process is most advanced for Escherichia coli. At least 25 gene products are involved in promoting genetic exchange. At present, this includes the RecA, RecBCD (exonuclease V), RecE (exonuclease VIII), RecF, RecG, RecJ, RecN, RecOR, RecQ, RecT, RuvAB, RuvC, SbcCD, and SSB proteins, as well as DNA polymerase I, DNA gyrase, DNA topoisomerase I, DNA ligase, and DNA helicases. The activities displayed by these enzymes include homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange, helicase, branch migration, Holliday junction binding and cleavage, nuclease, ATPase, topoisomerase, DNA binding, ATP binding, polymerase, and ligase, and, collectively, they define biochemical events that are essential for efficient recombination. In addition to these needed proteins, a cis-acting recombination hot spot known as Chi (chi: 5'-GCTGGTGG-3') plays a crucial regulatory function. The biochemical steps that comprise homologous recombination can be formally divided into four parts: (i) processing of DNA molecules into suitable recombination substrates, (ii) homologous pairing of the DNA partners and the exchange of DNA strands, (iii) extension of the nascent DNA heteroduplex; and (iv) resolution of the resulting crossover structure. This review focuses on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these steps, with particular emphases on the activities of the proteins involved and on the integration of these activities into likely biochemical pathways for recombination. Images PMID:7968921

  15. Phylogenetic study of recombinant strains of Potato virus Y

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato virus Y (PVY) exists as a complex of strains, including a growing number of recombinants. Evolution of PVY proceeds through accumulation of mutations and more rapidly through recombination. Here, the role of recombination in PVY evolution and the origin of common PVY recombinants were studied...

  16. Oligonucleotide recombination enabled site-specific mutagenesis in bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recombineering refers to a strategy for engineering DNA sequences using a specialized mode of homologous recombination. This technology can be used for rapidly constructing precise changes in bacterial genome sequences in vivo. Oligo recombination is one type of recombineering that uses ssDNA olig...

  17. Genetic recombination of the hepatitis C virus: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Morel, V; Fournier, C; François, C; Brochot, E; Helle, F; Duverlie, G; Castelain, S

    2011-02-01

    Genetic recombination is a well-known feature of RNA viruses that plays a significant role in their evolution. Although recombination is well documented for Flaviviridae family viruses, the first natural recombinant strain of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was identified as recently as 2002. Since then, a few other natural inter-genotypic, intra-genotypic and intra-subtype recombinant HCV strains have been described. However, the frequency of recombination may have been underestimated because not all known HCV recombinants are screened for in routine practice. Furthermore, the choice of treatment regimen and its predictive outcome remain problematic as the therapeutic strategy for HCV infection is genotype dependent. HCV recombination also raises many questions concerning its mechanisms and effects on the epidemiological and physiopathological features of the virus. This review provides an update on recombinant HCV strains, the process that gives rise to recombinants and clinical implications of recombination. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Heterogeneous recombination among Hepatitis B virus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Castelhano, Nadine; Araujo, Natalia M; Arenas, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    The rapid evolution of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) through both evolutionary forces, mutation and recombination, allows this virus to generate a large variety of adapted variants at both intra and inter-host levels. It can, for instance, generate drug resistance or the diverse viral genotypes that currently exist in the HBV epidemics. Concerning the latter, it is known that recombination played a major role in the emergence and genetic diversification of novel genotypes. In this regard, the quantification of viral recombination in each genotype can provide relevant information to devise expectations about the evolutionary trends of the epidemic. Here we measured the amount of this evolutionary force by estimating global and local recombination rates in >4700 HBV complete genome sequences corresponding to nine (A to I) HBV genotypes. Counterintuitively, we found that genotype E presents extremely high levels of recombination, followed by genotypes B and C. On the other hand, genotype G presents the lowest level, where recombination is almost negligible. We discuss these findings in the light of known characteristics of these genotypes. Additionally, we present a phylogenetic network to depict the evolutionary history of the studied HBV genotypes. This network clearly classified all genotypes into specific groups and indicated that diverse pairs of genotypes are derived from a common ancestor (i.e., C-I, D-E and, F-H) although still the origin of this virus presented large uncertainty. Altogether we conclude that the amount of observed recombination is heterogeneous among HBV genotypes and that this heterogeneity can influence on the future expansion of the epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonreplicative RNA Recombination of an Animal Plus-Strand RNA Virus in the Absence of Efficient Translation of Viral Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kleine Büning, Maximiliane; Meyer, Denise; Austermann-Busch, Sophia; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Rümenapf, Tillmann

    2017-01-01

    RNA recombination is a major driving force for the evolution of RNA viruses and is significantly implicated in the adaptation of viruses to new hosts, changes of virulence, as well as in the emergence of new viruses including drug-resistant and escape mutants. However, the molecular details of recombination in animal RNA viruses are only poorly understood. In order to determine whether viral RNA recombination depends on translation of viral proteins, a nonreplicative recombination system was established which is based on cotransfection of cells with synthetic bovine viral diarrhea virus (family Flaviviridae) RNA genome fragments either lacking the internal ribosome entry site required for cap-independent translation or lacking almost the complete polyprotein coding region. The emergence of a number of recombinant viruses demonstrated that IRES-mediated translation of viral proteins is dispensable for efficient recombination and suggests that RNA recombination can occur in the absence of viral proteins. Analyses of 58 independently emerged viruses led to the detection of recombinant genomes with duplications, deletions and insertions in the 5′ terminal region of the open reading frame, leading to enlarged core fusion proteins detectable by Western blot analysis. This demonstrates a remarkable flexibility of the pestivirus core protein. Further experiments with capped and uncapped genome fragments containing a luciferase gene for monitoring the level of protein translation revealed that even a ∼1,000-fold enhancement of translation of viral proteins did not increase the frequency of RNA recombination. Taken together, this study highlights that nonreplicative RNA recombination does not require translation of viral proteins. PMID:28338950

  20. Nonreplicative RNA Recombination of an Animal Plus-Strand RNA Virus in the Absence of Efficient Translation of Viral Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kleine Büning, Maximiliane; Meyer, Denise; Austermann-Busch, Sophia; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Rümenapf, Tillmann; Becher, Paul

    2017-04-01

    RNA recombination is a major driving force for the evolution of RNA viruses and is significantly implicated in the adaptation of viruses to new hosts, changes of virulence, as well as in the emergence of new viruses including drug-resistant and escape mutants. However, the molecular details of recombination in animal RNA viruses are only poorly understood. In order to determine whether viral RNA recombination depends on translation of viral proteins, a nonreplicative recombination system was established which is based on cotransfection of cells with synthetic bovine viral diarrhea virus (family Flaviviridae) RNA genome fragments either lacking the internal ribosome entry site required for cap-independent translation or lacking almost the complete polyprotein coding region. The emergence of a number of recombinant viruses demonstrated that IRES-mediated translation of viral proteins is dispensable for efficient recombination and suggests that RNA recombination can occur in the absence of viral proteins. Analyses of 58 independently emerged viruses led to the detection of recombinant genomes with duplications, deletions and insertions in the 5' terminal region of the open reading frame, leading to enlarged core fusion proteins detectable by Western blot analysis. This demonstrates a remarkable flexibility of the pestivirus core protein. Further experiments with capped and uncapped genome fragments containing a luciferase gene for monitoring the level of protein translation revealed that even a ∼1,000-fold enhancement of translation of viral proteins did not increase the frequency of RNA recombination. Taken together, this study highlights that nonreplicative RNA recombination does not require translation of viral proteins. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Recombinant aequorin and recombinant semi-synthetic aequorins. Cellular Ca2+ ion indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, O; Inouye, S; Musicki, B; Kishi, Y

    1990-01-01

    Properties of a recombinant aequorin were investigated in comparison with those of natural aequorin. In chromatographic behaviour the recombinant aequorin did not match any of ten isoaequorins tested, although it was very similar to aequorin J. Its sensitivity to Ca2+ was found to be higher than that of any isoaequorin except aequorin D. The recombinant aequorin exhibited no toxicity when tested in various kinds of cells, even where samples of natural aequorin had been found to be toxic. Properties of four recombinant semi-synthetic aequorins (fch-, hcp-, e- and n-types), prepared from the recombinant apo-aequorin and synthetic analogues of coelenterazine, were approximately parallel with those of corresponding semi-synthetic aequorins prepared from natural apo-aequorin. Both recombinant e-aequorin and natural e-aequorin J luminesced with high values of the luminescence intensity ratio I400/I465, although the ratios were not pCa-dependent. The recombinant aequorin and recombinant semi-synthetic aequorins are highly suited for monitoring cellular Ca2+. PMID:2400391

  2. Complexity of genetic mechanisms conferring nonuniformity of recombination in maize.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qingchun; Deng, Min; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Lin

    2017-04-26

    Recombinations occur nonuniformly across the maize genome. To dissect the genetic mechanisms underlying the nonuniformity of recombination, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using recombinant inbred line populations. Genome-wide QTL scan identified hundreds of QTLs with both cis-prone and trans- effects for recombination number variation. To provide detailed insights into cis- factors associated with recombination variation, we examined the genomic features around recombination hot regions, including density of genes, DNA transposons, retrotransposons, and some specific motifs. Compared to recombination variation in whole genome, more QTLs were mapped for variations in recombination hot regions. The majority QTLs for recombination hot regions are trans-QTLs and co-localized with genes from the recombination pathway. We also found that recombination variation was positively associated with the presence of genes and DNA transposons, but negatively related to the presence of long terminal repeat retrotransposons. Additionally, 41 recombination hot regions were fine-mapped. The high-resolution genotyping of five randomly selected regions in two F 2 populations verified that they indeed have ultra-high recombination frequency, which is even higher than that of the well-known recombination hot regions sh1-bz and a1-sh2. Taken together, our results further our understanding of recombination variation in plants.

  3. Ion recombination correction in carbon ion beams.

    PubMed

    Rossomme, S; Hopfgartner, J; Lee, N D; Delor, A; Thomas, R A S; Romano, F; Fukumura, A; Vynckier, S; Palmans, H

    2016-07-01

    In this work, ion recombination is studied as a function of energy and depth in carbon ion beams. Measurements were performed in three different passively scattered carbon ion beams with energies of 62 MeV/n, 135 MeV/n, and 290 MeV/n using various types of plane-parallel ionization chambers. Experimental results were compared with two analytical models for initial recombination. One model is generally used for photon beams and the other model, developed by Jaffé, takes into account the ionization density along the ion track. An investigation was carried out to ascertain the effect on the ion recombination correction with varying ionization chamber orientation with respect to the direction of the ion tracks. The variation of the ion recombination correction factors as a function of depth was studied for a Markus ionization chamber in the 62 MeV/n nonmodulated carbon ion beam. This variation can be related to the depth distribution of linear energy transfer. Results show that the theory for photon beams is not applicable to carbon ion beams. On the other hand, by optimizing the value of the ionization density and the initial mean-square radius, good agreement is found between Jaffé's theory and the experimental results. As predicted by Jaffé's theory, the results confirm that ion recombination corrections strongly decrease with an increasing angle between the ion tracks and the electric field lines. For the Markus ionization chamber, the variation of the ion recombination correction factor with depth was modeled adequately by a sigmoid function, which is approximately constant in the plateau and strongly increasing in the Bragg peak region to values of up to 1.06. Except in the distal edge region, all experimental results are accurately described by Jaffé's theory. Experimental results confirm that ion recombination in the investigated carbon ion beams is dominated by initial recombination. Ion recombination corrections are found to be significant and cannot be

  4. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Polarizes Both M-CSF- and GM-CSF-Differentiated Macrophages Toward an M1-Like Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Seif, Michelle; Philippi, Anja; Breinig, Frank; Kiemer, Alexandra K; Hoppstädter, Jessica

    2016-10-01

    Macrophages are a heterogeneous and plastic cell population with two main phenotypes: pro-inflammatory classically activated macrophages (M1) and anti-inflammatory alternatively activated macrophages (M2). Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising vehicle for the delivery of vaccines. It is well established that S. cerevisiae is taken up by professional phagocytic cells. However, the response of human macrophages to S. cerevisiae is ill-defined. In this study, we characterized the interaction between S. cerevisiae and M1- or M2-like macrophages. M1-like macrophages had a higher yeast uptake capacity than M2-like macrophages, but both cell types internalized opsonized yeast to the same extent. The M1 surface markers HLAII and CD86 were upregulated after yeast uptake in M1- and M2-like macrophages. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-6, increased, whereas the expression of anti-inflammatory mediators did not change. These results demonstrate that S. cerevisiae can target both M1 and M2 macrophages, paralleled by skewing toward an M1 phenotype. Thus, the use of yeast-based delivery systems might be a promising approach for the treatment of pathologic conditions that would benefit from the presence of M1-polarized macrophages, such as cancer.

  5. Graded recombination layers for multijunction photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Koleilat, Ghada I; Wang, Xihua; Sargent, Edward H

    2012-06-13

    Multijunction devices consist of a stack of semiconductor junctions having bandgaps tuned across a broad spectrum. In solar cells this concept is used to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic harvesting, while light emitters and detectors use it to achieve multicolor and spectrally tunable behavior. In series-connected current-matched multijunction devices, the recombination layers must allow the hole current from one cell to recombine, with high efficiency and low voltage loss, with the electron current from the next cell. We recently reported a tandem solar cell in which the recombination layer was implemented using a progression of n-type oxides whose doping densities and work functions serve to connect, with negligible resistive loss at solar current densities, the constituent cells. Here we present the generalized conditions for design of efficient graded recombination layer solar devices. We report the number of interlayers and the requirements on work function and doping of each interlayer, to bridge an work function difference as high as 1.6 eV. We also find solutions that minimize the doping required of the interlayers in order to minimize optical absorption due to free carriers in the graded recombination layer (GRL). We demonstrate a family of new GRL designs experimentally and highlight the benefits of the progression of dopings and work functions in the interlayers.

  6. Recombination in Eukaryotic Single Stranded DNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Darren P.; Biagini, Philippe; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Golden, Michael; Roumagnac, Philippe; Varsani, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    Although single stranded (ss) DNA viruses that infect humans and their domesticated animals do not generally cause major diseases, the arthropod borne ssDNA viruses of plants do, and as a result seriously constrain food production in most temperate regions of the world. Besides the well known plant and animal-infecting ssDNA viruses, it has recently become apparent through metagenomic surveys of ssDNA molecules that there also exist large numbers of other diverse ssDNA viruses within almost all terrestrial and aquatic environments. The host ranges of these viruses probably span the tree of life and they are likely to be important components of global ecosystems. Various lines of evidence suggest that a pivotal evolutionary process during the generation of this global ssDNA virus diversity has probably been genetic recombination. High rates of homologous recombination, non-homologous recombination and genome component reassortment are known to occur within and between various different ssDNA virus species and we look here at the various roles that these different types of recombination may play, both in the day-to-day biology, and in the longer term evolution, of these viruses. We specifically focus on the ecological, biochemical and selective factors underlying patterns of genetic exchange detectable amongst the ssDNA viruses and discuss how these should all be considered when assessing the adaptive value of recombination during ssDNA virus evolution. PMID:21994803

  7. SequenceLDhot: detecting recombination hotspots.

    PubMed

    Fearnhead, Paul

    2006-12-15

    There is much local variation in recombination rates across the human genome--with the majority of recombination occurring in recombination hotspots--short regions of around approximately 2 kb in length that have much higher recombination rates than neighbouring regions. Knowledge of this local variation is important, e.g. in the design and analysis of association studies for disease genes. Population genetic data, such as that generated by the HapMap project, can be used to infer the location of these hotspots. We present a new, efficient and powerful method for detecting recombination hotspots from population data. We compare our method with four current methods for detecting hotspots. It is orders of magnitude quicker, and has greater power, than two related approaches. It appears to be more powerful than HotspotFisher, though less accurate at inferring the precise positions of the hotspot. It was also more powerful than LDhot in some situations: particularly for weaker hotspots (10-40 times the background rate) when SNP density is lower (< 1/kb). Program, data sets, and full details of results are available at: http://www.maths.lancs.ac.uk/~fearnhea/Hotspot.

  8. Determination of the N2 recombination rate coefficient in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orsini, N.; Torr, D. G.; Brinton, H. C.; Brace, L. H.; Hanson, W. B.; Hoffman, J. H.; Nier, A. O.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of aeronomic parameters made by the Atmosphere Explorer-C satellite are used to determine the recombination rate coefficient of N2(+) in the ionosphere. The rate is found to increase significantly with decreasing electron density. Values obtained range from approximately 1.4 x 10 to the -7th to 3.8 x 10 to the -7th cu cm/sec. This variation is explained in a preliminary way in terms of an increase in the rate coefficient with vibrational excitation. Thus, high electron densities depopulate high vibrational levels reducing the effective recombination rate, whereas, low electron densities result in an enhancement in the population of high vibrational levels, thus, increasing the effective recombination rate.

  9. Genome-wide recombination rate variation in a recombination map of cotton.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chao; Li, Ximei; Zhang, Ruiting; Lin, Zhongxu

    2017-01-01

    Recombination is crucial for genetic evolution, which not only provides new allele combinations but also influences the biological evolution and efficacy of natural selection. However, recombination variation is not well understood outside of the complex species' genomes, and it is particularly unclear in Gossypium. Cotton is the most important natural fibre crop and the second largest oil-seed crop. Here, we found that the genetic and physical maps distances did not have a simple linear relationship. Recombination rates were unevenly distributed throughout the cotton genome, which showed marked changes along the chromosome lengths and recombination was completely suppressed in the centromeric regions. Recombination rates significantly varied between A-subgenome (At) (range = 1.60 to 3.26 centimorgan/megabase [cM/Mb]) and D-subgenome (Dt) (range = 2.17 to 4.97 cM/Mb), which explained why the genetic maps of At and Dt are similar but the physical map of Dt is only half that of At. The translocation regions between A02 and A03 and between A04 and A05, and the inversion regions on A10, D10, A07 and D07 indicated relatively high recombination rates in the distal regions of the chromosomes. Recombination rates were positively correlated with the densities of genes, markers and the distance from the centromere, and negatively correlated with transposable elements (TEs). The gene ontology (GO) categories showed that genes in high recombination regions may tend to response to environmental stimuli, and genes in low recombination regions are related to mitosis and meiosis, which suggested that they may provide the primary driving force in adaptive evolution and assure the stability of basic cell cycle in a rapidly changing environment. Global knowledge of recombination rates will facilitate genetics and breeding in cotton.

  10. Genome-wide recombination rate variation in a recombination map of cotton

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chao; Li, Ximei; Zhang, Ruiting

    2017-01-01

    Recombination is crucial for genetic evolution, which not only provides new allele combinations but also influences the biological evolution and efficacy of natural selection. However, recombination variation is not well understood outside of the complex species’ genomes, and it is particularly unclear in Gossypium. Cotton is the most important natural fibre crop and the second largest oil-seed crop. Here, we found that the genetic and physical maps distances did not have a simple linear relationship. Recombination rates were unevenly distributed throughout the cotton genome, which showed marked changes along the chromosome lengths and recombination was completely suppressed in the centromeric regions. Recombination rates significantly varied between A-subgenome (At) (range = 1.60 to 3.26 centimorgan/megabase [cM/Mb]) and D-subgenome (Dt) (range = 2.17 to 4.97 cM/Mb), which explained why the genetic maps of At and Dt are similar but the physical map of Dt is only half that of At. The translocation regions between A02 and A03 and between A04 and A05, and the inversion regions on A10, D10, A07 and D07 indicated relatively high recombination rates in the distal regions of the chromosomes. Recombination rates were positively correlated with the densities of genes, markers and the distance from the centromere, and negatively correlated with transposable elements (TEs). The gene ontology (GO) categories showed that genes in high recombination regions may tend to response to environmental stimuli, and genes in low recombination regions are related to mitosis and meiosis, which suggested that they may provide the primary driving force in adaptive evolution and assure the stability of basic cell cycle in a rapidly changing environment. Global knowledge of recombination rates will facilitate genetics and breeding in cotton. PMID:29176878

  11. Development of Recombinant Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Varnado, Cornelius L.; Mollan, Todd L.; Birukou, Ivan; Smith, Bryan J.Z.; Henderson, Douglas P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The worldwide blood shortage has generated a significant demand for alternatives to whole blood and packed red blood cells for use in transfusion therapy. One such alternative involves the use of acellular recombinant hemoglobin (Hb) as an oxygen carrier. Recent Advances: Large amounts of recombinant human Hb can be expressed and purified from transgenic Escherichia coli. The physiological suitability of this material can be enhanced using protein-engineering strategies to address specific efficacy and toxicity issues. Mutagenesis of Hb can (i) adjust dioxygen affinity over a 100-fold range, (ii) reduce nitric oxide (NO) scavenging over 30-fold without compromising dioxygen binding, (iii) slow the rate of autooxidation, (iv) slow the rate of hemin loss, (v) impede subunit dissociation, and (vi) diminish irreversible subunit denaturation. Recombinant Hb production is potentially unlimited and readily subjected to current good manufacturing practices, but may be restricted by cost. Acellular Hb-based O2 carriers have superior shelf-life compared to red blood cells, are universally compatible, and provide an alternative for patients for whom no other alternative blood products are available or acceptable. Critical Issues: Remaining objectives include increasing Hb stability, mitigating iron-catalyzed and iron-centered oxidative reactivity, lowering the rate of hemin loss, and lowering the costs of expression and purification. Although many mutations and chemical modifications have been proposed to address these issues, the precise ensemble of mutations has not yet been identified. Future Directions: Future studies are aimed at selecting various combinations of mutations that can reduce NO scavenging, autooxidation, oxidative degradation, and denaturation without compromising O2 delivery, and then investigating their suitability and safety in vivo. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2314–2328. PMID:23025383

  12. Recombination Processes and Nonlinear Markov Chains.

    PubMed

    Pirogov, Sergey; Rybko, Alexander; Kalinina, Anastasia; Gelfand, Mikhail

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria are known to exchange genetic information by horizontal gene transfer. Since the frequency of homologous recombination depends on the similarity between the recombining segments, several studies examined whether this could lead to the emergence of subspecies. Most of them simulated fixed-size Wright-Fisher populations, in which the genetic drift should be taken into account. Here, we use nonlinear Markov processes to describe a bacterial population evolving under mutation and recombination. We consider a population structure as a probability measure on the space of genomes. This approach implies the infinite population size limit, and thus, the genetic drift is not assumed. We prove that under these conditions, the emergence of subspecies is impossible.

  13. Applications and challenges of multivalent recombinant vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Naim, Hussein Y.

    2013-01-01

    The exceptional discoveries of antigen/gene delivery systems have allowed the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine candidates. The vaccine candidates employ various antigen-delivery systems, particularly recombinant viral vectors. Recombinant viral vectors are experimental vaccines similar to DNA vaccines, but they use attenuated viruses or bacterium as a carrier “vector” to introduce microbial DNA to cells of the body. They closely mimic a natural infection and therefore can efficiently stimulate the immune system. Although such recombinant vectors may face extensive preclinical testing and will possibly have to meet stringent regulatory requirements, some of these vectors (e.g. measles virus vectors) may benefit from the profound industrial and clinical experience of the parent vaccine. Most notably, novel vaccines based on live attenuated viruses combine the induction of broad, strong and persistent immune responses with acceptable safety profiles. We assess certain technologies in light of their use against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). PMID:23249651

  14. Rapid one-step recombinational cloning

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Changlin; Wehr, Daniel R.; Edwards, Janice; Hauge, Brian

    2008-01-01

    As an increasing number of genes and open reading frames of unknown function are discovered, expression of the encoded proteins is critical toward establishing function. Accordingly, there is an increased need for highly efficient, high-fidelity methods for directional cloning. Among the available methods, site-specific recombination-based cloning techniques, which eliminate the use of restriction endonucleases and ligase, have been widely used for high-throughput (HTP) procedures. We have developed a recombination cloning method, which uses truncated recombination sites to clone PCR products directly into destination/expression vectors, thereby bypassing the requirement for first producing an entry clone. Cloning efficiencies in excess of 80% are obtained providing a highly efficient method for directional HTP cloning. PMID:18424799

  15. RNA Recombination In Vivo in the Absence of Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Gallei, Andreas; Pankraz, Alexander; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; Becher, Paul

    2004-01-01

    To study fundamental aspects of RNA recombination, an in vivo RNA recombination system was established. This system allowed the efficient generation of recombinant cytopathogenic pestiviruses after transfection of synthetic, nonreplicatable, subgenomic transcripts in cells infected with a replicating noncytopathogenic virus. Studies addressing the interplay between RNA recombination and replication revealed that cotransfection of noninfected cells with various pairs of nonreplicatable RNA derivatives also led to the emergence of recombinant viral genomes. Remarkably, homologous and nonhomologous recombination occurred between two overlapping transcripts, each lacking different essential parts of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene. Apart from the generally accepted viral replicative copy choice recombination, our results prove the existence of a viral RdRp-independent mechanism of RNA recombination that occurs in vivo. It appears likely that such a mechanism not only contributes to the evolution of RNA viruses but also leads to the generation of recombinant cellular RNAs. PMID:15163720

  16. A Bacillus megaterium System for the Production of Recombinant Proteins and Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Biedendieck, Rebekka

    2016-01-01

    For many years the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium has been used for the production and secretion of recombinant proteins. For this purpose it was systematically optimized. Plasmids with different inducible promoter systems, with different compatible origins, with small tags for protein purification and with various specific signals for protein secretion were combined with genetically improved host strains. Finally, the development of appropriate cultivation conditions for the production strains established this organism as a bacterial cell factory even for large proteins. Along with the overproduction of individual proteins the organism is now also used for the simultaneous coproduction of up to 14 recombinant proteins, multiple subsequently interacting or forming protein complexes. Some of these recombinant strains are successfully used for bioconversion or the biosynthesis of valuable components including vitamins. The titers in the g per liter scale for the intra- and extracellular recombinant protein production prove the high potential of B. megaterium for industrial applications. It is currently further enhanced for the production of recombinant proteins and multi-subunit protein complexes using directed genetic engineering approaches based on transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and fluxome data.

  17. Exceptionally high levels of recombination across the honey bee genome.

    PubMed

    Beye, Martin; Gattermeier, Irene; Hasselmann, Martin; Gempe, Tanja; Schioett, Morten; Baines, John F; Schlipalius, David; Mougel, Florence; Emore, Christine; Rueppell, Olav; Sirviö, Anu; Guzmán-Novoa, Ernesto; Hunt, Greg; Solignac, Michel; Page, Robert E

    2006-11-01

    The first draft of the honey bee genome sequence and improved genetic maps are utilized to analyze a genome displaying 10 times higher levels of recombination (19 cM/Mb) than previously analyzed genomes of higher eukaryotes. The exceptionally high recombination rate is distributed genome-wide, but varies by two orders of magnitude. Analysis of chromosome, sequence, and gene parameters with respect to recombination showed that local recombination rate is associated with distance to the telomere, GC content, and the number of simple repeats as described for low-recombining genomes. Recombination rate does not decrease with chromosome size. On average 5.7 recombination events per chromosome pair per meiosis are found in the honey bee genome. This contrasts with a wide range of taxa that have a uniform recombination frequency of about 1.6 per chromosome pair. The excess of recombination activity does not support a mechanistic role of recombination in stabilizing pairs of homologous chromosome during chromosome pairing. Recombination rate is associated with gene size, suggesting that introns are larger in regions of low recombination and may improve the efficacy of selection in these regions. Very few transposons and no retrotransposons are present in the high-recombining genome. We propose evolutionary explanations for the exceptionally high genome-wide recombination rate.

  18. Absence of detectable mitochondrial recombination in Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Adoutte, A; Knowles, J K; Sainsard-Chanet, A

    1979-12-01

    An extensive search for recombination between mitochondrial markers was carried out in Paramecium tetraurelia. Thirty-two combinations, altogether involving 24 different markers, were studied. The markers belonged to the three main categories of mitochondrial mutations presently available in this organism, (a) Spontaneous or UV-induced antibiotic resistance mutations, most probably affecting mitochondrial ribosomes, (b) nitrosoguanidine-induced antibiotic resistance markers displaying thermosensitivity or slow growth, enabling easy selection of possible wild-type recombinants, and (c) mitochondrial partial suppressors of a nuclear gene, probably corresponding to molecular alterations distinct from the preceding two categories. In addition, different genetic configurations were analyzed (i.e., mutant X mutant, double-mutant X wild-type, etc.).--None of the combinations yielded any evidence for the occurrence of recombined genomes despite the fact that: (1) all of them were studied on a large scale involving the screening of at least several thousand mitochondrial genomes (often several millions), (2) in many of them the detection level was sufficiently high to enable the isolation of spontaneous mutants in control cells, and (3) in several of them, reconstitution experiments carried out in parallel show that the conditions were fully adequate to detect recombinant genotypes. The results are in marked contrast with those obtained on the few other organisms in which mitochondrial recombination has been studied, particularly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which mitochondrial recombination is intense.--The most likely basis for the various manifestations of mitochondrial genetic autonomy in Paramecium, described in this as well as in previous publications, is that the chondriome of this organism is made up of thousands of structurally discrete, noninteracting units.

  19. Graph Model of Coalescence with Recombinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, Laxmi

    One of the primary genetic events shaping an autosomal chromosome is recombination. This is a process that occurs during meiosis, in eukaryotes, that results in the offsprings having different combinations of (homologous) genes, or chromosomal segments, of the two parents. The presence of these recombination events in the evolutionary history of each chromosome complicates the genetic landscape of a population, and understanding the manifestations of these genetic exchanges in the chromosome sequences has been a subject of intense curiosity (see [Hud83, Gri99, HSW05] and citations therein).

  20. Recent Theoretical Studies On Excitation and Recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pradhan, Anil K.

    2000-01-01

    New advances in the theoretical treatment of atomic processes in plasmas are described. These enable not only an integrated, unified, and self-consistent treatment of important radiative and collisional processes, but also large-scale computation of atomic data with high accuracy. An extension of the R-matrix work, from excitation and photoionization to electron-ion recombination, includes a unified method that subsumes both the radiative and the di-electronic recombination processes in an ab initio manner. The extensive collisional calculations for iron and iron-peak elements under the Iron Project are also discussed.

  1. On the density and field sensitivities of dielectronic recombination. [rates in coronal plasmas of late stars and sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisenfeld, Daniel B.; Raymond, John C.; Young, Albert R.; Kohl, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Dielectronic recombination dominates the recombination rates of most ions in coronal plasmas at their temperatures of peak concentration. Because dielectronic recombination goes by way of high nl doubly excited levels, it is susceptible to collisional excitation and ionization, leading to a decreased rate. On the other hand, theoretical studies show that Stark mixing of the nl levels by a modest electric field enhances the dielectronic recombination rate severalfold. The ionization balance is computed here as as function of density, and it is found that the new results require increased emission measures to match the C IV emission line intensities observed in the sun and in late-type stars. They also make it more difficult to interpret the overall EUV emission line spectrum of the sun.

  2. Designing ternary blend bulk heterojunction solar cells with reduced carrier recombination and a fill factor of 77%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, Nicola; Jiao, Xuechen; Heumueller, Thomas; Baran, Derya; Matt, Gebhard J.; Fladischer, Stefanie; Spiecker, Erdmann; Ade, Harald; Brabec, Christoph J.; Ameri, Tayebeh

    2016-09-01

    In recent years the concept of ternary blend bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on organic semiconductors has been widely used to achieve a better match to the solar irradiance spectrum, and power conversion efficiencies beyond 10% have been reported. However, the fill factor of organic solar cells is still limited by the competition between recombination and extraction of free charges. Here, we design advanced material composites leading to a high fill factor of 77% in ternary blends, thus demonstrating how the recombination thresholds can be overcome. Extending beyond the typical sensitization concept, we add a highly ordered polymer that, in addition to enhanced absorption, overcomes limits predicted by classical recombination models. An effective charge transfer from the disordered host system onto the highly ordered sensitizer effectively avoids traps of the host matrix and features an almost ideal recombination behaviour.

  3. Ikaros controls isotype selection during immunoglobulin class switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Sellars, MacLean; Reina-San-Martin, Bernardo; Kastner, Philippe; Chan, Susan

    2009-05-11

    Class switch recombination (CSR) allows the humoral immune response to exploit different effector pathways through specific secondary antibody isotypes. However, the molecular mechanisms and factors that control immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype choice for CSR are unclear. We report that deficiency for the Ikaros transcription factor results in increased and ectopic CSR to IgG(2b) and IgG(2a), and reduced CSR to all other isotypes, regardless of stimulation. Ikaros suppresses active chromatin marks, transcription, and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) accessibility at the gamma2b and gamma2a genes to inhibit class switching to these isotypes. Further, Ikaros directly regulates isotype gene transcription as it directly binds the Igh 3' enhancer and interacts with isotype gene promoters. Finally, Ikaros-mediated repression of gamma2b and gamma2a transcription promotes switching to other isotype genes by allowing them to compete for AID-mediated recombination at the single-cell level. Thus, our results reveal transcriptional competition between constant region genes in individual cells to be a critical and general mechanism for isotype specification during CSR. We show that Ikaros is a master regulator of this competition.

  4. A serpentine laminating micromixer combining splitting/recombination and advection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Sung; Lee, Se Hwan; Kwon, Tai Hun; Ahn, Chong H

    2005-07-01

    Mixing enhancement has drawn great attention from designers of micromixers, since the flow in a microchannel is usually characterized by a low Reynolds number (Re) which makes the mixing quite a difficult task to accomplish. In this paper, a novel integrated efficient micromixer named serpentine laminating micromixer (SLM) has been designed, simulated, fabricated and fully characterized. In the SLM, a high level of efficient mixing can be achieved by combining two general chaotic mixing mechanisms: splitting/recombination and chaotic advection. The splitting and recombination (in other terms, lamination) mechanism is obtained by the successive arrangement of "F"-shape mixing units in two layers. The advection is induced by the overall three-dimensional serpentine path of the microchannel. The SLM was realized by SU-8 photolithography, nickel electroplating, injection molding and thermal bonding. Mixing performance of the SLM was fully characterized numerically and experimentally. The numerical mixing simulations show that the advection acts favorably to realize the ideal vertical lamination of fluid flow. The mixing experiments based on an average mixing color intensity change of phenolphthalein show a high level of mixing performance was obtained with the SLM. Numerical and experimental results confirm that efficient mixing is successfully achieved from the SLM over the wide range of Re. Due to the simple and mass producible geometry of the efficient micromixer, SLM proposed in this study, the SLM can be easily applied to integrated microfluidic systems, such as micro-total-analysis-systems or lab-on-a-chip systems.

  5. Recombination-Mediated Host Adaptation by Avian Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Susan; Pascoe, Ben; Méric, Guillaume; Mageiros, Leonardos; Yahara, Koji; Hitchings, Matthew D.; Friedmann, Yasmin; Wilkinson, Thomas S.; Gormley, Fraser J.; Mack, Dietrich; Bray, James E.; Lamble, Sarah; Bowden, Rory; Jolley, Keith A.; Maiden, Martin C.J.; Wendlandt, Sarah; Schwarz, Stefan; Corander, Jukka; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus are globally disseminated among farmed chickens causing skeletal muscle infections, dermatitis, and septicaemia. The emergence of poultry-associated lineages has involved zoonotic transmission from humans to chickens but questions remain about the specific adaptations that promote proliferation of chicken pathogens. We characterized genetic variation in a population of genome-sequenced S. aureus isolates of poultry and human origin. Genealogical analysis identified a dominant poultry-associated sequence cluster within the CC5 clonal complex. Poultry and human CC5 isolates were significantly distinct from each other and more recombination events were detected in the poultry isolates. We identified 44 recombination events in 33 genes along the branch extending to the poultry-specific CC5 cluster, and 47 genes were found more often in CC5 poultry isolates compared with those from humans. Many of these gene sequences were common in chicken isolates from other clonal complexes suggesting horizontal gene transfer among poultry associated lineages. Consistent with functional predictions for putative poultry-associated genes, poultry isolates showed enhanced growth at 42 °C and greater erythrocyte lysis on chicken blood agar in comparison with human isolates. By combining phenotype information with evolutionary analyses of staphylococcal genomes, we provide evidence of adaptation, following a human-to-poultry host transition. This has important implications for the emergence and dissemination of new pathogenic clones associated with modern agriculture. PMID:28338786

  6. Recombinant production of antimicrobial peptides in Escherichia coli: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yifeng

    2011-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are of great interest due to their potential application as novel antibiotics. Large quantities of highly purified peptides are required to meet the needs of basic research and clinical trials. Compared with isolation from natural sources and chemical synthesis, recombinant approach offers the most cost-effective means for large-scale peptide manufacture. Among the systems available for heterologous protein production, Escherichia coli has been the most widely used host. Antimicrobial peptides produced in E. coli are often expressed as fusion proteins, a strategy necessary to mask these peptides' lethal effect towards the host and protect them from proteolytic degradation. The present article reviews commonly used fusion partners (e.g., solubility-enhancing, aggregation-promoting and self-cleavable carriers, etc.), cleavage methods and optimization options for antimicrobial peptides production in E. coli. In addition, the various approaches developed to generate recombinant human antimicrobial peptide LL-37, which offer excellent examples demonstrating effective production strategies, were briefly discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recombination in Enteroviruses Is a Biphasic Replicative Process Involving the Generation of Greater-than Genome Length ‘Imprecise’ Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Kym; Woodman, Andrew; Cook, Jonathan; Evans, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Recombination in enteroviruses provides an evolutionary mechanism for acquiring extensive regions of novel sequence, is suggested to have a role in genotype diversity and is known to have been key to the emergence of novel neuropathogenic variants of poliovirus. Despite the importance of this evolutionary mechanism, the recombination process remains relatively poorly understood. We investigated heterologous recombination using a novel reverse genetic approach that resulted in the isolation of intermediate chimeric intertypic polioviruses bearing genomes with extensive duplicated sequences at the recombination junction. Serial passage of viruses exhibiting such imprecise junctions yielded progeny with increased fitness which had lost the duplicated sequences. Mutations or inhibitors that changed polymerase fidelity or the coalescence of replication complexes markedly altered the yield of recombinants (but did not influence non-replicative recombination) indicating both that the process is replicative and that it may be possible to enhance or reduce recombination-mediated viral evolution if required. We propose that extant recombinants result from a biphasic process in which an initial recombination event is followed by a process of resolution, deleting extraneous sequences and optimizing viral fitness. This process has implications for our wider understanding of ‘evolution by duplication’ in the positive-strand RNA viruses. PMID:24945141

  8. [Genetic recombination in vaccine poliovirus: comparative study in strains excreted in course of vaccination by oral poliovirus vaccine and circulating strains].

    PubMed

    Haddad-Boubaker, S; Ould-Mohamed-Abdallah, M V; Ben-Yahia, A; Triki, H

    2010-12-01

    Recombination is one of the major mechanisms of evolution in poliovirus. In this work, recombination was assessed in children during vaccination with OPV and among circulating vaccine strains isolated in Tunisia during the last 15 years in order to identify a possible role of recombination in the response to the vaccine or the acquisition of an increased transmissibility. This study included 250 poliovirus isolates: 137 vaccine isolates, excreted by children during primary vaccination with OPV and 113 isolates obtained from acute flaccid paralytic (AFP) cases and healthy contacts. Recombination was first assessed using a double PCR-RFLP, and sequencing. Nineteen per cent of recombinant strains were identified: 20% of strains excreted by vaccinees among 18% of circulating strains. The proportion of recombinant in isolates of serotype1 was very low in the two groups while the proportions of recombinants in serotypes 2 and 3 were different. In vaccinees, the frequency of recombinants in serotype3 decreased during the course of vaccination: 54% after the first dose, 32% after the second and 14% after the third dose. These results suggest that recombination enhances the ability of serotype3 vaccine strains to induce an immune response. Apart from recent vaccination, it may contribute to a more effective transmissibility of vaccine strains among human population. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian [East Lansing, MI; Kleff, Susanne [East Lansing, MI; Guettler, Michael V [Holt, MI

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  10. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  11. Evolution via recombination: Cell-to-cell contact facilitates larger recombination events in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Lauren A; Petersen, Fernanda C; Junges, Roger; Jimson D Jimenez, Med; Morrison, Donald A; Hanage, William P

    2018-06-01

    Homologous recombination in the genetic transformation model organism Streptococcus pneumoniae is thought to be important in the adaptation and evolution of this pathogen. While competent pneumococci are able to scavenge DNA added to laboratory cultures, large-scale transfers of multiple kb are rare under these conditions. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to map transfers in recombinants arising from contact of competent cells with non-competent 'target' cells, using strains with known genomes, distinguished by a total of ~16,000 SNPs. Experiments designed to explore the effect of environment on large scale recombination events used saturating purified donor DNA, short-term cell assemblages on Millipore filters, and mature biofilm mixed cultures. WGS of 22 recombinants for each environment mapped all SNPs that were identical between the recombinant and the donor but not the recipient. The mean recombination event size was found to be significantly larger in cell-to-cell contact cultures (4051 bp in filter assemblage and 3938 bp in biofilm co-culture versus 1815 bp with saturating DNA). Up to 5.8% of the genome was transferred, through 20 recombination events, to a single recipient, with the largest single event incorporating 29,971 bp. We also found that some recombination events are clustered, that these clusters are more likely to occur in cell-to-cell contact environments, and that they cause significantly increased linkage of genes as far apart as 60,000 bp. We conclude that pneumococcal evolution through homologous recombination is more likely to occur on a larger scale in environments that permit cell-to-cell contact.

  12. Single Molecule Study of DNA Organization and Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Botao

    We have studied five projects related to DNA organization and recombination using mainly single molecule force-spectroscopy and statistical tools. First, HU is one of the most abundant DNA-organizing proteins in bacterial chromosomes and participates in gene regulation. We report experiments that study the dependence of DNA condensation by HU on force, salt and HU concentration. A first important result is that at physiological salt levels, HU only bends DNA, resolving a previous paradox of why a chromosome-compacting protein should have a DNA-stiffening function. A second major result is quantitative demonstration of strong dependencies of HU-DNA dissociation on both salt concentration and force. Second, we have used a thermodynamic Maxwell relation to count proteins driven off large DNAs by tension, an effect important to understanding DNA organization. Our results compare well with estimates of numbers of proteins HU and Fis in previous studies. We have also shown that a semi-flexible polymer model describes our HU experimental data well. The force-dependent binding suggests mechano-chemical mechanisms for gene regulation. Third, the elusive role of protein H1 in chromatin has been clarified with purified H1 and Xenopus extracts. We find that H1 compacts DNA by both bending and looping. Addition of H1 enhances chromatin formation and maintains the plasticity of the chromatin. Fourth, the topology and mechanics of DNA twisting are critical to DNA organization and recombination. We have systematically measured DNA extension as a function of linking number density from 0.08 to -2 with holding forces from 0.2 to 2.4 pN. Unlike previous proposals, the DNA extension decreases with negative linking number. Finally, DNA recombination is a dynamic process starting from enzyme-DNA binding. We report that the Int-DBD domain of lambda integrase binds to DNA without compaction at low Int-DBD concentration. High concentration of Int-DBD loops DNA below a threshold force

  13. Recombination walking: genetic selection of clones from pooled libraries of yeast artificial chromosomes by homologous recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A M; Savinelli, E A; Couture, S M; Hannigan, G M; Han, Z; Selden, R F; Treco, D A

    1993-01-01

    Recombination walking is based on the genetic selection of specific human clones from a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library by homologous recombination. The desired clone is selected from a pooled (unordered) YAC library, eliminating labor-intensive steps typically used in organizing and maintaining ordered YAC libraries. Recombination walking represents an efficient approach to library screening and is well suited for chromosome-walking approaches to the isolation of genes associated with common diseases. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8367472

  14. Recombination phenomena in high efficiency silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sah, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    The dominant recombination phenomena which limit the highest efficiency attainable in silicon solar cells under terrestrial sunlight are reviewed. The ultimate achievable efficiency is limited by the two intrinsic recombination mechanisms, the interband Auger recombination and interband Radiative recombination, both of which occur in the entire cell body but principally in the base layer. It is suggested that an optimum (26%) cell design is one with lowly doped 50 to 100 micron thick base, a perfect BSF, and zero extrinsic recombination such as the thermal mechanism at recombination centers the Shockley-Read-Hall process (SRH) in the bulk, on the surface and at the interfaces. The importance of recombination at the interfaces of a high-efficiency cell is demonstrated by the ohmic contact on the back surface whose interface recombination velocity is infinite. The importance of surface and interface recombination is demonstrated by representing the auger and radiative recombination losses by effective recombination velocities. It is demonstrated that the three highest efficiency cells may all be limited by the SRH recombination losses at recombination centers in the base layer.

  15. Connecting theory and data to understand recombination rate evolution.

    PubMed

    Dapper, Amy L; Payseur, Bret A

    2017-12-19

    Meiotic recombination is necessary for successful gametogenesis in most sexually reproducing organisms and is a fundamental genomic parameter, influencing the efficacy of selection and the fate of new mutations. The molecular and evolutionary functions of recombination should impose strong selective constraints on the range of recombination rates. Yet, variation in recombination rate is observed on a variety of genomic and evolutionary scales. In the past decade, empirical studies have described variation in recombination rate within genomes, between individuals, between sexes, between populations and between species. At the same time, theoretical work has provided an increasingly detailed picture of the evolutionary advantages to recombination. Perhaps surprisingly, the causes of natural variation in recombination rate remain poorly understood. We argue that empirical and theoretical approaches to understand the evolution of recombination have proceeded largely independently of each other. Most models that address the evolution of recombination rate were created to explain the evolutionary advantage of recombination rather than quantitative differences in rate among individuals. Conversely, most empirical studies aim to describe variation in recombination rate, rather than to test evolutionary hypotheses. In this Perspective, we argue that efforts to integrate the rich bodies of empirical and theoretical work on recombination rate are crucial to moving this field forward. We provide new directions for the development of theory and the production of data that will jointly close this gap.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary causes and consequences of recombination rate variation in sexual organisms'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Recombination Modulates How Selection Affects Linked Sites in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    McGaugh, Suzanne E.; Heil, Caiti S. S.; Manzano-Winkler, Brenda; Loewe, Laurence; Goldstein, Steve; Himmel, Tiffany L.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most influential observations in molecular evolution has been a strong association between local recombination rate and nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome. This is interpreted as evidence for ubiquitous natural selection. The alternative explanation, that recombination is mutagenic, has been rejected by the absence of a similar association between local recombination rate and nucleotide divergence between species. However, many recent studies show that recombination rates are often very different even in closely related species, questioning whether an association between recombination rate and divergence between species has been tested satisfactorily. To circumvent this problem, we directly surveyed recombination across approximately 43% of the D. pseudoobscura physical genome in two separate recombination maps and 31% of the D. miranda physical genome, and we identified both global and local differences in recombination rate between these two closely related species. Using only regions with conserved recombination rates between and within species and accounting for multiple covariates, our data support the conclusion that recombination is positively related to diversity because recombination modulates Hill–Robertson effects in the genome and not because recombination is predominately mutagenic. Finally, we find evidence for dips in diversity around nonsynonymous substitutions. We infer that at least some of this reduction in diversity resulted from selective sweeps and examine these dips in the context of recombination rate. PMID:23152720

  17. CATALYTIC RECOMBINER FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1960-07-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen recombiner is described for use with water-boiler type reactors. The catalyst used is the wellknown platinized alumina, and the novelty lies in the structural arrangement used to prevent flashback through the gas input system. The recombiner is cylindrical, the gases at the input end being deflected by a baffle plate through a first flashback shield of steel shot into an annular passage adjacent to and extending the full length of the housing. Below the baffle plate the gases flow first through an outer annular array of alumina pellets which serve as a second flashback shield, a means of distributing the flowing gases evenly and as a means of reducing radiation losses to the walls. Thereafter the gases flow inio the centrally disposed catalyst bed where recombination is effected. The steam and uncombined gases flow into a centrally disposed cylindrical passage inside the catalyst bod and thereafter out through the exit port. A high rate of recombination is effected.

  18. Meiotic recombination hotspots - a comparative view.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyuha; Henderson, Ian R

    2015-07-01

    During meiosis homologous chromosomes pair and undergo reciprocal genetic exchange, termed crossover. Meiotic recombination has a profound effect on patterns of genetic variation and is an important tool during crop breeding. Crossovers initiate from programmed DNA double-stranded breaks that are processed to form single-stranded DNA, which can invade a homologous chromosome. Strand invasion events mature into double Holliday junctions that can be resolved as crossovers. Extensive variation in the frequency of meiotic recombination occurs along chromosomes and is typically focused in narrow hotspots, observed both at the level of DNA breaks and final crossovers. We review methodologies to profile hotspots at different steps of the meiotic recombination pathway that have been used in different eukaryote species. We then discuss what these studies have revealed concerning specification of hotspot locations and activity and the contributions of both genetic and epigenetic factors. Understanding hotspots is important for interpreting patterns of genetic variation in populations and how eukaryotic genomes evolve. In addition, manipulation of hotspots will allow us to accelerate crop breeding, where meiotic recombination distributions can be limiting. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Recombinant protein blends: silk beyond natural design.

    PubMed

    Dinjaski, Nina; Kaplan, David L

    2016-06-01

    Recombinant DNA technology and new material concepts are shaping future directions in biomaterial science for the design and production of the next-generation biomaterial platforms. Aside from conventionally used synthetic polymers, numerous natural biopolymers (e.g., silk, elastin, collagen, gelatin, alginate, cellulose, keratin, chitin, polyhydroxyalkanoates) have been investigated for properties and manipulation via bioengineering. Genetic engineering provides a path to increase structural and functional complexity of these biopolymers, and thereby expand the catalog of available biomaterials beyond that which exists in nature. In addition, the integration of experimental approaches with computational modeling to analyze sequence-structure-function relationships is starting to have an impact in the field by establishing predictive frameworks for determining material properties. Herein, we review advances in recombinant DNA-mediated protein production and functionalization approaches, with a focus on hybrids or combinations of proteins; recombinant protein blends or 'recombinamers'. We highlight the potential biomedical applications of fibrous protein recombinamers, such as Silk-Elastin Like Polypeptides (SELPs) and Silk-Bacterial Collagens (SBCs). We also discuss the possibility for the rationale design of fibrous proteins to build smart, stimuli-responsive biomaterials for diverse applications. We underline current limitations with production systems for these proteins and discuss the main trends in systems/synthetic biology that may improve recombinant fibrous protein design and production. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. DSMC Modeling of Flows with Recombination Reactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-23

    Rogasinsky, “Analysis of the numerical techniques of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method in the rarefied gas dynamics,” Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math ...reflection in steady flows,” Comput. Math . Appl. 35(1-2), 113–126 (1998). 45K. L. Wray, “Shock-tube study of the recombination of O atoms by Ar catalysts at

  1. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  2. Recombinant poxviruses as mucosal vaccine vectors.

    PubMed

    Gherardi, M Magdalena; Esteban, Mariano

    2005-11-01

    The majority of infections initiate their departure from a mucosal surface, such as Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a sexually transmitted virus. Therefore, the induction of mucosal immunity is a high priority in the development of vaccines against mucosal pathogens. The selection of an appropriate antigen delivery system is necessary to induce an efficient mucosal immune response. Poxvirus vectors have been the most intensively studied live recombinant vector, and numerous studies have demonstrated their ability to induce mucosal immune responses against foreign expressed antigens. Previous studies have demonstrated that recombinants based on the attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector were effective in inducing protective responses against different respiratory viruses, such as influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, following immunization via mucosal routes. Recent studies performed in the murine and macaque models have shown that recombinant MVA (rMVA) does not only stimulate HIV-specific immunity in the genital and rectal tracts following mucosal delivery, but can also control simian/human immunodeficiency viraemia and disease progression. In addition, a prime-boost vaccination approach against tuberculosis emphasized the importance of the intranasal rMVA antigen delivery to induce protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the studies employing recombinant poxviruses, specifically rMVA as a mucosal delivery vector. The results demonstrate that rMVAs can activate specific immune responses at mucosal surfaces, and encourage further studies to characterize and improve the MVA mucosal immunogenicity of poxvirus vectors.

  3. Complementation and Genetic Recombination in Candida lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Bassel, John; Warfei, Jean; Mortimer, Robert

    1971-01-01

    Nutritional requirements were introduced into wild-type, heterothallic strains of Candida lipolytica by exposing the cells to X rays. Complementing hybrids were recovered from mixtures of the auxotrophic strains, and genetic recombination was observed in individually isolated ascospores from the hybrid strains. PMID:5122814

  4. Windows in direct dissociative recombination cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1986-01-01

    Model potential curves are used to show that large windows are present in direct dissociative-recombination cross sections from excited molecular-ion vibrational levels. The windows are due to the overlap of vibrational wave functions of the repulsive neutral states with the nodes of the ion vibrational wave function.

  5. Gas recombination assembly for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Levy, Isaac; Charkey, Allen

    1989-01-01

    An assembly for recombining gases generated in electrochemical cells wherein a catalyst strip is enveloped within a hydrophobic, gas-porous film which, in turn, is encased between gas-porous, metallic layers. The sandwich construction of metallic layers and film is formed into a spiral with a tab for connection to the cell.

  6. Science: The Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Susan

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the status of the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) and attempts to rationalize Suburban Highway Policy. Effective communication among members of the RAC is a current problem facing the committee. A federal transportation priority spending policy is suggested during these times of money and fuel shortages. (MA)

  7. Plasmonic enhancement of electroluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzatov, D. V.; Gaponenko, S. V.; Demir, H. V.

    2018-01-01

    Here plasmonic effect specifically on electroluminescence (EL) is studied in terms of radiative and nonradiative decay rates for a dipole near a metal spherical nanoparticle (NP). Contribution from scattering is taken into account and is shown to play a decisive role in EL enhancement owing to pronounced size-dependent radiative decay enhancement and weak size effect on non-radiative counterpart. Unlike photoluminescence where local incident field factor mainly determines the enhancement possibility and level, EL enhancement is only possible by means of quantum yield rise, EL enhancement being feasible only for an intrinsic quantum yield Q0 < 1. The resulting plasmonic effect is independent of intrinsic emitter lifetime but is exclusively defined by the value of Q0, emission spectrum, NP diameter and emitter-metal spacing. For 0.1< Q0 < 0.25, Ag nanoparticles are shown to enhance LED/OLED intensity by several times over the whole visible whereas Au particles feature lower effect within the red-orange range only. Independently of positive effect on quantum yield, metal nanoparticles embedded in an electroluminescent device will improve its efficiency at high currents owing to enhanced overall recombination rate which will diminish manifestation of Auger processes. The latter are believed to be responsible for the known undesirable efficiency droop in semiconductor commercial quantum well based LEDs at higher current. For the same reason plasmonics can diminish quantum dot photodegradation from Auger process induced non-radiative recombination and photoionization thus opening a way to avoid negative Auger effects in emerging colloidal semiconductor LEDs.

  8. Mechanism of action of recombinant activated factor VII: an update.

    PubMed

    Hedner, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia and inhibitors must be managed using agents that are hemostatically active in the absence of factor VIII or IX. Activated prothrombin complex concentrates have long been used in this context. However, the search for safer and more effective agents has led to the development of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa; NovoSeven, Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark). This paper presents an update on the mechanism of action of rFVIIa, and describes how pharmacologic doses of this agent enhance thrombin production and thus contribute to the development of a stable, lysis-resistant fibrin plug at the site of vessel damage. This mechanism explains the reported efficacy of rFVIIa in a range of clinical situations characterized by impaired thrombin generation.

  9. Gene doctoring: a method for recombineering in laboratory and pathogenic Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Lee, David J; Bingle, Lewis E H; Heurlier, Karin; Pallen, Mark J; Penn, Charles W; Busby, Stephen J W; Hobman, Jon L

    2009-12-09

    Homologous recombination mediated by the lambda-Red genes is a common method for making chromosomal modifications in Escherichia coli. Several protocols have been developed that differ in the mechanisms by which DNA, carrying regions homologous to the chromosome, are delivered into the cell. A common technique is to electroporate linear DNA fragments into cells. Alternatively, DNA fragments are generated in vivo by digestion of a donor plasmid with a nuclease that does not cleave the host genome. In both cases the lambda-Red gene products recombine homologous regions carried on the linear DNA fragments with the chromosome. We have successfully used both techniques to generate chromosomal mutations in E. coli K-12 strains. However, we have had limited success with these lambda-Red based recombination techniques in pathogenic E. coli strains, which has led us to develop an enhanced protocol for recombineering in such strains. Our goal was to develop a high-throughput recombineering system, primarily for the coupling of genes to epitope tags, which could also be used for deletion of genes in both pathogenic and K-12 E. coli strains. To that end we have designed a series of donor plasmids for use with the lambda-Red recombination system, which when cleaved in vivo by the I-SceI meganuclease generate a discrete linear DNA fragment, allowing for C-terminal tagging of chromosomal genes with a 6xHis, 3xFLAG, 4xProteinA or GFP tag or for the deletion of chromosomal regions. We have enhanced existing protocols and technologies by inclusion of a cassette conferring kanamycin resistance and, crucially, by including the sacB gene on the donor plasmid, so that all but true recombinants are counter-selected on kanamycin and sucrose containing media, thus eliminating the need for extensive screening. This method has the added advantage of limiting the exposure of cells to the potential damaging effects of the lambda-Red system, which can lead to unwanted secondary alterations to

  10. A VNTR element associated with steroid sulfatase gene deletions stimulates recombination in cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Y.; Li, X.M.; Shapiro, L.J.

    1994-09-01

    Steroid sulfatase deficiency is a common genetic disorder, with a prevalence of approximately one in every 3500 males world wide. About 90% of these patients have complete gene deletions, which appear to result from recombination between members of a low-copy repeat family (CRI-232 is the prototype) that flank the gene. RU1 and RU2 are two VNTR elements found within each of these family members. RU1 consists of 30 bp repeating units and its length shows minimal variation among individuals. The RU2 element consists of repeating sequences which are highly asymmetric, with about 90% purines and no C`s on one strand,more » and range from 0.6 kb to over 23 kb among different individuals. We conducted a study to determine if the RU1 or RU2 elements can promote recombination in an in vivo test system. We inserted these elements adjacent to the neo gene in each of two pSV2neo derivatives, one of which has a deletion in the 5{prime} portion of the neo gene and the other having a deletion in the 3{prime} portion. These plasmids were combined and used to transfect EJ cells. Survival of cells in G418 indicates restoration of a functional neo gene by recombination between two deletion constructs. Thus counting G418 resistant colonies gives a quantitative measure of the enhancement of recombination by the inserted VNTR elements. The results showed no effect on recombination by the inserted RU1 element (compared to the insertion of a nonspecific sequence), while the RU2 element stimulated recombination by 3.5-fold (P<0.01). A separate set of constructs placed RU1 or RU2 within the intron of an exon trapping vector. Following tranfection of cells, recombination events were monitored by a PCR assay that detected the approximation of primer binding sites (as a result of recombination). These studies showed that, as in the first set of experiments, the highly variable RU2 element is capable of stimulating somatic recombination in mammalian cells.« less

  11. Human recombinant lysosomal enzymes produced in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Espejo-Mojica, Ángela J; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Rodríguez, Alexander; Mosquera, Ángela; Díaz, Dennis; Beltrán, Laura; Díaz, Sergio; Pimentel, Natalia; Moreno, Jefferson; Sánchez, Jhonnathan; Sánchez, Oscar F; Córdoba, Henry; Poutou-Piñales, Raúl A; Barrera, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are caused by accumulation of partially degraded substrates within the lysosome, as a result of a function loss of a lysosomal protein. Recombinant lysosomal proteins are usually produced in mammalian cells, based on their capacity to carry out post-translational modifications similar to those observed in human native proteins. However, during the last years, a growing number of studies have shown the possibility to produce active forms of lysosomal proteins in other expression systems, such as plants and microorganisms. In this paper, we review the production and characterization of human lysosomal proteins, deficient in several LSDs, which have been produced in microorganisms. For this purpose, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Ogataea minuta have been used as expression systems. The recombinant lysosomal proteins expressed in these hosts have shown similar substrate specificities, and temperature and pH stability profiles to those produced in mammalian cells. In addition, pre-clinical results have shown that recombinant lysosomal enzymes produced in microorganisms can be taken-up by cells and reduce the substrate accumulated within the lysosome. Recently, metabolic engineering in yeasts has allowed the production of lysosomal enzymes with tailored N-glycosylations, while progresses in E. coli N-glycosylations offer a potential platform to improve the production of these recombinant lysosomal enzymes. In summary, microorganisms represent convenient platform for the production of recombinant lysosomal proteins for biochemical and physicochemical characterization, as well as for the development of ERT for LSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Recombinant zoster (shingles) vaccine, RZV - what you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/007736.htm Recombinant zoster (shingles) vaccine, RZV - what you need to know To use ... in its entirety from the CDC Recombinant Shingles Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/ ...

  13. New rifamycins produced by a recombinant strain of Nocardia mediterranei.

    PubMed

    Schupp, T; Traxler, P; Auden, J A

    1981-08-01

    A recombinant strain of Nocardia mediterranei was found to produce a number of new rifamycins which are structurally related to rifamycin S, rifamycin W and rifamycin G. This strain was derived from two Nocardia mediterranei mutants by intraspecific recombination.

  14. Detecting and Analyzing Genetic Recombination Using RDP4.

    PubMed

    Martin, Darren P; Murrell, Ben; Khoosal, Arjun; Muhire, Brejnev

    2017-01-01

    Recombination between nucleotide sequences is a major process influencing the evolution of most species on Earth. The evolutionary value of recombination has been widely debated and so too has its influence on evolutionary analysis methods that assume nucleotide sequences replicate without recombining. When nucleic acids recombine, the evolution of the daughter or recombinant molecule cannot be accurately described by a single phylogeny. This simple fact can seriously undermine the accuracy of any phylogenetics-based analytical approach which assumes that the evolutionary history of a set of recombining sequences can be adequately described by a single phylogenetic tree. There are presently a large number of available methods and associated computer programs for analyzing and characterizing recombination in various classes of nucleotide sequence datasets. Here we examine the use of some of these methods to derive and test recombination hypotheses using multiple sequence alignments.

  15. In vivo production of recombinant proteins using occluded recombinant AcMNPV-derived baculovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Guijarro-Pardo, Eva; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Escribano, José M

    2017-12-01

    Trichoplusia ni insect larvae infected with vectors derived from the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), are an excellent alternative to insect cells cultured in conventional bioreactors to produce recombinant proteins because productivity and cost-efficiency reasons. However, there is still a lot of work to do to reduce the manual procedures commonly required in this production platform that limit its scalability. To increase the scalability of this platform technology, a current bottleneck to be circumvented in the future is the need of injection for the inoculation of larvae with polyhedrin negative baculovirus vectors (Polh-) because of the lack of oral infectivity of these viruses, which are commonly used for production in insect cell cultures. In this work we have developed a straightforward alternative to obtain orally infective vectors derived from AcMNPV and expressing recombinant proteins that can be administered to the insect larvae (Trichoplusia ni) by feeding, formulated in the insect diet. The approach developed was based on the use of a recombinant polyhedrin protein expressed by a recombinant vector (Polh+), able to co-occlude any recombinant Polh- baculovirus vector expressing a recombinant protein. A second alternative was developed by the generation of a dual vector co-expressing the recombinant polyhedrin protein and the foreign gene of interest to obtain the occluded viruses. Additionally, by the incorporation of a reporter gene into the helper Polh+ vector, it was possible the follow-up visualization of the co-occluded viruses infection in insect larvae and will help to homogenize infection conditions. By using these methodologies, the production of recombinant proteins in per os infected larvae, without manual infection procedures, was very similar in yield to that obtained by manual injection of recombinant Polh- AcMNPV-based vectors expressing the same proteins. However, further analyses will be required for a

  16. Putative recombination events and evolutionary history of five economically important viruses of fruit trees based on coat protein-encoding gene sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Boulila, Moncef

    2010-06-01

    To enhance the knowledge of recombination as an evolutionary process, 267 accessions retrieved from GenBank were investigated, all belonging to five economically important viruses infecting fruit crops (Plum pox, Apple chlorotic leaf spot, Apple mosaic, Prune dwarf, and Prunus necrotic ringspot viruses). Putative recombinational events were detected in the coat protein (CP)-encoding gene using RECCO and RDP version 3.31beta algorithms. Based on RECCO results, all five viruses were shown to contain potential recombination signals in the CP gene. Reconstructed trees with modified topologies were proposed. Furthermore, RECCO performed better than the RDP package in detecting recombination events and exhibiting their evolution rate along the sequences of the five viruses. RDP, however, provided the possible major and minor parents of the recombinants. Thus, the two methods should be considered complementary.

  17. Recombinant protein expression and purification: a comprehensive review of affinity tags and microbial applications.

    PubMed

    Young, Carissa L; Britton, Zachary T; Robinson, Anne S

    2012-05-01

    Protein fusion tags are indispensible tools used to improve recombinant protein expression yields, enable protein purification, and accelerate the characterization of protein structure and function. Solubility-enhancing tags, genetically engineered epitopes, and recombinant endoproteases have resulted in a versatile array of combinatorial elements that facilitate protein detection and purification in microbial hosts. In this comprehensive review, we evaluate the most frequently used solubility-enhancing and affinity tags. Furthermore, we provide summaries of well-characterized purification strategies that have been used to increase product yields and have widespread application in many areas of biotechnology including drug discovery, therapeutics, and pharmacology. This review serves as an excellent literature reference for those working on protein fusion tags. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Bayesian Inference of Shared Recombination Hotspots Between Humans and Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Rannala, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Recombination generates variation and facilitates evolution. Recombination (or lack thereof) also contributes to human genetic disease. Methods for mapping genes influencing complex genetic diseases via association rely on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in human populations, which is influenced by rates of recombination across the genome. Comparative population genomic analyses of recombination using related primate species can identify factors influencing rates of recombination in humans. Such studies can indicate how variable hotspots for recombination may be both among individuals (or populations) and over evolutionary timescales. Previous studies have suggested that locations of recombination hotspots are not conserved between humans and chimpanzees. We made use of the data sets from recent resequencing projects and applied a Bayesian method for identifying hotspots and estimating recombination rates. We also reanalyzed SNP data sets for regions with known hotspots in humans using samples from the human and chimpanzee. The Bayes factors (BF) of shared recombination hotspots between human and chimpanzee across regions were obtained. Based on the analysis of the aligned regions of human chromosome 21, locations where the two species show evidence of shared recombination hotspots (with high BFs) were identified. Interestingly, previous comparative studies of human and chimpanzee that focused on the known human recombination hotspots within the β-globin and HLA regions did not find overlapping of hotspots. Our results show high BFs of shared hotspots at locations within both regions, and the estimated locations of shared hotspots overlap with the locations of human recombination hotspots obtained from sperm-typing studies. PMID:25261696

  19. High-yield secretion of recombinant proteins from the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Martinez, Erick Miguel; Fimognari, Lorenzo; Sakuragi, Yumiko

    2017-09-01

    Microalga-based biomanufacturing of recombinant proteins is attracting growing attention due to its advantages in safety, metabolic diversity, scalability and sustainability. Secretion of recombinant proteins can accelerate the use of microalgal platforms by allowing post-translational modifications and easy recovery of products from the culture media. However, currently, the yields of secreted recombinant proteins are low, which hampers the commercial application of this strategy. This study aimed at expanding the genetic tools for enhancing secretion of recombinant proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a widely used green microalga as a model organism and a potential industrial biotechnology platform. We demonstrated that the putative signal sequence from C. reinhardtii gametolysin can assist the secretion of the yellow fluorescent protein Venus into the culture media. To increase the secretion yields, Venus was C-terminally fused with synthetic glycomodules comprised of tandem serine (Ser) and proline (Pro) repeats of 10 and 20 units [hereafter (SP) n , wherein n = 10 or 20]. The yields of the (SP) n -fused Venus were higher than Venus without the glycomodule by up to 12-fold, with the maximum yield of 15 mg/L. Moreover, the presence of the glycomodules conferred an enhanced proteolytic protein stability. The Venus-(SP) n proteins were shown to be glycosylated, and a treatment of the cells with brefeldin A led to a suggestion that glycosylation of the (SP) n glycomodules starts in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Taken together, the results demonstrate the utility of the gametolysin signal sequence and (SP) n glycomodule to promote a more efficient biomanufacturing of microalgae-based recombinant proteins. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Efficient carrier relaxation and fast carrier recombination of N-polar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Shih-Wei, E-mail: swfeng@nuk.edu.tw; Liao, Po-Hsun; Leung, Benjamin

    2015-07-28

    Based on quantum efficiency and time-resolved electroluminescence measurements, the effects of carrier localization and quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) on carrier transport and recombination dynamics of Ga- and N-polar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are reported. The N-polar LED exhibits shorter ns-scale response, rising, delay, and recombination times than the Ga-polar one does. Stronger carrier localization and the combined effects of suppressed QCSE and electric field and lower potential barrier acting upon the forward bias in an N-polar LED provide the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination. By optimizing growth conditions to enhance the radiative recombination, the advantagesmore » of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination in a competitive performance N-polar LED can be realized for applications of high-speed flash LEDs. The research results provide important information for carrier transport and recombination dynamics of an N-polar InGaN/GaN LED.« less

  1. Efficient carrier relaxation and fast carrier recombination of N-polar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shih-Wei; Liao, Po-Hsun; Leung, Benjamin; Han, Jung; Yang, Fann-Wei; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Based on quantum efficiency and time-resolved electroluminescence measurements, the effects of carrier localization and quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) on carrier transport and recombination dynamics of Ga- and N-polar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are reported. The N-polar LED exhibits shorter ns-scale response, rising, delay, and recombination times than the Ga-polar one does. Stronger carrier localization and the combined effects of suppressed QCSE and electric field and lower potential barrier acting upon the forward bias in an N-polar LED provide the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination. By optimizing growth conditions to enhance the radiative recombination, the advantages of more efficient carrier relaxation and faster carrier recombination in a competitive performance N-polar LED can be realized for applications of high-speed flash LEDs. The research results provide important information for carrier transport and recombination dynamics of an N-polar InGaN/GaN LED.

  2. Recombination energy in double white dwarf formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandez, J. L. A.; Ivanova, N.; Lombardi, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    In this Letter, we investigate the role of recombination energy during a common envelope event. We confirm that taking this energy into account helps to avoid the formation of the circumbinary envelope commonly found in previous studies. For the first time, we can model a complete common envelope event, with a clean compact double white dwarf binary system formed at the end. The resulting binary orbit is almost perfectly circular. In addition to considering recombination energy, we also show that between 1/4 and 1/2 of the released orbital energy is taken away by the ejected material. We apply this new method to the case of the double white dwarf system WD 1101+364, and we find that the progenitor system at the start of the common envelope event consisted of an ˜1.5 M⊙ red giant star in an ˜30 d orbit with a white dwarf companion.

  3. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products.

    PubMed

    Adrio, Jose-Luis; Demain, Arnold L

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  4. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    PubMed Central

    Adrio, Jose-Luis

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. PMID:21326937

  5. Why Do Sex Chromosomes Stop Recombining?

    PubMed

    Ponnikas, Suvi; Sigeman, Hanna; Abbott, Jessica K; Hansson, Bengt

    2018-04-28

    It is commonly assumed that sex chromosomes evolve recombination suppression because selection favours linkage between sex-determining and sexually antagonistic genes. However, although the role of sexual antagonism during sex chromosome evolution has attained strong support from theory, experimental and observational evidence is rare or equivocal. Here, we highlight alternative, often neglected, hypotheses for recombination suppression on sex chromosomes, which invoke meiotic drive, heterozygote advantage, and genetic drift, respectively. We contrast the hypotheses, the situations when they are likely to be of importance, and outline why it is surprisingly difficult to test them. Lastly, we discuss future research directions (including modelling, population genomics, comparative approaches, and experiments) to disentangle the different hypotheses of sex chromosome evolution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cosmic microwave background bispectrum from recombination.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiqi; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2013-03-08

    We compute the cosmic microwave background temperature bispectrum generated by nonlinearities at recombination on all scales. We use CosmoLib2nd, a numerical Boltzmann code at second order to compute cosmic microwave background bispectra on the full sky. We consistently include all effects except gravitational lensing, which can be added to our result using standard methods. The bispectrum is peaked on squeezed triangles and agrees with the analytic approximation in the squeezed limit at the few percent level for all the scales where this is applicable. On smaller scales, we recover previous results on perturbed recombination. For cosmic-variance limited data to l(max)=2000, its signal-to-noise ratio is S/N=0.47, corresponding to f(NL)(eff)=-2.79, and will bias a local signal by f(NL)(loc) ~/= 0.82.

  7. Recombinant cells and organisms having persistent nonstandard amino acid dependence and methods of making them

    SciTech Connect

    Church, George M.; Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.

    Recombinant cells and recombinant organisms persistently expressing nonstandard amino acids (NSAAs) are provided. Methods of making recombinant cells and recombinant organisms dependent on persistently expressing NSAAs for survival are also provided. These methods may be used to make safe recombinant cells and recombinant organisms and/or to provide a selective pressure to maintain one or more reassigned codon functions in recombinant cells and recombinant organisms.

  8. Introduced T cell receptor variable region gene segments recombine in pre-B cells: evidence that B and T cells use a common recombinase.

    PubMed

    Yancopoulos, G D; Blackwell, T K; Suh, H; Hood, L; Alt, F W

    1986-01-31

    We have recently proposed that a common recombinase performs all of the many variable region gene assembly events in B and T cells, and that the specificity of these joining events is mediated by regulating the "accessibility" of the involved gene segments. To test this possibility, we have introduced "accessible" T cell receptor (TCR) variable region gene segments into a pre-B cell line capable of recombining endogenous and transfected immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region gene segments. Although the corresponding "inaccessible" endogenous TCR gene segments do not rearrange in this line or in B cells in general, the introduced TCR gene segments join very frequently and, in fact, closely resemble introduced Ig gene segments in their recombination characteristics. These observations suggest a new role for conventional Ig transcriptional enhancers--recombinational enhancement. Our studies provide insight into additional aspects of the joining mechanism such as N region insertion, aberrant joining, and recombination-recognition sequence requirements for joining.

  9. Cultivating Insect Cells To Produce Recombinant Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn; Goodwin, Thomas; Prewett, Tacey; Andrews, Angela; Francis, Karen; O'Connor, Kim

    1996-01-01

    Method of producing recombinant proteins involves growth of insect cells in nutrient solution in cylindrical bioreactor rotating about cylindrical axis, oriented horizontally and infecting cells with viruses into which genes of selected type cloned. Genes in question those encoding production of desired proteins. Horizontal rotating bioreactor preferred for use in method, denoted by acronym "HARV", described in "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662).

  10. Recombinant organisms capable of fermenting cellobiose

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Lai, Xiaokuang; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; York, Sean W.

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to a recombinant microorganism which expresses pyruvate decarboxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase, Klebsiella phospho-.beta.-glucosidase and Klebsiella (phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system) cellobiose-utilizing Enzyme II, wherein said phospho-.beta.-glucosidase and said (phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase) cellobiose-utilizing Enzyme II are heterologous to said microorganism and wherein said microorganism is capable of utilizing both hemicellulose and cellulose, including cellobiose, in the production of ethanol.

  11. Overview of Fusion Tags for Recombinant Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kosobokova, E N; Skrypnik, K A; Kosorukov, V S

    2016-03-01

    Virtually all recombinant proteins are now prepared using fusion domains also known as "tags". The use of tags helps to solve some serious problems: to simplify procedures of protein isolation, to increase expression and solubility of the desired protein, to simplify protein refolding and increase its efficiency, and to prevent proteolysis. In this review, advantages and disadvantages of such fusion tags are analyzed and data on both well-known and new tags are generalized. The authors own data are also presented.

  12. [Construction and identification of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-B adenoviral vector and transfection into periodontal ligament stem cells].

    PubMed

    Shang, Shu-huan; Zhang, Yu-feng; Shi, Bin; Cheng, Xiang-rong

    2008-10-01

    To construct a recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) adenoviral vector and to transfect it into human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC). The recombinant plasmid pAd-PDGF-B was constructed by homologous recombination and confirmed by restriction endonucleases digestion. Recombinant adenovirus was packaged in HEK293 cells. PDLSC were transfected with recombinant adenovirus and PDGF-B expression was confirmed. Expression of collagen type I gene was determined by quantitative analysis of the products of RT-PCR. The cell proliferation was determined with MTT colorimetric assay. The recombinant plasmid pAd-PDGF-B was confirmed by restriction endonucleases digestion. EGFP expression was observed on the third day after transfecting, and the expression of PDGF-B was detected. Immunohistochemical methods revealed that PDGF-B was expressed in PDLSC. Levels of expression of collagen type I gene were increased significantly by transfer of the exogenous PDGF-B gene to PDLSC. At the same time, findings indicated that Ad-PDGF-B stimulated PDLSC proliferation. MTT assay indicated the absorbance of PDLSC by stimulating with Ad-PDGF-B was (0.68 +/- 0.02), P < 0.01. Using the AdEasy system, the human PDGF-B recombinant adenovirus can be rapidly obtained. These results indicate that recombinant adenoviruses encoding PDGF-B transgenes could modulate proliferative activity of PDLSC, enhance the high expression of collagen type I and lay the foundation for periodontal tissue regeneration and dental implant gene therapy.

  13. Production of recombinant allergens in plants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A large percentage of allergenic proteins are of plant origin. Hence, plant-based expression systems are considered ideal for the recombinant production of certain allergens. First attempts to establish production of plant-derived allergens in plants focused on transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana infected with recombinant viral vectors. Accordingly, allergens from birch and mugwort pollen, as well as from apple have been expressed in plants. Production of house dust mite allergens has been achieved by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco plants. Beside the use of plants as production systems, other approaches have focused on the development of edible vaccines expressing allergens or epitopes thereof, which bypasses the need of allergen purification. The potential of this approach has been convincingly demonstrated for transgenic rice seeds expressing seven dominant human T cell epitopes derived from Japanese cedar pollen allergens. Parallel to efforts in developing recombinant-based diagnostic and therapeutic reagents, different gene-silencing approaches have been used to decrease the expression of allergenic proteins in allergen sources. In this way hypoallergenic ryegrass, soybean, rice, apple, and tomato were developed. PMID:21258627

  14. Production of recombinant allergens in plants.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Georg; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Pertl, Heidi; Siegert, Marc; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Ritala, Anneli; Himly, Martin; Obermeyer, Gerhard; Ferreira, Fatima

    2008-10-01

    A large percentage of allergenic proteins are of plant origin. Hence, plant-based expression systems are considered ideal for the recombinant production of certain allergens. First attempts to establish production of plant-derived allergens in plants focused on transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana infected with recombinant viral vectors. Accordingly, allergens from birch and mugwort pollen, as well as from apple have been expressed in plants. Production of house dust mite allergens has been achieved by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco plants. Beside the use of plants as production systems, other approaches have focused on the development of edible vaccines expressing allergens or epitopes thereof, which bypasses the need of allergen purification. The potential of this approach has been convincingly demonstrated for transgenic rice seeds expressing seven dominant human T cell epitopes derived from Japanese cedar pollen allergens. Parallel to efforts in developing recombinant-based diagnostic and therapeutic reagents, different gene-silencing approaches have been used to decrease the expression of allergenic proteins in allergen sources. In this way hypoallergenic ryegrass, soybean, rice, apple, and tomato were developed.

  15. Recombinant vaccine for canine parvovirus in dogs.

    PubMed

    López de Turiso, J A; Cortés, E; Martínez, C; Ruiz de Ybáñez, R; Simarro, I; Vela, C; Casal, I

    1992-05-01

    VP2 is the major component of canine parvovirus (CPV) capsids. The VP2-coding gene was engineered to be expressed by a recombinant baculovirus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. A transfer vector that contains the lacZ gene under the control of the p10 promoter was used in order to facilitate the selection of recombinants. The expressed VP2 was found to be structurally and immunologically indistinguishable from authentic VP2. The recombinant VP2 shows also the capability to self-assemble, forming viruslike particles similar in size and appearance to CPV virions. These viruslike particles have been used to immunize dogs in different doses and combinations of adjuvants, and the anti-CPV responses have been measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, monolayer protection assays, and an assay for the inhibition of hemagglutination. A dose of ca. 10 micrograms of VP2 was able to elicit a good protective response, higher than that obtained with a commercially available, inactivated vaccine. The results indicate that these viruslike particles can be used to protect dogs from CPV infection.

  16. Recombinant vaccine for canine parvovirus in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    López de Turiso, J A; Cortés, E; Martínez, C; Ruiz de Ybáñez, R; Simarro, I; Vela, C; Casal, I

    1992-01-01

    VP2 is the major component of canine parvovirus (CPV) capsids. The VP2-coding gene was engineered to be expressed by a recombinant baculovirus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. A transfer vector that contains the lacZ gene under the control of the p10 promoter was used in order to facilitate the selection of recombinants. The expressed VP2 was found to be structurally and immunologically indistinguishable from authentic VP2. The recombinant VP2 shows also the capability to self-assemble, forming viruslike particles similar in size and appearance to CPV virions. These viruslike particles have been used to immunize dogs in different doses and combinations of adjuvants, and the anti-CPV responses have been measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, monolayer protection assays, and an assay for the inhibition of hemagglutination. A dose of ca. 10 micrograms of VP2 was able to elicit a good protective response, higher than that obtained with a commercially available, inactivated vaccine. The results indicate that these viruslike particles can be used to protect dogs from CPV infection. Images PMID:1313899

  17. Modern affinity reagents: Recombinant antibodies and aptamers.

    PubMed

    Groff, Katherine; Brown, Jeffrey; Clippinger, Amy J

    2015-12-01

    Affinity reagents are essential tools in both basic and applied research; however, there is a growing concern about the reproducibility of animal-derived monoclonal antibodies. The need for higher quality affinity reagents has prompted the development of methods that provide scientific, economic, and time-saving advantages and do not require the use of animals. This review describes two types of affinity reagents, recombinant antibodies and aptamers, which are non-animal technologies that can replace the use of animal-derived monoclonal antibodies. Recombinant antibodies are protein-based reagents, while aptamers are nucleic-acid-based. In light of the scientific advantages of these technologies, this review also discusses ways to gain momentum in the use of modern affinity reagents, including an update to the 1999 National Academy of Sciences monoclonal antibody production report and federal incentives for recombinant antibody and aptamer efforts. In the long-term, these efforts have the potential to improve the overall quality and decrease the cost of scientific research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dissociative recombination of molecular ions with electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsen, Rainer

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented for the present state of the art of laboratory measurements of the dissociative recombination of molecular ions with electrons. Most work has focussed on obtaining rates and their temperature dependence, as these are of primary interest for model calculations of ionospheres. A comparison of data obtained using the microwave afterglow method, the flowing afterglow technique, and the merged beam technique shows that generally the agreement is quite good, but there are some serious discrepancies, especially in the case of H(3+) recombination, that need to be resolved. Results of some earlier experimental work need to be reexamined in the light of more recent developments. Such cases are pointed out and a compilation of rate coefficients that have withstood scrutiny is presented. Recent advances in experimental methods, such as the use of laser-in-duced fluorescence, make it possible to identify some neutral products of dissociative recombination. What has been done so far and what results one might expect from future work are briefly reviewed.

  19. Development of Prototype Filovirus Recombinant Antigen Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Boisen, Matt L.; Oottamasathien, Darin; Jones, Abigail B.; Millett, Molly M.; Nelson, Diana S.; Bornholdt, Zachary A.; Fusco, Marnie L.; Abelson, Dafna M.; Oda, Shun-ichiro; Hartnett, Jessica N.; Rowland, Megan M.; Heinrich, Megan L.; Akdag, Marjan; Goba, Augustine; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohammed; Baimba, Francis; Gbakie, Michael; Safa, Sadiki; Fonnie, Richard; Kanneh, Lansana; Cross, Robert W.; Geisbert, Joan B.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Kulakosky, Peter C.; Grant, Donald S.; Shaffer, Jeffery G.; Schieffelin, John S.; Wilson, Russell B.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Branco, Luis M.; Garry, Robert F.; Khan, S. Humarr; Pitts, Kelly R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Throughout the 2014–2015 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, major gaps were exposed in the availability of validated rapid diagnostic platforms, protective vaccines, and effective therapeutic agents. These gaps potentiated the development of prototype rapid lateral flow immunodiagnostic (LFI) assays that are true point-of-contact platforms, for the detection of active Ebola infections in small blood samples. Methods. Recombinant Ebola and Marburg virus matrix VP40 and glycoprotein (GP) antigens were used to derive a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Antibodies were tested using a multivariate approach to identify antibody-antigen combinations suitable for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and LFI assay development. Results. Polyclonal antibodies generated in goats were superior reagents for capture and detection of recombinant VP40 in test sample matrices. These antibodies were optimized for use in antigen-capture ELISA and LFI assay platforms. Prototype immunoglobulin M (IgM)/immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISAs were similarly developed that specifically detect Ebola virus–specific antibodies in the serum of experimentally infected nonhuman primates and in blood samples obtained from patients with Ebola from Sierra Leone. Conclusions. The prototype recombinant Ebola LFI assays developed in these studies have sensitivities that are useful for clinical diagnosis of acute ebolavirus infections. The antigen-capture and IgM/IgG ELISAs provide additional confirmatory assay platforms for detecting VP40 and other ebolavirus-specific immunoglobulins. PMID:26232440

  20. Chaperokine function of recombinant Hsp72 produced in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system is retained.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongying; Nagaraja, Ganachari M; Kaur, Punit; Asea, Edwina E; Asea, Alexzander

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72; inducible form of the 70-kDa heat shock protein) plays a critical role in innate and adaptive immune responses and has shown promise as an ideal adjuvant for the optimization of antigen-specific anti-tumor vaccines. Recent studies suggest that to correctly elucidate the mechanisms by which Hsp72 exerts its beneficial effects in vitro, great care must be taken to ensure that endotoxin by-products do not invalidate the findings. In this study, we have taken advantage of the baculovirus expression vector system for production of endotoxin-free recombinant Hsp72. The coding sequence of human hsp72 was recombined into the baculovirus immediately downstream of the strong polyhedron gene promoter. Ninety-six h post-infection of Sf9 insect cells with recombinant baculovirus, maximal levels of Hsp72 protein were detected. The recombinant human Hsp72 was purified by affinity chromatography from insect cells, and purity was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. The purified human recombinant Hsp72(bv) (Hsp72 produced using the BEVS) was demonstrated to have no endotoxin contamination and was shown to have stimulated potent calcium flux in the human monocytic cell line. Furthermore, recombinant Hsp72(bv) enhanced the tolerance of neuroblastoma cells to heat stress-induced cell death and displayed classical chaperokine functions including augmentation of inflammatory cytokine productions in mouse splenocytes. The production of functional, endotoxin-free recombinant human Hsp72(bv) in insect cells is inexpensive and convenient and eliminates the need of special procedures for endotoxin depletion. Endotoxin-free recombinant human Hsp72(bv) can now be used to unlock the important role Hsp72 plays in modulating immune function.

  1. Chaperokine Function of Recombinant Hsp72 Produced in Insect Cells Using a Baculovirus Expression System Is Retained*

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hongying; Nagaraja, Ganachari M.; Kaur, Punit; Asea, Edwina E.; Asea, Alexzander

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72; inducible form of the 70-kDa heat shock protein) plays a critical role in innate and adaptive immune responses and has shown promise as an ideal adjuvant for the optimization of antigen-specific anti-tumor vaccines. Recent studies suggest that to correctly elucidate the mechanisms by which Hsp72 exerts its beneficial effects in vitro, great care must be taken to ensure that endotoxin by-products do not invalidate the findings. In this study, we have taken advantage of the baculovirus expression vector system for production of endotoxin-free recombinant Hsp72. The coding sequence of human hsp72 was recombined into the baculovirus immediately downstream of the strong polyhedron gene promoter. Ninety-six h post-infection of Sf9 insect cells with recombinant baculovirus, maximal levels of Hsp72 protein were detected. The recombinant human Hsp72 was purified by affinity chromatography from insect cells, and purity was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. The purified human recombinant Hsp72bv (Hsp72 produced using the BEVS) was demonstrated to have no endotoxin contamination and was shown to have stimulated potent calcium flux in the human monocytic cell line. Furthermore, recombinant Hsp72bv enhanced the tolerance of neuroblastoma cells to heat stress-induced cell death and displayed classical chaperokine functions including augmentation of inflammatory cytokine productions in mouse splenocytes. The production of functional, endotoxin-free recombinant human Hsp72bv in insect cells is inexpensive and convenient and eliminates the need of special procedures for endotoxin depletion. Endotoxin-free recombinant human Hsp72bv can now be used to unlock the important role Hsp72 plays in modulating immune function. PMID:19861412

  2. Nonmutagenic carcinogens induce intrachromosomal recombination in dividing yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Schiestl, R H

    1993-12-01

    A large number of animal and human carcinogens without apparent genotoxic activity exist (nonmutagenic carcinogens) that are difficult or impossible to detect with the currently used short-term tests. Because of the association of carcinogenesis with genome rearrangement, a system selecting for intrachromosomal recombination (DEL recombination) that results in genome rearrangement has been constructed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because DEL recombination is under different genetic control than interchromosomal recombination and meiotic recombination, it is probably due to a different mechanism. It has been found that DEL recombination is readily inducible by 10 mutagenic carcinogens and 17 nonmutagenic carcinogens that are not detectable (false negatives) with the Ames assay. In addition, three out of four mutagens that do not cause cancer (false positives in the Ames assay) do not induce DEL recombination. DEL recombination is inducible by UV only in dividing cells but not in cells synchronized in the G1 or G2 phase of the cell cycle. Interchromosomal recombination, on the other hand, is inducible in G1 but not in G2. The nonmutagenic carcinogens induce DEL recombination only in actively growing cells, which may give some indication as to their mechanism. Further characterization of the mechanism involved in induction of DEL recombination may contribute to the understanding of the biological activity of nonmutagenic carcinogens.

  3. Protein body-inducing fusions for high-level production and purification of recombinant proteins in plants.

    PubMed

    Conley, Andrew J; Joensuu, Jussi J; Richman, Alex; Menassa, Rima

    2011-05-01

    For the past two decades, therapeutic and industrially important proteins have been expressed in plants with varying levels of success. The two major challenges hindering the economical production of plant-made recombinant proteins include inadequate accumulation levels and the lack of efficient purification methods. To address these limitations, several fusion protein strategies have been recently developed to significantly enhance the production yield of plant-made recombinant proteins, while simultaneously assisting in their subsequent purification. Elastin-like polypeptides are thermally responsive biopolymers composed of a repeating pentapeptide 'VPGXG' sequence that are valuable for the purification of recombinant proteins. Hydrophobins are small fungal proteins capable of altering the hydrophobicity of their respective fusion partner, thus enabling efficient purification by surfactant-based aqueous two-phase systems. Zera, a domain of the maize seed storage protein γ-zein, can induce the formation of protein storage bodies, thus facilitating the recovery of fused proteins using density-based separation methods. These three novel protein fusion systems have also been shown to enhance the accumulation of a range of different recombinant proteins, while concurrently inducing the formation of protein bodies. The packing of these fusion proteins into protein bodies may exclude the recombinant protein from normal physiological turnover. Furthermore, these systems allow for quick, simple and inexpensive nonchromatographic purification of the recombinant protein, which can be scaled up to industrial levels of protein production. This review will focus on the similarities and differences of these artificial storage organelles, their biogenesis and their implication for the production of recombinant proteins in plants and their subsequent purification. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied

  4. Widespread recombination in published animal mtDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Tsaousis, A D; Martin, D P; Ladoukakis, E D; Posada, D; Zouros, E

    2005-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) recombination has been observed in several animal species, but there are doubts as to whether it is common or only occurs under special circumstances. Animal mtDNA sequences retrieved from public databases were unambiguously aligned and rigorously tested for evidence of recombination. At least 30 recombination events were detected among 186 alignments examined. Recombinant sequences were found in invertebrates and vertebrates, including primates. It appears that mtDNA recombination may occur regularly in the animal cell but rarely produces new haplotypes because of homoplasmy. Common animal mtDNA recombination would necessitate a reexamination of phylogenetic and biohistorical inference based on the assumption of clonal mtDNA transmission. Recombination may also have an important role in producing and purging mtDNA mutations and thus in mtDNA-based diseases and senescence.

  5. Mechanisms and Factors that Influence High Frequency Retroviral Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga; Mens, Helene; Pathak, Vinay K.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2011-01-01

    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity of the recombination process, and evaluates the subsequent viral diversity and fitness of the progeny recombinant. Specifically, the high mutation rates and high recombination frequencies of HIV-1 will be analyzed for their roles in influencing HIV-1 global diversity, as well as HIV-1 diagnosis, drug treatment, and vaccine development. PMID:21994801

  6. Recombinant levels of Escherichia coli K-12 mutants deficient in various replication, recombination, or repair genes.

    PubMed Central

    Zieg, J; Maples, V F; Kushner, S R

    1978-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains containing mutations in lexA, rep, uvrA, uvrD, uvrE, lig, polA, dam, or xthA were constructed and tested for conjugation and transduction proficiencies and ability to form Lac+ recombinants in an assay system utilizing a nontandem duplication of two partially deleted lactose operons (lacMS286phi80dIIlacBK1). lexA and rep mutants were as deficient (20% of wild type) as recB and recC strains in their ability to produce Lac+ progeny. All the other strains exhibited increased frequencies of Lac+ recombinant formation, compared with wild type, ranging from 2- to 13-fold. Some strains showed markedly increased conjugation proficiency (dam uvrD) compared to wild type, while others appeared deficient (polA107). Some differences in transduction proficiency were also observed. Analysis of the Lac+ recombinants formed by the various mutants indicated that they were identical to the recombinants formed by a wild-type strain. The results indicate that genetic recombination in E. coli is a highly regulated process involving multiple gene products. PMID:350859

  7. Construction of green fluorescent protein-tagged recombinant iridovirus to assess viral replication.

    PubMed

    Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; Ye, Fuzhou; Guan, Liya; Liu, Hong; Qin, Qiwei

    2011-09-01

    Green fluorescent protein-tagged recombinant virus has been successfully applied to observing the infective dynamics and evaluating viral replication. Here, we identified soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV) ORF55 as an envelope protein (VP55), and developed a recombinant STIV expressing an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fused to VP55 (EGFP-STIV). Recombinant EGFP-STIV shared similar single-step growth curves and ultrastructural morphology with wild type STIV (wt-STIV). The green fluorescence distribution during EGFP-STIV infection was consistent with the intracellular distribution of VP55 which was mostly co-localized with virus assembly sites. Furthermore, EGFP-STIV could be used to evaluate viral replication conveniently under drug treatment, and the result showed that STIV replication was significantly inhibited after the addition of antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). Thus, the EGFP-tagged recombinant iridovirus will not only be useful for further investigations on the viral replicative dynamics, but also provide an alternative simple strategy to screen for antiviral substances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mucosal Vaccination Overcomes the Barrier to Recombinant Vaccinia Immunization Caused by Preexisting Poxvirus Immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyakov, Igor M.; Moss, Bernard; Strober, Warren; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    1999-04-01

    Overcoming preexisting immunity to vaccinia virus in the adult population is a key requirement for development of otherwise potent recombinant vaccinia vaccines. Based on our observation that s.c. immunization with vaccinia induces cellular and antibody immunity to vaccinia only in systemic lymphoid tissue and not in mucosal sites, we hypothesized that the mucosal immune system remains naive to vaccinia and therefore amenable to immunization with recombinant vaccinia vectors despite earlier vaccinia exposure. We show that mucosal immunization of vaccinia-immune BALB/c mice with recombinant vaccinia expressing HIV gp160 induced specific serum antibody and strong HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. These responses occurred not only in mucosal but also in systemic lymphoid tissue, whereas systemic immunization was ineffective under these circumstances. In this context, intrarectal immunization was more effective than intranasal immunization. Boosting with a second dose of recombinant vaccinia was also more effective via the mucosal route. The systemic HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response was enhanced by coadministration of IL-12 at the mucosal site. These results also demonstrate the independent compartmentalization of the mucosal versus systemic immune systems and the asymmetric trafficking of lymphocytes between them. This approach to circumvent previous vaccinia immunity may be useful for induction of protective immunity against infectious diseases and cancer in the sizable populations with preexisting immunity to vaccinia from smallpox vaccination.

  9. Resistance of hypoxic cells to ionizing radiation is influenced by homologous recombination status

    SciTech Connect

    Sprong, Debbie; Janssen, Hilde L.; Vens, Conchita

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the role of DNA repair in hypoxic radioresistance. Methods and Materials: Chinese hamster cell lines with mutations in homologous recombination (XRCC2, XRCC3, BRAC2, RAD51C) or nonhomologous end-joining (DNA-PKcs) genes were irradiated under normoxic (20% oxygen) and hypoxic (<0.1% oxygen) conditions, and the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) was calculated. In addition, Fanconi anemia fibroblasts (complementation groups C and G) were compared with fibroblasts from nonsyndrome patients. RAD51 foci were studied using immunofluorescence. Results: All hamster cell lines deficient in homologous recombination showed a decrease in OER (1.5-2.0 vs. 2.6-3.0 for wild-types). In contrast, the OER for the DNA-PKcs-deficientmore » line was comparable to wild-type controls. The two Fanconi anemia cell strains also showed a significant reduction in OER. The OER for RAD51 foci formation at late times after irradiation was considerably lower than that for survival in wild-type cells. Conclusion: Homologous recombination plays an important role in determining hypoxic cell radiosensitivity. Lower OERs have also been reported in cells deficient in XPF and ERCC1, which, similar to homologous recombination genes, are known to play a role in cross-link repair. Because Fanconi anemia cells are also sensitive to cross-linking agents, this strengthens the notion that the capacity to repair cross-links determines hypoxic radiosensitivity.« less

  10. Sequential Immunofluorescent Light Microscopy and Electron Microscopy of Recombination Nodules During Meiotic Prophase I.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lorinda K

    2017-01-01

    Immunolocalization using either fluorescence for light microscopy (LM) or gold particles for electron microscopy (EM) has become a common tool to pinpoint proteins involved in recombination during meiotic prophase. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. For example, LM immunofluorescence is comparatively easier and higher throughput compared to immunogold EM localization. In addition, immunofluorescence has the advantages that a faint signal can often be enhanced by longer exposure times and colocalization using two (or more) probes with different absorbance and emission spectra is straightforward. However, immunofluorescence is not useful if the object of interest does not label with an antibody probe and is below the resolution of the LM. In comparison, immunogold EM localization is higher resolution than immunofluorescent LM localization, and individual nuclear structures, such as recombination nodules, can be identified by EM regardless of whether they are labeled or not. However, immunogold localization has other disadvantages including comparatively low signal-to-noise ratios, more difficult colocalization using gold particles of different sizes, and the inability to evaluate labeling efficiency before examining the sample using EM (a more expensive and time-consuming technique than LM). Here we describe a method that takes advantage of the good points of both immunofluorescent LM and EM to analyze two classes of late recombination nodules (RNs), only one of which labels with antibodies to MLH1 protein, a marker of crossovers. The method can be used readily with other antibodies to analyze early recombination nodules or other prophase I structures.

  11. Evolution of meiotic recombination genes in maize and teosinte.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Gaganpreet K; Warzecha, Tomasz; Pawlowski, Wojciech P

    2017-01-25

    Meiotic recombination is a major source of genetic variation in eukaryotes. The role of recombination in evolution is recognized but little is known about how evolutionary forces affect the recombination pathway itself. Although the recombination pathway is fundamentally conserved across different species, genetic variation in recombination components and outcomes has been observed. Theoretical predictions and empirical studies suggest that changes in the recombination pathway are likely to provide adaptive abilities to populations experiencing directional or strong selection pressures, such as those occurring during species domestication. We hypothesized that adaptive changes in recombination may be associated with adaptive evolution patterns of genes involved in meiotic recombination. To examine how maize evolution and domestication affected meiotic recombination genes, we studied patterns of sequence polymorphism and divergence in eleven genes controlling key steps in the meiotic recombination pathway in a diverse set of maize inbred lines and several accessions of teosinte, the wild ancestor of maize. We discovered that, even though the recombination genes generally exhibited high sequence conservation expected in a pathway controlling a key cellular process, they showed substantial levels and diverse patterns of sequence polymorphism. Among others, we found differences in sequence polymorphism patterns between tropical and temperate maize germplasms. Several recombination genes displayed patterns of polymorphism indicative of adaptive evolution. Despite their ancient origin and overall sequence conservation, meiotic recombination genes can exhibit extensive and complex patterns of molecular evolution. Changes in these genes could affect the functioning of the recombination pathway, and may have contributed to the successful domestication of maize and its expansion to new cultivation areas.

  12. Osteoinductive recombinant silk fusion proteins for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Dinjaski, Nina; Plowright, Robyn; Zhou, Shun; Belton, David J; Perry, Carole C; Kaplan, David L

    2017-02-01

    Protein polymers provide a unique opportunity for tunable designs of material systems due to the genetic basis of sequence control. To address the challenge of biomineralization interfaces with protein based materials, we genetically engineered spider silks to design organic-inorganic hybrid systems. The spider silk inspired domain (SGRGGLGGQG AGAAAAAGGA GQGGYGGLGSQGT) 15 served as an organic scaffold to control material stability and to allow multiple modes of processing, whereas the hydroxyapatite binding domain VTKHLNQISQSY (VTK), provided control over osteogenesis. The VTK domain was fused either to the N-, C- or both terminals of the spider silk domain to understand the effect of position on material properties and mineralization. The addition of the VTK domain to silk did not affect the physical properties of the silk recombinant constructs, but it had a critical role in the induction of biomineralization. When the VTK domain was placed on both the C- and N-termini the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite was significantly increased. In addition, all of the recombinant proteins in film format supported the growth and proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Importantly, the presence of the VTK domain enhanced osteoinductive properties up to 3-fold compared to the control (silk alone without VTK). Therefore, silk-VTK fusion proteins have been shown suitable for mineralization and functionalization for specific biomedical applications. Organic-inorganic interfaces are integral to biomaterial functions in many areas of repair and regeneration. Several protein polymers have been investigated for this purpose. Despite their success the limited options to fine-tune their material properties, degradation patterns and functionalize them for each specific biomedical application limits their application. Various studies have shown that the biological performance of such proteins can be improved by genetic engineering. The present study provides data

  13. Recombinant pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase, recombinant dirigent protein, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fujita, Masayuki; Gang, David R.; Sarkanen, Simo; Ford, Joshua D.

    2001-04-03

    Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

  14. Poliovirus Polymerase Leu420 Facilitates RNA Recombination and Ribavirin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Brian J.; Peersen, Olve B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT RNA recombination is important in the formation of picornavirus species groups and the ongoing evolution of viruses within species groups. In this study, we examined the structure and function of poliovirus polymerase, 3Dpol, as it relates to RNA recombination. Recombination occurs when nascent RNA products exchange one viral RNA template for another during RNA replication. Because recombination is a natural aspect of picornavirus replication, we hypothesized that some features of 3Dpol may exist, in part, to facilitate RNA recombination. Furthermore, we reasoned that alanine substitution mutations that disrupt 3Dpol-RNA interactions within the polymerase elongation complex might increase and/or decrease the magnitudes of recombination. We found that an L420A mutation in 3Dpol decreased the frequency of RNA recombination, whereas alanine substitutions at other sites in 3Dpol increased the frequency of recombination. The 3Dpol Leu420 side chain interacts with a ribose in the nascent RNA product 3 nucleotides from the active site of the polymerase. Notably, the L420A mutation that reduced recombination also rendered the virus more susceptible to inhibition by ribavirin, coincident with the accumulation of ribavirin-induced G→A and C→U mutations in viral RNA. We conclude that 3Dpol Leu420 is critically important for RNA recombination and that RNA recombination contributes to ribavirin resistance. IMPORTANCE Recombination contributes to the formation of picornavirus species groups and the emergence of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs). The recombinant viruses that arise in nature are occasionally more fit than either parental strain, especially when the two partners in recombination are closely related, i.e., members of characteristic species groups, such as enterovirus species groups A to H or rhinovirus species groups A to C. Our study shows that RNA recombination requires conserved features of the viral polymerase. Furthermore, a

  15. Same-period emission and recombination in nonsequential double-recombination high-order-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Kenneth K.; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2016-05-01

    Nonsequential double-recombination (NSDR) high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) is studied in a molecular model system. We observe a unique molecular two-electron effect with a characteristic cutoff in the HHG spectrum at higher energies than what was previously seen for NSDR HHG in atoms. The effect is corroborated with a classical model where it is found that the effect is sensitive to the molecular potential and originates from same-period emission and recombination (SPEAR) of two electrons. The effect persists for intermediate nuclear distances of R ≳8.0 a.u.

  16. Evidence of reduced recombination rate in human regulatory domains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaping; Sarkar, Abhishek; Kheradpour, Pouya; Ernst, Jason; Kellis, Manolis

    2017-10-20

    Recombination rate is non-uniformly distributed across the human genome. The variation of recombination rate at both fine and large scales cannot be fully explained by DNA sequences alone. Epigenetic factors, particularly DNA methylation, have recently been proposed to influence the variation in recombination rate. We study the relationship between recombination rate and gene regulatory domains, defined by a gene and its linked control elements. We define these links using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs), chromatin conformation from publicly available datasets (Hi-C and ChIA-PET), and correlated activity links that we infer across cell types. Each link type shows a "recombination rate valley" of significantly reduced recombination rate compared to matched control regions. This recombination rate valley is most pronounced for gene regulatory domains of early embryonic development genes, housekeeping genes, and constitutive regulatory elements, which are known to show increased evolutionary constraint across species. Recombination rate valleys show increased DNA methylation, reduced doublestranded break initiation, and increased repair efficiency, specifically in the lineage leading to the germ line. Moreover, by using only the overlap of functional links and DNA methylation in germ cells, we are able to predict the recombination rate with high accuracy. Our results suggest the existence of a recombination rate valley at regulatory domains and provide a potential molecular mechanism to interpret the interplay between genetic and epigenetic variations.

  17. [Construction and expression of a recombinant adenovirus with LZP3].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bang-dang; Zhang, Fu-chun; Sun, Mei-yu; Li, Yi-jie; Ma, Zheng-hai

    2007-08-01

    To explore a new immunocontraceptive vaccine and construct an attenuated recombinant adenoviral vaccine against Lagurus lagurus zona pellucida 3(LZP3). LZP3 gene was subcloned into the shuttle vector pShuttle-CMV, and then a two-step transformation procedure was employed to construct a recombinant adenoviral plasmid with LZP3, which was digested with Pac I and transfected into HEK293 cells to package recombinant adenovirus particles. Finally, HeLa cells were infected by the recombinant adenovirus. LZP3 gene was detected from the recombinant virus by PCR, and its transcription and expression were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot. Recombinant adenovirus vector pAd-LZP3 with LZP3 gene was constructed by homologous recombination in E.coli, and a recombinant adenovirus was obtained by transfecting HEK293 cells with pAd-LZP3. PCR test indicated that LZP3 gene was successfully integrated into the adenoviral genome, and the titer of the recombinant adenovirus reached 1.2x10(10) pfu/L. The transcription and expression of LZP3 gene in the infected HeLa cells were confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot. The recombinant adenovirus RAd-LZP3 can be successfully expressed in the infected HeLa cells, which lays the foundation for further researches into immunizing animals with RAd-LZP3.

  18. Advanced technologies for improved expression of recombinant proteins in bacteria: perspectives and applications.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjeev K; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-12-01

    Prokaryotic expression systems are superior in producing valuable recombinant proteins, enzymes and therapeutic products. Conventional microbial technology is evolving gradually and amalgamated with advanced technologies in order to give rise to improved processes for the production of metabolites, recombinant biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Recently, several novel approaches have been employed in a bacterial expression platform to improve recombinant protein expression. These approaches involve metabolic engineering, use of strong promoters, novel vector elements such as inducers and enhancers, protein tags, secretion signals, high-throughput devices for cloning and process screening as well as fermentation technologies. Advancement of the novel technologies in E. coli systems led to the production of "difficult to express" complex products including small peptides, antibody fragments, few proteins and full-length aglycosylated monoclonal antibodies in considerable large quantity. Wacker's secretion technologies, Pfenex system, inducers, cell-free systems, strain engineering for post-translational modification, such as disulfide bridging and bacterial N-glycosylation, are still under evaluation for the production of complex proteins and peptides in E. coli in an efficient manner. This appraisal provides an impression of expression technologies developed in recent times for enhanced production of heterologous proteins in E. coli which are of foremost importance for diverse applications in microbiology and biopharmaceutical production.

  19. Reduced Carrier Recombination in PbS - CuInS2 Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhenhua; Sitbon, Gary; Pons, Thomas; Bakulin, Artem A.; Chen, Zhuoying

    2015-01-01

    Energy loss due to carrier recombination is among the major factors limiting the performance of TiO2/PbS colloidal quantum dot (QD) heterojunction solar cells. In this work, enhanced photocurrent is achieved by incorporating another type of hole-transporting QDs, Zn-doped CuInS2 (Zn-CIS) QDs into the PbS QD matrix. Binary QD solar cells exhibit a reduced charge recombination associated with the spatial charge separation between these two types of QDs. A ~30% increase in short-circuit current density and a ~20% increase in power conversion efficiency are observed in binary QD solar cells compared to cells built from PbS QDs only. In agreement with the charge transfer process identified through ultrafast pump/probe spectroscopy between these two QD components, transient photovoltage characteristics of single-component and binary QDs solar cells reveal longer carrier recombination time constants associated with the incorporation of Zn-CIS QDs. This work presents a straightforward, solution-processed method based on the incorporation of another QDs in the PbS QD matrix to control the carrier dynamics in colloidal QD materials and enhance solar cell performance. PMID:26024021

  20. Hydrogen recombiner catalyst test supporting data

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, M.D.

    1995-01-19

    This is a data package supporting the Hydrogen Recombiner Catalyst Performance and Carbon Monoxide Sorption Capacity Test Report, WHC-SD-WM-TRP-211, Rev 0. This report contains 10 appendices which consist of the following: Mass spectrometer analysis reports: HRC samples 93-001 through 93-157; Gas spectrometry analysis reports: HRC samples 93-141 through 93-658; Mass spectrometer procedure PNL-MA-299 ALO-284; Alternate analytical method for ammonia and water vapor; Sample log sheets; Job Safety analysis; Certificate of mixture analysis for feed gases; Flow controller calibration check; Westinghouse Standards Laboratory report on Bois flow calibrator; and Sorption capacity test data, tables, and graphs.

  1. Nanobodies and recombinant binders in cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Helma, Jonas; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Muyldermans, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are key reagents to investigate cellular processes. The development of recombinant antibodies and binders derived from natural protein scaffolds has expanded traditional applications, such as immunofluorescence, binding arrays, and immunoprecipitation. In addition, their small size and high stability in ectopic environments have enabled their use in all areas of cell research, including structural biology, advanced microscopy, and intracellular expression. Understanding these novel reagents as genetic modules that can be integrated into cellular pathways opens up a broad experimental spectrum to monitor and manipulate cellular processes. PMID:26056137

  2. Nanobodies and recombinant binders in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Helma, Jonas; Cardoso, M Cristina; Muyldermans, Serge; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2015-06-08

    Antibodies are key reagents to investigate cellular processes. The development of recombinant antibodies and binders derived from natural protein scaffolds has expanded traditional applications, such as immunofluorescence, binding arrays, and immunoprecipitation. In addition, their small size and high stability in ectopic environments have enabled their use in all areas of cell research, including structural biology, advanced microscopy, and intracellular expression. Understanding these novel reagents as genetic modules that can be integrated into cellular pathways opens up a broad experimental spectrum to monitor and manipulate cellular processes. © 2015 Helma et al.

  3. Recombinant DNA. Rifkin's regulatory revivalism runs riot.

    PubMed

    David, P

    Jeremy Rifkin, activist opponent of genetic engineering, has adopted tactics of litigation, persuasion, and confrontation in his campaign to halt genetic experimentation. The Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee of the National Institutes of Health has often been the target of his criticism, most recently for its failure to prepare an environmental risk assessment for some DNA tests it approved. Rifkin has won support for his position from religious organizations in the United States, and in June 1983 persuaded an ecumenical group of religious leaders to ask Congress to ban genetic experiments that would affect the human germ line.

  4. Ab initio studies of dissociative recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1989-01-01

    Quantum chemical calculations of the dissociative recombination of O2(+) and N2(+) are reported. An approach for calculating autoionization widths from high-principal-quantum-number Rydberg states is summarized, and an example is presented for the lowest dissociative state of O2. For O2(+), the 1Sigma(+)u state is the sole source of O(1S) from the lowest 10 vibrational levels of the ion. Rate coefficients for generating O(1S) and O(1D) at ionospheric temperatures are reported.

  5. Quantum structures for recombination control in the light-emitting transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kanuo; Hsiao, Fu-Chen; Joy, Brittany; Dallesasse, John M.

    2017-02-01

    Recombination of carriers in the direct-bandgap base of a transistor-injected quantum cascade laser (TI-QCL) is shown to be controllable through the field applied across the quantum cascade region located in the transistor's base-collector junction. The influence of the electric field on the quantum states in the cascade region's superlattice allows free flow of electrons out of the transistor base only for field values near the design field that provides optimal QCL gain. Quantum modulation of base recombination in the light-emitting transistor is therefore observed. In a GaAs-based light-emitting transistor, a periodic superlattice is grown between the p-type base and the n-type collector. Under different base-collector biasing conditions the distribution of quantum states, and as a consequence transition probabilities through the wells and barriers forming the cascade region, leads to strong field-dependent mobility for electrons in transit through the base-collector junction. The radiative base recombination, which is influenced by minority carrier transition lifetime, can be modulated through the quantum states alignment in the superlattice. A GaAs-based transistor-injected quantum cascade laser with AlGaAs/GaAs superlattice is designed and fabricated. Radiative base recombination is measured under both common-emitter and common-base configuration. In both configurations the optical output from the base is proportional to the emitter injection. When the quantum states in the superlattice are aligned the optical output in the base is reduced as electrons encounter less impedance entering the collector; when the quantum states are misaligned electrons have longer lifetime in the base and the radiative base recombination process is enhanced.

  6. Genomic correlates of recombination rate and its variability across eight recombination maps in the western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Ross, Caitlin R; DeFelice, Dominick S; Hunt, Greg J; Ihle, Kate E; Amdam, Gro V; Rueppell, Olav

    2015-02-21

    Meiotic recombination has traditionally been explained based on the structural requirement to stabilize homologous chromosome pairs to ensure their proper meiotic segregation. Competing hypotheses seek to explain the emerging findings of significant heterogeneity in recombination rates within and between genomes, but intraspecific comparisons of genome-wide recombination patterns are rare. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) exhibits the highest rate of genomic recombination among multicellular animals with about five cross-over events per chromatid. Here, we present a comparative analysis of recombination rates across eight genetic linkage maps of the honey bee genome to investigate which genomic sequence features are correlated with recombination rate and with its variation across the eight data sets, ranging in average marker spacing ranging from 1 Mbp to 120 kbp. Overall, we found that GC content explained best the variation in local recombination rate along chromosomes at the analyzed 100 kbp scale. In contrast, variation among the different maps was correlated to the abundance of microsatellites and several specific tri- and tetra-nucleotides. The combined evidence from eight medium-scale recombination maps of the honey bee genome suggests that recombination rate variation in this highly recombining genome might be due to the DNA configuration instead of distinct sequence motifs. However, more fine-scale analyses are needed. The empirical basis of eight differing genetic maps allowed for robust conclusions about the correlates of the local recombination rates and enabled the study of the relation between DNA features and variability in local recombination rates, which is particularly relevant in the honey bee genome with its exceptionally high recombination rate.

  7. Metal binding proteins, recombinant host cells and methods

    DOEpatents

    Summers, Anne O.; Caguiat, Jonathan J.

    2004-06-15

    The present disclosure provides artificial heavy metal binding proteins termed chelons by the inventors. These chelons bind cadmium and/or mercuric ions with relatively high affinity. Also disclosed are coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and recombinant host cells comprising those recombinant DNA molecules for expression of the chelon proteins. In the recombinant host cells or transgenic plants, the chelons can be used to bind heavy metals taken up from contaminated soil, groundwater or irrigation water and to concentrate and sequester those ions. Recombinant enteric bacteria can be used within the gastrointestinal tracts of animals or humans exposed to toxic metal ions such as mercury and/or cadmium, where the chelon recombinantly expressed in chosen in accordance with the ion to be rededicated. Alternatively, the chelons can be immobilized to solid supports to bind and concentrate heavy metals from a contaminated aqueous medium including biological fluids.

  8. A broad survey of recombination in animal mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Piganeau, Gwenaël; Gardner, Michael; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2004-12-01

    Recombination in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) remains a controversial topic. Here we present a survey of 279 animal mtDNA data sets, of which 12 were from asexual species. Using four separate tests, we show that there is widespread evidence of recombination; for one test as many as 14.2% of the data sets reject a model of clonal inheritance and in several data sets, including primates, the recombinants can be identified visually. We show that none of the tests give significant results for obligate clonal species (apomictic pathogens) and that the sexual species show significantly greater evidence of recombination than asexual species. For some data sets, such as Macaca nemestrina, additional data sets suggest that the recombinants are not artifacts. For others, it cannot be determined whether the recombinants are real or produced by laboratory error. Either way, the results have important implications for how mtDNA is sequenced and used.

  9. Solvation suppression of ion recombination in gas discharge afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirov, R. Kh.; Lankin, A. V.; Norman, G. E.

    2018-03-01

    An effect which suppresses recombination in ion plasmas is considered both theoretically and experimentally. Experimental results are presented for the ion recombination rate in fluorine plasma, which are obtained from data for the gas discharge afterglow. To interpret them, a suppression factor is considered: ion solvation in weakly ionized plasma. It is shown that the recombination process has a two-stage character with the formation of intermediate metastable ion pairs. The pairs consist of negative and positive ion-molecular clusters. A theoretical explanation is given for the slowing down of the ion recombination with the increase of the Coulomb coupling compared to the ion recombination rate calculated in the ideal plasma approximation. The approximate similarity of the recombination rate of the ion temperature and concentration and reasons for the slight deviation from the similarity are elucidated.

  10. Bayesian inference of shared recombination hotspots between humans and chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Rannala, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    Recombination generates variation and facilitates evolution. Recombination (or lack thereof) also contributes to human genetic disease. Methods for mapping genes influencing complex genetic diseases via association rely on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in human populations, which is influenced by rates of recombination across the genome. Comparative population genomic analyses of recombination using related primate species can identify factors influencing rates of recombination in humans. Such studies can indicate how variable hotspots for recombination may be both among individuals (or populations) and over evolutionary timescales. Previous studies have suggested that locations of recombination hotspots are not conserved between humans and chimpanzees. We made use of the data sets from recent resequencing projects and applied a Bayesian method for identifying hotspots and estimating recombination rates. We also reanalyzed SNP data sets for regions with known hotspots in humans using samples from the human and chimpanzee. The Bayes factors (BF) of shared recombination hotspots between human and chimpanzee across regions were obtained. Based on the analysis of the aligned regions of human chromosome 21, locations where the two species show evidence of shared recombination hotspots (with high BFs) were identified. Interestingly, previous comparative studies of human and chimpanzee that focused on the known human recombination hotspots within the β-globin and HLA regions did not find overlapping of hotspots. Our results show high BFs of shared hotspots at locations within both regions, and the estimated locations of shared hotspots overlap with the locations of human recombination hotspots obtained from sperm-typing studies. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. Expression of recombinant myostatin propeptide pPIC9K-Msp plasmid in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Du, W; Xia, J; Zhang, Y; Liu, M J; Li, H B; Yan, X M; Zhang, J S; Li, N; Zhou, Z Y; Xie, W Z

    2015-12-28

    Myostatin propeptide can inhibit the biological activity of myostatin protein and promote muscle growth. To express myostatin propeptide in vitro with a higher biological activity, we performed codon optimization on the sheep myostatin propeptide gene sequence, and mutated aspartic acid-76 to alanine based on the codon usage bias of Pichia pastoris and the enhanced biological activity of myostatin propeptide mutant. Modified myostatin propeptide gene was cloned into the pPIC9K plasmid to form the recombinant plasmid pPIC9K-Msp. Recombinant plasmid pPIC9K-Msp was transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115 by electrotransformation. Transformed cells were screened, and methanol was used to induce expression. SDS-PAGE and western blotting were used to verify the successful expression of myostatin propeptide with biological activity in Pichia pastoris, providing the basis for characterization of this protein.

  12. Direct evidence of the recombination of silicon interstitial atoms at the silicon surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamrani, Y.; Cristiano, F.; Colombeau, B.; Scheid, E.; Calvo, P.; Schäfer, H.; Claverie, Alain

    2004-02-01

    In this experiment, a Si wafer containing four lightly doped B marker layers epitaxially grown by CVD has been implanted with 100 keV Si + ions to a dose of 2 × 10 14 ions/cm 2 and annealed at 850 °C for several times in an RTA system in flowing N 2. TEM and SIMS analysis, in conjunction with a transient enhanced diffusion (TED) evaluation method based on the kick-out diffusion mechanism, have allowed us to accurately study the boron TED evolution in presence of extended defects. We show that the silicon surface plays a key role in the recombination of Si interstitial atoms by providing the first experimental evidence of the resulting Si ints supersaturation gradient between the defect region and the surface. Our results indicate an upper limit of about 200 nm for the surface recombination length of Si interstitials at 850 °C in a N 2 ambient.

  13. Din7 and Mhr1 expression levels regulate double-strand-break–induced replication and recombination of mtDNA at ori5 in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Feng; Hori, Akiko; Yoshitani, Ayako; Niu, Rong; Yoshida, Minoru; Shibata, Takehiko

    2013-01-01

    The Ntg1 and Mhr1 proteins initiate rolling-circle mitochondrial (mt) DNA replication to achieve homoplasmy, and they also induce homologous recombination to maintain mitochondrial genome integrity. Although replication and recombination profoundly influence mitochondrial inheritance, the regulatory mechanisms that determine the choice between these pathways remain unknown. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced by Ntg1 at the mitochondrial replication origin ori5 induce homologous DNA pairing by Mhr1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) enhance production of DSBs. Here, we show that a mitochondrial nuclease encoded by the nuclear gene DIN7 (DNA damage inducible gene) has 5′-exodeoxyribonuclease activity. Using a small ρ− mtDNA bearing ori5 (hypersuppressive; HS) as a model mtDNA, we revealed that DIN7 is required for ROS-enhanced mtDNA replication and recombination that are both induced at ori5. Din7 overproduction enhanced Mhr1-dependent mtDNA replication and increased the number of residual DSBs at ori5 in HS-ρ− cells and increased deletion mutagenesis at the ori5 region in ρ+ cells. However, simultaneous overproduction of Mhr1 suppressed all of these phenotypes and enhanced homologous recombination. Our results suggest that after homologous pairing, the relative activity levels of Din7 and Mhr1 modulate the preference for replication versus homologous recombination to repair DSBs at ori5. PMID:23598996

  14. Din7 and Mhr1 expression levels regulate double-strand-break-induced replication and recombination of mtDNA at ori5 in yeast.

    PubMed

    Ling, Feng; Hori, Akiko; Yoshitani, Ayako; Niu, Rong; Yoshida, Minoru; Shibata, Takehiko

    2013-06-01

    The Ntg1 and Mhr1 proteins initiate rolling-circle mitochondrial (mt) DNA replication to achieve homoplasmy, and they also induce homologous recombination to maintain mitochondrial genome integrity. Although replication and recombination profoundly influence mitochondrial inheritance, the regulatory mechanisms that determine the choice between these pathways remain unknown. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced by Ntg1 at the mitochondrial replication origin ori5 induce homologous DNA pairing by Mhr1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) enhance production of DSBs. Here, we show that a mitochondrial nuclease encoded by the nuclear gene DIN7 (DNA damage inducible gene) has 5'-exodeoxyribonuclease activity. Using a small ρ(-) mtDNA bearing ori5 (hypersuppressive; HS) as a model mtDNA, we revealed that DIN7 is required for ROS-enhanced mtDNA replication and recombination that are both induced at ori5. Din7 overproduction enhanced Mhr1-dependent mtDNA replication and increased the number of residual DSBs at ori5 in HS-ρ(-) cells and increased deletion mutagenesis at the ori5 region in ρ(+) cells. However, simultaneous overproduction of Mhr1 suppressed all of these phenotypes and enhanced homologous recombination. Our results suggest that after homologous pairing, the relative activity levels of Din7 and Mhr1 modulate the preference for replication versus homologous recombination to repair DSBs at ori5.

  15. Recombinant antigens for immunodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Wen-Bao

    2004-01-01

    Three cDNAs, termed EpC1, TPxEg and EgG5, were isolated by immunoscreening from an Echinococcus granulosus cDNA library. The recombinant phages exhibited strong reactivity with sera from humans with confirmed cystic echinococcosis (CE) and with sera from mice infected with E. granulosus oncospheres. The cDNAs were subcloned into a pET vector, expressed as fusion proteins tagged with GST and affinity purified against the GST tag. Of the three recombinant proteins, EpC1 achieved the highest performance for serodiagnosis of CE in Western blot analysis using a panel of clinically defined human sera to initially address the sensitivity and specificity of the molecules. The protein yielded an overall sensitivity of 92.2% and specificity of 95.6%, levels unprecedented taking into account the large panel of 896 human sera that were tested. The strategy used may also prove suitable for improved immunodiagnosis of other parasitic infections. PMID:15188015

  16. Ethanol precipitation for purification of recombinant antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tscheliessnig, Anne; Satzer, Peter; Hammerschmidt, Nikolaus; Schulz, Henk; Helk, Bernhard; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-10-20

    Currently, the golden standard for the purification of recombinant humanized antibodies (rhAbs) from CHO cell culture is protein A chromatography. However, due to increasing rhAbs titers alternative methods have come into focus. A new strategy for purification of recombinant human antibodies from CHO cell culture supernatant based on cold ethanol precipitation (CEP) and CaCl2 precipitation has been developed. This method is based on the cold ethanol precipitation, the process used for purification of antibodies and other components from blood plasma. We proof the applicability of the developed process for four different antibodies resulting in similar yield and purity as a protein A chromatography based process. This process can be further improved using an anion-exchange chromatography in flowthrough mode e.g. a monolith as last step so that residual host cell protein is reduced to a minimum. Beside the ethanol based process, our data also suggest that ethanol could be replaced with methanol or isopropanol. The process is suited for continuous operation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The production of recombinant human erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Inoue, N; Takeuchi, M; Ohashi, H; Suzuki, T

    1995-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is the glycoprotein hormone that promotes differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells in bone marrow. The normal kidney produces EPO to maintain erythrocyte for oxygen supply. This hormone activity was found in the serum of anemic animals in the 1890s. Renal failure results in severe anemia because of reduced EPO production, therefore anemia patients expected EPO treatment for long time. However, this was difficult due to the limited amount of EPO. Many researchers have tried to isolate EPO since the 1950s. Finally Miyake and Goldwasser purified highly active EPO from the urine of aplastic anemia patients. Since then, the characteristics and structural information from the purified material accelerated the cloning of the EPO gene. Mammalian cells were essential to produce EPO, because EPO contains 40% carbohydrate that plays some important roles in its activity, stability and biosynthesis. In 1984, two groups succeeded in cloning the EPO gene and expressing this gene in mammalian cells. Recombinant human EPO is currently available for anemia treatment. In this paper, we review production in mammalian cells, molecular characterization, especially carbohydrate moieties, and clinical applications of recombinant EPO.

  18. Single-crossover recombination in discrete time.

    PubMed

    von Wangenheim, Ute; Baake, Ellen; Baake, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Modelling the process of recombination leads to a large coupled nonlinear dynamical system. Here, we consider a particular case of recombination in discrete time, allowing only for single crossovers. While the analogous dynamics in continuous time admits a closed solution (Baake and Baake in Can J Math 55:3-41, 2003), this no longer works for discrete time. A more general model (i.e. without the restriction to single crossovers) has been studied before (Bennett in Ann Hum Genet 18:311-317, 1954; Dawson in Theor Popul Biol 58:1-20, 2000; Linear Algebra Appl 348:115-137, 2002) and was solved algorithmically by means of Haldane linearisation. Using the special formalism introduced by Baake and Baake (Can J Math 55:3-41, 2003), we obtain further insight into the single-crossover dynamics and the particular difficulties that arise in discrete time. We then transform the equations to a solvable system in a two-step procedure: linearisation followed by diagonalisation. Still, the coefficients of the second step must be determined in a recursive manner, but once this is done for a given system, they allow for an explicit solution valid for all times.

  19. Positron cooling of antiprotons: precursor of recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, J. N.; Estrada, J.; Yesley, P.; Bowden, N.; Oxley, P.; Storry, C.; Wessels, M.; Tan, J.; Gabrielse, G.; Oelert, W.; Scheppers, G.; Gronzonka, D.; Sefsick, T.; Fermann, H.; Zmeskal, H.; Breunlich, W.; Kalinowsky, H.; Wesdorp, C.

    2001-05-01

    The quest for cold antihydrogen, interrupted with the shut-down of LEAR, resumed with the operation of the newest antiproton decelerator (AD) at CERN.[See G.Gabrielse,Adv. in AMO Physics,vol.45,pp.1-38(2001).] Antiprotons injected into the AD with 2.75 GeV of kinetic energy slow to 5.31 MeV before extraction into the ATRAP apparatus, built for antihydrogen recombination experiments. Antiprotons extracted from the AD and positrons emitted from a 112 mCi ^22Na source are simultaneously accumulated in the ultra-high vacuum and 6 T field of a prototype Penning trap incorporating a miniature rotatable electrode. Preloaded electrons are used to thermalize ~ 10^5 antiprotons with the LHe-cooled trap (4.2K). Over 10^6 positrons/hr can be loaded with a new mechanism involving Rydberg positronium. After accumulation, the positrons are moved through the rotatable electrode into close proximity with the antiprotons to study their interactions. We report the first observation of positron cooling of antiprotons in a nested trap configuration suited for three-body recombination and other mechanisms.

  20. Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Durandy, Anne; Kracker, Sven

    2012-07-30

    Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies (Ig-CSR-Ds) are rare primary immunodeficiencies characterized by defective switched isotype (IgG/IgA/IgE) production. Depending on the molecular defect in question, the Ig-CSR-D may be combined with an impairment in somatic hypermutation (SHM). Some of the mechanisms underlying Ig-CSR and SHM have been described by studying natural mutants in humans. This approach has revealed that T cell-B cell interaction (resulting in CD40-mediated signaling), intrinsic B-cell mechanisms (activation-induced cytidine deaminase-induced DNA damage), and complex DNA repair machineries (including uracil-N-glycosylase and mismatch repair pathways) are all involved in class-switch recombination and SHM. However, several of the mechanisms required for full antibody maturation have yet to be defined. Elucidation of the molecular defects underlying the diverse set of Ig-CSR-Ds is essential for understanding Ig diversification and has prompted better definition of the clinical spectrum of diseases and the development of increasingly accurate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  1. Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies (Ig-CSR-Ds) are rare primary immunodeficiencies characterized by defective switched isotype (IgG/IgA/IgE) production. Depending on the molecular defect in question, the Ig-CSR-D may be combined with an impairment in somatic hypermutation (SHM). Some of the mechanisms underlying Ig-CSR and SHM have been described by studying natural mutants in humans. This approach has revealed that T cell-B cell interaction (resulting in CD40-mediated signaling), intrinsic B-cell mechanisms (activation-induced cytidine deaminase-induced DNA damage), and complex DNA repair machineries (including uracil-N-glycosylase and mismatch repair pathways) are all involved in class-switch recombination and SHM. However, several of the mechanisms required for full antibody maturation have yet to be defined. Elucidation of the molecular defects underlying the diverse set of Ig-CSR-Ds is essential for understanding Ig diversification and has prompted better definition of the clinical spectrum of diseases and the development of increasingly accurate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:22894609

  2. The evolution of recombination in a heterogeneous environment.

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, T; Otto, S P

    2000-01-01

    Most models describing the evolution of recombination have focused on the case of a single population, implicitly assuming that all individuals are equally likely to mate and that spatial heterogeneity in selection is absent. In these models, the evolution of recombination is driven by linkage disequilibria generated either by epistatic selection or drift. Models based on epistatic selection show that recombination can be favored if epistasis is negative and weak compared to directional selection and if the recombination modifier locus is tightly linked to the selected loci. In this article, we examine the joint effects of spatial heterogeneity in selection and epistasis on the evolution of recombination. In a model with two patches, each subject to different selection regimes, we consider the cases of mutation-selection and migration-selection balance as well as the spread of beneficial alleles. We find that including spatial heterogeneity extends the range of epistasis over which recombination can be favored. Indeed, recombination can be favored without epistasis, with negative and even with positive epistasis depending on environmental circumstances. The selection pressure acting on recombination-modifier loci is often much stronger with spatial heterogeneity, and even loosely linked modifiers and free linkage may evolve. In each case, predicting whether recombination is favored requires knowledge of both the type of environmental heterogeneity and epistasis, as none of these factors alone is sufficient to predict the outcome. PMID:10978305

  3. Rogue athletes and recombinant DNA technology: challenges for doping control.

    PubMed

    Azzazy, Hassan M E; Mansour, Mai M H

    2007-10-01

    The quest for athletic excellence holds no limit for some athletes, and the advances in recombinant DNA technology have handed these athletes the ultimate doping weapons: recombinant proteins and gene doping. Some detection methods are now available for several recombinant proteins that are commercially available as pharmaceuticals and being abused by dopers. However, researchers are struggling to come up with efficient detection methods in preparation for the imminent threat of gene doping, expected in the 2008 Olympics. This Forum article presents the main detection strategies for recombinant proteins and the forthcoming detection strategies for gene doping as well as the prime analytical challenges facing them.

  4. The Future of Contrast-Enhanced Mammography.

    PubMed

    Covington, Matthew F; Pizzitola, Victor J; Lorans, Roxanne; Pockaj, Barbara A; Northfelt, Donald W; Appleton, Catherine M; Patel, Bhavika K

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss facilitators of and barriers to future implementation of contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM) in the United States. CEM provides low-energy 2D mammographic images analogous to digital mammography and contrast-enhanced recombined images that allow assessment of neovascularity similar to that offered by MRI. The utilization of CEM in the United States is currently low but could increase rapidly given the many potential indications for its clinical use.

  5. Effect of regioregularity on recombination dynamics in inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, Naresh; Liu, Amelia C. Y.; Kumar, Anil; McNeill, Christopher R.; Kabra, Dinesh

    2018-01-01

    The effect of polymer regioregularity on the charge transport properties and bimolecular recombination rates of polymer-based solar cells is studied in detail using transient photovoltaic techniques. We compare organic solar cells fabricated with an ITO/ZnO/PEIE/P3HT:PCBM/MoO3/Ag structure using either 100% regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (DF-P3HT) yielding an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.8  ±  0.3% or 92% regioregular P3HT (rr-P3HT) that yields an average PCE of 3.28  ±  0.4%. Transient photocurrent measurements reveal the presence of less mobile photoinduced charges in rr-P3HT:PCBM cells when compared to DF-P3HT:PCBM solar cells. Transient photovoltage measurements are used to establish the relationship between regioregularity and bimolecular recombination rate constant (k) finding that under 1 Sun, devices with high regioregularity have a longer τ despite having a higher k. The high value of k for the DF-P3HT:PCBM system as compared to the rr-P3HT:PCBM system is attributed to enhanced mobility and better charge transport of mobile charges in the DF-P3HT:PCBM system, consistent with enhanced fibrillar order in DF-P3HT films observed with transmission electron microscopy. We also note a slight decrease in cell open circuit voltage with increase in polymer regioregularity, which is due to the increase in k. Other recombination mechanisms such as trap-assisted recombination are found to be important in the lower regioregular P3HT device compounded by the reduced mobility and poor inter-chain ordering.

  6. The BCL11A Transcription Factor Directly Activates RAG Gene Expression and V(D)J Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Baeck-seung; Dekker, Joseph D.; Lee, Bum-kyu; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Sleckman, Barry P.; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Ippolito, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Recombination-activating gene 1 protein (RAG1) and RAG2 are critical enzymes for initiating variable-diversity-joining (VDJ) segment recombination, an essential process for antigen receptor expression and lymphocyte development. The transcription factor BCL11A is required for B cell development, but its molecular function(s) in B cell fate specification and commitment is unknown. We show here that the major B cell isoform, BCL11A-XL, binds the RAG1 promoter and Erag enhancer to activate RAG1 and RAG2 transcription in pre-B cells. We employed BCL11A overexpression with recombination substrates in a cultured pre-B cell line as well as Cre recombinase-mediated Bcl11alox/lox deletion in explanted murine pre-B cells to demonstrate direct consequences of BCL11A/RAG modulation on V(D)J recombination. We conclude that BCL11A is a critical component of a transcriptional network that regulates B cell fate by controlling V(D)J recombination. PMID:23438597

  7. Hybrid Perovskites for Photovoltaics: Charge-Carrier Recombination, Diffusion, and Radiative Efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2016-01-19

    values extracted from OPTP measurements and their dependence on perovskite composition and morphology. The significance of the reviewed charge-carrier recombination and mobility parameters is subsequently evaluated in terms of the charge-carrier diffusion lengths and radiative efficiencies that may be obtained for such hybrid perovskites. We particularly focus on calculating such quantities in the limit of ultra-low trap-related recombination, which has not yet been demonstrated but could be reached through further advances in material processing. We find that for thin films of hybrid lead iodide perovskites with typical charge-carrier mobilities of ∼30cm(2)/(V s), charge-carrier diffusion lengths at solar (AM1.5) irradiation are unlikely to exceed ∼10 μm even if all trap-related recombination is eliminated. We further examine the radiative efficiency for hybrid lead halide perovskite films and show that if high efficiencies are to be obtained for intermediate charge-carrier densities (n ≈ 10(14) cm(-3)) trap-related recombination lifetimes will have to be enhanced well into the microsecond range.

  8. Recombination of Globally Circulating Varicella-Zoster Virus

    PubMed Central

    Depledge, Daniel P.; Kundu, Samit; Atkinson, Claire; Brown, Julianne; Haque, Tanzina; Hussaini, Yusuf; MacMahon, Eithne; Molyneaux, Pamela; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Sengupta, Nitu; Koay, Evelyn S. C.; Tang, Julian W.; Underhill, Gillian S.; Grahn, Anna; Studahl, Marie; Breuer, Judith; Bergström, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpesvirus, which during primary infection typically causes varicella (chicken pox) and establishes lifelong latency in sensory and autonomic ganglia. Later in life, the virus may reactivate to cause herpes zoster (HZ; also known as shingles). To prevent these diseases, a live-attenuated heterogeneous vaccine preparation, vOka, is used routinely in many countries worldwide. Recent studies of another alphaherpesvirus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, demonstrate that live-attenuated vaccine strains can recombine in vivo, creating virulent progeny. These findings raised concerns about using attenuated herpesvirus vaccines under conditions that favor recombination. To investigate whether VZV may undergo recombination, which is a prerequisite for VZV vaccination to create such conditions, we here analyzed 115 complete VZV genomes. Our results demonstrate that recombination occurs frequently for VZV. It thus seems that VZV is fully capable of recombination if given the opportunity, which may have important implications for continued VZV vaccination. Although no interclade vaccine-wild-type recombinant strains were found, intraclade recombinants were frequently detected in clade 2, which harbors the vaccine strains, suggesting that the vaccine strains have already been involved in recombination events, either in vivo or in vitro during passages in cell culture. Finally, previous partial and complete genomic studies have described strains that do not cluster phylogenetically to any of the five established clades. The additional VZV strains sequenced here, in combination with those previously published, have enabled us to formally define a novel sixth VZV clade. IMPORTANCE Although genetic recombination has been demonstrated to frequently occur for other human alphaherpesviruses, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, only a few ancient and isolated recent recombination events have hitherto been demonstrated for VZV. In the

  9. Effects of recombinant dentin sialoprotein in dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-Y; Kim, S-Y; Park, S-H; Kim, J-J; Jang, J-H; Kim, E-C

    2012-04-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is critical for dentin mineralization. However, the function of dentin sialoprotein (DSP), the cleaved product of DSPP, remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the signal transduction pathways and effects of recombinant human DSP (rh-DSP) on proliferation, migration, and odontoblastic differentiation in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). The exogenous addition of rh-DSP enhanced the proliferation and migration of HDPCs in dose- and time-dependent manners. rh-DSP markedly increased ALP activity, calcium nodule formation, and levels of odontoblastic marker mRNA. rh-DSP increased BMP-2 expression and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, which was blocked by the BMP antagonist, noggin. Furthermore, rh-DSP phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, and IκB-α, and induced the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit. Analysis of these data demonstrates a novel signaling function of rh-DSP for the promotion of growth, migration, and differentiation in HDPCS via the BMP/Smad, JNK, ERK, MAPK, and NF-κB signaling pathways, suggesting that rh-DSP may have therapeutic utility in dentin regeneration or dental pulp tissue engineering.

  10. Unusual features of a recombinant apple alpha-farnesene synthase.

    PubMed

    Green, Sol; Friel, Ellen N; Matich, Adam; Beuning, Lesley L; Cooney, Janine M; Rowan, Daryl D; MacRae, Elspeth

    2007-01-01

    A recombinant alpha-farnesene synthase from apple (Malus x domestica), expressed in Escherichia coli, showed features not previously reported. Activity was enhanced 5-fold by K(+) and all four isomers of alpha-farnesene, as well as beta-farnesene, were produced from an isomeric mixture of farnesyl diphosphate (FDP). Monoterpenes, linalool, (Z)- and (E)-beta-ocimene and beta-myrcene, were synthesised from geranyl diphosphate (GDP), but at 18% of the optimised rate for alpha-farnesene synthesis from FDP. Addition of K(+) reduced monoterpene synthase activity. The enzyme also produced alpha-farnesene by a reaction involving coupling of GDP and isoprenyl diphosphate but at <1% of the rate with FDP. Mutagenesis of active site aspartate residues removed sesquiterpene, monoterpene and prenyltransferase activities suggesting catalysis through the same active site. Phylogenetic analysis clusters this enzyme with isoprene synthases rather than with other sesquiterpene synthases, suggesting that it has evolved differently from other plant sesquiterpene synthases. This is the first demonstration of a sesquiterpene synthase possessing prenyltransferase activity.

  11. Expansion of the gateway multisite recombination cloning toolkit.

    PubMed

    Shearin, Harold K; Dvarishkis, Alisa R; Kozeluh, Craig D; Stowers, R Steven

    2013-01-01

    Precise manipulation of transgene expression in genetic model organisms has led to advances in understanding fundamental mechanisms of development, physiology, and genetic disease. Transgene construction is, however, a precondition of transgene expression, and often limits the rate of experimental progress. Here we report an expansion of the modular Gateway MultiSite recombination-cloning platform for high efficiency transgene assembly. The expansion includes two additional destination vectors and entry clones for the LexA binary transcription system, among others. These new tools enhance the expression levels possible with Gateway MultiSite generated transgenes and make possible the generation of LexA drivers and reporters with Gateway MultiSite cloning. In vivo data from transgenic Drosophila functionally validating each novel component are presented and include neuronal LexA drivers, LexAop2 red and green fluorescent synaptic vesicle reporters, TDC2 and TRH LexA, GAL4, and QF drivers, and LexAop2, UAS, and QUAS channelrhodopsin2 T159C reporters.

  12. Expansion of the Gateway MultiSite Recombination Cloning Toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Shearin, Harold K.; Dvarishkis, Alisa R.; Kozeluh, Craig D.; Stowers, R. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Precise manipulation of transgene expression in genetic model organisms has led to advances in understanding fundamental mechanisms of development, physiology, and genetic disease. Transgene construction is, however, a precondition of transgene expression, and often limits the rate of experimental progress. Here we report an expansion of the modular Gateway MultiSite recombination-cloning platform for high efficiency transgene assembly. The expansion includes two additional destination vectors and entry clones for the LexA binary transcription system, among others. These new tools enhance the expression levels possible with Gateway MultiSite generated transgenes and make possible the generation of LexA drivers and reporters with Gateway MultiSite cloning. In vivo data from transgenic Drosophila functionally validating each novel component are presented and include neuronal LexA drivers, LexAop2 red and green fluorescent synaptic vesicle reporters, TDC2 and TRH LexA, GAL4, and QF drivers, and LexAop2, UAS, and QUAS channelrhodopsin2 T159C reporters. PMID:24204935

  13. Recombinant activated factor VII: 30 years of research and innovation.

    PubMed

    Hedner, Ulla

    2015-06-01

    Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) was initially developed to treat bleeding episodes in patients with congenital haemophilia and inhibitors. The story of its development began in the 1970s, when FVIIa was identified as one of the activated coagulation factors that has minimal potential for inducing thromboembolic side-effects. Extensive research over the last 30 years has greatly increased our knowledge of the characteristics of FVII, its activation, and the mechanisms by which rFVIIa restores haemostasis. In haemophilia, the haemostatic effect of rFVIIa is mediated via binding to thrombin-activated platelets at the site of injury, thereby enhancing thrombin generation also in the absence of factor (F) VIII or FIX. The mechanism of action of rFVIIa has also allowed its successful use in other clinical scenarios characterised by impaired thrombin generation, and its licensed uses have now been extended to acquired haemophilia, congenital FVII deficiency and Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transduction of cultured fish cells with recombinant baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Leisy, Douglas J; Lewis, Teresa D; Leong, Jo-Ann C; Rohrmann, George F

    2003-05-01

    Five fish cell lines were tested for their ability to be transduced by Ac-CAlacZ, a recombinant baculovirus that is capable of expressing a beta-galactosidase reporter gene from the CAG promoter (consisting of a cytomegalovirus enhancer element, a chicken actin promoter and rabbit beta-globin termination sequences). TO (Tilapia ovary), EPC (carp), CHH-1 (Chum salmon heart fibroblast) and CHSE-214 (chinook salmon embryo) cells were transducible, as demonstrated by an in situ beta-galactosidase assay, whereas RTG-2 (rainbow trout gonad) cells were not. The EPC cell line was used for more detailed studies on baculovirus transduction. The transduction frequency was found to be higher at 28 degrees C than at 21 degrees C. Addition of the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate increased the number of blue cells detected 5- to 7-fold. The m.o.i. was positively correlated with transduction frequency, although the relationship did not appear to be strictly linear, as has been observed with mammalian cells. The temperature at which baculoviruses were adsorbed to EPC cells did not affect levels of beta-galactosidase expression. We also examined expression levels of beta-galactosidase in EPC cells after infection with a baculovirus construct that overexpresses the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein and displays it on the virion surface. Expression levels with this virus were approximately 15-fold higher than were observed with Ac-CAlacZ.

  15. [Tobacco--a producer of recombinant interleukins].

    PubMed

    Budzianowski, Jaromir

    2012-01-01

    Interleukins are cytokines of highly pleiotropic activity and they have high potential for application in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. Trials of recombinant interleukin production in plants relate almost exclusively to tobacco, where through the transformation of the nuclear genome (agroinfection) monomeric (IL-2, IL-4, IL-13, IL-18), homodimeric (IL-10) and single-chain heterodimeric (IL-12) interleukins have been obtained. The expression of IL-10 as a homodimer in the chloroplast genome could not be reached. Expression of the given interleukin was obtained in the leaves, cell culture and culture of hairy roots of tobacco. Interleukins obtained in tobacco showed similar in vitro biological activity as commercial ILs produced mostly in E. coli. Glycosylated IL-13 obtained in tobacco was much more resistant to proteolytic digestion than commercial non-glycosylated IL-13; therefore in the case of sufficiently large production it could be suitable for oral administration in the treatment of type I diabetes.

  16. Nonequilibrium recombination after a curved shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Chihyung; Hornung, Hans

    2010-02-01

    The effect of nonequilibrium recombination after a curved two-dimensional shock wave in a hypervelocity dissociating flow of an inviscid Lighthill-Freeman gas is considered. An analytical solution is obtained with the effective shock values derived by Hornung (1976) [5] and the assumption that the flow is ‘quasi-frozen’ after a thin dissociating layer near the shock. The solution gives the expression of dissociation fraction as a function of temperature on a streamline. A rule of thumb can then be provided to check the validity of binary scaling for experimental conditions and a tool to determine the limiting streamline that delineates the validity zone of binary scaling. The effects on the nonequilibrium chemical reaction of the large difference in free stream temperature between free-piston shock tunnel and equivalent flight conditions are discussed. Numerical examples are presented and the results are compared with solutions obtained with two-dimensional Euler equations using the code of Candler (1988) [10].

  17. Recombinant Brucella abortus gene expressing immunogenic protein

    SciTech Connect

    Mayfield, J.E.; Tabatabai, L.B.

    This patent describes a synthetic recombinant DNA molecule containing a DNA sequence. It comprises a gene of Brucella abortus encoding an immunogenic protein having a molecular weight of approximately 31,000 daltons as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions, the protein having an isoelectric point around 4.9, and containing a twenty-five amino acid sequence from its amino terminal end consisting of Gln-Ala-Pro-Thr-Phe-Phe-Arg-Ile-Gly-Thr-Gly-Gly-Thr-Ala-Gly-Thr-Tyr-Tyr-Pro-Ile-Gly-Gly-Leu-Ile-Ala, wherein Gln, Ala, Pro, Thr, Phe, Arg, Ile, Gly, Tyr, and Leu, respectively, represent glutamine, alanine, proline, threonine, phenylalanine, arginine, isolecuine, glycine, tyrosine, and leucine.

  18. Epidemiology, Genetic Recombination, and Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Su, Shuo; Wong, Gary; Shi, Weifeng; Liu, Jun; Lai, Alexander C K; Zhou, Jiyong; Liu, Wenjun; Bi, Yuhai; Gao, George F

    2016-06-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were first described in the 1960s for patients with the common cold. Since then, more HCoVs have been discovered, including those that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), two pathogens that, upon infection, can cause fatal respiratory disease in humans. It was recently discovered that dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia harbor three different HCoV species, including a dominant MERS HCoV lineage that was responsible for the outbreaks in the Middle East and South Korea during 2015. In this review we aim to compare and contrast the different HCoVs with regard to epidemiology and pathogenesis, in addition to the virus evolution and recombination events which have, on occasion, resulted in outbreaks amongst humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional, Responsive Materials Assembled from Recombinant Oleosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel

    Biological cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane made primarily of phospholipids that form a bilayer. This membrane is permselective and compartmentalizes the cell. A simple form of artificial cell is the vesicle, in which a phospholipid bilayer membrane surrounds an aqueous solution. However, there is no a priori reason why a membrane needs to be made of phospholipids. It could be made of any surfactant that forms a bilayer. We have assembled membranes and other structures from the recombinant plant protein oleosin. The ability to assemble from a recombinant protein means that every molecule is identical, we have complete control over the sequence, and hence can build in designer functionality with high fidelity, including adhesion and enzymatic activity. Such incorporation is trivial using the tools of molecular biology. We find that while many variants of oleosin make membranes, others make micelles and sheets. We show how the type of supramolecular structure can be altered by the conditions of solvent, such as ionic strength, and the architecture of the surfactant itself. We show that protease cleavable domains can be incorporated within oleosin, and be engineered to protect other functional domains such as adhesive motifs, to make responsive materials whose activity and shape depend on the action of proteases. We will also present the idea of making ``Franken''-oleosins, where large domains of native oleosin are replaced with domains from other functional proteins, to make hybrids conferred by the donor protein. Thus, we can view oleosin as a template upon which a vast array of designer functionalities can be imparted..

  20. Homeologous Recombination in Solanum lycopersicoides Introgression Lines of Cultivated Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Canady, Michael A.; Ji, Yuanfu; Chetelat, Roger T.

    2006-01-01

    A library of “introgression lines” containing Solanum lycopersicoides chromosome segments in the genetic background of cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) was used to study factors affecting homeologous recombination. Recombination rates were estimated in progeny of 43 heterozygous introgressions and whole-chromosome substitution lines, together representing 11 of the 12 tomato chromosomes. Recombination within homeologous segments was reduced to as little as 0–10% of expected frequencies. Relative recombination rates were positively correlated with the length of introgressed segments on the tomato map. The highest recombination (up to 40–50% of normal) was observed in long introgressions or substitution lines. Double-introgression lines containing two homeologous segments on opposite chromosome arms were synthesized to increase their combined length. Recombination was higher in the double than in the single segment lines, despite a preference for crossovers in the region of homology between segments. A greater increase in homeologous recombination was obtained by crossing the S. lycopersicoides introgression lines to L. pennellii—a phylogenetically intermediate species—or to L. esculentum lines containing single L. pennellii segments on the same chromosome. Recombination rates were highest in regions of overlap between S. lycopersicoides and L. pennellii segments. The potential application of these results to breeding with introgression lines is discussed. PMID:17057228

  1. Prisoner's dilemma posed by fitness-associated recombination strategies.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Ydo; Rokhlenko, Oleg

    2007-07-07

    Genetic recombination is a central and repeated topic of study in the evolution of life. However, along with the influence of recombination on evolution, we understand surprisingly little of how selection shapes the nature of recombination. One explanation for recombination is that it allows organisms to escape from perilous situations where they experience very low fitness. As a corollary, it has been suggested that selection should favor recombination at low fitness and not at high fitness (fitness-associated recombination, FAR), and theory suggests that such strategies can indeed be selected. Here we develop models to further investigate the evolution of FAR. Consistent with previous works, we find that FAR can invade and dominate over a strategy of uniform recombination that is independent of fitness. However, our simulation results suggest that extreme FAR strategies, known as group-elitism, are not necessarily superior to other FAR strategies. Moreover, we argue that FAR domination will often occur with a net loss of mean population fitness. Interestingly, this suggests that the strategy of not recombining at high fitness will sometimes be analogous to a defector strategy from the famous "prisoner's dilemma" game: a selfish strategy that is selected but leads to a loss of mean fitness for all players.

  2. Recombinant Allergens in Structural Biology, Diagnosis, and Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tscheppe, Angelika; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2017-01-01

    The years 1988–1995 witnessed the beginning of allergen cloning and the generation of recombinant allergens, which opened up new avenues for the diagnosis and research of human allergic diseases. Most crystal and solution structures of allergens have been obtained using recombinant allergens. Structural information on allergens allows insights into their evolutionary biology, illustrates clinically observed cross-reactivities, and makes the design of hypoallergenic derivatives for allergy vaccines possible. Recombinant allergens are widely used in molecule-based allergy diagnosis such as protein microarrays or suspension arrays. Recombinant technologies have been used to produce well-characterized, noncontaminated vaccine components with known biological activities including a variety of allergen derivatives with reduced IgE reactivity. Such recombinant hypoallergens as well as wild-type recombinant allergens have been used successfully in several immunotherapy trials for more than a decade to treat birch and grass pollen allergy. As a more recent application, the development of antibody repertoires directed against conformational epitopes during immunotherapy has been monitored by recombinant allergen chimeras. Although much progress has been made, the number and quality of recombinant allergens will undoubtedly increase and keep improving our knowledge in basic scientific investigations, diagnosis, and therapy of human allergic diseases. PMID:28467993

  3. EXAMINATION OF Zr AND Ti RECOMBINER LOOP SPECIMENS

    SciTech Connect

    Rittenhouse, P.L.

    1958-12-19

    Cold-worked specimens of iodide zirconium, Zircaloy-2, iodide titanium, and A-55 titanium were tested in a high-pressure recombiner loop in an attempt to duplicate anomalous results obtained in a prior recombiner loop. Hydrogen analyses and metallographic examinations were made on all specimens. The titanium materials and Zircaloy-2 picked up major amounts of hydrogen in the cell section. None of the materials tested showed appreciable hydrogen absorption in the recombiner section. Complete recrystallization occurred in all cell specimens while only Zircaloy-2, of the recombiner specimens, showed any degree of recrystallization. No explanation for this behavior can be given. A survnnary of themore » data obtained in previous recombiner loops is compared with the results of this loop. Conclusions were based on the results of three recombiner loops. Primarlly because of the hydrogen absorption data obtained in all three recombiner loops it is recommended that the zirconium and titunium materials tested not be used in environments similar to those encountered in high pressure recombiner loops. (auth)« less

  4. Mitochondrial recombination increases with age in Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; Goedbloed, Daniël J; Slakhorst, S Marijke; Koopmanschap, A Bertha; Maas, Marc F P M; Hoekstra, Rolf F; Debets, Alfons J M

    2010-05-01

    With uniparental inheritance of mitochondria, there seems little reason for homologous recombination in mitochondria, but the machinery for mitochondrial recombination is quite well-conserved in many eukaryote species. In fungi and yeasts heteroplasmons may be formed when strains fuse and transfer of organelles takes place, making it possible to study mitochondrial recombination when introduced mitochondria contain different markers. A survey of wild-type isolates from a local population of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina for the presence of seven optional mitochondrial introns indicated that mitochondrial recombination does take place in nature. Moreover the recombination frequency appeared to be correlated with age: the more rapidly ageing fraction of the population had a significantly lower linkage disequilibrium indicating more recombination. Direct confrontation experiments with heterokaryon incompatible strains with different mitochondrial markers at different (relative) age confirmed that mitochondrial recombination increases with age. We propose that with increasing mitochondrial damage over time, mitochondrial recombination - even within a homoplasmic population of mitochondria - is a mechanism that may restore mitochondrial function. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Construction and characterization of a recombinant invertebrate iridovirus.

    PubMed

    Ozgen, Arzu; Muratoglu, Hacer; Demirbag, Zihni; Vlak, Just M; van Oers, Monique M; Nalcacioglu, Remziye

    2014-08-30

    Chilo iridescent virus (CIV), officially named Insect iridescent virus 6 (IIV6), is the type species of the genus Iridovirus (family Iridoviridae). In this paper we constructed a recombinant CIV, encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP). This recombinant can be used to investigate viral replication dynamics. We showed that homologous recombination is a valid method to make CIV gene knockouts and to insert foreign genes. The CIV 157L gene, putatively encoding a non-functional inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP), was chosen as target for foreign gene insertion. The gfp open reading frame preceded by the viral mcp promoter was inserted into the 157L locus by homologous recombination in Anthonomus grandis BRL-AG-3A cells. Recombinant virus (rCIV-Δ157L-gfp) was purified by successive rounds of plaque purification. All plaques produced by the purified recombinant